Science.gov

Sample records for total cloud amount

  1. Trends in Total Cloud Amount Over China (1951 - 1994)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kaiser, Dale P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States).

    1999-01-01

    These total cloud amount time series for China are derived from the work of Kaiser (1998). The cloud data were extracted from a database of 6-hourly weather observations provided by the National Climate Center of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) to the U.S. Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) through a bilateral research agreement. Surface-observed (visual) six-hourly observations [0200, 0800, 1400, and 2000 Beijing Time (BT)] of cloud amount (0-10 tenths of sky cover) were available from 196 Chinese stations covering the period 1954-94. Data from 1951-1953 were also available; however, they only included 0800, 1400, and 2000 BT observations.

  2. The Influence of Cloud Field Uniformity on Observed Cloud Amount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, E.; Kleiss, J.; Kassianov, E.; Long, C. N.; Riihimaki, L.; Berg, L. K.

    2017-12-01

    Two ground-based measurements of cloud amount include cloud fraction (CF) obtained from time series of zenith-pointing radar-lidar observations and fractional sky cover (FSC) acquired from a Total Sky Imager (TSI). In comparison with the radars and lidars, the TSI has a considerably larger field of view (FOV 100° vs. 0.2°) and therefore is expected to have a different sensitivity to inhomogeneity in a cloud field. Radiative transfer calculations based on cloud properties retrieved from narrow-FOV overhead cloud observations may differ from shortwave and longwave flux observations due to spatial variability in local cloud cover. This bias will impede radiative closure for sampling reasons rather than the accuracy of cloud microphysics retrievals or radiative transfer calculations. Furthermore, the comparison between observed and modeled cloud amount from large eddy simulations (LES) models may be affected by cloud field inhomogeneity. The main goal of our study is to estimate the anticipated impact of cloud field inhomogeneity on the level of agreement between CF and FSC. We focus on shallow cumulus clouds observed at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma, USA. Our analysis identifies cloud field inhomogeneity using a novel metric that quantifies the spatial and temporal uniformity of FSC over 100-degree FOV TSI images. We demonstrate that (1) large differences between CF and FSC are partly attributable to increases in inhomogeneity and (2) using the uniformity metric can provide a meaningful assessment of uncertainties in observed cloud amount to aide in comparing ground-based measurements to radiative transfer or LES model outputs at SGP.

  3. The variation of cloud amount and light rainy days under heavy pollution over South China during 1960-2009.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chuanbo; Dan, Li

    2018-01-01

    The ground observation data was used to analyze the variation of cloud amount and light precipitation over South China during 1960-2009. The total cloud cover (TCC) decreases in this period, whereas the low cloud cover (LCC) shows the obvious opposite change with increasing trends. LCP defined as low cloud cover/total cloud cover has increased, and small rainy days (< 10 mm day -1 ) decreased significantly (passing 0.001 significance level) during the past 50 years, which is attributed to the enhanced levels of air pollution in the form of anthropogenic aerosols. The horizontal visibility and sunshine duration are used to depict the anthropogenic aerosol loading. When horizontal visibility declines to 20 km or sunshine duration decreases to 5 h per day, LCC increases 52% or more and LCP increases significantly. The correlation coefficients between LCC and horizontal visibility or sunshine duration are - 0.533 and - 0.927, and the values between LCP and horizontal visibility or sunshine duration are - 0.849 and - 0.641, which pass 0.001 significance level. The results indicated that aerosols likely impacted the long-term trend of cloud amount and light precipitation over South China.

  4. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1: Global and zonal mean cloud amounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    Global high-level clouds identified in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements for January and July in the period 1985 to 1990 are compared with near-nadir-looking observations from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Global and zonal mean high-level cloud amounts from the two data sets agree very well, if clouds with layer extinction coefficients of less than 0.008/km at 1.02 micrometers wavelength are removed from the SAGE II results and all detected clouds are interpreted to have an average horizontal size of about 75 km along the 200 km transimission path length of the SAGE II observations. The SAGE II results are much more sensitive to variations of assumed cloud size than to variations of detection threshold. The geographical distribution of cloud fractions shows good agreement, but systematic regional differences also indicate that the average cloud size varies somewhat among different climate regimes. The more sensitive SAGE II results show that about one third of all high-level clouds are missed by ISCCP but that these clouds have very low optical thicknesses (less than 0.1 at 0.6 micrometers wavelength). SAGE II sampling error in monthly zonal cloud fraction is shown to produce no bias, to be less than the intraseasonal natural variability, but to be comparable with the natural variability at longer time scales.

  5. Physical feedbacks on stratus cloud amount resolve the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldblatt, C.; McCusker, K. E.; McDonald, V.

    2017-12-01

    Geological evidence suggests that Earth was mostly warm and not glaciated during the Archean, despite Earth receiving only around 80% of the present day amount of sunlight. 1-D models require higher abundances of greenhouse gases than geochemical proxies permit, whereas some 3-D models permit lower greenhouse gas inventories, but for reasons which are somewhat opaque. Here, we show that physically motivated changes to low cloud (stratus) amount likely played a large role in resolving the FYSP. The amount of stratus cloud is strongly linked to lower tropospheric stability [Slingo 1987; Woods and Bretherton 2006], with a stronger inversion at the planetary boundary layer trapping moisture and giving a higher stratus cloud fraction. By hypothesis, an Archean situation where the surface is heated less by sunlight and the atmosphere is heated more by absorption of thermal radiation with a stronger greenhouse, should feature a weaker inversion and less stable lower troposphere. Hence, with a weaker sun but stronger greenhouse, we expect less stratus clouds. To test this hypothesis, we run a set of carefully controlled General Circulation Model experiments using the Community Atmosphere Model. We change only the solar constant and CO2 mixing ratio, increasing CO2 and decreasing the solar constant so that the global mean surface temperature remains the same. We do not change anything else, so as to focus directly on a single hypothesis, and to keep the model as near to known conditions as possible. We find that at 80% of modern solar constant: (1) only 30,000 ppmv CO2 is required to maintain modern surface temperatures, versus the expectation of 80,000 ppmv from radiative forcing calculations. (2) The dominant change is to low cloud fraction, decreasing from 34% to 25%, with an associated reduction in short-wave cloud forcing of 20W/m/m. This can be set in the context of a 50W/m/m radiative deficit due to the weaker sun, so the cloud feedback contributes two-fifths of the

  6. Discrete post-processing of total cloud cover ensemble forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemri, Stephan; Haiden, Thomas; Pappenberger, Florian

    2017-04-01

    This contribution presents an approach to post-process ensemble forecasts for the discrete and bounded weather variable of total cloud cover. Two methods for discrete statistical post-processing of ensemble predictions are tested. The first approach is based on multinomial logistic regression, the second involves a proportional odds logistic regression model. Applying them to total cloud cover raw ensemble forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts improves forecast skill significantly. Based on station-wise post-processing of raw ensemble total cloud cover forecasts for a global set of 3330 stations over the period from 2007 to early 2014, the more parsimonious proportional odds logistic regression model proved to slightly outperform the multinomial logistic regression model. Reference Hemri, S., Haiden, T., & Pappenberger, F. (2016). Discrete post-processing of total cloud cover ensemble forecasts. Monthly Weather Review 144, 2565-2577.

  7. The ENSO Effects on Tropical Clouds and Top-of-Atmosphere Cloud Radiative Effects in CMIP5 Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Wenying; Wang, Hailan

    2015-01-01

    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effects on tropical clouds and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) cloud radiative effects (CREs) in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase5 (CMIP5) models are evaluated using satellite-based observations and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project satellite simulator output. Climatologically, most CMIP5 models produce considerably less total cloud amount with higher cloud top and notably larger reflectivity than observations in tropical Indo-Pacific (60 degrees East - 200 degrees East; 10 degrees South - 10 degrees North). During ENSO, most CMIP5 models considerably underestimate TOA CRE and cloud changes over western tropical Pacific. Over central tropical Pacific, while the multi-model mean resembles observations in TOA CRE and cloud amount anomalies, it notably overestimates cloud top pressure (CTP) decreases; there are also substantial inter-model variations. The relative effects of changes in cloud properties, temperature and humidity on TOA CRE anomalies during ENSO in the CMIP5 models are assessed using cloud radiative kernels. The CMIP5 models agree with observations in that their TOA shortwave CRE anomalies are primarily contributed by total cloud amount changes, and their TOA longwave CRE anomalies are mostly contributed by changes in both total cloud amount and CTP. The model biases in TOA CRE anomalies particularly the strong underestimations over western tropical Pacific are, however, mainly explained by model biases in CTP and cloud optical thickness (tau) changes. Despite the distinct model cloud biases particularly in tau regime, the TOA CRE anomalies from cloud amount changes are comparable between the CMIP5 models and observations, because of the strong compensations between model underestimation of TOA CRE anomalies from thin clouds and overestimation from medium and thick clouds.

  8. Quantifying the Amount of Ice in Cold Tropical Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, Melody A.; Winker, David M.; Garnier, Anne; Lawson, R. Paul; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Mo, Qixu; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Woods, Sarah; Lance, Sara; Young, Stuart A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    How much ice is there in the Tropical Tropopause layer, globally? How does one begin to answer that question? Clouds are currently the largest source of uncertainty in climate models, and the ice water content (IWC) of cold cirrus clouds is needed to understand the total water and radiation budgets of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS). The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, originally a "pathfinder" mission only expected to last for three years, has now been operational for more than eight years. Lidar data from CALIPSO can provide information about how IWC is vertically distributed in the UT/LS, and about inter-annual variability and seasonal changes in cloud ice. However, cloud IWC is difficult to measure accurately with either remote or in situ instruments because IWC from cold cirrus clouds is derived from the particle cross-sectional area or visible extinction coefficient. Assumptions must be made about the relationship between the area, volume and density of ice particles with various crystal habits. Recently there have been numerous aircraft field campaigns providing detailed information about cirrus ice water content from cloud probes. This presentation evaluates the assumptions made when creating the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) global IWC data set, using recently reanalyzed aircraft particle probe measurements of very cold, thin TTL cirrus from the 2006 CR-AVE.

  9. Thermodynamic control of anvil cloud amount

    PubMed Central

    Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, Bjorn; Coppin, David; Becker, Tobias; Reed, Kevin A.; Voigt, Aiko

    2016-01-01

    General circulation models show that as the surface temperature increases, the convective anvil clouds shrink. By analyzing radiative–convective equilibrium simulations, we show that this behavior is rooted in basic energetic and thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere: As the climate warms, the clouds rise and remain at nearly the same temperature, but find themselves in a more stable atmosphere; this enhanced stability reduces the convective outflow in the upper troposphere and decreases the anvil cloud fraction. By warming the troposphere and increasing the upper-tropospheric stability, the clustering of deep convection also reduces the convective outflow and the anvil cloud fraction. When clouds are radiatively active, this robust coupling between temperature, high clouds, and circulation exerts a positive feedback on convective aggregation and favors the maintenance of strongly aggregated atmospheric states at high temperatures. This stability iris mechanism likely contributes to the narrowing of rainy areas as the climate warms. Whether or not it influences climate sensitivity requires further investigation. PMID:27412863

  10. Thermodynamic control of anvil cloud amount

    DOE PAGES

    Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, Bjorn; Coppin, David; ...

    2016-07-13

    General circulation models show that as the surface temperature increases, the convective anvil clouds shrink. By analyzing radiative–convective equilibrium simulations, our work shows that this behavior is rooted in basic energetic and thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere: As the climate warms, the clouds rise and remain at nearly the same temperature, but find themselves in a more stable atmosphere; this enhanced stability reduces the convective outflow in the upper troposphere and decreases the anvil cloud fraction. By warming the troposphere and increasing the upper-tropospheric stability, the clustering of deep convection also reduces the convective outflow and the anvil cloud fraction.more » When clouds are radiatively active, this robust coupling between temperature, high clouds, and circulation exerts a positive feedback on convective aggregation and favors the maintenance of strongly aggregated atmospheric states at high temperatures. This stability iris mechanism likely contributes to the narrowing of rainy areas as the climate warms. Whether or not it influences climate sensitivity requires further investigation.« less

  11. The influence of extratropical cloud phase and amount feedbacks on climate sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, William R.; Kay, Jennifer E.

    2018-04-01

    Global coupled climate models have large long-standing cloud and radiation biases, calling into question their ability to simulate climate and climate change. This study assesses the impact of reducing shortwave radiation biases on climate sensitivity within the Community Earth System Model (CESM). The model is modified by increasing supercooled cloud liquid to better match absorbed shortwave radiation observations over the Southern Ocean while tuning to reduce a compensating tropical shortwave bias. With a thermodynamic mixed-layer ocean, equilibrium warming in response to doubled CO2 increases from 4.1 K in the control to 5.6 K in the modified model. This 1.5 K increase in equilibrium climate sensitivity is caused by changes in two extratropical shortwave cloud feedbacks. First, reduced conversion of cloud ice to liquid at high southern latitudes decreases the magnitude of a negative cloud phase feedback. Second, warming is amplified in the mid-latitudes by a larger positive shortwave cloud feedback. The positive cloud feedback, usually associated with the subtropics, arises when sea surface warming increases the moisture gradient between the boundary layer and free troposphere. The increased moisture gradient enhances the effectiveness of mixing to dry the boundary layer, which decreases cloud amount and optical depth. When a full-depth ocean with dynamics and thermodynamics is included, ocean heat uptake preferentially cools the mid-latitude Southern Ocean, partially inhibiting the positive cloud feedback and slowing warming. Overall, the results highlight strong connections between Southern Ocean mixed-phase cloud partitioning, cloud feedbacks, and ocean heat uptake in a climate forced by greenhouse gas changes.

  12. Validation of Nimbus-7 temperature-humidity infrared radiometer estimates of cloud type and amount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    Estimates of clear and low, middle and high cloud amount in fixed geographical regions approximately (160 km) squared are being made routinely from 11.5 micron radiance measurements of the Nimbus-7 Temperature-Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR). The purpose of validation is to determine the accuracy of the THIR cloud estimates. Validation requires that a comparison be made between the THIR estimates of cloudiness and the 'true' cloudiness. The validation results reported in this paper use human analysis of concurrent but independent satellite images with surface meteorological and radiosonde observations to approximate the 'true' cloudiness. Regression and error analyses are used to estimate the systematic and random errors of THIR derived clear amount.

  13. Spectral dependence on the correction factor of erythemal UV for cloud, aerosol, total ozone, and surface properties: A modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Seo; Jung, Yeonjin; Lee, Yun Gon

    2016-07-01

    Radiative transfer model simulations were used to investigate the erythemal ultraviolet (EUV) correction factors by separating the UV-A and UV-B spectral ranges. The correction factor was defined as the ratio of EUV caused by changing the amounts and characteristics of the extinction and scattering materials. The EUV correction factors (CFEUV) for UV-A [CFEUV(A)] and UV-B [CFEUV(B)] were affected by changes in the total ozone, optical depths of aerosol and cloud, and the solar zenith angle. The differences between CFEUV(A) and CFEUV(B) were also estimated as a function of solar zenith angle, the optical depths of aerosol and cloud, and total ozone. The differences between CFEUV(A) and CFEUV(B) ranged from -5.0% to 25.0% for aerosols, and from -9.5% to 2.0% for clouds in all simulations for different solar zenith angles and optical depths of aerosol and cloud. The rate of decline of CFEUV per unit optical depth between UV-A and UV-B differed by up to 20% for the same aerosol and cloud conditions. For total ozone, the variation in CFEUV(A) was negligible compared with that in CFEUV(B) because of the effective spectral range of the ozone absorption band. In addition, the sensitivity of the CFEUVs due to changes in surface conditions (i.e., surface albedo and surface altitude) was also estimated by using the model in this study. For changes in surface albedo, the sensitivity of the CFEUVs was 2.9%-4.1% per 0.1 albedo change, depending on the amount of aerosols or clouds. For changes in surface altitude, the sensitivity of CFEUV(B) was twice that of CFEUV(A), because the Rayleigh optical depth increased significantly at shorter wavelengths.

  14. Continuum Limit of Total Variation on Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Trillos, Nicolás; Slepčev, Dejan

    2016-04-01

    We consider point clouds obtained as random samples of a measure on a Euclidean domain. A graph representing the point cloud is obtained by assigning weights to edges based on the distance between the points they connect. Our goal is to develop mathematical tools needed to study the consistency, as the number of available data points increases, of graph-based machine learning algorithms for tasks such as clustering. In particular, we study when the cut capacity, and more generally total variation, on these graphs is a good approximation of the perimeter (total variation) in the continuum setting. We address this question in the setting of Γ-convergence. We obtain almost optimal conditions on the scaling, as the number of points increases, of the size of the neighborhood over which the points are connected by an edge for the Γ-convergence to hold. Taking of the limit is enabled by a transportation based metric which allows us to suitably compare functionals defined on different point clouds.

  15. Cirrus Cloud Retrieval Using Infrared Sounding Data: Multilevel Cloud Errors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Bryan A.; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    1994-01-01

    In this study we perform an error analysis for cloud-top pressure retrieval using the High-Resolution Infrared Radiometric Sounder (HIRS/2) 15-µm CO2 channels for the two-layer case of transmissive cirrus overlying an overcast, opaque stratiform cloud. This analysis includes standard deviation and bias error due to instrument noise and the presence of two cloud layers, the lower of which is opaque. Instantaneous cloud pressure retrieval errors are determined for a range of cloud amounts (0.1 1.0) and cloud-top pressures (850250 mb). Large cloud-top pressure retrieval errors are found to occur when a lower opaque layer is present underneath an upper transmissive cloud layer in the satellite field of view (FOV). Errors tend to increase with decreasing upper-cloud elective cloud amount and with decreasing cloud height (increasing pressure). Errors in retrieved upper-cloud pressure result in corresponding errors in derived effective cloud amount. For the case in which a HIRS FOV has two distinct cloud layers, the difference between the retrieved and actual cloud-top pressure is positive in all casts, meaning that the retrieved upper-cloud height is lower than the actual upper-cloud height. In addition, errors in retrieved cloud pressure are found to depend upon the lapse rate between the low-level cloud top and the surface. We examined which sounder channel combinations would minimize the total errors in derived cirrus cloud height caused by instrument noise and by the presence of a lower-level cloud. We find that while the sounding channels that peak between 700 and 1000 mb minimize random errors, the sounding channels that peak at 300—500 mb minimize bias errors. For a cloud climatology, the bias errors are most critical.

  16. Short-range precipitation forecasts using assimilation of simulated satellite water vapor profiles and column cloud liquid water amounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Diak, George R.; Hayden, Cristopher M.; Young, John A.

    1995-01-01

    These observing system simulation experiments investigate the assimilation of satellite-observed water vapor and cloud liquid water data in the initialization of a limited-area primitive equations model with the goal of improving short-range precipitation forecasts. The assimilation procedure presented includes two aspects: specification of an initial cloud liquid water vertical distribution and diabatic initialization. The satellite data is simulated for the next generation of polar-orbiting satellite instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS), which are scheduled to be launched on the NOAA-K satellite in the mid-1990s. Based on cloud-top height and total column cloud liquid water amounts simulated for satellite data a diagnostic method is used to specify an initial cloud water vertical distribution and to modify the initial moisture distribution in cloudy areas. Using a diabatic initialization procedure, the associated latent heating profiles are directly assimilated into the numerical model. The initial heating is estimated by time averaging the latent heat release from convective and large-scale condensation during the early forecast stage after insertion of satellite-observed temperature, water vapor, and cloud water formation. The assimilation of satellite-observed moisture and cloud water, together withy three-mode diabatic initialization, significantly alleviates the model precipitation spinup problem, especially in the first 3 h of the forecast. Experimental forecasts indicate that the impact of satellite-observed temperature and water vapor profiles and cloud water alone in the initialization procedure shortens the spinup time for precipitation rates by 1-2 h and for regeneration of the areal coverage by 3 h. The diabatic initialization further reduces the precipitation spinup time (compared to adiabatic initialization) by 1 h.

  17. DETERMINATION OF CLOUD PARAMETERS FOR NEROS II FROM DIGITAL SATELLITE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the input for their regional-scale photochemical oxidant model of air pollution, known as the Regional Oxidant Model, requires statistical descriptions of total cloud amount, cumulus cloud amount, and cumulus cloud top height for certain regions and dates. These statis...

  18. Factors governing the total rainfall yield from continental convective clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Gagin, Abraham

    1989-01-01

    Several important factors that govern the total rainfall from continental convective clouds were investigated by tracking thousands of convective cells in Israel and South Africa. The rainfall volume yield (Rvol) of the individual cells that build convective rain systems has been shown to depend mainly on the cloud-top height. There is, however, considerable variability in this relationship. The following factors that influence the Rvol were parameterized and quantitatively analyzed: (1) cloud base temperature, (2)atmospheric instability, and (3) the extent of isolation of the cell. It is also shown that a strong low level forcing increases the duration of Rvol of clouds reaching the same vertical extent.

  19. Lightning Tracking Tool for Assessment of Total Cloud Lightning within AWIPS II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, Jason E.; Stano, Geoffrey T.; Sperow, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Total lightning (intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground) has been widely researched and shown to be a valuable tool to aid real-time warning forecasters in the assessment of severe weather potential of convective storms. The trend of total lightning has been related to the strength of a storm's updraft. Therefore a rapid increase in total lightning signifies the strengthening of the parent thunderstorm. The assessment of severe weather potential occurs in a time limited environment and therefore constrains the use of total lightning. A tool has been developed at NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center to assist in quickly analyzing the total lightning signature of multiple storms. The development of this tool comes as a direct result of forecaster feedback from numerous assessments requesting a real-time display of the time series of total lightning. This tool also takes advantage of the new architecture available within the AWIPS II environment. SPoRT's lightning tracking tool has been tested in the Hazardous Weather Testbed (HWT) Spring Program and significant changes have been made based on the feedback. In addition to the updates in response to the HWT assessment, the lightning tracking tool may also be extended to incorporate other requested displays, such as the intra-cloud to cloud-to-ground ratio as well as incorporate the lightning jump algorithm.

  20. Global Electric Circuit Implications of Total Current Measurements over Electrified Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2009-01-01

    We determined total conduction (Wilson) currents and flash rates for 850 overflights of electrified clouds spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive and negative Wilson currents. We combined these individual storm overflight statistics with global diurnal lightning variation data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) to estimate the thunderstorm and electrified shower cloud contributions to the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit. The contributions to the global electric circuit from lightning producing clouds are estimated by taking the mean current per flash derived from the overflight data for land and ocean overflights and combining it with the global lightning rates (for land and ocean) and their diurnal variation derived from the LIS/OTD data. We estimate the contribution of non-lightning producing electrified clouds by assuming several different diurnal variations and total non-electrified storm counts to produce estimates of the total storm currents (lightning and non-lightning producing storms). The storm counts and diurnal variations are constrained so that the resultant total current diurnal variation equals the diurnal variation in the fair weather electric field (+/-15%). These assumptions, combined with the airborne and satellite data, suggest that the total mean current in the global electric circuit ranges from 2.0 to 2.7 kA, which is greater than estimates made by others using other methods.

  1. The Citizen CATE Experiment: Techniques to Determine Totality Coverage and Clouded Data Removal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Myles A.; Ursache, Andrei; Penn, Matthew; Citizen CATE Experiment 2017 Team

    2018-01-01

    August 21, 2017, the Citizen Continental-America Telescopic Eclipse(CATE) Experiment observed the 2017 total solar eclipse using a network of 68 identical telescopes and camera systems along the path of totality. The result from the observation was over 90% of all sites collected totality data on the day of the eclipse. Since the volunteers had to remove the solar filter manually, there is an uncertainty between the time of totality and data acquired during totality. Some sites also experienced cloudy weather which obscured the eclipse in some of the exposures but had small breaks in the clouds during the observation, collecting clear totality data. Before we can process and analyze the eclipse data, we must carefully determine which frames cover the time of totality for each site and remove exposures with clouds blocking the FOV. In this poster, we will discuss the techniques we used to determine the extent of totality from each location using the logged GPS data and the removal of totality exposure with clouds.

  2. The daytime course of total ozone content caused by cloud convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishov, Alexander G.

    1994-01-01

    Presented are the experimental data on the daytime course of the total O3 and SO2 content obtained by Brewer 044 spectrophotometer in the tropics (Thumba, India, 8.53 N, 76.87 W, March-May 1990) and at middle latitudes (Obninsk, Russia, 55.12 N, 36.6 W, May-October 1991) of the Northern Hemisphere. The analysis showed that under fine warm weather conditions without precipitation (air mass change and frontal passage were not observed during several days) in days with well-developed convective clouds (cloudless morning, convective clouds in the daytime, no clouds in the evening) there is a typical nearly symmetric (with respect to local noon) course of the total O3 (with the minimum at about local noon) and SO2 (with the maximum at about local noon) content. The minimum depth is about 2-5 percent of the average daytime values of the total ozone content. The synchronous measurements of pressure pulsations with microbarograph (they are the indicator of convective and turbulent motion development in the lower subcloud atmospheric layer) showed that during these days there is a nearly symmetric course of pressure pulsations with the maximum at about local noon.

  3. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility. Part II; Cloud Fraction and Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Minnis, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Data collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility are analyzed for determining the variability of cloud fraction and radiative forcing at several temporal scales between January 1997 and December 2002. Cloud fractions are estimated for total cloud cover and for single-layer low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high clouds (greater than 6 km) using ARM SGP ground-based paired lidar-radar measurements. Shortwave (SW), longwave (LW), and net cloud radiative forcings (CRF) are derived from up- and down-looking standard precision spectral pyranometers and precision infrared radiometer measurements. The annual averages of total, and single-layer, nonoverlapped low, middle and high cloud fractions are 0.49, 0.11, 0.03, and 0.17, respectively. Total and low cloud amounts were greatest from December through March and least during July and August. The monthly variation of high cloud amount is relatively small with a broad maximum from May to August. During winter, total cloud cover varies diurnally with a small amplitude, mid-morning maximum and early evening minimum, and during summer it changes by more than 0.14 over the daily cycle with a pronounced early evening minimum. The diurnal variations of mean single-layer cloud cover change with season and cloud height. Annual averages of all-sky, total, and single-layer high, middle, and low LW CRFs are 21.4, 40.2, 16.7, 27.2, and 55.0 Wm(sup -2), respectively; and their SW CRFs are -41.5, -77.2, -37.0, -47.0, and -90.5 Wm(sup -2). Their net CRFs range from -20 to -37 Wm(sup -2). For all-sky, total, and low clouds, the maximum negative net CRFs of -40.1, -70, and -69.5 Wm(sup -2), occur during April; while the respective minimum values of -3.9, -5.7, and -4.6 Wm(sup -2), are found during December. July is the month having maximum negative net CRF of -46.2 Wm(sup -2) for middle clouds, and May has the maximum value of -45.9 Wm(sup -2) for high clouds. An

  4. Temporal variability of total cloud cover at a Mediterranean megacity in the 20th century: Evidence from visual observations and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Founda, Dimitra; Giannakopoulos, Christos; Pierros, Fragiskos

    2013-04-01

    Cloud cover is one of the major factors that determine the radiation budget and the climate system of the Earth. Moreover, the response of clouds has always been an important source of uncertainty in global climate models. Visual surface observations of clouds have been conducted at the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) since the mid 19th century. The historical archive of cloud reports at NOA since 1860 has been digitized and updated, spanning now a period of one and a half century. Mean monthly values of total cloud cover were derived by averaging subdaily observations of cloud cover (3 observations/day). Changes in observational practice (e.g. from 1/10 to 1/8 units) were considered, however, subjective measures of cloud cover from trained observers introduces some kind of uncertainty in the time series. Data before 1884 were considered unreliable, so the analysis was restricted to the series from 1884 to 2012. The time series of total cloud cover at NOA is validated and correlated with historical time series of other (physically related) variables such as the total sunshine duration as well as DTR (Diurnal Temperature Range) which are independently measured. Trend analysis was performed on the mean annual and seasonal series of total cloud cover from 1884-2012. The mean annual values show a marked temporal variability with sub periods of decreasing and increasing tendencies, however, the overall linear trend is positive and statistically significant (p <0.001) amounting to +2% per decade and implying a total increase of almost 25% for the whole analysed period. These results are in agreement qualitatively with the trends reported in other studies worldwide, especially concerning the period before the mid 20th century. On a seasonal basis, spring and summer series present outstanding positive long term trends, while in winter and autumn total cloud cover reveals also positive but less pronounced long term trends Additionally, an evaluation of cloud cover and

  5. Aerosol effects on cloud water amounts were successfully simulated by a global cloud-system resolving model.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yousuke; Goto, Daisuke; Michibata, Takuro; Suzuki, Kentaroh; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tomita, Hirofumi; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2018-03-07

    Aerosols affect climate by modifying cloud properties through their role as cloud condensation nuclei or ice nuclei, called aerosol-cloud interactions. In most global climate models (GCMs), the aerosol-cloud interactions are represented by empirical parameterisations, in which the mass of cloud liquid water (LWP) is assumed to increase monotonically with increasing aerosol loading. Recent satellite observations, however, have yielded contradictory results: LWP can decrease with increasing aerosol loading. This difference implies that GCMs overestimate the aerosol effect, but the reasons for the difference are not obvious. Here, we reproduce satellite-observed LWP responses using a global simulation with explicit representations of cloud microphysics, instead of the parameterisations. Our analyses reveal that the decrease in LWP originates from the response of evaporation and condensation processes to aerosol perturbations, which are not represented in GCMs. The explicit representation of cloud microphysics in global scale modelling reduces the uncertainty of climate prediction.

  6. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Site. Part II; Cloud Fraction and Surface Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xi, B.; Minnis, P.

    2006-01-01

    Data collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (SCF) are analyzed to determine the monthly and hourly variations of cloud fraction and radiative forcing between January 1997 and December 2002. Cloud fractions are estimated for total cloud cover and for single-layered low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high clouds (more than 6 km) using ARM SCG ground-based paired lidar-radar measurements. Shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) fluxes are derived from up- and down-looking standard precision spectral pyranometers and precision infrared radiometer measurements with uncertainties of approximately 10 Wm(exp -2). The annual averages of total, and single-layered low, middle and high cloud fractions are 0.49, 0.11, 0.03, and 0.17, respectively. Both total and low cloud amounts peak during January and February and reach a minimum during July and August, high clouds occur more frequently than other types of clouds with a peak in summer. The average annual downwelling surface SW fluxes for total and low clouds (151 and 138 Wm(exp-2), respectively) are less than those under middle and high clouds (188 and 201 Wm(exp -2), respectively), but the downwelling LW fluxes (349 and 356 Wm(exp -2)) underneath total and low clouds are greater than those from middle and high clouds (337 and 333 Wm(exp -2)). Low clouds produce the largest LW warming (55 Wm(exp -2) and SW cooling (-91 Wm(exp -2)) effects with maximum and minimum absolute values in spring and summer, respectively. High clouds have the smallest LW warming (17 Wm(exp -2)) and SW cooling (-37 Wm(exp -2)) effects at the surface. All-sky SW CRF decreases and LW CRF increases with increasing cloud fraction with mean slopes of -0.984 and 0.616 Wm(exp -2)%(exp -1), respectively. Over the entire diurnal cycle, clouds deplete the amount of surface insolation more than they add to the downwelling LW flux. The calculated CRFs do not appear to be significantly

  7. The role of polar stratospheric clouds on total ozone minihole events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabutis, Joseph L.

    1989-01-01

    Using seven years of data from tha SAM 2 (Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement 2) and TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instruments, along with 70 mbar temperatures extracted from an NMC analysis, the effect of the austral spring polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) on the formation of total ozone miniholes is investigated. A total ozone minihole event is designated as the rapid decrease of more than 20 DU of total ozone over a time period of a day and a spatial extent of approximately 1000 by 1000 km. The severe decrease of total ozone during these minihole events could be explained in part by PSC being formed at altitudes of 10 to 24 km and preventing scattered UV radiation from ozone below the cloud from reaching the TOMS instrument. A result of the cloud's opaqueness is that the total ozone retrieval from TOMS data would underestimate the ozone column in the vicinity of the PSC. The approach to investigate the effect of PSC on total ozone was to use SAM 2 aerosol extinction values in conjunction with NMC stratospheric temperatures to determine if PSC are present during total ozone minihole events occurring during August and September, 1979 to 1986. The minihole events during these seven years were divided into two types: type 1, where the minihole region of 24 hour darkness from regions exposed to sunlight, and type 2, where the minihole occurred 5 to 10 degrees north of the terminator. The presence of PSC in a given region was ascertained by a maximum aerosol extinction greater than .006/km occurring with a temperature less than 189 K. It is found that PSC are consistently present with type 2 minihole events. This is contrasted with PSC rarely occurring in the same vicinity of type 2 miniholes. Also observed of that type 1 minihole events have minimum total ozone values which are on the average 3 to 10 DU smaller than type 2 miniholes. It can be concluded that care must be taken when trying to deduce a dynamical explanation of minihole events near the polar

  8. Overlap Properties of Clouds Generated by a Cloud Resolving Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, L.; Khairoutdinov, M.

    2002-01-01

    In order for General Circulation Models (GCMs), one of our most important tools to predict future climate, to correctly describe the propagation of solar and thermal radiation through the cloudy atmosphere a realistic description of the vertical distribution of cloud amount is needed. Actually, one needs not only the cloud amounts at different levels of the atmosphere, but also how these cloud amounts are related, in other words, how they overlap. Currently GCMs make some idealized assumptions about cloud overlap, for example that contiguous cloud layers overlap maximally and non-contiguous cloud layers overlap in a random fashion. Since there are difficulties in obtaining the vertical profile of cloud amount from observations, the realism of the overlap assumptions made in GCMs has not been yet rigorously investigated. Recently however, cloud observations from a relatively new type of ground radar have been used to examine the vertical distribution of cloudiness. These observations suggest that the GCM overlap assumptions are dubious. Our study uses cloud fields from sophisticated models dedicated to simulate cloud formation, maintenance, and dissipation called Cloud Resolving Models . These models are generally considered capable of producing realistic three-dimensional representation of cloudiness. Using numerous cloud fields produced by such a CRM we show that the degree of overlap between cloud layers is a function of their separation distance, and is in general described by a combination of the maximum and random overlap assumption, with random overlap dominating as separation distances increase. We show that it is possible to parameterize this behavior in a way that can eventually be incorporated in GCMs. Our results seem to have a significant resemblance to the results from the radar observations despite the completely different nature of the datasets. This consistency is encouraging and will promote development of new radiative transfer codes that will

  9. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 2: Locating clouds tops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    A comparison is made of the vertical distribution of high-level cloud tops derived from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements and from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for all Julys and Januarys in 1985 to 1990. The results suggest that ISCCP overestimates the pressure of high-level clouds by up to 50-150 mbar, particularly at low latitudes. This is caused by the frequent presence of clouds with diffuse tops (greater than 50% time when cloudy events are observed). The averaged vertical extent of the diffuse top is about 1.5 km. At midlatitudes where the SAGE II and ISCCP cloud top pressure agree best, clouds with distinct tops reach a maximum relative proportion of the total level cloud amount (about 30-40%), and diffuse-topped clouds are reduced to their minimum (30-40%). The ISCCP-defined cloud top pressure should be regarded not as the material physical height of the clouds but as the level which emits the same infrared radiance as observed. SAGE II and ISCCP cloud top pressures agree for clouds with distinct tops. There is also an indication that the cloud top pressures of optically thin clouds not overlying thicker clouds are poorly estimated by ISCCP at middle latitudes. The average vertical extent of these thin clouds is about 2.5 km.

  10. A new NASA/MSFC mission analysis global cloud cover data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. C.; Jeffries, W. R., III

    1985-01-01

    A global cloud cover data set, derived from the USAF 3D NEPH Analysis, was developed for use in climate studies and for Earth viewing applications. This data set contains a single parameter - total sky cover - separated in time by 3 or 6 hr intervals and in space by approximately 50 n.mi. Cloud cover amount is recorded for each grid point (of a square grid) by a single alphanumeric character representing each 5 percent increment of sky cover. The data are arranged in both quarterly and monthly formats. The data base currently provides daily, 3-hr observed total sky cover for the Northern Hemisphere from 1972 through 1977 less 1976. For the Southern Hemisphere, there are data at 6-hr intervals for 1976 through 1978 and at 3-hr intervals for 1979 and 1980. More years of data are being added. To validate the data base, the percent frequency of or = 0.3 and or = 0.8 cloud cover was compared with ground observed cloud amounts at several locations with generally good agreement. Mean or other desired cloud amounts can be calculated for any time period and any size area from a single grid point to a hemisphere. The data base is especially useful in evaluating the consequence of cloud cover on Earth viewing space missions. The temporal and spatial frequency of the data allow simulations that closely approximate any projected viewing mission. No adjustments are required to account for cloud continuity.

  11. Tennessee Valley Total and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Climatology Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechler, Dennis; Blakeslee, R. J.; Hall, J. M.; McCaul, E. W.

    2008-01-01

    The North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) has been in operation since 2001 and consists often VHF receivers deployed across northern Alabama. The NALMA locates sources of impulsive VHF radio signals from total lightning by accurately measuring the time that the signals arrive at the different receiving stations. The sources detected are then clustered into flashes by applying spatially and temporally constraints. This study examines the total lightning climatology of the region derived from NALMA and compares it to the cloud-to-ground (CG) climatology derived from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) The presentation compares the total and CG lightning trends for monthly, daily, and hourly periods.

  12. Retrieval of Total Ozone Amounts from Zenith-Sky Intensities in the Ultraviolet Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bojkov, B. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Hilsenrath, E.; Labow, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    A new method to determine the total ozone column from zenith-sky intensities in the ultraviolet region has been developed for the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SSBUV) operating at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The total ozone column amounts are derived by comparing the ratio of measured intensities from three wavelengths with the equivalent ratios calculated by a radiative transfer model. The differences between the retrieved ozone column amounts and the collocated Brewer double monochromator are within 2% for the measurement period beginning in April 2001. The methodology, as well as the influences of the ozone profiles, aerosols, surface albedo, and the solar zenith angle on the retrieved total ozone amounts will be presented.

  13. Historical Sunshine and Cloud Data in the United States (revised 1991) (NDP-021)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Steurer, Peter M. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (USA); Karl, Thomas R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (USA)

    2012-01-01

    This data base presents monthly sunshine data from 240 U.S. stations (including Puerto Rico and nine Pacific Islands) and monthly cloud amount data from 197 U.S. stations. The longest periods of record are 1891 through 1987 for the sunshine data and 1871 through 1987 for the cloud data. The sunshine data were derived from measurements taken by a variety of sunshine-recording instruments. The cloud data were derived from land-based estimates of fractional cloud amount, which were made with observation practices that have varied during the period of record. Station number, station name, latitude, and longitude are given for all stations in each network. The sunshine data include monthly and annual total hours of recorded sunshine, monthly and annual maximum possible hours of sunshine, monthly and annual percentages of possible sunshine (hours recorded/hours possible), and dates of use for specific types of sunshine recorders at each station. The cloud data contain monthly and annual cloud amount (in percent of sky cover).

  14. "Cloud Slicing" : A New Technique to Derive Tropospheric Ozone Profile Information from Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A new technique denoted cloud slicing has been developed for estimating tropospheric ozone profile information. All previous methods using satellite data were only capable of estimating the total column of ozone in the troposphere. Cloud slicing takes advantage of the opaque property of water vapor clouds to ultraviolet wavelength radiation. Measurements of above-cloud column ozone from the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are combined together with Nimbus 7 temperature humidity and infrared radiometer (THIR) cloud-top pressure data to derive ozone column amounts in the upper troposphere. In this study tropical TOMS and THIR data for the period 1979-1984 are analyzed. By combining total tropospheric column ozone (denoted TCO) measurements from the convective cloud differential (CCD) method with 100-400 hPa upper tropospheric column ozone amounts from cloud slicing, it is possible to estimate 400-1000 hPa lower tropospheric column ozone and evaluate its spatial and temporal variability. Results for both the upper and lower tropical troposphere show a year-round zonal wavenumber 1 pattern in column ozone with largest amounts in the Atlantic region (up to approx. 15 DU in the 100-400 hPa pressure band and approx. 25-30 DU in the 400-1000 hPa pressure band). Upper tropospheric ozone derived from cloud slicing shows maximum column amounts in the Atlantic region in the June-August and September-November seasons which is similar to the seasonal variability of CCD derived TCO in the region. For the lower troposphere, largest column amounts occur in the September-November season over Brazil in South America and also southern Africa. Localized increases in the tropics in lower tropospheric ozone are found over the northern region of South America around August and off the west coast of equatorial Africa in the March-May season. Time series analysis for several regions in South America and Africa show an anomalous increase in ozone in the lower

  15. Smoke Invigoration Versus Inhibition of Clouds over the Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koren, Ilan; Martins, J. Vanderlei; Lorraine, A. Remer; Afargan, Hila

    2008-01-01

    The effect of anthropogenic aerosols on clouds is one of the most important and least understood aspects of human-induced climate change. Small changes in the amount of cloud coverage can produce a climate forcing equivalent in magnitude and opposite in sign to that caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and changes in cloud height can shift the effect of clouds from cooling to warming. Focusing on the Amazon, we show a smooth transition between two opposing effects of aerosols on clouds: the microphysical and the radiative. We show how a feedback between the optical properties of aerosols and the cloud fraction can modify the aerosol forcing, changing the total radiative energy and redistributing it over the atmospheric column.

  16. Climatological Data for Clouds Over the Globe from Surface Observations (1988) (NDP-026)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hahn, Carole J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES); Warren, Stephen G. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; London, Julius [Department of Astrophysical, Planetary, and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Jenne, Ray L. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Chervin, Robert M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1988-01-01

    With some data from as early as 1930, global long-term monthly and/or seasonal total cloud cover, cloud type amounts and frequencies of occurrence, low cloud base heights, harmonic analyses of annual and diurnal cycles, interannual variations and trends, and cloud type co-occurrences have been compiled and presented in two atlases (Warren et al. 1988, 1990). These data were derived from land and ship synoptic weather reports from the "SPOT" archive of the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center (FNOC) and from Release 1 of the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) for the years 1930-1979. The data are in 12 files (one containing latitude, longitude, land-fraction, and number of land stations for grid boxes; four containing total cloud, cloud types, harmonic analyses, and interannual variations and trends for land; four containing total cloud, cloud types, harmonic analyses, and interannual variations and trends for oceans; one containing first cloud analyses for the first year of the GARP Global Experiment (FGGE); one containing cloud-type co-occurrences for land and oceans; and one containing a FORTRAN program to read and produce maps).

  17. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Zheng; Muhlbauer, Andreas; Ackerman, Thomas

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, we evaluate high-level clouds in a cloud resolving model during two convective cases, ARM9707 and KWAJEX. The simulated joint histograms of cloud occurrence and radar reflectivity compare well with cloud radar and satellite observations when using a two-moment microphysics scheme. However, simulations performed with a single moment microphysical scheme exhibit low biases of approximately 20 dB. During convective events, two-moment microphysical overestimate the amount of high-level cloud and one-moment microphysics precipitate too readily and underestimate the amount and height of high-level cloud. For ARM9707, persistent large positive biases in high-level cloud are found, which are not sensitivemore » to changes in ice particle fall velocity and ice nuclei number concentration in the two-moment microphysics. These biases are caused by biases in large-scale forcing and maintained by the periodic lateral boundary conditions. The combined effects include significant biases in high-level cloud amount, radiation, and high sensitivity of cloud amount to nudging time scale in both convective cases. The high sensitivity of high-level cloud amount to the thermodynamic nudging time scale suggests that thermodynamic nudging can be a powerful ‘‘tuning’’ parameter for the simulated cloud and radiation but should be applied with caution. The role of the periodic lateral boundary conditions in reinforcing the biases in cloud and radiation suggests that reducing the uncertainty in the large-scale forcing in high levels is important for similar convective cases and has far reaching implications for simulating high-level clouds in super-parameterized global climate models such as the multiscale modeling framework.« less

  18. Cloud microphysics and aerosol indirect effects in the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, U.; Stier, P.; Hoose, C.; Ferrachat, S.; Kloster, S.; Roeckner, E.; Zhang, J.

    2007-07-01

    The double-moment cloud microphysics scheme from ECHAM4 that predicts both the mass mixing ratios and number concentrations of cloud droplets and ice crystals has been coupled to the size-resolved aerosol scheme ECHAM5-HAM. ECHAM5-HAM predicts the aerosol mass, number concentrations and mixing state. The simulated liquid, ice and total water content and the cloud droplet and ice crystal number concentrations as a function of temperature in stratiform mixed-phase clouds between 0 and -35° C agree much better with aircraft observations in the ECHAM5 simulations. ECHAM5 performs better because more realistic aerosol concentrations are available for cloud droplet nucleation and because the Bergeron-Findeisen process is parameterized as being more efficient. The total anthropogenic aerosol effect includes the direct, semi-direct and indirect effects and is defined as the difference in the top-of-the-atmosphere net radiation between present-day and pre-industrial times. It amounts to -1.9 W m-2 in ECHAM5, when a relative humidity dependent cloud cover scheme and aerosol emissions representative for the years 1750 and 2000 from the AeroCom emission inventory are used. The contribution of the cloud albedo effect amounts to -0.7 W m-2. The total anthropogenic aerosol effect is larger when either a statistical cloud cover scheme or a different aerosol emission inventory are employed because the cloud lifetime effect increases.

  19. Effects of cloud, aerosol, and ozone on surface spectral Ultraviolet and total irradiance observed in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hana; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Woogyung; Lee, Yun Gon; Cho, Hi Ku

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there have been substantial attempts to model the radiative transfer for climatological and biological purposes. However, the incorporation of clouds, aerosols and ozone into the modeling process is one of the difficult tasks due to their variable transmission in both temporal and space domains. In this study we quantify the atmospheric transmissions by clouds, aerosol optical depth (AOD at 320 nm) and total ozone (Ozone) together with all skies in three solar radiation components of the global solar (GS 305-2800nm), total ultraviolet (TUV 290-363nm) and the erythemal weighted ultraviolet (EUV 290-325nm) irradiances with statistical methods using the data at Seoul. The purpose of this study also is to clarify the different characteristics between cloud, AOD and Ozone in the wavelength-dependent solar radiation components. The ozone, EUV and TUV used in this study (March 2003 - February 2014) have been measured with Dobson Spectrophotometer (Beck #124) and Brewer Spectrophotometer (SCI-TEC#148) at Yonsei University, respectively. GS, Cloud Cover (CC) are available from the Korean Meteorological Agency. The measured total (effect of cloud, aerosol, and ozone) transmissions on annual average showed 74%, 76% and 80% of GS, TUV and EUV irradiance, respectively. For the comparison of the measured values with modeled, we have also constructed a multiple linear regression model for the total transmission. The average ratio of measured to modeled total transmission were 0.94, 0.96 and 0.96 with higher measured than modeled value in the three components, respectively, The individual transmission by clouds under the constant AOD and Ozone atmosphere on average showed 68%, 71% and 76% and further the overcast clouds reduced the transmissions to the 45%, 54% and 59% of the clear sky irradiance in the GS, TUV and EUV, respectively. The annual transmissions by AOD showed on average 67%, 70% and 74% and further the high loadings 2.5-4.0 AOD reduced the

  20. Cloud types and the tropical Earth radiation budget, revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, Harbans L.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1989-01-01

    Nimbus-7 cloud and Earth radiation budget data are compared in a study of the effects of clouds on the tropical radiation budget. The data consist of daily averages over fixed 500 sq km target areas, and the months of July 1979 and January 1980 were chosen to show the effect of seasonal changes. Six climate regions, consisting of 14 to 24 target areas each, were picked for intensive analysis because they exemplified the range in the tropical cloud/net radiation interactions. The normal analysis was to consider net radiation as the independent variable and examine how cloud cover, cloud type, albedo and emitted radiation varied with the net radiation. Two recurring themes keep repeating on a local, regional, and zonal basis: the net radiation is strongly influenced by the average cloud type and amount present, but most net radiation values could be produced by several combinations of cloud types and amount. The regions of highest net radiation (greater than 125 W/sq m) tend to have medium to heavy cloud cover. In these cases, thin medium altitude clouds predominate. Their cloud tops are normally too warm to be classified as cirrus by the Nimbus cloud algorithm. A common feature in the tropical oceans are large regions where the total regional cloud cover varies from 20 to 90 percent, but with little regional difference in the net radiation. The monsoon and rain areas are high net radiation regions.

  1. The use of visible-channel data from NOAA satellites to measure total ozone amount over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boime, Robert D.; Warren, Steven G.; Gruber, Arnold

    1994-01-01

    Accurate, detailed maps of total ozone were not available until the launch of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) in late 1978. However, the Scanning Radiometer (SR), an instrument on board the NOAA series satellites during the 1970s, had a visible channel that overlapped closely with the Chappuis absorption band of ozone. We are investigating whether data from the SR can be used to map Antarctic ozone prior to 1978. The method is being developed with 1980s data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), which succeeded the SR on the NOAA polar-orbiting satellites. Visible-derived total ozone maps can then be compared able on the NOAA satellites, which precludes the use of a differential absorption technique to measure ozone. Consequently, our method works exclusively over scenes whose albedos are large and unvarying, i.e. scenes that contain ice sheets and/or uniform cloud-cover. Initial comparisons of time series for October-December 1987 at locations in East Antarctica show that the visible absorption by ozone in measurable and that the technique may be usable for the 1970s, but with much less accuracy than TOMS. This initial test assumes that clouds, snow, and ice all reflect the same percentage of visible light towards the satellite, regardless of satellite position or environmental conditions. This assumption is our greatest source of error. To improve the accuracy of ozone retrievals, realistic anisotropic reflectance factors are needed, which are strongly influenced by cloud and snow surface features.

  2. Global surface-based cloud observation for ISCCP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Visual observations of cloud cover are hindered at night due to inadequate illumination of the clouds. This usually leads to an underestimation of the average cloud cover at night, especially for the amounts of middle and high clouds, in climatologies on surface observations. The diurnal cycles of cloud amounts, if based on all the surface observations, are therefore in error, but they can be obtained more accurately if the nighttime observations are screened to select those made under sufficient moonlight. Ten years of nighttime weather observations from the northern hemisphere in December were classified according to the illuminance of moonlight or twilight on the cloud tops, and a threshold level of illuminance was determined, above which the clouds are apparently detected adequately. This threshold corresponds to light from a full moon at an elevation angle of 6 degrees or from a partial moon at higher elevation, or twilight from the sun less than 9 degrees below the horizon. It permits the use of about 38% of the observations made with the sun below the horizon. The computed diurnal cycles of total cloud cover are altered considerably when this moonlight criterion is imposed. Maximum cloud cover over much of the ocean is now found to be at night or in the morning, whereas computations obtained without benefit of the moonlight criterion, as in our published atlases, showed the time of maximum to be noon or early afternoon in many regions. Cloud cover is greater at night than during the day over the open oceans far from the continents, particularly in summer. However, near noon maxima are still evident in the coastal regions, so that the global annual average oceanic cloud cover is still slightly greater during the day than at night, by 0.3%. Over land, where daytime maxima are still obtained but with reduced amplitude, average cloud cover is 3.3% greater during the daytime. The diurnal cycles of total cloud cover we obtain are compared with those of ISCCP for a

  3. Environmental conditions regulate the impact of plants on cloud formation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D F; Buchholz, A; Tillmann, R; Kleist, E; Wu, C; Rubach, F; Kiendler-Scharr, A; Rudich, Y; Wildt, J; Mentel, Th F

    2017-02-20

    The terrestrial vegetation emits large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the atmosphere, which on oxidation produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), SOA influences cloud formation and climate. In a warming climate, changes in environmental factors can cause stresses to plants, inducing changes of the emitted VOC. These can modify particle size and composition. Here we report how induced emissions eventually affect CCN activity of SOA, a key parameter in cloud formation. For boreal forest tree species, insect infestation by aphids causes additional VOC emissions which modifies SOA composition thus hygroscopicity and CCN activity. Moderate heat increases the total amount of constitutive VOC, which has a minor effect on hygroscopicity, but affects CCN activity by increasing the particles' size. The coupling of plant stresses, VOC composition and CCN activity points to an important impact of induced plant emissions on cloud formation and climate.

  4. Star formation induced by cloud-cloud collisions and galactic giant molecular cloud evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Masato I. N.; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    Recent millimeter/submillimeter observations towards nearby galaxies have started to map the whole disk and to identify giant molecular clouds (GMCs) even in the regions between galactic spiral structures. Observed variations of GMC mass functions in different galactic environments indicates that massive GMCs preferentially reside along galactic spiral structures whereas inter-arm regions have many small GMCs. Based on the phase transition dynamics from magnetized warm neutral medium to molecular clouds, Kobayashi et al. (2017, ApJ, 836, 175) proposes a semi-analytical evolutionary description for GMC mass functions including a cloud-cloud collision (CCC) process. Their results show that CCC is less dominant in shaping the mass function of GMCs than the accretion of dense H I gas driven by the propagation of supersonic shock waves. However, their formulation does not take into account the possible enhancement of star formation by CCC. Millimeter/submillimeter observations within the Milky Way indicate the importance of CCC in the formation of star clusters and massive stars. In this article, we reformulate the time-evolution equation largely modified from Kobayashi et al. (2017, ApJ, 836, 175) so that we additionally compute star formation subsequently taking place in CCC clouds. Our results suggest that, although CCC events between smaller clouds are more frequent than the ones between massive GMCs, CCC-driven star formation is mostly driven by massive GMCs ≳ 10^{5.5} M_{⊙} (where M⊙ is the solar mass). The resultant cumulative CCC-driven star formation may amount to a few 10 percent of the total star formation in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies.

  5. AIRS Subpixel Cloud Characterization Using MODIS Cloud Products.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Menzel, W. Paul; Sun, Fengying; Schmit, Timothy J.; Gurka, James

    2004-08-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements from the Earth Observing System's (EOS's) Aqua satellite enable improved global monitoring of the distribution of clouds. MODIS is able to provide, at high spatial resolution (1 5 km), a cloud mask, surface and cloud types, cloud phase, cloud-top pressure (CTP), effective cloud amount (ECA), cloud particle size (CPS), and cloud optical thickness (COT). AIRS is able to provide CTP, ECA, CPS, and COT at coarser spatial resolution (13.5 km at nadir) but with much better accuracy using its high-spectral-resolution measurements. The combined MODIS AIRS system offers the opportunity for improved cloud products over those possible from either system alone. The key steps for synergistic use of imager and sounder radiance measurements are 1) collocation in space and time and 2) imager cloud amount, type, and phase determination within the sounder pixel. The MODIS and AIRS measurements from the EOS Aqua satellite provide the opportunity to study the synergistic use of advanced imager and sounder measurements. As the first step, the MODIS classification procedure is applied to identify various surface and cloud types within an AIRS footprint. Cloud-layer information (lower, midlevel, or high clouds) and phase information (water, ice, or mixed-phase clouds) within the AIRS footprint are sorted and characterized using MODIS 1-km-spatial-resolution data. The combined MODIS and AIRS data for various scenes are analyzed to study the utility of the synergistic use of high-spatial-resolution imager products and high-spectral-resolution sounder radiance measurements. There is relevance to the optimal use of data from the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) systems, which are to fly on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R.


  6. Improved Thin Cirrus and Terminator Cloud Detection in CERES Cloud Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trepte, Qing; Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra; Spangenberg, Doug; Haeffelin, Martial

    2006-01-01

    Thin cirrus clouds account for about 20-30% of the total cloud coverage and affect the global radiation budget by increasing the Earth's albedo and reducing infrared emissions. Thin cirrus, however, are often underestimated by traditional satellite cloud detection algorithms. This difficulty is caused by the lack of spectral contrast between optically thin cirrus and the surface in techniques that use visible (0.65 micron ) and infrared (11 micron ) channels. In the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Aqua Edition 1 (AEd1) and Terra Edition 3 (TEd3) Cloud Masks, thin cirrus detection is significantly improved over both land and ocean using a technique that combines MODIS high-resolution measurements from the 1.38 and 11 micron channels and brightness temperature differences (BTDs) of 11-12, 8.5-11, and 3.7-11 micron channels. To account for humidity and view angle dependencies, empirical relationships were derived with observations from the 1.38 micron reflectance and the 11-12 and 8.5-11 micron BTDs using 70 granules of MODIS data in 2002 and 2003. Another challenge in global cloud detection algorithms occurs near the day/night terminator where information from the visible 0.65 micron channel and the estimated solar component of 3.7 micron channel becomes less reliable. As a result, clouds are often underestimated or misidentified near the terminator over land and ocean. Comparisons between the CLAVR-x (Clouds from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer [AVHRR]) cloud coverage and Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) measurements north of 60 N indicate significant amounts of missing clouds from CLAVR-x because this part of the world was near the day/night terminator viewed by AVHRR. Comparisons between MODIS cloud products (MOD06) and GLAS in the same region also show similar difficulties with MODIS cloud retrievals. The consistent detection of clouds through out the day is needed to provide reliable cloud and radiation products for CERES

  7. Environmental conditions regulate the impact of plants on cloud formation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, D. F.; Buchholz, A.; Tillmann, R.; Kleist, E.; Wu, C.; Rubach, F.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Rudich, Y.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial vegetation emits large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the atmosphere, which on oxidation produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), SOA influences cloud formation and climate. In a warming climate, changes in environmental factors can cause stresses to plants, inducing changes of the emitted VOC. These can modify particle size and composition. Here we report how induced emissions eventually affect CCN activity of SOA, a key parameter in cloud formation. For boreal forest tree species, insect infestation by aphids causes additional VOC emissions which modifies SOA composition thus hygroscopicity and CCN activity. Moderate heat increases the total amount of constitutive VOC, which has a minor effect on hygroscopicity, but affects CCN activity by increasing the particles' size. The coupling of plant stresses, VOC composition and CCN activity points to an important impact of induced plant emissions on cloud formation and climate. PMID:28218253

  8. Analysis of cloud top height and cloud coverage from satellites using the O2 A and B bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuze, Akihiko; Chance, Kelly V.

    1994-01-01

    Cloud height and cloud coverage detection are important for total ozone retrieval using ultraviolet and visible scattered light. Use of the O2 A and B bands, around 761 and 687 nm, by a satellite-borne instrument of moderately high spectral resolution viewing in the nadir makes it possible to detect cloud top height and related parameters, including fractional coverage. The measured values of a satellite-borne spectrometer are convolutions of the instrument slit function and the atmospheric transmittance between cloud top and satellite. Studies here determine the optical depth between a satellite orbit and the Earth or cloud top height to high accuracy using FASCODE 3. Cloud top height and a cloud coverage parameter are determined by least squares fitting to calculated radiance ratios in the oxygen bands. A grid search method is used to search the parameter space of cloud top height and the coverage parameter to minimize an appropriate sum of squares of deviations. For this search, nonlinearity of the atmospheric transmittance (i.e., leverage based on varying amounts of saturation in the absorption spectrum) is important for distinguishing between cloud top height and fractional coverage. Using the above-mentioned method, an operational cloud detection algorithm which uses minimal computation time can be implemented.

  9. Analyses of the cloud contents of multispectral imagery from LANDSAT 2: Mesoscale assessments of cloud and rainfall over the British Isles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, E. C.; Grant, C. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was demonstrated that satellites with sufficiently high resolution capability in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum could be used to check the accuracy of estimates of total cloud amount assessed subjectively from the ground, and to reveal areas of performance in which corrections should be made. It was also demonstrated that, in middle latitude in summer, cloud shadow may obscure at least half as much again of the land surface covered by an individual LANDSAT frame as the cloud itself. That proportion would increase with latitude and/or time of year towards the winter solstice. Analyses of sample multispectral images for six different categories of clouds in summer revealed marked differences between the reflectance characteristics of cloud fields in the visible/near infrared region of the spectrum.

  10. Cloud Climatology for Land Stations Worldwide, 1971-2009 (NDP-026D)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hahn, C. J. [University of Arizona; Warren, S. G. [University of Washington; Eastman, R. [University of Washington

    2012-08-01

    Surface synoptic weather reports for 39 years have been processed to provide a climatology of clouds for each of over 5000 land-based weather stations with long periods of record both day and night. For each station, this digital archive includes: multi-year annual, seasonal and monthly averages for day and night separately; seasonal and monthly averages by year; averages for eight times per day; and analyses of the first harmonic for the annual and diurnal cycles. Averages are given for total cloud cover, clear-sky frequency, and 9 cloud types: 5 in the low level (fog, St, Sc, Cu, Cb), 3 in the middle level (Ns, As, Ac) and one in the high level (all cirriform clouds combined). Cloud amounts and frequencies of occurrence are given for all types. In addition, non-overlapped amounts are given for middle and high cloud types, and average base heights are given for low cloud types. Nighttime averages were obtained by using only those reports that met an "illuminance criterion" (i.e., made under adequate moonlight or twilight), thus making possible the determination of diurnal cycles and nighttime trends for cloud types.The authors have also produced an online, gridded atlas of the cloud observations contained in NDP-026D. The Online Cloud Atlas containing NDP-026D data is available via the University of Washington.

  11. Using ISCCP Weather States to Decompose Cloud Radiative Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, L.; Rossow, W. B.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation will examine the shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) cloud radiative effect CRE (aka "cloud radiative forcing") at the top-of-the-atmosphere and surface of ISCCP weather states (aka "cloud regimes") in three distinct geographical zones, one tropical and two mid-latitude. Our goal is to understand and quantify the contribution of the different cloud regimes to the planetary radiation budget. In the tropics we find that the three most convectively active states are the ones with largest SW, LW and net TOA CRE contributions to the overall daytime tropical CRE budget. They account for 59%, 71% and 55% of the total CRE, respectively. The boundary layer-dominated weather states account for only 34% of the total SW CRE and 41% of the total net CRE, so to focus only on them in cloud feedback studies may be imprudent. We also find that in both the northern and southern midlatitude zones only two weather states, the first and third most convectively active with large amounts of nimbostratus-type clouds, contribute ",40% to both the SW and net TOA CRE budgets, highlighting the fact that cloud regimes associated with frontal systems are not only important for weather (precipitation) but also for climate (radiation budget). While all cloud regimes in all geographical zones have a slightly larger SFC than TOA SW CRE, implying cooling of the surface and slight warming of the atmosphere, their LW radiative effects are more subtle: in the tropics the weather states with plentiful high clouds warm the atmosphere while those with copious amounts of low clouds cool the atmosphere. In both midlatitude zones only the weather states with peak cloud fractions at levels above 440 mbar warm the atmosphere while all the rest cool it. These results make the connection of the contrasting CRE effects to the atmospheric dynamics more explicit - "storms" tend to warm the atmosphere whereas fair weather clouds cool it, suggesting a positive feedback of clouds on weather systems. The

  12. Study on the total amount control of atmospheric pollutant based on GIS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Ping; Guo, Xi-Kun

    2005-08-01

    To provide effective environmental management for total amount control of atmospheric pollutants. An atmospheric diffusion model of sulfur dioxide on the surface of the earth was established and tested in Shantou of Guangdong Province on the basis of an overall assessment of regional natural environment, social economic state of development, pollution sources and atmospheric environmental quality. Compared with actual monitoring results in a studied region, simulation values fell within the range of two times of error and were evenly distributed in the two sides of the monitored values. Predicted with the largest emission model method, the largest emission of sulfur dioxide would be 54,279.792 tons per year in 2010. The mathematical model established and revised on the basis of GIS is more rational and suitable for the regional characteristics of total amount control of air pollutants.

  13. Energy Inputs Uncertainty: Total Amount, Distribution and Correlation Between Different Forms of Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Describes solar energy inputs contributing to ionospheric and thermospheric weather processes, including total energy amounts, distributions and the correlation between particle precipitation and Poynting flux.

  14. Cloud-generated radiative heating and its generation of available potential energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuhlmann, R.; Smith, G. L.

    1989-01-01

    The generation of zonal available potential energy (APE) by cloud radiative heating is discussed. The APE concept was mathematically formulated by Lorenz (1955) as a measure of the maximum amount of total potential energy that is available for conversion by adiabatic processes to kinetic energy. The rate of change of APE is the rate of the generation of APE minus the rate of conversion between potential and kinetic energy. By radiative transfer calculations, a mean cloud-generated radiative heating for a well defined set of cloud classes is derived as a function of cloud optical thickness. The formulation is suitable for using a general cloud parameter data set and has the advantage of taking into account nonlinearities between the microphysical and macrophysical cloud properties and the related radiation field.

  15. Cloud water in windward and leeward mountain forests: The stable isotope signature of orographic cloud water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, M.A.; Giambelluca, T.W.; Gingerich, S.B.; Nullet, M.A.; Loope, L.L.

    2007-01-01

    Cloud water can be a significant hydrologic input to mountain forests. Because it is a precipitation source that is vulnerable to climate change, it is important to quantify amounts of cloud water input at watershed and regional scales. During this study, cloud water and rain samples were collected monthly for 2 years at sites on windward and leeward East Maui. The difference in isotopic composition between volume‐weighted average cloud water and rain samples was 1.4‰ δ18O and 12‰ δ2H for the windward site and 2.8‰ δ18O and 25‰ δ2H for the leeward site, with the cloud water samples enriched in 18O and 2H relative to the rain samples. A summary of previous literature shows that fog and/or cloud water is enriched in 18O and 2H compared to rain at many locations around the world; this study documents cloud water and rain isotopic composition resulting from weather patterns common to montane environments in the trade wind latitudes. An end‐member isotopic composition for cloud water was identified for each site and was used in an isotopic mixing model to estimate the proportion of precipitation input from orographic clouds. Orographic cloud water input was 37% of the total precipitation at the windward site and 46% at the leeward site. This represents an estimate of water input to the forest that could be altered by changes in cloud base altitude resulting from global climate change or deforestation.

  16. Climatological Data For Clouds Over the Globe From Surface Observations, 1982-1991: The Total Cloud Edition (1994) (NDP-026a)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hahn, Carole J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES); Warren, Stephen G. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; London, Julius [Department of Astrophysical, Planetary, and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

    1994-01-01

    Routine, synoptic surface weather reports from ships and land stations over the entire globe, for the10-year period December 1981 through November 1991, were processed for total cloud cover and the frequencies of occurrence of clear sky, sky-obscured due to precipitation, and sky-obscured due to fog. Archived data, consisting of various annual, seasonal and monthly averages, are provided in grid boxes that are typically 2.5° × 2.5° for land and 5° × 5° for ocean. Day and nighttime averages are also given separately for each season. Several derived quantities, such as interannual variations and annual and diurnal harmonics, are provided as well. This data set incorporates an improved representation of nighttime cloudiness by utilizing only those nighttime observations for which the illuminance due to moonlight exceeds a specified threshold. This reduction in the night-detection bias increases the computed global average total cloud cover by about 2%. The impact on computed diurnal cycles is even greater, particularly over the oceans where it is found (in contrast to previous surface-based climatologies), that cloudiness is often greater at night than during the day.

  17. Use of High-Resolution Satellite Observations to Evaluate Cloud and Precipitation Statistics from Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Tao, W.; Hou, A. Y.; Zeng, X.; Shie, C.

    2007-12-01

    The cloud and precipitation statistics simulated by 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model for different environmental conditions, i.e., the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX), CRYSTAL-FACE, and KAWJEX are compared with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) TMI and PR rainfall measurements and as well as cloud observations from the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments. It is found that GCE is capable of simulating major convective system development and reproducing total surface rainfall amount as compared with rainfall estimated from the soundings. The model presents large discrepancies in rain spectrum and vertical hydrometer profiles. The discrepancy in the precipitation field is also consistent with the cloud and radiation observations. The study will focus on the effects of large scale forcing and microphysics to the simulated model- observation discrepancies.

  18. Comparasion of Cloud Cover restituted by POLDER and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, S.; Parol, F.; Riedi, J.; Cornet, C.; Thieuxleux, F.

    2009-04-01

    PARASOL and AQUA are two sun-synchronous orbit satellites in the queue of A-Train satellites that observe our earth within a few minutes apart from each other. Aboard these two platforms, POLDER and MODIS provide coincident observations of the cloud cover with very different characteristics. These give us a good opportunity to study the clouds system and evaluate strengths and weaknesses of each dataset in order to provide an accurate representation of global cloud cover properties. This description is indeed of outermost importance to quantify and understand the effect of clouds on global radiation budget of the earth-atmosphere system and their influence on the climate changes. We have developed a joint dataset containing both POLDER and MODIS level 2 cloud products collocated and reprojected on a common sinusoidal grid in order to make the data comparison feasible and veracious. Our foremost work focuses on the comparison of both spatial distribution and temporal variation of the global cloud cover. This simple yet critical cloud parameter need to be clearly understood to allow further comparison of the other cloud parameters. From our study, we demonstrate that on average these two sensors both detect the clouds fairly well. They provide similar spatial distributions and temporal variations:both sensors see high values of cloud amount associated with deep convection in ITCZ, over Indonesia, and in west-central Pacific Ocean warm pool region; they also provide similar high cloud cover associated to mid-latitude storm tracks, to Indian monsoon or to the stratocumulus along the west coast of continents; on the other hand small cloud amounts that typically present over subtropical oceans and deserts in subsidence aeras are well identified by both POLDER and MODIS. Each sensor has its advantages and inconveniences for the detection of a particular cloud types. With higher spatial resolution, MODIS can better detect the fractional clouds thus explaining as one part

  19. Sensitivity of warm-frontal processes to cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igel, Adele L.; Van Den Heever, Susan C.; Naud, Catherine M.; Saleeby, Stephen M.; Posselt, Derek J.

    2013-01-01

    An extratropical cyclone that crossed the United States on 9-11 April 2009 was successfully simulated at high resolution (3-km horizontal grid spacing) using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. The sensitivity of the associated warm front to increasing pollution levels was then explored by conducting the same experiment with three different background profiles of cloud-nucleating aerosol concentration. To the authors' knowledge, no study has examined the indirect effects of aerosols on warm fronts. The budgets of ice, cloud water, and rain in the simulation with the lowest aerosol concentrations were examined. The ice mass was found to be produced in equal amounts through vapor deposition and riming, and the melting of ice produced approximately 75% of the total rain. Conversion of cloud water to rain accounted for the other 25%. When cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations were increased, significant changes were seen in the budget terms, but total precipitation remained relatively constant. Vapor deposition onto ice increased, but riming of cloud water decreased such that there was only a small change in the total ice production and hence there was no significant change in melting. These responses can be understood in terms of a buffering effect in which smaller cloud droplets in the mixed-phase region lead to both an enhanced vapor deposition and decreased riming efficiency with increasing aerosol concentrations. Overall, while large changes were seen in the microphysical structure of the frontal cloud, cloud-nucleating aerosols had little impact on the precipitation production of the warm front.

  20. The seasonal cycle of low stratiform clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Stephen A.; Hartmann, Dennis L.

    1993-01-01

    The seasonal cycle of low stratiform clouds is studied using data from surface-based cloud climatologies. The impact of low clouds on the radiation budget is illustrated by comparison of data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment with the cloud climatologies. Ten regions of active stratocumulus convection are identified. These regions fall into four categories: subtropical marine, midlatitude marine, Arctic stratus, and Chinese stratus. With the exception of the Chinese region, all the regions with high amounts of stratus clouds are over the oceans. In all regions except the Arctic, the season of maximum stratus corresponds to the season of greatest lower-troposphere static stability. Interannual variations in stratus cloud amount also are related to changes in static stability. A linear analysis indicates that a 6 percent increase in stratus fractional area coverage is associated with each 1 C increase in static stability. Over midlatitude oceans, sky-obscuring fog is a large component of the summertime stratus amount. The amount of fog appears to be related to warm advection across sharp gradients of SST.

  1. The Seasonal Cycle of Low Stratiform Clouds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Stephen A.; Hartmann, Dennis L.

    1993-08-01

    The seasonal cycle of low stratiform clouds is studied using data from surface-based cloud climatologies. The impact of low clouds on the radiation budget is illustrated by comparison of data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment with the cloud climatologies. Ten regions of active stratocumulus convection are identified. These regions fall into four categories: subtropical marine, midlatitude marine, Arctic stratus, and Chinese stratus. With the exception of the Chinese region, all the regions with high amounts of stratus clouds are over the oceans.In all regions except the Arctic, the season of maximum stratus corresponds to the season of greatest lower-troposphere static stability. Interannual variations in stratus cloud amount also are related to changes in static stability. A linear analysis indicates that a 6% increase in stratus fractional area coverage is associated with each 1°C increase in static stability. Over midlatitude oceans, sky-obscuring fog is a large component of the summertime stratus amount. The amount of fog appears to be related to warm advection across sharp gradients of SST.

  2. Study on Cloud Water Resources and Precipitation Efficiency Characteristic over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y., Sr.; Cai, M., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    The original concept and quantitative assessment method of cloud water resource and its related physical parameters are proposed based on the atmospheric water circulation and precipitation enhancement. A diagnosis method of the three-dimensional (3-D) cloud and cloud water field are proposed , based on cloud observation and atmospheric reanalysis data. Furthermore, using analysis data and precipitation products, Chinese cloud water resources in 2008-2010 are assessed preliminarily. The results show that: 1. Atmospheric water cycle and water balance plays an important part of the climate system. Water substance includes water vapor and hydrometeors, and the water cycle is the process of phase transition of water substances. Water vapor changes its phase into solid or liquid hydrometeors by lifting and condensation, and after that, the hydrometeors grow lager through cloud physical processes and then precipitate to ground, which is the mainly resource of available fresh water .Therefore, it's far from enough to only focus on the amount of water vapor, more attention should be transfered to the hydrometeors (cloud water resources) which is formed by the process of phase transition including lifting and condensation. The core task of rainfall enhancement is to develop the cloud water resources and raise the precipitation efficiency by proper technological measures. 2. Comparing with the water vapor, the hydrometeor content is much smaller. Besides, the horizontal delivery amount also shows two orders of magnitude lower than water vapor. But the update cycle is faster and the precipitation efficiency is higher. The amount of cloud water resources in the atmosphere is determined by the instantaneous quantity, the advection transport, condensation and precipitation from the water balance.The cloud water resources vary a lot in different regions. In southeast China, hydrometeor has the fastest renewal cycle and the highest precipitation efficiency. The total amount of

  3. Microphysical effects determine macrophysical response for aerosol impacts on deep convective clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, L. Ruby; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chen, Qian; Li, Zhanqing; Zhang, Jinqiang; Yan, Hongru

    2013-11-01

    Deep convective clouds (DCCs) play a crucial role in the general circulation, energy, and hydrological cycle of our climate system. Aerosol particles can influence DCCs by altering cloud properties, precipitation regimes, and radiation balance. Previous studies reported both invigoration and suppression of DCCs by aerosols, but few were concerned with the whole life cycle of DCC. By conducting multiple monthlong cloud-resolving simulations with spectral-bin cloud microphysics that capture the observed macrophysical and microphysical properties of summer convective clouds and precipitation in the tropics and midlatitudes, this study provides a comprehensive view of how aerosols affect cloud cover, cloud top height, and radiative forcing. We found that although the widely accepted theory of DCC invigoration due to aerosol's thermodynamic effect (additional latent heat release from freezing of greater amount of cloud water) may work during the growing stage, it is microphysical effect influenced by aerosols that drives the dramatic increase in cloud cover, cloud top height, and cloud thickness at the mature and dissipation stages by inducing larger amounts of smaller but longer-lasting ice particles in the stratiform/anvils of DCCs, even when thermodynamic invigoration of convection is absent. The thermodynamic invigoration effect contributes up to ∼27% of total increase in cloud cover. The overall aerosol indirect effect is an atmospheric radiative warming (3-5 Wṡm-2) and a surface cooling (-5 to -8 Wṡm-2). The modeling findings are confirmed by the analyses of ample measurements made at three sites of distinctly different environments.

  4. Microphysical effects determine macrophysical response for aerosol impacts on deep convective clouds

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, L. Ruby; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chen, Qian; Li, Zhanqing; Zhang, Jinqiang; Yan, Hongru

    2013-01-01

    Deep convective clouds (DCCs) play a crucial role in the general circulation, energy, and hydrological cycle of our climate system. Aerosol particles can influence DCCs by altering cloud properties, precipitation regimes, and radiation balance. Previous studies reported both invigoration and suppression of DCCs by aerosols, but few were concerned with the whole life cycle of DCC. By conducting multiple monthlong cloud-resolving simulations with spectral-bin cloud microphysics that capture the observed macrophysical and microphysical properties of summer convective clouds and precipitation in the tropics and midlatitudes, this study provides a comprehensive view of how aerosols affect cloud cover, cloud top height, and radiative forcing. We found that although the widely accepted theory of DCC invigoration due to aerosol’s thermodynamic effect (additional latent heat release from freezing of greater amount of cloud water) may work during the growing stage, it is microphysical effect influenced by aerosols that drives the dramatic increase in cloud cover, cloud top height, and cloud thickness at the mature and dissipation stages by inducing larger amounts of smaller but longer-lasting ice particles in the stratiform/anvils of DCCs, even when thermodynamic invigoration of convection is absent. The thermodynamic invigoration effect contributes up to ∼27% of total increase in cloud cover. The overall aerosol indirect effect is an atmospheric radiative warming (3–5 W⋅m−2) and a surface cooling (−5 to −8 W⋅m−2). The modeling findings are confirmed by the analyses of ample measurements made at three sites of distinctly different environments. PMID:24218569

  5. Microphysical effects determine macrophysical response for aerosol impacts on deep convective clouds.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, L Ruby; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chen, Qian; Li, Zhanqing; Zhang, Jinqiang; Yan, Hongru

    2013-11-26

    Deep convective clouds (DCCs) play a crucial role in the general circulation, energy, and hydrological cycle of our climate system. Aerosol particles can influence DCCs by altering cloud properties, precipitation regimes, and radiation balance. Previous studies reported both invigoration and suppression of DCCs by aerosols, but few were concerned with the whole life cycle of DCC. By conducting multiple monthlong cloud-resolving simulations with spectral-bin cloud microphysics that capture the observed macrophysical and microphysical properties of summer convective clouds and precipitation in the tropics and midlatitudes, this study provides a comprehensive view of how aerosols affect cloud cover, cloud top height, and radiative forcing. We found that although the widely accepted theory of DCC invigoration due to aerosol's thermodynamic effect (additional latent heat release from freezing of greater amount of cloud water) may work during the growing stage, it is microphysical effect influenced by aerosols that drives the dramatic increase in cloud cover, cloud top height, and cloud thickness at the mature and dissipation stages by inducing larger amounts of smaller but longer-lasting ice particles in the stratiform/anvils of DCCs, even when thermodynamic invigoration of convection is absent. The thermodynamic invigoration effect contributes up to ~27% of total increase in cloud cover. The overall aerosol indirect effect is an atmospheric radiative warming (3-5 W m(-2)) and a surface cooling (-5 to -8 W m(-2)). The modeling findings are confirmed by the analyses of ample measurements made at three sites of distinctly different environments.

  6. Comparison of Cloud Properties from CALIPSO-CloudSat and Geostationary Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Chang, F.; Winker, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Spangenberg, D.; Austin, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cloud properties are being derived in near-real time from geostationary satellite imager data for a variety of weather and climate applications and research. Assessment of the uncertainties in each of the derived cloud parameters is essential for confident use of the products. Determination of cloud amount, cloud top height, and cloud layering is especially important for using these real -time products for applications such as aircraft icing condition diagnosis and numerical weather prediction model assimilation. Furthermore, the distribution of clouds as a function of altitude has become a central component of efforts to evaluate climate model cloud simulations. Validation of those parameters has been difficult except over limited areas where ground-based active sensors, such as cloud radars or lidars, have been available on a regular basis. Retrievals of cloud properties are sensitive to the surface background, time of day, and the clouds themselves. Thus, it is essential to assess the geostationary satellite retrievals over a variety of locations. The availability of cloud radar data from CloudSat and lidar data from CALIPSO make it possible to perform those assessments over each geostationary domain at 0130 and 1330 LT. In this paper, CloudSat and CALIPSO data are matched with contemporaneous Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT), and Meteosat-8 data. Unlike comparisons with cloud products derived from A-Train imagers, this study considers comparisons of nadir active sensor data with off-nadir retrievals. These matched data are used to determine the uncertainties in cloud-top heights and cloud amounts derived from the geostationary satellite data using the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) cloud retrieval algorithms. The CERES multi-layer cloud detection method is also evaluated to determine its accuracy and limitations in the off-nadir mode. The results will be useful for

  7. Biomedical cloud computing with Amazon Web Services.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Vincent A; Patil, Prasad; Gafni, Erik; Wall, Dennis P; Tonellato, Peter J

    2011-08-01

    In this overview to biomedical computing in the cloud, we discussed two primary ways to use the cloud (a single instance or cluster), provided a detailed example using NGS mapping, and highlighted the associated costs. While many users new to the cloud may assume that entry is as straightforward as uploading an application and selecting an instance type and storage options, we illustrated that there is substantial up-front effort required before an application can make full use of the cloud's vast resources. Our intention was to provide a set of best practices and to illustrate how those apply to a typical application pipeline for biomedical informatics, but also general enough for extrapolation to other types of computational problems. Our mapping example was intended to illustrate how to develop a scalable project and not to compare and contrast alignment algorithms for read mapping and genome assembly. Indeed, with a newer aligner such as Bowtie, it is possible to map the entire African genome using one m2.2xlarge instance in 48 hours for a total cost of approximately $48 in computation time. In our example, we were not concerned with data transfer rates, which are heavily influenced by the amount of available bandwidth, connection latency, and network availability. When transferring large amounts of data to the cloud, bandwidth limitations can be a major bottleneck, and in some cases it is more efficient to simply mail a storage device containing the data to AWS (http://aws.amazon.com/importexport/). More information about cloud computing, detailed cost analysis, and security can be found in references.

  8. Ice Particle Impact on Cloud Water Content Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, Edward F.; Miller, Dean R.; Plaskon, Stephen R.; Strapp, Walter; Lillie, Lyle

    2004-01-01

    Determining the total amount of water contained in an icing cloud necessitates the measurement of both the liquid droplets and ice particles. One commonly accepted method for measuring cloud water content utilizes a hot wire sensing element, which is maintained at a constant temperature. In this approach, the cloud water content is equated with the power required to keep the sense element at a constant temperature. This method inherently assumes that impinging cloud particles remain on the sensing element surface long enough to be evaporated. In the case of ice particles, this assumption requires that the particles do not bounce off the surface after impact. Recent tests aimed at characterizing ice particle impact on a thermally heated wing section, have raised questions about the validity of this assumption. Ice particles were observed to bounce off the heated wing section a very high percentage of the time. This result could have implications for Total Water Content sensors which are designed to capture ice particles, and thus do not account for bouncing or breakup of ice particles. Based on these results, a test was conducted to investigate ice particle impact on the sensing elements of the following hot-wire cloud water content probes: (1) Nevzorov Total Water Content (TWC)/Liquid Water Content (LWC) probe, (2) Science Engineering Associates TWC probe, and (3) Particle Measuring Systems King probe. Close-up video imaging was used to study ice particle impact on the sensing element of each probe. The measured water content from each probe was also determined for each cloud condition. This paper will present results from this investigation and attempt to evaluate the significance of ice particle impact on hot-wire cloud water content measurements.

  9. Satellite and Surface Data Synergy for Developing a 3D Cloud Structure and Properties Characterization Over the ARM SGP. Stage 1: Cloud Amounts, Optical Depths, and Cloud Heights Reconciliation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genkova, I.; Long, C. N.; Heck, P. W.; Minnis, P.

    2003-01-01

    One of the primary Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program objectives is to obtain measurements applicable to the development of models for better understanding of radiative processes in the atmosphere. We address this goal by building a three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the cloud structure and properties over the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP). We take the approach of juxtaposing the cloud properties as retrieved from independent satellite and ground-based retrievals, and looking at the statistics of the cloud field properties. Once these retrievals are well understood, they will be used to populate the 3D characterization database. As a first step we determine the relationship between surface fractional sky cover and satellite viewing angle dependent cloud fraction (CF). We elaborate on the agreement intercomparing optical depth (OD) datasets from satellite and ground using available retrieval algorithms with relation to the CF, cloud height, multi-layer cloud presence, and solar zenith angle (SZA). For the SGP Central Facility, where output from the active remote sensing cloud layer (ARSCL) valueadded product (VAP) is available, we study the uncertainty of satellite estimated cloud heights and evaluate the impact of this uncertainty for radiative studies.

  10. Biogeography, Cloud Base Heights and Cloud Immersion in Tropical Montane Cloud Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, R. M.; Asefi, S.; Zeng, J.; Nair, U. S.; Lawton, R. O.; Ray, D. K.; Han, Q.; Manoharan, V. S.

    2007-05-01

    Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs) are ecosystems characterized by frequent and prolonged immersion within orographic clouds. TMCFs often lie at the core of the biological hotspots, areas of high biodiversity, whose conservation is necessary to ensure the preservation of a significant amount of the plant and animal species in the world. TMCFs support islands of endemism dependent on cloud water interception that are extremely susceptible to environmental and climatic changes at regional or global scales. Due to the ecological and hydrological importance of TMCFs it is important to understand the biogeographical distribution of these ecosystems. The best current list of TMCFs is a global atlas compiled by the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP). However, this list is incomplete, and it does not provide information on cloud immersion, which is the defining characteristic of TMCFs and sorely needed for ecological and hydrological studies. The present study utilizes MODIS satellite data both to determine orographic cloud base heights and then to quantify cloud immersion statistics over TMCFs. Results are validated from surface measurements over Northern Costa Rica for the month of March 2003. Cloud base heights are retrieved with approximately 80m accuracy, as determined at Monteverde, Costa Rica. Cloud immersion derived from MODIS data is also compared to an independent cloud immersion dataset created using a combination of GOES satellite data and RAMS model simulations. Comparison against known locations of cloud forests in Northern Costa Rica shows that the MODIS-derived cloud immersion maps successfully identify these cloud forest locations, including those not included in the UNEP data set. Results also will be shown for cloud immersion in Hawaii. The procedure appears to be ready for global mapping.

  11. Modeling number of claims and prediction of total claim amount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Aslıhan Şentürk; Karabey, Uǧur

    2017-07-01

    In this study we focus on annual number of claims of a private health insurance data set which belongs to a local insurance company in Turkey. In addition to Poisson model and negative binomial model, zero-inflated Poisson model and zero-inflated negative binomial model are used to model the number of claims in order to take into account excess zeros. To investigate the impact of different distributional assumptions for the number of claims on the prediction of total claim amount, predictive performances of candidate models are compared by using root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) criteria.

  12. Diurnal variability of regional cloud and clear-sky radiative parameters derived from GOES data. I - Analysis method. II - November 1978 cloud distributions. III - November 1978 radiative parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, P.; Harrison, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    Cloud cover is one of the most important variables affecting the earth radiation budget (ERB) and, ultimately, the global climate. The present investigation is concerned with several aspects of the effects of extended cloudiness, taking into account hourly visible and infrared data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satelite (GOES). A methodology called the hybrid bispectral threshold method is developed to extract regional cloud amounts at three levels in the atmosphere, effective cloud-top temperatures, clear-sky temperature and cloud and clear-sky visible reflectance characteristics from GOES data. The diurnal variations are examined in low, middle, high, and total cloudiness determined with this methodology for November 1978. The bulk, broadband radiative properties of the resultant cloud and clear-sky data are estimated to determine the possible effect of the diurnal variability of regional cloudiness on the interpretation of ERB measurements.

  13. When cloud computing meets bioinformatics: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuigeng; Liao, Ruiqi; Guan, Jihong

    2013-10-01

    In the past decades, with the rapid development of high-throughput technologies, biology research has generated an unprecedented amount of data. In order to store and process such a great amount of data, cloud computing and MapReduce were applied to many fields of bioinformatics. In this paper, we first introduce the basic concepts of cloud computing and MapReduce, and their applications in bioinformatics. We then highlight some problems challenging the applications of cloud computing and MapReduce to bioinformatics. Finally, we give a brief guideline for using cloud computing in biology research.

  14. LiDAR Point Cloud and Stereo Image Point Cloud Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    LiDAR point cloud (right) highlighting linear edge features ideal for automatic registration...point cloud (right) highlighting linear edge features ideal for automatic registration. Areas where topography is being derived, unfortunately, do...with the least amount of automatic correlation errors was used. The following graphic (Figure 12) shows the coverage of the WV1 stereo triplet as

  15. GEWEX cloud assessment: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubenrauch, Claudia; Rossow, William B.; Kinne, Stefan; Ackerman, Steve; Cesana, Gregory; Chepfer, Hélène; Di Girolamo, Larry; Getzewich, Brian; Guignard, Anthony; Heidinger, Andy; Maddux, Brent; Menzel, Paul; Minnis, Patrick; Pearl, Cindy; Platnick, Steven; Poulsen, Caroline; Riedi, Jérôme; Sayer, Andrew; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Walther, Andi; Winker, Dave; Zeng, Shen; Zhao, Guangyu

    2013-05-01

    Clouds cover about 70% of the Earth's surface and play a dominant role in the energy and water cycle of our planet. Only satellite observations provide a continuous survey of the state of the atmosphere over the entire globe and across the wide range of spatial and temporal scales that comprise weather and climate variability. Satellite cloud data records now exceed more than 25 years; however, climatologies compiled from different satellite datasets can exhibit systematic biases. Questions therefore arise as to the accuracy and limitations of the various sensors. The Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud Assessment, initiated in 2005 by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, provides the first coordinated intercomparison of publicly available, global cloud products (gridded, monthly statistics) retrieved from measurements of multi-spectral imagers (some with multi-angle view and polarization capabilities), IR sounders and lidar. Cloud properties under study include cloud amount, cloud height (in terms of pressure, temperature or altitude), cloud radiative properties (optical depth or emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase and bulk microphysical properties (effective particle size and water path). Differences in average cloud properties, especially in the amount of high-level clouds, are mostly explained by the inherent instrument measurement capability for detecting and/or identifying optically thin cirrus, especially when overlying low-level clouds. The study of long-term variations with these datasets requires consideration of many factors. The monthly, gridded database presented here facilitates further assessments, climate studies, and the evaluation of climate models.

  16. Using High-Resolution Satellite Observations for Evaluation of Cloud and Precipitation Statistics from Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations. Part I: South China Sea Monsoon Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Hou, A.; Lau, W. K.; Shie, C.; Tao, W.; Lin, X.; Chou, M.; Olson, W. S.; Grecu, M.

    2006-05-01

    The cloud and precipitation statistics simulated by 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model during the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) is compared with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) TMI and PR rainfall measurements and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) single scanner footprint (SSF) radiation and cloud retrievals. It is found that GCE is capable of simulating major convective system development and reproducing total surface rainfall amount as compared with rainfall estimated from the soundings. Mesoscale organization is adequately simulated except when environmental wind shear is very weak. The partitions between convective and stratiform rain are also close to TMI and PR classification. However, the model simulated rain spectrum is quite different from either TMI or PR measurements. The model produces more heavy rains and light rains (less than 0.1 mm/hr) than the observations. The model also produces heavier vertical hydrometer profiles of rain, graupel when compared with TMI retrievals and PR radar reflectivity. Comparing GCE simulated OLR and cloud properties with CERES measurements found that the model has much larger domain averaged OLR due to smaller total cloud fraction and a much skewed distribution of OLR and cloud top than CERES observations, indicating that the model's cloud field is not wide spread, consistent with the model's precipitation activity. These results will be used as guidance for improving the model's microphysics.

  17. Two Methods for Retrieving UV Index for All Cloud Conditions from Sky Imager Products or Total SW Radiation Measurements

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Badosa, Jordi; Calbo, J.; McKenzie, R. L.

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, we assess the cloud effects on UV Index (UVI) and total solar radiation (TR) as a function of cloud cover estimations and sunny conditions (from sky imaging products) as well as of solar zenith angle (SZA). These analyses are undertaken for a southern-hemisphere mid-latitude site where a 10-years dataset is available. It is confirmed that clouds reduce TR more than UV, in particular for obscured Sun conditions, low cloud fraction (< 60%) and large SZA (> 60º). Similarly, clouds enhance TR more than UV, mainly for visible Sun conditions, large cloud fraction and large SZA. Twomore » methods to estimate UVI are developed: 1) from sky imaging cloud cover and sunny conditions, and 2) from TR measurements. Both methods may be used in practical operational applications, although Method 2 shows overall the best performance, since TR allows accounting for cloud optical properties. The mean absolute differences of Method 2 estimations with respect to measured values are 0.17 UVI units (for 1-minute data) and 0.79 Standard Erythemal Dose (SED) units (for daily integrations). Method 1 shows less accurate results but it is still suitable to estimate UVI: mean absolute differences are 0.37 UVI units and 1.6 SED.« less

  18. Cloud Motion in the GOCI COMS Ocean Colour Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Wayne D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Mannino, Antonio; Ahn, Jae-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The Geostationary Ocean Colour Imager (GOCI) instrument, on Koreas Communications, Oceans, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), can produce a spectral artefact arising from the motion of clouds the cloud is spatially shifted and the amount of shift varies by spectral band. The length of time it takes to acquire all eight GOCI bands for a given slot (portion of a scene) is sucient to require that cloud motion be taken into account to fully mask or correct the eects of clouds in all bands. Inter-band correlations can be used to measure the amount of cloud shift, which can then be used to adjust the cloud mask so that the union of all shifted masks can act as a mask for all bands. This approach reduces the amount of masking required versus a simple expansion of the mask in all directions away from clouds. Cloud motion can also aect regions with unidentied clouds thin or fractional clouds that evade the cloud identication process yielding degraded quality in retrieved ocean colour parameters. Areas with moving and unidentied clouds require more elaborate masking algo-rithms to remove these degraded retrievals. Correction for the eects of moving fractional clouds may also be possible. The cloud shift information can be used to determine cloud motion and thus wind at the cloud levels on sub-minute timescales. The benecial and negative eects of moving clouds should be con-sidered for any ocean colour instrument design and associated data processing plans.

  19. Inhomogeneous models of the Venus clouds containing sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Pollack, J. B.; Giver, L. P.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Podolak, M.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the suggestion that elemental sulfur is responsible for the yellow color of Venus, calculations are compared at 3.4 microns of the reflectivity phase function of two sulfur containing inhomogeneous cloud models with that of a homogeneous model. Assuming reflectivity observations with 25% or less total error, comparison of the model calculations leads to a minimum detectable mass of sulfur equal to 7% of the mass of sulfuric acid for the inhomogeneous drop model. For the inhomogeneous cloud model the comparison leads to a minimum detectable mass of sulfur between 17% and 38% of the mass of the acid drops, depending upon the actual size of the large particles. It is concluded that moderately accurate 3.4 microns reflectivity observations are capable of detecting quite small amounts of elemental sulfur at the top of the Venus clouds.

  20. Evaluating the cloud radiative forcing over East Asia during summer simulated by CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.; Wang, Y.; Liu, X.

    2017-12-01

    A large degree of uncertainty in global climate models (GCMs) can be attributed to the representation of clouds and its radiative forcing (CRF). In this study, the simulated CRFs, total cloud fraction (CF) and cloud properties over East Asia from 20 CMIP5 AMIP models are evaluated and compared with multiple satellite observations, and the possible causes for the CRF bias in the CMIP5 models are then investigated. Based on the satellite observation, strong Long wave CRF (LWCRF) and Short wave CRF (SWCRF) are found to be located over Southwestern China, with minimum SWCRF less than -130Wm-2 and this is associated with the large amount of cloud in the region. By contrast, weak CRFs are located over Northwest China and Western Pacific region because of less cloud amount. In Northeastern China, the strong SWCRF and week LWCRF can be found due to the dominant low-level cloud. In Eastern China, the CRFs is moderate due to the co-existence of the multi-layer cloud. CMIP5 models can basically capture the structure of CRFs in East Asia, with the spatial correlation coefficient between 0.5 and 0.9. But most models underestimate CRFs in East Asia, which is highly associated with the underestimation of cloud amount in the region. The performance of CMIP5 models varies in different part of East Asian region, with a larger deviation in Eastern China (EC). Further investigation suggests that, underestimation of the cloud amount in EC can lead to the weak bias of CRFs in EC, however, this CRF bias can be cancelled out by the overestimation effect of CRF due to excessive cloud optical depth (COD) simulated by the models. The annual cycle of simulated CRF over Eastern China is also examined, and it is found, CMIP models are unable to reproduce the northward migration of CRF in summer monsoon season, which is closely related with northward shift of East Asian summer monsoon rain belt.

  1. NIMS Observes the Structure and Composition of Jupiter Clouds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-26

    With the NIMS instrument high quality observations are being obtained from all parts of Jupiter. The images in the upper panel are taken at a wavelength of 4.8 microns. At this wavelength thermal radiation from about 100 km deep below the visible cloud deck is escaping, allowing us to study the deep atmospheric region. The overlying cloud deck absorbs a part of the radiation, but there are places where it is thin and more radiation can escape. These are called hot spot regions. Many hotspots regions occur in a zone between the equator and 15 degrees north latitude, the North Equatorial Belt (NEB), but thermal radiation is seen from much of the planet. The uniqueness of NIMS is that it is capable of observing the same spatial region at a maximum of 408 different wavelengths between 0.7 and 5.2 micron simultaneously. Every picture element (pixel) contains a spectrum of up to 408 wavelengths. The gases that compose the atmosphere leave there traces in the spectra. In this particular case, 48 wavelengths were available between 4.6 and 5.2 micron, and we see spectral signatures of water, ammonia, and phosphine. Also, the total amount of radiation is determined by the amount of overlying cloud, characterized by the cloud opacity. By means of model calculations, we can determine the amount of water and the cloud opacity for each individual spectrum. The amount ammonia and phosphine is more difficult to obtain because its influence on the spectra is weaker. The results of these calculations are shown in the form of maps in the next two panels. With NIMS, we can now have a detailed look at the spatial distribution of the water and ammonia amounts and the cloud opacity in the atmosphere. Not all the pixels from the observations have good spectra, so for some data points no reliable determination of the water and cloud opacity could be made. We find that the atmosphere is extremely dry in, and close to, the hot spot, with relative humidities between 0.02 % and 10 %, with the

  2. Sensitivity studies of different aerosol indirect effects in mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, U.; Hoose, C.

    2009-11-01

    Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics. Using the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM, we investigate different aerosol effects on mixed-phase clouds: The glaciation effect, which refers to a more frequent glaciation due to anthropogenic aerosols, versus the de-activation effect, which suggests that ice nuclei become less effective because of an anthropogenic sulfate coating. The glaciation effect can partly offset the indirect aerosol effect on warm clouds and thus causes the total anthropogenic aerosol effect to be smaller. It is investigated by varying the parameterization for the Bergeron-Findeisen process and the threshold coating thickness of sulfate (SO4-crit), which is required to convert an externally mixed aerosol particle into an internally mixed particle. Differences in the net radiation at the top-of-the-atmosphere due to anthropogenic aerosols between the different sensitivity studies amount up to 0.5 W m-2. This suggests that the investigated mixed-phase processes have a major effect on the total anthropogenic aerosol effect.

  3. Sensitivity studies of different aerosol indirect effects in mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, U.; Hoose, C.

    2009-07-01

    Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics. Using the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM, we investigate different aerosol effects on mixed-phase clouds: The glaciation effect, which refers to a more frequent glaciation due to anthropogenic aerosols, versus the de-activation effect, which suggests that ice nuclei become less effective because of an anthropogenic sulfate coating. The glaciation effect can partly offset the indirect aerosol effect on warm clouds and thus causes the total anthropogenic aerosol effect to be smaller. It is investigated by varying the parameterization for the Bergeron-Findeisen process and the threshold coating thickness of sulfate (SO4-crit), which is required to convert an externally mixed aerosol particle into an internally mixed particle. Differences in the net radiation at the top-of-the-atmosphere due to anthropogenic aerosols between the different sensitivity studies amount up to 0.5 W m-2. This suggests that the investigated mixed-phase processes have a major effect on the total anthropogenic aerosol effect.

  4. Marine Cloud Brightening

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involvesmore » (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.« less

  5. Marine cloud brightening.

    PubMed

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-09-13

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  6. Observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties regulated by cloud/aerosol types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, J. H.; Li, Q.; Liu, X.; Huang, L.; Wang, Y.; Su, H.

    2016-12-01

    The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds (consisting only of ice) represent one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing from pre-industrial time to the present. The observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties has been quite limited and showed conflicting results, partly because previous observational studies did not consider the distinct features of different ice cloud and aerosol types. Using 9-year satellite observations, we find that, for ice clouds generated from deep convection, cloud thickness, cloud optical thickness (COT), and ice cloud fraction increase and decrease with small-to-moderate and high aerosol loadings, respectively. For in-situ formed ice clouds, however, the preceding cloud properties increase monotonically and more sharply with aerosol loadings. The case is more complicated for ice crystal effective radius (Rei). For both convection-generated and in-situ ice clouds, the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount in conjunction with several other meteorological parameters, but the sensitivities of Rei to aerosols under the same water vapor amount differ remarkably between the two ice cloud types. As a result, overall Rei slightly increases with aerosol loading for convection-generated ice clouds, but decreases for in-situ ice clouds. When aerosols are decomposed into different types, an increase in the loading of smoke aerosols generally leads to a decrease in COT of convection-generated ice clouds, while the reverse is true for dust and anthropogenic pollution. In contrast, an increase in the loading of any aerosol type can significantly enhance COT of in-situ ice clouds. The modulation of the aerosol impacts by cloud/aerosol types is demonstrated and reproduced by simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Adequate and accurate representations of the impact of different cloud/aerosol types in climate models are crucial for reducing the

  7. Observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties regulated by cloud/aerosol types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, J. H.; Li, Q.; Liu, X.; Huang, L.; Wang, Y.; Su, H.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds (consisting only of ice) represent one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing from pre-industrial time to the present. The observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties has been quite limited and showed conflicting results, partly because previous observational studies did not consider the distinct features of different ice cloud and aerosol types. Using 9-year satellite observations, we find that, for ice clouds generated from deep convection, cloud thickness, cloud optical thickness (COT), and ice cloud fraction increase and decrease with small-to-moderate and high aerosol loadings, respectively. For in-situ formed ice clouds, however, the preceding cloud properties increase monotonically and more sharply with aerosol loadings. The case is more complicated for ice crystal effective radius (Rei). For both convection-generated and in-situ ice clouds, the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount in conjunction with several other meteorological parameters, but the sensitivities of Rei to aerosols under the same water vapor amount differ remarkably between the two ice cloud types. As a result, overall Rei slightly increases with aerosol loading for convection-generated ice clouds, but decreases for in-situ ice clouds. When aerosols are decomposed into different types, an increase in the loading of smoke aerosols generally leads to a decrease in COT of convection-generated ice clouds, while the reverse is true for dust and anthropogenic pollution. In contrast, an increase in the loading of any aerosol type can significantly enhance COT of in-situ ice clouds. The modulation of the aerosol impacts by cloud/aerosol types is demonstrated and reproduced by simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Adequate and accurate representations of the impact of different cloud/aerosol types in climate models are crucial for reducing the

  8. Statistical thermodynamics and the size distributions of tropical convective clouds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, T. J.; Glenn, I. B.; Krueger, S. K.; Ferlay, N.

    2017-12-01

    Parameterizations for sub-grid cloud dynamics are commonly developed by using fine scale modeling or measurements to explicitly resolve the mechanistic details of clouds to the best extent possible, and then to formulating these behaviors cloud state for use within a coarser grid. A second is to invoke physical intuition and some very general theoretical principles from equilibrium statistical thermodynamics. This second approach is quite widely used elsewhere in the atmospheric sciences: for example to explain the heat capacity of air, blackbody radiation, or even the density profile or air in the atmosphere. Here we describe how entrainment and detrainment across cloud perimeters is limited by the amount of available air and the range of moist static energy in the atmosphere, and that constrains cloud perimeter distributions to a power law with a -1 exponent along isentropes and to a Boltzmann distribution across isentropes. Further, the total cloud perimeter density in a cloud field is directly tied to the buoyancy frequency of the column. These simple results are shown to be reproduced within a complex dynamic simulation of a tropical convective cloud field and in passive satellite observations of cloud 3D structures. The implication is that equilibrium tropical cloud structures can be inferred from the bulk thermodynamic structure of the atmosphere without having to analyze computationally expensive dynamic simulations.

  9. The dust cloud of the century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.

    1983-02-01

    The structure and composition of the dust cloud from the 4 April 1982 eruption of the El Chichon volcano in Chiapas state, Mexico, is examined and the possible effects of the dust cloud on the world's weather patterns are discussed. Observations of the cloud using a variety of methods are evaluated, including data from the GOES and NOAA-7 weather satellites, vertically pointing lidar measurements, the SME satellite, and the Nimbus-7 satellite. Studies of the gaseous and particulate composition of the cloud reveal the presence of large amounts of sulfuric acid particles, which have a long mean residence time in the atmosphere and have a large effect on the amount of solar radiation received at the earth's surface by scattering several percent of the radiation back to space. Estimates of the effect of this cloud on surface air temperature changes are presented based on findings from climate models.

  10. Environmental Controls on Stratocumulus Cloud Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burleyson, Casey Dale

    Marine stratocumulus clouds are widespread, low, optically thick, and persist for long periods of time. Their high albedo allows stratocumulus clouds to reflect large amounts of incoming shortwave radiation. Understanding the processes that lead to changes in stratocumulus cloud fraction is critically important in capturing the effects of stratocumulus in global climate models (GCMs). This research presents two analyses which seek to better understand the governing processes that drive variability in the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer system. The diurnal cycle of marine stratocumulus in cloud-topped boundary layers is examined using ship-based meteorological data obtained during the 2008 VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). The high temporal and spatial continuity of the ship data, as well as the 31-day sample size, allows us to resolve the diurnal transition in degree of coupling of the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer. The amplitude of diurnal variation was comparable to the magnitude of longitudinal differences between regions east and west of 80°W for most of the cloud, surface, and precipitation variables examined. The diurnal cycle of precipitation is examined in terms of areal coverage, number of drizzle cells, and estimated rain rate. East of 80°W, the drizzle cell frequency and drizzle area peaks just prior to sunrise. West of 80°W, total drizzle area peaks at 3:00 am, 2-3 hours before sunrise. Peak drizzle cell frequency is three times higher west of 80°W compared to east of 80°W. The waning of drizzle several hours prior to the ramp up of shortwave fluxes may be related to the higher peak drizzle frequencies in the west. The ensemble effect of localized subcloud evaporation of precipitation may make drizzle a self-limiting process where the areal density of drizzle cells is sufficiently high. The daytime reduction in vertical velocity variance in a less coupled boundary layer is accompanied by enhanced

  11. Cloud Radiative Effect in dependence on Cloud Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aebi, Christine; Gröbner, Julian; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Vuilleumier, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Radiative transfer of energy in the atmosphere and the influence of clouds on the radiation budget remain the greatest sources of uncertainty in the simulation of climate change. Small changes in cloudiness and radiation can have large impacts on the Earth's climate. In order to assess the opposing effects of clouds on the radiation budget and the corresponding changes, frequent and more precise radiation and cloud observations are necessary. The role of clouds on the surface radiation budget is studied in order to quantify the longwave, shortwave and the total cloud radiative forcing in dependence on the atmospheric composition and cloud type. The study is performed for three different sites in Switzerland at three different altitude levels: Payerne (490 m asl), Davos (1'560 m asl) and Jungfraujoch (3'580 m asl). On the basis of data of visible all-sky camera systems at the three aforementioned stations in Switzerland, up to six different cloud types are distinguished (Cirrus-Cirrostratus, Cirrocumulus-Altocumulus, Stratus-Altostratus, Cumulus, Stratocumulus and Cumulonimbus-Nimbostratus). These cloud types are classified with a modified algorithm of Heinle et al. (2010). This cloud type classifying algorithm is based on a set of statistical features describing the color (spectral features) and the texture of an image (textural features) (Wacker et al. (2015)). The calculation of the fractional cloud cover information is based on spectral information of the all-sky camera data. The radiation data are taken from measurements with pyranometers and pyrgeometers at the different stations. A climatology of a whole year of the shortwave, longwave and total cloud radiative effect and its sensitivity to integrated water vapor, cloud cover and cloud type will be calculated for the three above-mentioned stations in Switzerland. For the calculation of the shortwave and longwave cloud radiative effect the corresponding cloud-free reference models developed at PMOD/WRC will be

  12. Validation of Nimbus-7 cloud and SMMR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, P. H.; Yeh, H. Y. M.; Macmillan, D. S.; Long, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between cloud amount, water content (WC), and liquid water content (LWC) is studied. Nimbus-7 cloud data and LWC and WC data derived from the SMMR for July 1979 are analyzed and compared. The SMMR sea surface temperature (SST) data are also compared to Air Force SST data. The comparisons reveal that Nimbus-7 cloud data and the SMMR WC and LWC data correlate well, and there is also good agreement between the SMMR SST and the Air Force data. The data demonstrate that there is a relation between the WC, LWC, and cloud amount data.

  13. Cloud4Psi: cloud computing for 3D protein structure similarity searching.

    PubMed

    Mrozek, Dariusz; Małysiak-Mrozek, Bożena; Kłapciński, Artur

    2014-10-01

    Popular methods for 3D protein structure similarity searching, especially those that generate high-quality alignments such as Combinatorial Extension (CE) and Flexible structure Alignment by Chaining Aligned fragment pairs allowing Twists (FATCAT) are still time consuming. As a consequence, performing similarity searching against large repositories of structural data requires increased computational resources that are not always available. Cloud computing provides huge amounts of computational power that can be provisioned on a pay-as-you-go basis. We have developed the cloud-based system that allows scaling of the similarity searching process vertically and horizontally. Cloud4Psi (Cloud for Protein Similarity) was tested in the Microsoft Azure cloud environment and provided good, almost linearly proportional acceleration when scaled out onto many computational units. Cloud4Psi is available as Software as a Service for testing purposes at: http://cloud4psi.cloudapp.net/. For source code and software availability, please visit the Cloud4Psi project home page at http://zti.polsl.pl/dmrozek/science/cloud4psi.htm. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Cloud4Psi: cloud computing for 3D protein structure similarity searching

    PubMed Central

    Mrozek, Dariusz; Małysiak-Mrozek, Bożena; Kłapciński, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Popular methods for 3D protein structure similarity searching, especially those that generate high-quality alignments such as Combinatorial Extension (CE) and Flexible structure Alignment by Chaining Aligned fragment pairs allowing Twists (FATCAT) are still time consuming. As a consequence, performing similarity searching against large repositories of structural data requires increased computational resources that are not always available. Cloud computing provides huge amounts of computational power that can be provisioned on a pay-as-you-go basis. We have developed the cloud-based system that allows scaling of the similarity searching process vertically and horizontally. Cloud4Psi (Cloud for Protein Similarity) was tested in the Microsoft Azure cloud environment and provided good, almost linearly proportional acceleration when scaled out onto many computational units. Availability and implementation: Cloud4Psi is available as Software as a Service for testing purposes at: http://cloud4psi.cloudapp.net/. For source code and software availability, please visit the Cloud4Psi project home page at http://zti.polsl.pl/dmrozek/science/cloud4psi.htm. Contact: dariusz.mrozek@polsl.pl PMID:24930141

  15. Canopy water balance of windward and leeward Hawaiian cloud forests on Haleakalā, Maui, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; DeLay, John K.; Nullet, Michael A.; Scholl, Martha A.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of intercepted cloud water to precipitation at windward and leeward cloud forest sites on the slopes of Haleakalā, Maui was assessed using two approaches. Canopy water balance estimates based on meteorological monitoring were compared with interpretations of fog screen measurements collected over a 2-year period at each location. The annual incident rainfall was 973 mm at the leeward site (Auwahi) and 2550 mm at the windward site (Waikamoi). At the leeward, dry forest site, throughfall was less than rainfall (87%), and, at the windward, wet forest site, throughfall exceeded rainfall (122%). Cloud water interception estimated from canopy water balance was 166 mm year−1 at Auwahi and 1212 mm year−1 at Waikamoi. Annual fog screen measurements of cloud water flux, corrected for wind-blown rainfall, were 132 and 3017 mm for the dry and wet sites respectively. Event totals of cloud water flux based on fog screen measurements were poorly correlated with event cloud water interception totals derived from the canopy water balance. Hence, the use of fixed planar fog screens to estimate cloud water interception is not recommended. At the wet windward site, cloud water interception made up 32% of the total precipitation, adding to the already substantial amount of rainfall. At the leeward dry site, cloud water interception was 15% of the total precipitation. Vegetation at the dry site, where trees are more exposed and isolated, was more efficient at intercepting the available cloud water than at the rainy site, but events were less frequent, shorter in duration and lower in intensity. A large proportion of intercepted cloud water, 74% and 83%, respectively for the two sites, was estimated to become throughfall, thus adding significantly to soil water at both sites

  16. Two-channel microwave radiometer for observations of total column precipitable water vapor and cloud liquid water path

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liljegren, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is focused on improving the treatment of radiation transfer in models of the atmospheric general circulation, as well as on improving parameterizations of cloud properties and formation processes in these models (USDOE, 1990). To help achieve these objectives, ARM is deploying several two-channel, microwave radiometers at the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site in Oklahoma for the purpose of obtaining long time series observations of total precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid water path (LWP). The performance of the WVR-1100 microwave radiometer deployed by ARM at the Oklahoma CART site central facility tomore » provide time series measurements precipitable water vapor (PWV) and liquid water path (LWP) has been presented. The instrument has proven to be durable and reliable in continuous field operation since June, 1992. The accuracy of the PWV has been demonstrated to achieve the limiting accuracy of the statistical retrieval under clear sky conditions, degrading with increasing LWP. Improvements are planned to address moisture accumulation on the Teflon window, as well as to identity the presence of clouds with LWP at or below the retrieval uncertainty.« less

  17. Cloud effects on ultraviolet photoclimatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, A. E. S.; Spinhirne, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify for the needs of photobiology the influence of clouds upon the ultraviolet spectral irradiance reaching the ground. Towards this end, analytic formulas are developed which approximately characterize the influence of clouds upon total solar radiation. These may be used in conjunction with a solar pyranometer to assign an effective visual optical depth for the cloud cover. A formula is also developed which characterizes the influence of the optical depth of clouds upon the UV spectral irradiance in the 280-340 nm region. Thus total solar energy observations to assign cloud optical properties can be used to calculate the UV spectral irradiance at the ground in the presence of these clouds. As incidental by-products of this effort, convenient formulas are found for the direct and diffuse components of total solar energy.

  18. Use of cloud computing in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Sobeslav, Vladimir; Maresova, Petra; Krejcar, Ondrej; Franca, Tanos C C; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, biomedicine is characterised by a growing need for processing of large amounts of data in real time. This leads to new requirements for information and communication technologies (ICT). Cloud computing offers a solution to these requirements and provides many advantages, such as cost savings, elasticity and scalability of using ICT. The aim of this paper is to explore the concept of cloud computing and the related use of this concept in the area of biomedicine. Authors offer a comprehensive analysis of the implementation of the cloud computing approach in biomedical research, decomposed into infrastructure, platform and service layer, and a recommendation for processing large amounts of data in biomedicine. Firstly, the paper describes the appropriate forms and technological solutions of cloud computing. Secondly, the high-end computing paradigm of cloud computing aspects is analysed. Finally, the potential and current use of applications in scientific research of this technology in biomedicine is discussed.

  19. Comparison of aerosol effects on simulated spring and summer hailstorm clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huiling; Xiao, Hui; Guo, Chunwei; Wen, Guang; Tang, Qi; Sun, Yue

    2017-07-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the effect of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations on microphysical processes and precipitation characteristics of hailstorms. Two hailstorm cases are simulated, a spring case and a summer case, in a semiarid region of northern China, with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. The results are used to investigate the differences and similarities of the CCN effects between spring and summer hailstorms. The similarities are: (1) The total hydrometeor mixing ratio decreases, while the total ice-phase mixing ratio enhances, with increasing CCN concentration; (2) Enhancement of the CCN concentration results in the production of a greater amount of small-sized hydrometeor particles, but a lessening of large-sized hydrometeor particles; (3) As the CCN concentration increases, the supercooled cloud water and rainwater make a lesser contribution to hail, while the ice-phase hydrometeors take on active roles in the growth of hail; (4) When the CCN concentration increases, the amount of total precipitation lessens, while the role played by liquid-phase rainfall in the amount of total precipitation reduces, relatively, compared to that of ice-phase precipitation. The differences between the two storms include: (1) An increase in the CCN concentration tends to reduce pristine ice mixing ratios in the spring case but enhance them in the summer case; (2) Ice-phase hydrometeor particles contribute more to hail growth in the spring case, while liquid water contributes more in the summer case; (3) An increase in the CCN concentration has different effects on surface hail precipitation in different seasons.

  20. Influence of cloud fraction and snow cover to the variation of surface UV radiation at King Sejong station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yun Gon; Koo, Ja-Ho; Kim, Jhoon

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated how cloud fraction and snow cover affect the variation of surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation by using surface Erythemal UV (EUV) and Near UV (NUV) observed at the King Sejong Station, Antarctica. First the Radiative Amplification Factor (RAF), the relative change of surface EUV according to the total-column ozone amount, is compared for different cloud fractions and solar zenith angles (SZAs). Generally, all cloudy conditions show that the increase of RAF as SZA becomes larger, showing the larger effects of vertical columnar ozone. For given SZA cases, the EUV transmission through mean cloud layer gradually decreases as cloud fraction increases, but sometimes the maximum of surface EUV appears under partly cloudy conditions. The high surface EUV transmittance under broken cloud conditions seems due to the re-radiation of scattered EUV by cloud particles. NUV transmission through mean cloud layer also decreases as cloud amount increases but the sensitivity to the cloud fraction is larger than EUV. Both EUV and NUV radiations at the surface are also enhanced by the snow cover, and their enhancement becomes higher as SZA increases implying the diurnal variation of surface albedo. This effect of snow cover seems large under the overcast sky because of the stronger interaction between snow surface and cloudy sky.

  1. 26 CFR 25.2503-1 - General definitions of “taxable gifts” and of “total amount of gifts.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... âtotal amount of gifts.â 25.2503-1 Section 25.2503-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Determination of Tax Liability § 25.2503-1 General definitions of “taxable gifts” and of “total amount of gifts...

  2. Comparison of Cloud Detection Using the CERES-MODIS Ed4 and LaRC AVHRR Cloud Masks and CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trepte, Q. Z.; Minnis, P.; Palikonda, R.; Bedka, K. M.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate detection of cloud amount and distribution using satellite observations is crucial in determining cloud radiative forcing and earth energy budget. The CERES-MODIS (CM) Edition 4 cloud mask is a global cloud detection algorithm for application to Terra and Aqua MODIS data with the aid of other ancillary data sets. It is used operationally for the NASA's Cloud and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. The LaRC AVHRR cloud mask, which uses only five spectral channels, is based on a subset of the CM cloud mask which employs twelve MODIS channels. The LaRC mask is applied to AVHRR data for the NOAA Climate Data Record Program. Comparisons among the CM Ed4, and LaRC AVHRR cloud masks and the CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask (VFM) constitute a powerful means for validating and improving cloud detection globally. They also help us understand the strengths and limitations of the various cloud retrievals which use either active and passive satellite sensors. In this paper, individual comparisons will be presented for different types of clouds over various surfaces, including daytime and nighttime, and polar and non-polar regions. Additionally, the statistics of the global, regional, and zonal cloud occurrence and amount from the CERES Ed4, AVHRR cloud masks and CALIPSO VFM will be discussed.

  3. Galaxy CloudMan: delivering cloud compute clusters.

    PubMed

    Afgan, Enis; Baker, Dannon; Coraor, Nate; Chapman, Brad; Nekrutenko, Anton; Taylor, James

    2010-12-21

    Widespread adoption of high-throughput sequencing has greatly increased the scale and sophistication of computational infrastructure needed to perform genomic research. An alternative to building and maintaining local infrastructure is "cloud computing", which, in principle, offers on demand access to flexible computational infrastructure. However, cloud computing resources are not yet suitable for immediate "as is" use by experimental biologists. We present a cloud resource management system that makes it possible for individual researchers to compose and control an arbitrarily sized compute cluster on Amazon's EC2 cloud infrastructure without any informatics requirements. Within this system, an entire suite of biological tools packaged by the NERC Bio-Linux team (http://nebc.nerc.ac.uk/tools/bio-linux) is available for immediate consumption. The provided solution makes it possible, using only a web browser, to create a completely configured compute cluster ready to perform analysis in less than five minutes. Moreover, we provide an automated method for building custom deployments of cloud resources. This approach promotes reproducibility of results and, if desired, allows individuals and labs to add or customize an otherwise available cloud system to better meet their needs. The expected knowledge and associated effort with deploying a compute cluster in the Amazon EC2 cloud is not trivial. The solution presented in this paper eliminates these barriers, making it possible for researchers to deploy exactly the amount of computing power they need, combined with a wealth of existing analysis software, to handle the ongoing data deluge.

  4. Opportunities for understanding of aerosol cloud interactions in the context of Marine Cloud Brightening Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasch, Philip J.; Wood, Robert; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosol impacts on clouds constitute the largest source of uncertainty in radiative forcing of climate, confounding estimates of climate sensitivity to increases in greenhouse gases. Projections of future warming are also thus strongly dependent on estimates of aerosol effects on clouds. I will discuss the opportunities for improving estimates of aerosol effects on clouds from controlled field experiments where aerosol with well understood size, composition, amount, and injection altitude could be introduced to deliberately change cloud properties. This would allow scientific investigation to be performed in a manner much closer to a lab environment, and facilitate the use of models to predict cloud responses ahead of time, testing our understanding of aerosol cloud interactions.

  5. Marine cloud brightening

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  6. Cloud/climate sensitivity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roads, J. O.; Vallis, G. K.; Remer, L.

    1982-01-01

    A study of the relationships between large-scale cloud fields and large scale circulation patterns is presented. The basic tool is a multi-level numerical model comprising conservation equations for temperature, water vapor and cloud water and appropriate parameterizations for evaporation, condensation, precipitation and radiative feedbacks. Incorporating an equation for cloud water in a large-scale model is somewhat novel and allows the formation and advection of clouds to be treated explicitly. The model is run on a two-dimensional, vertical-horizontal grid with constant winds. It is shown that cloud cover increases with decreased eddy vertical velocity, decreased horizontal advection, decreased atmospheric temperature, increased surface temperature, and decreased precipitation efficiency. The cloud field is found to be well correlated with the relative humidity field except at the highest levels. When radiative feedbacks are incorporated and the temperature increased by increasing CO2 content, cloud amounts decrease at upper-levels or equivalently cloud top height falls. This reduces the temperature response, especially at upper levels, compared with an experiment in which cloud cover is fixed.

  7. SAGE III L2 Monthly Cloud Presence Data (Binary)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-14

    ... degrees South Spatial Resolution:  1 km vertical Temporal Coverage:  02/27/2002 - 12/31/2005 ... Parameters:  Cloud Amount/Frequency Cloud Height Cloud Vertical Distribution Order Data:  Search and ...

  8. Integrated Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Product using CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO and CloudSat Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Chen, Yan; Gibson, Sharon; Yi, Yuhong; Trepte, Qing; Wielicki, Bruce; Kato, Seiji; Winker, Dave

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the development of the first integrated data set of global vertical profiles of clouds, aerosols, and radiation using the combined NASA A-Train data from the Aqua Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), and CloudSat. As part of this effort, cloud data from the CALIPSO lidar and the CloudSat radar are merged with the integrated column cloud properties from the CERES-MODIS analyses. The active and passive datasets are compared to determine commonalities and differences in order to facilitate the development of a 3- dimensional cloud and aerosol dataset that will then be integrated into the CERES broadband radiance footprint. Preliminary results from the comparisons for April 2007 reveal that the CERES-MODIS global cloud amounts are, on average, 0.14 less and 0.15 greater than those from CALIPSO and CloudSat, respectively. These new data will provide unprecedented ability to test and improve global cloud and aerosol models, to investigate aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, and to validate the accuracy of global aerosol, cloud, and radiation data sets especially in polar regions and for multi-layered cloud conditions.

  9. Integrated cloud-aerosol-radiation product using CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO, and CloudSat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Chen, Yan; Gibson, Sharon; Yi, Yuhong; Trepte, Qing; Wielicki, Bruce; Kato, Seiji; Winker, Dave; Stephens, Graeme; Partain, Philip

    2007-10-01

    This paper documents the development of the first integrated data set of global vertical profiles of clouds, aerosols, and radiation using the combined NASA A-Train data from the Aqua Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), and CloudSat. As part of this effort, cloud data from the CALIPSO lidar and the CloudSat radar are merged with the integrated column cloud properties from the CERES-MODIS analyses. The active and passive datasets are compared to determine commonalities and differences in order to facilitate the development of a 3-dimensional cloud and aerosol dataset that will then be integrated into the CERES broadband radiance footprint. Preliminary results from the comparisons for April 2007 reveal that the CERES-MODIS global cloud amounts are, on average, 0.14 less and 0.15 greater than those from CALIPSO and CloudSat, respectively. These new data will provide unprecedented ability to test and improve global cloud and aerosol models, to investigate aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, and to validate the accuracy of global aerosol, cloud, and radiation data sets especially in polar regions and for multi-layered cloud conditions.

  10. The GCM-Oriented CALIPSO Cloud Product (CALIPSO-GOCCP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepfer, H.; Bony, S.; Winker, D.; Cesana, G.; Dufresne, J. L.; Minnis, P.; Stubenrauch, C. J.; Zeng, S.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the GCM-Oriented Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) Cloud Product (GOCCP) designed to evaluate the cloudiness simulated by general circulation models (GCMs). For this purpose, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization L1 data are processed following the same steps as in a lidar simulator used to diagnose the model cloud cover that CALIPSO would observe from space if the satellite was flying above an atmosphere similar to that predicted by the GCM. Instantaneous profiles of the lidar scattering ratio (SR) are first computed at the highest horizontal resolution of the data but at the vertical resolution typical of current GCMs, and then cloud diagnostics are inferred from these profiles: vertical distribution of cloud fraction, horizontal distribution of low, middle, high, and total cloud fractions, instantaneous SR profiles, and SR histograms as a function of height. Results are presented for different seasons (January-March 2007-2008 and June-August 2006-2008), and their sensitivity to parameters of the lidar simulator is investigated. It is shown that the choice of the vertical resolution and of the SR threshold value used for cloud detection can modify the cloud fraction by up to 0.20, particularly in the shallow cumulus regions. The tropical marine low-level cloud fraction is larger during nighttime (by up to 0.15) than during daytime. The histograms of SR characterize the cloud types encountered in different regions. The GOCCP high-level cloud amount is similar to that from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). The low-level and middle-level cloud fractions are larger than those derived from passive remote sensing (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-Cloud and Earth Radiant Energy System Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances, TOVS Path B, AIRS-Laboratoire de M

  11. Cloud Radiation Forcings and Feedbacks: General Circulation Model Tests and Observational Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee,Wan-Ho; Iacobellis, Sam F.; Somerville, Richard C. J.

    1997-01-01

    Using an atmospheric general circulation model (the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: CCM2), the effects on climate sensitivity of several different cloud radiation parameterizations have been investigated. In addition to the original cloud radiation scheme of CCM2, four parameterizations incorporating prognostic cloud water were tested: one version with prescribed cloud radiative properties and three other versions with interactive cloud radiative properties. The authors' numerical experiments employ perpetual July integrations driven by globally constant sea surface temperature forcings of two degrees, both positive and negative. A diagnostic radiation calculation has been applied to investigate the partial contributions of high, middle, and low cloud to the total cloud radiative forcing, as well as the contributions of water vapor, temperature, and cloud to the net climate feedback. The high cloud net radiative forcing is positive, and the middle and low cloud net radiative forcings are negative. The total net cloud forcing is negative in all of the model versions. The effect of interactive cloud radiative properties on global climate sensitivity is significant. The net cloud radiative feedbacks consist of quite different shortwave and longwave components between the schemes with interactive cloud radiative properties and the schemes with specified properties. The increase in cloud water content in the warmer climate leads to optically thicker middle- and low-level clouds and in turn to negative shortwave feedbacks for the interactive radiative schemes, while the decrease in cloud amount simply produces a positive shortwave feedback for the schemes with a specified cloud water path. For the longwave feedbacks, the decrease in high effective cloudiness for the schemes without interactive radiative properties leads to a negative feedback, while for the other cases, the longwave feedback is positive. These cloud radiation

  12. Simplified ISCCP cloud regimes for evaluating cloudiness in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Daeho; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Lee, Dongmin

    2017-01-01

    We take advantage of ISCCP simulator data available for many models that participated in CMIP5, in order to introduce a framework for comparing model cloud output with corresponding ISCCP observations based on the cloud regime (CR) concept. Simplified global CRs are employed derived from the co-variations of three variables, namely cloud optical thickness, cloud top pressure and cloud fraction ( τ, p c , CF). Following evaluation criteria established in a companion paper of ours (Jin et al. 2016), we assess model cloud simulation performance based on how well the simplified CRs are simulated in terms of similarity of centroids, global values and map correlations of relative-frequency-of-occurrence, and long-term total cloud amounts. Mirroring prior results, modeled clouds tend to be too optically thick and not as extensive as in observations. CRs with high-altitude clouds from storm activity are not as well simulated here compared to the previous study, but other regimes containing near-overcast low clouds show improvement. Models that have performed well in the companion paper against CRs defined by joint τ- p c histograms distinguish themselves again here, but improvements for previously underperforming models are also seen. Averaging across models does not yield a drastically better picture, except for cloud geographical locations. Cloud evaluation with simplified regimes seems thus more forgiving than that using histogram-based CRs while still strict enough to reveal model weaknesses.

  13. 48 CFR 970.5215-1 - Total available fee: Base fee amount and performance fee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Profit, and Other Incentives—Facility Management Contracts” if contained in the contract. (d) Performance... fee amount and performance fee amount. 970.5215-1 Section 970.5215-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS...

  14. Investigating expanded chemistry in CMAQ clouds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clouds and fogs significantly impact the amount, composition, and spatial distribution of gas and particulate atmospheric species, not least of which through the chemistry that occurs in cloud droplets.ᅠ Atmospheric sulfate is an important component of fine aerosol mass an...

  15. A 19-Month Climatology of Marine Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Properties Derived From DOE ARM AMF Deployment at the Azores: Part I: Cloud Fraction and Single-Layered MBL Cloud Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Kennedy, Aaron; Minnis, Patrick; Wood, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A 19-month record of total, and single-layered low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high (> 6 km) cloud fractions (CFs), and the single-layered marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties has been generated from ground-based measurements taken at the ARM Azores site between June 2009 and December 2010. It documents the most comprehensive and longest dataset on marine cloud fraction and MBL cloud properties to date. The annual means of total CF, and single-layered low, middle, and high CFs derived from ARM radar-lidar observations are 0.702, 0.271, 0.01 and 0.106, respectively. More total and single-layered high CFs occurred during winter, while single-layered low CFs were greatest during summer. The diurnal cycles for both total and low CFs are stronger during summer than during winter. The CFs are bimodally distributed in the vertical with a lower peak at approx. 1 km and higher one between 8 and 11 km during all seasons, except summer, when only the low peak occurs. The persistent high pressure and dry conditions produce more single-layered MBL clouds and fewer total clouds during summer, while the low pressure and moist air masses during winter generate more total and multilayered-clouds, and deep frontal clouds associated with midlatitude cyclones.

  16. Galaxy CloudMan: delivering cloud compute clusters

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Widespread adoption of high-throughput sequencing has greatly increased the scale and sophistication of computational infrastructure needed to perform genomic research. An alternative to building and maintaining local infrastructure is “cloud computing”, which, in principle, offers on demand access to flexible computational infrastructure. However, cloud computing resources are not yet suitable for immediate “as is” use by experimental biologists. Results We present a cloud resource management system that makes it possible for individual researchers to compose and control an arbitrarily sized compute cluster on Amazon’s EC2 cloud infrastructure without any informatics requirements. Within this system, an entire suite of biological tools packaged by the NERC Bio-Linux team (http://nebc.nerc.ac.uk/tools/bio-linux) is available for immediate consumption. The provided solution makes it possible, using only a web browser, to create a completely configured compute cluster ready to perform analysis in less than five minutes. Moreover, we provide an automated method for building custom deployments of cloud resources. This approach promotes reproducibility of results and, if desired, allows individuals and labs to add or customize an otherwise available cloud system to better meet their needs. Conclusions The expected knowledge and associated effort with deploying a compute cluster in the Amazon EC2 cloud is not trivial. The solution presented in this paper eliminates these barriers, making it possible for researchers to deploy exactly the amount of computing power they need, combined with a wealth of existing analysis software, to handle the ongoing data deluge. PMID:21210983

  17. The Galactic Distribution of OB Associations in Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jonathan P.; McKee, Christopher F.

    1997-02-01

    Molecular clouds account for half of the mass of the interstellar medium interior to the solar circle and for all current star formation. Using cloud catalogs of two CO surveys of the first quadrant, we have fitted the mass distribution of molecular clouds to a truncated power law in a similar manner as the luminosity function of OB associations in the companion paper to this work. After extrapolating from the first quadrant to the entire inner Galaxy, we find that the mass of cataloged clouds amounts to only 40% of current estimates of the total Galactic molecular mass. Following Solomon & Rivolo, we have assumed that the remaining molecular gas is in cold clouds, and we normalize the distribution accordingly. The predicted total number of clouds is then shown to be consistent with that observed in the solar neighborhood where cloud catalogs should be more complete. Within the solar circle, the cumulative form of the distribution is \\Nscrc(>M)=105[(Mu/M)0.6-1], where \\Nscrc is the number of clouds, and Mu = 6 × 106 M⊙ is the upper mass limit. The large number of clouds near the upper cutoff to the distribution indicates an underlying physical limit to cloud formation or destruction processes. The slope of the distribution corresponds to d\\Nscrc/dM~M-1.6, implying that although numerically most clouds are of low mass, most of the molecular gas is contained within the most massive clouds. The distribution of cloud masses is then compared to the Galactic distribution of OB association luminosities to obtain statistical estimates of the number of massive stars expected in any given cloud. The likelihood of massive star formation in a cloud is determined, and it is found that the median cloud mass that contains at least one O star is ~105 M⊙. The average star formation efficiency over the lifetime of an association is about 5% but varies by more than 2 orders of magnitude from cloud to cloud and is predicted to increase with cloud mass. O stars photoevaporate

  18. Synergistic use of MODIS cloud products and AIRS radiance measurements for retrieval of cloud parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Menzel, W.; Sun, F.; Schmit, T.

    2003-12-01

    The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements from the Earth Observing System's (EOS) Aqua satellite will enable global monitoring of the distribution of clouds. MODIS is able to provide at high spatial resolution (1 ~ 5km) the cloud mask, surface and cloud types, cloud phase, cloud-top pressure (CTP), effective cloud amount (ECA), cloud particle size (CPS), and cloud water path (CWP). AIRS is able to provide CTP, ECA, CPS, and CWP within the AIRS footprint with much better accuracy using its greatly enhanced hyperspectral remote sensing capability. The combined MODIS / AIRS system offers the opportunity for cloud products improved over those possible from either system alone. The algorithm developed was applied to process the AIRS longwave cloudy radiance measurements; results are compared with MODIS cloud products, as well as with the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) sounder cloud products, to demonstrate the advantage of synergistic use of high spatial resolution MODIS cloud products and high spectral resolution AIRS sounder radiance measurements for optimal cloud retrieval. Data from ground-based instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud and Radiation Test Bed (CART) in Oklahoma were used for the validation; results show that AIRS improves the MODIS cloud products in certain cases such as low-level clouds.

  19. A cloud-resolving model study of aerosol-cloud correlation in a pristine maritime environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishant, Nidhi; Sherwood, Steven C.

    2017-06-01

    In convective clouds, satellite-observed deepening or increased amount of clouds with increasing aerosol concentration has been reported and is sometimes interpreted as aerosol-induced invigoration of the clouds. However, such correlations can be affected by meteorological factors that affect both aerosol and clouds, as well as observational issues. In this study, we examine the behavior in a 660 × 660 km2 region of the South Pacific during June 2007, previously found by Koren et al. (2014) to show strong correlation between cloud fraction, cloud top pressure, and aerosols, using a cloud-resolving model with meteorological boundary conditions specified from a reanalysis. The model assumes constant aerosol loading, yet reproduces vigorous clouds at times of high real-world aerosol concentrations. Days with high- and low-aerosol loading exhibit deep-convective and shallow clouds, respectively, in both observations and the simulation. Synoptic analysis shows that vigorous clouds occur at times of strong surface troughs, which are associated with high winds and advection of boundary layer air from the Southern Ocean where sea-salt aerosol is abundant, thus accounting for the high correlation. Our model results show that aerosol-cloud relationships can be explained by coexisting but independent wind-aerosol and wind-cloud relationships and that no cloud condensation nuclei effect is required.

  20. Rain chemistry and cloud composition and microphysics in a Caribbean tropical montane cloud forest under the influence of African dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Delgado, Elvis; Valle-Diaz, Carlos J.; Baumgardner, Darrel; McDowell, William H.; González, Grizelle; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

    2015-04-01

    It is known that huge amounts of mineral dust travels thousands of kilometers from the Sahara and Sahel regions in Africa over the Atlantic Ocean reaching the Caribbean, northern South America and southern North America; however, not much is understood about how the aging process that takes place during transport changes dust properties, and how the presence of this dust affects cloud's composition and microphysics. This African dust reaches the Caribbean region mostly in the summer time. In order to improve our understanding of the role of long-range transported African dust (LRTAD) in cloud formation processes in a tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) in the Caribbean region we had field campaigns measuring dust physical and chemical properties in summer 2013, as part of the Puerto Rico African Dust and Cloud Study (PRADACS), and in summer 2014, as a part of the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO) and in collaboration with the Saharan Aerosol Long-Range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE). Measurements were performed at the TMCF of Pico del Este (PE, 1051 masl) and at the nature reserve of Cabezas de San Juan (CSJ, 60 masl). In both stations we monitored meteorological parameters (e.g., temperature, wind speed, wind direction). At CSJ, we measured light absorption and scattering at three wavelengths (467, 528 and 652 nm). At PE we collected cloud and rainwater and monitored cloud microphysical properties (e.g., liquid water content, droplet size distribution, droplet number concentration, effective diameter and median volume diameter). Data from aerosol models, satellites, and back-trajectories were used together with CSJ measurements to classify air masses and samples collected at PE in the presence or absence of dust. Soluble ions, insoluble trace metals, pH and conductivity were measured for cloud and rainwater. Preliminary results for summer 2013 showed that in the presence of LRTAD (1) the average conductivity of cloud water

  1. Diurnal and Seasonal Cloud Base Patterns Highlight Small-Mountain Tropical Cloud Forest Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Beusekom, A.; Gonzalez, G.; Scholl, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The degree to which cloud immersion sustains tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) during rainless periods and the amount these clouds are affected by urban areas is not well understood, as cloud base is rarely quantified near mountains. We found that a healthy small-mountain TMCF in Puerto Rico had lowest cloud base during the mid-summer dry season. In addition, we observed that cloud bases were lower than the mountaintops as often in the winter dry season as in the wet seasons, based on 2.5 years of direct and 16 years of indirect observations. The low clouds during dry season appear to be explained by proximity to the oceanic cloud system where lower clouds are seasonally invariant in altitude and cover; along with orographic lifting and trade-wind control over cloud formation. These results suggest that climate change impacts on small-mountain TMCFs may not be limited to the dry season; changes in regional-scale patterns that cause drought periods during the wet seasons will likely have higher cloud base, and thus may threaten cloud water support to sensitive mountain ecosystems. Strong El Niño's can cause drought in Puerto Rico; we will report results from the summer of 2015 that examined El Niño effects on cloud base altitudes. Looking at regionally collected airport cloud data, we see indicators that diurnal urban effects may already be raising the low cloud bases.

  2. 915-MHz Wind Profiler for Cloud Forecasting at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jensen, M.; Bartholomew, M. J.; Giangrande, S.

    When considering the amount of shortwave radiation incident on a photovoltaic solar array and, therefore, the amount and stability of the energy output from the system, clouds represent the greatest source of short-term (i.e., scale of minutes to hours) variability through scattering and reflection of incoming solar radiation. Providing estimates of this short-term variability is important for determining and regulating the output from large solar arrays as they connect with the larger power infrastructure. In support of the installation of a 37-MW solar array on the grounds of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a study of the impacts of clouds onmore » the output of the solar array has been undertaken. The study emphasis is on predicting the change in surface solar radiation resulting from the observed/forecast cloud field on a 5-minute time scale. At these time scales, advection of cloud elements over the solar array is of particular importance. As part of the BNL Aerosol Life Cycle Intensive Operational Period (IOP), a 915-MHz Radar Wind Profiler (RWP) was deployed to determine the profile of low-level horizontal winds and the depth of the planetary boundary layer. The initial deployment mission of the 915-MHz RWP for cloud forecasting has been expanded the deployment to provide horizontal wind measurements for estimating and constraining cloud advection speeds. A secondary focus is on the observation of dynamics and microphysics of precipitation during cold season/winter storms on Long Island. In total, the profiler was deployed at BNL for 1 year from May 2011 through May 2012.« less

  3. 915-Mhz Wind Profiler for Cloud Forecasting at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jensen, M.; Bartholomew, M. J.; Giangrande, S.

    When considering the amount of shortwave radiation incident on a photovoltaic solar array and, therefore, the amount and stability of the energy output from the system, clouds represent the greatest source of short-term (i.e., scale of minutes to hours) variability through scattering and reflection of incoming solar radiation. Providing estimates of this short-term variability is important for determining and regulating the output from large solar arrays as they connect with the larger power infrastructure. In support of the installation of a 37-MW solar array on the grounds of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a study of the impacts of clouds onmore » the output of the solar array has been undertaken. The study emphasis is on predicting the change in surface solar radiation resulting from the observed/forecast cloud field on a 5-minute time scale. At these time scales, advection of cloud elements over the solar array is of particular importance. As part of the BNL Aerosol Life Cycle Intensive Operational Period (IOP), a 915-MHz Radar Wind Profiler (RWP) was deployed to determine the profile of low-level horizontal winds and the depth of the planetary boundary layer. The initial deployment mission of the 915-MHz RWP for cloud forecasting has been expanded the deployment to provide horizontal wind measurements for estimating and constraining cloud advection speeds. A secondary focus is on the observation of dynamics and microphysics of precipitation during cold season/winter storms on Long Island. In total, the profiler was deployed at BNL for 1 year from May 2011 through May 2012.« less

  4. SAGE III L2 Monthly Cloud Presence Data (HDF-EOS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-14

    ... degrees South Spatial Resolution:  1 km vertical Temporal Coverage:  02/27/2002 - 12/31/2005 ... Parameters:  Cloud Amount/Frequency Cloud Height Cloud Vertical Distribution Order Data:  Search and ...

  5. Operational implications of a cloud model simulation of space shuttle exhaust clouds in different atmospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional cloud model was used to characterize the dominant influence of the environment on the Space Shuttle exhaust cloud. The model was modified to accept the actual heat and moisture from rocket exhausts and deluge water as initial conditions. An upper-air sounding determined the ambient atmosphere in which the cloud would grow. The model was validated by comparing simulated clouds with observed clouds from four actual Shuttle launches. Results are discussed with operational weather forecasters in mind. The model successfully produced clouds with dimensions, rise, decay, liquid water contents, and vertical motion fields very similar to observed clouds whose dimensions were calculated from 16 mm film frames. Once validated, the model was used in a number of different atmospheric conditions ranging from very unstable to very stable. Wind shear strongly affected the appearance of both the ground cloud and vertical column cloud. The ambient low-level atmospheric moisture governed the amount of cloud water in model clouds. Some dry atmospheres produced little or no cloud water. An empirical forecast technique for Shuttle cloud rise is presented and differences between natural atmospheric convection and exhaust clouds are discussed.

  6. Molecular Cloud Evolution VI. Measuring cloud ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Forbrich, Jan

    2018-06-01

    In previous contributions, we have presented an analytical model describing the evolution of molecular clouds (MCs) undergoing hierarchical gravitational contraction. The cloud's evolution is characterized by an initial increase in its mass, density, and star formation rate (SFR) and efficiency (SFE) as it contracts, followed by a decrease of these quantities as newly formed massive stars begin to disrupt the cloud. The main parameter of the model is the maximum mass reached by the cloud during its evolution. Thus, specifying the instantaneous mass and some other variable completely determines the cloud's evolutionary stage. We apply the model to interpret the observed scatter in SFEs of the cloud sample compiled by Lada et al. as an evolutionary effect so that, although clouds such as California and Orion A have similar masses, they are in very different evolutionary stages, causing their very different observed SFRs and SFEs. The model predicts that the California cloud will eventually reach a significantly larger total mass than the Orion A cloud. Next, we apply the model to derive estimated ages of the clouds since the time when approximately 25% of their mass had become molecular. We find ages from ˜1.5 to 27 Myr, with the most inactive clouds being the youngest. Further predictions of the model are that clouds with very low SFEs should have massive atomic envelopes constituting the majority of their gravitational mass, and that low-mass clouds (M ˜ 103-104M⊙) end their lives with a mini-burst of star formation, reaching SFRs ˜300-500 M⊙ Myr-1. By this time, they have contracted to become compact (˜1 pc) massive star-forming clumps, in general embedded within larger GMCs.

  7. Low-Cloud Feedbacks from Cloud-Controlling Factors: A Review

    DOE PAGES

    Klein, Stephen A.; Hall, Alex; Norris, Joel R.; ...

    2017-10-24

    Here, the response to warming of tropical low-level clouds including both marine stratocumulus and trade cumulus is a major source of uncertainty in projections of future climate. Climate model simulations of the response vary widely, reflecting the difficulty the models have in simulating these clouds. These inadequacies have led to alternative approaches to predict low-cloud feedbacks. Here, we review an observational approach that relies on the assumption that observed relationships between low clouds and the “cloud-controlling factors” of the large-scale environment are invariant across time-scales. With this assumption, and given predictions of how the cloud-controlling factors change with climate warming,more » one can predict low-cloud feedbacks without using any model simulation of low clouds. We discuss both fundamental and implementation issues with this approach and suggest steps that could reduce uncertainty in the predicted low-cloud feedback. Recent studies using this approach predict that the tropical low-cloud feedback is positive mainly due to the observation that reflection of solar radiation by low clouds decreases as temperature increases, holding all other cloud-controlling factors fixed. The positive feedback from temperature is partially offset by a negative feedback from the tendency for the inversion strength to increase in a warming world, with other cloud-controlling factors playing a smaller role. A consensus estimate from these studies for the contribution of tropical low clouds to the global mean cloud feedback is 0.25 ± 0.18 W m –2 K –1 (90% confidence interval), suggesting it is very unlikely that tropical low clouds reduce total global cloud feedback. Because the prediction of positive tropical low-cloud feedback with this approach is consistent with independent evidence from low-cloud feedback studies using high-resolution cloud models, progress is being made in reducing this key climate uncertainty.« less

  8. Low-Cloud Feedbacks from Cloud-Controlling Factors: A Review

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Klein, Stephen A.; Hall, Alex; Norris, Joel R.

    Here, the response to warming of tropical low-level clouds including both marine stratocumulus and trade cumulus is a major source of uncertainty in projections of future climate. Climate model simulations of the response vary widely, reflecting the difficulty the models have in simulating these clouds. These inadequacies have led to alternative approaches to predict low-cloud feedbacks. Here, we review an observational approach that relies on the assumption that observed relationships between low clouds and the “cloud-controlling factors” of the large-scale environment are invariant across time-scales. With this assumption, and given predictions of how the cloud-controlling factors change with climate warming,more » one can predict low-cloud feedbacks without using any model simulation of low clouds. We discuss both fundamental and implementation issues with this approach and suggest steps that could reduce uncertainty in the predicted low-cloud feedback. Recent studies using this approach predict that the tropical low-cloud feedback is positive mainly due to the observation that reflection of solar radiation by low clouds decreases as temperature increases, holding all other cloud-controlling factors fixed. The positive feedback from temperature is partially offset by a negative feedback from the tendency for the inversion strength to increase in a warming world, with other cloud-controlling factors playing a smaller role. A consensus estimate from these studies for the contribution of tropical low clouds to the global mean cloud feedback is 0.25 ± 0.18 W m –2 K –1 (90% confidence interval), suggesting it is very unlikely that tropical low clouds reduce total global cloud feedback. Because the prediction of positive tropical low-cloud feedback with this approach is consistent with independent evidence from low-cloud feedback studies using high-resolution cloud models, progress is being made in reducing this key climate uncertainty.« less

  9. Cloud microphysics and aerosol indirect effects in the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, U.; Stier, P.; Hoose, C.; Ferrachat, S.; Roeckner, E.; Zhang, J.

    2007-03-01

    The double-moment cloud microphysics scheme from ECHAM4 has been coupled to the size-resolved aerosol scheme ECHAM5-HAM. ECHAM5-HAM predicts the aerosol mass and number concentrations and the aerosol mixing state. This results in a much better agreement with observed vertical profiles of the black carbon and aerosol mass mixing ratios than with the previous version ECHAM4, where only the different aerosol mass mixing ratios were predicted. Also, the simulated liquid, ice and total water content and the cloud droplet and ice crystal number concentrations as a function of temperature in stratiform mixed-phase clouds between 0 and -35°C agree much better with aircraft observations in the ECHAM5 simulations. ECHAM5 performs better because more realistic aerosol concentrations are available for cloud droplet nucleation and because the Bergeron-Findeisen process is parameterized as being more efficient. The total anthropogenic aerosol effect includes the direct, semi-direct and indirect effects and is defined as the difference in the top-of-the-atmosphere net radiation between present-day and pre-industrial times. It amounts to -1.8 W m-2 in ECHAM5, when a relative humidity dependent cloud cover scheme and present-day aerosol emissions representative for the year 2000 are used. It is larger when either a statistical cloud cover scheme or a different aerosol emission inventory are employed.

  10. A single field of view method for retrieving tropospheric temperature profiles from cloud-contaminated radiance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    An iterative method is presented to retrieve single field of view (FOV) tropospheric temperature profiles directly from cloud-contaminated radiance data. A well-defined temperature profile may be calculated from the radiative transfer equation (RTE) for a partly cloudy atmosphere when the average fractional cloud amount and cloud-top height for the FOV are known. A cloud model is formulated to calculate the fractional cloud amount from an estimated cloud-top height. The method is then examined through use of simulated radiance data calculated through vertical integration of the RTE for a partly cloudy atmosphere using known values of cloud-top height(s) and fractional cloud amount(s). Temperature profiles are retrieved from the simulated data assuming various errors in the cloud parameters. Temperature profiles are retrieved from NOAA-4 satellite-measured radiance data obtained over an area dominated by an active cold front and with considerable cloud cover and compared with radiosonde data. The effects of using various guessed profiles and the number of iterations are considered.

  11. Cloud radiative effect, cloud fraction and cloud type at two stations in Switzerland using hemispherical sky cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aebi, Christine; Gröbner, Julian; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Vuilleumier, Laurent

    2017-11-01

    The current study analyses the cloud radiative effect during the daytime depending on cloud fraction and cloud type at two stations in Switzerland over a time period of 3 to 5 years. Information on fractional cloud coverage and cloud type is retrieved from images taken by visible all-sky cameras. Cloud-base height (CBH) data are retrieved from a ceilometer and integrated water vapour (IWV) data from GPS measurements. The longwave cloud radiative effect (LCE) for low-level clouds and a cloud coverage of 8 oktas has a median value between 59 and 72 Wm-2. For mid- and high-level clouds the LCE is significantly lower. It is shown that the fractional cloud coverage, the CBH and IWV all have an influence on the magnitude of the LCE. These observed dependences have also been modelled with the radiative transfer model MODTRAN5. The relative values of the shortwave cloud radiative effect (SCErel) for low-level clouds and a cloud coverage of 8 oktas are between -90 and -62 %. Also here the higher the cloud is, the less negative the SCErel values are. In cases in which the measured direct radiation value is below the threshold of 120 Wm-2 (occulted sun) the SCErel decreases substantially, while cases in which the measured direct radiation value is larger than 120 Wm-2 (visible sun) lead to a SCErel of around 0 %. In 14 and 10 % of the cases in Davos and Payerne respectively a cloud enhancement has been observed with a maximum in the cloud class cirrocumulus-altocumulus at both stations. The calculated median total cloud radiative effect (TCE) values are negative for almost all cloud classes and cloud coverages.

  12. Cloud point extraction-flame atomic absorption spectrometry for pre-concentration and determination of trace amounts of silver ions in water samples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiupei; Jia, Zhihui; Yang, Xiaocui; Li, Gu; Liao, Xiangjun

    2017-03-01

    A cloud point extraction (CPE) method was used as a pre-concentration strategy prior to the determination of trace levels of silver in water by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) The pre-concentration is based on the clouding phenomena of non-ionic surfactant, triton X-114, with Ag (I)/diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) complexes in which the latter is soluble in a micellar phase composed by the former. When the temperature increases above its cloud point, the Ag (I)/DDTC complexes are extracted into the surfactant-rich phase. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency including pH of the aqueous solution, concentration of the DDTC, amount of the surfactant, incubation temperature and time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, no interference was observed for the determination of 100 ng·mL -1 Ag + in the presence of various cations below their maximum concentrations allowed in this method, for instance, 50 μg·mL -1 for both Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ , 80 μg·mL -1 for Pb 2+ , 1000 μg·mL -1 for Mn 2+ , and 100 μg·mL -1 for both Cd 2+ and Ni 2+ . The calibration curve was linear in the range of 1-500 ng·mL -1 with a limit of detection (LOD) at 0.3 ng·mL -1 . The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of trace levels of silver in water samples such as river water and tap water.

  13. The Impacts of an Observationally-Based Cloud Fraction and Condensate Overlap Parameterization on a GCM's Cloud Radiative Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Lee, Dongmin; Norris, Peter; Yuan, Tianle

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that the details of how cloud fraction overlap is treated in GCMs has substantial impact on shortwave and longwave fluxes. Because cloud condensate is also horizontally heterogeneous at GCM grid scales, another aspect of cloud overlap should in principle also be assessed, namely the vertical overlap of hydrometeor distributions. This type of overlap is usually examined in terms of rank correlations, i.e., linear correlations between hydrometeor amount ranks of the overlapping parts of cloud layers at specific separation distances. The cloud fraction overlap parameter and the rank correlation of hydrometeor amounts can be both expressed as inverse exponential functions of separation distance characterized by their respective decorrelation lengths (e-folding distances). Larger decorrelation lengths mean that hydrometeor fractions and probability distribution functions have high levels of vertical alignment. An analysis of CloudSat and CALIPSO data reveals that the two aspects of cloud overlap are related and their respective decorrelation lengths have a distinct dependence on latitude that can be parameterized and included in a GCM. In our presentation we will contrast the Cloud Radiative Effect (CRE) of the GEOS-5 atmospheric GCM (AGCM) when the observationally-based parameterization of decorrelation lengths is used to represent overlap versus the simpler cases of maximum-random overlap and globally constant decorrelation lengths. The effects of specific overlap representations will be examined for both diagnostic and interactive radiation runs in GEOS-5 and comparisons will be made with observed CREs from CERES and CloudSat (2B-FLXHR product). Since the radiative effects of overlap depend on the cloud property distributions of the AGCM, the availability of two different cloud schemes in GEOS-5 will give us the opportunity to assess a wide range of potential cloud overlap consequences on the model's climate.

  14. Limits to Cloud Susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, James A., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    1-kilometer AVHRR observations of ship tracks in low-level clouds off the west coast of the U S. were used to determine limits for the degree to which clouds might be altered by increases in anthropogenic aerosols. Hundreds of tracks were analyzed to determine whether the changes in droplet radii, visible optical depths, and cloud top altitudes that result from the influx of particles from underlying ships were consistent with expectations based on simple models for the indirect effect of aerosols. The models predict substantial increases in sunlight reflected by polluted clouds due to the increases in droplet numbers and cloud liquid water that result from the elevated particle concentrations. Contrary to the model predictions, the analysis of ship tracks revealed a 15-20% reduction in liquid water for the polluted clouds. Studies performed with a large-eddy cloud simulation model suggested that the shortfall in cloud liquid water found in the satellite observations might be attributed to the restriction that the 1-kilometer pixels be completely covered by either polluted or unpolluted cloud. The simulation model revealed that a substantial fraction of the indirect effect is caused by a horizontal redistribution of cloud water in the polluted clouds. Cloud-free gaps in polluted clouds fill in with cloud water while the cloud-free gaps in the surrounding unpolluted clouds remain cloud-free. By limiting the analysis to only overcast pixels, the current study failed to account for the gap-filling predicted by the simulation model. This finding and an analysis of the spatial variability of marine stratus suggest new ways to analyze ship tracks to determine the limit to which particle pollution will alter the amount of sunlight reflected by clouds.

  15. Simulation of low clouds in the Southeast Pacific by the NCEP GFS: sensitivity to vertical mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, R.; Moorthi, S.; Xiao, H.; Mechoso, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    The NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) model has an important systematic error shared by many other models: stratocumuli are missed over the subtropical eastern oceans. It is shown that this error can be alleviated in the GFS by introducing a consideration of the low-level inversion and making two modifications in the model's representation of vertical mixing. The modifications consist of (a) the elimination of background vertical diffusion above the inversion and (b) the incorporation of a stability parameter based on the cloud-top entrainment instability (CTEI) criterion, which limits the strength of shallow convective mixing across the inversion. A control simulation and three experiments are performed in order to examine both the individual and combined effects of modifications on the generation of the stratocumulus clouds. Individually, both modifications result in enhanced cloudiness in the Southeast Pacific (SEP) region, although the cloudiness is still low compared to the ISCCP climatology. If the modifications are applied together, however, the total cloudiness produced in the southeast Pacific has realistic values. This nonlinearity arises as the effects of both modifications reinforce each other in reducing the leakage of moisture across the inversion. Increased moisture trapped below the inversion than in the control run without modifications leads to an increase in cloud amount and cloud-top radiative cooling. Then a positive feedback due to enhanced turbulent mixing in the planetary boundary layer by cloud-top radiative cooling leads to and maintains the stratocumulus cover. Although the amount of total cloudiness obtained with both modifications has realistic values, the relative contributions of low, middle, and high layers tend to differ from the observations. These results demonstrate that it is possible to simulate realistic marine boundary clouds in large-scale models by implementing direct and physically based improvements in the model

  16. Simulation of low clouds in the Southeast Pacific by the NCEP GFS: sensitivity to vertical mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, R.; Moorthi, S.; Xiao, H.; Mechoso, C.-R.

    2010-08-01

    The NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) model has an important systematic error shared by many other models: stratocumuli are missed over the subtropical eastern oceans. It is shown that this error can be alleviated in the GFS by introducing a consideration of the low-level inversion and making two modifications in the model's representation of vertical mixing. The modifications consist of (a) the elimination of background vertical diffusion above the inversion and (b) the incorporation of a stability parameter based on the cloud-top entrainment instability (CTEI) criterion, which limits the strength of shallow convective mixing across the inversion. A control simulation and three experiments are performed in order to examine both the individual and combined effects of modifications on the generation of the stratocumulus clouds. Individually, both modifications result in enhanced cloudiness in the Southeast Pacific (SEP) region, although the cloudiness is still low compared to the ISCCP climatology. If the modifications are applied together, however, the total cloudiness produced in the southeast Pacific has realistic values. This nonlinearity arises as the effects of both modifications reinforce each other in reducing the leakage of moisture across the inversion. Increased moisture trapped below the inversion than in the control run without modifications leads to an increase in cloud amount and cloud-top radiative cooling. Then a positive feedback due to enhanced turbulent mixing in the planetary boundary layer by cloud-top radiative cooling leads to and maintains the stratocumulus cover. Although the amount of total cloudiness obtained with both modifications has realistic values, the relative contributions of low, middle, and high layers tend to differ from the observations. These results demonstrate that it is possible to simulate realistic marine boundary clouds in large-scale models by implementing direct and physically based improvements in the model

  17. Contrasting Cloud Composition Between Coupled and Decoupled Marine Boundary Layer Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, Z.; Mora, M.; Dadashazar, H.; MacDonald, A.; Crosbie, E.; Bates, K. H.; Coggon, M. M.; Craven, J. S.; Xian, P.; Campbell, J. R.; AzadiAghdam, M.; Woods, R. K.; Jonsson, H.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J.; Sorooshian, A.

    2016-12-01

    Marine stratocumulus clouds often become decoupled from the vertical layer immediately above the ocean surface. This study contrasts cloud chemical composition between coupled and decoupled marine stratocumulus clouds. Cloud water and droplet residual particle composition were measured in clouds off the California coast during three airborne experiments in July-August of separate years (E-PEACE 2011, NiCE 2013, BOAS 2015). Decoupled clouds exhibited significantly lower overall mass concentrations in both cloud water and droplet residual particles, consistent with reduced cloud droplet number concentration and sub-cloud aerosol (Dp > 100 nm) number concentration, owing to detachment from surface sources. Non-refractory sub-micrometer aerosol measurements show that coupled clouds exhibit higher sulfate mass fractions in droplet residual particles, owing to more abundant precursor emissions from the ocean and ships. Consequently, decoupled clouds exhibited higher mass fractions of organics, nitrate, and ammonium in droplet residual particles, owing to effects of long-range transport from more distant sources. Total cloud water mass concentration in coupled clouds was dominated by sodium and chloride, and their mass fractions and concentrations exceeded those in decoupled clouds. Conversely, with the exception of sea salt constituents (e.g., Cl, Na, Mg, K), cloud water mass fractions of all species examined were higher in decoupled clouds relative to coupled clouds. These results suggest that an important variable is the extent to which clouds are coupled to the surface layer when interpreting microphysical data relevant to clouds and aerosol particles.

  18. MM-Wave Radiometric Measurements of Low Amounts of Precipitable Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racette, P.; Westwater, Ed; Han, Yong; Manning, Will; Jones, David; Gasiewski, Al

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was conducted during March, 1999 to study ways in which to improve techniques for measuring low amounts of total-column precipitable water vapor (PWV). The experiment was conducted at the DOE's ARM program's North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean Cloud and Radiation Testbed site (DoE ARM NSA/AAO CaRT) located just outside Barrow, Alaska. NASA and NOAA deployed a suite of radiometers covering 25 channels in the frequency range of 20 GHz up to 340 GHz including 8 channels around the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line. In addition to the usual CaRT site instrumentation the NOAA Depolarization and Backscatter Unattended Lidar (DABUL), the SUNY Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer (RSS) and other surface based meteorological instrumentation were deployed during the intensive observation period. Vaisala RS80 radiosondes were launched daily as well as nearby National Weather Service VIZ sondes. Atmospheric conditions ranged from clear calm skies to blowing snow and heavy multi-layer cloud coverage. Measurements made by the radiosondes indicate the PWV varied from approx. 1 to approx. 5 mm during the experiment. The near-surface temperature varied between about -40 C to - 15 C. In this presentation, an overview of the experiment with examples of data collected will be presented. Application of the data for assessing the potential and limitations of millimeter-wave radiometry for retrieving very low amounts of PWV will be discussed.

  19. A cloud model simulation of space shuttle exhaust clouds in different atmospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C.; Zak, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional cloud model was used to characterize the dominant influence of the environment on the Space Shuttle exhaust cloud. The model was modified to accept the actual heat and moisture from rocket exhausts and deluge water as initial conditions. An upper-air sounding determined the ambient atmosphere in which the cloud could grow. The model was validated by comparing simulated clouds with observed clouds from four actual Shuttle launches. The model successfully produced clouds with dimensions, rise, decay, liquid water contents and vertical motion fields very similar to observed clouds whose dimensions were calculated from 16 mm film frames. Once validated, the model was used in a number of different atmospheric conditions ranging from very unstable to very stable. In moist, unstable atmospheres simulated clouds rose to about 3.5 km in the first 4 to 8 minutes then decayed. Liquid water contents ranged from 0.3 to 1.0 g kg-1 mixing ratios and vertical motions were from 2 to 10 ms-1. An inversion served both to reduce entrainment (and erosion) at the top and to prevent continued cloud rise. Even in the most unstable atmospheres, the ground cloud did not rise beyond 4 km and in stable atmospheres with strong low level inversions the cloud could be trapped below 500 m. Wind shear strongly affected the appearance of both the ground cloud and vertical column cloud. The ambient low-level atmospheric moisture governed the amount of cloud water in model clouds. Some dry atmospheres produced little or no cloud water. One case of a simulated TITAN rocket explosion is also discussed.

  20. Arctic ocean radiative fluxes and cloud forcing estimated from the ISCCP C2 cloud dataset, 1983-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweiger, Axel J.; Key, Jeffrey R.

    1994-01-01

    Radiative fluxes and cloud forcings for the ocean areas of the Arctic are computed from the monthly cloud product of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for 1983-90. Spatially averaged short-wave fluxes are compared well with climatological values, while downwelling longwave fluxes are significantly lower. This is probably due to the fact that the ISCCP cloud amounts are underestimates. Top-of-the-atmosphere radiative fluxes are in excellent agreement with measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Computed cloud forcings indicate that clouds have a warming effect at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere during winter and a cooling effect during summer. The net radiative effect of clouds is larger at the surface during winter but greater at the top of the atmosphere during summer. Overall the net radiative effect of clouds at the top of the atmosphere is one of cooling. This is in contrast to a previous result from ERBE data showing arctic cloud forcings have a net warming effect. Sensitivities to errors in input parameters are generally greater during winter with cloud amount being the most important paarameter. During summer the surface radiation balance is most sensitive to errors in the measurements of surface reflectance. The results are encouraging, but the estimated error of 20 W/sq m in surface net radiative fluxes is too large, given that estimates of the net radiative warming effect due to a doubling of CO2 are on the order of 4 W/sq m. Because it is difficult to determine the accuracy of results with existing in situ observations, it is recommended that the development of improved algorithms for the retrieval of surface radiative properties be accompanied by the simultaneous assembly of validation datasets.

  1. Exploring the Effects of Cloud Vertical Structure on Cloud Microphysical Retrievals based on Polarized Reflectances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. J.; Zhang, Z.; Platnick, S. E.; Ackerman, A. S.; Cornet, C.; Baum, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    A polarized cloud reflectance simulator was developed by coupling an LES cloud model with a polarized radiative transfer model to assess the capabilities of polarimetric cloud retrievals. With future remote sensing campaigns like NASA's Aerosols/Clouds/Ecosystems (ACE) planning to feature advanced polarimetric instruments it is important for the cloud remote sensing community to understand the retrievable information available and the related systematic/methodical limitations. The cloud retrieval simulator we have developed allows us to probe these important questions in a realistically relevant test bed. Our simulator utilizes a polarized adding-doubling radiative transfer model and an LES cloud field from a DHARMA simulation (Ackerman et al. 2004) with cloud properties based on the stratocumulus clouds observed during the DYCOMS-II field campaign. In this study we will focus on how the vertical structure of cloud microphysics can influence polarized cloud effective radius retrievals. Numerous previous studies have explored how retrievals based on total reflectance are affected by cloud vertical structure (Platnick 2000, Chang and Li 2002) but no such studies about the effects of vertical structure on polarized retrievals exist. Unlike the total cloud reflectance, which is predominantly multiply scattered light, the polarized reflectance is primarily the result of singly scattered photons. Thus the polarized reflectance is sensitive to only the uppermost region of the cloud (tau~<1) where photons can scatter once and still escape before being scattered again. This means that retrievals based on polarized reflectance have the potential to reveal behaviors specific to the cloud top. For example cloud top entrainment of dry air, a major influencer on the microphysical development of cloud droplets, can be potentially studied with polarimetric retrievals.

  2. Entrainment and cloud evaporation deduced from the stable isotope chemistry of clouds during ORACLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noone, D.; Henze, D.; Rainwater, B.; Toohey, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    The magnitude of the influence of biomass burning aerosols on cloud and rain processes is controlled by a series of processes which are difficult to measure directly. A consequence of this limitation is the emergence of significant uncertainty in the representation of cloud-aerosol interactions in models and the resulting cloud radiative forcing. Interaction between cloud and the regional atmosphere causes evaporation, and the rate of evaporation at cloud top is controlled in part by entrainment of air from above which exposes saturated cloud air to drier conditions. Similarly, the size of cloud droplets also controls evaporation rates, which in turn is linked to the abundance of condensation nuclei. To quantify the dependence of cloud properties on biomass burning aerosols the dynamic relationship between evaporation, drop size and entrainment on aerosol state, is evaluated for stratiform clouds in the southeast Atlantic Ocean. These clouds are seasonally exposed to biomass burning plumes from agricultural fires in southern Africa. Measurements of the stable isotope ratios of cloud water and total water are used to deduce the disequilibrium responsible for evaporation within clouds. Disequilibrium is identified by the relationship between hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of water vapor and cloud water in and near clouds. To obtain the needed information, a custom-built, dual inlet system was deployed alongside isotopic gas analyzers on the NASA Orion aircraft as part of the Observations of Aerosols above Clouds and their Interactions (ORACLES) campaign. The sampling system obtains both total water and cloud liquid content for the population of droplets above 7 micrometer diameter. The thermodynamic modeling required to convert the observed equilibrium and kinetic isotopic is linked to evaporation and entrainment is described, and the performance of the measurement system is discussed.

  3. Quantification of the total amount of black cohosh cycloartanoids by integration of one specific 1H NMR signal.

    PubMed

    Çiçek, Serhat Sezai; Girreser, Ulrich; Zidorn, Christian

    2018-06-05

    Quantitative analysis is an important field in the quality control of medicinal plants, aiming to determine the amount of pharmacologically active constituents in complex matrices. Often biological effects of herbal drugs are not restricted to single compounds, but are rather caused by a number of often biogenetically related plant metabolites. Depending on the complexity of the analyzed plant extract, conflicts between accuracy, such as total content assays using photometric or colorimetric methods, and comprehensiveness, e.g. quantification of one or a few lead compounds can occur. In this study, we present a qHNMR approach determining the total amount of cycloartanoids in black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) rhizomes. Perdeuterated methanol containing 1,2,4,5-tetrachloro-3-nitrobenzene as an internal standard was used for extraction. Amounts of cycloartanoids were then measured by integrating 1 H NMR signals of all cycloartenoids' H-19 exo protons. Due to their unusually low chemical shifts, these signals are well separated from all remaining signals in crude extracts. Thus, accurate (recovery rates of 99.5-102.5%) and precise (relative standard deviations below 2.5%) quantification of cycloartanoids was accomplished. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a quantification of the total amount of a pharmacologically relevant compound class by integration of one 1 H NMR signal characteristic for all members of this particular compound class. Additionally, we propose a new term and unit for the evaluation of medicinal plants and herbal medicinal products: the "specific partial amount of substance" of pharmacologically active constituents, indicated in mmol/g. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hurricane Isabel, Amount of Atmospheric Water Vapor Observed By AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    These false-color images show the amount of atmospheric water vapor observed by AIRS two weeks prior to the passage of Hurricane Isabel, and then when it was a Category 5 storm. The region shown includes parts of South America and the West Indies. Puerto Rico is the large island below the upper left corner.

    Total water vapor represents the depth of a layer if all the water vapor in the atmosphere were to condense and fall to the surface. The color bar on the right sides of the plots give the thickness of this layer in millimeters (mm). The first image, from August 28, shows typical tropical water vapor amounts over the ocean: between roughly 25 and 50 mm, or 1 to 2 inches. The highest values of roughly 80 mm, seen as a red blob over South America, corresponds to intense thunderstorms. Thunderstorms pull in water vapor from surrounding regions and concentrate it, with much of it then falling as rain.

    Figure 1 shows total water during the passage of Hurricane Isabel on September 13. The storm is apparent: the ring of moderate values surrounding a very strong maximum of 100 mm. Total water of more than 80 mm is unusual, and these values correspond to the intense thunderstorms contained within Isabel. The thunderstorms--and the large values of total water--are fed by evaporation from the ocean in the hurricane's high winds. The water vapor near the center of the storm does not remain there long, since hurricane rain rates as high 50 mm (2 inches) per hour imply rapid cycling of the water we observe. Away from the storm the amount of total water vapor is rather low, associated with fair weather where air that ascended near the storm's eye returns to earth, having dropped its moisture as rain. Also seen in the second images are two small regions of about 70 mm of total water over south America. These are yet more thunderstorms, though likely much more benign than those in Isabel.

    The

  5. Microwave boundary conditions on the atmosphere and clouds of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, W. B.; Sagan, C.

    1975-01-01

    The dielectric properties of H2O/H2SO4 mixtures are deduced from the Debye equations and, for a well-mixed atmosphere, the structure of H2O and H2O/H2SO4 clouds is calculated. Various data on the planet together set an upper limit on the mixing ratio by number for H2O of about 0.001 in the lower Venus atmosphere, and for H2SO4 of about 0.00001. The polarization value of the real part of the refractive index of the clouds, the spectroscopic limits on the abundance of water vapor above the clouds, and the microwave data together set corresponding upper limits on H2O of approximately 0.0002 and on H2SO4 of approximately 0.000009. Upper limits on the surface density of total cloud constituents and of cloud liquid water are, respectively, about 0.1 g/sq cm and about 0.01 g/sq cm. The infrared opacities of 90 bars of CO2, together with the derived upper limits to the amounts of water vapor and liquid H2O/H2SO4, may be sufficient to explain the high surface temperatures through the greenhouse effect.

  6. Cloud microphysical background for the Israel-4 cloud seeding experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freud, Eyal; Koussevitzky, Hagai; Goren, Tom; Rosenfeld, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The modest amount of rainfall in Israel occurs in winter storms that bring convective clouds from the Mediterranean Sea when the cold post frontal air interacts with its relatively warm surface. These clouds were seeded in the Israel-1 and Israel-2 cloud glaciogenic seeding experiments, which have shown statistically significant positive effect of added rainfall of at least 13% in northern Israel, whereas the Israel-3 experiment showed no added rainfall in the south. This was followed by operational seeding in the north since 1975. The lack of physical evidence for the causes of the positive effects in the north caused a lack of confidence in the statistical results and led to the Israel-4 randomized seeding experiment in northern Israel. This experiment started in the winter of 2013/14. The main difference from the previous experiments is the focus on the orographic clouds in the catchment of the Sea of Galilee. The decision to commence the experiment was partially based on evidence supporting the existence of seeding potential, which is reported here. Aircraft and satellite microphysical and dynamic measurements of the clouds document the critical roles of aerosols, especially sea spray, on cloud microstructure and precipitation forming processes. It was found that the convective clouds over sea and coastal areas are naturally seeded hygroscopically by sea spray and develop precipitation efficiently. The diminution of the large sea spray aerosols farther inland along with the increase in aerosol concentrations causes the clouds to develop precipitation more slowly. The short time available for the precipitation forming processes in super-cooled orographic clouds over the Golan Heights farthest inland represents the best glaciogenic seeding potential.

  7. The influence of Oort clouds on the mass and chemical balance of the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan; Shull, J. Michael

    1990-01-01

    The contribution of stellar encounters and interstellar erosion to comet cloud mass injection to the ISM is calculated. It is shown that evaporative mass loss from passing stars and SNe results in an average Galactic mass injection rate of up to 10 to the -5th solar mass/yr if such clouds are frequent around solar-type stars. Cometary erosion by interstellar grains produces an injection rate of 10 to the -5th to 10 to the -4th solar mass/yr. An injection rate of 2 x 10 to the -5th solar mass/yr is calculated. Each of these rates could be increased by a factor of about 15 if the comet clouds contain a significant amount of smaller debris. It is concluded that the total mass injection rate of material to the ISM by comet clouds is small compared to other ISM mass injection sources. Comet cloud mass loss to the ISM could be responsible for a sizeable fraction of the metal and dust abundances of the ISM if Oort clouds are common.

  8. Cloud feedback mechanisms and their representation in global climate models

    DOE PAGES

    Ceppi, Paulo; Brient, Florent; Zelinka, Mark D.; ...

    2017-05-11

    Cloud feedback—the change in top-of-atmosphere radiative flux resulting from the cloud response to warming—constitutes by far the largest source of uncertainty in the climate response to CO 2 forcing simulated by global climate models (GCMs). In this paper, we review the main mechanisms for cloud feedbacks, and discuss their representation in climate models and the sources of intermodel spread. Global-mean cloud feedback in GCMs results from three main effects: (1) rising free-tropospheric clouds (a positive longwave effect); (2) decreasing tropical low cloud amount (a positive shortwave [SW] effect); (3) increasing high-latitude low cloud optical depth (a negative SW effect). Thesemore » cloud responses simulated by GCMs are qualitatively supported by theory, high-resolution modeling, and observations. Rising high clouds are consistent with the fixed anvil temperature (FAT) hypothesis, whereby enhanced upper-tropospheric radiative cooling causes anvil cloud tops to remain at a nearly fixed temperature as the atmosphere warms. Tropical low cloud amount decreases are driven by a delicate balance between the effects of vertical turbulent fluxes, radiative cooling, large-scale subsidence, and lower-tropospheric stability on the boundary-layer moisture budget. High-latitude low cloud optical depth increases are dominated by phase changes in mixed-phase clouds. Finally, the causes of intermodel spread in cloud feedback are discussed, focusing particularly on the role of unresolved parameterized processes such as cloud microphysics, turbulence, and convection.« less

  9. Cloud feedback mechanisms and their representation in global climate models

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ceppi, Paulo; Brient, Florent; Zelinka, Mark D.

    Cloud feedback—the change in top-of-atmosphere radiative flux resulting from the cloud response to warming—constitutes by far the largest source of uncertainty in the climate response to CO 2 forcing simulated by global climate models (GCMs). In this paper, we review the main mechanisms for cloud feedbacks, and discuss their representation in climate models and the sources of intermodel spread. Global-mean cloud feedback in GCMs results from three main effects: (1) rising free-tropospheric clouds (a positive longwave effect); (2) decreasing tropical low cloud amount (a positive shortwave [SW] effect); (3) increasing high-latitude low cloud optical depth (a negative SW effect). Thesemore » cloud responses simulated by GCMs are qualitatively supported by theory, high-resolution modeling, and observations. Rising high clouds are consistent with the fixed anvil temperature (FAT) hypothesis, whereby enhanced upper-tropospheric radiative cooling causes anvil cloud tops to remain at a nearly fixed temperature as the atmosphere warms. Tropical low cloud amount decreases are driven by a delicate balance between the effects of vertical turbulent fluxes, radiative cooling, large-scale subsidence, and lower-tropospheric stability on the boundary-layer moisture budget. High-latitude low cloud optical depth increases are dominated by phase changes in mixed-phase clouds. Finally, the causes of intermodel spread in cloud feedback are discussed, focusing particularly on the role of unresolved parameterized processes such as cloud microphysics, turbulence, and convection.« less

  10. Study of UV cloud modification factors in Southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfram, Elian A.; Orte, Facundo; Salvador, Jacobo; Quiroga, Jonathan; D'Elia, Raúl; Antón, Manuel; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Quel, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    Anthropogenic perturbation of the ozone layer has induced change in the amount of UV radiation that reaches the Earth's surface, mainly through the Antarctic ozone hole, making the ozone and ultraviolet (UV) radiation two important issues in the study of Earth atmosphere in the scientific community. Also the clouds have been identified as the main modulator of UV amount in short time scales and produce the main source of uncertainty in the projection of surface UV level as consequence of projected ozone recovery. While clouds can decrease direct radiation, they can produce an increase in the diffuse component, and as consequence the surface UV radiation may be higher than an equivalent clear sky scenario for several minutes. In particular this situation can be important when low ozone column and partially cloud cover skies happen simultaneously. These situations happen frequently in southern Patagonia, where the CEILAP Lidar Division has established the Atmospheric Observatory of Southern Patagonia, an atmospheric remote sensing site near the city of Río Gallegos (51°55'S, 69°14'W). In this paper, the impact of clouds over the UV radiation is investigated by the use of ground based measurements from the passive remote sensing instruments operating at this site, mainly of broad and moderate narrow band filter radiometers. We analyzed the UV Index obtained from a multiband filter radiometer GUV-541 (UVI) [Biospherical Inc.] installed in the Observatorio Atmosférico de la Patagonia Austral, Río Gallegos, since 2005. Cloud modification factors (CMF, ratio between the measured UV radiation in a cloudy sky and the simulated radiation under cloud-free conditions) are evaluated for the study site. The database used in this work covers the period 2005-2012 for spring and summer seasons, when the ozone hole can affect these subpolar regions. CMF higher than 1 are found during spring and summer time, when lower total ozone columns, higher solar elevations and high cloud

  11. Effect of cloud cover and surface type on earth's radiation budget derived from the first year of ERBE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, G. G.; Denn, F. M.; Young, D. F.; Harrison, E. F.; Minnis, P.; Barkstrom, B. R.

    1990-01-01

    One year of ERBE data is analyzed for variations in outgoing LW and absorbed solar flux. Differences in land and ocean radiation budgets as well as differences between clear-sky and total scenes, including clouds, are studied. The variation of monthly average radiative parameters is examined for February 1985 through January 1986 for selected study regions and on zonal and global scales. ERBE results show significant seasonal variations in both outgoing LW and absorbed SW flux, and a pronounced difference between oceanic and continental surfaces. The main factors determining cloud radiative forcing in a given region are solar insolation, cloud amount, cloud type, and surface properties. The strongest effects of clouds are found in the midlatitude storm tracks over the oceans. Over much of the globe, LW warming is balanced by SW cooling. The annual-global average net cloud forcing shows that clouds have a net cooling effect on the earth for the year.

  12. Nitric Acid Uptake on Subtropical Cirrus Cloud Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The redistribution of HNO3 via uptake and sedimentation by cirrus cloud particles is considered an important term in the upper tropospheric budget of reactive nitrogen. Numerous cirrus cloud encounters by the NASA WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft during CRYSTAL-FACE were accompanied by the observation of condensed-phase HNO3 with the NOAA chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The instrument measures HNO3 with two independent channels of detection connected to separate forward- and downward-facing inlets that allow a determination of the amount of HNO3 condensed on ice particles. Subtropical cirrus clouds, as indicated by the presence of ice particles, were observed coincident with condensed-phase HNO3 at temperatures of 197 K - 224 K and pressures of 122 hPa - 224 hPa. Maximum levels of condensed-phase HNO3 approached the gas-phase equivalent of 0.8 ppbv. Ice particle surface coverages as high as 1.4- 10(exp 14) molecules/sq cm were observed. A dissociative Langmuir adsorption model, when using an empirically derived HNO3 adsorption enthalpy of -11.0 kcal/mol, effectively describes the observed molecular coverages to within a factor of 5. The percentage of total HNO3 in the condensed phase ranged from near zero to 100% in the observed cirrus clouds. With volume-weighted mean particle diameters up to 700 pm and particle fall velocities up to 10 m/s, some observed clouds have significant potential to redistribute HNO3 in the upper troposphere.

  13. Cloud-free resolution element statistics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liley, B.; Martin, C. D.

    1971-01-01

    Computer program computes number of cloud-free elements in field-of-view and percentage of total field-of-view occupied by clouds. Human error is eliminated by using visual estimation to compute cloud statistics from aerial photographs.

  14. A 10-Year Climatology of Cloud Cover and Vertical Distribution Derived from Both Surface and GOES Observations Over the DOE ARM SGP Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xi, Baike; Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, P.; Khaiyer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of a decade of ARM radar-lidar and GOES observations at the SGP site reveal that 0.5 and 4-hr averages of the surface cloud fraction correspond closely to 0.5deg and 2.5deg averages of GOES cloudiness, respectively. The long-term averaged surface and GOES cloud fractions agree to within 0.5%. Cloud frequency increases and cloud amount decreases as the temporal and spatial averaging scales increase. Clouds occurred most often during winter and spring. Single-layered clouds account for 61.5% of the total cloud frequency. There are distinct bimodal vertical distributions of clouds with a lower peak around 1 km and an upper one that varies from 7.5 to 10.8 km between winter and summer, respectively. The frequency of occurrence for nighttime GOES high-cloud tops agree well with the surface observations, but are underestimated during the day.

  15. Attenuation by clouds of UV radiation for low stratospheric ozone conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orte, Facundo; Wolfram, Elian; Salvador, Jacobo; D'Elia, Raúl; Quiroga, Jonathan; Quel, Eduardo; Mizuno, Akira

    2017-02-01

    Stratospheric poor ozone air masses related to the polar ozone hole overpass subpolar regions in the Southern Hemisphere during spring and summer seasons, resulting in increases of surface Ultraviolet Index (UVI). The impact of these abnormal increases in the ultraviolet radiation could be overestimated if clouds are not taking into account. The aim of this work is to determine the percentage of cases in which cloudiness attenuates the high UV radiation that would reach the surface in low total ozone column situations and in clear sky hypothetical condition for Río Gallegos, Argentina. For this purpose, we analysed UVI data obtained from a multiband filter radiometer GUV-541 (Biospherical Inc.) installed in the Observatorio Atmosférico de la Patagonia Austral (OAPA-UNIDEF (MINDEF - CONICET)) (51 ° 33' S, 69 ° 19' W), Río Gallegos, since 2005. The database used covers the period 2005-2012 for spring seasons. Measured UVI values are compared with UVI calculated using a parametric UV model proposed by Madronich (2007), which is an approximation for the UVI for clear sky, unpolluted atmosphere and low surface albedo condition, using the total ozone column amount, obtained from the OMI database for our case, and the solar zenith angle. It is observed that ˜76% of the total low ozone amount cases, which would result in high and very high UVI categories for a hypothetical (modeled) clear sky condition, are attenuated by clouds, while 91% of hypothetical extremely high UVI category are also attenuated.

  16. Derivation of Tropospheric Column Ozone from the EPTOMS/GOES Co-Located Data Sets using the Cloud Slicing Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, C.; Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    A recently developed technique called cloud slicing used for deriving upper tropospheric ozone from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument combined together with temperature-humidity and infrared radiometer (THIR) is no longer applicable to the Earth Probe TOMS (EPTOMS) because EPTOMS does not have an instrument to measure cloud top temperatures. For continuing monitoring of tropospheric ozone between 200-500hPa and testing the feasibility of this technique across spacecrafts, EPTOMS data are co-located in time and space with the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 infrared data for 2001 and early 2002, covering most of North and South America (45S-45N and 120W-30W). The maximum column amounts for the mid-latitudinal sites of the northern hemisphere are found in the March-May season. For the mid-latitudinal sites of the southern hemisphere, the highest column amounts are found in the September-November season, although overall seasonal variability is smaller than those of the northern hemisphere. The tropical sites show the weakest seasonal variability compared to higher latitudes. The derived results for selected sites are cross validated qualitatively with the seasonality of ozonesonde observations and the results from THIR analyses over the 1979-1984 time period due to the lack of available ozonesonde measurements to study sites for 2001. These comparisons show a reasonably good agreement among THIR, ozonesonde observations, and cloud slicing-derived column ozone. With very limited co-located EPTOMS/GOES data sets, the cloud slicing technique is still viable to derive the upper tropospheric column ozone. Two new variant approaches, High-Low (HL) cloud slicing and ozone profile derivation from cloud slicing are introduced to estimate column ozone amounts using the entire cloud information in the troposphere.

  17. The Modification of Orographic Snow Growth Processes by Cloud Nucleating Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, W. R.; Saleeby, S.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud nucleating aerosols have been found to modify the amount and spatial distribution of snowfall in mountainous areas where riming growth of snow crystals is known to contribute substantially to the total snow water equivalent precipitation. In the Park Range of Colorado, a 2km deep supercooled liquid water orographic cloud frequently enshrouds the mountaintop during snowfall events. This leads to a seeder-feeder growth regime in which snow falls through the orographic cloud and collects cloud water prior to surface deposition. The addition of higher concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) modifies the cloud droplet spectrum toward smaller size droplets and suppresses riming growth. Without rime growth, the density of snow crystals remains low and horizontal trajectories carry them further downwind due to slower vertical fall speeds. This leads to a downwind shift in snowfall accumulation at high CCN concentrations. Cloud resolving model simulations were performed (at 600m horizontal grid spacing) for six snowfall events over the Park Range. The chosen events were well simulated and occurred during intensive observations periods as part of two winter field campaigns in 2007 and 2010 based at Storm Peak Laboratory in Steamboat Springs, CO. For each event, sensitivity simulations were run with various initial CCN concentration vertical profiles that represent clean to polluted aerosol environments. Microphysical budget analyses were performed for these simulations in order to determine the relative importance of the various cloud properties and growth processes that contribute to precipitation production. Observations and modeling results indicate that initial vapor depositional growth of snow tends to be maximized within about 1km of mountaintop above the windward slope while the majority of riming growth occurs within 500m of mountaintop. This suggests that precipitation production is predominantly driven by locally enhanced orography. The large scale

  18. A real-time monitoring and assessment method for calculation of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted in subway stations.

    PubMed

    Oh, TaeSeok; Kim, MinJeong; Lim, JungJin; Kang, OnYu; Shetty, K Vidya; SankaraRao, B; Yoo, ChangKyoo; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jeong Tai

    2012-05-01

    Subway systems are considered as main public transportation facility in developed countries. Time spent by people in indoors, such as underground spaces, subway stations, and indoor buildings, has gradually increased in the recent past. Especially, operators or old persons who stay in indoor environments more than 15 hr per day usually influenced a greater extent by indoor air pollutants. Hence, regulations on indoor air pollutants are needed to ensure good health of people. Therefore, in this study, a new cumulative calculation method for the estimation of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted inside the subway station is proposed by taking cumulative amounts of indoor air pollutants based on integration concept. Minimum concentration of individual air pollutants which naturally exist in indoor space is referred as base concentration of air pollutants and can be found from the data collected. After subtracting the value of base concentration from data point of each data set of indoor air pollutant, the primary quantity of emitted air pollutant is calculated. After integration is carried out with these values, adding the base concentration to the integration quantity gives the total amount of indoor air pollutant emitted. Moreover the values of new index for cumulative indoor air quality obtained for 1 day are calculated using the values of cumulative air quality index (CAI). Cumulative comprehensive indoor air quality index (CCIAI) is also proposed to compare the values of cumulative concentrations of indoor air pollutants. From the results, it is clear that the cumulative assessment approach of indoor air quality (IAQ) is useful for monitoring the values of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted, in case of exposure to indoor air pollutants for a long time. Also, the values of CCIAI are influenced more by the values of concentration of NO2, which is released due to the use of air conditioners and combustion of the fuel. The results obtained in

  19. Bayesian cloud detection for MERIS, AATSR, and their combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollstein, A.; Fischer, J.; Carbajal Henken, C.; Preusker, R.

    2014-11-01

    A broad range of different of Bayesian cloud detection schemes is applied to measurements from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), and their combination. The cloud masks were designed to be numerically efficient and suited for the processing of large amounts of data. Results from the classical and naive approach to Bayesian cloud masking are discussed for MERIS and AATSR as well as for their combination. A sensitivity study on the resolution of multidimensional histograms, which were post-processed by Gaussian smoothing, shows how theoretically insufficient amounts of truth data can be used to set up accurate classical Bayesian cloud masks. Sets of exploited features from single and derived channels are numerically optimized and results for naive and classical Bayesian cloud masks are presented. The application of the Bayesian approach is discussed in terms of reproducing existing algorithms, enhancing existing algorithms, increasing the robustness of existing algorithms, and on setting up new classification schemes based on manually classified scenes.

  20. Microphysics of Pyrocumulonimbus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fridlind, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The intense heat from forest fires can generate explosive deep convective cloud systems that inject pollutants to high altitudes. Both satellite and high-altitude aircraft measurements have documented cases in which these pyrocumulonimbus clouds inject large amounts of smoke well into the stratosphere (Fromm and Servranckx 2003; Jost et al. 2004). This smoke can remain in the stratosphere, be transported large distances, and affect lower stratospheric chemistry. In addition recent in situ measurements in pyrocumulus updrafts have shown that the high concentrations of smoke particles have significant impacts on cloud microphysical properties. Very high droplet number densities result in delayed precipitation and may enhance lightning (Andrew et al. 2004). Presumably, the smoke particles will also lead to changes in the properties of anvil cirrus produces by the deep convection, with resulting influences on cloud radiative forcing. In situ sampling near the tops of mature pyrocumulonimbus is difficult due to the high altitude and violence of the storms. In this study, we use large eddy simulations (LES) with size-resolved microphysics to elucidate physical processes in pyrocumulonimbus clouds.

  1. The Sensitivity of Tropical Squall Lines (GATE and TOGA COARE) to Surface Fluxes: Cloud Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yansen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne; Lang, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Two tropical squall lines from TOGA COARE and GATE were simulated using a two-dimensional cloud-resolving model to examine the impact of surface fluxes on tropical squall line development and associated precipitation processes. The important question of how CAPE in clear and cloudy areas is maintained in the tropics is also investigated. Although the cloud structure and precipitation intensity are different between the TOGA COARE and GATE squall line cases, the effects of the surface fluxes on the amount of rainfall and on the cloud development processes are quite similar. The simulated total surface rainfall amount in the runs without surface fluxes is about 67% of the rainfall simulated with surface fluxes. The area where surface fluxes originated was categorized into clear and cloudy regions according to whether there was cloud in the vertical column. The model results indicated that the surface fluxes from the large clear air environment are the dominant moisture source for tropical squall line development even though the surface fluxes in the cloud region display a large peak. The high-energy air from the boundary layer in the clear area is what feeds the convection while the CAPE is removed by the convection. The surface rainfall was only reduced 8 to 9% percent in the simulations without surface fluxes in the cloud region. Trajectory and water budget analysis also indicated that most moisture (92%) was from the boundary layer of the clear air environment.

  2. Cloud vertical structure, precipitation, and cloud radiative effects over Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Yan, Y.; Lu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The vertical structure of clouds and its connection with precipitation and cloud radiative effects (CRE) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are analyzed and compared with its neighboring land and tropical oceans based on CloudSat and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) products and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation data. Unique characteristics of cloud vertical structure and CRE over the TP are found. The cloud amount shows seasonal variation over the TP, which presents a single peak (located in 7-11 km) during January to April and two peaks (located in 5-8 km and 11-17 km separately) after mid-June, and then resumes to one peak (located in 5-10 km) after mid-August. Topography-induced restriction on moisture supply leads to a compression effect on clouds, i.e., the reduction in both cloud thickness and number of cloud layers, over the TP. The topography-induced compression effect is also shown in the range in the variation of cloud thickness and cloud-top height corresponding to different precipitation intensity, which is much smaller over the TP than its neighboring regions. In summer, cloud ice particles over the TP are mostly located at lower altitude (5-10 km) with richer variety of sizes and aggregation in no rain conditions compared to other regions. Ice water content becomes abundant and the number concentration tends to be dense at higher levels when precipitation is enhanced. The longwave CRE in the atmosphere over the TP is a net cooling effect. The vertical structure of CRE over the TP is unique compared to other regions: there exists a strong cooling layer of net CRE at the altitude of 8 km, from June to the beginning of October; the net radiative heating layer above the surface is shallower but stronger underneath 7 km and with a stronger seasonal variation over the TP.

  3. Insights from a refined decomposition of cloud feedbacks

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zelinka, Mark D.; Zhou, Chen; Klein, Stephen A.

    Decomposing cloud feedback into components due to changes in several gross cloud properties provides valuable insights into its physical causes. Here we present a refined decomposition that separately considers changes in free tropospheric and low cloud properties, better connecting feedbacks to individual governing processes and avoiding ambiguities present in a commonly used decomposition. It reveals that three net cloud feedback components are robustly nonzero: positive feedbacks from increasing free tropospheric cloud altitude and decreasing low cloud cover and a negative feedback from increasing low cloud optical depth. Low cloud amount feedback is the dominant contributor to spread in net cloudmore » feedback but its anticorrelation with other components damps overall spread. Furthermore, the ensemble mean free tropospheric cloud altitude feedback is roughly 60% as large as the standard cloud altitude feedback because it avoids aliasing in low cloud reductions. Implications for the “null hypothesis” climate sensitivity from well-understood and robustly simulated feedbacks are discussed.« less

  4. Insights from a refined decomposition of cloud feedbacks

    DOE PAGES

    Zelinka, Mark D.; Zhou, Chen; Klein, Stephen A.

    2016-09-05

    Decomposing cloud feedback into components due to changes in several gross cloud properties provides valuable insights into its physical causes. Here we present a refined decomposition that separately considers changes in free tropospheric and low cloud properties, better connecting feedbacks to individual governing processes and avoiding ambiguities present in a commonly used decomposition. It reveals that three net cloud feedback components are robustly nonzero: positive feedbacks from increasing free tropospheric cloud altitude and decreasing low cloud cover and a negative feedback from increasing low cloud optical depth. Low cloud amount feedback is the dominant contributor to spread in net cloudmore » feedback but its anticorrelation with other components damps overall spread. Furthermore, the ensemble mean free tropospheric cloud altitude feedback is roughly 60% as large as the standard cloud altitude feedback because it avoids aliasing in low cloud reductions. Implications for the “null hypothesis” climate sensitivity from well-understood and robustly simulated feedbacks are discussed.« less

  5. Regional distribution of the high-altitude clouds over the Indian subcontinent and surrounding oceanic regions based on seven years of satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenu, S.; Rajeev, K.; Parameswaran, K.; Suresh Raju, C.

    2006-12-01

    Quantitative estimates of the spatio-temporal variations in deep convective events over the Indian subcontinent, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, and tropical Indian Ocean are carried out using the data obtained from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard NOAA-14 and NOAA-16 during the period 1996-2003. Pixels having thermal IR brightness temperature (BT) less than 245K are considered as high altitude clouds and those having BT<220 K are considered as very high altitude clouds. Very deep convective clouds are observed over north Bay of Bengal during the Asian summer monsoon season when the mean cloud top temperature reaches as low as 190K. Over the Head Bay of Bengal (HBoB) from June to September, more than 50% of the observed clouds are deep convective type and more than half of these deep convective clouds are very deep convective clouds. Histogram analysis of the cloud top temperatures during this period shows that over HBoB the most prominent cloud top temperature of the deep convective clouds is ~205K over the HBoB while that over southeast Arabian Sea (SEAS) is ~220K. This indicates that most probably the cloud top altitude over HBoB is ~2 km larger than that over SEAS during the Asian summer monsoon period. Another remarkable feature observed during the Asian summer monsoon period is the significantly low values of deep convective clouds observed over the south Bay of Bengal close to Srilanka, which appears as a large pool of reduced cloud amount surrounded by regions of large-scale deep convection. Over both SEAS and HBoB, the total, deep convective and very deep convective cloud amounts as well as their corresponding cloud top temperatures (or the altitude of the cloud top) undergo large seasonal variations, while such variations are less prominent over the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

  6. Experience of the JPL Exploratory Data Analysis Team at validating HIRS2/MSU cloud parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph; Haskins, Robert D.; Granger-Gallegos, Stephanie; Pursch, Andrew; Delgenio, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Validation of the HIRS2/MSU cloud parameters began with the cloud/climate feedback problem. The derived effective cloud amount is less sensitive to surface temperature for higher clouds. This occurs because as the cloud elevation increases, the difference between surface temperature and cloud temperature increases, so only a small change in cloud amount is needed to effect a large change in radiance at the detector. By validating the cloud parameters it is meant 'developing a quantitative sense for the physical meaning of the measured parameters', by: (1) identifying the assumptions involved in deriving parameters from the measured radiances, (2) testing the input data and derived parameters for statistical error, sensitivity, and internal consistency, and (3) comparing with similar parameters obtained from other sources using other techniques.

  7. Microphysical Timescales in Clouds and their Application in Cloud-Resolving Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Xiping; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Independent prognostic variables in cloud-resolving modeling are chosen on the basis of the analysis of microphysical timescales in clouds versus a time step for numerical integration. Two of them are the moist entropy and the total mixing ratio of airborne water with no contributions from precipitating particles. As a result, temperature can be diagnosed easily from those prognostic variables, and cloud microphysics be separated (or modularized) from moist thermodynamics. Numerical comparison experiments show that those prognostic variables can work well while a large time step (e.g., 10 s) is used for numerical integration.

  8. Toward Realistic Simulation of low-Level Clouds Using a Multiscale Modeling Framework With a Third-Order Turbulence Closure in its Cloud-Resolving Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Kuan-Man; Cheng, Anning

    2010-01-01

    This study presents preliminary results from a multiscale modeling framework (MMF) with an advanced third-order turbulence closure in its cloud-resolving model (CRM) component. In the original MMF, the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.5) is used as the host general circulation model (GCM), and the System for Atmospheric Modeling with a first-order turbulence closure is used as the CRM for representing cloud processes in each grid box of the GCM. The results of annual and seasonal means and diurnal variability are compared between the modified and original MMFs and the CAM3.5. The global distributions of low-level cloud amounts and precipitation and the amounts of low-level clouds in the subtropics and middle-level clouds in mid-latitude storm track regions in the modified MMF show substantial improvement relative to the original MMF when both are compared to observations. Some improvements can also be seen in the diurnal variability of precipitation.

  9. Measurements of the light-absorbing material inside cloud droplets and its effect on cloud albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twohy, C. H.; Clarke, A. D.; Warren, Stephen G.; Radke, L. F.; Charleson, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the measurements of light-absorbing aerosol particles made previously have been in non-cloudy air and therefore provide no insight into aerosol effects on cloud properties. Here, researchers describe an experiment designed to measure light absorption exclusively due to substances inside cloud droplets, compare the results to related light absorption measurements, and evaluate possible effects on the albedo of clouds. The results of this study validate those of Twomey and Cocks and show that the measured levels of light-absorbing material are negligible for the radiative properties of realistic clouds. For the measured clouds, which appear to have been moderately polluted, the amount of elemental carbon (EC) present was insufficient to affect albedo. Much higher contaminant levels or much larger droplets than those measured would be necessary to significantly alter the radiative properties. The effect of the concentrations of EC actually measured on the albedo of snow, however, would be much more pronounced since, in contrast to clouds, snowpacks are usually optically semi-infinite and have large particle sizes.

  10. Nitric Acid Uptake on Subtropical Cirrus Cloud Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popp, P. J.; Gao, R. S.; Marcy, T. P.; Fahey, D. W.; Hudson, P. K.; Thompson, T. L.; Kaercher, B.; Ridley, B. A.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; hide

    2004-01-01

    The redistribution of HNO3 via uptake and sedimentation by cirrus cloud particles is considered an important term in the upper tropospheric budget of reactive nitrogen. Numerous cirrus cloud encounters by the NASA WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) were accompanied by the observation of condensed-phase HNO3 with the NOAA chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The instrument measures HNO3 with two independent channels of detection connected to separate forward and downward facing inlets that allow a determination of the amount of HNO3 condensed on ice particles. Subtropical cirrus clouds, as indicated by the presence of ice particles, were observed coincident with condensed-phase HNO3 at temperatures of 197-224 K and pressures of 122-224 hPa. Maximum levels of condensed-phase HNO3 approached the gas-phase equivalent of 0.8 ppbv. Ice particle surface coverages as high as 1.4 # 10(exp 14) molecules/ square cm were observed. A dissociative Langmuir adsorption model, when using an empirically derived HNO3 adsorption enthalpy of -11.0 kcal/mol, effectively describes the observed molecular coverages to within a factor of 5. The percentage of total HNO3 in the condensed phase ranged from near zero to 100% in the observed cirrus clouds. With volume-weighted mean particle diameters up to 700 ?m and particle fall velocities up to 10 m/s, some observed clouds have significant potential to redistribute HNO3 in the upper troposphere.

  11. The effect of moonlight on observation of cloud cover at night, and application to cloud climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Carole J.; Warren, Stephen G.; London, Julius

    1995-01-01

    Ten years of nighttime weather observations from the Northern Hemisphere in December were classified according to the illuminance of moonlight or twilight on the cloud tops, and a threshold level of illuminance was determined, above which the clouds are apparently detected adequately. This threshold corresponds to light from a full moon at an elevation angle of 6 deg, light from a partial moon at higher elevation, or twilight from the sun less than 9 deg bvelow the horizon. It permits the use of about 38% of the observations made with the sun below the horizon. The computed diurnal cycles of total cloud cover are altered considerably when this moonlight criterion is imposed. Maximum cloud cover over much of the ocean is now found to be at night or in the morning, whereas computations obtained without benefit of the moonlight criterion, as in our published atlases, showed the time of maximum to be noon or early afternoon in many regions. The diurnal cycles of total cloud cover we obtain are compared with those of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for a few regions; they are generally in better agreement if the moonlight criterion is imposed on the surface observations. Using the moonlight criterion, we have analyzed 10 years (1982-91) of surface weather observations over land and ocean, worldwide, for total cloud cover and for the frequency of occurrence of clear sky, fog, and precipitation. The global average cloud cover (average of day and night) is about 2% higher if the moonlight criterion is imposed than if all observations are used. The difference is greater in winter than in summer, because of the fewer hours of darkness in summer. The amplitude of the annual cycle of total cloud cover over the Arctic Ocean and at the South Pole is diminished by a few percent when the moonlight criterion is imposed. The average cloud cover for 1982-91 is found to be 55% for Northern Hemisphere land, 53% for Southern Hemisphere land, 66% for

  12. Comparisons of cloud cover evaluated from LANDSAT imagery and meteorological stations across the British Isles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, E. C. (Principal Investigator); Grant, C. K.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This stage of the study has confirmed the initial supposition that LANDSAT data could be analyzed to provide useful data on cloud amount, and that useful light would be thrown thereby on the performance of the ground observer of this aspect of the state of the sky. This study, in comparison with previous studies of a similar nature using data from meteorological satellites, has benefited greatly from the much higher resolution data provided by LANDSAT. This has permitted consideration of not only the overall performance of the surface observer in estimating total cloud cover, but also his performance under different sky conditions.

  13. Clustering, randomness, and regularity in cloud fields. 4. Stratocumulus cloud fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Chou, J.; Weger, R. C.; Welch, R. M.

    1994-07-01

    To complete the analysis of the spatial distribution of boundary layer cloudiness, the present study focuses on nine stratocumulus Landsat scenes. The results indicate many similarities between stratocumulus and cumulus spatial distributions. Most notably, at full spatial resolution all scenes exhibit a decidedly clustered distribution. The strength of the clustering signal decreases with increasing cloud size; the clusters themselves consist of a few clouds (less than 10), occupy a small percentage of the cloud field area (less than 5%), contain between 20% and 60% of the cloud field population, and are randomly located within the scene. In contrast, stratocumulus in almost every respect are more strongly clustered than are cumulus cloud fields. For instance, stratocumulus clusters contain more clouds per cluster, occupy a larger percentage of the total area, and have a larger percentage of clouds participating in clusters than the corresponding cumulus examples. To investigate clustering at intermediate spatial scales, the local dimensionality statistic is introduced. Results obtained from this statistic provide the first direct evidence for regularity among large (>900 m in diameter) clouds in stratocumulus and cumulus cloud fields, in support of the inhibition hypothesis of Ramirez and Bras (1990). Also, the size compensated point-to-cloud cumulative distribution function statistic is found to be necessary to obtain a consistent description of stratocumulus cloud distributions. A hypothesis regarding the underlying physical mechanisms responsible for cloud clustering is presented. It is suggested that cloud clusters often arise from 4 to 10 triggering events localized within regions less than 2 km in diameter and randomly distributed within the cloud field. As the size of the cloud surpasses the scale of the triggering region, the clustering signal weakens and the larger cloud locations become more random.

  14. Clustering, randomness, and regularity in cloud fields. 4: Stratocumulus cloud fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.; Chou, J.; Weger, R. C.; Welch, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    To complete the analysis of the spatial distribution of boundary layer cloudiness, the present study focuses on nine stratocumulus Landsat scenes. The results indicate many similarities between stratocumulus and cumulus spatial distributions. Most notably, at full spatial resolution all scenes exhibit a decidedly clustered distribution. The strength of the clustering signal decreases with increasing cloud size; the clusters themselves consist of a few clouds (less than 10), occupy a small percentage of the cloud field area (less than 5%), contain between 20% and 60% of the cloud field population, and are randomly located within the scene. In contrast, stratocumulus in almost every respect are more strongly clustered than are cumulus cloud fields. For instance, stratocumulus clusters contain more clouds per cluster, occupy a larger percentage of the total area, and have a larger percentage of clouds participating in clusters than the corresponding cumulus examples. To investigate clustering at intermediate spatial scales, the local dimensionality statistic is introduced. Results obtained from this statistic provide the first direct evidence for regularity among large (more than 900 m in diameter) clouds in stratocumulus and cumulus cloud fields, in support of the inhibition hypothesis of Ramirez and Bras (1990). Also, the size compensated point-to-cloud cumulative distribution function statistic is found to be necessary to obtain a consistent description of stratocumulus cloud distributions. A hypothesis regarding the underlying physical mechanisms responsible for cloud clustering is presented. It is suggested that cloud clusters often arise from 4 to 10 triggering events localized within regions less than 2 km in diameter and randomly distributed within the cloud field. As the size of the cloud surpasses the scale of the triggering region, the clustering signal weakens and the larger cloud locations become more random.

  15. Evaluation of AIRS cloud properties using MPACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuebao; Li, Jun; Menzel, W. Paul; Huang, Allen; Baggett, Kevin; Revercomb, Henry

    2005-12-01

    Retrieval of cloud properties from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard the NASA Aqua satellite has been investigated. The cloud products from the collocated MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are used to characterize the AIRS sub-pixel cloud information such as cloud phase, cloud coverage, and cloud layer information. A Minimum Residual (MR) approach is used to retrieve cloud microphysical properties once the cloud top pressure (CTP) and effective cloud amount (ECA) are determined from AIRS CO2 absorption channels between 720 and 790 cm-1. The cloud microphysical properties can be retrieved by minimizing the differences between the observations and the calculations using AIRS longwave window channels between 790 and 1130 cm-1. AIRS is used to derive cloud properties during the Mixed Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) field campaign. Comparison with measurements obtained from lidar data is made for a test day, showing that AIRS cloud property retrievals agree with in situ lidar observations. Due to the large solar zenith angle, the MODIS operational retrieval approach is not able to provide cloud microphysics north of Barrow, Alaska; however, AIRS provides cloud microphysical properties with its high spectral resolution IR measurements.

  16. Hailstones: a window into the microbial and chemical inventory of a storm cloud.

    PubMed

    Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Finster, Kai; Dittmar, Thorsten; Hansen, Bjarne Munk; Thyrhaug, Runar; Nielsen, Niels Woetmann; Karlson, Ulrich Gosewinkel

    2013-01-01

    Storm clouds frequently form in the summer period in temperate climate zones. Studies on these inaccessible and short-lived atmospheric habitats have been scarce. We report here on the first comprehensive biogeochemical investigation of a storm cloud using hailstones as a natural stochastic sampling tool. A detailed molecular analysis of the dissolved organic matter in individual hailstones via ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry revealed the molecular formulae of almost 3000 different compounds. Only a small fraction of these compounds were rapidly biodegradable carbohydrates and lipids, suitable for microbial consumption during the lifetime of cloud droplets. However, as the cloud environment was characterized by a low bacterial density (Me = 1973 cells/ml) as well as high concentrations of both dissolved organic carbon (Me = 179 µM) and total dissolved nitrogen (Me = 30 µM), already trace amounts of easily degradable organic compounds suffice to support bacterial growth. The molecular fingerprints revealed a mainly soil origin of dissolved organic matter and a minor contribution of plant-surface compounds. In contrast, both the total and the cultivable bacterial community were skewed by bacterial groups (γ-Proteobacteria, Sphingobacteriales and Methylobacterium) that indicated the dominance of plant-surface bacteria. The enrichment of plant-associated bacterial groups points at a selection process of microbial genera in the course of cloud formation, which could affect the long-distance transport and spatial distribution of bacteria on Earth. Based on our results we hypothesize that plant-associated bacteria were more likely than soil bacteria (i) to survive the airborne state due to adaptations to life in the phyllosphere, which in many respects matches the demands encountered in the atmosphere and (ii) to grow on the suitable fraction of dissolved organic matter in clouds due to their ecological strategy. We conclude that storm clouds are

  17. Hailstones: A Window into the Microbial and Chemical Inventory of a Storm Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Finster, Kai; Dittmar, Thorsten; Hansen, Bjarne Munk; Nielsen, Niels Woetmann; Karlson, Ulrich Gosewinkel

    2013-01-01

    Storm clouds frequently form in the summer period in temperate climate zones. Studies on these inaccessible and short-lived atmospheric habitats have been scarce. We report here on the first comprehensive biogeochemical investigation of a storm cloud using hailstones as a natural stochastic sampling tool. A detailed molecular analysis of the dissolved organic matter in individual hailstones via ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry revealed the molecular formulae of almost 3000 different compounds. Only a small fraction of these compounds were rapidly biodegradable carbohydrates and lipids, suitable for microbial consumption during the lifetime of cloud droplets. However, as the cloud environment was characterized by a low bacterial density (Me = 1973 cells/ml) as well as high concentrations of both dissolved organic carbon (Me = 179 µM) and total dissolved nitrogen (Me = 30 µM), already trace amounts of easily degradable organic compounds suffice to support bacterial growth. The molecular fingerprints revealed a mainly soil origin of dissolved organic matter and a minor contribution of plant-surface compounds. In contrast, both the total and the cultivable bacterial community were skewed by bacterial groups (γ-Proteobacteria, Sphingobacteriales and Methylobacterium) that indicated the dominance of plant-surface bacteria. The enrichment of plant-associated bacterial groups points at a selection process of microbial genera in the course of cloud formation, which could affect the long-distance transport and spatial distribution of bacteria on Earth. Based on our results we hypothesize that plant-associated bacteria were more likely than soil bacteria (i) to survive the airborne state due to adaptations to life in the phyllosphere, which in many respects matches the demands encountered in the atmosphere and (ii) to grow on the suitable fraction of dissolved organic matter in clouds due to their ecological strategy. We conclude that storm clouds are

  18. Evaluating The Indirect Effect of Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, S.; Jonas, P. R.

    What effect would an increase in nucleating aerosols have on the radiative and cloud properties? What error would be incurred by evaluating the indirect effect by taking an evolved cloud and fixing the integrated water content and vary the number of ice crystals? These questions will be addressed in this work. We will use the UK LES cloud resolving model to perform a sensitivity study for cirrus clouds to the indirect effect, and will evaluate approximate methods in the process. In this work, we will initialize the base (no increase of aerosol) cirrus clouds so that the double moment scheme is constrained to agree with observations through the ef- fective radius. Effective radius is calculated using the local concentration and the ice water content. We then perform a sensitivity experiment to investigate the dependence of the average IWC, effective size, and radiative properties (including heating rates) to variations in the nucleation rate. Conclusions will be draw as to the possible ef- fect of changes in aerosol amounts on cirrus. We will determine how sensitive the cloud and radiative properties are to various aerosol increases. We will also discuss the applicability of the Meyer et al. (1992) nucleation formulae for our simulations. It is important to stress that in this work we only change the nucleation rate for the newly forming cloud. By doing this, we are not fixing the total water content and redistributing the water amongst increased ice crystals. We increase the number of aerosols available to be nucleated and allow the model to evolve the size distributions. In this way, there is competition for the water vapour, the ice particles are evolved dynamically with different fall speeds, the conversion rates to other hydrometers (such as aggregates) are affected, and the heating rates are different due to the different size distributions that evolve. We will look at how the water content, the distribution of water, and the radiative properties are affected

  19. IRAS images of nearby dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Douglas O. S.; Myers, Philip C.; Daugherty, Debra A.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated approximately 100 nearby molecular clouds using the extensive, all-sky database of IRAS. The clouds in this study cover a wide range of physical properties including visual extinction, size, mass, degree of isolation, homogeneity and morphology. IRAS 100 and 60 micron co-added images were used to calculate the 100 micron optical depth of dust in the clouds. These images of dust optical depth compare very well with (12)CO and (13)CO observations, and can be related to H2 column density. From the optical depth images we locate the edges of dark clouds and the dense cores inside them. We have identified a total of 43 `IRAS clouds' (regions with A(sub v) greater than 2) which contain a total of 255 `IRAS cores' (regions with A(sub v) greater than 4) and we catalog their physical properties. We find that the clouds are remarkably filamentary, and that the cores within the clouds are often distributed along the filaments. The largest cores are usually connected to other large cores by filaments. We have developed selection criteria to search the IRAS Point Source Catalog for stars that are likely to be associated with the clouds and we catalog the IRAS sources in each cloud or core. Optically visible stars associated with the clouds have been identified from the Herbig and Bell catalog. From these data we characterize the physical properties of the clouds including their star-formation efficiency.

  20. Edited synoptic cloud reports from ships and land stations over the globe, 1982--1991

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hahn, C.J.; Warren, S.G.; London, J.

    1996-02-01

    Surface synoptic weather reports for the entire globe for the 10-year period from December 1981 through November 1991 have been processed, edited, and rewritten to provide a data set designed for use in cloud analyses. The information in these reports relating to clouds, including the present weather information, was extracted and put through a series of quality control checks. Correctable inconsistencies within reports were edited for consistency, so that the ``edited cloud report`` can be used for cloud analysis. Cases of ``sky obscured`` were interpreted by reference to the present weather code as to whether they indicated fog, rain ormore » snow and were given appropriate cloud type designations. Nimbostratus clouds were also given a special designation. Changes made to an original report are indicated in the edited report so that the original report can be reconstructed if desired. While low cloud amount is normally given directly in the synoptic report, the edited cloud report also includes the amounts, either directly reported or inferred, of middle and high clouds, both the non-overlapped amounts and the ``actual`` amounts. Since illumination from the moon is important for the adequate detection of clouds at night, both the relative lunar illuminance and the solar altitude are given; well as a parameter that indicates whether our recommended illuminance criterion was satisfied. This data set contains 124 million reports from land stations and 15 million reports from ships. Each report is 56 characters in length. The archive consists of 240 files, one file for each month of data for land and ocean separately. With this data set a user can develop a climatology for any particular cloud type or group of types, for any geographical region and any spatial and temporal resolution desired.« less

  1. Cloud fraction and cloud base measurements from scanning Doppler lidar during WFIP-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, T.; Long, C.; Lantz, K. O.; Choukulkar, A.; Pichugina, Y. L.; McCarty, B.; Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Marquis, M.

    2017-12-01

    The second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP-2) consisted of an 18-month field deployment of a variety of instrumentation with the principle objective of validating and improving NWP forecasts for wind energy applications in complex terrain. As a part of the set of instrumentation, several scanning Doppler lidars were installed across the study domain to primarily measure profiles of the mean wind and turbulence at high-resolution within the planetary boundary layer. In addition to these measurements, Doppler lidar observations can be used to directly quantify the cloud fraction and cloud base, since clouds appear as a high backscatter return. These supplementary measurements of clouds can then be used to validate cloud cover and other properties in NWP output. Herein, statistics of the cloud fraction and cloud base height from the duration of WFIP-2 are presented. Additionally, these cloud fraction estimates from Doppler lidar are compared with similar measurements from a Total Sky Imager and Radiative Flux Analysis (RadFlux) retrievals at the Wasco site. During mostly cloudy to overcast conditions, estimates of the cloud radiating temperature from the RadFlux methodology are also compared with Doppler lidar measured cloud base height.

  2. A multilinear regression methodology to analyze the effect of atmospheric and surface forcing on Arctic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeke, R.; Taylor, P. C.; Li, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic cloud amount as simulated in CMIP5 models displays large intermodel spread- models disagree on the processes important for cloud formation as well as the radiative impact of clouds. The radiative response to cloud forcing can be better assessed when the drivers of Arctic cloud formation are known. Arctic cloud amount (CA) is a function of both atmospheric and surface conditions, and it is crucial to separate the influences of unique processes to understand why the models are different. This study uses a multilinear regression methodology to determine cloud changes using 3 variables as predictors: lower tropospheric stability (LTS), 500-hPa vertical velocity (ω500), and sea ice concentration (SIC). These three explanatory variables were chosen because their effects on clouds can be attributed to unique climate processes: LTS is a thermodynamic indicator of the relationship between clouds and atmospheric stability, SIC determines the interaction between clouds and the surface, and ω500 is a metric for dynamical change. Vertical, seasonal profiles of necessary variables are obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) historical simulation, an ocean-atmosphere couple model forced with the best-estimate natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing from 1850-2005, and statistical significance tests are used to confirm the regression equation. A unique heuristic model will be constructed for each climate model and for observations, and models will be tested by their ability to capture the observed cloud amount and behavior. Lastly, the intermodel spread in Arctic cloud amount will be attributed to individual processes, ranking the relative contributions of each factor to shed light on emergent constraints in the Arctic cloud radiative effect.

  3. ISCCP Cloud Properties Associated with Standard Cloud Types Identified in Individual Surface Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Carole J.; Rossow, William B.; Warren, Stephen G.

    1999-01-01

    Individual surface weather observations from land stations and ships are compared with individual cloud retrievals of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), Stage C1, for an 8-year period (1983-1991) to relate cloud optical thicknesses and cloud-top pressures obtained from satellite data to the standard cloud types reported in visual observations from the surface. Each surface report is matched to the corresponding ISCCP-C1 report for the time of observation for the 280x280-km grid-box containing that observation. Classes of the surface reports are identified in which a particular cloud type was reported present, either alone or in combination with other clouds. For each class, cloud amounts from both surface and C1 data, base heights from surface data, and the frequency-distributions of cloud-top pressure (p(sub c) and optical thickness (tau) from C1 data are averaged over 15-degree latitude zones, for land and ocean separately, for 3-month seasons. The frequency distribution of p(sub c) and tau is plotted for each of the surface-defined cloud types occurring both alone and with other clouds. The average cloud-top pressures within a grid-box do not always correspond well with values expected for a reported cloud type, particularly for the higher clouds Ci, Ac, and Cb. In many cases this is because the satellites also detect clouds within the grid-box that are outside the field of view of the surface observer. The highest average cloud tops are found for the most extensive cloud type, Ns, averaging 7 km globally and reaching 9 km in the ITCZ. Ns also has the greatest average retrieved optical thickness, tau approximately equal 20. Cumulonimbus clouds may actually attain far greater heights and depths, but do not fill the grid-box. The tau-p(sub c) distributions show features that distinguish the high, middle, and low clouds reported by the surface observers. However, the distribution patterns for the individual low cloud types (Cu, Sc, St

  4. Cloud radiative effects and changes simulated by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ok-Yeon; Kim, Dongmin; Lee, Myong-In

    2017-07-01

    Using 32 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) models, this study examines the veracity in the simulation of cloud amount and their radiative effects (CREs) in the historical run driven by observed external radiative forcing for 1850-2005, and their future changes in the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 4.5 scenario runs for 2006-2100. Validation metrics for the historical run are designed to examine the accuracy in the representation of spatial patterns for climatological mean, and annual and interannual variations of clouds and CREs. The models show large spread in the simulation of cloud amounts, specifically in the low cloud amount. The observed relationship between cloud amount and the controlling large-scale environment are also reproduced diversely by various models. Based on the validation metrics, four models—ACCESS1.0, ACCESS1.3, HadGEM2-CC, and HadGEM2-ES—are selected as best models, and the average of the four models performs more skillfully than the multimodel ensemble average. All models project global-mean SST warming at the increase of the greenhouse gases, but the magnitude varies across the simulations between 1 and 2 K, which is largely attributable to the difference in the change of cloud amount and distribution. The models that simulate more SST warming show a greater increase in the net CRE due to reduced low cloud and increased incoming shortwave radiation, particularly over the regions of marine boundary layer in the subtropics. Selected best-performing models project a significant reduction in global-mean cloud amount of about -0.99% K-1 and net radiative warming of 0.46 W m-2 K-1, suggesting a role of positive feedback to global warming.

  5. The Effect of Cloud Ear Fungus (Auricularia polytricha) on Serum Total Cholesterol, LDL And HDL Levels on Wistar Rats Induced by Reused Cooking Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinastiti, Ratih; Sunoko, Henna Rya; Widiastiti, Nyoman Suci

    2018-02-01

    The usage of reused cooking oil affects the increase of serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL, also the decrease of serum HDL. This condition escalates the risk of atherosclerosis, which could lead to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Cloud ear fungus is a natural antioxidant that contains polysaccharides, flavonoids, niacin, and vitamin C, which can improve the lipid profiles. Objective of this research is to analyze the impact of water from boiled cloud ear fungus on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL level of Wistar rats that have been given reused cooking oil. This study is a true experimental research with post test only control group design, using 12 weeks-aged male Wistar rats (n = 24) that were randomly divided into 4 groups. K1 as the negative control, K2 was given reused cooking oil and standard diet, K3 was given water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet, and K4 was given reused cooking oil, water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet. Serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were measured by the CHOD-PAP method after 28 days treatment. The study showed that TC mean value of K1 (80.2217 ± 3.61 mg / dL), K2 (195.8483 ± 5.47 mg / dL), K3 (75.5800 ± 4.02 mg / dL), and K4 (110.8683 ± 5.82 mg / dL); p = 0.000. LDL mean value of K1 (29.9200 ± 1.53 mg / dL), K2 (78.4167 ± 1.77 mg / dL), K3 (24.3167 ± 1.77 mg / dL), and K4 (40, 1617 ± 2.84 mg / dL); p = 0.000. HDL mean value of K1 (65.8950 ± 1.99 mg / dL), K2 (24.3233 ± 1.44 mg / dL), K3 (73.2300 ± 1.92 mg / dL), and K4 (54, 9550 ± 2.04 mg / dL); p= 0.000. Conclusion: Water from boiled cloud ear fungus decreases the serum total cholesterol and LDL, 06006 increases serum HDL levels of Wistar rats that has been given reused cooking oil.

  6. Partitioning the primary ice formation modes in large eddy simulations of mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hande, Luke B.; Hoose, Corinna

    2017-11-01

    State-of-the-art aerosol-dependent parameterisations describing each heterogeneous ice nucleation mode (contact, immersion, and deposition ice nucleation), as well as homogeneous nucleation, were incorporated into a large eddy simulation model. Several cases representing commonly occurring cloud types were simulated in an effort to understand which ice nucleation modes contribute the most to total concentrations of ice crystals. The cases include a completely idealised warm bubble, semi-idealised deep convection, an orographic cloud, and a stratiform case. Despite clear differences in thermodynamic conditions between the cases, the results are remarkably consistent between the different cloud types. In all the investigated cloud types and under normal aerosol conditions, immersion freezing dominates and contact freezing also contributes significantly. At colder temperatures, deposition nucleation plays only a small role, and homogeneous freezing is important. To some extent, the temporal evolution of the cloud determines the dominant freezing mechanism and hence the subsequent microphysical processes. Precipitation is not correlated with any one ice nucleation mode, instead occurring simultaneously when several nucleation modes are active. Furthermore, large variations in the aerosol concentration do affect the dominant ice nucleation mode; however, they have only a minor influence on the precipitation amount.

  7. An Estimate of Low-Cloud Feedbacks from Variations of Cloud Radiative and Physical Properties with Sea Surface Temperature on Interannual Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, Zachary A.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Wong, Takmeng

    2011-01-01

    Simulations of climate change have yet to reach a consensus on the sign and magnitude of the changes in physical properties of marine boundary layer clouds. In this study, the authors analyze how cloud and radiative properties vary with SST anomaly in low-cloud regions, based on five years (March 2000 - February 2005) of Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) -- Terra monthly gridded data and matched European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) meteorological reanalaysis data. In particular, this study focuses on the changes in cloud radiative effect, cloud fraction, and cloud optical depth with SST anomaly. The major findings are as follows. First, the low-cloud amount (-1.9% to -3.4% /K) and the logarithm of low-cloud optical depth (-0.085 to -0.100/K) tend to decrease while the net cloud radiative effect (3.86 W/m(exp 2)/ K) becomes less negative as SST anomalies increase. These results are broadly consistent with previous observational studies. Second, after the changes in cloud and radiative properties with SST anomaly are separated into dynamic, thermodynamic, and residual components, changes in the dynamic component (taken as the vertical velocity at 700 hPa) have relatively little effect on cloud and radiative properties. However, the estimated inversion strength decreases with increasing SST, accounting for a large portion of the measured decreases in cloud fraction and cloud optical depth. The residual positive change in net cloud radiative effect (1.48 W/m(exp 2)/ K) and small changes in low-cloud amount (-0.81% to 0.22% /K) and decrease in the logarithm of optical depth (-0.035 to -0.046/ K) with SST are interpreted as a positive cloud feedback, with cloud optical depth feedback being the dominant contributor. Last, the magnitudes of the residual changes differ greatly among the six low-cloud regions examined in this study, with the largest positive feedbacks (approximately 4 W/m(exp 2)/ K) in the southeast and northeast

  8. A cloud cover model based on satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, P. N.; Bean, S. J.

    1980-01-01

    A model for worldwide cloud cover using a satellite data set containing infrared radiation measurements is proposed. The satellite data set containing day IR, night IR and incoming and absorbed solar radiation measurements on a 2.5 degree latitude-longitude grid covering a 45 month period was converted to estimates of cloud cover. The global area was then classified into homogeneous cloud cover regions for each of the four seasons. It is noted that the developed maps can be of use to the practicing climatologist who can obtain a considerable amount of cloud cover information without recourse to large volumes of data.

  9. Clouds in the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Määttänen, Anni; Montmessin, Franck

    2018-01-01

    Although resembling an extremely dry desert, planet Mars hosts clouds in its atmosphere. Every day somewhere on the planet a part of the tiny amount of water vapor held by the atmosphere can condense as ice crystals to form cirrus-type clouds. The existence of water ice clouds has been known for a long time, and they have been studied for decades, leading to the establishment of a well-known climatology and understanding of their formation and properties. Despite their thinness, they have a clear impact on the atmospheric temperatures, thus affecting the Martian climate. Another, more exotic type of clouds forms as well on Mars. The atmospheric temperatures can plunge to such frigid values that the major gaseous component of the atmosphere, CO2, condenses as ice crystals. These clouds form in the cold polar night where they also contribute to the formation of the CO2 ice polar cap, and also in the mesosphere at very high altitudes, near the edge of space, analogously to the noctilucent clouds on Earth. The mesospheric clouds are a fairly recent discovery and have put our understanding of the Martian atmosphere to a test. On Mars, cloud crystals form on ice nuclei, mostly provided by the omnipresent dust. Thus, the clouds link the three major climatic cycles: those of the two major volatiles, H2O and CO2; and that of dust, which is a major climatic agent itself.

  10. Statistical Analysis of the Polarimetric Cloud Analysis and Seeding Test (POLCAST) Field Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekness, Jamie Lynn

    The North Dakota farming industry brings in more than $4.1 billion annually in cash receipts. Unfortunately, agriculture sales vary significantly from year to year, which is due in large part to weather events such as hail storms and droughts. One method to mitigate drought is to use hygroscopic seeding to increase the precipitation efficiency of clouds. The North Dakota Atmospheric Research Board (NDARB) sponsored the Polarimetric Cloud Analysis and Seeding Test (POLCAST) research project to determine the effectiveness of hygroscopic seeding in North Dakota. The POLCAST field projects obtained airborne and radar observations, while conducting randomized cloud seeding. The Thunderstorm Identification Tracking and Nowcasting (TITAN) program is used to analyze radar data (33 usable cases) in determining differences in the duration of the storm, rain rate and total rain amount between seeded and non-seeded clouds. The single ratio of seeded to non-seeded cases is 1.56 (0.28 mm/0.18 mm) or 56% increase for the average hourly rainfall during the first 60 minutes after target selection. A seeding effect is indicated with the lifetime of the storms increasing by 41 % between seeded and non-seeded clouds for the first 60 minutes past seeding decision. A double ratio statistic, a comparison of radar derived rain amount of the last 40 minutes of a case (seed/non-seed), compared to the first 20 minutes (seed/non-seed), is used to account for the natural variability of the cloud system and gives a double ratio of 1.85. The Mann-Whitney test on the double ratio of seeded to non-seeded cases (33 cases) gives a significance (p-value) of 0.063. Bootstrapping analysis of the POLCAST set indicates that 50 cases would provide statistically significant results based on the Mann-Whitney test of the double ratio. All the statistical analysis conducted on the POLCAST data set show that hygroscopic seeding in North Dakota does increase precipitation. While an additional POLCAST field

  11. Cloud detection method for Chinese moderate high resolution satellite imagery (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Bo; Chen, Wuhan; Wu, Shanlong; Liu, Qinhuo

    2016-10-01

    Cloud detection of satellite imagery is very important for quantitative remote sensing research and remote sensing applications. However, many satellite sensors don't have enough bands for a quick, accurate, and simple detection of clouds. Particularly, the newly launched moderate to high spatial resolution satellite sensors of China, such as the charge-coupled device on-board the Chinese Huan Jing 1 (HJ-1/CCD) and the wide field of view (WFV) sensor on-board the Gao Fen 1 (GF-1), only have four available bands including blue, green, red, and near infrared bands, which are far from the requirements of most could detection methods. In order to solve this problem, an improved and automated cloud detection method for Chinese satellite sensors called OCM (Object oriented Cloud and cloud-shadow Matching method) is presented in this paper. It firstly modified the Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA) method, which was developed for Landsat-7 data, to get an initial cloud map. The modified ACCA method is mainly based on threshold and different threshold setting produces different cloud map. Subsequently, a strict threshold is used to produce a cloud map with high confidence and large amount of cloud omission and a loose threshold is used to produce a cloud map with low confidence and large amount of commission. Secondly, a corresponding cloud-shadow map is also produced using the threshold of near-infrared band. Thirdly, the cloud maps and cloud-shadow map are transferred to cloud objects and cloud-shadow objects. Cloud and cloud-shadow are usually in pairs; consequently, the final cloud and cloud-shadow maps are made based on the relationship between cloud and cloud-shadow objects. OCM method was tested using almost 200 HJ-1/CCD images across China and the overall accuracy of cloud detection is close to 90%.

  12. Clouds-radiation interactions in a general circulation model - Impact upon the planetary radiation balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Laura D.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneously conducted observations of the earth radiation budget and the cloud amount estimates, taken during the June 1979 - May 1980 Nimbus 7 mission were used to show interactions between the cloud amount and raidation and to verify a long-term climate simulation obtained with the latest version of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM). The parameterization of the radiative, dynamic, and thermodynamic processes produced the mean radiation and cloud quantities that were in reasonable agreement with satellite observations, but at the expense of simulating their short-term fluctuations. The results support the assumption that the inclusion of the cloud liquid water (ice) variable would be the best mean to reduce the blinking of clouds in NCAR CCM.

  13. Narrowing the Gap in Quantification of Aerosol-Cloud Radiative Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feingold, G.; McComiskey, A. C.; Yamaguchi, T.; Kazil, J.; Johnson, J. S.; Carslaw, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Despite large advances in our understanding of aerosol and cloud processes over the past years, uncertainty in the aerosol-cloud radiative effect/forcing is still of major concern. In this talk we will advocate a methodology for quantifying the aerosol-cloud radiative effect that considers the primacy of fundamental cloud properties such as cloud amount and albedo alongside the need for process level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions. We will present a framework for quantifying the aerosol-cloud radiative effect, regime-by-regime, through process-based modelling and observations at the large eddy scale. We will argue that understanding the co-variability between meteorological and aerosol drivers of the radiative properties of the cloud system may be as important an endeavour as attempting to untangle these drivers.

  14. Retrieval of Cloud Properties for Partially Cloud-Filled Pixels During CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L.; Khaiyer, M. M.; Heck, P. W.; Sun-Mack, S.; Uttal, T.; Comstock, J.

    2003-12-01

    Partially cloud-filled pixels can be a significant problem for remote sensing of cloud properties. Generally, the optical depth and effective particle sizes are often too small or too large, respectively, when derived from radiances that are assumed to be overcast but contain radiation from both clear and cloud areas within the satellite imager field of view. This study presents a method for reducing the impact of such partially cloud field pixels by estimating the cloud fraction within each pixel using higher resolution visible (VIS, 0.65mm) imager data. Although the nominal resolution for most channels on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra are 4 and 1 km, respectively, both instruments also take VIS channel data at 1 km and 0.25 km, respectively. Thus, it may be possible to obtain an improved estimate of cloud fraction within the lower resolution pixels by using the information contained in the higher resolution VIS data. GOES and MODIS multi-spectral data, taken during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE), are analyzed with the algorithm used for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) and the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) to derive cloud amount, temperature, height, phase, effective particle size, optical depth, and water path. Normally, the algorithm assumes that each pixel is either entirely clear or cloudy. In this study, a threshold method is applied to the higher resolution VIS data to estimate the partial cloud fraction within each low-resolution pixel. The cloud properties are then derived from the observed low-resolution radiances using the cloud cover estimate to properly extract the radiances due only to the cloudy part of the scene. This approach is applied to both GOES and MODIS data to estimate the improvement in the retrievals for each

  15. Characteristic Vertical Profiles of Cloud Water Composition in Marine Stratocumulus Clouds and Relationships With Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Alexander B.; Dadashazar, Hossein; Chuang, Patrick Y.; Crosbie, Ewan; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Zhen; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Sorooshian, Armin

    2018-04-01

    This study uses airborne cloud water composition measurements to characterize the vertical structure of air-equivalent mass concentrations of water-soluble species in marine stratocumulus clouds off the California coast. A total of 385 cloud water samples were collected in the months of July and August between 2011 and 2016 and analyzed for water-soluble ionic and elemental composition. Three characteristic profiles emerge: (i) a reduction of concentration with in-cloud altitude for particulate species directly emitted from sources below cloud without in-cloud sources (e.g., Cl- and Na+), (ii) an increase of concentration with in-cloud altitude (e.g., NO2- and formate), and (iii) species exhibiting a peak in concentration in the middle of cloud (e.g., non-sea-salt SO42-, NO3-, and organic acids). Vertical profiles of rainout parameters such as loss frequency, lifetime, and change in concentration with respect to time show that the scavenging efficiency throughout the cloud depth depends strongly on the thickness of the cloud. Thin clouds exhibit a greater scavenging loss frequency at cloud top, while thick clouds have a greater scavenging loss frequency at cloud base. The implications of these results for treatment of wet scavenging in models are discussed.

  16. Characteristic Vertical Profiles of Cloud Water Composition in Marine Stratocumulus Clouds and Relationships With Precipitation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    MacDonald, Alexander B.; Dadashazar, Hossein; Chuang, Patrick Y.

    This study uses airborne cloud water composition measurements to characterize the vertical structure of air-equivalent mass concentrations of water-soluble species in marine stratocumulus clouds off the California coast. A total of 385 cloud water samples were collected in the months of July and August between 2011 and 2016 and analyzed for water-soluble ionic and elemental composition. Three characteristic profiles emerge: (i) a reduction of concentration with in-cloud altitude for particulate species directly emitted from sources below cloud without in-cloud sources (e.g., Cl-, Na+); (ii) an increase of concentration with in-cloud altitude (e.g., NO2-, formate); and (iii) species exhibiting a peakmore » in concentration in the middle of cloud (e.g., non-sea salt SO42-, NO3-, organic acids). Vertical profiles of rainout parameters such as loss frequency, lifetime, and change in concentration with respect to time show that the scavenging efficiency throughout the cloud depth depends strongly on the thickness of the cloud. Thin clouds exhibit a greater scavenging loss frequency at cloud top, while thick clouds have a greater scavenging loss frequency at cloud base. The implications of these results for treatment of wet scavenging in models are discussed.« less

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  1. A multi-year data set on aerosol-cloud-precipitation-meteorology interactions for marine stratocumulus clouds.

    PubMed

    Sorooshian, Armin; MacDonald, Alexander B; Dadashazar, Hossein; Bates, Kelvin H; Coggon, Matthew M; Craven, Jill S; Crosbie, Ewan; Hersey, Scott P; Hodas, Natasha; Lin, Jack J; Negrón Marty, Arnaldo; Maudlin, Lindsay C; Metcalf, Andrew R; Murphy, Shane M; Padró, Luz T; Prabhakar, Gouri; Rissman, Tracey A; Shingler, Taylor; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Wang, Zhen; Woods, Roy K; Chuang, Patrick Y; Nenes, Athanasios; Jonsson, Haflidi H; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2018-02-27

    Airborne measurements of meteorological, aerosol, and stratocumulus cloud properties have been harmonized from six field campaigns during July-August months between 2005 and 2016 off the California coast. A consistent set of core instruments was deployed on the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies Twin Otter for 113 flight days, amounting to 514 flight hours. A unique aspect of the compiled data set is detailed measurements of aerosol microphysical properties (size distribution, composition, bioaerosol detection, hygroscopicity, optical), cloud water composition, and different sampling inlets to distinguish between clear air aerosol, interstitial in-cloud aerosol, and droplet residual particles in cloud. Measurements and data analysis follow documented methods for quality assurance. The data set is suitable for studies associated with aerosol-cloud-precipitation-meteorology-radiation interactions, especially owing to sharp aerosol perturbations from ship traffic and biomass burning. The data set can be used for model initialization and synergistic application with meteorological models and remote sensing data to improve understanding of the very interactions that comprise the largest uncertainty in the effect of anthropogenic emissions on radiative forcing.

  2. A multi-year data set on aerosol-cloud-precipitation-meteorology interactions for marine stratocumulus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorooshian, Armin; MacDonald, Alexander B.; Dadashazar, Hossein; Bates, Kelvin H.; Coggon, Matthew M.; Craven, Jill S.; Crosbie, Ewan; Hersey, Scott P.; Hodas, Natasha; Lin, Jack J.; Negrón Marty, Arnaldo; Maudlin, Lindsay C.; Metcalf, Andrew R.; Murphy, Shane M.; Padró, Luz T.; Prabhakar, Gouri; Rissman, Tracey A.; Shingler, Taylor; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Wang, Zhen; Woods, Roy K.; Chuang, Patrick Y.; Nenes, Athanasios; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2018-02-01

    Airborne measurements of meteorological, aerosol, and stratocumulus cloud properties have been harmonized from six field campaigns during July-August months between 2005 and 2016 off the California coast. A consistent set of core instruments was deployed on the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies Twin Otter for 113 flight days, amounting to 514 flight hours. A unique aspect of the compiled data set is detailed measurements of aerosol microphysical properties (size distribution, composition, bioaerosol detection, hygroscopicity, optical), cloud water composition, and different sampling inlets to distinguish between clear air aerosol, interstitial in-cloud aerosol, and droplet residual particles in cloud. Measurements and data analysis follow documented methods for quality assurance. The data set is suitable for studies associated with aerosol-cloud-precipitation-meteorology-radiation interactions, especially owing to sharp aerosol perturbations from ship traffic and biomass burning. The data set can be used for model initialization and synergistic application with meteorological models and remote sensing data to improve understanding of the very interactions that comprise the largest uncertainty in the effect of anthropogenic emissions on radiative forcing.

  3. A multi-year data set on aerosol-cloud-precipitation-meteorology interactions for marine stratocumulus clouds

    PubMed Central

    Sorooshian, Armin; MacDonald, Alexander B.; Dadashazar, Hossein; Bates, Kelvin H.; Coggon, Matthew M.; Craven, Jill S.; Crosbie, Ewan; Hersey, Scott P.; Hodas, Natasha; Lin, Jack J.; Negrón Marty, Arnaldo; Maudlin, Lindsay C.; Metcalf, Andrew R.; Murphy, Shane M.; Padró, Luz T.; Prabhakar, Gouri; Rissman, Tracey A.; Shingler, Taylor; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Wang, Zhen; Woods, Roy K.; Chuang, Patrick Y.; Nenes, Athanasios; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2018-01-01

    Airborne measurements of meteorological, aerosol, and stratocumulus cloud properties have been harmonized from six field campaigns during July-August months between 2005 and 2016 off the California coast. A consistent set of core instruments was deployed on the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies Twin Otter for 113 flight days, amounting to 514 flight hours. A unique aspect of the compiled data set is detailed measurements of aerosol microphysical properties (size distribution, composition, bioaerosol detection, hygroscopicity, optical), cloud water composition, and different sampling inlets to distinguish between clear air aerosol, interstitial in-cloud aerosol, and droplet residual particles in cloud. Measurements and data analysis follow documented methods for quality assurance. The data set is suitable for studies associated with aerosol-cloud-precipitation-meteorology-radiation interactions, especially owing to sharp aerosol perturbations from ship traffic and biomass burning. The data set can be used for model initialization and synergistic application with meteorological models and remote sensing data to improve understanding of the very interactions that comprise the largest uncertainty in the effect of anthropogenic emissions on radiative forcing. PMID:29485627

  4. Cloud deposition of PAHs at Mount Lushan in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixia; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongli; Yang, Minmin; Sun, Lei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-09-01

    Cloud water samples were collected from Mount Lushan, a high alpine area of southern China, and analyzed using GC-MS to investigate the concentration levels, seasonal variations, particle-dissolved phase partitioning, ecological risk of PAHs and its relationship to the atmosphere and rainwater. The average concentration of total (dissolved+particle) PAHs in cloud water was 819.90 ng/L, which ranged from 2.30 ng/L for DbA to 295.38 ng/L for PhA. PhA (33.11%) contributed the most individual PAHs, followed by Flu (28.24%). Distinct seasonal variations in the total PAHs measured in this research had a higher concentration during the spring and a lower concentration during the summer. When cloud events occurred, the concentration of the atmospheric PAHs of the two phases decreased. The contribution from the gaseous phase of total PAHs in the air to the dissolved phase in cloud water was up to 60.43%, but the particulate phase in the air only contributed 39.57% to the total scavenging. The contribution of total PAHs from the atmosphere to clouds is higher in the gaseous phase than in the particulate phase. A comparative study of the concentrations of cloud water and the closest rain water revealed that the PAH concentration in rainwater was 1.80 times less than that of cloud water and that the dominant individual compounds in cloud water and rainwater were PhA and Flu. A total of 81.27% of the PAHs in cloud samples and 72.21% of the PAHs in rain samples remained in the dissolved phase. Ecological risk assessment indicated that PAHs in cloud water in spring and summer caused a certain degree of ecosystem risk and the mean ecosystem risk in spring was higher than that in summer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Global aerosol effects on convective clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Till; Stier, Philip

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect cloud properties, and thereby the radiation balance of the planet and the water cycle. The influence of aerosols on clouds is dominated by increase of cloud droplet and ice crystal numbers (CDNC/ICNC) due to enhanced aerosols acting as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. In deep convective clouds this increase in CDNC/ICNC is hypothesised to increase precipitation because of cloud invigoration through enhanced freezing and associated increased latent heat release caused by delayed warm rain formation. Satellite studies robustly show an increase of cloud top height (CTH) and precipitation with increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD, as proxy for aerosol amount). To represent aerosol effects and study their influence on convective clouds in the global climate aerosol model ECHAM-HAM, we substitute the standard convection parameterisation, which uses one mean convective cloud for each grid column, with the convective cloud field model (CCFM), which simulates a spectrum of convective clouds, each with distinct values of radius, mixing ratios, vertical velocity, height and en/detrainment. Aerosol activation and droplet nucleation in convective updrafts at cloud base is the primary driver for microphysical aerosol effects. To produce realistic estimates for vertical velocity at cloud base we use an entraining dry parcel sub cloud model which is triggered by perturbations of sensible and latent heat at the surface. Aerosol activation at cloud base is modelled with a mechanistic, Köhler theory based, scheme, which couples the aerosols to the convective microphysics. Comparison of relationships between CTH and AOD, and precipitation and AOD produced by this novel model and satellite based estimates show general agreement. Through model experiments and analysis of the model cloud processes we are able to investigate the main drivers for the relationship between CTH / precipitation and AOD.

  6. Giant molecular cloud scaling relations: the role of the cloud definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoperskov, S. A.; Vasiliev, E. O.; Ladeyschikov, D. A.; Sobolev, A. M.; Khoperskov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the physical properties of molecular clouds in disc galaxies with different morphologies: a galaxy without prominent structure, a spiral barred galaxy and a galaxy with flocculent structure. Our N-body/hydrodynamical simulations take into account non-equilibrium H2 and CO chemical kinetics, self-gravity, star formation and feedback processes. For the simulated galaxies, the scaling relations of giant molecular clouds, or so-called Larson's relations, are studied for two types of cloud definition (or extraction method): the first is based on total column density position-position (PP) data sets and the second is indicated by the CO (1-0) line emission used in position-position-velocity (PPV) data. We find that the cloud populations obtained using both cloud extraction methods generally have similar physical parameters, except that for the CO data the mass spectrum of clouds has a tail with low-mass objects M ˜ 103-104 M⊙. Owing toa varying column density threshold, the power-law indices in the scaling relations are significantly changed. In contrast, the relations are invariant to the CO brightness temperature threshold. Finally, we find that the mass spectra of clouds for PPV data are almost insensitive to the galactic morphology, whereas the spectra for PP data demonstrate significant variation.

  7. Determination of cloud parameters from infrared sounder data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H.-Y. M.

    1984-01-01

    The World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) plan is concerned with the need to develop a uniform global cloud climatology as part of a broad research program on climate processes. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) has been approved as the first project of the WCRP. The ISCCP has the basic objective to collect and analyze satellite radiance data to infer the global distribution of cloud radiative properties in order to improve the modeling of cloud effects on climate. Research is conducted to explore an algorithm for retrieving cloud properties by utilizing the available infrared sounder data from polar-orbiting satellites. A numerical method is developed for computing cloud top heights, amount, and emissivity on the basis of a parameterized infrared radiative transfer equation for cloudy atmospheres. Theoretical studies were carried out by considering a synthetic atmosphere.

  8. Effects of turbulence on warm clouds and precipitation with various aerosol concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunho; Baik, Jong-Jin; Han, Ji-Young

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of turbulence-induced collision enhancement (TICE) on warm clouds and precipitation by changing the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration using a two-dimensional dynamic model with bin microphysics. TICE is determined according to the Taylor microscale Reynolds number and the turbulent dissipation rate. The thermodynamic sounding used in this study is characterized by a warm and humid atmosphere with a capping inversion layer, which is suitable for simulating warm clouds. For all CCN concentrations, TICE slightly reduces the liquid water path during the early stage of cloud development and accelerates the onset of surface precipitation. However, changes in the rainwater path and in the amount of surface precipitation that are caused by TICE depend on the CCN concentrations. For high CCN concentrations, the mean cloud drop number concentration (CDNC) decreases and the mean effective radius increases due to TICE. These changes cause an increase in the amount of surface precipitation. However, for low CCN concentrations, changes in the mean CDNC and in the mean effective radius induced by TICE are small and the amount of surface precipitation decreases slightly due to TICE. A decrease in condensation due to the accelerated coalescence between droplets explains the surface precipitation decrease. In addition, an increase in the CCN concentration can lead to an increase in the amount of surface precipitation, and the relationship between the CCN concentration and the amount of surface precipitation is affected by TICE. It is shown that these results depend on the atmospheric relative humidity.

  9. Clouds and troughs of total electron content detected with the ionospheric weather index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, Tamara

    2016-07-01

    The ionospheric weather W index has been developed with the different thresholds of change in the F2 layer peak electron density NmF2 (proportional to foF2 critical frequency) or total electron content TEC relative their quiet reference for quantifying the ionosphere variability. The thresholds of DTEC=log(TEC/TECq) are selected for the positive and negative logarithm of TEC ratio to the quiet reference median, TECq, at any given location on the Earth. The global W-index maps are produced from Global Ionospheric Maps of Total Electron Content, GIM-TEC, and provided online at http://www.izmiran.ru/services/iweather/ and http://www.iololab.org/. Based on W-index maps, Catalogues of the ionospheric storms and sub-storms are produced available for the users. The second generation of the ionospheric weather indices, designated V index, is recently introduced and applied for the retrospective study of GIM-TEC variability during 1999-2015. Using sliding-window statistical analysis, moving daily-hourly TEC median TECq for 15 preceding days with estimated variance bounds are obtained at cells of GIM-TEC. The ionosphere variability index, V, is expressed in terms of ΔTEC deviation from the median normalized by the standard deviation STD. V index segmentation is introduced from Vn=-4 in step of 1 to Vp=4 specifying TEC storm if an instant TEC is outside of TECq+-1STD. The global maps of V index allow distinguish the clouds of enhanced TEC (positive storm signatures) and troughs of TEC depletion (negative storm signatures) as compared to the background quiet reference TECq map. It is found that the large-scale TEC clouds and troughs are observed in space all over the world constituting up to 20-50 percent of cells of GIM-TEC. The time variation of these plasma patches is partly following to geomagnetic SSC storm onset. As concerns the interplanetary and the solar wind, SW, sources of the ionospheric storms the TEC storms are observed both with IMF and SW precursors and

  10. Wind speed response of marine non-precipitating stratocumulus clouds over a diurnal cycle in cloud-system resolving simulations

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kazil, Jan; Feingold, Graham; Yamaguchi, Takanobu

    buoyancy-driven circulation in transporting moisture from the surface to cloud base and thereby reduces decoupling and helps maintain LWP. Furthermore, the total (shortwave + longwave) cloud radiative effect (CRE) responds to changes in LWP and cloud fraction, and higher wind speed translates to a stronger diurnally averaged total CRE. However, the sensitivity of the diurnally averaged total CRE to wind speed decreases with increasing wind speed.« less

  11. Wind speed response of marine non-precipitating stratocumulus clouds over a diurnal cycle in cloud-system resolving simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Kazil, Jan; Feingold, Graham; Yamaguchi, Takanobu

    2016-05-12

    buoyancy-driven circulation in transporting moisture from the surface to cloud base and thereby reduces decoupling and helps maintain LWP. Furthermore, the total (shortwave + longwave) cloud radiative effect (CRE) responds to changes in LWP and cloud fraction, and higher wind speed translates to a stronger diurnally averaged total CRE. However, the sensitivity of the diurnally averaged total CRE to wind speed decreases with increasing wind speed.« less

  12. Comparison of modern icing cloud instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeuchi, D. M.; Jahnsen, L. J.; Callander, S. M.; Humbert, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Intercomparison tests with Particle Measuring Systems (PMS) were conducted. Cloud liquid water content (LWC) measurements were also taken with a Johnson and Williams (JW) hot-wire device and an icing rate device (Leigh IDS). Tests include varying cloud LWC (0.5 to 5 au gm), cloud median volume diameter (MVD) (15 to 26 microns), temperature (-29 to 20 C), and air speeds (50 to 285 mph). Comparisons were based upon evaluating probe estimates of cloud LWC and median volume diameter for given tunnel settings. Variations of plus or minus 10% and plus or minus 5% in LWC and MVD, respectively, were determined of spray clouds between test made at given tunnel settings (fixed LWC, MVD, and air speed) indicating cloud conditions were highly reproducible. Although LWC measurements from JW and Leigh devices were consistent with tunnel values, individual probe measurements either consistently over or underestimated tunnel values by factors ranging from about 0.2 to 2. Range amounted to a factor of 6 differences between LWC estimates of probes for given cloud conditions. For given cloud conditions, estimates of cloud MVD between probes were within plus or minus 3 microns and 93% of the test cases. Measurements overestimated tunnel values in the range between 10 to 20 microns. The need for improving currently used calibration procedures was indicated. Establishment of test facility (or facilities) such as an icing tunnel where instruments can be calibrated against known cloud standards would be a logical choice.

  13. Cloud layer thicknesses from a combination of surface and upper-air observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poore, Kirk D.; Wang, Junhong; Rossow, William B.

    1995-01-01

    Cloud layer thicknesses are derived from base and top altitudes by combining 14 years (1975-1988) of surface and upper-air observations at 63 sites in the Northern Hemisphere. Rawinsonde observations are employed to determine the locations of cloud-layer top and base by testing for dewpoint temperature depressions below some threshold value. Surface observations serve as quality checks on the rawinsonde-determined cloud properties and provide cloud amount and cloud-type information. The dataset provides layer-cloud amount, cloud type, high, middle, or low height classes, cloud-top heights, base heights and layer thicknesses, covering a range of latitudes from 0 deg to 80 deg N. All data comes from land sites: 34 are located in continental interiors, 14 are near coasts, and 15 are on islands. The uncertainties in the derived cloud properties are discussed. For clouds classified by low-, mid-, and high-top altitudes, there are strong latitudinal and seasonal variations in the layer thickness only for high clouds. High-cloud layer thickness increases with latitude and exhibits different seasonal variations in different latitude zones: in summer, high-cloud layer thickness is a maximum in the Tropics but a minimum at high latitudes. For clouds classified into three types by base altitude or into six standard morphological types, latitudinal and seasonal variations in layer thickness are very small. The thickness of the clear surface layer decreases with latitude and reaches a summer minimum in the Tropics and summer maximum at higher latitudes over land, but does not vary much over the ocean. Tropical clouds occur in three base-altitude groups and the layer thickness of each group increases linearly with top altitude. Extratropical clouds exhibit two groups, one with layer thickness proportional to their cloud-top altitude and one with small (less than or equal to 1000 m) layer thickness independent of cloud-top altitude.

  14. Variability in modeled cloud feedback tied to differences in the climatological spatial pattern of clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siler, Nicholas; Po-Chedley, Stephen; Bretherton, Christopher S.

    2018-02-01

    Despite the increasing sophistication of climate models, the amount of surface warming expected from a doubling of atmospheric CO_2 (equilibrium climate sensitivity) remains stubbornly uncertain, in part because of differences in how models simulate the change in global albedo due to clouds (the shortwave cloud feedback). Here, model differences in the shortwave cloud feedback are found to be closely related to the spatial pattern of the cloud contribution to albedo (α) in simulations of the current climate: high-feedback models exhibit lower (higher) α in regions of warm (cool) sea-surface temperatures, and therefore predict a larger reduction in global-mean α as temperatures rise and warm regions expand. The spatial pattern of α is found to be strongly predictive (r=0.84) of a model's global cloud feedback, with satellite observations indicating a most-likely value of 0.58± 0.31 Wm^{-2} K^{-1} (90% confidence). This estimate is higher than the model-average cloud feedback of 0.43 Wm^{-2} K^{-1}, with half the range of uncertainty. The observational constraint on climate sensitivity is weaker but still significant, suggesting a likely value of 3.68 ± 1.30 K (90% confidence), which also favors the upper range of model estimates. These results suggest that uncertainty in model estimates of the global cloud feedback may be substantially reduced by ensuring a realistic distribution of clouds between regions of warm and cool SSTs in simulations of the current climate.

  15. Studies in the use of cloud type statistics in mission simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, M. G.; Willand, J. H.; Chang, D. T.; Cogan, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    A study to further improve NASA's global cloud statistics for mission simulation is reported. Regional homogeneity in cloud types was examined; most of the original region boundaries defined for cloud cover amount in previous studies were supported by the statistics on cloud types and the number of cloud layers. Conditionality in cloud statistics was also examined with special emphasis on temporal and spatial dependencies, and cloud type interdependence. Temporal conditionality was found up to 12 hours, and spatial conditionality up to 200 miles; the diurnal cycle in convective cloudiness was clearly evident. As expected, the joint occurrence of different cloud types reflected the dynamic processes which form the clouds. Other phases of the study improved the cloud type statistics for several region and proposed a mission simulation scheme combining the 4-dimensional atmospheric model, sponsored by MSFC, with the global cloud model.

  16. A study of surface temperatures, clouds and net radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, Harbans

    1994-01-01

    The study is continuing and it is focused on examining seasonal relationships between climate parameters such as the surface temperatures, the net radiation and cloud types and amount on a global basis for the period February 1985 to January 1987. The study consists of an analysis of the combined Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program (ISCCP) products. The main emphasis is on obtaining the information about the interactions and relationships of Earth Radiation Budget parameters, cloud and temperature information. The purpose is to gain additional qualitative and quantitative insight into the cloud climate relationship.

  17. Cloud computing for comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Wall, Dennis P; Kudtarkar, Parul; Fusaro, Vincent A; Pivovarov, Rimma; Patil, Prasad; Tonellato, Peter J

    2010-05-18

    Large comparative genomics studies and tools are becoming increasingly more compute-expensive as the number of available genome sequences continues to rise. The capacity and cost of local computing infrastructures are likely to become prohibitive with the increase, especially as the breadth of questions continues to rise. Alternative computing architectures, in particular cloud computing environments, may help alleviate this increasing pressure and enable fast, large-scale, and cost-effective comparative genomics strategies going forward. To test this, we redesigned a typical comparative genomics algorithm, the reciprocal smallest distance algorithm (RSD), to run within Amazon's Elastic Computing Cloud (EC2). We then employed the RSD-cloud for ortholog calculations across a wide selection of fully sequenced genomes. We ran more than 300,000 RSD-cloud processes within the EC2. These jobs were farmed simultaneously to 100 high capacity compute nodes using the Amazon Web Service Elastic Map Reduce and included a wide mix of large and small genomes. The total computation time took just under 70 hours and cost a total of $6,302 USD. The effort to transform existing comparative genomics algorithms from local compute infrastructures is not trivial. However, the speed and flexibility of cloud computing environments provides a substantial boost with manageable cost. The procedure designed to transform the RSD algorithm into a cloud-ready application is readily adaptable to similar comparative genomics problems.

  18. Global Analysis of Aerosol Properties Above Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waquet, F.; Peers, F.; Ducos, F.; Goloub, P.; Platnick, S. E.; Riedi, J.; Tanre, D.; Thieuleux, F.

    2013-01-01

    The seasonal and spatial varability of Aerosol Above Cloud (AAC) properties are derived from passive satellite data for the year 2008. A significant amount of aerosols are transported above liquid water clouds on the global scale. For particles in the fine mode (i.e., radius smaller than 0.3 m), including both clear sky and AAC retrievals increases the global mean aerosol optical thickness by 25(+/- 6%). The two main regions with man-made AAC are the tropical Southeast Atlantic, for biomass burning aerosols, and the North Pacific, mainly for pollutants. Man-made AAC are also detected over the Arctic during the spring. Mineral dust particles are detected above clouds within the so-called dust belt region (5-40 N). AAC may cause a warming effect and bias the retrieval of the cloud properties. This study will then help to better quantify the impacts of aerosols on clouds and climate.

  19. Development and Verification of a Physical Cloud-Moisture Model for Use in General Circulation Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-31

    referred as 3 the greenhouse effect . Since the grc 1’-ise and albedo effects are different in sign as well as magnitude, the existence of clouds may have...cloud amounts, is balanced by the greenhouse effect either globally or zonally. However, similar studies carried out by Ohring 3and Clapp (1980), Hartman...satellites, showed that the albedo effect is much greater than the greenhouse effect from changes in cloud amounts; i.e., the net radiation 3at TOA

  20. Effects of cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles on precipitation processes and supercooled liquid in mixed-phase orographic clouds

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, L. Ruby; Rosenfeld, Daniel

    How orographic mixed-phase clouds respond to the change in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nucleating particles (INPs) are highly uncertain. The main snow production mechanism in warm and cold mixed-phase orographic clouds (referred to as WMOCs and CMOCs, respectively, distinguished here as those having cloud tops warmer and colder than -20°C) could be very different. We quantify the CCN and INP impacts on supercooled water content, cloud phases, and precipitation for a WMOC case and a CMOC case, with sensitivity tests using the same CCN and INP concentrations between the WMOC and CMOC cases. It was found that depositionmore » plays a more important role than riming for forming snow in the CMOC case, while the role of riming is dominant in the WMOC case. As expected, adding CCN suppresses precipitation, especially in WMOCs and low INPs. However, this reverses strongly for CCN of 1000 cm -3 and larger. We found a new mechanism through which CCN can invigorate mixed-phase clouds over the Sierra Nevada and drastically intensify snow precipitation when CCN concentrations are high (1000 cm -3 or higher). In this situation, more widespread shallow clouds with a greater amount of cloud water form in the Central Valley and foothills west of the mountain range. The increased latent heat release associated with the formation of these clouds strengthens the local transport of moisture to the windward slope, invigorating mixed-phase clouds over the mountains, and thereby producing higher amounts of snow precipitation. Under all CCN conditions, increasing the INPs leads to decreased riming and mixed-phase fraction in the CMOC as a result of liquid-limited conditions, but has the opposite effects in the WMOC as a result of ice-limited conditions. However, precipitation in both cases is increased by increasing INPs due to an increase in deposition for the CMOC but enhanced riming and deposition in the WMOC. Increasing the INPs dramatically reduces supercooled water

  1. Effects of cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles on precipitation processes and supercooled liquid in mixed-phase orographic clouds

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, L. Ruby; Rosenfeld, Daniel; ...

    2017-01-23

    How orographic mixed-phase clouds respond to the change in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nucleating particles (INPs) are highly uncertain. The main snow production mechanism in warm and cold mixed-phase orographic clouds (referred to as WMOCs and CMOCs, respectively, distinguished here as those having cloud tops warmer and colder than -20°C) could be very different. We quantify the CCN and INP impacts on supercooled water content, cloud phases, and precipitation for a WMOC case and a CMOC case, with sensitivity tests using the same CCN and INP concentrations between the WMOC and CMOC cases. It was found that depositionmore » plays a more important role than riming for forming snow in the CMOC case, while the role of riming is dominant in the WMOC case. As expected, adding CCN suppresses precipitation, especially in WMOCs and low INPs. However, this reverses strongly for CCN of 1000 cm -3 and larger. We found a new mechanism through which CCN can invigorate mixed-phase clouds over the Sierra Nevada and drastically intensify snow precipitation when CCN concentrations are high (1000 cm -3 or higher). In this situation, more widespread shallow clouds with a greater amount of cloud water form in the Central Valley and foothills west of the mountain range. The increased latent heat release associated with the formation of these clouds strengthens the local transport of moisture to the windward slope, invigorating mixed-phase clouds over the mountains, and thereby producing higher amounts of snow precipitation. Under all CCN conditions, increasing the INPs leads to decreased riming and mixed-phase fraction in the CMOC as a result of liquid-limited conditions, but has the opposite effects in the WMOC as a result of ice-limited conditions. However, precipitation in both cases is increased by increasing INPs due to an increase in deposition for the CMOC but enhanced riming and deposition in the WMOC. Increasing the INPs dramatically reduces supercooled water

  2. Electron Cloud Trapping in Recycler Combined Function Dipole Magnets

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Antipov, Sergey A.; Nagaitsev, S.

    2016-10-04

    Electron cloud can lead to a fast instability in intense proton and positron beams in circular accelerators. In the Fermilab Recycler the electron cloud is confined within its combined function magnets. We show that the field of combined function magnets traps the electron cloud, present the results of analytical estimates of trapping, and compare them to numerical simulations of electron cloud formation. The electron cloud is located at the beam center and up to 1% of the particles can be trapped by the magnetic field. Since the process of electron cloud build-up is exponential, once trapped this amount of electronsmore » significantly increases the density of the cloud on the next revolution. In a Recycler combined function dipole this multiturn accumulation allows the electron cloud reaching final intensities orders of magnitude greater than in a pure dipole. The multi-turn build-up can be stopped by injection of a clearing bunch of 1010 p at any position in the ring.« less

  3. Strong Constraints on Aerosol-Cloud Interactions from Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malavelle, Florent F.; Haywood, Jim M.; Jones, Andy; Gettelman, Andrew; Clarisse, Lieven; Bauduin, Sophie; Allan, Richard P.; Karset, Inger Helene H.; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; hide

    2017-01-01

    Aerosols have a potentially large effect on climate, particularly through their interactions with clouds, but the magnitude of this effect is highly uncertain. Large volcanic eruptions produce sulfur dioxide, which in turn produces aerosols; these eruptions thus represent a natural experiment through which to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions. Here we show that the massive 2014-2015 fissure eruption in Holuhraun, Iceland, reduced the size of liquid cloud droplets - consistent with expectations - but had no discernible effect on other cloud properties. The reduction in droplet size led to cloud brightening and global-mean radiative forcing of around minus 0.2 watts per square metre for September to October 2014. Changes in cloud amount or cloud liquid water path, however, were undetectable, indicating that these indirect effects, and cloud systems in general, are well buffered against aerosol changes. This result will reduce uncertainties in future climate projections, because we are now able to reject results from climate models with an excessive liquid-water-path response.

  4. Strong constraints on aerosol-cloud interactions from volcanic eruptions.

    PubMed

    Malavelle, Florent F; Haywood, Jim M; Jones, Andy; Gettelman, Andrew; Clarisse, Lieven; Bauduin, Sophie; Allan, Richard P; Karset, Inger Helene H; Kristjánsson, Jón Egill; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Cho, Nayeong; Lee, Dongmin; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Grosvenor, Daniel P; Carslaw, Ken S; Dhomse, Sandip; Mann, Graham W; Schmidt, Anja; Coe, Hugh; Hartley, Margaret E; Dalvi, Mohit; Hill, Adrian A; Johnson, Ben T; Johnson, Colin E; Knight, Jeff R; O'Connor, Fiona M; Partridge, Daniel G; Stier, Philip; Myhre, Gunnar; Platnick, Steven; Stephens, Graeme L; Takahashi, Hanii; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2017-06-22

    Aerosols have a potentially large effect on climate, particularly through their interactions with clouds, but the magnitude of this effect is highly uncertain. Large volcanic eruptions produce sulfur dioxide, which in turn produces aerosols; these eruptions thus represent a natural experiment through which to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions. Here we show that the massive 2014-2015 fissure eruption in Holuhraun, Iceland, reduced the size of liquid cloud droplets-consistent with expectations-but had no discernible effect on other cloud properties. The reduction in droplet size led to cloud brightening and global-mean radiative forcing of around -0.2 watts per square metre for September to October 2014. Changes in cloud amount or cloud liquid water path, however, were undetectable, indicating that these indirect effects, and cloud systems in general, are well buffered against aerosol changes. This result will reduce uncertainties in future climate projections, because we are now able to reject results from climate models with an excessive liquid-water-path response.

  5. 76 FR 46267 - Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane... Raw Sugar Tariff- Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... year (FY) 2011 specialty sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 9,072 metric tons raw value (MTRV). The...

  6. Above-Cloud Precipitable Water Retrievals using the MODIS 0.94 micron Band with Applications for Multi-Layer Cloud Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, S.; Wind, G.

    2004-01-01

    In order to perform satellite retrievals of cloud properties, it is important to account for the effect of the above-cloud atmosphere on the observations. The solar bands used in the operational MODIS Terra and Aqua cloud optical and microphysical algorithms (visible, NIR, and SWIR spectral windows) are primarily affected by water vapor, and to a lesser extent by well-mixed gases. For water vapor, the above-cloud column amount, or precipitable water, provides adequate information for an atmospheric correction; details of the vertical vapor distribution are not typically necessary for the level of correction required. Cloud-top pressure has a secondary effect due to pressure broadening influences. For well- mixed gases, cloud-top pressure is also required for estimates of above-cloud abundances. We present a method for obtaining above-cloud precipitable water over dark Ocean surfaces using the MODIS 0.94 pm vapor absorption band. The retrieval includes an iterative procedure for establishing cloud-top temperature and pressure, and is useful for both single layer water and ice clouds. Knowledge of cloud thermodynamic phase is fundamental in retrieving cloud optical and microphysical properties. However, in cases of optically thin cirrus overlapping lower water clouds, the concept of a single unique phase is ill- defined and depends, at least, on the spectral region of interest. We will present a method for multi-layer and multi-phase cloud detection which uses above-cloud precipitable water retrievals along with several existing MODIS operational cloud products (cloud-top pressure derived from a C02 slicing algorithm, IR and SWIR phase retrievals). Results are catagorized by whether the radiative signature in the MODIS solar bands is primarily that of a water cloud with ice cloud contamination, or visa-versa. Examples in polar and mid-latitude regions will be shown.

  7. Ocean Circulation-Cloud Interactions Reduce the Pace of Transient Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trossman, D.; Palter, J. B.; Merlis, T. M.; Huang, Y.; Xia, Y.

    2016-12-01

    We argue that a substantial fraction of the uncertainty in the cloud radiative feedback during transient climate change may be due to uncertainty in the ocean circulation perturbation. A suite of climate model simulations in which the ocean circulation, the cloud radiative feedback, or a combination of both are held fixed while CO2 doubles, shows that changes in the ocean circulation reduce the amount of transient global warming caused by the radiative cloud feedback. Specifically, a slowdown in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) helps to maintain low cloud cover in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics. We propose that the AMOC decline increases the meridional SST gradient, strengthening the storm track, its attendant clouds and the amount of shortwave radiation they reflect back to space. If the results of our model were to scale proportionately in the CMIP5 models, whose AMOC decline ranges from 15 to 60% under RCP8.5, then as much as 70% of the intermodel spread in the cloud radiative feedback and 35% of the spread in the transient climate response could possibly stem from the model representations of AMOC decline.

  8. Marine cloud brightening – as effective without clouds

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ahlm, Lars; Jones, Andy; Stjern, Camilla W.

    Marine cloud brightening through sea spray injection has been proposed as a climate engineering method for avoiding the most severe consequences of global warming. A limitation of most of the previous modelling studies on marine cloud brightening is that they have either considered individual models or only investigated the effects of a specific increase in the number of cloud droplets. Here we present results from coordinated simulations with three Earth system models (ESMs) participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G4sea-salt experiment. Injection rates of accumulation-mode sea spray aerosol particles over ocean between 30°N and 30°S are set in each model tomore » generate a global-mean effective radiative forcing (ERF) of –2.0 W m –2 at the top of the atmosphere. We find that the injection increases the cloud droplet number concentration in lower layers, reduces the cloud-top effective droplet radius, and increases the cloud optical depth over the injection area. We also find, however, that the global-mean clear-sky ERF by the injected particles is as large as the corresponding total ERF in all three ESMs, indicating a large potential of the aerosol direct effect in regions of low cloudiness. The largest enhancement in ERF due to the presence of clouds occur as expected in the subtropical stratocumulus regions off the west coasts of the American and African continents. However, outside these regions, the ERF is in general equally large in cloudy and clear-sky conditions. Lastly, these findings suggest a more important role of the aerosol direct effect in sea spray climate engineering than previously thought.« less

  9. Marine cloud brightening – as effective without clouds

    DOE PAGES

    Ahlm, Lars; Jones, Andy; Stjern, Camilla W.; ...

    2017-11-06

    Marine cloud brightening through sea spray injection has been proposed as a climate engineering method for avoiding the most severe consequences of global warming. A limitation of most of the previous modelling studies on marine cloud brightening is that they have either considered individual models or only investigated the effects of a specific increase in the number of cloud droplets. Here we present results from coordinated simulations with three Earth system models (ESMs) participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G4sea-salt experiment. Injection rates of accumulation-mode sea spray aerosol particles over ocean between 30°N and 30°S are set in each model tomore » generate a global-mean effective radiative forcing (ERF) of –2.0 W m –2 at the top of the atmosphere. We find that the injection increases the cloud droplet number concentration in lower layers, reduces the cloud-top effective droplet radius, and increases the cloud optical depth over the injection area. We also find, however, that the global-mean clear-sky ERF by the injected particles is as large as the corresponding total ERF in all three ESMs, indicating a large potential of the aerosol direct effect in regions of low cloudiness. The largest enhancement in ERF due to the presence of clouds occur as expected in the subtropical stratocumulus regions off the west coasts of the American and African continents. However, outside these regions, the ERF is in general equally large in cloudy and clear-sky conditions. Lastly, these findings suggest a more important role of the aerosol direct effect in sea spray climate engineering than previously thought.« less

  10. 3D Cloud Radiative Effects on Aerosol Optical Thickness Retrievals in Cumulus Cloud Fields in the Biomass Burning Region in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, Guo-Yong; Marshak, Alexander; Cahalan, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol amount in clear regions of a cloudy atmosphere is a critical parameter in studying the interaction between aerosols and clouds. Since the global cloud cover is about 50%, cloudy scenes are often encountered in any satellite images. Aerosols are more or less transparent, while clouds are extremely reflective in the visible spectrum of solar radiation. The radiative transfer in clear-cloudy condition is highly three- dimensional (3D). This paper focuses on estimating the 3D effects on aerosol optical thickness retrievals using Monte Carlo simulations. An ASTER image of cumulus cloud fields in the biomass burning region in Brazil is simulated in this study. The MODIS products (i-e., cloud optical thickness, particle effective radius, cloud top pressure, surface reflectance, etc.) are used to construct the cloud property and surface reflectance fields. To estimate the cloud 3-D effects, we assume a plane-parallel stratification of aerosol properties in the 60 km x 60 km ASTER image. The simulated solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere is compared with plane-parallel calculations. Furthermore, the 3D cloud radiative effects on aerosol optical thickness retrieval are estimated.

  11. Examining the Impact of Smoke on Frontal Clouds and Precipitation During the 2002 Yakutsk Wildfires Using the WRF-Chem-SMOKE Model and Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zheng; Sokolik, Irina N.

    2017-12-01

    In 2002, an enormous amount of smoke has been emitted from Yakutsk wildfires. In this study, we examine the impact of smoke on cloud properties and precipitation associated with frontal systems using the WRF-Chem-SMOKE model and satellite data. The smoke emissions are computed using the fire radiative power technique. Smoke particles are represented as an internal mixture of organic matter (OM), black carbon (BC), and other inorganic matter, and their microphysical and radiative effects are explicitly modeled. After examining the fire activities, we identified two fire periods (FP1 and FP2). During FP1, in the cloud deck with the high cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), but the relatively small amount of ice nuclei (IN), the rain and snow water contents (RWC and SWC) were strongly reduced, because of suppressed collision-coalescence and riming processes. The cloud cells acquired the longer lifetime and traveled farther downwind. During FP2, in the cloud deck with relatively high CDNC and IN, RWC was reduced; however, the large amounts of IN triggered the glaciation indirect effect and leaded to increased SWC. Due to the competing effects of CDNC and IN, changes in the cloud lifetime were small. Consequently, smoke-induced changes in the total cloudiness cause a dipole feature. After the smoke was nearly consumed during FP1, the large-scale dynamics of the frontal system was altered by smoke. The onset of the precipitation was delayed by 1 day. In FP2, the onset of the precipitation was not delayed but occurred at different locations, and the area-averaged precipitation was slightly reduced ( 0.5 mm/day).

  12. Exploring Richtmyer-Meshkov instability phenomena and ejecta cloud physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellner, M. B.; Buttler, W. T.

    2008-09-01

    This effort investigates ejecta cloud expansion from a shocked Sn target propagating into vacuum. To assess the expansion, dynamic ejecta cloud density distributions were measured via piezoelectric pin diagnostics offset at three heights from the target free surface. The dynamic distributions were first converted into static distributions, similar to a radiograph, and then self compared. The cloud evolved self-similarly at the distances and times measured, inferring that the amount of mass imparted to the instability, detected as ejecta, either ceased or approached an asymptotic limit.

  13. Cloud-based preoperative planning for total hip arthroplasty: a study of accuracy, efficiency, and compliance.

    PubMed

    Maratt, Joseph D; Srinivasan, Ramesh C; Dahl, William J; Schilling, Peter L; Urquhart, Andrew G

    2012-08-01

    As digital radiography becomes more prevalent, several systems for digital preoperative planning have become available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of an inexpensive, cloud-based digital templating system, which is comparable with acetate templating. However, cloud-based templating is substantially faster and more convenient than acetate templating or locally installed software. Although this is a practical solution for this particular medical application, regulatory changes are necessary before the tremendous advantages of cloud-based storage and computing can be realized in medical research and clinical practice. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Cirrus Cloud Seeding has Potential to Cool Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storelvmo, T.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Muri, H.; Pfeffer, M.; Barahona, D.; Nenes, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cirrus clouds, thin ice clouds in the upper troposphere, have a net warming effect on Earth s climate. Consequently, a reduction in cirrus cloud amount or optical thickness would cool the climate. Recent research indicates that by seeding cirrus clouds with particles that promote ice nucleation, their lifetimes and coverage could be reduced. We have tested this hypothesis in a global climate model with a state-of-the-art representation of cirrus clouds and find that cirrus cloud seeding has the potential to cancel the entire warming caused by human activity from pre-industrial times to present day. However, the desired effect is only obtained for seeding particle concentrations that lie within an optimal range. With lower than optimal particle concentrations, a seeding exercise would have no effect. Moreover, a higher than optimal concentration results in an over-seeding that could have the deleterious effect of prolonging cirrus lifetime and contributing to global warming.

  15. Parameterization of bulk condensation in numerical cloud models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogan, Yefim L.; Martin, William J.

    1994-01-01

    The accuracy of the moist saturation adjustment scheme has been evaluated using a three-dimensional explicit microphysical cloud model. It was found that the error in saturation adjustment depends strongly on the Cloud Condensation Nucleii (CCN) concentration in the ambient atmosphere. The scheme provides rather accurate results in the case where a sufficiently large number of CCN (on the order of several hundred per cubic centimeter) is available. However, under conditions typical of marine stratocumulus cloud layers with low CCN concentration, the error in the amounts of condensed water vapor and released latent heat may be as large as 40%-50%. A revision of the saturation adjustment scheme is devised that employs the CCN concentration, dynamical supersaturation, and cloud water content as additional variables in the calculation of the condensation rate. The revised condensation model reduced the error in maximum updraft and cloud water content in the climatically significant case of marine stratocumulus cloud layers by an order of magnitude.

  16. Total Lightning as an Indicator of Mesocyclone Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, Sarah M.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Apparent relationship between total lightning (in-cloud and cloud to ground) and severe weather suggests its operational utility. Goal of fusion of total lightning with proven tools (i.e., radar lightning algorithms. Preliminary work here investigates circulation from Weather Suveilance Radar- 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) coupled with total lightning data from Lightning Mapping Arrays.

  17. Microphysical processing of aerosol particles in orographic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pousse-Nottelmann, S.; Zubler, E. M.; Lohmann, U.

    2015-01-01

    An explicit and detailed treatment of cloud-borne particles allowing for the consideration of aerosol cycling in clouds has been implemented in the regional weather forecast and climate model COSMO. The effects of aerosol scavenging, cloud microphysical processing and regeneration upon cloud evaporation on the aerosol population and on subsequent cloud formation are investigated. For this, two-dimensional idealized simulations of moist flow over two bell-shaped mountains were carried out varying the treatment of aerosol scavenging and regeneration processes for a warm-phase and a mixed-phase orographic cloud. The results allowed to identify different aerosol cycling mechanisms. In the simulated non-precipitating warm-phase cloud, aerosol mass is incorporated into cloud droplets by activation scavenging and released back to the atmosphere upon cloud droplet evaporation. In the mixed-phase cloud, a first cycle comprises cloud droplet activation and evaporation via the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process. A second cycle includes below-cloud scavenging by precipitating snow particles and snow sublimation and is connected to the first cycle via the riming process which transfers aerosol mass from cloud droplets to snow flakes. In the simulated mixed-phase cloud, only a negligible part of the total aerosol mass is incorporated into ice crystals. Sedimenting snow flakes reaching the surface remove aerosol mass from the atmosphere. The results show that aerosol processing and regeneration lead to a vertical redistribution of aerosol mass and number. However, the processes not only impact the total aerosol number and mass, but also the shape of the aerosol size distributions by enhancing the internally mixed/soluble accumulation mode and generating coarse mode particles. Concerning subsequent cloud formation at the second mountain, accounting for aerosol processing and regeneration increases the cloud droplet number concentration with possible implications for the ice

  18. Microphysical processing of aerosol particles in orographic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pousse-Nottelmann, S.; Zubler, E. M.; Lohmann, U.

    2015-08-01

    An explicit and detailed treatment of cloud-borne particles allowing for the consideration of aerosol cycling in clouds has been implemented into COSMO-Model, the regional weather forecast and climate model of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO). The effects of aerosol scavenging, cloud microphysical processing and regeneration upon cloud evaporation on the aerosol population and on subsequent cloud formation are investigated. For this, two-dimensional idealized simulations of moist flow over two bell-shaped mountains were carried out varying the treatment of aerosol scavenging and regeneration processes for a warm-phase and a mixed-phase orographic cloud. The results allowed us to identify different aerosol cycling mechanisms. In the simulated non-precipitating warm-phase cloud, aerosol mass is incorporated into cloud droplets by activation scavenging and released back to the atmosphere upon cloud droplet evaporation. In the mixed-phase cloud, a first cycle comprises cloud droplet activation and evaporation via the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process. A second cycle includes below-cloud scavenging by precipitating snow particles and snow sublimation and is connected to the first cycle via the riming process which transfers aerosol mass from cloud droplets to snowflakes. In the simulated mixed-phase cloud, only a negligible part of the total aerosol mass is incorporated into ice crystals. Sedimenting snowflakes reaching the surface remove aerosol mass from the atmosphere. The results show that aerosol processing and regeneration lead to a vertical redistribution of aerosol mass and number. Thereby, the processes impact the total aerosol number and mass and additionally alter the shape of the aerosol size distributions by enhancing the internally mixed/soluble Aitken and accumulation mode and generating coarse-mode particles. Concerning subsequent cloud formation at the second mountain, accounting for aerosol processing and regeneration increases

  19. Cloud computing for comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Large comparative genomics studies and tools are becoming increasingly more compute-expensive as the number of available genome sequences continues to rise. The capacity and cost of local computing infrastructures are likely to become prohibitive with the increase, especially as the breadth of questions continues to rise. Alternative computing architectures, in particular cloud computing environments, may help alleviate this increasing pressure and enable fast, large-scale, and cost-effective comparative genomics strategies going forward. To test this, we redesigned a typical comparative genomics algorithm, the reciprocal smallest distance algorithm (RSD), to run within Amazon's Elastic Computing Cloud (EC2). We then employed the RSD-cloud for ortholog calculations across a wide selection of fully sequenced genomes. Results We ran more than 300,000 RSD-cloud processes within the EC2. These jobs were farmed simultaneously to 100 high capacity compute nodes using the Amazon Web Service Elastic Map Reduce and included a wide mix of large and small genomes. The total computation time took just under 70 hours and cost a total of $6,302 USD. Conclusions The effort to transform existing comparative genomics algorithms from local compute infrastructures is not trivial. However, the speed and flexibility of cloud computing environments provides a substantial boost with manageable cost. The procedure designed to transform the RSD algorithm into a cloud-ready application is readily adaptable to similar comparative genomics problems. PMID:20482786

  20. Measurements of Nitrogen Dioxide Total Column Amounts using a Brewer Double Spectrophotometer in Direct Sun Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cede, Alexander; Herman, Jay; Richter, Andreas; Krotkov, Nickolay; Burrows, John

    2006-01-01

    NO2 column amounts were measured for the past 2 years at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, using a Brewer spectrometer in direct Sun mode. A new bootstrap method to calibrate the instrument is introduced and described. This technique selects the cleanest days from the database to obtain the solar reference spectrum. The main advantage for direct Sun measurements is that the conversion uncertainty from slant column to vertical column is negligible compared to the standard scattered light observations where it is typically on the order of 100% (2sigma) at polluted sites. The total 2sigma errors of the direct Sun retrieved column amounts decrease with solar zenith angle and are estimated at 0.2 to 0.6 Dobson units (DU, 1 DU approx. equal to 2.7 10(exp 16) molecules cm(exp -2)), which is more accurate than scattered light measurements for high NO2 amounts. Measured NO2 column amounts, ranging from 0 to 3 DU with a mean of 0.7 DU, show a pronounced daily course and a strong variability from day to day. The NO2 concentration typically increases from sunrise to noon. In the afternoon it decreases in summer and stays constant in winter. As expected from the anthropogenic nature of its source, NO2 amounts on weekends are significantly reduced. The measurements were compared to satellite retrievals from Scanning Image Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). Satellite data give the same average NO2 column and show a seasonal cycle that is similar to the ground data in the afternoon. We show that NO2 must be considered when retrieving aerosol absorption properties, especially for situations with low aerosol optical depth.

  1. Molecular clouds without detectable CO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blitz, Leo; Bazell, David; Desert, F. Xavier

    1990-01-01

    The clouds identified by Desert, Bazell, and Boulanger (DBB clouds) in their search for high-latitude molecular clouds were observed in the CO (J = 1-0) line, but only 13 percent of the sample was detected. The remaining 87 percent are diffuse molecular clouds with CO abundances of about 10 to the -6th, a typical value for diffuse clouds. This hypothesis is shown to be consistent with Copernicus data. The DBB clouds are shown to ben an essentially complete catalog of diffuse molecular clouds in the solar vicinity. The total molecular surface density in the vicinity of the sun is then only about 20 percent greater than the 1.3 solar masses/sq pc determined by Dame et al. (1987). Analysis of the CO detections indicates that there is a sharp threshold in extinction of 0.25 mag before CO is detectable and is derived from the IRAS I(100) micron threshold of 4 MJy/sr. This threshold is presumably where the CO abundance exhibits a sharp increase

  2. Molecular clouds without detectable CO

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Blitz, L.; Bazell, D.; Desert, F.X.

    1990-03-01

    The clouds identified by Desert, Bazell, and Boulanger (DBB clouds) in their search for high-latitude molecular clouds were observed in the CO (J = 1-0) line, but only 13 percent of the sample was detected. The remaining 87 percent are diffuse molecular clouds with CO abundances of about 10 to the -6th, a typical value for diffuse clouds. This hypothesis is shown to be consistent with Copernicus data. The DBB clouds are shown to be an essentially complete catalog of diffuse molecular clouds in the solar vicinity. The total molecular surface density in the vicinity of the sun is thenmore » only about 20 percent greater than the 1.3 solar masses/sq pc determined by Dame et al. (1987). Analysis of the CO detections indicates that there is a sharp threshold in extinction of 0.25 mag before CO is detectable and is derived from the IRAS I(100) micron threshold of 4 MJy/sr. This threshold is presumably where the CO abundance exhibits a sharp increase 18 refs.« less

  3. The QBO and interannual variation in total ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lait, Leslie R.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Newman, Paul A.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    Garcia and Soloman (1987) have noted that the October monthly mean minimum total ozone amounts south of 30 S were modulated by a quasibiennial oscillation (QBO) signal. The precise mechanism behind this effect, however, is unclear. Is the modulation brought about by the circulation-produced QBO signal in the ozone concentration itself, or does the temperature QBO modulate the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), leading to changes in the chemically induced Antarctic spring ozone decline rate. Or is some other phenomenon involved. To investigate the means through which the QBO effect occurs, a series of correlation studies has been made between polar ozone and QBO signal in ozone and temperature.

  4. Clouds vertical properties over the Northern Hemisphere monsoon regions from CloudSat-CALIPSO measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subrata Kumar; Golhait, R. B.; Uma, K. N.

    2017-01-01

    The CloudSat spaceborne radar and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) space-borne lidar measurements, provide opportunities to understand the intriguing behavior of the vertical structure of monsoon clouds. The combined CloudSat-CALIPSO data products have been used for the summer season (June-August) of 2006-2010 to present the statistics of cloud macrophysical (such as cloud occurrence frequency, distribution of cloud top and base heights, geometrical thickness and cloud types base on occurrence height), and microphysical (such as ice water content, ice water path, and ice effective radius) properties of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) monsoon region. The monsoon regions considered in this work are the North American (NAM), North African (NAF), Indian (IND), East Asian (EAS), and Western North Pacific (WNP). The total cloud fraction over the IND (mostly multiple-layered cloud) appeared to be more frequent as compared to the other monsoon regions. Three distinctive modes of cloud top height distribution are observed over all the monsoon regions. The high-level cloud fraction is comparatively high over the WNP and IND. The ice water content and ice water path over the IND are maximum compared to the other monsoon regions. We found that the ice water content has little variations over the NAM, NAF, IND, and WNP as compared to their macrophysical properties and thus give an impression that the regional differences in dynamics and thermodynamics properties primarily cause changes in the cloud frequency or coverage and only secondary in the cloud ice properties. The background atmospheric dynamics using wind and relative humidity from the ERA-Interim reanalysis data have also been investigated which helps in understanding the variability of the cloud properties over the different monsoon regions.

  5. Can Oort clouds pollute their parent stars after they become white dwarfs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, D.; Shannon, A.; Gänsicke, B. T.

    2017-09-01

    Comets impact the Sun frequently. In fact, coronographs like those which are part of Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (LASCO) reveal that a comet grazes the Sun every few days, with a total of about 2400 grazers from 1996 to 2008. This frequency underscores an outstanding question in the quest to understand planetary systems: what types of small bodies - pebbles, asteroids, comets or moons - are the primary polluter of white dwarfs? We determine how often remnant exo-Oort clouds, freshly excited from post-main-sequence stellar mass loss, dynamically inject comets inside the white dwarf's Roche radius. We improve upon previous studies by considering a representative range of single white dwarf masses (0.52-1.00 M⊙) and incorporating different cloud architectures, giant branch stellar mass loss, stellar flybys, Galactic tides and a realistic escape ellipsoid in self-consistent numerical simulations that integrate beyond 8 Gyr ages of white dwarf cooling. We find that ˜10^(-5) of the material in an exo-Oort cloud is typically amassed onto the white dwarf, and that hydrogen deposits accumulate even as the cloud dissipates. This accumulation may account for the relatively large amount of trace hydrogen, 10^(22) -10^(25) g, that is determined frequently among white dwarfs with cooling ages ≥1 Gyr. Our results also reaffirm the notion that exo-Oort cloud comets are not the primary agents of the metal budgets observed in polluted white dwarf atmospheres.

  6. Clouds over the summertime Sahara: an evaluation of Met Office retrievals from Meteosat Second Generation using airborne remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kealy, John C.; Marenco, Franco; Marsham, John H.; Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Francis, Pete N.; Cooke, Michael C.; Hocking, James

    2017-05-01

    Novel methods of cloud detection are applied to airborne remote sensing observations from the unique Fennec aircraft dataset, to evaluate the Met Office-derived products on cloud properties over the Sahara based on the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on-board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. Two cloud mask configurations are considered, as well as the retrievals of cloud-top height (CTH), and these products are compared to airborne cloud remote sensing products acquired during the Fennec campaign in June 2011 and June 2012. Most detected clouds (67 % of the total) have a horizontal extent that is smaller than a SEVIRI pixel (3 km × 3 km). We show that, when partially cloud-contaminated pixels are included, a match between the SEVIRI and aircraft datasets is found in 80 ± 8 % of the pixels. Moreover, under clear skies the datasets are shown to agree for more than 90 % of the pixels. The mean cloud field, derived from the satellite cloud mask acquired during the Fennec flights, shows that areas of high surface albedo and orography are preferred sites for Saharan cloud cover, consistent with published theories. Cloud-top height retrievals however show large discrepancies over the region, which are ascribed to limiting factors such as the cloud horizontal extent, the derived effective cloud amount, and the absorption by mineral dust. The results of the CTH analysis presented here may also have further-reaching implications for the techniques employed by other satellite applications facilities across the world.

  7. Effects of turbulence on mixed-phase deep convective clouds under different basic-state winds and aerosol concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunho; Baik, Jong-Jin; Han, Ji-Young

    2014-12-01

    The effects of turbulence-induced collision enhancement (TICE) on mixed-phase deep convective clouds are numerically investigated using a 2-D cloud model with bin microphysics for uniform and sheared basic-state wind profiles and different aerosol concentrations. Graupel particles account for the most of the cloud mass in all simulation cases. In the uniform basic-state wind cases, graupel particles with moderate sizes account for some of the total graupel mass in the cases with TICE, whereas graupel particles with large sizes account for almost all the total graupel mass in the cases without TICE. This is because the growth of ice crystals into small graupel particles is enhanced due to TICE. The changes in the size distributions of graupel particles due to TICE result in a decrease in the mass-averaged mean terminal velocity of graupel particles. Therefore, the downward flux of graupel mass, and thus the melting of graupel particles, is reduced due to TICE, leading to a decrease in the amount of surface precipitation. Moreover, under the low aerosol concentration, TICE increases the sublimation of ice particles, consequently playing a partial role in reducing the amount of surface precipitation. The effects of TICE are less pronounced in the sheared basic-state wind cases than in the uniform basic-state wind cases because the number of ice crystals is much smaller in the sheared basic-state wind cases than in the uniform basic-state wind cases. Thus, the size distributions of graupel particles in the cases with and without TICE show little difference.

  8. Unidata Cyberinfrastructure in the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, M. K.; Young, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    Data services, software, and user support are critical components of geosciences cyber-infrastructure to help researchers to advance science. With the maturity of and significant advances in cloud computing, it has recently emerged as an alternative new paradigm for developing and delivering a broad array of services over the Internet. Cloud computing is now mature enough in usability in many areas of science and education, bringing the benefits of virtualized and elastic remote services to infrastructure, software, computation, and data. Cloud environments reduce the amount of time and money spent to procure, install, and maintain new hardware and software, and reduce costs through resource pooling and shared infrastructure. Given the enormous potential of cloud-based services, Unidata has been moving to augment its software, services, data delivery mechanisms to align with the cloud-computing paradigm. To realize the above vision, Unidata has worked toward: * Providing access to many types of data from a cloud (e.g., via the THREDDS Data Server, RAMADDA and EDEX servers); * Deploying data-proximate tools to easily process, analyze, and visualize those data in a cloud environment cloud for consumption by any one, by any device, from anywhere, at any time; * Developing and providing a range of pre-configured and well-integrated tools and services that can be deployed by any university in their own private or public cloud settings. Specifically, Unidata has developed Docker for "containerized applications", making them easy to deploy. Docker helps to create "disposable" installs and eliminates many configuration challenges. Containerized applications include tools for data transport, access, analysis, and visualization: THREDDS Data Server, Integrated Data Viewer, GEMPAK, Local Data Manager, RAMADDA Data Server, and Python tools; * Leveraging Jupyter as a central platform and hub with its powerful set of interlinking tools to connect interactively data servers

  9. Interpretation of cirrus cloud properties using coincident satellite and lidar data during the FIRE cirrus IFO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Alvarez, Joseph M.; Young, David F.; Sassen, Kenneth; Grund, Christian J.

    1990-01-01

    The First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Cirrus Intensive Field Observations (IFO) provide an opportunity to examine the relationships between the satellite observed radiances and various parameters which describe the bulk properties of clouds, such as cloud amount and cloud top height. Lidar derived cloud altitude data, radiosonde data, and satellite observed radiances are used to examine the relationships between visible reflectance, infrared emittance, and cloud top temperatures for cirrus clouds.

  10. Cloud Liquid Water Path Comparisons from Passive Microwave and Solar Reflectance Satellite Measurements: Assessment of Sub-Field-of-View Cloud Effects in Microwave Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwald, Thomas J.; Christopher, Sundar A.; Chou, Joyce

    1997-01-01

    Satellite observations of the cloud liquid water path (LWP) are compared from special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) measurements and GOES 8 imager solar reflectance (SR) measurements to ascertain the impact of sub-field-of-view (FOV) cloud effects on SSM/I 37 GHz retrievals. The SR retrievals also incorporate estimates of the cloud droplet effective radius derived from the GOES 8 3.9-micron channel. The comparisons consist of simultaneous collocated and full-resolution measurements and are limited to nonprecipitating marine stratocumulus in the eastern Pacific for two days in October 1995. The retrievals from these independent methods are consistent for overcast SSM/I FOVS, with RMS differences as low as 0.030 kg/sq m, although biases exist for clouds with more open spatial structure, where the RMS differences increase to 0.039 kg/sq m. For broken cloudiness within the SSM/I FOV the average beam-filling error (BFE) in the microwave retrievals is found to be about 22% (average cloud amount of 73%). This systematic error is comparable with the average random errors in the microwave retrievals. However, even larger BFEs can be expected for individual FOVs and for regions with less cloudiness. By scaling the microwave retrievals by the cloud amount within the FOV, the systematic BFE can be significantly reduced but with increased RMS differences of O.046-0.058 kg/sq m when compared to the SR retrievals. The beam-filling effects reported here are significant and are expected to impact directly upon studies that use instantaneous SSM/I measurements of cloud LWP, such as cloud classification studies and validation studies involving surface-based or in situ data.

  11. Final Technical Report for Project "Improving the Simulation of Arctic Clouds in CCSM3"

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stephen J. Vavrus

    2008-11-15

    This project has focused on the simulation of Arctic clouds in CCSM3 and how the modeled cloud amount (and climate) can be improved substantially by altering the parameterized low cloud fraction. The new formula, dubbed 'freeezedry', alleviates the bias of excessive low clouds during polar winter by reducing the cloud amount under very dry conditions. During winter, freezedry decreases the low cloud amount over the coldest regions in high latitudes by over 50% locally and more than 30% averaged across the Arctic (Fig. 1). The cloud reduction causes an Arctic-wide drop of 15 W m{sup -2} in surface cloud radiativemore » forcing (CRF) during winter and about a 50% decrease in mean annual Arctic CRF. Consequently, wintertime surface temperatures fall by up to 4 K on land and 2-8 K over the Arctic Ocean, thus significantly reducing the model's pronounced warm bias (Fig. 1). While improving the polar climate simulation in CCSM3, freezedry has virtually no influence outside of very cold regions (Fig. 2) or during summer (Fig. 3), which are space and time domains that were not targeted. Furthermore, the simplicity of this parameterization allows it to be readily incorporated into other GCMs, many of which also suffer from excessive wintertime polar cloudiness, based on the results from the CMIP3 archive (Vavrus et al., 2008). Freezedry also affects CCSM3's sensitivity to greenhouse forcing. In a transient-CO{sub 2} experiment, the model version with freezedry warms up to 20% less in the North Polar and South Polar regions (1.5 K and 0.5 K smaller warming, respectively) (Fig. 4). Paradoxically, the muted high-latitude response occurs despite a much larger increase in cloud amount with freezedry during non-summer months (when clouds warm the surface), apparently because of the colder modern reference climate. These results of the freezedry parameterization have recently been published (Vavrus and D. Waliser, 2008: An improved parameterization for simulating Arctic cloud

  12. Exploring Cloud Computing for Large-scale Scientific Applications

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lin, Guang; Han, Binh; Yin, Jian

    This paper explores cloud computing for large-scale data-intensive scientific applications. Cloud computing is attractive because it provides hardware and software resources on-demand, which relieves the burden of acquiring and maintaining a huge amount of resources that may be used only once by a scientific application. However, unlike typical commercial applications that often just requires a moderate amount of ordinary resources, large-scale scientific applications often need to process enormous amount of data in the terabyte or even petabyte range and require special high performance hardware with low latency connections to complete computation in a reasonable amount of time. To address thesemore » challenges, we build an infrastructure that can dynamically select high performance computing hardware across institutions and dynamically adapt the computation to the selected resources to achieve high performance. We have also demonstrated the effectiveness of our infrastructure by building a system biology application and an uncertainty quantification application for carbon sequestration, which can efficiently utilize data and computation resources across several institutions.« less

  13. A review of our understanding of the aerosol-cloud interaction from the perspective of a bin resolved cloud scale modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flossmann, Andrea I.; Wobrock, Wolfram

    2010-09-01

    cloud drops which is reduced in number and almost devoid of large particles. Consequently, impaction scavenging can probably be neglected inside clouds. Below clouds, impaction scavenging contributes around 30% to the particle mass reaching the ground by a rainfall event. The exact amount depends on the precise case studied. Nucleation and impaction scavenging directly by the ice phase in mixed phase clouds seems to play a minor role with respect to the particle mass that enters the ice particles via freezing of the liquid phase.The aerosol scavenging efficiency generally follows rather closely the precipitation scavenging value. The nucleation scavenging efficiency is around 90% for the liquid phase clouds and impaction scavenging generally contributed to about 30% of the particle mass in the rain. Clouds are very efficient in pumping up the boundary layer aerosol which essentially determines the cloud properties. For a marine case studied the net pumping depleted about 70% of the aerosol from the section of the boundary layer considered. The larger particles (and thus 70% of the mass vented up) got activated inside the cloud. A weak net import through cloud top and the upwind side was found, as well as a larger net export at the downwind side. The outside cloud subsidence can add to the replenishment of the boundary layer and eventually cause a recycling of the particles into the cloud. The results of the parcel model studies seem to indicate that increasing particulate pollution and decreasing solubility suppresses rain formation. In individual and short time cloud simulations this behaviour was even confirmed in our 3D model studies. However, taking into account entire cloud fields over longer periods of time yields the strong spatial and temporal variability of the results with isolated regions of inverse correlation of the effects. Even though in general initially the expected behaviour was found, after several hours of simulation, the overall precipitation

  14. Genes2WordCloud: a quick way to identify biological themes from gene lists and free text.

    PubMed

    Baroukh, Caroline; Jenkins, Sherry L; Dannenfelser, Ruth; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2011-10-13

    Word-clouds recently emerged on the web as a solution for quickly summarizing text by maximizing the display of most relevant terms about a specific topic in the minimum amount of space. As biologists are faced with the daunting amount of new research data commonly presented in textual formats, word-clouds can be used to summarize and represent biological and/or biomedical content for various applications. Genes2WordCloud is a web application that enables users to quickly identify biological themes from gene lists and research relevant text by constructing and displaying word-clouds. It provides users with several different options and ideas for the sources that can be used to generate a word-cloud. Different options for rendering and coloring the word-clouds give users the flexibility to quickly generate customized word-clouds of their choice. Genes2WordCloud is a word-cloud generator and a word-cloud viewer that is based on WordCram implemented using Java, Processing, AJAX, mySQL, and PHP. Text is fetched from several sources and then processed to extract the most relevant terms with their computed weights based on word frequencies. Genes2WordCloud is freely available for use online; it is open source software and is available for installation on any web-site along with supporting documentation at http://www.maayanlab.net/G2W. Genes2WordCloud provides a useful way to summarize and visualize large amounts of textual biological data or to find biological themes from several different sources. The open source availability of the software enables users to implement customized word-clouds on their own web-sites and desktop applications.

  15. Characterizing the structure of an unusually cold high latitude cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneziani, Marcella; Paladini, Roberta; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Carey, Sean; Tibbs, Christopher; Flagey, Nicolas; Piacentini, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    Recently the BOOMERanG 2003 experiment, with an angular resolution of 10', has detected an unusually cold cloud (T = 9 K) located at high Galactic latitudes and with an area of 0.25 deg^2. The low temperature of this object has been confirmed by a follow-up in the with Herschel which measured T = 15.3 in the range 100-500micron and with a resolution 20 times higher than BOOMERanG. Despite the cold temperature of the cloud, the measured extinction (Av=0.15 mag) seems to indicate a fairly low amount of shielding material which could justify the dust cooling. Surprisingly, while the dust content in the cloud is well constrained by a substantial amount of data, no - or very little information - is available for its gas counterpart. Therefore, we request 5hrs of 21-cm spectral line observations with the Parkes telescopes. The observations will allow us to accurately estimate the cloud HI column density, as well as to derive information about its kinematics.

  16. Automating NEURON Simulation Deployment in Cloud Resources.

    PubMed

    Stockton, David B; Santamaria, Fidel

    2017-01-01

    Simulations in neuroscience are performed on local servers or High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities. Recently, cloud computing has emerged as a potential computational platform for neuroscience simulation. In this paper we compare and contrast HPC and cloud resources for scientific computation, then report how we deployed NEURON, a widely used simulator of neuronal activity, in three clouds: Chameleon Cloud, a hybrid private academic cloud for cloud technology research based on the OpenStack software; Rackspace, a public commercial cloud, also based on OpenStack; and Amazon Elastic Cloud Computing, based on Amazon's proprietary software. We describe the manual procedures and how to automate cloud operations. We describe extending our simulation automation software called NeuroManager (Stockton and Santamaria, Frontiers in Neuroinformatics, 2015), so that the user is capable of recruiting private cloud, public cloud, HPC, and local servers simultaneously with a simple common interface. We conclude by performing several studies in which we examine speedup, efficiency, total session time, and cost for sets of simulations of a published NEURON model.

  17. Automating NEURON Simulation Deployment in Cloud Resources

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Fidel

    2016-01-01

    Simulations in neuroscience are performed on local servers or High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities. Recently, cloud computing has emerged as a potential computational platform for neuroscience simulation. In this paper we compare and contrast HPC and cloud resources for scientific computation, then report how we deployed NEURON, a widely used simulator of neuronal activity, in three clouds: Chameleon Cloud, a hybrid private academic cloud for cloud technology research based on the Open-Stack software; Rackspace, a public commercial cloud, also based on OpenStack; and Amazon Elastic Cloud Computing, based on Amazon’s proprietary software. We describe the manual procedures and how to automate cloud operations. We describe extending our simulation automation software called NeuroManager (Stockton and Santamaria, Frontiers in Neuroinformatics, 2015), so that the user is capable of recruiting private cloud, public cloud, HPC, and local servers simultaneously with a simple common interface. We conclude by performing several studies in which we examine speedup, efficiency, total session time, and cost for sets of simulations of a published NEURON model. PMID:27655341

  18. Cloud Water Content Sensor for Sounding Balloons and Small UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bognar, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight, battery-powered sensor was developed for measuring cloud water content, which is the amount of liquid or solid water present in a cloud, generally expressed as grams of water per cubic meter. This sensor has near-zero power consumption and can be flown on standard sounding balloons and small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The amount of solid or liquid water is important to the study of atmospheric processes and behavior. Previous sensing techniques relied on strongly heating the incoming air, which requires a major energy input that cannot be achieved on sounding balloons or small UAVs.

  19. Analysis of clouds and precipitation during Baiu period over the East China Sea with cloud database CTOP and precipitation database GSMaP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, N.; Hamada, A.; Hirose, H.; Hotta, S.; Suzuki, J.

    2016-12-01

    We have made a quantitative research of the clouds and precipitation during Baiu: the rainy season within the East Asia, using recent satellite observation datasets. As the precipitation dataset, we utilized the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP), whose primary source is passive microwave observations. As the cloud dataset, we used our original database CTOP, in which the cloud top height and optical depth are estimated only with the infrared split-window channels of the geostationary satellites. Lookup tables are made by training the infrared observations with the direct cloud observation by CloudSat and CALIPSO. This technique was originally developed only for the tropics but we extended it to the mid-latitude by estimating temperature at the cloud top instead of the height. We analyzed the properties of northward shift of the Baiu precipitation zone over the East China Sea. Abrupt northward shift in mid-June has already been reported. We showed here that the abrupt shift is limited to the western half of the East China Sea. We also analyzed the zonal difference of the precipitation amount in the East China Sea. In the central latitudinal range (30-33N), the amount is larger in the eastern part of the sea. There is no significant zonal contrast in both the activity of the low pressure and the front, while the sea surface temperature in the eastern part is slightly larger than in the western part. The zonal gradient is much smaller than that in the southern region near the Kuroshio Current, but may possibly affect the zonal contrast of the precipitation. By using CTOP cloud top data, we also calculated the occurrence ratio of the cloud with various thresholds of the top height. The ratio of clouds with the tops higher than 12 km in the East China Sea is clearly lower than those over the Continental area and the main Japanese islands.

  20. Impact of Long-Range Transported African Dust Events on Cloud Composition and Physical Properties at a Caribbean Tropical Montane Cloud Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Diaz, C. J.; Torres-Delgado, E.; Lee, T.; Collett, J. L.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A.; Prather, K. A.; Spiegel, J.; Eugster, W.

    2012-12-01

    We studied the impact of long-range transported African Dust (LRTAD) on cloud composition and properties at the Caribbean tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) of Pico del Este (PE), as part of the Puerto Rico African Dust and Clouds Study (PRADACS). Here we present results from measurements performed in July 2011. Bulk chemical analysis of cloud water and rainwater showed pH and conductivity higher in the presence of dust. pH and conductivity were also higher for larger cloud droplets (size cut of 17 μm at 50% efficiency) suggesting a higher content of dust in this fraction. The concentration of the water-soluble ions in rainwater was found to be lower than for cloud water. This in turn translates to higher pH and lower conductivity. African dust influence at PE was confirmed by the presence of nss-Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, and Al in cloud/rain water, and inferred by HYSPLIT trajectories and the satellite images from the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). Interstitial single-particle size and chemistry measured using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed mostly sea-salt particles (Na, Cl, Ca) and dust particles (Fe, Ti, Mg, nss-Ca). Anthropogenic influence detected as the presence of EC, a tracer for combustion processes, was found to be fairly small according to ATOFMS measurements. An increase of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon was observed during LRTAD events. Cloud droplet distributions revealed that LRTAD can lead to more numerous, but smaller cloud droplets (around 8 μm in average) at PE. However, total liquid water content appeared to be unaffected by this shift of droplet sizes. Overall, differences in the studied physicochemical properties of aerosols and clouds during dust and non-dust events were observed. Our results show that during LRTAD events, aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions are altered at PE. Detailed results will be presented at the meeting.

  1. Laser-induced plasma cloud interaction and ice multiplication under cirrus cloud conditions.

    PubMed

    Leisner, Thomas; Duft, Denis; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Henin, Stefano; Stelmaszczyk, Kamil; Petrarca, Massimo; Delagrange, Raphaëlle; Hao, Zuoqiang; Lüder, Johannes; Petit, Yannick; Rohwetter, Philipp; Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Wöste, Ludger

    2013-06-18

    Potential impacts of lightning-induced plasma on cloud ice formation and precipitation have been a subject of debate for decades. Here, we report on the interaction of laser-generated plasma channels with water and ice clouds observed in a large cloud simulation chamber. Under the conditions of a typical storm cloud, in which ice and supercooled water coexist, no direct influence of the plasma channels on ice formation or precipitation processes could be detected. Under conditions typical for thin cirrus ice clouds, however, the plasma channels induced a surprisingly strong effect of ice multiplication. Within a few minutes, the laser action led to a strong enhancement of the total ice particle number density in the chamber by up to a factor of 100, even though only a 10(-9) fraction of the chamber volume was exposed to the plasma channels. The newly formed ice particles quickly reduced the water vapor pressure to ice saturation, thereby increasing the cloud optical thickness by up to three orders of magnitude. A model relying on the complete vaporization of ice particles in the laser filament and the condensation of the resulting water vapor on plasma ions reproduces our experimental findings. This surprising effect might open new perspectives for remote sensing of water vapor and ice in the upper troposphere.

  2. Cloud Infrastructure & Applications - CloudIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistio, Anthony; Reich, Christoph; Doelitzscher, Frank

    The idea behind Cloud Computing is to deliver Infrastructure-as-a-Services and Software-as-a-Service over the Internet on an easy pay-per-use business model. To harness the potentials of Cloud Computing for e-Learning and research purposes, and to small- and medium-sized enterprises, the Hochschule Furtwangen University establishes a new project, called Cloud Infrastructure & Applications (CloudIA). The CloudIA project is a market-oriented cloud infrastructure that leverages different virtualization technologies, by supporting Service-Level Agreements for various service offerings. This paper describes the CloudIA project in details and mentions our early experiences in building a private cloud using an existing infrastructure.

  3. Relationship between the column density distribution and evolutionary class of molecular clouds as viewed by ATLASGAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu-Vicente, J.; Kainulainen, J.; Stutz, A.; Henning, Th.; Beuther, H.

    2015-09-01

    We present the first study of the relationship between the column density distribution of molecular clouds within nearby Galactic spiral arms and their evolutionary status as measured from their stellar content. We analyze a sample of 195 molecular clouds located at distances below 5.5 kpc, identified from the ATLASGAL 870 μm data. We define three evolutionary classes within this sample: starless clumps, star-forming clouds with associated young stellar objects, and clouds associated with H ii regions. We find that the N(H2) probability density functions (N-PDFs) of these three classes of objects are clearly different: the N-PDFs of starless clumps are narrowest and close to log-normal in shape, while star-forming clouds and H ii regions exhibit a power-law shape over a wide range of column densities and log-normal-like components only at low column densities. We use the N-PDFs to estimate the evolutionary time-scales of the three classes of objects based on a simple analytic model from literature. Finally, we show that the integral of the N-PDFs, the dense gas mass fraction, depends on the total mass of the regions as measured by ATLASGAL: more massive clouds contain greater relative amounts of dense gas across all evolutionary classes. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD).more » Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment

  5. Chemistry in dynamically evolving clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarafdar, S. P.; Prasad, S. S.; Huntress, W. T., Jr.; Villere, K. R.; Black, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    A unified model of chemical and dynamical evolution of isolated, initially diffuse and quiescent interstellar clouds is presented. The model uses a semiempirically derived dependence of the observed cloud temperatures on the visual extinction and density. Even low-mass, low-density, diffuse clouds can collapse in this model, because the inward pressure gradient force assists gravitational contraction. In contrast, previous isothermal collapse models required the low-mass diffuse clouds to be unrealistically cold before gravitational contraction could start. Theoretically predicted dependences of the column densities of various atoms and molecules, such as C and CO, on visual extinction in diffuse clouds are in accord with observations. Similarly, the predicted dependences of the fractional abundances of various chemical species (e.g., CO, H2CO, HCN, HCO(+)) on the total hydrogen density in the core of the dense clouds also agree with observations reported to date in the literature. Compared with previous models of interstellar chemistry, the present model has the potential to explain the wide spectrum of chemical and physical properties of both diffuse and dense clouds with a common formalism employing only a few simple initial conditions.

  6. An Intelligent Cloud Storage Gateway for Medical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Viana-Ferreira, Carlos; Guerra, António; Silva, João F; Matos, Sérgio; Costa, Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Historically, medical imaging repositories have been supported by indoor infrastructures. However, the amount of diagnostic imaging procedures has continuously increased over the last decades, imposing several challenges associated with the storage volume, data redundancy and availability. Cloud platforms are focused on delivering hardware and software services over the Internet, becoming an appealing solution for repository outsourcing. Although this option may bring financial and technological benefits, it also presents new challenges. In medical imaging scenarios, communication latency is a critical issue that still hinders the adoption of this paradigm. This paper proposes an intelligent Cloud storage gateway that optimizes data access times. This is achieved through a new cache architecture that combines static rules and pattern recognition for eviction and prefetching. The evaluation results, obtained from experiments over a real-world dataset, show that cache hit ratios can reach around 80%, leading to reductions of image retrieval times by over 60%. The combined use of eviction and prefetching policies proposed can significantly reduce communication latency, even when using a small cache in comparison to the total size of the repository. Apart from the performance gains, the proposed system is capable of adjusting to specific workflows of different institutions.

  7. Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1982-1991 (NDP-026B)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hahn, Carole J. [University of Arizona; Warren, Stephen G. [University of Washington; London, Julius [University of Colorado

    1996-01-01

    Surface synoptic weather reports for the entire globe for the 10-year period from December 1981 through November 1991 have been processed, edited, and rewritten to provide a data set designed for use in cloud analyses. The information in these reports relating to clouds, including the present weather information, was extracted and put through a series of quality control checks. Reports not meeting certain quality control standards were rejected, as were reports from buoys and automatic weather stations. Correctable inconsistencies within reports were edited for consistency, so that the "edited cloud report" can be used for cloud analysis without further quality checking. Cases of "sky obscured" were interpreted by reference to the present weather code as to whether they indicated fog, rain or snow and were given appropriate cloud type designations. Nimbostratus clouds, which are not specifically coded for in the standard synoptic code, were also given a special designation. Changes made to an original report are indicated in the edited report so that the original report can be reconstructed if desired. While low cloud amount is normally given directly in the synoptic report, the edited cloud report also includes the amounts, either directly reported or inferred, of middle and high clouds, both the non-overlapped amounts and the "actual" amounts (which may be overlapped). Since illumination from the moon is important for the adequate detection of clouds at night, both the relative lunar illuminance and the solar altitude are given, as well as a parameter that indicates whether our recommended illuminance criterion was satisfied. This data set contains 124 million reports from land stations and 15 million reports from ships. Each report is 56 characters in length. The archive consists of 240 files, one file for each month of data for land and ocean separately. With this data set a user can develop a climatology for any particular cloud type or group of types, for any

  8. A modeling study of marine boundary layer clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Shouping; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds are important components of the earth's climate system. These clouds drastically reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed by the earth, but have little effect on the emitted infrared radiation on top of the atmosphere. In addition, these clouds are intimately involved in regulating boundary layer turbulent fluxes. For these reasons, it is important that general circulation models used for climate studies must realistically simulate the global distribution of the MBL. While the importance of these cloud systems is well recognized, many physical processes involved in these clouds are poorly understood and their representation in large-scale models remains an unresolved problem. The present research aims at the development and improvement of the parameterization of these cloud systems and an understanding of physical processes involved. This goal is addressed in two ways. One is to use regional modeling approach to validate and evaluate two-layer marine boundary layer models using satellite and ground-truth observations; the other is to combine this simple model with a high-order turbulence closure model to study the transition processes from stratocumulus to shallow cumulus clouds. Progress made in this effort is presented.

  9. Predicting Daily Insolation with Hourly Cloud Height and Coverage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, T. P.; Dale, R. F.

    1983-04-01

    Solar radiation information is used in crop growth, boundary layer, entomological and plant pathological models, and in determining the potential use of active and passive solar energy systems. Yet solar radiation is among the least measured meteorological variables.A semi-physical model based on standard meteorological data was developed to estimate solar radiation received at the earth's surface. The radiation model includes the effects of Rayleigh scattering, absorption by water vapor and permanent gases, and absorption and scattering by aerosols and clouds. Cloud attenuation is accounted for by assigning transmission coefficients based on cloud height and amount. The cloud transmission coefficients for various heights and coverages were derived empirically from hourly observations of solar radiation in conjunction with corresponding cloud observations at West Lafayette, Indiana. The model was tested with independent data from West Lafayette and Indianapolis, Madison, WI, Omaha, NE, Columbia, MO, Nashville, TN, Seattle, WA, Los Angeles, CA, Phoenix, AZ, Lake Charles, LA, Miami, FL, and Sterling, VA. For each of these locations a 16% random sample of days was drawn within each of the 12 months in a year for testing the model. Excellent agreement between predicted and observed radiation values was obtained for all stations tested. Mean absolute errors ranged from 1.05 to 1.80 MJ m2 day1 and root-mean-square errors ranged from 1.31 to 2.32 MJ m2 day1. The model's performance judged by relative error was found to be independent of season and cloud amount for all locations tested.

  10. Genes2WordCloud: a quick way to identify biological themes from gene lists and free text

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Word-clouds recently emerged on the web as a solution for quickly summarizing text by maximizing the display of most relevant terms about a specific topic in the minimum amount of space. As biologists are faced with the daunting amount of new research data commonly presented in textual formats, word-clouds can be used to summarize and represent biological and/or biomedical content for various applications. Results Genes2WordCloud is a web application that enables users to quickly identify biological themes from gene lists and research relevant text by constructing and displaying word-clouds. It provides users with several different options and ideas for the sources that can be used to generate a word-cloud. Different options for rendering and coloring the word-clouds give users the flexibility to quickly generate customized word-clouds of their choice. Methods Genes2WordCloud is a word-cloud generator and a word-cloud viewer that is based on WordCram implemented using Java, Processing, AJAX, mySQL, and PHP. Text is fetched from several sources and then processed to extract the most relevant terms with their computed weights based on word frequencies. Genes2WordCloud is freely available for use online; it is open source software and is available for installation on any web-site along with supporting documentation at http://www.maayanlab.net/G2W. Conclusions Genes2WordCloud provides a useful way to summarize and visualize large amounts of textual biological data or to find biological themes from several different sources. The open source availability of the software enables users to implement customized word-clouds on their own web-sites and desktop applications. PMID:21995939

  11. Reconstruction of erythemal UV irradiance at Hohenpeissenberg (1968-2001) considering trends of total ozone, cloudiness, and turbidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trepte, S.; Winkler, P.

    2003-04-01

    The global mean total column ozone amount for the period 1997-2001 was approximately 3% below the 1964-1980 average. The largest ozone decreases in the northern hemisphere midlatitudes are observed during winter-spring (˜4%), with summer-autumn decreases approximately half as large. Total ozone measured at Hohenpeissenberg, Germany (48^oN, 11^oE) shows a strong decrease by about 10% since 1968, representing the long-term downward trend over Central Europe. The main consequence of this phenomenon is the expected increase of solar ultraviolet irradiation (UV-B) reaching the Earth's surface with the known harmful effects on the biosphere. Global data records of reliable routine observations of UV irradiance are still too short for accurate estimation of long-term UV variations and trends. While direct UV mesaurements at Hohenpeissenberg are available only since 1990, the long-term development of UV-B have to be reconstructed. Besides on the amount of total ozone the UV irradiation at the ground depends also on atmospheric turbidity and cloudiness. The reconstruction method is based on statistical correlations of measured UV-B data with the influencing parameters total ozone, turbidity and cloud modification factors derived from eye-observations in connection with total solar irradiance data. These observed data allow a realistic reconstruction of the UV-B time series, since no assumption on these influencing data have to be made. A model is presented, using hourly observed spectral UV-B irradiance (1990-1998), total solar irradiance, total ozone amount (daily mean) and clouds to derive erythemal UV irradiance and daily doses at Hohenpeissenberg in the period 1968-2001. A comparison with recorded UV data shows good agreement. Due to long-term total ozone loss, peak values of erythemal UV irradiance in spring and summer at clear-sky conditions have strongly increased (+4.2%/decade in June). Mean daily doses have also increased in this season (+5.4%/decade in May) but

  12. Galactic kinematics of molecuar clouds

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stark, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The kinematics of molecular clouds in the galactic disk are studied to determine the magnitude of cloud-to-coud velocity dispersions and systematic streaming motions. Three observational programs are reported: (i) a strip map of 1 = 180/sup 0/ from b = -9/sup 0/ to +8/sup 0/ observed in CO J = 1 greater than or equal to 0 to an rms noise level of 0.1 K in 250 kHz filters; (ii) a 20-point map of the minor axis of M31, observed in CO J = 1 greater than or equal to 0 to an rms noise level of 20 mK inmore » 1 MHz filters; (iii) three maps in the molecular ring, centered at 1 = 34/sup 0/, 1 = 36/sup 0/ and 1 = 51/sup 0/, each about one degree square, sampled every 0.05/sup 0/ in /sup 13/CO J = 1 greater than or equal to 0 to an rms noise level of 0.1 K in 250 kHz filters. Molecular clouds typically have one dimensional cloud-to-cloud velocity dispersions of about 8 km s/sup -1/. This dispersion is independent of cloud mass over a range of 10/sup 2/M /sub solar/ < M/sub C < 10/sup 5/ /sup 5/M /sub solar/. Clouds more massive than about 10 /sup 5/ /sup 5/M /sub solar/ have a markedly smaller dispersion. These most massive clouds occur preferentially in spiral arms, and result in spiral arm CO emissivities several times that of interarm regions. Also associated with spiral arms are large-scale streaming motions, which amount to 100 km s/sup -1/ in one arm in M31.« less

  13. Cloud computing for protein-ligand binding site comparison.

    PubMed

    Hung, Che-Lun; Hua, Guan-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The proteome-wide analysis of protein-ligand binding sites and their interactions with ligands is important in structure-based drug design and in understanding ligand cross reactivity and toxicity. The well-known and commonly used software, SMAP, has been designed for 3D ligand binding site comparison and similarity searching of a structural proteome. SMAP can also predict drug side effects and reassign existing drugs to new indications. However, the computing scale of SMAP is limited. We have developed a high availability, high performance system that expands the comparison scale of SMAP. This cloud computing service, called Cloud-PLBS, combines the SMAP and Hadoop frameworks and is deployed on a virtual cloud computing platform. To handle the vast amount of experimental data on protein-ligand binding site pairs, Cloud-PLBS exploits the MapReduce paradigm as a management and parallelizing tool. Cloud-PLBS provides a web portal and scalability through which biologists can address a wide range of computer-intensive questions in biology and drug discovery.

  14. Taking a 3-D Slice of Hurricane Maria's Cloud Structure

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-20

    NASA's CloudSat satellite flew over Hurricane Maria on Sept. 17, 2017, at 1:23 p.m. EDT (17:23 UTC) as the storm had just strengthened into a hurricane in the Atlantic Ocean. Hurricane Maria contained estimated maximum sustained winds of 75 miles per hour (65 knots) and had a minimum barometric pressure of 986 millibars. CloudSat flew over Maria through the center of the rapidly intensifying storm, directly through an overshooting cloud top (a dome-shaped protrusion that shoots out of the top of the anvil cloud of a thunderstorm). CloudSat reveals the vertical extent of the overshooting cloud top, showing the estimated height of the cloud to be 11 miles (18 kilometers). Areas of high reflectivity with deep red and pink colors extend well above 9 miles (15 kilometers) in height, showing large amounts of water being drawn upward high into the atmosphere. A movie is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21961

  15. Comparison of the Seasonal Change in Cloud-Radiative Forcing from Atmospheric General Circulation Models and Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R. D.; Zhang, M. H.; Potter, G. L.; Alekseev, V.; Barker, H. W.; Bony, S.; Colman, R. A.; Dazlich, D. A.; DelGenio, A. D.; Deque, M.; hide

    1997-01-01

    We compare seasonal changes in cloud-radiative forcing (CRF) at the top of the atmosphere from 18 atmospheric general circulation models, and observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). To enhance the CRF signal and suppress interannual variability, we consider only zonal mean quantities for which the extreme months (January and July), as well as the northern and southern hemispheres, have been differenced. Since seasonal variations of the shortwave component of CRF are caused by seasonal changes in both cloudiness and solar irradiance, the latter was removed. In the ERBE data, seasonal changes in CRF are driven primarily by changes in cloud amount. The same conclusion applies to the models. The shortwave component of seasonal CRF is a measure of changes in cloud amount at all altitudes, while the longwave component is more a measure of upper level clouds. Thus important insights into seasonal cloud amount variations of the models have been obtained by comparing both components, as generated by the models, with the satellite data. For example, in 10 of the 18 models the seasonal oscillations of zonal cloud patterns extend too far poleward by one latitudinal grid.

  16. Cloud Detection Using Measured and Modeled State Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Y.; Minnis, P.; Huang, J.; Ayers, J. K.; Doelling, D. R.; Khaiyer, M. M.; Nordeen, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, hourly RUC analyses were used to examine the differences between RH and temperature values from RUC reanalysis data and from radiosonde atmospheric profiles obtained at the ARM SCF. The results show that the temperature observations from the SONDE and RUC are highly correlated. The RHs are also well-correlated, but the SONDE values generally exceed those from RUC. Inside cloud layers, the RH from RUC is 2-14% lower than the RH from SONDE for all RUC layers. Although the layer mean RH within clouds is much greater than the layer mean RH outside cloud or in the clear-sky, RH thresholds chosen as a function of temperature can more accurately diagnose cloud occurrence for either dataset. For overcast clouds, it was found that the 50% probability RH threshold for diagnosing a cloud, within a given upper tropospheric layer is roughly 90% for the Vaisala RS80-15LH radisonde and 80% for RUC data. While for the partial cloud (cloud amount is less than 90%), the RH thresholds of SONDE are close to RUC for a given probability in upper tropospheric layers. The probabilities of detecting clouds at a given RH and temperature should be useful for a variety of application such as the development of new cloud parameterizations or for estimating the vertical profile of cloudiness underneath a given cloud observed from the satellite to construct a 3-D cloud data set for computing atmospheric radiative heating profiles or determining potential aircraft icing conditions.

  17. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars...) 2011 in-quota aggregate quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar...

  18. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Secretary Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...) 2013 (October 1, 2012-September 30, 2013) in-quota aggregate quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ). The FY 2013 raw cane sugar TRQ is established at 1,117...

  19. The Clouds of Isidore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These views of Hurricane Isidore were acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on September 20, 2002. After bringing large-scale flooding to western Cuba, Isidore was upgraded (on September 21) from a tropical storm to a category 3hurricane. Sweeping westward to Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, the hurricane caused major destruction and left hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Although weakened after passing over the Yucatan landmass, Isidore regained strength as it moved northward over the Gulf of Mexico.

    At left is a colorful visualization of cloud extent that superimposes MISR's radiometric camera-by-camera cloud mask (RCCM) over natural-color radiance imagery, both derived from data acquired with the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Using brightness and statistical metrics, the RCCM is one of several techniques MISR uses to determine whether an area is clear or cloudy. In this rendition, the RCCM has been color-coded, and purple = cloudy with high confidence, blue = cloudy with low confidence, green = clear with low confidence, and red = clear with high confidence.

    In addition to providing information on meteorological events, MISR's data products are designed to help improve our understanding of the influences of clouds on climate. Cloud heights and albedos are among the variables that govern these influences. (Albedo is the amount of sunlight reflected back to space divided by the amount of incident sunlight.) The center panel is the cloud-top height field retrieved using automated stereoscopic processing of data from multiple MISR cameras. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown in dark gray. In some areas, such as the southern portion of the image, the stereo retrieval was able to detect thin, high clouds that were not picked up by the RCCM's nadir view. Retrieved local albedo values for Isidore are shown at right. Generation of the albedo product is dependent upon observed cloud radiances as a function

  20. Cloud and aerosol optical depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Russell, P. B.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Colburn, D. C.; Wrigley, R. C.; Spanner, M. A.; Livingston, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    An airborne Sun photometer was used to measure optical depths in clear atmospheres between the appearances of broken stratus clouds, and the optical depths in the vicinity of smokes. Results show that (human) activities can alter the chemical and optical properties of background atmospheres to affect their spectral optical depths. Effects of water vapor adsorption on aerosol optical depths are apparent, based on data of the water vapor absorption band centered around 940 nm. Smoke optical depths show increases above the background atmosphere by up to two orders of magnitude. When the total optical depths measured through clouds were corrected for molecular scattering and gaseous absorption by subtracting the total optical depths measured through the background atmosphere, the resultant values are lower than those of the background aerosol at short wavelengths. The spectral dependence of these cloud optical depths is neutral, however, in contrast to that of the background aerosol or the molecular atmosphere.

  1. An observational search for CO2 ice clouds on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James F., III; Calvin, Wendy M.; Pollack, James B.; Crisp, David

    1993-01-01

    CO2 ice clouds were first directly identified on Mars by the Mariner 6 and 7 infrared spectrometer limb scans. These observations provided support for early theoretical modeling efforts of CO2 condensation. Mariner 9 IRIS temperature profiles of north polar hood clouds were interpreted as indicating that these clouds were composed of H2O ice at lower latitudes and CO2 ice at higher latitudes. The role of CO2 condensation on Mars has recently received increased attention because (1) Kasting's model results indicated that CO2 cloud condensation limits the magnitude of the proposed early Mars CO2/H2O greenhouse, and (2) Pollack el al.'s GCM results indicated that the formation of CO2 ice clouds is favorable at all polar latitudes during the fall and winter seasons. These latter authors have shown that CO2 clouds play an important role in the polar energy balance, as the amount of CO2 contained in the polar caps is constrained by a balance between latent heat release, heat advected from lower latitudes, and thermal emission to space. The polar hood clouds reduce the amount of CO2 condensation on the polar caps because they reduce the net emission to space. There have been many extensive laboratory spectroscopic studies of H2O and CO2 ices and frosts. In this study, we use results from these and other sources to search for the occurrence of diagnostic CO2 (and H2O) ice and/or frost absorption features in ground based near-infrared imaging spectroscopic data of Mars. Our primary goals are (1) to try to confirm the previous direct observations of CO2 clouds on Mars; (2) to determine the spatial extent, temporal variability, and composition (H2O/CO2 ratio) of any clouds detected; and (3) through radiative transfer modeling, to try to determine the mean particle size and optical depth of polar hood clouds, thus, assessing their role in the polar heat budget.

  2. A Gridded Climatology of Clouds over Land (1971-1996) and Ocean (1954-2008) from Surface Observations Worldwide (NDP-026E)*

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hahn, C. J. [University of Arizona; Warren, S. G. [University of Washington

    2007-01-01

    Surface synoptic weather reports from ships and land stations worldwide were processed to produce a global cloud climatology which includes: total cloud cover, the amount and frequency of occurrence of nine cloud types within three levels of the troposphere, the frequency of occurrence of clear sky and of precipitation, the base heights of low clouds, and the non-overlapped amounts of middle and high clouds. Synoptic weather reports are made every three hours; the cloud information in a report is obtained visually by human observers. The reports used here cover the period 1971-96 for land and 1954-2008 for ocean. This digital archive provides multi-year monthly, seasonal, and annual averages in 5x5-degree grid boxes (or 10x10-degree boxes for some quantities over the ocean). Daytime and nighttime averages, as well as the diurnal average (average of day and night), are given. Nighttime averages were computed using only those reports that met an "illuminance criterion" (i.e., made under adequate moonlight or twilight), thus minimizing the "night-detection bias" and making possible the determination of diurnal cycles and nighttime trends for cloud types. The phase and amplitude of the first harmonic of both the diurnal cycle and the annual cycle are given for the various cloud types. Cloud averages for individual years are also given for the ocean for each of 4 seasons, and for each of the 12 months (daytime-only averages for the months). [Individual years for land are not gridded, but are given for individual stations in a companion data set, CDIAC's NDP-026D).] This analysis used 185 million reports from 5388 weather stations on continents and islands, and 50 million reports from ships; these reports passed a series of quality-control checks. This analysis updates (and in most ways supercedes) the previous cloud climatology constructed by the authors in the 1980s. Many of the long-term averages described here are mapped on the University of Washington, Department of

  3. A Comparison between Airborne and Mountaintop Cloud Microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, R.; Lowenthal, D. H.; Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I.; Avallone, L. M.; Mace, G. G.; Wang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Complex terrain has a large impact on cloud dynamics and microphysics. Several studies have examined the microphysical details of orographically-enhanced clouds from either an aircraft or from a mountain top location. However, further research is needed to characterize the relationships between mountain top and airborne microphysical properties. During the winter of 2011, an airborne study, the Colorado Airborne Mixed-Phase Cloud Study (CAMPS), and a ground-based field campaign, the Storm Peak Lab (SPL) Cloud Property Validation Experiment (StormVEx) were conducted in the Park Range of the Colorado Rockies. The CAMPS study utilized the University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) to provide airborne cloud microphysical and meteorological data on 29 flights totaling 98 flight hours over the Park Range from December 15, 2010 to February 28, 2011. The UWKA was equipped with instruments that measured both cloud droplet and ice crystal size distributions, liquid water content, total water content (vapor, liquid, and ice), and 3-dimensional wind speed and direction. The Wyoming Cloud Radar and Lidar were also deployed during the campaign. These measurements are used to characterize cloud structure upwind and above the Park Range. StormVEx measured cloud droplet, ice crystal, and aerosol size distributions at SPL, located on the west summit of Mt. Werner at 3220m MSL. The observations from SPL are used to determine mountain top cloud microphysical properties at elevations lower than the UWKA was able to sample in-situ. Comparisons showed that cloud microphysics aloft and at the surface were consistent with respect to snow growth processes while small crystal concentrations were routinely higher at the surface, suggesting ice nucleation near cloud base. The effects of aerosol concentrations and upwind stability on mountain top and downwind microphysics are considered.

  4. Formation of Silicate and Titanium Clouds on Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Diana; Zhang, Xi; Gao, Peter; Parmentier, Vivien

    2018-06-01

    We present the first application of a bin-scheme microphysical and vertical transport model to determine the size distribution of titanium and silicate cloud particles in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters. We predict particle size distributions from first principles for a grid of planets at four representative equatorial longitudes, and investigate how observed cloud properties depend on the atmospheric thermal structure and vertical mixing. The predicted size distributions are frequently bimodal and irregular in shape. There is a negative correlation between the total cloud mass and equilibrium temperature as well as a positive correlation between the total cloud mass and atmospheric mixing. The cloud properties on the east and west limbs show distinct differences that increase with increasing equilibrium temperature. Cloud opacities are roughly constant across a broad wavelength range, with the exception of features in the mid-infrared. Forward-scattering is found to be important across the same wavelength range. Using the fully resolved size distribution of cloud particles as opposed to a mean particle size has a distinct impact on the resultant cloud opacities. The particle size that contributes the most to the cloud opacity depends strongly on the cloud particle size distribution. We predict that it is unlikely that silicate or titanium clouds are responsible for the optical Rayleigh scattering slope seen in many hot Jupiters. We suggest that cloud opacities in emission may serve as sensitive tracers of the thermal state of a planet’s deep interior through the existence or lack of a cold trap in the deep atmosphere.

  5. Cloud-Based Applications for Organizing and Reviewing Plastic Surgery Content

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Anna; Momeni, Arash; Lee, Gordon K.

    2015-01-01

    Cloud-based applications including Box, Dropbox, Google Drive, Evernote, Notability, and Zotero are available for smartphones, tablets, and laptops and have revolutionized the manner in which medical students and surgeons read and utilize plastic surgery literature. Here we provide an overview of the use of Cloud computing in practice and propose an algorithm for organizing the vast amount of plastic surgery literature. Given the incredible amount of data being produced in plastic surgery and other surgical subspecialties, it is prudent for plastic surgeons to lead the process of providing solutions for the efficient organization and effective integration of the ever-increasing data into clinical practice. PMID:26576208

  6. Laser-induced plasma cloud interaction and ice multiplication under cirrus cloud conditions

    PubMed Central

    Leisner, Thomas; Duft, Denis; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Henin, Stefano; Stelmaszczyk, Kamil; Petrarca, Massimo; Delagrange, Raphaëlle; Hao, Zuoqiang; Lüder, Johannes; Petit, Yannick; Rohwetter, Philipp; Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Wöste, Ludger

    2013-01-01

    Potential impacts of lightning-induced plasma on cloud ice formation and precipitation have been a subject of debate for decades. Here, we report on the interaction of laser-generated plasma channels with water and ice clouds observed in a large cloud simulation chamber. Under the conditions of a typical storm cloud, in which ice and supercooled water coexist, no direct influence of the plasma channels on ice formation or precipitation processes could be detected. Under conditions typical for thin cirrus ice clouds, however, the plasma channels induced a surprisingly strong effect of ice multiplication. Within a few minutes, the laser action led to a strong enhancement of the total ice particle number density in the chamber by up to a factor of 100, even though only a 10−9 fraction of the chamber volume was exposed to the plasma channels. The newly formed ice particles quickly reduced the water vapor pressure to ice saturation, thereby increasing the cloud optical thickness by up to three orders of magnitude. A model relying on the complete vaporization of ice particles in the laser filament and the condensation of the resulting water vapor on plasma ions reproduces our experimental findings. This surprising effect might open new perspectives for remote sensing of water vapor and ice in the upper troposphere. PMID:23733936

  7. Variability of Cloud Cover and Its Relation to Snowmelt and Runoff in the Mountainous Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumargo, E.; Cayan, D. R.; Iacobellis, S.

    2014-12-01

    Obtaining accurate solar radiation input to snowmelt runoff models remains a fundamental challenge for water supply forecasters in the mountainous western U.S. The variability of cloud cover is a primary source of uncertainty in estimating surface radiation, especially given that ground-based radiometer networks in mountain terrains are sparse. Thus, remote sensed cloud properties provide a way to extend in situ observations and more importantly, to understand cloud variability in montane environment. We utilize 17 years of NASA/NOAA GOES visible albedo product with 4 km spatial and half-hour temporal resolutions to investigate daytime cloud variability in the western U.S. at elevations above 800 m. REOF/PC analysis finds that the 5 leading modes account for about two-thirds of the total daily cloud albedo variability during the whole year (ALL) and snowmelt season (AMJJ). The AMJJ PCs are significantly correlated with de-seasonalized snowmelt derived from CDWR CDEC and NRCS SNOTEL SWE data and USGS stream discharge across the western conterminous states. The sum of R2 from 7 days prior to the day of snowmelt/discharge amounts to as much as ~52% on snowmelt and ~44% on discharge variation. Spatially, the correlation patterns take on broad footprints, with strongest signals in regions of highest REOF weightings. That the response of snowmelt and streamflow to cloud variation is spread across several days indicates the cumulative effect of cloud variation on the energy budget in mountain catchments.

  8. Fast spectroscopic variations on rapidly-rotating, cool dwarfs. 3: Masses of circumstellar absorbing clouds on AB Doradus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A. Collier; Duncan, D. K.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Foing, B. H.; Kuntz, K. D.; Penston, M. V.; Robinson, R. D.; Soderblom, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    New time-resolved H alpha, Ca II H and K and Mg II h and k spectra of the rapidly-rotating K0 dwarf star AB Doradus (= HD 36705). The transient absorption features seen in the H alpha line are also present in the Ca II and Mg II resonance lines. New techniques are developed for measuring the average strength of the line absorption along lines of sight intersecting the cloud. These techniques also give a measure of the projected cloud area. The strength of the resonance line absorption provides useful new constraints on the column densities, projected surface areas, temperatures and internal turbulent velocity dispersions of the circumstellar clouds producing the absorption features. At any given time the star appears to be surrounded by at least 6 to 10 clouds with masses in the range 2 to 6 x 10(exp 17) g. The clouds appear to have turbulent internal velocity dispersions of order 3 to 20 km/s, comparable with the random velocities of discrete filamentary structures in solar quiescent prominences. Night-to-night changes in the amount of Ca II resonance line absorption can be explained by changes in the amplitude of turbulent motions in the clouds. The corresponding changes in the total energy of the internal motions are of order 10(exp 29) erg per cloud. Changes of this magnitude could easily be activated by the frequent energetic (approximately 10(exp 34) erg) x ray flares seen on this star.

  9. Analysis of direct solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements in the French Alps. Retrieval of turbidity and ozone column amount.

    PubMed

    Lenoble, Jacqueline; de la Casinière, Alain; Cabot, Thierry

    2004-05-20

    Direct ultraviolet spectral solar irradiance is regularly obtained by the difference between global and diffuse irradiances at the French Alpine station of Briançon; the data of years 2001 and 2002 are analyzed in this paper. Comparison with modeled values is used for cloud screening, and an average UV-A aerosol optical depth is used as an index of turbidity; it is found to be around 0.05 for the clear winter days and around 0.2 in summer. Langley plots are used to verify the instrument calibration; they confirm the expected uncertainty smaller than 5%. The ozone total column amount is estimated with an uncertainty between -3 and Dobson units; comparisons with TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) overpass values shows agreement within the expected uncertainties of both instruments.

  10. [Value influence of different compatibilities of main active parts in yangyintongnao granule on pharmacokinetics parameters in rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury by total amount statistic moment method].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Yang, Jiehong; Znang, Hengyi; Fu, Xuchun; Zhnag, Yuyan; Wan, Haitong

    2010-02-01

    To study the influence of the different combinations of the main active parts in Yangyintongnao granule on the pharmacokinetics parameters of the two active components--ligustrazine and puerarin using the method of total amount statistic moment for pharmacokinetics. Combinations were formed according to the dosages of the four active parts (alkaloid, flavone, saponin, naphtha) by orthogonal experiment L9 (3(4)). Blood concentrations of ligustrazine and puerarin were determinated by HPLC at different time. Zero rank moment (AUC) and one rank moment (MRT, mean residence time) of ligustrazine and puerarin have been worked out to calculate the total amount statistic moment parameters was analyzed of Yangyintongnao granule by the method of the total amount statistic moment. The influence of different compatibilities on the pharmacokinetics parameters was analyzed by orthogonal test. Flavone has the strongest effect than saponin on the total AUC. Ligustrazine has the strongest effect on the total MRT. Saponin has little effect on the two parameters, but naphtha has more effect on both of them. It indicates that naphtha may promote metabolism of ligustrazine and puerarin in rat. Total amount statistic moment parameters can be used to guide for compatibilities of TCM.

  11. Evaluating rainfall errors in global climate models through cloud regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jackson; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Jakob, Christian; Jin, Daeho

    2017-07-01

    Global climate models suffer from a persistent shortcoming in their simulation of rainfall by producing too much drizzle and too little intense rain. This erroneous distribution of rainfall is a result of deficiencies in the representation of underlying processes of rainfall formation. In the real world, clouds are precursors to rainfall and the distribution of clouds is intimately linked to the rainfall over the area. This study examines the model representation of tropical rainfall using the cloud regime concept. In observations, these cloud regimes are derived from cluster analysis of joint-histograms of cloud properties retrieved from passive satellite measurements. With the implementation of satellite simulators, comparable cloud regimes can be defined in models. This enables us to contrast the rainfall distributions of cloud regimes in 11 CMIP5 models to observations and decompose the rainfall errors by cloud regimes. Many models underestimate the rainfall from the organized convective cloud regime, which in observation provides half of the total rain in the tropics. Furthermore, these rainfall errors are relatively independent of the model's accuracy in representing this cloud regime. Error decomposition reveals that the biases are compensated in some models by a more frequent occurrence of the cloud regime and most models exhibit substantial cancellation of rainfall errors from different regimes and regions. Therefore, underlying relatively accurate total rainfall in models are significant cancellation of rainfall errors from different cloud types and regions. The fact that a good representation of clouds does not lead to appreciable improvement in rainfall suggests a certain disconnect in the cloud-precipitation processes of global climate models.

  12. An estimate of the NO(x) production rate in electrified clouds based on NO observations from the GTE/CITE 1 fall 1983 field operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chameides, W. L.; Davis, D. D.; Bradshaw, J.; Rodgers, M.; Sandholm, S.

    1987-01-01

    During the NASA GTE/CITE 1 fall 1983 airborne field operation the NASA Convair 990 penetrated the anvils of two active cumulonimbus clouds. While NO levels outside the anvils averaged about 20 parts per trillion per volume (pptv), the average NO inside the anvils was about 440 pptv. Extrapolation of this observation along with data on the amount of air typically advected out of cumulonimbus clouds and the total number of thunderclouds occurring over the globe at any moment, implies a rate of nitrogen fixation in electrified clouds of about 7 x 10 to the 6th trillion/yr. Although the data base used to make this estimate is quite limited, the approach differs from that used in previous studies of the global production of nitrogen oxides by lightning, and thus represents an independent assessment of the role of electrified clouds in the atmospheric nitrogen oxide budget.

  13. Arctic Clouds Infrared Imaging Field Campaign Report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shaw, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    The Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI), a passive thermal imaging system, was deployed at the North Slope of Alaska site in Barrow, Alaska, from July 2012 to July 2014 for measuring spatial-temporal cloud statistics. Thermal imaging of the sky from the ground provides high radiometric contrast during night and polar winter when visible sensors and downward-viewing thermal sensors experience low contrast. In addition to demonstrating successful operation in the Arctic for an extended period and providing data for Arctic cloud studies, a primary objective of this deployment was to validate novel instrument calibration algorithms that will allow more compact ICI instrumentsmore » to be deployed without the added expense, weight, size, and operational difficulty of a large-aperture onboard blackbody calibration source. This objective was successfully completed with a comparison of the two-year data set calibrated with and without the onboard blackbody. The two different calibration methods produced daily-average cloud amount data sets with correlation coefficient = 0.99, mean difference = 0.0029 (i.e., 0.29% cloudiness), and a difference standard deviation = 0.054. Finally, the ICI instrument generally detected more thin clouds than reported by other ARM cloud products available as of late 2015.« less

  14. Recalculated values of the total ozone amount over Oslo, 60 deg N, for the period 1979-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Soren H. H.; Svendby, Tove; Tonnessen, Finn; Dahlback, Arne

    1994-01-01

    The total ozone amount over Oslo has been measured with the Dobson spectrophotometer No 56. The instrument was modified, calibrated, and intercompared in 1977 in Boulder. A new intercomparison was made in 1986 in Arosa. Much work has been done to make the zenith charts reliable. A new method has been introduced where one takes into account the change in the shape of the zenith chart curves which is caused by a change of the ozone profile when the ozone amount changes. According to the conclusion derived from the intercomparison in Arosa 1986, the instrument has not been stable. The R-N tables had to be altered, but not the Q-tables. We have tried to account for this change in our handling of the observation data. No statistical analyses of these data has yet been made, but the monthly averages of the raw data show a negative linear trend of about 4 percent for the whole period.

  15. Cloud cover over the equatorial eastern Pacific derived from July 1983 International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data using a hybrid bispectral threshold method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.

    1987-01-01

    A set of visible and IR data obtained with GOES from July 17-31, 1983 is analyzed using a modified version of the hybrid bispectral threshold method developed by Minnis and Harrison (1984). This methodology can be divided into a set of procedures or optional techniques to determine the proper contaminate clear-sky temperature or IR threshold. The various optional techniques are described; the options are: standard, low-temperature limit, high-reflectance limit, low-reflectance limit, coldest pixel and thermal adjustment limit, IR-only low-cloud temperature limit, IR clear-sky limit, and IR overcast limit. Variations in the cloud parameters and the characteristics and diurnal cycles of trade cumulus and stratocumulus clouds over the eastern equatorial Pacific are examined. It is noted that the new method produces substantial changes in about one third of the cloud amount retrieval; and low cloud retrievals are affected most by the new constraints.

  16. A Diagnostic PDF Cloud Scheme to Improve Subtropical Low Clouds in NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yi; Lin, Yanluan; Xu, Shiming; Ma, Hsi-Yen; Xie, Shaocheng

    2018-02-01

    Low clouds strongly impact the radiation budget of the climate system, but their simulation in most GCMs has remained a challenge, especially over the subtropical stratocumulus region. Assuming a Gaussian distribution for the subgrid-scale total water and liquid water potential temperature, a new statistical cloud scheme is proposed and tested in NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). The subgrid-scale variance is diagnosed from the turbulent and shallow convective processes in CAM5. The approach is able to maintain the consistency between cloud fraction and cloud condensate and thus alleviates the adjustment needed in the default relative humidity-based cloud fraction scheme. Short-term forecast simulations indicate that low cloud fraction and liquid water content, including their diurnal cycle, are improved due to a proper consideration of subgrid-scale variance over the southeastern Pacific Ocean region. Compared with the default cloud scheme, the new approach produced the mean climate reasonably well with improved shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF) due to more reasonable low cloud fraction and liquid water path over regions with predominant low clouds. Meanwhile, the SWCF bias over the tropical land regions is also alleviated. Furthermore, the simulated marine boundary layer clouds with the new approach extend further offshore and agree better with observations. The new approach is able to obtain the top of atmosphere (TOA) radiation balance with a slightly alleviated double ITCZ problem in preliminary coupled simulations. This study implies that a close coupling of cloud processes with other subgrid-scale physical processes is a promising approach to improve cloud simulations.

  17. Research on cloud-based remote measurement and analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; He, Lingsong; Su, Wei; Wang, Can; Zhang, Changfan

    2015-02-01

    The promising potential of cloud computing and its convergence with technologies such as cloud storage, cloud push, mobile computing allows for creation and delivery of newer type of cloud service. Combined with the thought of cloud computing, this paper presents a cloud-based remote measurement and analysis system. This system mainly consists of three parts: signal acquisition client, web server deployed on the cloud service, and remote client. This system is a special website developed using asp.net and Flex RIA technology, which solves the selective contradiction between two monitoring modes, B/S and C/S. This platform supplies customer condition monitoring and data analysis service by Internet, which was deployed on the cloud server. Signal acquisition device is responsible for data (sensor data, audio, video, etc.) collection and pushes the monitoring data to the cloud storage database regularly. Data acquisition equipment in this system is only conditioned with the function of data collection and network function such as smartphone and smart sensor. This system's scale can adjust dynamically according to the amount of applications and users, so it won't cause waste of resources. As a representative case study, we developed a prototype system based on Ali cloud service using the rotor test rig as the research object. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system architecture is feasible.

  18. Assessment of Global Cloud Datasets from Satellites: Project and Database Initiated by the GEWEX Radiation Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubenrauch, C. J.; Rossow, W. B.; Kinne, S.; Ackerman, S.; Cesana, G.; Chepfer, H.; Getzewich, B.; Di Girolamo, L.; Guignard, A.; Heidinger, A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Clouds cover about 70% of the Earth's surface and play a dominant role in the energy and water cycle of our planet. Only satellite observations provide a continuous survey of the state of the atmosphere over the whole globe and across the wide range of spatial and temporal scales that comprise weather and climate variability. Satellite cloud data records now exceed more than 25 years in length. However, climatologies compiled from different satellite datasets can exhibit systematic biases. Questions therefore arise as to the accuracy and limitations of the various sensors. The Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud Assessment, initiated in 2005 by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, provided the first coordinated intercomparison of publically available, standard global cloud products (gridded, monthly statistics) retrieved from measurements of multi-spectral imagers (some with multiangle view and polarization capabilities), IR sounders and lidar. Cloud properties under study include cloud amount, cloud height (in terms of pressure, temperature or altitude), cloud radiative properties (optical depth or emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase and bulk microphysical properties (effective particle size and water path). Differences in average cloud properties, especially in the amount of high-level clouds, are mostly explained by the inherent instrument measurement capability for detecting and/or identifying optically thin cirrus, especially when overlying low-level clouds. The study of long-term variations with these datasets requires consideration of many factors. A monthly, gridded database, in common format, facilitates further assessments, climate studies and the evaluation of climate models.

  19. Evaluating and improving cloud phase in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 using spaceborne lidar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Jennifer E.; Bourdages, Line; Miller, Nathaniel B.; Morrison, Ariel; Yettella, Vineel; Chepfer, Helene; Eaton, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Spaceborne lidar observations from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite are used to evaluate cloud amount and cloud phase in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), the atmospheric component of a widely used state-of-the-art global coupled climate model (Community Earth System Model). By embedding a lidar simulator within CAM5, the idiosyncrasies of spaceborne lidar cloud detection and phase assignment are replicated. As a result, this study makes scale-aware and definition-aware comparisons between model-simulated and observed cloud amount and cloud phase. In the global mean, CAM5 has insufficient liquid cloud and excessive ice cloud when compared to CALIPSO observations. Over the ice-covered Arctic Ocean, CAM5 has insufficient liquid cloud in all seasons. Having important implications for projections of future sea level rise, a liquid cloud deficit contributes to a cold bias of 2-3°C for summer daily maximum near-surface air temperatures at Summit, Greenland. Over the midlatitude storm tracks, CAM5 has excessive ice cloud and insufficient liquid cloud. Storm track cloud phase biases in CAM5 maximize over the Southern Ocean, which also has larger-than-observed seasonal variations in cloud phase. Physical parameter modifications reduce the Southern Ocean cloud phase and shortwave radiation biases in CAM5 and illustrate the power of the CALIPSO observations as an observational constraint. The results also highlight the importance of using a regime-based, as opposed to a geographic-based, model evaluation approach. More generally, the results demonstrate the importance and value of simulator-enabled comparisons of cloud phase in models used for future climate projection.

  20. Cloud radiative properties and aerosol - cloud interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viviana Vladutescu, Daniela; Gross, Barry; Li, Clement; Han, Zaw

    2015-04-01

    The presented research discusses different techniques for improvement of cloud properties measurements and analysis. The need for these measurements and analysis arises from the high errors noticed in existing methods that are currently used in retrieving cloud properties and implicitly cloud radiative forcing. The properties investigated are cloud fraction (cf) and cloud optical thickness (COT) measured with a suite of collocated remote sensing instruments. The novel approach makes use of a ground based "poor man's camera" to detect cloud and sky radiation in red, green, and blue with a high spatial resolution of 30 mm at 1km. The surface-based high resolution photography provides a new and interesting view of clouds. As the cloud fraction cannot be uniquely defined or measured, it depends on threshold and resolution. However as resolution decreases, cloud fraction tends to increase if the threshold is below the mean, and vice versa. Additionally cloud fractal dimension also depends on threshold. Therefore these findings raise concerns over the ability to characterize clouds by cloud fraction or fractal dimension. Our analysis indicate that Principal Component analysis may lead to a robust means of quantifying cloud contribution to radiance. The cloud images are analyzed in conjunction with a collocated CIMEL sky radiometer, Microwave Radiometer and LIDAR to determine homogeneity and heterogeneity. Additionally, MFRSR measurements are used to determine the cloud radiative properties as a validation tool to the results obtained from the other instruments and methods. The cloud properties to be further studied are aerosol- cloud interaction, cloud particle radii, and vertical homogeneity.

  1. Cloud access to interoperable IVOA-compliant VOSpace storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertocco, S.; Dowler, P.; Gaudet, S.; Major, B.; Pasian, F.; Taffoni, G.

    2018-07-01

    Handling, processing and archiving the huge amount of data produced by the new generation of experiments and instruments in Astronomy and Astrophysics are among the more exciting challenges to address in designing the future data management infrastructures and computing services. We investigated the feasibility of a data management and computation infrastructure, available world-wide, with the aim of merging the FAIR data management provided by IVOA standards with the efficiency and reliability of a cloud approach. Our work involved the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomy Research (CANFAR) infrastructure and the European EGI federated cloud (EFC). We designed and deployed a pilot data management and computation infrastructure that provides IVOA-compliant VOSpace storage resources and wide access to interoperable federated clouds. In this paper, we detail the main user requirements covered, the technical choices and the implemented solutions and we describe the resulting Hybrid cloud Worldwide infrastructure, its benefits and limitations.

  2. Precipitation-generated oscillations in open cellular cloud fields.

    PubMed

    Feingold, Graham; Koren, Ilan; Wang, Hailong; Xue, Huiwen; Brewer, Wm Alan

    2010-08-12

    Cloud fields adopt many different patterns that can have a profound effect on the amount of sunlight reflected back to space, with important implications for the Earth's climate. These cloud patterns can be observed in satellite images of the Earth and often exhibit distinct cell-like structures associated with organized convection at scales of tens of kilometres. Recent evidence has shown that atmospheric aerosol particles-through their influence on precipitation formation-help to determine whether cloud fields take on closed (more reflective) or open (less reflective) cellular patterns. The physical mechanisms controlling the formation and evolution of these cells, however, are still poorly understood, limiting our ability to simulate realistically the effects of clouds on global reflectance. Here we use satellite imagery and numerical models to show how precipitating clouds produce an open cellular cloud pattern that oscillates between different, weakly stable states. The oscillations are a result of precipitation causing downward motion and outflow from clouds that were previously positively buoyant. The evaporating precipitation drives air down to the Earth's surface, where it diverges and collides with the outflows of neighbouring precipitating cells. These colliding outflows form surface convergence zones and new cloud formation. In turn, the newly formed clouds produce precipitation and new colliding outflow patterns that are displaced from the previous ones. As successive cycles of this kind unfold, convergence zones alternate with divergence zones and new cloud patterns emerge to replace old ones. The result is an oscillating, self-organized system with a characteristic cell size and precipitation frequency.

  3. SparkClouds: visualizing trends in tag clouds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bongshin; Riche, Nathalie Henry; Karlson, Amy K; Carpendale, Sheelash

    2010-01-01

    Tag clouds have proliferated over the web over the last decade. They provide a visual summary of a collection of texts by visually depicting the tag frequency by font size. In use, tag clouds can evolve as the associated data source changes over time. Interesting discussions around tag clouds often include a series of tag clouds and consider how they evolve over time. However, since tag clouds do not explicitly represent trends or support comparisons, the cognitive demands placed on the person for perceiving trends in multiple tag clouds are high. In this paper, we introduce SparkClouds, which integrate sparklines into a tag cloud to convey trends between multiple tag clouds. We present results from a controlled study that compares SparkClouds with two traditional trend visualizations—multiple line graphs and stacked bar charts—as well as Parallel Tag Clouds. Results show that SparkClouds ability to show trends compares favourably to the alternative visualizations.

  4. Cloud Computing for Protein-Ligand Binding Site Comparison

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The proteome-wide analysis of protein-ligand binding sites and their interactions with ligands is important in structure-based drug design and in understanding ligand cross reactivity and toxicity. The well-known and commonly used software, SMAP, has been designed for 3D ligand binding site comparison and similarity searching of a structural proteome. SMAP can also predict drug side effects and reassign existing drugs to new indications. However, the computing scale of SMAP is limited. We have developed a high availability, high performance system that expands the comparison scale of SMAP. This cloud computing service, called Cloud-PLBS, combines the SMAP and Hadoop frameworks and is deployed on a virtual cloud computing platform. To handle the vast amount of experimental data on protein-ligand binding site pairs, Cloud-PLBS exploits the MapReduce paradigm as a management and parallelizing tool. Cloud-PLBS provides a web portal and scalability through which biologists can address a wide range of computer-intensive questions in biology and drug discovery. PMID:23762824

  5. New framework for extending cloud chemistry in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clouds and fogs significantly impact the amount, composition, and spatial distribution of gas and particulate atmospheric species, not least of which through the chemistry that occurs in cloud droplets. Atmospheric sulfate is an important component of fine aerosol mass and in an...

  6. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be in...

  7. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be in...

  8. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be in...

  9. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be in...

  10. Seasonal Change in Titan's Cloud Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.; Brown, M. E.; Roe, H. G.

    2006-12-01

    We have acquired whole disk spectra of Titan on nineteen nights with IRTF/SpeX over a three-month period in the spring of 2006 and will acquire data on ~50 additional nights between September and December 2006. The data encompass the spectral range of 0.8 to 2.4 microns at a resolution of 375. These disk- integrated spectra allow us to determine Titan's total fractional cloud coverage and altitudes of clouds present. We find that Titan had less than 0.15% fractional cloud coverage on all but one of the nineteen nights. The near lack of cloud activity in these spectra is in sharp contrast to nearly every spectrum taken from 1995-1999 with UKIRT by Griffith et al. (1998 &2000) who found rapidly varying clouds covering ~0.5% of Titan's disk. The differences in these two similar datasets indicate a striking seasonal change in the behavior of Titan's clouds. Observations of the latitudes, magnitudes, altitudes, and frequencies of Titan's clouds as Titan moves toward southern autumnal equinox in 2009 will help elucidate when and how Titan's methane hydrological cycle changes with season.

  11. The effect of clouds on the earth's radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziskin, Daniel; Strobel, Darrell F.

    1991-01-01

    The radiative fluxes from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the cloud properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) over Indonesia for the months of June and July of 1985 and 1986 were analyzed to determine the cloud sensitivity coefficients. The method involved a linear least squares regression between co-incident flux and cloud coverage measurements. The calculated slope is identified as the cloud sensitivity. It was found that the correlations between the total cloud fraction and radiation parameters were modest. However, correlations between cloud fraction and IR flux were improved by separating clouds by height. Likewise, correlations between the visible flux and cloud fractions were improved by distinguishing clouds based on optical depth. Calculating correlations between the net fluxes and either height or optical depth segregated cloud fractions were somewhat improved. When clouds were classified in terms of their height and optical depth, correlations among all the radiation components were improved. Mean cloud sensitivities based on the regression of radiative fluxes against height and optical depth separated cloud types are presented. Results are compared to a one-dimensional radiation model with a simple cloud parameterization scheme.

  12. Cloud-Top Entrainment in Stratocumulus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellado, Juan Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Cloud entrainment, the mixing between cloudy and clear air at the boundary of clouds, constitutes one paradigm for the relevance of small scales in the Earth system: By regulating cloud lifetimes, meter- and submeter-scale processes at cloud boundaries can influence planetary-scale properties. Understanding cloud entrainment is difficult given the complexity and diversity of the associated phenomena, which include turbulence entrainment within a stratified medium, convective instabilities driven by radiative and evaporative cooling, shear instabilities, and cloud microphysics. Obtaining accurate data at the required small scales is also challenging, for both simulations and measurements. During the past few decades, however, high-resolution simulations and measurements have greatly advanced our understanding of the main mechanisms controlling cloud entrainment. This article reviews some of these advances, focusing on stratocumulus clouds, and indicates remaining challenges.

  13. A comparison of shock-cloud and wind-cloud interactions: effect of increased cloud density contrast on cloud evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, K. J. A.; Pittard, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    The similarities, or otherwise, of a shock or wind interacting with a cloud of density contrast χ = 10 were explored in a previous paper. Here, we investigate such interactions with clouds of higher density contrast. We compare the adiabatic hydrodynamic interaction of a Mach 10 shock with a spherical cloud of χ = 103 with that of a cloud embedded in a wind with identical parameters to the post-shock flow. We find that initially there are only minor morphological differences between the shock-cloud and wind-cloud interactions, compared to when χ = 10. However, once the transmitted shock exits the cloud, the development of a turbulent wake and fragmentation of the cloud differs between the two simulations. On increasing the wind Mach number, we note the development of a thin, smooth tail of cloud material, which is then disrupted by the fragmentation of the cloud core and subsequent `mass-loading' of the flow. We find that the normalized cloud mixing time (tmix) is shorter at higher χ. However, a strong Mach number dependence on tmix and the normalized cloud drag time, t_{drag}^' }, is not observed. Mach-number-dependent values of tmix and t_{drag}^' } from comparable shock-cloud interactions converge towards the Mach-number-independent time-scales of the wind-cloud simulations. We find that high χ clouds can be accelerated up to 80-90 per cent of the wind velocity and travel large distances before being significantly mixed. However, complete mixing is not achieved in our simulations and at late times the flow remains perturbed.

  14. Separating Real and Apparent Effects of Cloud, Humidity, and Dynamics on Aerosol Optical Thickness near Cloud Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Li, Zhanqing

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) is one of aerosol parameters that can be measured on a routine basis with reasonable accuracy from Sun-photometric observations at the surface. However, AOT-derived near clouds is fraught with various real effects and artifacts, posing a big challenge for studying aerosol and cloud interactions. Recently, several studies have reported correlations between AOT and cloud cover, pointing to potential cloud contamination and the aerosol humidification effect; however, not many quantitative assessments have been made. In this study, various potential causes of apparent correlations are investigated in order to separate the real effects from the artifacts, using well-maintained observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network, Total Sky Imager, airborne nephelometer, etc., over the Southern Great Plains site operated by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. It was found that aerosol humidification effects can explain about one fourth of the correlation between the cloud cover and AOT. New particle genesis, cloud-processed particles, atmospheric dynamics, and aerosol indirect effects are likely to be contributing to as much as the remaining three fourth of the relationship between cloud cover and AOT.

  15. The Microphysics of Antarctic Clouds - Part one Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachlan-Cope, Tom; Listowski, Constantino; O'Shea, Sebastian; Bower, Keith

    2016-04-01

    During the Antarctic summer of 2010 and 2011 in-situ measurements of clouds were made over the Antarctic Peninsula and in 2015 similar measurements were made over the eastern Weddell Sea using the British Antarctic Surveys instrumented Twin Otter aircraft. This paper contrasts the clouds found on either side of the Antarctic Peninsula with the clouds over the eastern Weddell Sea, paying particular attention to the total number of ice and water particles found in the clouds. The differences found between the clouds are considered in relation to the sources of cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei that are expected to be active in the different cases. In particular it was found that the number of ice nuclei was very low over the Weddell Sea when compared to other regions.

  16. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Secretary Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and... the Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 (October 1, 2013-September 30, 2014) in-quota aggregate quantity of raw cane sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV). The Secretary also announces the establishment of the...

  17. Shuttle landing facility cloud cover study: Climatological analysis and two tenths cloud cover rule evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atchison, Michael K.; Schumann, Robin; Taylor, Greg; Warburton, John; Wheeler, Mark; Yersavich, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The two-tenths cloud cover rule in effect for all End Of Mission (EOM) STS landings at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) states: 'for scattered cloud layers below 10,000 feet, cloud cover must be observed to be less than or equal to 0.2 at the de-orbit burn go/no-go decision time (approximately 90 minutes before landing time)'. This rule was designed to protect against a ceiling (below 10,000 feet) developing unexpectedly within the next 90 minutes (i.e., after the de-orbit burn decision and before landing). The Applied Meteorological Unit (AMU) developed and analyzed a database of cloud cover amounts and weather conditions at the Shuttle Landing Facility for a five-year (1986-1990) period. The data indicate the best time to land the shuttle at KSC is during the summer while the worst time is during the winter. The analysis also shows the highest frequency of landing opportunities occurs for the 0100-0600 UTC and 1300-1600 UTC time periods. The worst time of the day to land a shuttle is near sunrise and during the afternoon. An evaluation of the two-tenths cloud cover rule for most data categorizations has shown that there is a significant difference in the proportions of weather violations one and two hours subsequent to initial conditions of 0.2 and 0.3 cloud cover. However, for May, Oct., 700 mb northerly wind category, 1500 UTC category, and 1600 UTC category there is some evidence that the 0.2 cloud cover rule may be overly conservative. This possibility requires further investigation. As a result of these analyses, the AMU developed nomograms to help the Spaceflight Meteorological Group (SMG) and the Cape Canaveral Forecast Facility (CCFF) forecast cloud cover for EOM and Return to Launch Site (RTLS) at KSC. Future work will include updating the two tenths database, further analysis of the data for several categorizations, and developing a proof of concept artificial neural network to provide forecast guidance of weather constraint violations for shuttle

  18. Opportunities and challenges provided by cloud repositories for bioinformatics-enabled drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Dalpé, Gratien; Joly, Yann

    2014-09-01

    Healthcare-related bioinformatics databases are increasingly offering the possibility to maintain, organize, and distribute DNA sequencing data. Different national and international institutions are currently hosting such databases that offer researchers website platforms where they can obtain sequencing data on which they can perform different types of analysis. Until recently, this process remained mostly one-dimensional, with most analysis concentrated on a limited amount of data. However, newer genome sequencing technology is producing a huge amount of data that current computer facilities are unable to handle. An alternative approach has been to start adopting cloud computing services for combining the information embedded in genomic and model system biology data, patient healthcare records, and clinical trials' data. In this new technological paradigm, researchers use virtual space and computing power from existing commercial or not-for-profit cloud service providers to access, store, and analyze data via different application programming interfaces. Cloud services are an alternative to the need of larger data storage; however, they raise different ethical, legal, and social issues. The purpose of this Commentary is to summarize how cloud computing can contribute to bioinformatics-based drug discovery and to highlight some of the outstanding legal, ethical, and social issues that are inherent in the use of cloud services. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. On the Analysis of the Climatology of Cloudiness of the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, L. A.; Temimi, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to determine the climatology of cloudiness over the Arabian Peninsula. The determined climatology will assist solar energy resource assessment in the region. The seasonality of cloudiness and its spatial variability will also help guide several cloud seeding operational experiments in the region. Cloud properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database covering the time period from 1983 through 2009 are analyzed. Time series of low, medium, high, and total cloud amounts are investigated, in addition to cloud optical depth and total column water vapor. Initial results show significant decreasing trends in the total and middle cloud amounts, both annually and seasonally, at a 95% confidence interval. The relationship between cloud amounts and climate oscillations known to affect the region is explored. Climate indices exhibiting significant correlations with the total cloud amounts include the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. The study also includes a focus on the United Arab Emirates (UAE), comparing the inferred cloudiness data to in situ rainfall measurements taken from rain gauges across the UAE. To assess the impact of cloudiness on solar power resources in the country, time series of cloud amounts and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), obtained from the UAE Solar Atlas, are compared.

  20. Time dependent charging of layer clouds in the global electric circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Limin; Tinsley, Brian A.

    2012-09-01

    There is much observational data consistent with the hypothesis that the ionosphere-earth current density (Jz) in the global electric circuit, which is modulated by both solar activity and thunderstorm activity, affects atmospheric dynamics and cloud cover. One candidate mechanism involves Jz causing the accumulation of space charge on droplets and aerosol particles, that affects the rate of scavenging of the latter, notably those of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) and Ice Forming Nuclei (IFN) (Tinsley, 2008, 2010). Space charge is the difference, per unit volume, between total positive and total negative electrical charge that is on droplets, aerosol particles (including the CCN and IFN) and air ions. The cumulative effects of the scavenging in stratiform clouds and aerosol layers in an air mass over the lifetime of the aerosol particles of 1-10 days affects the concentration and size distribution of the CCN, so that in subsequent episodes of cloud formation (including deep convective clouds) there can be effects on droplet size distribution, coagulation, precipitation processes, and even storm dynamics.Because the time scales for charging for some clouds can be long compared to cloud lifetimes, the amount of charge at a given time, and its effect on scavenging, depend more on the charging rate than on the equilibrium charge that would eventually be attained. To evaluate this, a new time-dependent charging model has been developed. The results show that for typical altostratus clouds with typical droplet radii 10 μm and aerosol particles of radius of 0.04 μm, the time constant for charging in response to a change in Jz is about 800 s, which is comparable to cloud formation and dissipation timescales for some cloud situations. The charging timescale is found to be strong functions of altitude and aerosol concentration, with the time constant for droplet charging at 2 km in air with a high concentration of aerosols being about an hour, and for clouds at 10 km in

  1. Mars topographic clouds: MAVEN/IUVS observations and LMD MGCM predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Nicholas M.; Connour, Kyle; Forget, Francois; Deighan, Justin; Jain, Sonal; Vals, Margaux; Wolff, Michael J.; Chaffin, Michael S.; Crismani, Matteo; Stewart, A. Ian F.; McClintock, William E.; Holsclaw, Greg; Lefevre, Franck; Montmessin, Franck; Stiepen, Arnaud; Stevens, Michael H.; Evans, J. Scott; Yelle, Roger; Lo, Daniel; Clarke, John T.; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft takes mid-UV spectral images of the Martian atmosphere. From these apoapse disk images, information about clouds and aerosols can be retrieved and comprise the only MAVEN observations of topographic clouds and cloud morphologies. Measuring local time variability of large-scale recurring cloud features is made possible with MAVEN’s ~4.5-hour elliptical orbit, something not possible with sun-synchronous orbits. We have run the LMD MGCM (Mars global circulation model) at 1° x 1° resolution to simulate water ice cloud formation with inputs consistent with observing parameters and Mars seasons. Topographic clouds are observed to form daily during the late mornings of northern hemisphere spring and this phenomenon recurs until late summer (Ls = 160°), after which topographic clouds wane in thickness. By northern fall, most topographic clouds cease to form except over Arsia Mons and Pavonis Mons, where clouds can still be observed. Our data show moderate cloud formation over these regions as late as Ls = 220°, something difficult for the model to replicate. Previous studies have shown that models have trouble simulating equatorial cloud thickness in combination with a realistic amount of water vapor and not-too-thick polar water ice clouds, implying aspects of the water cycle are not fully understood. We present data/model comparisons as well as further refinements on parameter inputs based on IUVS observations.

  2. Mars topographic clouds: MAVEN/IUVS observations and LMD MGCM predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connour, K.; Schneider, N.; Forget, F.; Deighan, J.; Jain, S.; Pottier, A.; Wolff, M. J.; Chaffin, M.; Crismani, M. M. J.; Stewart, I. F.; McClintock, B.; Holsclaw, G.; Lefèvre, F.; Montmessin, F.; Stiepen, A.; Stevens, M. H.; Evans, J. S.; Yelle, R. V.; Lo, D.; Clarke, J. T.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft takes mid-UV spectral images of the Martian atmosphere. From these apoapse disk images, information about clouds and aerosols can be retrieved and comprise the only MAVEN observations of topographic clouds and cloud morphologies. Measuring local time variability of large-scale recurring cloud features is made possible with MAVEN's 4.5-hour elliptical orbit, something not possible with sun-synchronous orbits. We have run the LMD MGCM (Mars global circulation model) at 1° x 1° resolution to simulate water ice cloud formation with inputs consistent with observing parameters and Mars seasons. Topographic clouds are observed to form daily during the late mornings of northern hemisphere spring and this phenomenon recurs until late summer (Ls = 160°), after which topographic clouds wane in thickness. By northern fall, most topographic clouds cease to form except over Arsia Mons and Pavonis Mons, where clouds can still be observed. Our data show moderate cloud formation over these regions as late as Ls = 220°, something difficult for the model to replicate. Previous studies have shown that models have trouble simulating equatorial cloud thickness in combination with a realistic amount of water vapor and not-too-thick polar water ice clouds, implying aspects of the water cycle are not fully understood. We present data/model comparisons as well as further refinements on parameter inputs based on IUVS observations.

  3. Scalable and responsive event processing in the cloud

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Visalakshmi; Ezhilchelvan, Paul; Watson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Event processing involves continuous evaluation of queries over streams of events. Response-time optimization is traditionally done over a fixed set of nodes and/or by using metrics measured at query-operator levels. Cloud computing makes it easy to acquire and release computing nodes as required. Leveraging this flexibility, we propose a novel, queueing-theory-based approach for meeting specified response-time targets against fluctuating event arrival rates by drawing only the necessary amount of computing resources from a cloud platform. In the proposed approach, the entire processing engine of a distinct query is modelled as an atomic unit for predicting response times. Several such units hosted on a single node are modelled as a multiple class M/G/1 system. These aspects eliminate intrusive, low-level performance measurements at run-time, and also offer portability and scalability. Using model-based predictions, cloud resources are efficiently used to meet response-time targets. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated through cloud-based experiments. PMID:23230164

  4. The clouds and winds of Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, R.

    1992-04-01

    The atmospheric features of Neptune are described based on the images from Voyager 2 with comparisons made to the atmosphere of Uranus. Specific attention is given to the clear atmosphere's methane content and lack of the smog associated with Uranus. Neptune absorbs only a small amount of energy from sunlight and radiates about 2.7 times as much as it absorbs. The mechanisms that keep Neptune's atmosphere free of smog are thought to be upwelling enhanced by an outward heat flow and melting ice. The Voyager photographs show streaks of white clouds indicating strong winds and probably white ice in the upper atmosphere. The Great Dark Spot and a small triangular cloud are described in terms of their periods of rotation, and the wind speed is discussed in terms of cloud variations. The Great Dark Spot drifted equatorward during the observational period, and the drift yields some important clues regarding the nature of the Neptunian atmosphere and climate.

  5. Preliminary Results from the First Deployment of a Tethered-Balloon Cloud Particle Imager Instrument Package in Arctic Stratus Clouds at Ny-Alesund

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, P.; Stamnes, K.; Stamnes, J.; Zmarzly, P.; O'Connor, D.; Koskulics, J.; Hamre, B.

    2008-12-01

    A tethered balloon system specifically designed to collect microphysical data in mixed-phase clouds was deployed in Arctic stratus clouds during May 2008 near Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, at 79 degrees North Latitude. This is the first time a tethered balloon system with a cloud particle imager (CPI) that records high-resolution digital images of cloud drops and ice particles has been operated in cloud. The custom tether supplies electrical power to the instrument package, which in addition to the CPI houses a 4-pi short-wavelength radiometer and a met package that measures temperature, humidity, pressure, GPS position, wind speed and direction. The instrument package was profiled vertically through cloud up to altitudes of 1.6 km. Since power was supplied to the instrument package from the ground, it was possible to keep the balloon package aloft for extended periods of time, up to 9 hours at Ny- Ålesund, which was limited only by crew fatigue. CPI images of cloud drops and the sizes, shapes and degree of riming of ice particles are shown throughout vertical profiles of Arctic stratus clouds. The images show large regions of mixed-phase cloud from -8 to -2 C. The predominant ice crystal habits in these regions are needles and aggregates of needles. The amount of ice in the mixed-phase clouds varied considerably and did not appear to be a function of temperature. On some occasions, ice was observed near cloud base at -2 C with supercooled cloud above to - 8 C that was devoid of ice. Measurements of shortwave radiation are also presented. Correlations between particle distributions and radiative measurements will be analyzed to determine the effect of these Arctic stratus clouds on radiative forcing.

  6. Optical properties of aerosol contaminated cloud derived from MODIS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Linlu; Rozanov, Vladimir; Lelli, Luca; Vountas, Marco; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    The presence of absorbing aerosols above/within cloud can reduce the amount of up-welling radiation in visible (VIS) and short-wave infrared and darken the spectral reflectance when compared with a spectrum of a clean cloud observed by satellite instruments (Jethva et al., 2013). Cloud properties retrieval for aerosol contaminated cases is a great challenge. Even small additional injection of aerosol particles into clouds in the cleanest regions of Earth's atmosphere will cause significant effect on those clouds and on climate forcing (Koren et al., 2014; Rosenfeld et al., 2014) because the micro-physical cloud process are non-linear with respect to the aerosol loading. The current cloud products like Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ignoring the aerosol effect for the retrieval, which may cause significant error in the satellite-derived cloud properties. In this paper, a new cloud properties retrieval method, considering aerosol effect, based on the weighting-function (WF) method, is presented. The retrieval results shows that the WF retrieved cloud properties (e.g COT) agrees quite well with MODIS COT product for relative clear atmosphere (AOT ≤ 0.4) while there is a large difference for large aerosol loading. The MODIS COT product is underestimated for at least 2 - 3 times for AOT>0.4, and this underestimation increases with the increase of AOT.

  7. Cloud and boundary layer interactions over the Arctic sea-ice in late summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, M. D.; Persson, P. O. G.; Brooks, I. M.; Tjernström, M.; Sedlar, J.; Mauritsen, T.; Sjogren, S.; Leck, C.

    2013-05-01

    Observations from the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS), in the central Arctic sea-ice pack in late summer 2008, provide a detailed view of cloud-atmosphere-surface interactions and vertical mixing processes over the sea-ice environment. Measurements from a suite of ground-based remote sensors, near surface meteorological and aerosol instruments, and profiles from radiosondes and a helicopter are combined to characterize a week-long period dominated by low-level, mixed-phase, stratocumulus clouds. Detailed case studies and statistical analyses are used to develop a conceptual model for the cloud and atmosphere structure and their interactions in this environment. Clouds were persistent during the period of study, having qualities that suggest they were sustained through a combination of advective influences and in-cloud processes, with little contribution from the surface. Radiative cooling near cloud top produced buoyancy-driven, turbulent eddies that contributed to cloud formation and created a cloud-driven mixed layer. The depth of this mixed layer was related to the amount of turbulence and condensed cloud water. Coupling of this cloud-driven mixed layer to the surface boundary layer was primarily determined by proximity. For 75% of the period of study, the primary stratocumulus cloud-driven mixed layer was decoupled from the surface and typically at a warmer potential temperature. Since the near-surface temperature was constrained by the ocean-ice mixture, warm temperatures aloft suggest that these air masses had not significantly interacted with the sea-ice surface. Instead, back trajectory analyses suggest that these warm airmasses advected into the central Arctic Basin from lower latitudes. Moisture and aerosol particles likely accompanied these airmasses, providing necessary support for cloud formation. On the occasions when cloud-surface coupling did occur, back trajectories indicated that these air masses advected at low levels, while mixing

  8. Cloud and boundary layer interactions over the Arctic sea ice in late summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, M. D.; Persson, P. O. G.; Brooks, I. M.; Tjernström, M.; Sedlar, J.; Mauritsen, T.; Sjogren, S.; Leck, C.

    2013-09-01

    Observations from the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS), in the central Arctic sea-ice pack in late summer 2008, provide a detailed view of cloud-atmosphere-surface interactions and vertical mixing processes over the sea-ice environment. Measurements from a suite of ground-based remote sensors, near-surface meteorological and aerosol instruments, and profiles from radiosondes and a helicopter are combined to characterize a week-long period dominated by low-level, mixed-phase, stratocumulus clouds. Detailed case studies and statistical analyses are used to develop a conceptual model for the cloud and atmosphere structure and their interactions in this environment. Clouds were persistent during the period of study, having qualities that suggest they were sustained through a combination of advective influences and in-cloud processes, with little contribution from the surface. Radiative cooling near cloud top produced buoyancy-driven, turbulent eddies that contributed to cloud formation and created a cloud-driven mixed layer. The depth of this mixed layer was related to the amount of turbulence and condensed cloud water. Coupling of this cloud-driven mixed layer to the surface boundary layer was primarily determined by proximity. For 75% of the period of study, the primary stratocumulus cloud-driven mixed layer was decoupled from the surface and typically at a warmer potential temperature. Since the near-surface temperature was constrained by the ocean-ice mixture, warm temperatures aloft suggest that these air masses had not significantly interacted with the sea-ice surface. Instead, back-trajectory analyses suggest that these warm air masses advected into the central Arctic Basin from lower latitudes. Moisture and aerosol particles likely accompanied these air masses, providing necessary support for cloud formation. On the occasions when cloud-surface coupling did occur, back trajectories indicated that these air masses advected at low levels, while mixing

  9. Constraints on the Profiles of Total Water PDF in AGCMs from AIRS and a High-Resolution Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molod, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) cloud parameterizations generally include an assumption about the subgrid-scale probability distribution function (PDF) of total water and its vertical profile. In the present study, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) monthly-mean cloud amount and relative humidity fields are used to compute a proxy for the second moment of an AGCM total water PDF called the RH01 diagnostic, which is the AIRS mean relative humidity for cloud fractions of 0.1 or less. The dependence of the second moment on horizontal grid resolution is analyzed using results from a high-resolution global model simulation.The AIRS-derived RH01 diagnostic is generally larger near the surface than aloft, indicating a narrower PDF near the surface, and varies with the type of underlying surface. High-resolution model results show that the vertical structure of profiles of the AGCM PDF second moment is unchanged as the grid resolution changes from 200 to 100 to 50 km, and that the second-moment profiles shift toward higher values with decreasing grid spacing.Several Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5), AGCM simulations were performed with several choices for the profile of the PDF second moment. The resulting cloud and relative humidity fields were shown to be quite sensitive to the prescribed profile, and the use of a profile based on the AIRS-derived proxy results in improvements relative to observational estimates. The AIRS-guided total water PDF profiles, including their dependence on underlying surface type and on horizontal resolution, have been implemented in the version of the GEOS-5 AGCM used for publicly released simulations.

  10. Mg II Absorbers: Metallicity Evolution and Cloud Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Ting-Wen; Fukugita, Masataka

    2017-12-01

    Metal abundance and its evolution are studied for Mg II quasar absorption line systems from their weak, unsaturated spectral lines using stacked spectra from the archived data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They show an abundance pattern that resembles that of the Galactic halo or Small Magellanic Cloud, with metallicity [Z/H] showing an evolution from redshift z = 2 to 0.5: metallicity becomes approximately solar or even larger at z≈ 0. We show that the evolution of the metal abundance traces the cumulative amount of the hydrogen fuel consumed in star formation in galaxies. With the aid of a spectroscopic simulation code, we infer the median gas density of the cloud to be roughly 0.3 {{cm}}-3, with which the elemental abundance in various ionization stages, in particular C I, is consistently explained. This gas density implies that the size of the Mg II clouds is of the order of 0.03 kpc, which suggests that individual Mg II clouds around a galaxy are of a baryonic mass typically {10}3 {M}⊙ . This means that Mg II clouds are numerous and “foamy,” rather than a large entity that covers a sizable fraction of galaxies with a single cloud.

  11. How might Australian rainforest cloud interception respond to climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Jim; McJannet, Dave

    2013-02-01

    SummaryThe lower and upper montane rainforests in northern Queensland receive significant amounts of cloud interception that affect both in situ canopy wetness and downstream runoff. Cloud interception contributes 5-30% of the annual water input to the canopy and this increases to 40-70% of the monthly water input during the dry season. This occult water is therefore an important input to the canopy, sustaining the epiphytes, mosses and other species that depend on wet canopy conditions. The potential effect of climate change on cloud interception was examined using the relationship between cloud interception and cloud frequency derived from measurements made at four different rainforest locations. Any given change in cloud frequency produces a greater change in cloud interception and this 'amplification' increases from 1.1 to 1.7 as cloud frequency increases from 5% to 70%. This means that any changes in cloud frequency will have the greatest relative effects at the higher altitude sites where cloud interception is greatest. As cloud frequency is also a major factor affecting canopy wetness, any given change in cloud frequency will therefore have a greater impact on canopy wetness at the higher altitude sites. These changes in wetness duration will augment those due to changes in rainfall and may have important implications for the fauna and flora that depend on wet canopy conditions. We also found that the Australian rainforests may be more efficient (by ˜50% on average) in intercepting cloud water than American coniferous forests, which may be due to differences in canopy structure and exposure at the different sites.

  12. Sahara Dust Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Dust Particles Click on the image for Quicktime movie from 7/15-7/24

    A continent-sized cloud of hot air and dust originating from the Sahara Desert crossed the Atlantic Ocean and headed towards Florida and the Caribbean. A Saharan Air Layer, or SAL, forms when dry air and dust rise from Africa's west coast and ride the trade winds above the Atlantic Ocean.

    These dust clouds are not uncommon, especially during the months of July and August. They start when weather patterns called tropical waves pick up dust from the desert in North Africa, carry it a couple of miles into the atmosphere and drift westward.

    In a sequence of images created by data acquired by the Earth-orbiting Atmospheric Infrared Sounder ranging from July 15 through July 24, we see the distribution of the cloud in the atmosphere as it swirls off of Africa and heads across the ocean to the west. Using the unique silicate spectral signatures of dust in the thermal infrared, AIRS can detect the presence of dust in the atmosphere day or night. This detection works best if there are no clouds present on top of the dust; when clouds are present, they can interfere with the signal, making it much harder to detect dust as in the case of July 24, 2005.

    In the Quicktime movie, the scale at the bottom of the images shows +1 for dust definitely detected, and ranges down to -1 for no dust detected. The plots are averaged over a number of AIRS observations falling within grid boxes, and so it is possible to obtain fractional numbers. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Total Water Vapor in the Atmosphere Around the Dust Cloud Click on the image for Quicktime movie

    The dust cloud is contained within a dry adiabatic layer which originates over the Sahara Desert. This Saharan Air Layer (SAL) advances Westward over the Atlantic Ocean, overriding the cool, moist air nearer the surface. This burst of very dry air is visible in the

  13. Deployment of the third-generation infrared cloud imager: A two-year study of Arctic clouds at Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, Paul Winston

    Cloud cover is an important but poorly understood component of current climate models, and although climate change is most easily observed in the Arctic, cloud data in the Arctic is unreliable or simply unavailable. Ground-based infrared cloud imaging has the potential to fill this gap. This technique uses a thermal infrared camera to observe cloud amount, cloud optical depth, and cloud spatial distribution at a particular location. The Montana State University Optical Remote Sensor Laboratory has developed the ground-based Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) instrument to measure spatial and temporal cloud data. To build an ICI for Arctic sites required the system to be engineered to overcome the challenges of this environment. Of particular challenge was keeping the system calibration and data processing accurate through the severe temperature changes. Another significant challenge was that weak emission from the cold, dry Arctic atmosphere pushed the camera used in the instrument to its operational limits. To gain an understanding of the operation of the ICI systems for the Arctic and to gather critical data on Arctic clouds, a prototype arctic ICI was deployed in Barrow, AK from July 2012 through July 2014. To understand the long-term operation of an ICI in the arctic, a study was conducted of the ICI system accuracy in relation to co-located active and passive sensors. Understanding the operation of this system in the Arctic environment required careful characterization of the full optical system, including the lens, filter, and detector. Alternative data processing techniques using decision trees and support vector machines were studied to improve data accuracy and reduce dependence on auxiliary instrument data and the resulting accuracy is reported here. The work described in this project was part of the effort to develop a fourth-generation ICI ready to be deployed in the Arctic. This system will serve a critical role in developing our understanding of cloud cover

  14. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  15. Using Deep Learning Model for Meteorological Satellite Cloud Image Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, X.

    2017-12-01

    A satellite cloud image contains much weather information such as precipitation information. Short-time cloud movement forecast is important for precipitation forecast and is the primary means for typhoon monitoring. The traditional methods are mostly using the cloud feature matching and linear extrapolation to predict the cloud movement, which makes that the nonstationary process such as inversion and deformation during the movement of the cloud is basically not considered. It is still a hard task to predict cloud movement timely and correctly. As deep learning model could perform well in learning spatiotemporal features, to meet this challenge, we could regard cloud image prediction as a spatiotemporal sequence forecasting problem and introduce deep learning model to solve this problem. In this research, we use a variant of Gated-Recurrent-Unit(GRU) that has convolutional structures to deal with spatiotemporal features and build an end-to-end model to solve this forecast problem. In this model, both the input and output are spatiotemporal sequences. Compared to Convolutional LSTM(ConvLSTM) model, this model has lower amount of parameters. We imply this model on GOES satellite data and the model perform well.

  16. Cloud Processed CCN Suppress Stratus Cloud Drizzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate within cloud droplets increases the sizes and decreases the critical supersaturation, Sc, of cloud residual particles that had nucleated the droplets. Since other particles remain at the same sizes and Sc a size and Sc gap is often observed. Hudson et al. (2015) showed higher cloud droplet concentrations (Nc) in stratus clouds associated with bimodal high-resolution CCN spectra from the DRI CCN spectrometer compared to clouds associated with unimodal CCN spectra (not cloud processed). Here we show that CCN spectral shape (bimodal or unimodal) affects all aspects of stratus cloud microphysics and drizzle. Panel A shows mean differential cloud droplet spectra that have been divided according to traditional slopes, k, of the 131 measured CCN spectra in the Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) off the Central California coast. K is generally high within the supersaturation, S, range of stratus clouds (< 0.5%). Because cloud processing decreases Sc of some particles, it reduces k. Panel A shows higher concentrations of small cloud droplets apparently grown on lower k CCN than clouds grown on higher k CCN. At small droplet sizes the concentrations follow the k order of the legend, black, red, green, blue (lowest to highest k). Above 13 µm diameter the lines cross and the hierarchy reverses so that blue (highest k) has the highest concentrations followed by green, red and black (lowest k). This reversed hierarchy continues into the drizzle size range (panel B) where the most drizzle drops, Nd, are in clouds grown on the least cloud-processed CCN (blue), while clouds grown on the most processed CCN (black) have the lowest Nd. Suppression of stratus cloud drizzle by cloud processing is an additional 2nd indirect aerosol effect (IAE) that along with the enhancement of 1st IAE by higher Nc (panel A) are above and beyond original IAE. However, further similar analysis is needed in other cloud regimes to determine if MASE was

  17. Entrainment in Laboratory Simulations of Cumulus Cloud Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimha, R.; Diwan, S.; Subrahmanyam, D.; Sreenivas, K. R.; Bhat, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    A variety of cumulus cloud flows, including congestus (both shallow bubble and tall tower types), mediocris and fractus have been generated in a water tank by simulating the release of latent heat in real clouds. The simulation is achieved through ohmic heating, injected volumetrically into the flow by applying suitable voltages between diametral cross-sections of starting jets and plumes of electrically conducting fluid (acidified water). Dynamical similarity between atmospheric and laboratory cloud flows is achieved by duplicating values of an appropriate non-dimensional heat release number. Velocity measurements, made by laser instrumentation, show that the Taylor entrainment coefficient generally increases just above the level of commencement of heat injection (corresponding to condensation level in the real cloud). Subsequently the coefficient reaches a maximum before declining to the very low values that characterize tall cumulus towers. The experiments also simulate the protected core of real clouds. Cumulus Congestus : Atmospheric cloud (left), simulated laboratory cloud (right). Panels below show respectively total heat injected and vertical profile of heating in the laboratory cloud.

  18. Antarctica Cloud Cover for October 2003 from GLAS Satellite Lidar Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Palm, S. P.; Hart, W. D.

    2005-01-01

    Seeing clouds in polar regions has been a problem for the imagers used on satellites. Both clouds and snow and ice are white, which makes clouds over snow hard to see. And for thermal infrared imaging both the surface and the clouds cold. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) launched in 2003 gives an entirely new way to see clouds from space. Pulses of laser light scatter from clouds giving a signal that is separated in time from the signal from the surface. The scattering from clouds is thus a sensitive and direct measure of the presence and height of clouds. The GLAS instrument orbits over Antarctica 16 times a day. All of the cloud observations for October 2003 were summarized and compared to the results from the MODIS imager for the same month. There are two basic cloud types that are observed, low stratus with tops below 3 km and high cirrus form clouds with cloud top altitude and thickness tending at 12 km and 1.3 km respectively. The average cloud cover varies from over 93 % for ocean and coastal regions to an average of 40% over the East Antarctic plateau and 60-90% over West Antarctica. When the GLAS monthly average cloud fractions are compared to the MODIS cloud fraction data product, differences in the amount of cloud cover are as much as 40% over the continent. The results will be used to improve the way clouds are detected from the imager observations. These measurements give a much improved understanding of distribution of clouds over Antarctica and may show how they are changing as a result of global warming.

  19. Upper Tropospheric Ozone Between Latitudes 60S and 60N Derived from Nimbus 7 TOMS/THIR Cloud Slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jerald R.; Chandra, Sushil; Bhartia, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the spatial distributions and seasonal cycles in upper tropospheric ozone (pressure range 200-500 hPa) from low to high latitudes (60S to 60N) derived from the satellite retrieval method called "Cloud Slicing." Cloud Slicing is a unique technique for determining ozone profile information in the troposphere by combining co-located measurements of cloud-top, pressure and above-cloud column ozone. For upper tropospheric ozone, co-located measurements of Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) above-cloud column ozone, and Nimbus 7 Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud-top pressure during 1979-1984 were incorporated. In the tropics, upper tropospheric ozone shows year-round enhancement in the Atlantic region and evidence of a possible semiannual variability. Upper tropospheric ozone outside the tropics shows greatest abundance in winter and spring seasons in both hemispheres with largest seasonal and largest amounts in the NH. These characteristics are similar to lower stratospheric ozone. Comparisons of upper tropospheric column ozone with both stratospheric ozone and a proxy of lower stratospheric air mass (i.e., tropopause pressure) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) suggest that stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) may be a significant source for the seasonal variability of upper tropospheric ozone almost everywhere between 60S and 60N except in low latitudes around 10S to 25N where other sources (e.g., tropospheric transport, biomass burning, aerosol effects, lightning, etc.) may have a greater role.

  20. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Version 6 Cloud Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, B. H.; Irion, F. W.; Dang, V. T.; Manning, E. M.; Nasiri, S. L.; Naud, C. M.; Blaisdell, J. M.; Schreier, M. M..; Yue, Q.; Bowman, K. W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The version 6 cloud products of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) instrument suite are described. The cloud top temperature, pressure, and height and effective cloud fraction are now reported at the AIRS field-of-view (FOV) resolution. Significant improvements in cloud height assignment over version 5 are shown with FOV-scale comparisons to cloud vertical structure observed by the CloudSat 94 GHz radar and the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). Cloud thermodynamic phase (ice, liquid, and unknown phase), ice cloud effective diameter D(sub e), and ice cloud optical thickness (t) are derived using an optimal estimation methodology for AIRS FOVs, and global distributions for 2007 are presented. The largest values of tau are found in the storm tracks and near convection in the tropics, while D(sub e) is largest on the equatorial side of the midlatitude storm tracks in both hemispheres, and lowest in tropical thin cirrus and the winter polar atmosphere. Over the Maritime Continent the diurnal variability of tau is significantly larger than for the total cloud fraction, ice cloud frequency, and D(sub e), and is anchored to the island archipelago morphology. Important differences are described between northern and southern hemispheric midlatitude cyclones using storm center composites. The infrared-based cloud retrievals of AIRS provide unique, decadal-scale and global observations of clouds over portions of the diurnal and annual cycles, and capture variability within the mesoscale and synoptic scales at all latitudes.

  1. Pattern recognition analysis of polar clouds during summer and winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, Elizabeth E.

    1992-01-01

    A pattern recognition algorithm is demonstrated which classifies eighteen surface and cloud types in high-latitude AVHRR imagery based on several spectral and textural features, then estimates the cloud properties (fractional coverage, albedo, and brightness temperature) using a hybrid histogram and spatial coherence technique. The summertime version of the algorithm uses both visible and infrared data (AVHRR channels 1-4), while the wintertime version uses only infrared data (AVHRR channels 3-5). Three days of low-resolution AVHRR imagery from the Arctic and Antarctic during January and July 1984 were analyzed for cloud type and fractional coverage. The analysis showed significant amounts of high cloudiness in the Arctic during one day in winter. The Antarctic summer scene was characterized by heavy cloud cover in the southern ocean and relatively clear conditions in the continental interior. A large region of extremely low brightness temperatures in East Antarctica during winter suggests the presence of polar stratospheric cloud.

  2. Update on the NASA Glenn PSL Ice Crystal Cloud Characterization (2016)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, J.; Bencic, T.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Struk, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Glenn's Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is an altitude engine research test facility capable of producing ice-crystal and supercooled liquid clouds. The cloud characterization parameter space is fairly large and complex, but the phase of the cloud seems primarily governed by wet bulb temperature. The presentation will discuss some of the issues uncovered through four cloud characterization efforts to date, as well as some of instrumentation that has been used to characterize cloud parameters including cloud uniformity, bulk total water content, median volumetric diameter and max-diameter, percent freeze-out, relative humidity, and an update on the NASA Glenn PSL Ice Crystal Cloud Characterization (2016).

  3. Cloud rise model for radiological dispersal devices events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharon, Avi; Halevy, Itzhak; Sattinger, Daniel; Yaar, Ilan

    2012-07-01

    As a part of the preparedness and response to possible radiological terror events, it is important to model the evolution of the radioactive cloud immediately after its formation, as a function of time, explosive quantity and local meteorological conditions. One of the major outputs of a cloud rise models is the evaluation of cloud top height, which is an essential input for most of the succeeding atmospheric dispersion models. This parameter strongly affects the radiological consequences of the event. Most of the cloud rise models used today, have been developed according to experiments were large quantities of explosives were used, within the range of hundreds of kilograms of TNT. The majority of these models, however, fail to address Radiological Dispersion Devices (RDD) events, which are typically characterized by smaller amounts of TNT. In this paper, a new, semi-empirical model that describes the vertical evolution of the cloud up to its effective height as a function of time, explosive quantity, atmospheric stability and horizontal wind speed, is presented. The database for this model is taken from five sets of experiments done in Israel during 2006-2009 under the "Green Field" (GF) project, using 0.25-100 kg of TNT.

  4. A Novel Cost Based Model for Energy Consumption in Cloud Computing

    PubMed Central

    Horri, A.; Dastghaibyfard, Gh.

    2015-01-01

    Cloud data centers consume enormous amounts of electrical energy. To support green cloud computing, providers also need to minimize cloud infrastructure energy consumption while conducting the QoS. In this study, for cloud environments an energy consumption model is proposed for time-shared policy in virtualization layer. The cost and energy usage of time-shared policy were modeled in the CloudSim simulator based upon the results obtained from the real system and then proposed model was evaluated by different scenarios. In the proposed model, the cache interference costs were considered. These costs were based upon the size of data. The proposed model was implemented in the CloudSim simulator and the related simulation results indicate that the energy consumption may be considerable and that it can vary with different parameters such as the quantum parameter, data size, and the number of VMs on a host. Measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment. Also, measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment. PMID:25705716

  5. A novel cost based model for energy consumption in cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Horri, A; Dastghaibyfard, Gh

    2015-01-01

    Cloud data centers consume enormous amounts of electrical energy. To support green cloud computing, providers also need to minimize cloud infrastructure energy consumption while conducting the QoS. In this study, for cloud environments an energy consumption model is proposed for time-shared policy in virtualization layer. The cost and energy usage of time-shared policy were modeled in the CloudSim simulator based upon the results obtained from the real system and then proposed model was evaluated by different scenarios. In the proposed model, the cache interference costs were considered. These costs were based upon the size of data. The proposed model was implemented in the CloudSim simulator and the related simulation results indicate that the energy consumption may be considerable and that it can vary with different parameters such as the quantum parameter, data size, and the number of VMs on a host. Measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment. Also, measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment.

  6. Further developments in cloud statistics for computer simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D. T.; Willand, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    This study is a part of NASA's continued program to provide global statistics of cloud parameters for computer simulation. The primary emphasis was on the development of the data bank of the global statistical distributions of cloud types and cloud layers and their applications in the simulation of the vertical distributions of in-cloud parameters such as liquid water content. These statistics were compiled from actual surface observations as recorded in Standard WBAN forms. Data for a total of 19 stations were obtained and reduced. These stations were selected to be representative of the 19 primary cloud climatological regions defined in previous studies of cloud statistics. Using the data compiled in this study, a limited study was conducted of the hemogeneity of cloud regions, the latitudinal dependence of cloud-type distributions, the dependence of these statistics on sample size, and other factors in the statistics which are of significance to the problem of simulation. The application of the statistics in cloud simulation was investigated. In particular, the inclusion of the new statistics in an expanded multi-step Monte Carlo simulation scheme is suggested and briefly outlined.

  7. CLARUS as a Cloud Security Framework: e-Health Use Case.

    PubMed

    Vidal, David; Iriso, Santiago; Mulero, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining Passive Medical Health Records (PMHR) is an increasing cost and resource consumption problem. Moving to the cloud is the clearest solution to solve the problem as it offers a high amount of space and computation power. But the cloud is not safe enough when dealing with this kind of information because it can be easily accessed by attackers. The European Commission funded research project CLARUS contributes to protect healthcare-sensitive information in a secure way.

  8. 3D Cloud Radiative Effects on Polarized Reflectances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, C.; Matar, C.; C-Labonnote, L.; Szczap, F.; Waquet, F.; Parol, F.; Riedi, J.

    2017-12-01

    As recognized in the last IPCC report, clouds have a major importance in the climate budget and need to be better characterized. Remote sensing observations are a way to obtain either global observations of cloud from satellites or a very fine description of clouds from airborne measurements. An increasing numbers of radiometers plan to measure polarized reflectances in addition to total reflectances, since this information is very helpful to obtain aerosol or cloud properties. In a near future, for example, the Multi-viewing, Multi-channel, Multi-polarization Imager (3MI) will be part the EPS-SG Eumetsat-ESA mission. It will achieve multi-angular polarimetric measurements from visible to shortwave infrared wavelengths. An airborne prototype, OSIRIS (Observing System Including Polarization in the Solar Infrared Spectrum), is also presently developed at the Laboratoire d'Optique Atmospherique and had already participated to several measurements campaigns. In order to analyze suitably the measured signal, it it necessary to have realistic and accurate models able to simulate polarized reflectances. The 3DCLOUD model (Szczap et al., 2014) was used to generate three-dimensional synthetic cloud and the 3D radiative transfer model, 3DMCPOL (Cornet et al., 2010) to compute realistic polarized reflectances. From these simulations, we investigate the effects of 3D cloud structures and heterogeneity on the polarized angular signature often used to retrieve cloud or aerosol properties. We show that 3D effects are weak for flat clouds but become quite significant for fractional clouds above ocean. The 3D effects are quite different according to the observation scale. For the airborne scale (few tens of meter), solar illumination effects can lead to polarized cloud reflectance values higher than the saturation limit predicted by the homogeneous cloud assumption. In the cloud gaps, corresponding to shadowed areas of the total reflectances, polarized signal can also be enhanced

  9. Cloud vertical profiles derived from CALIPSO and CloudSat and a comparison with MODIS derived clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Sun-Mack, S.; Miller, W. F.; Rose, F. G.; Minnis, P.; Wielicki, B. A.; Winker, D. M.; Stephens, G. L.; Charlock, T. P.; Collins, W. D.; Loeb, N. G.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Xu, K.

    2008-05-01

    CALIPSO and CloudSat from the a-train provide detailed information of vertical distribution of clouds and aerosols. The vertical distribution of cloud occurrence is derived from one month of CALIPSO and CloudSat data as a part of the effort of merging CALIPSO, CloudSat and MODIS with CERES data. This newly derived cloud profile is compared with the distribution of cloud top height derived from MODIS on Aqua from cloud algorithms used in the CERES project. The cloud base from MODIS is also estimated using an empirical formula based on the cloud top height and optical thickness, which is used in CERES processes. While MODIS detects mid and low level clouds over the Arctic in April fairly well when they are the topmost cloud layer, it underestimates high- level clouds. In addition, because the CERES-MODIS cloud algorithm is not able to detect multi-layer clouds and the empirical formula significantly underestimates the depth of high clouds, the occurrence of mid and low-level clouds is underestimated. This comparison does not consider sensitivity difference to thin clouds but we will impose an optical thickness threshold to CALIPSO derived clouds for a further comparison. The effect of such differences in the cloud profile to flux computations will also be discussed. In addition, the effect of cloud cover to the top-of-atmosphere flux over the Arctic using CERES SSF and FLASHFLUX products will be discussed.

  10. Constraining Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions of Orographic Mixed-Phase Clouds with Trajectory Budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassmeier, F.; Lohmann, U.

    2016-12-01

    Orographic precipitation is prone to strong aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions because the time for precipitation development is limited to the ascending section of mountain flow. At the same time, cloud microphysical development is constraint by the strong dynamical forcing of the orography. In this contribution, we discuss how changes in the amount and composition of droplet- and ice-forming aerosols influence precipitation in idealized simulations of stratiform orographic mixed-phase clouds. We find that aerosol perturbations trigger compensating responses of different precipitation formation pathways. The effect of aerosols is thus buffered. We explain this buffering by the requirement to fulfill aerosol-independent dynamical constraints. For our simulations, we use the regional atmospheric model COSMO-ART-M7 in a 2D setup with a bell-shaped mountain. The model is coupled to a 2-moment warm and cold cloud microphysics scheme. Activation and freezing rates are parameterized based on prescribed aerosol fields that are varied in number, size and composition. Our analysis is based on the budget of droplet water along trajectories of cloud parcels. The budget equates condensation as source term with precipitation formation from autoconversion, accretion, riming and the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process as sink terms. Condensation, and consequently precipitation formation, is determined by dynamics and largely independent of the aerosol conditions. An aerosol-induced change in the number of droplets or crystals perturbs the droplet budget by affecting precipitation formation processes. We observe that this perturbation triggers adjustments in liquid and ice water content that re-equilibrate the budget. As an example, an increase in crystal number triggers a stronger glaciation of the cloud and redistributes precipitation formation from collision-coalescence to riming and from riming to vapor deposition. We theoretically confirm the dominant effect of water

  11. Simulations of Early Structure Formation: Primordial Gas Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Naoki; Abel, Tom; Hernquist, Lars; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2003-08-01

    We use cosmological simulations to study the origin of primordial star-forming clouds in a ΛCDM universe, by following the formation of dark matter halos and the cooling of gas within them. To model the physics of chemically pristine gas, we employ a nonequilibrium treatment of the chemistry of nine species (e-, H, H+, He, He+, He++, H2, H+2, H-) and include cooling by molecular hydrogen. By considering cosmological volumes, we are able to study the statistical properties of primordial halos, and the high resolution of our simulations enables us to examine these objects in detail. In particular, we explore the hierarchical growth of bound structures forming at redshifts z~25-30 with total masses in the range ~105-106Msolar. We find that when the amount of molecular hydrogen in these objects reaches a critical level, cooling by rotational line emission is efficient, and dense clumps of cold gas form. We identify these ``gas clouds'' as sites for primordial star formation. In our simulations, the threshold for gas cloud formation by molecular cooling corresponds to a critical halo mass of ~5×105h-1Msolar, in agreement with earlier estimates, but with a weak dependence on redshift in the range z>16. The complex interplay between the gravitational formation of dark halos and the thermodynamic and chemical evolution of the gas clouds compromises analytic estimates of the critical H2 fraction. Dynamical heating from mass accretion and mergers opposes relatively inefficient cooling by molecular hydrogen, delaying the production of star-forming clouds in rapidly growing halos. We also investigate the effect of photodissociating ultraviolet radiation on the formation of primordial gas clouds. We consider two extreme cases, first by including a uniform radiation field in the optically thin limit and second by accounting for the maximum effect of gas self-shielding in virialized regions. For radiation with Lyman-Werner band flux J>10-23 ergs s-1 cm-2 Hz-1 sr-1, hydrogen

  12. Improved cloud parameterization for Arctic climate simulations based on satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Daniel; Dethloff, Klaus; Dorn, Wolfgang; Rinke, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The defective representation of Arctic cloud processes and properties remains a crucial problem in climate modelling and in reanalysis products. Satellite-based cloud observations (MODIS and CPR/CALIOP) and single-column model simulations (HIRHAM5-SCM) were exploited to evaluate and improve the simulated Arctic cloud cover of the atmospheric regional climate model HIRHAM5. The ECMWF reanalysis dataset 'ERA-Interim' (ERAint) was used for the model initialization, the lateral boundary forcing as well as the dynamical relaxation inside the pan-Arctic domain. HIRHAM5 has a horizontal resolution of 0.25° and uses 40 pressure-based and terrain-following vertical levels. In comparison with the satellite observations, the HIRHAM5 control run (HH5ctrl) systematically overestimates total cloud cover, but to a lesser extent than ERAint. The underestimation of high- and mid-level clouds is strongly outweighed by the overestimation of low-level clouds. Numerous sensitivity studies with HIRHAM5-SCM suggest (1) the parameter tuning, enabling a more efficient Bergeron-Findeisen process, combined with (2) an extension of the prognostic-statistical (PS) cloud scheme, enabling the use of negatively skewed beta distributions. This improved model setup was then used in a corresponding HIRHAM5 sensitivity run (HH5sens). While the simulated high- and mid-level cloud cover is improved only to a limited extent, the large overestimation of low-level clouds can be systematically and significantly reduced, especially over sea ice. Consequently, the multi-year annual mean area average of total cloud cover with respect to sea ice is almost 14% lower than in HH5ctrl. Overall, HH5sens slightly underestimates the observed total cloud cover but shows a halved multi-year annual mean bias of 2.2% relative to CPR/CALIOP at all latitudes north of 60° N. Importantly, HH5sens produces a more realistic ratio between the cloud water and ice content. The considerably improved cloud simulation manifests in

  13. Water relations and microclimate around the upper limit of a cloud forest in Maui, Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Gotsch, Sybil G; Crausbay, Shelley D; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Weintraub, Alexis E; Longman, Ryan J; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Hotchkiss, Sara C; Dawson, Todd E

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effects of atmospheric demand on both plant water relations and daily whole-tree water balance across the upper limit of a cloud forest at the mean base height of the trade wind inversion in the tropical trade wind belt. We measured the microclimate and water relations (sap flow, water potential, stomatal conductance, pressure-volume relations) of Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich. var. polymorpha in three habitats bracketing the cloud forest's upper limit in Hawai'i to understand the role of water relations in determining ecotone position. The subalpine shrubland site, located 100 m above the cloud forest boundary, had the highest vapor pressure deficit, the least amount of rainfall and the highest levels of nighttime transpiration (EN) of all three sites. In the shrubland site, on average, 29% of daily whole-tree transpiration occurred at night, while on the driest day of the study 50% of total daily transpiration occurred at night. While EN occurred in the cloud forest habitat, the proportion of total daily transpiration that occurred at night was much lower (4%). The average leaf water potential (Ψleaf) was above the water potential at the turgor loss point (ΨTLP) on both sides of the ecotone due to strong stomatal regulation. While stomatal closure maintained a high Ψleaf, the minimum leaf water potential (Ψleafmin) was close to ΨTLP, indicating that drier conditions may cause drought stress in these habitats and may be an important driver of current landscape patterns in stand density. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. UV 380 nm reflectivity of the Earth's surface, clouds and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. R.; Celarier, E.; Larko, D.

    2001-03-01

    The 380 nm radiance measurements of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) have been converted into a global data set of daily (1979-1992) Lambert equivalent reflectivities R of the Earth's surface and boundary layer (clouds, aerosols, surface haze, and snow/ice) and then corrected to RPC for the presence of partly clouded scenes. Since UV surface reflectivity is between 2 and 8% for both land and water during all seasons of the year (except for ice and snow cover), reflectivities larger than the surface value indicate the presence of clouds, haze, or aerosols in the satellite field of view. A statistical analysis of 14 years of daily reflectivity data shows that most snow-/ice-free scenes observed by TOMS have a reflectivity less than 10% for the majority of days during a year. The 380 nm reflectivity data show that the true surface reflectivity is 2-3% lower than the most frequently occurring reflectivity value for each TOMS scene as seen from space. Most likely the cause is a combination of frequently occurring boundary layer water and/or aerosol haze. For most regions the observation of extremely clear conditions needed to estimate the surface reflectivity from space is a comparatively rare occurrence. Certain areas (e.g., Australia, southern Africa, portions of northern Africa) are cloud-free more than 80% of the year, which exposes these regions to larger amounts of UV radiation than at comparable latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Regions over rain forests, jungle areas, Europe and Russia, the bands surrounding the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and many ocean areas have significant cloud cover (R>15%) more than half of each year. In the low to middle latitudes the areas with the heaviest cloud cover (highest reflectivity for most of the year) are the forest areas of northern South America, southern Central America, the jungle areas of equatorial Africa, and high mountain regions such as the Himalayas or the Andes. The TOMS reflectivity data show both

  15. Discrete Angle Radiative Transfer in Uniform and Extremely Variable Clouds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Philip Mitri

    augmenting a satellite's resolution reveals increasingly detailed structures that are found to occupy a decreasing fraction of the image, while simultaneously brightening to compensate. By systematically degrading the resolution of visible and infra red satellite cloud and surface data as well as radar rain data, resolution -independent co-dimension functions were defined which were useful in describing the spatial distribution of image features as well as the resolution dependence of the intensities themselves. The scale invariant functions so obtained fit into theoretically predicted functional forms. These multifractal techniques have implications for our ability to meaningfully estimate cloud brightness fraction, total cloud amount, as well as other remotely sensed quantities.

  16. CLAAS: the CM SAF cloud property dataset using SEVIRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stengel, M.; Kniffka, A.; Meirink, J. F.; Lockhoff, M.; Tan, J.; Hollmann, R.

    2013-10-01

    An 8 yr record of satellite based cloud properties named CLAAS (CLoud property dAtAset using SEVIRI) is presented, which was derived within the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring. The dataset is based on SEVIRI measurements of the Meteosat Second Generation satellites, of which the visible and near-infrared channels were intercalibrated with MODIS. Including latest development components of the two applied state-of-the-art retrieval schemes ensure high accuracy in cloud detection, cloud vertical placement and microphysical cloud properties. These properties were further processed to provide daily to monthly averaged quantities, mean diurnal cycles and monthly histograms. In particular the collected histogram information enhance the insight in spatio-temporal variability of clouds and their properties. Due to the underlying intercalibrated measurement record, the stability of the derived cloud properties is ensured, which is exemplarily demonstrated for three selected cloud variables for the entire SEVIRI disk and a European subregion. All data products and processing levels are introduced and validation results indicated. The sampling uncertainty of the averaged products in CLAAS is minimized due to the high temporal resolution of SEVIRI. This is emphasized by studying the impact of reduced temporal sampling rates taken at typical overpass times of polar-orbiting instruments. In particular cloud optical thickness and cloud water path are very sensitive to the sampling rate, which in our study amounted to systematic deviations of over 10% if only sampled once a day. The CLAAS dataset facilitates many cloud related applications at small spatial scales of a few kilometres and short temporal scales of a few hours. Beyond this, the spatiotemporal characteristics of clouds on diurnal to seasonal, but also on multi-annual scales, can be studied.

  17. A PACS archive architecture supported on cloud services.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís A Bastião; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luis

    2012-05-01

    Diagnostic imaging procedures have continuously increased over the last decade and this trend may continue in coming years, creating a great impact on storage and retrieval capabilities of current PACS. Moreover, many smaller centers do not have financial resources or requirements that justify the acquisition of a traditional infrastructure. Alternative solutions, such as cloud computing, may help address this emerging need. A tremendous amount of ubiquitous computational power, such as that provided by Google and Amazon, are used every day as a normal commodity. Taking advantage of this new paradigm, an architecture for a Cloud-based PACS archive that provides data privacy, integrity, and availability is proposed. The solution is independent from the cloud provider and the core modules were successfully instantiated in examples of two cloud computing providers. Operational metrics for several medical imaging modalities were tabulated and compared for Google Storage, Amazon S3, and LAN PACS. A PACS-as-a-Service archive that provides storage of medical studies using the Cloud was developed. The results show that the solution is robust and that it is possible to store, query, and retrieve all desired studies in a similar way as in a local PACS approach. Cloud computing is an emerging solution that promises high scalability of infrastructures, software, and applications, according to a "pay-as-you-go" business model. The presented architecture uses the cloud to setup medical data repositories and can have a significant impact on healthcare institutions by reducing IT infrastructures.

  18. Enabling Large-Scale Biomedical Analysis in the Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Chih; Yu, Chin-Sheng; Lin, Yen-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in high-throughput instrumentations has led to an astonishing growth in both volume and complexity of biomedical data collected from various sources. The planet-size data brings serious challenges to the storage and computing technologies. Cloud computing is an alternative to crack the nut because it gives concurrent consideration to enable storage and high-performance computing on large-scale data. This work briefly introduces the data intensive computing system and summarizes existing cloud-based resources in bioinformatics. These developments and applications would facilitate biomedical research to make the vast amount of diversification data meaningful and usable. PMID:24288665

  19. An adaptive process-based cloud infrastructure for space situational awareness applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bingwei; Chen, Yu; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Rubin, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Space situational awareness (SSA) and defense space control capabilities are top priorities for groups that own or operate man-made spacecraft. Also, with the growing amount of space debris, there is an increase in demand for contextual understanding that necessitates the capability of collecting and processing a vast amount sensor data. Cloud computing, which features scalable and flexible storage and computing services, has been recognized as an ideal candidate that can meet the large data contextual challenges as needed by SSA. Cloud computing consists of physical service providers and middleware virtual machines together with infrastructure, platform, and software as service (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS) models. However, the typical Virtual Machine (VM) abstraction is on a per operating systems basis, which is at too low-level and limits the flexibility of a mission application architecture. In responding to this technical challenge, a novel adaptive process based cloud infrastructure for SSA applications is proposed in this paper. In addition, the details for the design rationale and a prototype is further examined. The SSA Cloud (SSAC) conceptual capability will potentially support space situation monitoring and tracking, object identification, and threat assessment. Lastly, the benefits of a more granular and flexible cloud computing resources allocation are illustrated for data processing and implementation considerations within a representative SSA system environment. We show that the container-based virtualization performs better than hypervisor-based virtualization technology in an SSA scenario.

  20. Incorporation of multiple cloud layers for ultraviolet radiation modeling studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charache, Darryl H.; Abreu, Vincent J.; Kuhn, William R.; Skinner, Wilbert R.

    1994-01-01

    Cloud data sets compiled from surface observations were used to develop an algorithm for incorporating multiple cloud layers into a multiple-scattering radiative transfer model. Aerosol extinction and ozone data sets were also incorporated to estimate the seasonally averaged ultraviolet (UV) flux reaching the surface of the Earth in the Detroit, Michigan, region for the years 1979-1991, corresponding to Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 6 ozone observations. The calculated UV spectrum was convolved with an erythema action spectrum to estimate the effective biological exposure for erythema. Calculations show that decreasing the total column density of ozone by 1% leads to an increase in erythemal exposure by approximately 1.1-1.3%, in good agreement with previous studies. A comparison of the UV radiation budget at the surface between a single cloud layer method and a multiple cloud layer method presented here is discussed, along with limitations of each technique. With improved parameterization of cloud properties, and as knowledge of biological effects of UV exposure increase, inclusion of multiple cloud layers may be important in accurately determining the biologically effective UV budget at the surface of the Earth.

  1. Microwave Passive Ground-Based Retrievals of Cloud and Rain Liquid Water Path in Drizzling Clouds: Challenges and Possibilities

    DOE PAGES

    Cadeddu, Maria P.; Marchand, Roger; Orlandi, Emiliano; ...

    2017-08-11

    Satellite and ground-based microwave radiometers are routinely used for the retrieval of liquid water path (LWP) under all atmospheric conditions. The retrieval of water vapor and LWP from ground-based radiometers during rain has proved to be a difficult challenge for two principal reasons: the inadequacy of the nonscattering approximation in precipitating clouds and the deposition of rain drops on the instrument's radome. In this paper, we combine model computations and real ground-based, zenith-viewing passive microwave radiometer brightness temperature measurements to investigate how total, cloud, and rain LWP retrievals are affected by assumptions on the cloud drop size distribution (DSD) andmore » under which conditions a nonscattering approximation can be considered reasonably accurate. Results show that until the drop effective diameter is larger than similar to 200 mu m, a nonscattering approximation yields results that are still accurate at frequencies less than 90 GHz. For larger drop sizes, it is shown that higher microwave frequencies contain useful information that can be used to separate cloud and rain LWP provided that the vertical distribution of hydrometeors, as well as the DSD, is reasonably known. The choice of the DSD parameters becomes important to ensure retrievals that are consistent with the measurements. A physical retrieval is tested on a synthetic data set and is then used to retrieve total, cloud, and rain LWP from radiometric measurements during two drizzling cases at the atmospheric radiation measurement Eastern North Atlantic site.« less

  2. Microwave Passive Ground-Based Retrievals of Cloud and Rain Liquid Water Path in Drizzling Clouds: Challenges and Possibilities

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cadeddu, Maria P.; Marchand, Roger; Orlandi, Emiliano

    Satellite and ground-based microwave radiometers are routinely used for the retrieval of liquid water path (LWP) under all atmospheric conditions. The retrieval of water vapor and LWP from ground-based radiometers during rain has proved to be a difficult challenge for two principal reasons: the inadequacy of the nonscattering approximation in precipitating clouds and the deposition of rain drops on the instrument's radome. In this paper, we combine model computations and real ground-based, zenith-viewing passive microwave radiometer brightness temperature measurements to investigate how total, cloud, and rain LWP retrievals are affected by assumptions on the cloud drop size distribution (DSD) andmore » under which conditions a nonscattering approximation can be considered reasonably accurate. Results show that until the drop effective diameter is larger than similar to 200 mu m, a nonscattering approximation yields results that are still accurate at frequencies less than 90 GHz. For larger drop sizes, it is shown that higher microwave frequencies contain useful information that can be used to separate cloud and rain LWP provided that the vertical distribution of hydrometeors, as well as the DSD, is reasonably known. The choice of the DSD parameters becomes important to ensure retrievals that are consistent with the measurements. A physical retrieval is tested on a synthetic data set and is then used to retrieve total, cloud, and rain LWP from radiometric measurements during two drizzling cases at the atmospheric radiation measurement Eastern North Atlantic site.« less

  3. TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING SHORT-LIVED RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. II. VARIED SHOCK WAVE AND CLOUD CORE PARAMETERS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A., E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.edu, E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.edu

    2013-06-10

    A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the short-lived radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However,more » recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of {approx}10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.« less

  4. Early evolution of a stratospheric volcanic eruption cloud as observed with TOMS and AVHRR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, D.J.; Rose, William I.; Coke, L.R.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Sprod, I.E.; Krueger, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a detailed study of remote sensing data from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite detectors, of the 1982 eruption of El Chichón, Mexico. The volcanic cloud/atmosphere interactions in the first four days of this eruption were investigated by combining ultraviolet retrievals to estimate the mass of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic cloud [Krueger et al., 1995] with thermal infrared retrievals of the size, optical depth, and mass of fine-grained (1–10 μm radius) volcanic ash [Wen and Rose, 1994]. Our study provides the first direct evidence of gravitational separation of ash from a stratospheric, gas-rich, plinian eruption column and documents the marked differences in residence times of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide in volcanic clouds. The eruption column reached as high as 32 km [Carey and Sigurdsson, 1986] and was injected into an atmosphere with a strong wind shear, which allowed for an observation of the separation of sulfur dioxide and volcanic ash. The upper, more sulfur dioxide-rich part of the cloud was transported to the west in the stratosphere, while the fine-grained ash traveled to the south in the troposphere. The mass of sulfur dioxide released was estimated at 7.1 × 109 kg with the mass decreasing by approximately 4% 1 day after the peak. The mass of fine-grained volcanic ash detected was estimated at 6.5 × 109 kg, amounting to about 0.7% of the estimated mass of the ash which fell out in the mapped ash blanket close to the volcano. Over the following days, 98% of this remaining fine ash was removed from the volcanic cloud, and the effective radius of ash in the volcanic cloud decreased from about 8 μm to about 4 μm.

  5. Early evolution of a stratospheric volcanic eruption cloud as observed with TOMS and AVHRR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, David J.; Rose, William I.; Coke, Larry R.; Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Sprod, Ian E.; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1999-02-01

    This paper is a detailed study of remote sensing data from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite detectors, of the 1982 eruption of El Chichón, Mexico. The volcanic cloud/atmosphere interactions in the first four days of this eruption were investigated by combining ultraviolet retrievals to estimate the mass of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic cloud [Krueger et al., 1995] with thermal infrared retrievals of the size, optical depth, and mass of fine-grained (1-10 μm radius) volcanic ash [Wen and Rose, 1994]. Our study provides the first direct evidence of gravitational separation of ash from a stratospheric, gas-rich, plinian eruption column and documents the marked differences in residence times of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide in volcanic clouds. The eruption column reached as high as 32 km [Carey and Sigurdsson, 1986] and was injected into an atmosphere with a strong wind shear, which allowed for an observation of the separation of sulfur dioxide and volcanic ash. The upper, more sulfur dioxide-rich part of the cloud was transported to the west in the stratosphere, while the fine-grained ash traveled to the south in the troposphere. The mass of sulfur dioxide released was estimated at 7.1 × 109 kg with the mass decreasing by approximately 4% 1 day after the peak. The mass of fine-grained volcanic ash detected was estimated at 6.5 × 109 kg, amounting to about 0.7% of the estimated mass of the ash which fell out in the mapped ash blanket close to the volcano. Over the following days, 98% of this remaining fine ash was removed from the volcanic cloud, and the effective radius of ash in the volcanic cloud decreased from about 8 μm to about 4 μm.

  6. Atmospheric cloud physics laboratory project study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, W. E.; Stephen, L. A.; Usher, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    Engineering studies were performed for the Zero-G Cloud Physics Experiment liquid cooling and air pressure control systems. A total of four concepts for the liquid cooling system was evaluated, two of which were found to closely approach the systems requirements. Thermal insulation requirements, system hardware, and control sensor locations were established. The reservoir sizes and initial temperatures were defined as well as system power requirements. In the study of the pressure control system, fluid analyses by the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory were performed to determine flow characteristics of various orifice sizes, vacuum pump adequacy, and control systems performance. System parameters predicted in these analyses as a function of time include the following for various orifice sizes: (1) chamber and vacuum pump mass flow rates, (2) the number of valve openings or closures, (3) the maximum cloud chamber pressure deviation from the allowable, and (4) cloud chamber and accumulator pressure.

  7. Simulation of Shallow Cumuli and Their Transition to Deep Convective Clouds by Cloud-resolving Models with Different Third-order Turbulence Closures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Anning; Xu, Kuan-Man

    2006-01-01

    The abilities of cloud-resolving models (CRMs) with the double-Gaussian based and the single-Gaussian based third-order closures (TOCs) to simulate the shallow cumuli and their transition to deep convective clouds are compared in this study. The single-Gaussian based TOC is fully prognostic (FP), while the double-Gaussian based TOC is partially prognostic (PP). The latter only predicts three important third-order moments while the former predicts all the thirdorder moments. A shallow cumulus case is simulated by single-column versions of the FP and PP TOC models. The PP TOC improves the simulation of shallow cumulus greatly over the FP TOC by producing more realistic cloud structures. Large differences between the FP and PP TOC simulations appear in the cloud layer of the second- and third-order moments, which are related mainly to the underestimate of the cloud height in the FP TOC simulation. Sensitivity experiments and analysis of probability density functions (PDFs) used in the TOCs show that both the turbulence-scale condensation and higher-order moments are important to realistic simulations of the boundary-layer shallow cumuli. A shallow to deep convective cloud transition case is also simulated by the 2-D versions of the FP and PP TOC models. Both CRMs can capture the transition from the shallow cumuli to deep convective clouds. The PP simulations produce more and deeper shallow cumuli than the FP simulations, but the FP simulations produce larger and wider convective clouds than the PP simulations. The temporal evolutions of cloud and precipitation are closely related to the turbulent transport, the cold pool and the cloud-scale circulation. The large amount of turbulent mixing associated with the shallow cumuli slows down the increase of the convective available potential energy and inhibits the early transition to deep convective clouds in the PP simulation. When the deep convective clouds fully develop and the precipitation is produced, the cold pools

  8. Cloud Statistics and Discrimination in the Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M.; Comiso, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    -sheet). The immediate impact of the new algorithm is that it can minimize large biases of MODIS-derived cloud amount over the Polar Regions and thus a more realistic and high quality global cloud statistics. In particular, our results show that cloud fraction in the Arctic is typically 81.2 % during daytime and 84.0% during nighttime. This is significantly higher than the 71.8% and 58.5%, respectively, derived from standard MODIS cloud product.

  9. Online educative activities for solar ultraviolet radiation based on measurements of cloud amount and solar exposures.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Turner, J; Amar, A

    2016-09-01

    A set of online activities for children and the community that are based on an integrated real-time solar UV and cloud measurement system are described. These activities use the functionality of the internet to provide an educative tool for school children and the public on the influence of cloud and the angle of the sun above the horizon on the global erythemal UV or sunburning UV, the diffuse erythemal UV, the global UVA (320-400nm) and the vitamin D effective UV. Additionally, the units of UV exposure and UV irradiance are investigated, along with the meaning and calculation of the UV index (UVI). This research will help ensure that children and the general public are better informed about sun safety by improving their personal understanding of the daily and the atmospheric factors that influence solar UV radiation and the solar UV exposures of the various wavebands in the natural environment. The activities may correct common misconceptions of children and the public about UV irradiances and exposure, utilising the widespread reach of the internet to increase the public's awareness of the factors influencing UV irradiances and exposures in order to provide clear information for minimizing UV exposure, while maintaining healthy, outdoor lifestyles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Processing of Cloud Databases for the Development of an Automated Global Cloud Climatology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-30

    cloud amounts in each DOE grid box. The actual population values were coded into one- and two- digit codes primarily for printing purposes. For example...IPIALES 72652 43.07 -95.53 0423 PICKSTOWNE S.D. 80110 6.22 -75.60 1498 MEDELLIN 72424 37.90 -85.97 0233 FT. KNOX KY 80069 7.00 -74.72 0610 AMALFI...12 According to Lund, Grantham, and Davis (1980), the quality of the whole sky photographs used in producing the WSP digital data ensemble was

  11. On the Modeling and Management of Cloud Data Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Claris; Tantawi, Asser; Steinder, Malgorzata; Pacifici, Giovanni

    A new era is dawning where vast amount of data is subjected to intensive analysis in a cloud computing environment. Over the years, data about a myriad of things, ranging from user clicks to galaxies, have been accumulated, and continue to be collected, on storage media. The increasing availability of such data, along with the abundant supply of compute power and the urge to create useful knowledge, gave rise to a new data analytics paradigm in which data is subjected to intensive analysis, and additional data is created in the process. Meanwhile, a new cloud computing environment has emerged where seemingly limitless compute and storage resources are being provided to host computation and data for multiple users through virtualization technologies. Such a cloud environment is becoming the home for data analytics. Consequently, providing good performance at run-time to data analytics workload is an important issue for cloud management. In this paper, we provide an overview of the data analytics and cloud environment landscapes, and investigate the performance management issues related to running data analytics in the cloud. In particular, we focus on topics such as workload characterization, profiling analytics applications and their pattern of data usage, cloud resource allocation, placement of computation and data and their dynamic migration in the cloud, and performance prediction. In solving such management problems one relies on various run-time analytic models. We discuss approaches for modeling and optimizing the dynamic data analytics workload in the cloud environment. All along, we use the Map-Reduce paradigm as an illustration of data analytics.

  12. Intercomparisons of marine boundary layer cloud properties from the ARM CAP-MBL campaign and two MODIS cloud products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Song, Hua; Ma, Po-Lun; Ghan, Steven J.; Platnick, Steven; Minnis, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    From April 2009 to December 2010, the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program carried out an observational field campaign on Graciosa Island, targeting the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds over the Azores region. In this paper, we present an intercomparison of the MBL cloud properties, namely, cloud liquid water path (LWP), cloud optical thickness (COT), and cloud-droplet effective radius (CER), among retrievals from the ARM mobile facility and two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud products (Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)-MODIS and Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System-MODIS). A total of 63 daytime single-layer MBL cloud cases are selected for intercomparison. Comparison of collocated retrievals indicates that the two MODIS cloud products agree well on both COT and CER retrievals, with the correlation coefficient R > 0.95, despite their significant difference in spatial sampling. In both MODIS products, the CER retrievals based on the 2.1 µm band (CER2.1) are significantly larger than those based on the 3.7 µm band (CER3.7). The GSFC-MODIS cloud product is collocated and compared with ground-based ARM observations at several temporal-spatial scales. In general, the correlation increases with more precise collocation. For the 63 selected MBL cloud cases, the GSFC-MODIS LWP and COT retrievals agree reasonably well with the ground-based observations with no apparent bias and correlation coefficient R around 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. However, GSFC-MODIS CER3.7 and CER2.1 retrievals have a lower correlation (R 0.5) with the ground-based retrievals. For the 63 selected cases, they are on average larger than ground observations by about 1.5 µm and 3.0 µm, respectively. Taking into account that the MODIS CER retrievals are only sensitive to cloud top reduces the bias only by 0.5 µm.

  13. User Observed Estimates of Cloud Fraction for Modifying a Cloud-free UV Index for Use in an Educational Smart-phone Application on Erythema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, K. O.; Long, C. S.; Buller, D.; Berwick, M.; Buller, M.; Kane, I.; Shane, J.

    2012-12-01

    The UV Index (UVI) is a measure of the skin-damaging UV radiation levels at the Earth's surface. Clouds, haze, air pollution, total ozone, surface elevation, and ground reflectivity affect the levels of UV radiation reaching the ground. The global UV Index was developed as a simple tool to educate the public for taking precautions when exposed to UV radiation to avoid sun-burning, which has been linked to the development of skin cancer. The purpose of this study was to validate an algorithm to modify a cloud-free UV Index forecast for cloud conditions as observed by adults in real-time. The cloud attenuation algorithm is used in a smart-phone application to modify a clear-sky UV Index forecast. In the United States, the Climate Prediction Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) issues a daily UV Index Forecast. The NOAA UV Index is an hourly forecast for a 0.5 x 0.5 degree area and thus has a degree of uncertainty. Cloud cover varies temporally and spatially over short times and distances as weather conditions change and can have a large impact on the UV radiation. The smart-phone application uses the cloud-based UV Index forecast as the default but allows the user to modify a cloud-free UV Index forecast when the predicted sky conditions do not match observed conditions. Eighty four (n=84) adults were recruited to participate in the study through advertisements posted online and in a university e-newsletter. Adults were screened for eligibility (i.e., 18 or older, capable to traveling to test site, had a smart phone with a data plan to access online observation form). A sky observation measure was created to assess cloud fraction. The adult volunteers selected from among four photographs the image that best matched the cloud conditions they observed. Images depicted no clouds (clear sky), thin high clouds, partly cloudy sky, and thick clouds (sky completely overcast). When thin high clouds or partly cloudy images were selected

  14. Slow Cooling in Low Metallicity Clouds: An Origin of Globular Cluster Bimodality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Ricardo; Bryan, Greg L.

    2018-05-01

    We explore the relative role of small-scale fragmentation and global collapse in low-metallicity clouds, pointing out that in such clouds the cooling time may be longer than the dynamical time, allowing the cloud to collapse globally before it can fragment. This, we suggest, may help to explain the formation of the low-metallicity globular cluster population, since such dense stellar systems need a large amount of gas to be collected in a small region (without significant feedback during the collapse). To explore this further, we carry out numerical simulations of low-metallicity Bonner-Ebert stable gas clouds, demonstrating that there exists a critical metallicity (between 0.001 and 0.01 Z⊙) below which the cloud collapses globally without fragmentation. We also run simulations including a background radiative heating source, showing that this can also produce clouds that do not fragment, and that the critical metallicity - which can exceed the no-radiation case - increases with the heating rate.

  15. Global cloud database from VIRS and MODIS for CERES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Young, David F.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Trepte, Qing Z.; Chen, Yan; Heck, Patrick W.; Dong, Xiquan

    2003-04-01

    The NASA CERES Project has developed a combined radiation and cloud property dataset using the CERES scanners and matched spectral data from high-resolution imagers, the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. The diurnal cycle can be well-characterized over most of the globe using the combinations of TRMM, Aqua, and Terra data. The cloud properties are derived from the imagers using state-of-the-art methods and include cloud fraction, height, optical depth, phase, effective particle size, emissivity, and ice or liquid water path. These cloud products are convolved into the matching CERES fields of view to provide simultaneous cloud and radiation data at an unprecedented accuracy. Results are available for at least 3 years of VIRS data and 1 year of Terra MODIS data. The various cloud products are compared with similar quantities from climatological sources and instantaneous active remote sensors. The cloud amounts are very similar to those from surface observer climatologies and are 6-7% less than those from a satellite-based climatology. Optical depths are 2-3 times smaller than those from the satellite climatology, but are within 5% of those from the surface remote sensing. Cloud droplet sizes and liquid water paths are within 10% of the surface results on average for stratus clouds. The VIRS and MODIS retrievals are very consistent with differences that usually can be explained by sampling, calibration, or resolution differences. The results should be extremely valuable for model validation and improvement and for improving our understanding of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget.

  16. A physical retrieval of cloud liquid water over the global oceans using special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, Thomas J.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.; Jackson, Darren L.

    1993-10-01

    A method of remotely sensing integrated cloud liquid water over the oceans using spaceborne passive measurements from the special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) is described. The technique is comprised of a simple physical model that uses the 19.35- and 37-GHz channels of the SSM/I. The most comprehensive validation to date of cloud liquid water estimated from satellites is presented. This is accomplished through a comparison to independent ground-based microwave radiometer measurements of liquid water on San Nicolas Island, over the North Sea, and on Kwajalein and Saipan Islands in the western Pacific. In areas of marine stratocumulus clouds off the coast of California a further comparison is made to liquid water inferred from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) visible reflectance measurements. The results are also compared qualitatively with near-coincident satellite imagery and with other existing microwave methods in selected regions. These comparisons indicate that the liquid water amounts derived from the simple scheme are consistent with the ground-based measurements for nonprecipitating cloud systems in the subtropics and middle to high latitudes. The comparison in the tropics, however, was less conclusive. Nevertheless, the retrieval method appears to have general applicability over most areas of the global oceans. An observational measure of the minimum uncertainty in the retrievals is determined in a limited number of known cloud-free areas, where the liquid water amounts are found to have a low variability of 0.016 kg m-2. A simple sensitivity and error analysis suggests that the liquid water estimates have a theoretical relative error typically ranging from about 25% to near 40% depending on the atmospheric/surface conditions and on the amount of liquid water present in the cloud. For the global oceans as a whole the average cloud liquid water is determined to be about 0.08 kg m-2. The major conclusion of this paper is that reasonably

  17. Cloud Induced Enhancement of Ground Level Solar Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inman, R.; Chu, Y.; Coimbra, C.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol and cloud cover are typically associated with long and short-term variability of all three solar radiation components at the ground level. Although aerosol attenuation can be a substantial factor for Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) in some microclimates, the strongest factor for ground level irradiance attenuation is cloud cover which acts on time-scales associated with strong solar power generation fluctuations. Furthermore, the driving effects of clouds on radiative energy budgets include shortwave cooling, as a result of absorption of incoming solar radiation, and longwave heating, due to reduced emission of thermal radiation by relatively cool cloud tops. Under special circumstances, the presence of clouds in the circumsolar region may lead to the reverse; a local increase in the diffuse downwelling solar radiation due to directional scattering from clouds. This solar beam effect exceed the losses resulting from the backscattering of radiation into space. Such conditions result in radiation levels that temporarily exceed the localized clear sky values. These phenomena are referred to as Cloud Enhancement Events (CEEs). There are currently two fundamental CEE mechanisms discussed in the literature. The first involves well-defined, and optically thick cloud edges close to, but not obscuring, the solar disk. The effect here is of producing little or no change in the normal beam radiation. In this case, cloud edges in the vicinity of the sun create a non-isotropic increase in the local diffuse radiation field with respect to the isotropic scattering of a clear-sky atmosphere. The second type of CEE allows for partial or full obstruction of the solar disk by an optically thin diffuser such as fine clouds, haze or fog; which results in an enhanced but still nearly isotropic diffuse radiation field. In this study, an entire year of solar radiation data and total sky images taken at 30 second resolution at the University of California, Merced (UCM

  18. Data-proximate Visualization via Unidata Cloud Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, W. I.; Oxelson Ganter, J.; Weber, J.

    2016-12-01

    The rise in cloud computing, coupled with the growth of "Big Data", has lead to a migration away from local scientific data storage. The increasing size of remote scientific data sets increase, however, makes it difficult for scientists to subject them to large-scale analysis and visualization. These large datasets can take an inordinate amount of time to download; subsetting is a potential solution, but subsetting services are not yet ubiquitous. Data providers may also pay steep prices, as many cloud providers meter data based on how much data leaves their cloud service.The solution to this problem is a deceptively simple one; move data analysis and visualization tools to the cloud, so that scientists may perform data-proximate analysis and visualization. This results in increased transfer speeds, while egress costs are lowered or completely eliminated. The challenge now becomes creating tools which are cloud-ready.The solution to this challenge is provided by Application Streaming. This technology allows a program to run entirely on a remote virtual machine while still allowing for interactivity and dynamic visualizations. When coupled with containerization technology such as Docker, we are able to easily deploy legacy analysis and visualization software to the cloud whilst retaining access via a desktop, netbook, a smartphone, or the next generation of hardware, whatever it may be.Unidata has harnessed Application Streaming to provide a cloud-capable version of our visualization software, the Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). This work will examine the challenges associated with adapting the IDV to an application streaming platform, and include a brief discussion of the underlying technologies involved.

  19. Cloud-based data-proximate visualization and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Ward

    2017-04-01

    The rise in cloud computing, coupled with the growth of "Big Data", has lead to a migration away from local scientific data storage. The increasing size of remote scientific data sets increase, however, makes it difficult for scientists to subject them to large-scale analysis and visualization. These large datasets can take an inordinate amount of time to download; subsetting is a potential solution, but subsetting services are not yet ubiquitous. Data providers may also pay steep prices, as many cloud providers meter data based on how much data leaves their cloud service. The solution to this problem is a deceptively simple one; move data analysis and visualization tools to the cloud, so that scientists may perform data-proximate analysis and visualization. This results in increased transfer speeds, while egress costs are lowered or completely eliminated. The challenge now becomes creating tools which are cloud-ready. The solution to this challenge is provided by Application Streaming. This technology allows a program to run entirely on a remote virtual machine while still allowing for interactivity and dynamic visualizations. When coupled with containerization technology such as Docker, we are able to easily deploy legacy analysis and visualization software to the cloud whilst retaining access via a desktop, netbook, a smartphone, or the next generation of hardware, whatever it may be. Unidata has harnessed Application Streaming to provide a cloud-capable version of our visualization software, the Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). This work will examine the challenges associated with adapting the IDV to an application streaming platform, and include a brief discussion of the underlying technologies involved.

  20. Submillimeter-Wave Cloud Ice Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    Submillimeter-wave cloud ice radiometry is a new and innovative technique for characterizing cirrus ice clouds. Cirrus clouds affect Earth's climate and hydrological cycle by reflecting incoming solar energy, trapping outgoing IR radiation, sublimating into vapor, and influencing atmospheric circulation. Since uncertainties in the global distribution of cloud ice restrict the accuracy of both climate and weather models, successful development of this technique could provide a valuable tool for investigating how clouds affect climate and weather. Cloud ice radiometry could fill an important gap in the observational capabilities of existing and planned Earth-observing systems. Using submillimeter-wave radiometry to retrieve properties of ice clouds can be understood with a simple model. There are a number of submillimeter-wavelength spectral regions where the upper troposphere is transparent. At lower tropospheric altitudes water vapor emits a relatively uniform flux of thermal radiation. When cirrus clouds are present, they scatter a portion of the upwelling flux of submillimeter-wavelength radiation back towards the Earth as shown in the diagram, thus reducing the upward flux o f energy. Hence, the power received by a down-looking radiometer decreases when a cirrus cloud passes through the field of view causing the cirrus cloud to appear radiatively cool against the warm lower atmospheric thermal emissions. The reduction in upwelling thermal flux is a function of both the total cloud ice content and mean crystal size. Radiometric measurements made at multiple widely spaced frequencies permit flux variations caused by changes in crystal size to be distinguished from changes in ice content, and polarized measurements can be used to constrain mean crystal shape. The goal of the cloud ice radiometry program is to further develop and validate this technique of characterizing cirrus. A multi-frequency radiometer is being designed to support airborne science and

  1. The beta distribution: A statistical model for world cloud cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falls, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Much work has been performed in developing empirical global cloud cover models. This investigation was made to determine an underlying theoretical statistical distribution to represent worldwide cloud cover. The beta distribution with probability density function is given to represent the variability of this random variable. It is shown that the beta distribution possesses the versatile statistical characteristics necessary to assume the wide variety of shapes exhibited by cloud cover. A total of 160 representative empirical cloud cover distributions were investigated and the conclusion was reached that this study provides sufficient statical evidence to accept the beta probability distribution as the underlying model for world cloud cover.

  2. a Test to Prove Cloud Whitening THEORY!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttram, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science researchers believe our planet can possibly tolerate twice the present carbon dioxide levels with no upwards temperature change, IF we could increase the amount of energy reflected back out into space by about 2.0%. (c)Cloudtec basically alters a blend of seawater and applies heat derived from magma to it at a temperature exceeding 2,000 degrees F. The interaction of seawater and magma displaces the oxygen, causing the volume of water to vaporize and expand over 4,000 times - transforming billions of tons of seawater into thousands of cubic miles of white, maritime, stratocumulus clouds to reflect the incident Sun's rays back out into space. A 6 month test to prove Cloud Whitening Theory will cost 6 million dollars. (No profit added.) This study will enable everyone on the planet with a computer the transparency to use satellite imagery and check out for themselves - if and when Cloud Whitening is occurring. If Cloud Whitening Theory is validated, (c)Cloudtec's innovation can strategically create the clouds we need to reflect the Sun's rays back out into space and help neutralize the projected 3.6 degrees F rise in temperature. Based on reasonable calculations of anthropogenic global warming: this one move alone would be comparable to slashing global carbon dioxide emissions by over 60% over the next 40 years.

  3. Influence of Arctic Sea Ice Extent on Polar Cloud Fraction and Vertical Structure and Implications for Regional Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Strey, Sara T.; Spinhirne, James; Markus, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Recent satellite lidar measurements of cloud properties spanning a period of 5 years are used to examine a possible connection between Arctic sea ice amount and polar cloud fraction and vertical distribution. We find an anticorrelation between sea ice extent and cloud fraction with maximum cloudiness occurring over areas with little or no sea ice. We also find that over ice!free regions, there is greater low cloud frequency and average optical depth. Most of the optical depth increase is due to the presence of geometrically thicker clouds over water. In addition, our analysis indicates that over the last 5 years, October and March average polar cloud fraction has increased by about 7% and 10%, respectively, as year average sea ice extent has decreased by 5% 7%. The observed cloud changes are likely due to a number of effects including, but not limited to, the observed decrease in sea ice extent and thickness. Increasing cloud amount and changes in vertical distribution and optical properties have the potential to affect the radiative balance of the Arctic region by decreasing both the upwelling terrestrial longwave radiation and the downward shortwave solar radiation. Because longwave radiation dominates in the long polar winter, the overall effect of increasing low cloud cover is likely a warming of the Arctic and thus a positive climate feedback, possibly accelerating the melting of Arctic sea ice.

  4. Optimum Tolerance Design Using Component-Amount and Mixture-Amount Experiments

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Ozler, Cenk; Sehirlioglu, Ali Kemal

    2013-08-01

    One type of tolerance design problem involves optimizing component and assembly tolerances to minimize the total cost (sum of manufacturing cost and quality loss). Previous literature recommended using traditional response surface (RS) designs and models to solve this type of tolerance design problem. In this article, component-amount (CA) and mixture-amount (MA) approaches are proposed as more appropriate for solving this type of tolerance design problem. The advantages of the CA and MA approaches over the RS approach are discussed. Reasons for choosing between the CA and MA approaches are also discussed. The CA and MA approaches (experimental design, response modeling,more » and optimization) are illustrated using real examples.« less

  5. 27 CFR 40.133 - Amount of individual bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amount, the manufacturer shall immediately file a strengthening or superseding bond as required by this subpart. The amount of any such bond (or the total amount including strengthening bonds, if any) need not...

  6. 27 CFR 40.133 - Amount of individual bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amount, the manufacturer shall immediately file a strengthening or superseding bond as required by this subpart. The amount of any such bond (or the total amount including strengthening bonds, if any) need not...

  7. A microphysical parameterization of aqSOA and sulfate formation in clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McVay, Renee; Ervens, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    Sulfate and secondary organic aerosol (cloud aqSOA) can be chemically formed in cloud water. Model implementation of these processes represents a computational burden due to the large number of microphysical and chemical parameters. Chemical mechanisms have been condensed by reducing the number of chemical parameters. Here an alternative is presented to reduce the number of microphysical parameters (number of cloud droplet size classes). In-cloud mass formation is surface and volume dependent due to surface-limited oxidant uptake and/or size-dependent pH. Box and parcel model simulations show that using the effective cloud droplet diameter (proportional to total volume-to-surface ratio) reproduces sulfate and aqSOA formation rates within ≤30% as compared to full droplet distributions; other single diameters lead to much greater deviations. This single-class approach reduces computing time significantly and can be included in models when total liquid water content and effective diameter are available.

  8. Supernovae-generated high-velocity compact clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalinewich, A.; Beniamini, P.

    2018-05-01

    Context. A previous study claimed the discovery of an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH). This hypothetical black hole was invoked in order to explain the high-velocity dispersion in one of several dense molecular clouds near the Galactic center. The same study considered the possibility that this cloud was due to a supernova explosion, but disqualified this scenario because no X-rays were detected. Aims: We here check whether a supernova explosion could have produced that cloud, and whether this explanation is more likely than an IMBH. More specifically, we wish to determine whether a supernova inside a dense molecular cloud would emit in the X-rays. Methods: We have approached this problem from two different directions. First, we performed an analytic calculation to determine the cooling rate by thermal bremsstrahlung and compared this time to the lifetime of the cloud. Second, we estimated the creation rate of these dense clouds in the central molecular zone (CMZ) region near the Galactic center, where they were observed. Based on this rate, we can place lower bounds on the total mass of IMBHs and clouds and compare this to the masses of the components of the CMZ. Results: We find that the cooling time of the supernova remnant inside a molecular cloud is shorter than its dynamical time. This means that the temperature in such a remnant would be much lower than that of a typical supernova remnant. At such a low temperature, the remnant is not expected to emit in the X-rays. We also find that to explain the rate at which such dense clouds are created requires fine-tuning the number of IMBHs. Conclusions: We find the supernova model to be a more likely explanation for the formation of high-velocity compact clouds than an IMBH.

  9. Stratocumulus Cloud Top Radiative Cooling and Cloud Base Updraft Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Balsells, J.; Klinger, C.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud top radiative cooling is a primary driver of turbulence in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary. A functional relationship between cloud top cooling and cloud base updraft speeds may therefore exist. A correlation of cloud top radiative cooling and cloud base updraft speeds has been recently identified empirically, providing a basis for satellite retrieval of cloud base updraft speeds. Such retrievals may enable analysis of aerosol-cloud interactions using satellite observations: Updraft speeds at cloud base co-determine supersaturation and therefore the activation of cloud condensation nuclei, which in turn co-determine cloud properties and precipitation formation. We use large eddy simulation and an off-line radiative transfer model to explore the relationship between cloud-top radiative cooling and cloud base updraft speeds in a marine stratocumulus cloud over the course of the diurnal cycle. We find that during daytime, at low cloud water path (CWP < 50 g m-2), cloud base updraft speeds and cloud top cooling are well-correlated, in agreement with the reported empirical relationship. During the night, in the absence of short-wave heating, CWP builds up (CWP > 50 g m-2) and long-wave emissions from cloud top saturate, while cloud base heating increases. In combination, cloud top cooling and cloud base updrafts become weakly anti-correlated. A functional relationship between cloud top cooling and cloud base updraft speed can hence be expected for stratocumulus clouds with a sufficiently low CWP and sub-saturated long-wave emissions, in particular during daytime. At higher CWPs, in particular at night, the relationship breaks down due to saturation of long-wave emissions from cloud top.

  10. Radiative Importance of Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    1999-01-01

    Aerosol particles are input into the troposphere by biomass burning, among other sources. These aerosol palls cover large expanses of the earth's surface. Aerosols may directly scatter solar radiation back to space, thus increasing the earth's albedo and act to cool the earth's surface and atmosphere. Aerosols also contribute to the earth's energy balance indirectly. Hygroscopic aerosol act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and thus affects cloud properties. In 1977, Twomey theorized that additional available CCN would create smaller but more numerous cloud droplets in a cloud with a given amount of liquid water. This in turn would increase the cloud albedo which would scatter additional radiation back to space and create a similar cooling pattern as the direct aerosol effect. Estimates of the magnitude of the aerosol indirect effect on a global scale range from 0.0 to -4.8 W/sq m. Thus the indirect effect can be of comparable magnitude and opposite in sign to the estimates of global greenhouse gas forcing Aerosol-cloud interaction is not a one-way process. Just as aerosols have an influence on clouds through the cloud microphysics, clouds have an influence on aerosols. Cloud droplets are solutions of liquid water and CCN, now dissolved. When the cloud droplet evaporates it leaves behind an aerosol particle. This new particle does not have to have the same properties as the original CCN. In fact, studies show that aerosol particles that result from cloud processing are larger in size than the original CCN. Optical properties of aerosol particles are dependent on the size of the particles. Larger particles have a smaller backscattering fraction, and thus less incoming solar radiation will be backscattered to space if the aerosol particles are larger. Therefore, we see that aerosols and clouds modify each other to influence the radiative balance of the earth. Understanding and quantifying the spatial and seasonal patterns of the aerosol indirect forcing may have

  11. Single-Column Model Simulations of Subtropical Marine Boundary-Layer Cloud Transitions Under Weakening Inversions: SCM SIMULATIONS OF CLOUD TRANSITIONS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Neggers, R. A. J.; Ackerman, A. S.; Angevine, W. M.

    Results are presented of the GASS/EUCLIPSE single-column model inter-comparison study on the subtropical marine low-level cloud transition. A central goal is to establish the performance of state-of-the-art boundary-layer schemes for weather and climate mod- els for this cloud regime, using large-eddy simulations of the same scenes as a reference. A novelty is that the comparison covers four different cases instead of one, in order to broaden the covered parameter space. Three cases are situated in the North-Eastern Pa- cific, while one reflects conditions in the North-Eastern Atlantic. A set of variables is considered that reflects key aspects of the transitionmore » process, making use of simple met- rics to establish the model performance. Using this method some longstanding problems in low level cloud representation are identified. Considerable spread exists among models concerning the cloud amount, its vertical structure and the associated impact on radia- tive transfer. The sign and amplitude of these biases differ somewhat per case, depending on how far the transition has progressed. After cloud breakup the ensemble median ex- hibits the well-known “too few too bright” problem. The boundary layer deepening rate and its state of decoupling are both underestimated, while the representation of the thin capping cloud layer appears complicated by a lack of vertical resolution. Encouragingly, some models are successful in representing the full set of variables, in particular the verti- cal structure and diurnal cycle of the cloud layer in transition. An intriguing result is that the median of the model ensemble performs best, inspiring a new approach in subgrid pa- rameterization.« less

  12. Aerosol cloud interactions in southeast Pacific stratocumulus: satellite observations, in situ data and regional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Rhea

    The influence of anthropogenic aerosols on cloud radiative properties in the persistent southeast Pacific stratocumulus deck is investigated using MODIS satellite observations, in situ data from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), and WRF-Chem, a regional model with interactive chemistry and aerosols. An albedo proxy is derived based on the fractional coverage of low cloud (a macrophysical field) and the cloud albedo, with the latter broken down into contributions from microphysics (cloud droplet concentration, Nd and macrophysics (liquid water path). Albedo variability is dominated by low cloud fraction variability, except within 10-15° of the South American coast, where cloud albedo variability contributes significantly. Covariance between cloud fraction and cloud albedo also contributes significantly to the variance in albedo, which highlights how complex and inseparable the factors controlling albedo are. N d variability contributes only weakly, which emphasizes that attributing albedo variability to the indirect effects of aerosols against the backdrop of natural meteorological variability is extremely challenging. Specific cases of aerosol changes can have strong impacts on albedo. We identify a pathway for periodic anthropogenic aerosol transport to the unpolluted marine stratocumulus >1000 km offshore, which strongly enhances Nd and albedo in zonally-elongated 'hook'-shaped arc. Hook development occurs with Nd increasing to polluted levels over the remote ocean primarily due to entrainment of a large number of small aerosols from the free troposphere that contribute a relatively small amount of aerosol mass to the marine boundary layer. Strong, deep offshore flow needed to transport continental aerosols to the remote ocean is favored by a trough approaching the South American coast and a southeastward shift of the climatological subtropical high pressure system. DMS significantly influences the aerosol number and

  13. Effect of pectin methylesterase on carrot (Daucus carota) juice cloud stability.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Alison K; Anthon, Gordon E; Dungan, Stephanie R; Barrett, Diane M

    2014-02-05

    To determine the effect of residual enzyme activity on carrot juice cloud, 0 to 1 U/g pectin methylesterase (PME) was added to pasteurized carrot juice. Cloud stability and particle diameters were measured to quantify juice cloud stability and clarification for 56 days of storage. All levels of PME addition resulted in clarification; higher amounts had a modest effect in causing more rapid clarification, due to a faster increase in particle size. The cloud initially exhibited a trimodal distribution of particle sizes. For enzyme-containing samples, particles in the smallest-sized mode initially aggregated to merge with the second peak over 5-10 days. This larger population then continued to aggregate more slowly over longer times. This observation of a more rapid destabilization process initially, followed by slower subsequent changes in the cloud, was also manifested in measurements of sedimentation extent and in turbidity tests. Optical microscopy showed that aggregation created elongated, fractal particle structures over time.

  14. Global observations of aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Asmi, Ari; Chin, Mian; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Donovan, David P.; Kahn, Ralph; Kinne, Stefan; Kivekäs, Niku; Kulmala, Markku; Lau, William; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Suni, Tanja; Wagner, Thomas; Wild, Martin; Quaas, Johannes

    2014-12-01

    Cloud drop condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) particles determine to a large extent cloud microstructure and, consequently, cloud albedo and the dynamic response of clouds to aerosol-induced changes to precipitation. This can modify the reflected solar radiation and the thermal radiation emitted to space. Measurements of tropospheric CCN and IN over large areas have not been possible and can be only roughly approximated from satellite-sensor-based estimates of optical properties of aerosols. Our lack of ability to measure both CCN and cloud updrafts precludes disentangling the effects of meteorology from those of aerosols and represents the largest component in our uncertainty in anthropogenic climate forcing. Ways to improve the retrieval accuracy include multiangle and multipolarimetric passive measurements of the optical signal and multispectral lidar polarimetric measurements. Indirect methods include proxies of trace gases, as retrieved by hyperspectral sensors. Perhaps the most promising emerging direction is retrieving the CCN properties by simultaneously retrieving convective cloud drop number concentrations and updraft speeds, which amounts to using clouds as natural CCN chambers. These satellite observations have to be constrained by in situ observations of aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate (ACPC) interactions, which in turn constrain a hierarchy of model simulations of ACPC. Since the essence of a general circulation model is an accurate quantification of the energy and mass fluxes in all forms between the surface, atmosphere and outer space, a route to progress is proposed here in the form of a series of box flux closure experiments in the various climate regimes. A roadmap is provided for quantifying the ACPC interactions and thereby reducing the uncertainty in anthropogenic climate forcing.

  15. Study on ice cloud optical thickness retrieval with MODIS IR spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Jun

    2005-01-01

    The operational Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products for cloud properties such as cloud-top pressure (CTP), effective cloud amount (ECA), cloud particle size (CPS), cloud optical thickness (COT), and cloud phase (CP) have been available for users globally. An approach to retrieve COT is investigated using MODIS infrared (IR) window spectral bands (8.5 mm, 11mm, and 12 mm). The COT retrieval from MODIS IR bands has the potential to provide microphysical properties with high spatial resolution during night. The results are compared with those from operational MODIS products derived from the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) bands during day. Sensitivity of COT to MODIS spectral brightness temperature (BT) and BT difference (BTD) values is studied. A look-up table is created from the cloudy radiative transfer model accounting for the cloud absorption and scattering for the cloud microphysical property retrieval. The potential applications and limitations are also discussed. This algorithm can be applied to the future imager systems such as Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R.

  16. Representation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds and the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process in climate models: Perspectives from a cloud-resolving study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiwen; Ghan, Steven; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Liu, Xiaohong; Rasch, Philip J.; Korolev, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    Two types of Arctic mixed-phase clouds observed during the ISDAC and M-PACE field campaigns are simulated using a 3-dimensional cloud-resolving model (CRM) with size-resolved cloud microphysics. The modeled cloud properties agree reasonably well with aircraft measurements and surface-based retrievals. Cloud properties such as the probability density function (PDF) of vertical velocity (w), cloud liquid and ice, regimes of cloud particle growth, including the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process, and the relationships among properties/processes in mixed-phase clouds are examined to gain insights for improving their representation in General Circulation Models (GCMs). The PDF of the simulated w is well represented by a Gaussian function, validating, at least for arctic clouds, the subgrid treatment used in GCMs. The PDFs of liquid and ice water contents can be approximated by Gamma functions, and a Gaussian function can describe the total water distribution, but a fixed variance assumption should be avoided in both cases. The CRM results support the assumption frequently used in GCMs that mixed phase clouds maintain water vapor near liquid saturation. Thus, ice continues to grow throughout the stratiform cloud but the WBF process occurs in about 50% of cloud volume where liquid and ice co-exist, predominantly in downdrafts. In updrafts, liquid and ice particles grow simultaneously. The relationship between the ice depositional growth rate and cloud ice strongly depends on the capacitance of ice particles. The simplified size-independent capacitance of ice particles used in GCMs could lead to large deviations in ice depositional growth.

  17. Space Weather Connections to Clouds and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, B. A.

    2004-12-01

    There is now a considerable amount of observational data and theoretical work pointing to a link between space weather and atmospheric electricity, and then between atmospheric electricity and cloud cover and precipitation, which ultimately affect climate and the biosphere. Studies so far have been largely confined to the Earth, but may be applicable to all planets with clouds in their atmospheres. The current density Jz, that is the return current flowing downward through clouds in the global circuit, is modulated by the galactic cosmic ray flux; by solar energetic particles; by the dawn-dusk polar cap potential difference; and by the precipitation of relativistic electrons from the radiation belts. The flow of Jz through clouds generates unipolar space charge, which is positive at cloud tops and negative at cloud base. This charge attaches to aerosol particles, and affects their interaction with other particles and droplets. Ultrafine aerosol particles are formed around ions and are preserved from scavenging on background aerosols, and preserved for growth by vapor deposition, by space charge at the bases and tops of layer clouds. There is electro-preservation of both ultrafines and of existing CCN that leads to increases in CCN concentration, and increases in cloud cover and reduction in both droplet size and precipitation by the `indirect aerosol effect'. For cold clouds and larger aerosol particles that act as ice forming nuclei, the rate of scavenging of the IFN by large supercooled droplets varies with space charge. Changes in space weather affect both ion production and Jz in planetary atmospheres. In addition, changes in cosmic ray flux affect conductivity within thunderclouds and may affect the output of the thundercloud generators in the global circuit. Thus all four processes, (a) ion-induced nucleation, (b) electro-preservation of leading to increases in CCN concentration and the indirect aerosol effect, (c) contact ice nucleation affecting the

  18. Improvements of top-of-atmosphere and surface irradiance computations with CALIPSO-, CloudSat-, and MODIS-derived cloud and aerosol properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Chen, Yan; Rutan, David A.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Loeb, Norman G.; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Winker, David M.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Collins, William D.

    2011-10-01

    345.4 W m-2 is estimated by combining the modeled instantaneous surface longwave irradiance computed with CALIOP and CPR cloud profiles with the global annual mean longwave irradiance from the CERES product (AVG), which includes the diurnal variation of the irradiance. The estimated bias error is -1.5 W m-2 and the uncertainty is 6.9 W m-2. The uncertainty is predominately caused by the near-surface temperature and column water vapor amount uncertainties.

  19. The effects of cloud inhomogeneities upon radiative fluxes, and the supply of a cloud truth validation dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Ronald M.

    1996-01-01

    The ASTER polar cloud mask algorithm is currently under development. Several classification techniques have been developed and implemented. The merits and accuracy of each are being examined. The classification techniques under investigation include fuzzy logic, hierarchical neural network, and a pairwise histogram comparison scheme based on sample histograms called the Paired Histogram Method. Scene adaptive methods also are being investigated as a means to improve classifier performance. The feature, arctan of Band 4 and Band 5, and the Band 2 vs. Band 4 feature space are key to separating frozen water (e.g., ice/snow, slush/wet ice, etc.) from cloud over frozen water, and land from cloud over land, respectively. A total of 82 Landsat TM circumpolar scenes are being used as a basis for algorithm development and testing. Numerous spectral features are being tested and include the 7 basic Landsat TM bands, in addition to ratios, differences, arctans, and normalized differences of each combination of bands. A technique for deriving cloud base and top height is developed. It uses 2-D cross correlation between a cloud edge and its corresponding shadow to determine the displacement of the cloud from its shadow. The height is then determined from this displacement, the solar zenith angle, and the sensor viewing angle.

  20. Exploiting Cloud Radar Doppler Spectra of Mixed-Phase Clouds during ACCEPT Field Experiment to Identify Microphysical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalesse, H.; Myagkov, A.; Seifert, P.; Buehl, J.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud radar Doppler spectra offer much information about cloud processes. By analyzing millimeter radar Doppler spectra from cloud-top to -base in mixed-phase clouds in which super-cooled liquid-layers are present we try to tell the microphysical evolution story of particles that are present by disentangling the contributions of the solid and liquid particles to the total radar returns. Instead of considering vertical profiles, dynamical effects are taken into account by following the particle population evolution along slanted paths which are caused by horizontal advection of the cloud. The goal is to identify regions in which different microphysical processes such as new particle formation (nucleation), water vapor deposition, aggregation, riming, or sublimation occurr. Cloud radar measurements are supplemented by Doppler lidar and Raman lidar observations as well as observations with MWR, wind profiler, and radio sondes. The presence of super-cooled liquid layers is identified by positive liquid water paths in MWR measurements, the vertical location of liquid layers (in non-raining systems and below lidar extinction) is derived from regions of high-backscatter and low depolarization in Raman lidar observations. In collocated cloud radar measurements, we try to identify cloud phase in the cloud radar Doppler spectrum via location of the Doppler peak(s), the existence of multi-modalities or the spectral skewness. Additionally, within the super-cooled liquid layers, the radar-identified liquid droplets are used as air motion tracer to correct the radar Doppler spectrum for vertical air motion w. These radar-derived estimates of w are validated by independent estimates of w from collocated Doppler lidar measurements. A 35 GHz vertically pointing cloud Doppler radar (METEK MIRA-35) in linear depolarization (LDR) mode is used. Data is from the deployment of the Leipzig Aerosol and Cloud Remote Observations System (LACROS) during the Analysis of the Composition of

  1. Impacts of a Fire Smoke Plume on Deep Convective Clouds Observed during DC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeishi, A.; Storelvmo, T.; Zagar, M.

    2014-12-01

    While the ability of aerosols to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) is well recognized, the effects of changing aerosol number concentrations on convective clouds have only been studied extensively in recent years. As deep convective clouds can produce heavy precipitation and may sometimes bring severe damages, especially in the tropics, we need to understand the changes in the convective systems that could stem from aerosol perturbations. By perturbing convective clouds, it has also been proposed that aerosols can affect large-scale climate. According to the convective invigoration mechanism, an increase in the aerosol concentration could lead to a larger amount of rainfall and higher vertical velocities in convective clouds, due to an increase in the latent heat release aloft. With some of the satellite observations supporting this mechanism, it is necessary to understand how sensitive the model simulations actually are to aerosol perturbations. This study uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model as a cloud-resolving model to reproduce deep convective clouds observed during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field campaign. The convective cloud of our interest was observed in northeastern Colorado on June 22nd in 2012, with a plume of forest fire smoke flowing into its core. Compared to other convective cells observed in the same area on different days, our aircraft data analysis shows that the convective cloud in question included more organic aerosols and more CCN. These indicate the influence of the biomass burning. We compare the results from simulations with different microphysics schemes and different cloud or ice number concentrations. These sensitivity tests tell us how different the amount and the pattern of precipitation would have been if the aerosol concentration had been higher or lower on that day. Both the sensitivity to aerosol perturbation and the reproducibility of the storm are shown to highly

  2. Diagnosing AIRS Sampling with CloudSat Cloud Classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric; Yue, Qing; Guillaume, Alexandre; Kahn, Brian

    2011-01-01

    AIRS yield and sampling vary with cloud state. Careful utilization of collocated multiple satellite sensors is necessary. Profile differences between AIRS and ECMWF model analyses indicate that AIRS has high sampling and excellent accuracy for certain meteorological conditions. Cloud-dependent sampling biases may have large impact on AIRS L2 and L3 data in climate research. MBL clouds / lower tropospheric stability relationship is one example. AIRS and CloudSat reveal a reasonable climatology in the MBL cloud regime despite limited sampling in stratocumulus. Thermodynamic parameters such as EIS derived from AIRS data map these cloud conditions successfully. We are working on characterizing AIRS scenes with mixed cloud types.

  3. Cloud Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-29

    Cloud Computing   The answer, my friend, is blowing in the wind.   The answer is blowing in the wind. 1Bingue ‐ Cook  Cloud   Computing  STSC 2010... Cloud   Computing  STSC 2010 Objectives • Define the cloud    • Risks of  cloud   computing f l d i• Essence o  c ou  comput ng • Deployed clouds in DoD 3Bingue...Cook  Cloud   Computing  STSC 2010 Definitions of Cloud Computing       Cloud   computing  is a model for enabling  b d d ku

  4. Characterization of the cloud conditions at Ny-Ålesund using sensor synergy and representativeness of the observed clouds across Arctic sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomokonova, Tatiana; Ebell, Kerstin; Löhnert, Ulrich; Maturilli, Marion

    2017-04-01

    structure of the atmosphere is obtained from long-term radiosonde launches. In addition, continuous vertical profiles of temperature and humidity are provided by the microwave radiometer HATPRO. A set of active remote sensing instruments performs cloud observations at Ny-Ålesund: a ceilometer and a Doppler lidar operating since 2011 and 2013, respectively, are now complemented with a novel 94 GHz FMCW cloud radar. As a first step, the CLOUDNET algorithms, including a target categorization and classification, are applied to the observations. In this study, we will present a first analysis of cloud properties at Ny-Ålesund including for example cloud occurrence, cloud geometry (cloud base, cloud top, and thickness) and cloud type (liquid, ice, mixed-phase). The different types of clouds are set into context to the environmental conditions such as temperature, amount of water vapour, and liquid water. We also expect that the cloud properties strongly depend on the wind direction. The first results of this analysis will be also shown.

  5. Intercomparisons of Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Properties from the ARM CAP-MBL Campaign and Two MODIS Cloud Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Song, Hua; Ma, Po-Lun; Ghan, Steven J.; Platnick, Steven; Minnis, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    From April 2009 to December 2010, the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program carried out an observational field campaign on Graciosa Island, targeting the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds over the Azores region. In this paper, we present an inter-comparison of the MBL cloud properties, namely, cloud liquid water path (LWP), cloud optical thickness (COT) and cloud-droplet effective radius (CER), among retrievals from the ARM mobile facility (AMF) and two Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud products (GSFC-MODIS and CERES-MODIS). A total of 63 daytime single-layer MBL cloud cases are selected for inter-comparison. Comparison of collocated retrievals indicates that the two MODIS cloud products agree well on both COT and CER retrievals, with the correlation coefficient R greater than 0.95 despite their significant difference in spatial sampling. In both MODIS products, the CER retrievals based on the 2.1 micrometers band (CER(sub 2.1)) is significantly smaller than that based on the 3.7 micrometers band (CER(sub 3.7)). The GSFC-MODIS cloud product is collocated and compared with ground-based ARM observations at several temporal spatial scales. In general, the correlation increases with more precise collocation. For the 63 selected MBL cloud cases, the GSFC-MODIS LWP and COT retrievals agree reasonably well with the ground-based observations with no apparent bias and correlation coefficient R around 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. However, GSFC-MODIS CER(sub 3.7) and CER(sub 2.1) retrievals have a lower correlation (R is approximately 0.5) with the ground-based retrievals. For the 63 selected cases, they are on average larger than ground observations by about 1.5 micrometers and 3.0 micrometers, respectively. Taking into account that the MODIS CER retrievals are only sensitive to cloud top reduces the bias only by 0.5 micrometers.

  6. The pH and ionic composition of stratiform cloud water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Raymond A.; Jiusto, James E.; Mclaren, Eugene

    Over 50 cloud water samples were collected during five comprehensive case studies of the water chemistry of stratiform clouds at Whiteface Mountain, New York. The water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity and ions of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, ammonium, sulfate, chloride and nitrate. Trajectory analyses and cloud condensation nucleus concentrations at 0.5 % confirmed that the air masses in all five of these cases represented continental air that was relatively clean (low aerosol concentration) for the northeystern United States. The major ions related to cloud water pH were found to be sulfate, nitrate, potassium, ammonium and calcium. The results revealed a mean hydrogen ion concentration [ H+] = 0.239 meq ℓ -1 ( σ = ± 0.21) which converts to a mean pH = 3.6 for all collected cloud samples. The low pH values are related to a normal background of nitrate ions found in the rural continental air masses plus sulfate ions largely from the industrial emissions of the midwestern United States. The [NO -3], in two of the three cases presented, demonstrates the importance of the nitrate ions' contribution to the pH of cloud water. A dependent means analysis of 40 events yielded a significant difference (0.04 level of significance), with the mean pH of precipitation (4.2) being greater than the mean pH of cloud water (4.0) for event samples. The ion concentrations indicated that the cloud rainout process contributed from 67 % to almost 100% of the total ion concentration of the precipitation. The washout process, i.e. precipitation scavenging below the cloud base, contributed considerably less than the cloud/rainout process of those total precipitation anions associated with air pollution.

  7. Cirrus microphysics and radiative transfer: Cloud field study on October 28, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinne, Stefan; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Sassen, Kenneth; Spinhirne, James D.

    1990-01-01

    The radiative properties of cirrus clouds present one of the unresolved problems in weather and climate research. Uncertainties in ice particle amount and size and, also, the general inability to model the single scattering properties of their usually complex particle shapes, prevent accurate model predictions. For an improved understanding of cirrus radiative effects, field experiments, as those of the Cirrus IFO of FIRE, are necessary. Simultaneous measurements of radiative fluxes and cirrus microphysics at multiple cirrus cloud altitudes allows the pitting of calculated versus measured vertical flux profiles; with the potential to judge current cirrus cloud modeling. Most of the problems in this study are linked to the inhomogeneity of the cloud field. Thus, only studies on more homogeneous cirrus cloud cases promises a possibility to improve current cirrus parameterizations. Still, the current inability to detect small ice particles will remain as a considerable handicap.

  8. [CII] observations of H2 molecular layers in transition clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.; Pineda, J. L.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Li, D.; Yorke, H. W.

    2010-10-01

    We present the first results on the diffuse transition clouds observed in [CII] line emission at 158 μm (1.9 THz) towards Galactic longitudes near 340° (5 LOSs) & 20° (11 LOSs) as part of the HIFI tests and GOT C+ survey. Out of the total 146 [CII] velocity components detected by profile fitting we identify 53 as diffuse molecular clouds with associated 12CO emission but without 13CO emission and characterized by AV < 5 mag. We estimate the fraction of the [CII] emission in the diffuse HI layer in each cloud and then determine the [CII] emitted from the molecular layers in the cloud. We show that the excess [CII] intensities detected in a few clouds is indicative of a thick H2 layer around the CO core. The wide range of clouds in our sample with thin to thick H2 layers suggests that these are at various evolutionary states characterized by the formation of H2 and CO layers from HI and C+, respectively. In about 30% of the clouds the H2 column densities (“dark gas”) traced by the [CII] is 50% or more than that traced by 12CO emission. On the average ~25% of the total H2 in these clouds is in an H2 layer which is not traced by CO. We use the HI, [CII], and 12CO intensities in each cloud along with simple chemical models to obtain constraints on the FUV fields and cosmic ray ionization rates. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  9. Clouds, surface temperature, and the tropical and subtropical radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, Harbans L.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy drives both the Earth's climate and biosphere, but the absorbed energy is unevenly distributed over the Earth. The tropical regions receive excess energy which is then transported by atmospheric and ocean currents to the higher latitudes. All regions at a given latitude receive the same top of the atmosphere solar irradiance (insolation). However, the net radiation received from the Sun in the tropics and subtropics varies greatly from one region to another depending on local conditions. Over land, variations in surface albedo are important. Over both land and ocean, surface temperature, cloud amount, and cloud type are also important. The Nimbus-7 cloud and Earth radiation budget (ERB) data sets are used to examine the affect of these parameters.

  10. Upper-Tropospheric Cloud Ice from IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud ice plays important roles in Earth's energy budget and cloud-precipitation processes. Knowledge of global cloud ice and its properties is critical for understanding and quantifying its roles in Earth's atmospheric system. It remains a great challenge to measure these variables accurately from space. Submillimeter (submm) wave remote sensing has capability of penetrating clouds and measuring ice mass and microphysical properties. In particular, the 883-GHz frequency is a highest spectral window in microwave frequencies that can be used to fill a sensitivity gap between thermal infrared (IR) and mm-wave sensors in current spaceborne cloud ice observations. IceCube is a cubesat spaceflight demonstration of 883-GHz radiometer technology. Its primary objective is to raise the technology readiness level (TRL) of 883-GHz cloud radiometer for future Earth science missions. By flying a commercial receiver on a 3U cubesat, IceCube is able to achieve fast-track maturation of space technology, by completing its development, integration and testing in 2.5 years. IceCube was successfully delivered to ISS in April 2017 and jettisoned from the International Space Station (ISS) in May 2017. The IceCube cloud-ice radiometer (ICIR) has been acquiring data since the jettison on a daytime-only operation. IceCube adopted a simple design without payload mechanism. It makes maximum utilization of solar power by spinning the spacecraft continuously about the Sun vector at a rate of 1.2° per second. As a result, the ICIR is operated under the limited resources (8.6 W without heater) and largely-varying (18°C-28°C) thermal environments. The spinning cubesat also allows ICIR to have periodical views between the Earth (atmosphere and clouds) and cold space (calibration), from which the first 883-GHz cloud map is obtained. The 883-GHz cloud radiance, sensitive to ice particle scattering, is proportional to cloud ice amount above 10 km. The ICIR cloud map acquired during June 20-July 2

  11. Speeding Clouds May Reveal Invisible Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Several small, speeding clouds have been discovered at the center of our galaxy. A new study suggests that these unusual objects may reveal the lurking presence of inactive black holes.Peculiar Cloudsa) Velocity-integrated intensity map showing the location of the two high-velocity compact clouds, HCN0.0090.044 and HCN0.0850.094, in the context of larger molecular clouds. b) and c) Latitude-velocity and longitude-velocity maps for HCN0.0090.044 and HCN0.0850.094, respectively. d) and e) spectra for the two compacts clouds, respectively. Click for a closer look. [Takekawa et al. 2017]Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole marking the center of our galaxy, is surrounded by a region roughly 650 light-years across known as the Central Molecular Zone. This area at the heart of our galaxy is filled with large amounts of warm, dense molecular gas that has a complex distribution and turbulent kinematics.Several peculiar gas clouds have been discovered within the Central Molecular Zone within the past two decades. These clouds, dubbed high-velocity compact clouds, are characterized by their compact sizes and extremely broad velocity widths.What created this mysterious population of energetic clouds? The recent discovery of two new high-velocity compact clouds, reported on in a paper led by Shunya Takekawa (Keio University, Japan), may help us to answer this question.Two More to the CountUsing the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii, Takekawa and collaborators detected the small clouds near the circumnuclear disk at the centermost part of our galaxy. These two clouds have velocity spreads of -80 to -20 km/s and -80 to 0 km/s and compact sizes of just over 1 light-year. The clouds similar appearances and physical properties suggest that they may both have been formed by the same process.Takekawa and collaborators explore and discard several possible origins for these clouds, such as outflows from massive protostars (no massive, luminous stars have been detected affiliated

  12. Evaluation of Passive Multilayer Cloud Detection Using Preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO Cloud Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chang, F.; Huang, J.; Nguyen, L.; Ayers, J. K.; Spangenberg, D. A.; Yi, Y.; Trepte, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    During the last few years, several algorithms have been developed to detect and retrieve multilayered clouds using passive satellite data. Assessing these techniques has been difficult due to the need for active sensors such as cloud radars and lidars that can "see" through different layers of clouds. Such sensors have been available only at a few surface sites and on aircraft during field programs. With the launch of the CALIPSO and CloudSat satellites on April 28, 2006, it is now possible to observe multilayered systems all over the globe using collocated cloud radar and lidar data. As part of the A- Train, these new active sensors are also matched in time ad space with passive measurements from the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E). The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) has been developing and testing algorithms to detect ice-over-water overlapping cloud systems and to retrieve the cloud liquid path (LWP) and ice water path (IWP) for those systems. One technique uses a combination of the CERES cloud retrieval algorithm applied to MODIS data and a microwave retrieval method applied to AMSR-E data. The combination of a CO2-slicing cloud retireval technique with the CERES algorithms applied to MODIS data (Chang et al., 2005) is used to detect and analyze such overlapped systems that contain thin ice clouds. A third technique uses brightness temperature differences and the CERES algorithms to detect similar overlapped methods. This paper uses preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO data to begin a global scale assessment of these different methods. The long-term goals are to assess and refine the algorithms to aid the development of an optimal combination of the techniques to better monitor ice 9and liquid water clouds in overlapped conditions.

  13. Evaluation of Passive Multilayer Cloud Detection Using Preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO Cloud Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chang, F.; Huang, J.; Nguyen, L.; Ayers, J. K.; Spangenberg, D. A.; Yi, Y.; Trepte, C. R.

    2005-05-01

    During the last few years, several algorithms have been developed to detect and retrieve multilayered clouds using passive satellite data. Assessing these techniques has been difficult due to the need for active sensors such as cloud radars and lidars that can "see" through different layers of clouds. Such sensors have been available only at a few surface sites and on aircraft during field programs. With the launch of the CALIPSO and CloudSat satellites on April 28, 2006, it is now possible to observe multilayered systems all over the globe using collocated cloud radar and lidar data. As part of the A- Train, these new active sensors are also matched in time ad space with passive measurements from the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E). The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) has been developing and testing algorithms to detect ice-over-water overlapping cloud systems and to retrieve the cloud liquid path (LWP) and ice water path (IWP) for those systems. One technique uses a combination of the CERES cloud retrieval algorithm applied to MODIS data and a microwave retrieval method applied to AMSR-E data. The combination of a CO2-slicing cloud retireval technique with the CERES algorithms applied to MODIS data (Chang et al., 2005) is used to detect and analyze such overlapped systems that contain thin ice clouds. A third technique uses brightness temperature differences and the CERES algorithms to detect similar overlapped methods. This paper uses preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO data to begin a global scale assessment of these different methods. The long-term goals are to assess and refine the algorithms to aid the development of an optimal combination of the techniques to better monitor ice 9and liquid water clouds in overlapped conditions.

  14. Cloud Impacts on Pavement Temperature in Energy Balance Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    Forecast systems provide decision support for end-users ranging from the solar energy industry to municipalities concerned with road safety. Pavement temperature is an important variable when considering vehicle response to various weather conditions. A complex, yet direct relationship exists between tire and pavement temperatures. Literature has shown that as tire temperature increases, friction decreases which affects vehicle performance. Many forecast systems suffer from inaccurate radiation forecasts resulting in part from the inability to model different types of clouds and their influence on radiation. This research focused on forecast improvement by determining how cloud type impacts the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface and subsequent pavement temperatures. The study region was the Great Plains where surface solar radiation data were obtained from the High Plains Regional Climate Center's Automated Weather Data Network stations. Road pavement temperature data were obtained from the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System. Cloud properties and radiative transfer quantities were obtained from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System mission via Aqua and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite products. An additional cloud data set was incorporated from the Naval Research Laboratory Cloud Classification algorithm. Statistical analyses using a modified nearest neighbor approach were first performed relating shortwave radiation variability with road pavement temperature fluctuations. Then statistical associations were determined between the shortwave radiation and cloud property data sets. Preliminary results suggest that substantial pavement forecasting improvement is possible with the inclusion of cloud-specific information. Future model sensitivity testing seeks to quantify the magnitude of forecast improvement.

  15. Cloud occurrences and cloud radiative effects (CREs) from CERES-CALIPSO-CloudSat-MODIS (CCCM) and CloudSat radar-lidar (RL) products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Seung-Hee; Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Winker, David; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Mace, Gerald G.; Painemal, David; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan; Miller, Walter F.

    2017-08-01

    Two kinds of cloud products obtained from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), CloudSat, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are compared and analyzed in this study: Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)-CALIPSO-CloudSat-MODIS (CCCM) product and CloudSat radar-lidar products such as GEOPROF-LIDAR and FLXHR-LIDAR. Compared to GEOPROF-LIDAR, low-level (<1 km) cloud occurrences in CCCM are larger over tropical oceans because the CCCM algorithm uses a more relaxed threshold of cloud-aerosol discrimination score for CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask product. In contrast, midlevel (1-8 km) cloud occurrences in GEOPROF-LIDAR are larger than CCCM at high latitudes (>40°). The difference occurs when hydrometeors are detected by CALIPSO lidar but are undetected by CloudSat radar. In the comparison of cloud radiative effects (CREs), global mean differences between CCCM and FLXHR-LIDAR are mostly smaller than 5 W m-2, while noticeable regional differences are found. For example, CCCM shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) CREs are larger than FXLHR-LIDAR along the west coasts of Africa and America because the GEOPROF-LIDAR algorithm misses shallow marine boundary layer clouds. In addition, FLXHR-LIDAR SW CREs are larger than the CCCM counterpart over tropical oceans away from the west coasts of America. Over midlatitude storm-track regions, CCCM SW and LW CREs are larger than the FLXHR-LIDAR counterpart.

  16. Absorbing Aerosols Above Cloud: Detection, Quantitative Retrieval, and Radiative Forcing from Satellite-based Passive Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethva, H.; Torres, O.; Remer, L. A.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Light absorbing particles such as carbonaceous aerosols generated from biomass burning activities and windblown dust particles can exert a net warming effect on climate; the strength of which depends on the absorption capacity of the particles and brightness of the underlying reflecting background. When advected over low-level bright clouds, these aerosols absorb the cloud reflected radiation from ultra-violet (UV) to shortwave-IR (SWIR) and makes cloud scene darker-a phenomenon commonly known as "cloud darkening". The apparent "darkening" effect can be seen by eyes in satellite images as well as quantitatively in the spectral reflectance measurements made by space borne sensors over regions where light absorbing carbonaceous and dust aerosols overlay low-level cloud decks. Theoretical radiative transfer simulations support the observational evidence, and further reveal that the strength of the cloud darkening and its spectral signature (or color ratio) between measurements at two wavelengths are a bi-function of aerosol and cloud optical thickness (AOT and COT); both are measures of the total amount of light extinction caused by aerosols and cloud, respectively. Here, we developed a retrieval technique, named as the "color ratio method" that uses the satellite measurements at two channels, one at shorter wavelength in the visible and one at longer wavelength in the shortwave-IR for the simultaneous retrieval of AOT and COT. The present technique requires assumptions on the aerosol single-scattering albedo and aerosol-cloud separation which are supplemented by the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and space borne CALIOP lidar measurements. The retrieval technique has been tested making use of the near-UV and visible reflectance observations made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for distinct above-cloud smoke and dust aerosol events observed seasonally over the southeast and tropical Atlantic Ocean

  17. CLAAS: the CM SAF cloud property data set using SEVIRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stengel, M. S.; Kniffka, A. K.; Meirink, J. F. M.; Lockhoff, M. L.; Tan, J. T.; Hollmann, R. H.

    2014-04-01

    An 8-year record of satellite-based cloud properties named CLAAS (CLoud property dAtAset using SEVIRI) is presented, which was derived within the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring. The data set is based on SEVIRI measurements of the Meteosat Second Generation satellites, of which the visible and near-infrared channels were intercalibrated with MODIS. Applying two state-of-the-art retrieval schemes ensures high accuracy in cloud detection, cloud vertical placement and microphysical cloud properties. These properties were further processed to provide daily to monthly averaged quantities, mean diurnal cycles and monthly histograms. In particular, the per-month histogram information enhances the insight in spatio-temporal variability of clouds and their properties. Due to the underlying intercalibrated measurement record, the stability of the derived cloud properties is ensured, which is exemplarily demonstrated for three selected cloud variables for the entire SEVIRI disc and a European subregion. All data products and processing levels are introduced and validation results indicated. The sampling uncertainty of the averaged products in CLAAS is minimized due to the high temporal resolution of SEVIRI. This is emphasized by studying the impact of reduced temporal sampling rates taken at typical overpass times of polar-orbiting instruments. In particular, cloud optical thickness and cloud water path are very sensitive to the sampling rate, which in our study amounted to systematic deviations of over 10% if only sampled once a day. The CLAAS data set facilitates many cloud related applications at small spatial scales of a few kilometres and short temporal scales of a~few hours. Beyond this, the spatiotemporal characteristics of clouds on diurnal to seasonal, but also on multi-annual scales, can be studied.

  18. Benefits of cloud computing for PACS and archiving.

    PubMed

    Koch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The goal of cloud-based services is to provide easy, scalable access to computing resources and IT services. The healthcare industry requires a private cloud that adheres to government mandates designed to ensure privacy and security of patient data while enabling access by authorized users. Cloud-based computing in the imaging market has evolved from a service that provided cost effective disaster recovery for archived data to fully featured PACS and vendor neutral archiving services that can address the needs of healthcare providers of all sizes. Healthcare providers worldwide are now using the cloud to distribute images to remote radiologists while supporting advanced reading tools, deliver radiology reports and imaging studies to referring physicians, and provide redundant data storage. Vendor managed cloud services eliminate large capital investments in equipment and maintenance, as well as staffing for the data center--creating a reduction in total cost of ownership for the healthcare provider.

  19. Determination of Cloud Base Height, Wind Velocity, and Short-Range Cloud Structure Using Multiple Sky Imagers Field Campaign Report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Huang, Dong; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Yu, Dantong

    , the cloud stereo-imaging system consisted of two inexpensive high-definition (HD) hemispheric cameras (each cost less than $1,500) and ARM’s Total Sky Imager (TSI). Together with other co-located ARM instrumentation, the campaign provides a promising opportunity to validate stereo-imaging-based cloud base height and, more importantly, to examine the feasibility of cloud thickness retrieval for low-view-angle clouds.« less

  20. Cloud Computing Fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furht, Borko

    In the introductory chapter we define the concept of cloud computing and cloud services, and we introduce layers and types of cloud computing. We discuss the differences between cloud computing and cloud services. New technologies that enabled cloud computing are presented next. We also discuss cloud computing features, standards, and security issues. We introduce the key cloud computing platforms, their vendors, and their offerings. We discuss cloud computing challenges and the future of cloud computing.

  1. Clouds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-14

    Clouds are common near the north polar caps throughout the spring and summer. The clouds typically cause a haze over the extensive dune fields. This image from NASA Mars Odyssey shows the edge of the cloud front.

  2. A physically-based retrieval of cloud liquid water from SSM/I measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwald, Thomas J.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    A simple physical scheme is proposed for retrieving cloud</