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Sample records for total trihalomethanes tthm

  1. Evaluation of cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address total trihalomethane (TTHM) compliance

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address TTHM compliance at a water treatment plant clearwell. The project team worked closely with EPA Region 6 and the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to identify a...

  2. National scale assessment of total trihalomethanes in Irish drinking water.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, Connie; Sheahan, Jerome; Renou-Wilson, Florence; Croot, Peter; Pilla, Francesco; Misstear, Bruce; Xiao, Liwen

    2018-04-15

    Ireland reported the highest non-compliance with respect to total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) in drinking water across the 27 European Union Member States for the year 2010. We carried out a GIS-based investigation of the links between geographical parameters and catchment land-uses with TTHMs concentrations in Irish drinking water. A high risk catchment map was created using peat presence, rainfall (>1400 mm) and slope (<5%) and overlain with a map comprising the national dataset of routinely monitored TTHM concentrations. It appeared evident from the map that the presence of peat, rainfall and slope could be used to identify catchments at high risk to TTHM exceedances. Furthermore, statistical analyses highlighted that the presence of peat soil with agricultural land was a significant driver of TTHM exceedances for all treatment types. PARAFAC analysis from three case studies identified a fluorophore indicative of reprocessed humic natural organic matter as the dominant component following treatment at the three sites. Case studies also indicated that (1) chloroform contributed to the majority of the TTHMs in the drinking water supplies and (2) the supply networks contributed to about 30 μg L -1 of TTHMs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting Trihalomethanes (THMs) in the New York City Water Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundan, R.; Van Dreason, R.

    2013-12-01

    Chlorine, a commonly used disinfectant in most water supply systems, can combine with organic carbon to form disinfectant byproducts including carcinogenic trihalomethanes (THMs). We used water quality data from 24 monitoring sites within the New York City (NYC) water supply distribution system, measured between January 2009 and April 2012, to develop site-specific empirical models for predicting total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels. Terms in the model included various combinations of the following water quality parameters: total organic carbon, pH, specific conductivity, and water temperature. Reasonable estimates of TTHM levels were achieved with overall R2 of about 0.87 and predicted values within 5 μg/L of measured values. The relative importance of factors affecting TTHM formation was estimated by ranking the model regression coefficients. Site-specific models showed improved model performance statistics compared to a single model for the entire system most likely because the single model did not consider locational differences in the water treatment process. Although never out of compliance in 2011, the TTHM levels in the water supply increased following tropical storms Irene and Lee with 45% of the samples exceeding the 80 μg/L Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) in October and November. This increase was explained by changes in water quality parameters, particularly by the increase in total organic carbon concentration and pH during this period.

  4. ALTERNATIVE OXIDANT AND DISINFECTANT TREATMENT STRATEGIES FOR CONTROLLING TRIHALOMETHANE FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    To comply with the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for total trihalomethanes (TTHM), many utilities have modified their pre-oxidation and disinfection practices by switching to alternative oxidants and disinfectants in place of free chlorine. To evaluate the impact of these chang...

  5. Relation of trihalomethane concentrations in public water supplies to stillbirth and birth weight in three water regions in England.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Mireille B; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Best, Nicky; Whitaker, Heather; Hambly, Peter; de Hoogh, Cornelis; Fawell, John; Jarup, Lars; Elliott, Paul

    2005-02-01

    We investigated the association between total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and risk of stillbirth and low and very low birth weight in three water regions in England, 1992-1998; associations with individual trihalomethanes (THMs) were also examined. Modeled estimates of quarterly TTHM concentrations in water zones, categorized as low (< 30 microg/L), medium (30-59 microg/L), or high (> or = 60 microg/L), were linked to approximately 1 million routine birth and stillbirth records using maternal residence at time of birth. In one region, where there was a positive socioeconomic deprivation gradient across exposure categories, there was also a positive, significant association of TTHM with risk of stillbirth and low and very low birth weight. Overall summary estimates across the three regions using a random-effects model to allow for between-region heterogeneity in exposure effects showed small excess risks in areas with high TTHM concentrations for stillbirths [odds ratio (OR) = 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.23), low birth weight (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.93-1.27), and very low birth weight (OR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.82-1.34). Among the individual THMs, chloroform showed a similar pattern of risk as TTHM, but no association was found with concentrations of bromodichloromethane or total brominated THMs. Our findings overall suggest a significant association of stillbirths with maternal residence in areas with high TTHM exposure. Further work is needed looking at cause-specific stillbirths and effects of other disinfection by-products and to help differentiate between alternative (noncausal) explanations and those that may derive from the water supply.

  6. Relation of Trihalomethane Concentrations in Public Water Supplies to Stillbirth and Birth Weight in Three Water Regions in England

    PubMed Central

    Toledano, Mireille B.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Best, Nicky; Whitaker, Heather; Hambly, Peter; de Hoogh, Cornelis; Fawell, John; Jarup, Lars; Elliott, Paul

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the association between total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and risk of stillbirth and low and very low birth weight in three water regions in England, 1992–1998; associations with individual trihalomethanes (THMs) were also examined. Modeled estimates of quarterly TTHM concentrations in water zones, categorized as low (< 30 μg/L), medium (30–59 μg/L), or high (≥60 μg/L), were linked to approximately 1 million routine birth and stillbirth records using maternal residence at time of birth. In one region, where there was a positive socioeconomic deprivation gradient across exposure categories, there was also a positive, significant association of TTHM with risk of stillbirth and low and very low birth weight. Overall summary estimates across the three regions using a random-effects model to allow for between-region heterogeneity in exposure effects showed small excess risks in areas with high TTHM concentrations for stillbirths [odds ratio (OR) = 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00–1.23), low birth weight (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.93–1.27), and very low birth weight (OR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.82–1.34). Among the individual THMs, chloroform showed a similar pattern of risk as TTHM, but no association was found with concentrations of bromodichloromethane or total brominated THMs. Our findings overall suggest a significant association of stillbirths with maternal residence in areas with high TTHM exposure. Further work is needed looking at cause-specific stillbirths and effects of other disinfection by-products and to help differentiate between alternative (noncausal) explanations and those that may derive from the water supply. PMID:15687062

  7. Trihalomethanes in drinking water and the risk of death from kidney cancer: does hardness in drinking water matter?

    PubMed

    Liao, Yen-Hsiung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Chih-Ching; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between total trihalomethanes (TTHM) levels in public water supplies and risk of development of kidney cancer and (2) determine whether hardness levels in drinking water modify the effects of TTHM on risk of kidney cancer induction. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death attributed to kidney cancer and exposure to TTHM in drinking water in 53 municipalities in Taiwan. All kidney cancer deaths in the 53 municipalities from 1998 through 2007 were obtained. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data on TTHM levels and levels of hardness in drinking water were also collected. The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's TTHM and hardness exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose TTHM exposure level was <4.9 ppb, the adjusted OR (95% CI) for kidney cancer was 0.98 (0.77-1.25) for individuals who resided in municipalities served by drinking water with a TTHM exposure ≥4.9 ppb. However, evidence of an interaction was noted between the use of soft water and drinking water TTHM concentrations. Increased knowledge of the interaction between hardness and TTHM levels in reducing risk of kidney cancer development will aid in public policy decision and establishing standards to prevent disease occurrence.

  8. Integrated Data Fusion and Mining Techniques for Monitoring Total Organic Carbon Concentrations in a Lake

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total organic carbon (TOC) in surface waters, markedly of seasonal variations, is a known precursor of disinfection byproducts such as Total Trihalomethanes (TTHM) in drinking water treatment. Real-time knowledge of TOC distribution in source water can help treatment operation to...

  9. Use of routinely collected data on trihalomethane in drinking water for epidemiological purposes

    PubMed Central

    Keegan, T; Whitaker, H; Nieuwenhuijsen, M; Toledano, M; Elliott, P; Fawell, J; Wilkinson, M; Best, N

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To explore the use of routinely collected trihalomethane (THM) measurements for epidemiological studies. Recently there has been interest in the relation between byproducts of disinfection of public drinking water and certain adverse reproductive outcomes, including stillbirth, congenital malformations, and low birth weight.
METHOD—Five years of THM readings (1992-6), collected for compliance with statutory limits, were analysed. One water company in the north west of England, divided into 288 water zones, provided 15 984 observations for statistical analysis. On average each zone was sampled 11.1 times a year. Five year, annual, monthly, and seasonal variation in THMs were examined as well as the variability within and between zones.
RESULTS—Between 1992 and 1996 the total THM (TTHM) annual zone means were less than half the statutory concentration, at approximately 46 µg/l. Differences in annual water zone means were within 7%. Over the study period, the maximum water zone mean fell from 142.2 to 88.1 µg/l. Mean annual concentrations for individual THMs (µg/l) were 36.6, 8.0, and 2.8 for chloroform, bromodichloromethane (BDCM), and dibromochloromethane (DBCM) respectively. Bromoform data were not analysed, because a high proportion of the data were below the detection limit. The correlation between chloroform and TTHM was 0.98, between BDCM and TTHM 0.62, and between DBCM and TTHM −0.09. Between zone variation was larger than within zone variation for chloroform and BDCM, but not for DBCM. There was only little seasonal variation (<3%). Monthly variation was found although there were no consistent trends within years.
CONCLUSION—In an area where the TTHM concentrations were less than half the statutory limit (48 µg/l) chloroform formed a high proportion of TTHM. The results of the correlation analysis suggest that TTHM concentrations provided a good indication of chloroform concentrations, a reasonable indication of

  10. Trihalomethanes in drinking water and the risk of death from rectal cancer: does hardness in drinking water matter?

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsin-Wei; Chen, Pei-Shih; Ho, Shu-Chen; Wang, Li-Yu; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the relationship between total trihalomethanes (TTHM) levels in public water supplies and risk of rectal cancer development and (2) to determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the effects of TTHM on risk of developing rectal cancer. A matched cancer case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death attributed to rectal cancer and exposure to TTHM in drinking water in 53 municipalities in Taiwan. All rectal cancer deaths in the 53 municipalities from 1998 through 2007 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data on TTHM levels in drinking water were collected from the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. Information on the levels of Ca and Mg in drinking water was obtained from the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation. The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's TTHM, Ca, and Mg exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose TTHM exposure level was <4.9 ppb, the adjusted OR (95% CI) for rectal cancer occurrence was 1.04 (0.88-1.22) for individuals who resided in municipalities served by drinking water with a TTHM exposure >or=4.9 ppb. There was no evidence of an interaction of drinking-water TTHM levels with low Ca intake via drinking water. However, evidence of an interaction was noted between drinking-water TTHM concentrations and Mg intake via drinking water. Our findings showed that the correlation between TTHM exposure and risk of rectal cancer is influenced by Mg in drinking water. Increased knowledge of the interaction between Mg and TTHM in reducing rectal cancer risk will aid

  11. A New Method for the Fast Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Tap and Recycled Waters Using Headspace Gas Chromatography with Micro-Electron Capture Detection.

    PubMed

    Alexandrou, Lydon D; Meehan, Barry J; Morrison, Paul D; Jones, Oliver A H

    2017-05-15

    Chemical disinfection of water supplies brings significant public health benefits by reducing microbial contamination. The process can however, result in the formation of toxic compounds through interactions between disinfectants and organic material in the source water. These new compounds are termed disinfection by-products (DBPs). The most common are the trihalomethanes (THMs) such as trichloromethane (chloroform), dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane and tribromomethane (bromoform); these are commonly reported as a single value for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Analysis of DBPs is commonly performed via time- and solvent-intensive sample preparation techniques such as liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction. In this study, a method using headspace gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection was developed and applied for the analysis of THMs in drinking and recycled waters from across Melbourne (Victoria, Australia). The method allowed almost complete removal of the sample preparation step whilst maintaining trace level detection limits (>1 ppb). All drinking water samples had TTHM concentrations below the Australian regulatory limit of 250 µg/L but some were above the U.S. EPA limit of 60 µg/L. The highest TTHM concentration was 67.2 µg/L and lowest 22.9 µg/L. For recycled water, samples taken directly from treatment plants held significantly higher concentrations (153.2 µg/L TTHM) compared to samples from final use locations (4.9-9.3 µg/L).

  12. A New Method for the Fast Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Tap and Recycled Waters Using Headspace Gas Chromatography with Micro-Electron Capture Detection

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrou, Lydon D.; Meehan, Barry J.; Morrison, Paul D.; Jones, Oliver A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical disinfection of water supplies brings significant public health benefits by reducing microbial contamination. The process can however, result in the formation of toxic compounds through interactions between disinfectants and organic material in the source water. These new compounds are termed disinfection by-products (DBPs). The most common are the trihalomethanes (THMs) such as trichloromethane (chloroform), dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane and tribromomethane (bromoform); these are commonly reported as a single value for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Analysis of DBPs is commonly performed via time- and solvent-intensive sample preparation techniques such as liquid–liquid and solid phase extraction. In this study, a method using headspace gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection was developed and applied for the analysis of THMs in drinking and recycled waters from across Melbourne (Victoria, Australia). The method allowed almost complete removal of the sample preparation step whilst maintaining trace level detection limits (>1 ppb). All drinking water samples had TTHM concentrations below the Australian regulatory limit of 250 µg/L but some were above the U.S. EPA limit of 60 µg/L. The highest TTHM concentration was 67.2 µg/L and lowest 22.9 µg/L. For recycled water, samples taken directly from treatment plants held significantly higher concentrations (153.2 µg/L TTHM) compared to samples from final use locations (4.9–9.3 µg/L). PMID:28505068

  13. Effect modification of the association between trihalomethanes and pancreatic cancer by drinking water hardness: evidence from an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between total trihalomethanes (TTHM) levels in public water supplies and risk of pancreatic cancer and to determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water modify the effects of TTHM on risk to develop pancreatic cancer. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death attributed to pancreatic cancer and exposure to TTHM in drinking water in 53 municipalities in Taiwan. All pancreatic cancer deaths in the 53 municipalities from 1998 through 2007 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair matched to the cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data on TTHM levels in drinking water were collected from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. Information on the levels of Ca and Mg in drinking water was obtained from the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation. The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's TTHM, Ca, and Mg exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose TTHM exposure level < 4.9ppb, the adjusted OR (95% CI) for pancreatic cancer was 1.01 (0.85-1.21) for individuals who resided in municipalities served by drinking water with a TTHM exposure > 4.9ppb. There was no evidence of an interaction of drinking water TTHM levels with low Ca intake via drinking water. However, we observed evidence of an interaction between drinking water TTHM concentrations and Mg intake via drinking water. Our findings showed that the correlation between TTHM exposure and risk of pancreatic cancer is influenced by Mg in drinking water. Increased knowledge of the interaction between Mg and TTHM in reducing pancreatic cancer risk will aid in public policy making

  14. Occurrence and variability of iodinated trihalomethanes concentrations within two drinking-water distribution networks.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Panagiotis; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2016-02-01

    Non-iodo-containing trihalomethanes (TTHM) are frequently detected in chlorinated tap water and currently regulated against their carcinogenic potential. Iodinated THM (ITHM) may also form in disinfected with chlorine waters that are high in iodine content, but little is known about their magnitude and variability within the drinking-water pipe distribution network of urban areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and variability of ITHM and TTHM levels and their corresponding daily intake estimates within the drinking water distribution systems of Limassol and Nicosia cities of Cyprus, using tap samples collected from individual households (n=37). In Limassol, mean household tap water ITHM and TTHM levels was 0.58 and 38 μg L(-1), respectively. Dichloroiodomethane (DCIM) was the dominant species of the two measured ITHM compounds accounting for 77% of total ITHM and in the range of 0.032 and 1.65 μg L(-1). The range of DCIM concentrations in Nicosia tap water samples was narrower (0.032 - 0.848 μg L(-1)). Mean total iodine concentration in tap water samples from the seaside city of Limassol was 15 μg L(-1) and approximately twice to those observed in samples from the mainland Nicosia city. However, iodine concentrations did not correlate with the ITHM levels. The calculated chronic daily intake rates of ITHM were low when compared with those of TTHM, but because of their widespread occurrence in tap water and their enhanced mammalian cell toxicity, additional research is warranted to assess the magnitude and variability of human ITHM exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Trihalomethanes in drinking water and the risk of death from esophageal cancer: does hardness in drinking water matter?

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between total trihalomethanes (TTHM) levels in public water supplies and risk of esophageal cancer occurrence and (2) determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water modify the effects of TTHM on risk to develop esophageal cancer. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death attributed to esophageal cancer and exposure to TTHM in drinking water in 53 municipalities in Taiwan. All esophageal cancer deaths in the 53 municipalities from 2006 through 2010 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data on TTHM levels in drinking water were collected from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. Information on the levels of Ca and Mg in drinking water was obtained from the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation. The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's TTHM, Ca, and Mg exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose TTHM exposure level <4.9 ppb, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for esophageal cancer was 1.02 (0.84-1.23) for individuals who resided in municipalities served by drinking water with a TTHM exposure ≥4.9 ppb. There was evidence of an interaction between drinking-water TTHM levels and low Ca and Mg intake. Our findings showed that the correlation between TTHM exposure and risk of esophageal cancer development was influenced by Ca and Mg levels in drinking water. This is the first study to report effect modification by Ca and Mg intake from drinking water on the correlation between TTHM exposure and risk of esophageal cancer occurrence

  16. Modelling the regional variability of the probability of high trihalomethane occurrence in municipal drinking water.

    PubMed

    Cool, Geneviève; Lebel, Alexandre; Sadiq, Rehan; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2015-12-01

    The regional variability of the probability of occurrence of high total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels was assessed using multilevel logistic regression models that incorporate environmental and infrastructure characteristics. The models were structured in a three-level hierarchical configuration: samples (first level), drinking water utilities (DWUs, second level) and natural regions, an ecological hierarchical division from the Quebec ecological framework of reference (third level). They considered six independent variables: precipitation, temperature, source type, seasons, treatment type and pH. The average probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the targeted threshold was 18.1%. The probability was influenced by seasons, treatment type, precipitations and temperature. The variance at all levels was significant, showing that the probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the threshold is most likely to be similar if located within the same DWU and within the same natural region. However, most of the variance initially attributed to natural regions was explained by treatment types and clarified by spatial aggregation on treatment types. Nevertheless, even after controlling for treatment type, there was still significant regional variability of the probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the threshold. Regional variability was particularly important for DWUs using chlorination alone since they lack the appropriate treatment required to reduce the amount of natural organic matter (NOM) in source water prior to disinfection. Results presented herein could be of interest to authorities in identifying regions with specific needs regarding drinking water quality and for epidemiological studies identifying geographical variations in population exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs).

  17. A green strategy for desorption of trihalomethanes adsorbed by humin and reuse of the fixed bed column.

    PubMed

    Cunha, G C; Romão, L P C; Santos, M C; Costa, A S; Alexandre, M R

    2012-03-30

    The objective of the present work was to develop a thermal desorption method for the removal of trihalomethanes (THM) adsorbed by humin, followed by multiple recycling of the fixed bed column in order to avoid excessive consumption of materials and reduce operating costs. The results obtained for adsorption on a fixed bed column confirmed the effectiveness of humin as an adsorbent, extracting between 45.9% and 90.1% of the total THM (TTHM). In none of the tests was the column fully saturated after 10h. Experiments involving thermal desorption were used to evaluate the potential of the technique for column regeneration. The adsorptive capacity of the humin bed increased significantly (p<0.05) between the first and fifth desorption cycle, by 18.9%, 18.1%, 24.2%, 20.2% and 24.2% for CHBr(3), CHBr(2)Cl, CHBrCl(2), CHCl(3) and TTHM, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing trihalomethanes (THMs) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potentials in drinking water treatment plants using fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyang; Kim, Daekyun; Uzun, Habibullah; Karanfil, Tanju; Hur, Jin

    2015-02-01

    The formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is a major challenge in drinking water treatments. This study explored the applicability of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) for assessing the formation potentials (FPs) of trihalomethanes (THMs) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and the treatability of THM and NDMA precursors in nine drinking water treatment plants. Two humic-like and one tryptophan-like components were identified for the samples using PARAFAC. The total THM FP (TTHM FP) correlated strongly with humic-like component C2 (r=0.874), while NDMA FP showed a moderate and significant correlation with the tryptophan-like component C3 (r=0.628). The reduction by conventional treatment was more effective for C2 than C3, and for TTHM FP than NDMA FP. The treatability of DOM and TTHM FP correlated negatively with the absorption spectral slope (S275-295) and biological index (BIX) of the raw water, but it correlated positively with humification index (HIX). Our results demonstrated that PARAFAC components were valuable for assessing DBPs FP in drinking water treatments, and also that the raw water quality could affect the treatment efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trihalomethane levels in Madras public drinking water supply system and its impact on public health.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S; Azariah, J; Bauer, U

    1990-02-01

    It is known that trihalomethanes (THM) are formed during chlorination of drinking water for disinfection. Heightened concern about these substances is due to the fact that THMs are now characterized as potential mutagen, carcinogen and teratogen. Thus, it is a risk factor in human beings. In the present study, a total number of 13 stations located in different drinking water trunk mains of the city of Madras were analysed for THM using the Gas Liquid Chromatographic method. It is reported that THM are formed after treatment of raw water with chlorine at the levels required for disinfection. The THM level in drinking water increased towards the dead-end of the water trunk mains. A relationship between the distance travelled by the potable water and the level of THM was established. At certain stations, the total trihalomethanes level (TTHM) was found to exceed the EPA's maximum contaminant level. Further, an intermittent addition of the precursors for the formation of THM through the seepage of polluted River Cooum water into the pipe lines has been demonstrated. An experiment on the trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) clearly revealed the occurrence of higher magnitude of humic substances in source water. Therefore, it is suggested that if suitable steps are not taken, various environmental factors may trigger the THM kinetics. Hence, it is obvious that pretreatment regulations proposed by developed countries are essential if safe drinking water is to be supplied to the people of Madras.

  20. N-nitrosodimethylamine and trihalomethane formation and minimisation in Southeast Queensland drinking water.

    PubMed

    Knight, Nicole; Watson, Kalinda; Farré, Maria José; Shaw, Glen

    2012-07-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors in some Southeast Queensland drinking water sources by conducting formation potential experiments for the four regulated trihalomethanes (THMs), and the potent carcinogen, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). NDMA formation potentials were consistently low (<5-21 ng/L), and total THM (tTHM) formation potentials were consistently below the Australian Drinking Water Guideline (250 μg/L). NDMA concentration of finished drinking waters was also monitored and found to be <5 ng/L in all cases. The effect of coagulation and advanced oxidation on the formation of NDMA and THMs is also reported. UV/H(2)O(2) pre-treatment was effective in producing water with very low THMs concentrations, and UV irradiation was an effective method for NDMA degradation. H(2)O(2) was not required for the observed NDMA degradation to occur. Coagulation using alum, ferric chloride or poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (polyDADMAC) was ineffective in removing DBPs precursors from the source water studied, irrespective of the low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) attained. Rather, coagulation with polyDADMAC caused an increase in NDMA formation potential upon chloramination, and all coagulants led to an increased tTHM formation potential upon chlorination due to the high bromide concentration of the source water studied.

  1. Trihalomethane and nonpurgeable total organic-halide formation potentials of the Mississippi river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Trihalomethane and nonpurgeable total organic-hallide formation potentials were determined for water samples from 12 sites along the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, MN, to New Orleans, LA, for the summer and fall of 1991 and the spring of 1992. The formation potentials increased with distance upstream, approximately paralleling the increase of the dissolved organic- carbon concentration. The pH and the dissolved organic-carbon and free- chlorine concentrations were significant variables in the prediction of the formation potentials. The trihalomethane formation potential increased as the pH increased, whereas the nonpurgeable total organic-halide formation potential decreased. All formation potentials increased as the dissolved organic-carbon and free-chlorine concentrations increased, with the dissolved organic-carbon concentration having a much greater effect.

  2. 40 CFR 141.600 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... levels for total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and haloacetic acids (five)(HAA5). You must use an Initial... noncommunity water system that serves at least 10,000 people and uses a primary or residual disinfectant other...

  3. TIME TO PREGNANCY IN RELATION TO TOTAL TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN TAP WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Time to pregnancy in relation to total trihalomethane levels in tap water
    Shanna H. Swan, Cuirong Ren, Gayle C. Windham, Laura Fenster, Kirsten Waller. (University of Missouri and California Department of Health Services).

    We have previously reported increased risks o...

  4. 40 CFR 141.64 - Maximum contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... disinfection byproducts. 141.64 Section 141.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS National Primary Drinking... source water: Disinfection byproduct Best available technology Total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and...

  5. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level for total trihalomethanes. 142.60 Section 142.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION Identification of Best Technology, Treatment Techniques or Other Means Generally Available § 142..., pursuant to section 1415(a)(1)(A) of the Act, hereby identifies the following as the best technology...

  6. DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AND DURATION OF GESTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) suggest high exposure decreases risk of preterm birth. We examined this association with total trihalomethane (TTHM) and five haloacetic acids (HAA5) among 2,041 women in a prospective pregnancy study conducted from...

  7. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... disinfectant or oxidant. (2) Use of chlorine dioxide as an alternate or supplemental disinfectant or oxidant... to reduce TTHM formation and, where necessary, substituting for the use of chlorine as a pre-oxidant chloramines, chlorine dioxide or potassium permanganate. (5) Use of powdered activated carbon for THM...

  8. Validation of drinking water disinfection by-product exposure assessment for rural areas in the National Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Binkley, Teresa L; Thiex, Natalie W; Specker, Bonny L

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to provide evidence to evaluate the proposed National Children's Study (NCS) protocol for household water sampling in rural study areas. Day-to-day variability in total trihalomethane (TTHM) concentrations in community water supplies (CWS) in rural areas was determined, and the correlation between TTHM concentrations from household taps and CWS monitoring reports was evaluated. Daily water samples were collected from 7 households serviced by 7 different CWS for 15 days. Coefficients of variation for TTHM concentration over 15 days ranged from 8% to 20% depending on the household. Correlations were tested between TTHM household concentrations and the closest date- and location-matched CWS monitoring reports for the 15-day mean (R=0.85, P<0.01). To simulate the NCS-proposed protocol, correlations were tested for 30 additional NCS household samples (polynomial fit: R=0.74, P=0.04). CWS reported TTHM concentrations >50 μg/l corresponded to measured NCS household concentrations ranging from 2 to 60 μg/l. TTHM concentrations were higher in CWS than NCS samples (11.2±3.2 μg/l, mean difference±SE, P<0.01). These results show that in rural areas there is high variability within households and poor correlation at higher concentrations, suggesting that TTHM concentrations from CWS monitoring reports are not an accurate measure of exposure in the household.

  9. 40 CFR 141.64 - Maximum contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... trihalomethanes (TTHM) and Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening or GAC10... Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening, plus GAC10; or nanofiltration with...

  10. 40 CFR 141.64 - Maximum contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... trihalomethanes (TTHM) and Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening or GAC10... Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening, plus GAC10; or nanofiltration with...

  11. 40 CFR 141.64 - Maximum contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... trihalomethanes (TTHM) and Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening or GAC10... Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening, plus GAC10; or nanofiltration with...

  12. 40 CFR 141.64 - Maximum contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... trihalomethanes (TTHM) and Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening or GAC10... Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening, plus GAC10; or nanofiltration with...

  13. Exposure to drinking water trihalomethanes and their association with low birth weight and small for gestational age in genetically susceptible women.

    PubMed

    Danileviciute, Asta; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Vencloviene, Jone; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2012-12-06

    Little is known about genetic susceptibility to individual trihalomethanes (THM) in relation to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We conducted a nested case-control study of 682 pregnant women in Kaunas (Lithuania) and, using individual information on drinking water, ingestion, showering and bathing, and uptake factors of THMs in blood, estimated an internal THM dose. We used logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between internal THM dose, birth outcomes and individual and joint (modifying) effects of metabolic gene polymorphisms. THM exposure during entire pregnancy and specific trimesters slightly increased low birth weight (LBW) risk. When considering both THM exposure and maternal genotypes, the largest associations were found for third trimester among total THM (TTHM) and chloroform-exposed women with the GSTM1-0 genotype (OR: 4.37; 95% CI: 1.36-14.08 and OR: 5.06; 95% CI: 1.50-17.05, respectively). A test of interaction between internal THM dose and GSTM1-0 genotype suggested a modifying effect of exposure to chloroform and bromodichloromethane on LBW risk. However, the effect on small for gestational age (SGA) was not statistically significant. These data suggest that THM internal dose may affect foetal growth and that maternal GSTM1 genotype modifies the THM exposure effects on LBW.

  14. Ships' Ballast Water Treatment by Chlorination Can Generate Toxic Trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Marco R; Ismail, Nargis; Drouillard, Ken G; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2017-08-01

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) will enforce a new abundance-based performance standard for ballast water in September, 2017. Strong oxidants, like chlorine, have been proposed as a method for achieving this standard. However chlorine treatment of ballast water can produce hazardous trihalomethanes. We assessed maximum trihalomethane production from one chlorine dose for three types of ballast water (fresh, brackish and marine) and three levels of total organic carbon (TOC) concentration (natural, filtered, enhanced). While the current standard test considers a 5 day voyage, there is a high possibility of shorter trips and sudden change of plans that will release treated waters in the environment. Water source and TOC significantly affected trihalomethane production, with the highest amounts generated in brackish waters and enhanced TOC concentration. The concentration of brominated trihalomethanes increased from background levels and was highest in brackish water, followed by marine and fresh water.

  15. Estimated Effects of Disinfection By-products on Preterm Birth in a Population Served by a Single Water Utility

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Chad; Suffet, Irwin H.; Hoggatt, Katherine; Ritz, Beate

    2007-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated the association between drinking-water disinfection by-products and preterm births using improved exposure assessment and more appropriate analysis methods than used in prior studies. Methods During 1999–2001, vital record data were obtained for a large, racially diverse population residing in 27 Massachusetts communities that received drinking water from a single public utility. This water system was monitored weekly for total trihalomethanes (TTHM), and it maintained geographically stable total TTHM levels system-wide during the study period. We employed proportional hazards regression to examine the effects of trimester-specific and shorter-term peak exposures to TTHM in drinking water late in pregnancy on preterm births in 37,498 singletons. Results For all women, our data suggested no more than a small increase, if any, in risk for delivering a preterm baby when exposed to ≥ 60 μg/L TTHM during the 4 weeks before birth [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.95–1.35]. However, women who depended on a governmental source of payment for prenatal care were at increased risk when exposed at such levels late in gestation (HR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.06–1.81). In contrast, exposure to high levels of TTHM during the second trimester and high exposure throughout pregnancy resulted in a 15–18% reduction in risk for preterm delivery in our population. Conclusions This finding confirms previous reports of a negative association during the second trimester. Our data also suggested a possible positive association with shorter-term third-trimester TTHM exposure in mothers of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:17384780

  16. Characterization of Natural Organic Matter in Conventional Water Treatment Processes and Evaluation of THM Formation with Chlorine

    PubMed Central

    Özdemır, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the fractions of natural organic matter (NOM) and trihalomethane (THM) formation after chlorination in samples of raw water and the outputs from ozonation, coagulation-flocculation, and conventional filtration treatment units. All the water samples are passed through various ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. UF membranes with different molecular size ranges based on apparent molecular weight (AMW), such as 1000, 3000, 10,000, and 30,000 Daltons (Da), are commonly used. The NOM fraction with AMW < 1000 Da (1 K) is the dominant fraction within all the fractionated water samples. Its maximum percentage is 85.86% after the filtration process and the minimum percentage is 65.01% in raw water samples. The total THM (TTHM) yield coefficients range from 22.5 to 42 μg-TTHM/mg-DOC in all fractionated samples, which is related to their specific ultraviolet Absorbance (SUVA) levels. As the molecular weight of the fractions decreased, the TTHM yield coefficients increased. The NOM fractions with AMW values less than 1 K had lower SUVA values (<3 L/mg·m) for all treatment stages and also they had higher yield of TTHM per unit of DOC. The NOM fraction with AMW < 1 K for chlorinated raw water samples has the highest yield coefficient (42 μg-TTHM/mg-DOC). PMID:24558323

  17. Nitrates, chlorates and trihalomethanes in swimming pool water.

    PubMed Central

    Beech, J A; Diaz, R; Ordaz, C; Palomeque, B

    1980-01-01

    Water from swimming pools in the Miami area was analyzed for nitrates, chlorates and trihalomethanes. The average concentrations of nitrate and chlorate found in freshwater pools were 8.6 mg/liter and 16 mg/liter respectively, with the highest concentrations being 54.9 mg/liter and 124 mg/liter, respectively. The average concentration of total trihalomethanes found in freshwater pools was 125 micrograms/liter (mainly chloroform) and in saline pools was 657 micrograms/liter (mainly bromoform); the highest concentration was 430 micrograms/liter (freshwater) and 1287 micrograms/liter (saltwater). The possible public health significance of these results is briefly discussed. PMID:7350831

  18. Relation of trihalomethane-formation potential to water-quality and physical characteristics of small water-supply lakes, eastern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, L.M.; Arruda, J.A.; Fromm, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of carcinogenic trihalomethanes during the treatment of public surface water supplies has become a potentially serious problem. The U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Health and Environment , investigated the potential for trihalomethane formation in water from 15 small, public water supply lakes in eastern Kansas from April 1984 through April 1986 in order to define the principal factors that affect or control the potential for trihalomethane formation during the water treatment process. Relations of mean concentrations of trihalomethane-formation potential to selected water quality and lake and watershed physical characteristics were investigated using correlation and regression analysis. Statistically significant, direct relations were developed between trihalomethanes produced in unfiltered and filtered lake water and mean concentrations of total and dissolved organic carbon. Correlation coefficients for these relations ranged from 0.86 to 0.93. Mean values of maximum depth of lake were shown to have statistically significant inverse relations to mean concentrations of trihalomethane-formation potential and total and dissolved organic carbon. Correlation coefficients for these relations ranged from -0.76 to -0.81. (USGS)

  19. Pyrosequencing Analysis of Bench-Scale Nitrifying BiofiltersRemoving Trihalomethanes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bacterial biofilm communities in four nitrifying biofilters degrading regulated drinking water trihalomethanes were characterized by 454 pyrosequencing. The three most abundant phylotypes based on total diversity were Nitrosomonas (70%), Nitrobacter (14%), and Chitinophagace...

  20. Effects of alum coagulation on speciation and distribution of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs).

    PubMed

    Gang, Dianchen; Clevenger, Thomas E; Banerji, Shankha K

    2005-01-01

    The impacts of alum coagulation on the distribution of disinfection by-products (DBPs), trihalomethanes (THMs), and haloacetic acids (HAAs) were evaluated under controlled chlorination conditions using four surface waters. Among the nine HAAs found in waters, dihaloacetic acids (X2AAs) have been found to be the dominant species in all of the raw and alum treated waters. Alum coagulation tends to remove more monohaloacetic acids (XAAs) and trihaloacetic acids (X3AAs) precursors than that of dihaloacetic acids (X2AAs). Alum coagulation treated water had a lower HAA9/TTHM ratio compared with that of the raw water. The increase of THM bromine incorporation factors (BIFalpha) value of alum treated water was statistically significant in comparison with the raw water. On average, BIFalpha increased by 54% after the alum coagulation process in these four different waters. This indicated that THM speciations shifted in favor of the more brominated compounds. However, alum coagulation treatment process had less effect on HAA bromi ne incorporation factors (BIFbeta)than it did on BIFalpha. Bromine incorporation factor (BIF) values decreased with time in the THM and HAA formation processes, especially within the first 10 h of the reaction time. This suggested that brominated THMs or HAAs formed faster than the chlorinated species in the initial period.

  1. Influence of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) Character on the Distribution of Chlorinated and Chloraminated Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) at Rand Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, Savia S.; Ncube, Esper J.; Haarhoff, Johannes; Msagati, Titus AM; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Nkambule, Thabo I.

    2016-04-01

    Certain disinfection by-products (DBPs) are likely human carcinogens or present mutagenic effects while many DBPs are unidentified. Considering the possibility of DBPs being harmful to human health and the fact that trihalomethanes (THMs) are the only regulated DBP in the South African National Standard (SANS:241) for drinking water, special interest in the precursors to these DBPs' formation is created. It is essential to understand the reactivity and character of the precursors responsible for the formation of DBPs in order to enhance precursor removal strategies during the treatment of drinking water. In this study the character of NOM within surface water and the subsequent distribution of THMs formed in the drinking water from Rand Waters' full scale treatment plant were investigated. Molecular size distribution (MSD) of NOM within the surface water was determined by high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) and UV254 measurements formed part of the NOM character study as they provide an indication of the aromaticity of organic matter. The four THMs; bromoform, chloroform, dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and bromodichloromethane (BDCM)were measured by gas chromatography. The sum of these four THMs was expressed as total trihalomethane (TTHM). On average the chloroform constituted 76.2% of the total TTHM, BDCM 22.5% while DBCM and bromoform measured below the detection limit. THM speciation after chlorination and chloramination concentrations increased in the sequence bromoform < DBCM < BDCM < chloroform. Results of the MSD showed a significant correlation between NOM of high molecular size (peak I) and TTHM formation specifically during the summer months (R2= 0.971, p < 0.05). High molecular weight (HMW) NOM also related well to chloroform formation (R2 = 0.963, p < 0.05) however, the formation of BDCM was not due to HWM fraction as indicated by weak regression coefficient. A positive correlation existed between

  2. 40 CFR 141.627 - Requirements for remaining on reduced TTHM and HAA5 monitoring based on subpart L results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.627 Requirements for remaining on reduced TTHM...

  3. 40 CFR 141.627 - Requirements for remaining on reduced TTHM and HAA5 monitoring based on subpart L results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.627 Requirements for remaining on reduced TTHM...

  4. 40 CFR 141.627 - Requirements for remaining on reduced TTHM and HAA5 monitoring based on subpart L results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.627 Requirements for remaining on reduced TTHM...

  5. 40 CFR 141.627 - Requirements for remaining on reduced TTHM and HAA5 monitoring based on subpart L results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.627 Requirements for remaining on reduced TTHM...

  6. 40 CFR 141.627 - Requirements for remaining on reduced TTHM and HAA5 monitoring based on subpart L results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.627 Requirements for remaining on reduced TTHM...

  7. Factorial analysis of trihalomethanes formation in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Champagne, Pascale; McLellan, P James

    2010-06-01

    Disinfection of drinking water reduces pathogenic infection, but may pose risks to human health through the formation of disinfection byproducts. The effects of different factors on the formation of trihalomethanes were investigated using a statistically designed experimental program, and a predictive model for trihalomethanes formation was developed. Synthetic water samples with different factor levels were produced, and trihalomethanes concentrations were measured. A replicated fractional factorial design with center points was performed, and significant factors were identified through statistical analysis. A second-order trihalomethanes formation model was developed from 92 experiments, and the statistical adequacy was assessed through appropriate diagnostics. This model was validated using additional data from the Drinking Water Surveillance Program database and was applied to the Smiths Falls water supply system in Ontario, Canada. The model predictions were correlated strongly to the measured trihalomethanes, with correlations of 0.95 and 0.91, respectively. The resulting model can assist in analyzing risk-cost tradeoffs in the design and operation of water supply systems.

  8. FORMATION AND CONTROL OF NON-TRIHALOMETHANE BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hundreds of organic byproducts of chlorination are now known to occur in drinking water along with the trihalomethanes. About twenty of these appear to be found with sufficient concentration are now known to occur in drinking water along with the trihalomethanes. bout twenty of t...

  9. TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR CONTROLLING TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this volume, the authors attempt to bring together information developed over the past 6 years, on all aspects of trihalomethanes as they relate to drinking water. Section I summarizes with references to the primary literature the discovery of the trihalomethane problem, healt...

  10. Evaluating trihalomethane content in drinking water on the basis of common monitoring parameters: regression models.

    PubMed

    Espigares, Miguel; Lardelli, Pablo; Ortega, Pedro

    2003-10-01

    The presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in potable-water sources is an issue of great interest because of the negative impact THMs have on human health. The objective of this study was to correlate the presence of trihalomethanes with more routinely monitored parameters of water quality, in order to facilitate THM control. Water samples taken at various stages of treatment from a water treatment plant were analyzed for the presence of trihalomethanes with the Fujiwara method. The data collected from these determinations were compared with the values obtained for free-residual-chlorine and combined-residual-chlorine levels as well as standard physico-chemical and microbiological indicators such as chemical oxygen demand (by the KMnO4 method), total chlorophyll, conductivity, pH, alkalinity, turbidity, chlorides, sulfates, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, ammonia, calcium, magnesium, heterotrophic bacteria count, Pseudomonas spp., total and fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci. The data from these determinations were compiled, and statistical analysis was performed to determine which variables correlate best with the presence and quantity of trihalomethanes in the samples. Levels of THMs in water seem to correlate directly with levels of combined residual chlorine and nitrates, and inversely with the level of free residual chlorine. Statistical analysis with multiple linear regression was conducted to determine the best-fitting models. The models chosen incorporate between two and four independent variables and include chemical oxygen demand, nitrites, and ammonia. These indicators, which are commonly determined during the water treatment process, demonstrate the strongest correlation with the levels of trihalomethanes in water and offer great utility as an accessible method for THM detection and control.

  11. Field assessment of bacterial communities and total trihalomethanes: Implications for drinking water networks.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Pachongo, Carolina; Douterelo, Isabel; Noakes, Catherine; Camargo-Valero, Miller Alonso; Sleigh, Andrew; Escobar-Rivera, Juan-Carlos; Torres-Lozada, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    Operation and maintenance (O&M) of drinking water distribution networks (DWDNs) in tropical countries simultaneously face the control of acute and chronic risks due to the presence of microorganisms and disinfection by-products, respectively. In this study, results from a detailed field characterization of microbiological, chemical and infrastructural parameters of a tropical-climate DWDN are presented. Water physicochemical parameters and the characteristics of the network were assessed to evaluate the relationship between abiotic and microbiological factors and their association with the presence of total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16s rRNA gene revealed significant differences in the composition of biofilm and planktonic communities. The highly diverse biofilm communities showed the presence of methylotrophic bacteria, which suggest the presence of methyl radicals such as THMs within this habitat. Microbiological parameters correlated with water age, pH, temperature and free residual chlorine. The results from this study are necessary to increase the awareness of O&M practices in DWDNs required to reduce biofilm formation and maintain appropriate microbiological and chemical water quality, in relation to biofilm detachment and DBP formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence of arsenic release promoted by disinfection by-products within drinking-water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Botsaris, George; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Kalyvas, Harris; Costa, Costas N

    2014-02-15

    Changes in disinfectant type could trigger a cascade of reactions releasing pipe-anchored metals/metalloids into finished water. However, the effect of pre-formed disinfection by-products on the release of sorbed contaminants (arsenic-As in particular) from drinking water distribution system pipe scales remains unexplored. A bench-scale study using a factorial experimental design was performed to evaluate the independent and interaction effects of trihalomethanes (TTHM) and haloacetic acids (HAA) on arsenic (As) release from either scales-only or scale-biofilm conglomerates (SBC) both anchored on asbestos/cement pipe coupons. A model biofilm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was allowed to grow on select pipe coupons prior experimentation. Either TTHM or HAA individual dosing did not promote As release from either scales only or SBC, detecting <6 μg AsL(-1) in finished water. In the case of scales-only coupons, the combination of the highest spike level of TTHM and HAA significantly (p<0.001) increased dissolved and total As concentrations to levels up to 16 and 95 μg L(-1), respectively. Similar treatments in the presence of biofilm (SBC) resulted in significant (p<0.001) increase in dissolved and total recoverable As up to 20 and 47 μg L(-1), respectively, exceeding the regulatory As limit. Whether or not, our laboratory-based results truly represent mechanisms operating in disinfected finished water in pipe networks remains to be investigated in the field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Formation of Trihalomethanes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussell, R. Rhodes; Umphres, Mark D.

    1978-01-01

    Reviewed are a number of factors important in the formation of trihalomethanes (THM) including the nature of aquatic humus and the influences of preozonation, bromide, pH, and chlorine. A brief investigation is also conducted into the kinetics of the THM reaction. Several major research needs are represented. (CS)

  14. Atrazine in public water supplies and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in the Iowa Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Weyer, Peter J; Jones, Rena R; Booth, Benjamin J; Cantor, Kenneth P; Robien, Kim; Ward, Mary H

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated environmental chemical exposures in relation to ovarian cancer. We previously found an increased risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa associated with higher nitrate levels in public water supplies (PWS). However, elevated nitrate levels may reflect the presence of other agricultural chemicals, such as atrazine, one of the most commonly detected pesticides in Iowa PWS. Methods We evaluated the association between atrazine in drinking water and incident ovarian cancer (N=145, 1986–2010) among 13 041 postmenopausal women in the Iowa Women’s Health Study who used their PWS for ≥11 years as reported in 1989. Average levels of atrazine (1986–1987), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N, 1955–1988) and estimated levels of total trihalomethanes (TTHM, 1955–1988) from PWS monitoring data were linked to the participants’ cities of residence. We computed HRs and 95% CIs by categories of the average atrazine level (not detected, ≤ or >0.37 parts per billion=median) using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusting for ovarian cancer risk factors. Results Atrazine was detected in water samples from 69 cities where 4155 women (32%) lived and levels were moderately correlated with NO3-N (ρ=0.35) and TTHM (ρ=0.24). Atrazine levels were not associated with ovarian cancer risk with or without adjusting for NO3-N and TTHM levels ( p-trend=0.50 and 0.81, respectively). Further, there was no evidence for effect modification of the atrazine association by NO3-N or TTHM levels. Conclusions In our study with low atrazine detection rates, we found no association between atrazine in PWS and postmenopausal ovarian cancer risk. PMID:27371663

  15. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS AND SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are common byproducts of chlorinating drinking water. The effects of disinfection byproducts on semen quality have not yet been studied in humans, despite animal studies linking exposure to sperm abnormalities. We are currently analyzing the relationship of...

  16. Atrazine in public water supplies and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in the Iowa Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Weyer, Peter J; Jones, Rena R; Booth, Benjamin J; Cantor, Kenneth P; Robien, Kim; Ward, Mary H

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated environmental chemical exposures in relation to ovarian cancer. We previously found an increased risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa associated with higher nitrate levels in public water supplies (PWS). However, elevated nitrate levels may reflect the presence of other agricultural chemicals, such as atrazine, one of the most commonly detected pesticides in Iowa PWS. We evaluated the association between atrazine in drinking water and incident ovarian cancer (N=145, 1986-2010) among 13 041 postmenopausal women in the Iowa Women's Health Study who used their PWS for ≥11 years as reported in 1989. Average levels of atrazine (1986-1987), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N, 1955-1988) and estimated levels of total trihalomethanes (TTHM, 1955-1988) from PWS monitoring data were linked to the participants' cities of residence. We computed HRs and 95% CIs by categories of the average atrazine level (not detected, ≤ or >0.37 parts per billion=median) using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusting for ovarian cancer risk factors. Atrazine was detected in water samples from 69 cities where 4155 women (32%) lived and levels were moderately correlated with NO3-N (ρ=0.35) and TTHM (ρ=0.24). Atrazine levels were not associated with ovarian cancer risk with or without adjusting for NO3-N and TTHM levels (p-trend=0.50 and 0.81, respectively). Further, there was no evidence for effect modification of the atrazine association by NO3-N or TTHM levels. In our study with low atrazine detection rates, we found no association between atrazine in PWS and postmenopausal ovarian cancer risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. REAGENTLESS FIELD-USABLE FIXED-SITE AND PORTABLE ANALYZER FOR TRIHALOMETHANE (THM) CONCENTRATIONS IN DRINKING WATER - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Protection Agency rules stipulate that corrective action be taken for drinking water distribution systems that exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs) 80μg/L.  Real-time, or even periodic, monitoring of drinking water i...

  18. Chlorination by-products in drinking water and menstrual cycle function.

    PubMed

    Windham, Gayle C; Waller, Kirsten; Anderson, Meredith; Fenster, Laura; Mendola, Pauline; Swan, Shanna

    2003-06-01

    We analyzed data from a prospective study of menstrual cycle function and early pregnancy loss to explore further the effects of trihalomethanes (THM) on reproductive end points. Premenopausal women ((italic)n(/italic) = 403) collected urine samples daily during an average of 5.6 cycles for measurement of steroid metabolites that were used to define menstrual parameters such as cycle and phase length. Women were asked about consumption of various types of water as well as other habits and demographics. A THM level was estimated for each cycle based on residence and quarterly measurements made by water utilities during a 90-day period beginning 60 days before the cycle start date. We found a monotonic decrease in mean cycle length with increasing total THM (TTHM) level; at > 60 microg/L, the adjusted decrement was 1.1 days [95% confidence interval (CI), -1.8 to -0.40], compared with less than or equal to 40 microg/L. This finding was also reflected as a reduced follicular phase length (difference -0.94 day; 95% CI, -1.6 to -0.24). A decrement in cycle and follicular phase length of 0.18 days (95% CI, -0.29 to -0.07) per 10 microg/L unit increase in TTHM concentration was found. There was little association with luteal phase length, menses length, or cycle variability. Examining the individual THMs by quartile, we found the greatest association with chlorodibromomethane or the sum of the brominated compounds. Incorporating tap water consumption showed a similar pattern of reduced cycle length with increasing TTHM exposure. These findings suggest that THM exposure may affect ovarian function and should be confirmed in other studies.

  19. TRIHALOMETHANE PRECURSOR REMOVAL BY THE MAGNESIUM CARBONATE PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A project was conducted to determine and improve the ability of the magnesium carbonate process to remove trihalomethane (THM) precursors in treated drinking water. The project was conducted at a drinking water treatment plant in Melbourne, FL, which had been developed and instal...

  20. Use of ozone-biofiltration for bulk organic removal and disinfection byproduct mitigation in potable reuse applications.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Mayara; Batista, Jacimaria; Dickenson, Eric; Gerrity, Daniel

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the impacts of ozone dose and empty bed contact time (EBCT) in ozone-biofiltration systems on disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potential. The data were used to evaluate the possibility of using DBP formation potential as an alternative guideline for total organic carbon (TOC) removal in potable reuse applications. A pilot-scale ozone-biofiltration system was operated with O 3 /TOC ratios ranging from 0.1 to 2.25 and EBCTs ranging from 2 to 20 min. The biofiltration columns contained anthracite or biological activated carbon (BAC). Bench-scale chlorination was performed using the uniform formation conditions (UFC) approach, and quenched samples were analyzed for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and regulated haloacetic acids (HAA5s). The data demonstrated that ozone-biofiltration achieved TOC removals ranging from ∼10 to 30%, depending on operational conditions, but biofiltration without ozone generally achieved <10% TOC removal. UFC testing demonstrated that ozone alone was efficient in transforming bulk organic matter and reducing DBP formation potential by 10-30%. The synergistic combination of ozone and biofiltration achieved average overall reductions in TTHM and HAA5 formation potential of 26% and 51%, respectively. Finally, a maximum TOC concentration of 2.0 mg/L was identified as a recommended treatment target for reliable compliance with TTHM and HAA5 regulations for potable reuse systems in the United States. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A two-stage predictive model to simultaneous control of trihalomethanes in water treatment plants and distribution systems: adaptability to treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Tello, Antonio; Arias-Borrego, Ana; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis

    2017-10-01

    The trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and others disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed in drinking water by the reaction of chlorine with organic precursors contained in the source water, in two consecutive and linked stages, that starts at the treatment plant and continues in second stage along the distribution system (DS) by reaction of residual chlorine with organic precursors not removed. Following this approach, this study aimed at developing a two-stage empirical model for predicting the formation of TTHMs in the water treatment plant and subsequently their evolution along the water distribution system (WDS). The aim of the two-stage model was to improve the predictive capability for a wide range of scenarios of water treatments and distribution systems. The two-stage model was developed using multiple regression analysis from a database (January 2007 to July 2012) using three different treatment processes (conventional and advanced) in the water supply system of Aljaraque area (southwest of Spain). Then, the new model was validated using a recent database from the same water supply system (January 2011 to May 2015). The validation results indicated no significant difference in the predictive and observed values of TTHM (R 2 0.874, analytical variance <17%). The new model was applied to three different supply systems with different treatment processes and different characteristics. Acceptable predictions were obtained in the three distribution systems studied, proving the adaptability of the new model to the boundary conditions. Finally the predictive capability of the new model was compared with 17 other models selected from the literature, showing satisfactory results prediction and excellent adaptability to treatment processes.

  2. Speciation of trihalomethane mixtures for the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Trihalomethane formation potentials were determined for the chlorination of water samples from the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers. Samples were collected during the summer and fall of 1991 and the spring of 1992 at 12 locations on the Mississippi from New Orleans, LA, to Minneapolis, MN, and on the Missouri and Ohio 1.6 km upstream from their confluences with the Mississippi. Formation potentials were determined as a function of pH and initial free-chlorine concentration. Chloroform concentrations decreased with distance downstream and approximately paralleled the decrease of the dissolved organic-carbon concentration. Bromide concentrations were 3.7-5.7 times higher for the Missouri and 1.4-1.6 times higher for the Ohio than for the Mississippi above their confluences, resulting in an overall increase of the bromide concentration with distance downstream. Variations of the concentrations of the brominated trihalomethanes with distance downstream approximately paralleled the variation of the bromide concentration. Concentrations of all four trihalomethanes increased as the pH increased. Concentrations of chloroform and bromodichloromethane increased slightly and the concentration of bromoform decreased as the initial free-chlorine concentration increased; the chlorodibromomethane concentration had little dependence on the free-chlorine concentration.

  3. Variations in trihalomethane levels in three French water distribution systems and the development of a predictive model.

    PubMed

    Mouly, Damien; Joulin, Eric; Rosin, Christophe; Beaudeau, Pascal; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Olszewski-Ortar, Agnès; Munoz, Jean François; Welté, Bénédicte; Joyeux, Michel; Seux, René; Montiel, Antoine; Rodriguez, M J

    2010-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that chlorination by-products in drinking water may cause some types of cancer in humans. However, due to differences in methodology between the various studies, it is not possible to establish a dose-response relationship. This shortcoming is due primarily to uncertainties about how exposure is measured-made difficult by the great number of compounds present-the exposure routes involved and the variation in concentrations in water distribution systems. This is especially true for trihalomethanes for which concentrations can double between the water treatment plant and the consumer tap. The aim of this study is to describe the behaviour of trihalomethanes in three French water distribution systems and develop a mathematical model to predict concentrations in the water distribution system using data collected from treated water at the plant (i.e. the entrance of the distribution system). In 2006 and 2007, samples were taken successively from treated water at the plant and at several points in the water distribution system in three French cities. In addition to the concentrations of the four trihalomethanes (chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane, bromoform), many other parameters involved in their formation that affect their concentration were also measured. The average trihalomethane concentration in the three water distribution systems ranged from 21.6 μg/L to 59.9 μg/L. The increase in trihalomethanes between the treated water at the plant and a given point in the water distribution system varied by a factor of 1.1-5.7 over all of the samples. A log-log linear regression model was constructed to predict THM concentrations in the water distribution system. The five variables used were trihalomethane concentration and free residual chlorine for treated water at the plant, two variables that characterize the reactivity of organic matter (specific UV absorbance (SUVA), an indicator developed for the free

  4. Impacts of Typhoon Soudelor (2015) on the water quality of Taipei, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Fakour, Hoda; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Tsair-Fuh

    2016-01-01

    Typhoon Soudelor was one of the strongest storms in the world in 2015. The category 5 hurricane made landfall in Taiwan on August 8, causing extensive damage and severe impacts on the environment. This paper describes the changes of trihalomethane (THM) concentrations in tap and drinking fountain water in selected typhoon-affected areas in Taipei before and after the typhoon. Samples were taken from water transmission mains at various distances from the local water treatment plant. The results showed that organic matter increased between pre- and post-typhoon periods with a greater proportion of aromatic compounds. Although drinking fountains showed moderately less total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels than that of tap water, the intake of high turbidity water considerably diminished the efficiency of their purification systems after the typhoon. The percentage distribution of THM species increased throughout the distribution network, probably due to a longer contact time between chlorine and the organic matter in the pipelines. After 2 to 5 min of boiling, THM reduction was considerable in all cases with the greater extent in post-typhoon samples. It is evident that extreme weather conditions may have a severe impact on water quality, and thus more cautious strategies should be adopted in such cases. PMID:27125312

  5. Water quality following extensive beetle-induced tree mortality: Interplay of aromatic carbon loading, disinfection byproducts, and hydrologic drivers.

    PubMed

    Brouillard, Brent M; Dickenson, Eric R V; Mikkelson, Kristin M; Sharp, Jonathan O

    2016-12-01

    The recent bark beetle epidemic across western North America may impact water quality as a result of elevated organic carbon release and hydrologic shifts associated with extensive tree dieback. Analysis of quarterly municipal monitoring data from 2004 to 2014 with discretization of six water treatment facilities in the Rocky Mountains by extent of beetle impact revealed a significant increasing trend in total organic carbon (TOC) and total trihalomethane (TTHM) production within high (≳50% areal infestation) beetle-impacted watersheds while no or insignificant trends were found in watersheds with lower impact levels. Alarmingly, the TTHM concentration trend in the high impact sites exceeded regulatory maximum contaminant levels during the most recent two years of analysis (2013-14). To evaluate seasonal differences, explore the interplay of water quality and hydrologic processes, and eliminate variability associated with municipal reporting, these treatment facilities were targeted for more detailed surface water sampling and characterization. Surface water samples collected from high impact watersheds exhibited significantly higher TOC, aromatic signatures, and disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potential than watersheds with lower infestation levels. Spectroscopic analyses of surface water samples indicated that these heightened DBP precursor levels are a function of both elevated TOC loading and increased aromatic character. This association was heightened during precipitation and runoff events in high impact sites, supporting the hypothesis that altered hydrologic flow paths resulting from tree mortality mobilize organic carbon and elevate DBP formation potential for several months after runoff ceases. The historical trends found here likely underestimate the full extent of TTHM shifts due to monitoring biases with the extended seasonal release of DBP precursors increasing the potential for human exposure. Collectively, our analysis suggests that while

  6. REMOVING TRIHALOMETHANES FROM DRINKING WATER - AN OVERVIEW OF TREATMENT TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1974 trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) were discovered to be formed during the disinfection step of drinking water if free chlorine was the disinfectant. This, coupled with the perceived hazard to the consumer's health, led...

  7. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN HOME TAP WATER AND SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trihalomethane Levels in Home Tap Water and Semen Quality
    Laura Fenster, 1 Kirsten Waller, 2 Gayle Windham, 1 Tanya Henneman, 2 Meredith Anderson, 2 Pauline Mendola, 3 James W. Overstreet, 4 Shanna H. Swan5

    1California Department of Health Services, Division of Environm...

  8. BROMIDE-OXIDANT INTERACTIONS AND THM (TRIHALOMETHANE) FORMATION: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The review focuses on the interactions, not only of bromide and chlorine, but also of bromide and two common oxidation alternatives to chlorine--chlorine dioxide and monochloramine. The data evaluations include discussions of reaction products, potentials for trihalomethane (THM)...

  9. Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Soft Drinks: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Richard C.; Robertson, John K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experimental procedure for determining trihalomethanes (THMs) in liquids by gas chromatography. Provides recommendations for reactants and supplies to obtain acceptable results. Discusses the analysis of water from various sources: pools, lakes, and drinking water; compares these to three cola drinks. (ML)

  10. Predictors of Blood Trihalomethane Concentrations in NHANES 1999–2006

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Radhika; Blount, Benjamin C.; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Background: Trihalomethanes (THMs) are water disinfection by-products that have been associated with bladder cancer and adverse birth outcomes. Four THMs (bromoform, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane) were measured in blood and tap water of U.S. adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2006. THMs are metabolized to potentially toxic/mutagenic intermediates by cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2D6 and CYP2E1 enzymes. Objectives: We conducted exploratory analyses of blood THMs, including factors affecting CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 activity. Methods: We used weighted multivariable regressions to evaluate associations between blood THMs and water concentrations, survey year, and other factors potentially affecting THM exposure or metabolism (e.g., prescription medications, cruciferous vegetables, diabetes, fasting, pregnancy, swimming). Results: From 1999 to 2006, geometric mean blood and water THM levels dropped in parallel, with decreases of 32%–76% in blood and 38%–52% in water, likely resulting, in part, from the lowering of the total THM drinking water standard in 2002–2004. The strongest predictors of blood THM levels were survey year and water concentration (n = 4,232 total THM; n = 4,080 bromoform; n = 4,582 chloroform; n = 4,374 bromodichloromethane; n = 4,464 dibromochloromethane). We detected statistically significant inverse associations with diabetes and eating cruciferous vegetables in all but the bromoform model. Medications did not consistently predict blood levels. Afternoon/evening blood samples had lower THM concentrations than morning samples. In a subsample (n = 230), air chloroform better predicted blood chloroform than water chloroform, suggesting showering/bathing was a more important source than drinking. Conclusions: We identified several factors associated with blood THMs that may affect their metabolism. The potential health implications require further study. Citation: Riederer AM, Dhingra R

  11. Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in Biofilters Removing Trihalomethanes Are Related to Nitrosomonas oligotropha

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrifying biofilters degrading the four regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) trichloromethane (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and tribromomethane (TBM) -were analyzed for the presence and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Biofilter perfor...

  12. Method of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey California District Sacramento Laboratory?Determination of Trihalomethane Formation Potential, Method Validation, and Quality-Control Practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crepeau, Kathryn L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Bush, Noel

    2004-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of the trihalomethane formation potential of water samples has been developed. The trihalomethane formation potential is measured by dosing samples with chlorine under specified conditions of pH, temperature, incubation time, darkness, and residual-free chlorine, and then analyzing the resulting trihalomethanes by purge and trap/gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. Detailed explanations of the method and quality-control practices are provided. Method validation experiments showed that the trihalomethane formation potential varies as a function of time between sample collection and analysis, residual-free chlorine concentration, method of sample dilution, and the concentration of bromide in the sample.

  13. COMETABOLISM OF TRIHALOMETHANES BY NITRIFYING BIOFILTERS UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Identifier: FP916412
    Title: Cometabolism of Trihalomethanes by Nitrifying Biofilters Under Drinking Water Treatment Plant Conditions
    Fellow (Principal Investigator): David G. Wahman
    Institution: University of Texas at Austin
    EPA ...

  14. REDUCTION OF INGESTION EXPOSURE TO TRIHALOMETHANES DUE TO VOLATILIZATION. (R825362)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ingestion of tap water is one of the principal exposure
    pathways for disinfection byproducts (DBPs). One major
    class of DBPs, trihalomethanes (THM), are highly volatile,
    and volatilization will tend to lower ingestion exposures.
    This study quantifies volatilization...

  15. Ingested nitrate and nitrite, disinfection by-products, and pancreatic cancer risk in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Quist, Arbor J L; Inoue-Choi, Maki; Weyer, Peter J; Anderson, Kristin E; Cantor, Kenneth P; Krasner, Stuart; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Ward, Mary H; Jones, Rena R

    2018-01-15

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), probable human carcinogens that cause pancreatic tumors in animals. Disinfection by-products (DBP) exposures have also been linked with digestive system cancers, but few studies have evaluated relationships with pancreatic cancer. We investigated the association of pancreatic cancer with these drinking water contaminants and dietary nitrate/nitrite in a cohort of postmenopausal women in Iowa (1986-2011). We used historical monitoring and treatment data to estimate levels of long-term average nitrate and total trihalomethanes (TTHM; the sum of the most prevalent DBP class) and the duration exceeding one-half the maximum contaminant level (>½ MCL; 5 mg/L nitrate-nitrogen, 40 µg/L TTHM) among participants on public water supplies (PWS) >10 years. We estimated dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes using a food frequency questionnaire. We computed hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox regression and evaluated nitrate interactions with smoking and vitamin C intake. We identified 313 cases among 34,242 women, including 152 with >10 years PWS use (N = 15,710). Multivariable models of average nitrate showed no association with pancreatic cancer (HR p95 vs . Q1  = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.51-2.64). Associations with average TTHM levels were also null (HR Q4 vs . Q1  = 0.70, 95% CI:0.42-1.18). We observed no trend with increasing years of exposure to either contaminant at levels >½ MCL. Positive associations were suggested in the highest dietary nitrite intake from processed meat (HR p95 vs . Q1  = 1.66, 95% CI 1.00-2.75;p trend  = 0.05). We found no interactions of nitrate with known modifiers of endogenous NOC formation. Our results suggest that nitrite intake from processed meat may be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. 2017 UICC.

  16. Water-quality monitoring and studies of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes during the third injection, storage and recovery test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, March 1998 through April 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Berghouse, Joshua K.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Fujii, Roger; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Clark, Jordan F.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency, conducted three cycles of injection, storage, and recovery tests to evaluate the feasibility of artificially recharging ground water in the Lancaster area of Antelope Valley, California. During the third cycle (March 1998 through April 1999), the tests included investigations of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes in the aquifer. Trihalomethanes are disinfection by-products formed by reaction between natural dissolved organic carbon that is present in water and chlorine that is added during the drinking-water-treatment process. This report includes a discussion of the design of the investigation; descriptions of the sampling, analytical, and experimental methods used in the investigation; and a presentation of the data collected. During the third cycle, 60 million gallons of chlorinated water was injected into the aquifer through well 7N/12W-27P2 in the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works well field in Lancaster between April 15 and June 16, 1998. One hundred fifty million gallons of water was extracted from the same well between June 30, 1998, and April 29, 1999. Water-quality samples were collected during the entire cycle from the well and from a nearby set of nested piezometers, and were analyzed for residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, major anion, and dissolved solid concentrations; ultraviolet absorbance spectra; and a number of field water-quality parameters. A statistical analysis was done to evaluate the analytical precision of the residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, and ultraviolet absorbance measurements on these samples. The formation of trihalomethanes in the injection water was examined in laboratory experiments: Trihalomethane concentrations in samples of injection water were monitored during a storage period, and trihalomethane formation

  17. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations and compositions, and trihalomethane formation potentials in waters from agricultural peat soils, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California; implications for drinking-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujii, Roger; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Aiken, George R.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    1998-01-01

    Water exported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta (Delta) is an important drinking-water source for more than 20 million people in California. At times, this water contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and bromide, and exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for trihalomethanes of 0.100 milligrams per liter if chlorinated for drinking water. About 20 to 50 percent of the trihalomethane precursors to Delta waters originates from drainage water from peat soils on Delta islands. This report elucidates some of the factors and processes controlling and affecting the concentration and quality of dissolved organic carbon released from peat soils and relates the propensity of dissolved organic carbon to form trihalomethanes to its chemical composition.Soil water was sampled from near-surface, oxidized, well-decomposed peat soil (upper soil zone) and deeper, reduced, fibrous peat soil (lower soil zone) from one agricultural field in the west central Delta over 1 year. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the upper soil zone were highly variable, with median concentrations ranging from 46.4 to 83.2 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in samples from the lower soil zone were much less variable and generally slightly higher than samples from the upper soil zone, with median concentrations ranging from 49.3 to 82.3 milligrams per liter. The dissolved organic carbon from the lower soil zone had significantly higher aromaticity (as measured by specific ultraviolet absorbance) and contained significantly greater amounts of aromatic humic substances (as measured by XAD resin fractionation and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of XAD isolates) than the dissolved organic carbon from the upper soil zone. These results support the conclusion that more aromatic forms of dissolved organic carbon are produced under anaerobic conditions compared to aerobic conditions

  18. INDUCTION OF DNA STRAND BREAKS BY TRIHALOMETHANES IN PRIMARY HUMAN LUNG EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Abstract

    Trihalomethanes (TEMs) are disinfection by-products and suspected human carcinogens present in chlorinated drinking water. Previous studies have shown that many THMs induce sister chromatid exchanges and DNA strand breaks in human peripheral blood lymphocyte...

  19. Trihalomethanes in public water supplies and risk of stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Linda; King, Will; Allen, Alexander C; Armson, B Anthony; Fell, Deshayne B; Nimrod, Carl

    2004-03-01

    The chlorine used to disinfect public drinking water supplies reacts with naturally occurring organic matter to form a number of chemical byproducts. Recent studies have implicated exposure to chlorination byproducts in drinking water, trihalomethanes (THMs), in particular, with intrauterine death. We conducted a population-based case-control study in Nova Scotia and Eastern Ontario, Canada, to examine the effect of exposure to THMs on stillbirth risk. Cases were women who had a stillborn infant, and controls were a random sample of women with live births. Subjects were interviewed, and women with a public water source provided a residential water sample. Risks were examined according to residential THM level in tap water and to a total exposure metric incorporating tap water ingestion, showering, and bathing. We enrolled 112 stillbirth cases and 398 live birth controls. Women with a residential total THM level of 80 or more microg/L had twice the risk of a stillbirth compared with women with no exposure to THMs (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-4.4). The highest quintile of total THM exposure using the total exposure metric was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.4 (95% CI = 1.2-4.6) compared with women not exposed to THMs. Similar results were seen for specific THM compounds. A monotonic dose-response relationship was not seen. Our results provide evidence for an increased risk of stillbirth associated with exposure to chlorination byproducts through ingestion and showering and bathing, although there was not a clear dose-response relationship.

  20. ANALYSIS OF IN VIVO AND IN VITRO DNA STRAND BREAKS FROM TRIHALOMETHANE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Background: Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of chlorinated surface waters to an increased risk of two major causes of human mortality, colorectal and bladder cancer. Trihalomethanes (THMs) are by-products formed when chlorine is used to disinfect d...

  1. DECOMPOSITION OF TRIHALOACETIC ACIDS AND FORMATION OF THE CORRESPONDING TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER. (R826834)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The decomposition of trihaloacetic acids [bromodichloroacetic acid (BDCAA), dibromochloroacetic acid (DBCAA), tribromoacetic acid (TBAA)], and the formation of the corresponding trihalomethanes [bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), tribromomethane (TBM)] w...

  2. EXPOSURES AND INTERNAL DOSES OF TRIHALOMETHANES IN HUMANS: MULTI-ROUTE CONTRIBUTIONS FROM DRINKING WATER (FINAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) has released a final report that presents and applies a method to estimate distributions of internal concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) in humans resulting from a residential drinking water exposure. The report presen...

  3. The Impact of Commercially Treated Oil and Gas Produced Water Discharges on Bromide Concentrations and Modeled Brominated Trihalomethane Disinfection Byproducts at two Downstream Municipal Drinking Water Plants in the Upper Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2010, a dramatic increase in the levels of total trihalomethane (THM) and the relative proportion of brominated species were observed in finished water at several Western Pennsylvania water utilities (PDW) using the Allegheny River as their raw water supply. An increase in br...

  4. Chlorine decay and trihalomethane formation following ferrate(VI) preoxidation and chlorination of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Luo, Feng; Dong, Feilong; Zhao, Jingguo; Zhang, Tuqiao; He, Guilin; Cizmas, Leslie; Sharma, Virender K

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the effect of preoxidation with ferrate(VI) (Fe VI O 4 2- , Fe(VI)) prior to chlorination on chlorine decay and formation of disinfection by-products in filtered raw water from a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. The rate of chlorine decay became significantly faster as the concentration of ferrate(VI) increased. Chlorine degradation followed two first-order decay reactions with rate constants k 1 and k 2 for fast and slow decay, respectively. Kinetic modeling established the relationships between k 1 and k 2 and varying dosages of chlorine and ferrate(VI). When ferrate(VI) was used as a pre-oxidant, the levels of trihalomethanes (trichloromethane (TCM), dichlorobromomethane (DCBM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and tribromomethane (TBM)) in water samples decreased as the ferrate(VI) concentration increased. The concentrations of these trihalomethanes followed the order TCM > DCBM ≈ DBCM > TBM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. INFLUENCE OF EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHOD IN AN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF TRIHALOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trihalomethanes are common contaminants of chlorinated drinking water. Studies of their health effects have been hampered by exposure misclassification, due in part to limitations inherent in using utility sampling records. We used two exposure assessment methods, one based on ut...

  6. JOURNAL ARTICLE: ANALYSIS OF IN VIVO AND IN VITRO DNA STRAND BREAKS FROM TRIHALOMETHANE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of chlorinated surface waters to an increased risk of two major causes of human mortality, colorectal and bladder cancer. Trihalomethanes (THMs) are by-products formed when chlorine is used to disinfect drinking water. The pur...

  7. Nitrate from Drinking Water and Diet and Bladder Cancer Among Postmenopausal Women in Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rena R.; Weyer, Peter J.; DellaValle, Curt T.; Inoue-Choi, Maki; Anderson, Kristin E.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Krasner, Stuart; Robien, Kim; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Silverman, Debra T.; Ward, Mary H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nitrate is a drinking water contaminant arising from agricultural sources, and it is a precursor in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), which are possible bladder carcinogens. Objectives: We investigated the ingestion of nitrate and nitrite from drinking water and diet and bladder cancer risk in women. Methods: We identified incident bladder cancers among a cohort of 34,708 postmenopausal women in Iowa (1986–2010). Dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes were estimated from a baseline food frequency questionnaire. Drinking water source and duration were assessed in a 1989 follow-up. For women using public water supplies (PWS) > 10 years (n = 15,577), we estimated average nitrate (NO3-N) and total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels and the number of years exceeding one-half the maximum contaminant level (NO3-N: 5 mg/L, TTHM: 40 μg/mL) from historical monitoring data. We computed hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and assessed nitrate interactions with TTHM and with modifiers of NOC formation (smoking, vitamin C). Results: We identified 258 bladder cancer cases, including 130 among women > 10 years at their PWS. In multivariable-adjusted models, we observed nonsignificant associations among women in the highest versus lowest quartile of average drinking water nitrate concentration (HR = 1.48; 95% CI: 0.92, 2.40; ptrend = 0.11), and we found significant associations among those exposed ≥ 4 years to drinking water with > 5 mg/L NO3-N (HR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.47; ptrend = 0.03) compared with women having 0 years of comparable exposure. TTHM adjustment had little influence on associations, and we observed no modification by vitamin C intake. Relative to a common reference group of never smokers with the lowest nitrate exposures, associations were strongest for current smokers with the highest nitrate exposures (HR = 3.67; 95% CI: 1.43, 9.38 for average water NO3-N and HR = 3.48; 95% CI: 1.20, 10.06 and ≥ 4 years > 5 mg

  8. Nitrate from Drinking Water and Diet and Bladder Cancer Among Postmenopausal Women in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rena R; Weyer, Peter J; DellaValle, Curt T; Inoue-Choi, Maki; Anderson, Kristin E; Cantor, Kenneth P; Krasner, Stuart; Robien, Kim; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Silverman, Debra T; Ward, Mary H

    2016-11-01

    Nitrate is a drinking water contaminant arising from agricultural sources, and it is a precursor in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), which are possible bladder carcinogens. We investigated the ingestion of nitrate and nitrite from drinking water and diet and bladder cancer risk in women. We identified incident bladder cancers among a cohort of 34,708 postmenopausal women in Iowa (1986-2010). Dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes were estimated from a baseline food frequency questionnaire. Drinking water source and duration were assessed in a 1989 follow-up. For women using public water supplies (PWS) > 10 years (n = 15,577), we estimated average nitrate (NO3-N) and total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels and the number of years exceeding one-half the maximum contaminant level (NO3-N: 5 mg/L, TTHM: 40 μg/mL) from historical monitoring data. We computed hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and assessed nitrate interactions with TTHM and with modifiers of NOC formation (smoking, vitamin C). We identified 258 bladder cancer cases, including 130 among women > 10 years at their PWS. In multivariable-adjusted models, we observed nonsignificant associations among women in the highest versus lowest quartile of average drinking water nitrate concentration (HR = 1.48; 95% CI: 0.92, 2.40; ptrend = 0.11), and we found significant associations among those exposed ≥ 4 years to drinking water with > 5 mg/L NO3-N (HR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.47; ptrend = 0.03) compared with women having 0 years of comparable exposure. TTHM adjustment had little influence on associations, and we observed no modification by vitamin C intake. Relative to a common reference group of never smokers with the lowest nitrate exposures, associations were strongest for current smokers with the highest nitrate exposures (HR = 3.67; 95% CI: 1.43, 9.38 for average water NO3-N and HR = 3.48; 95% CI: 1.20, 10.06 and ≥ 4 years > 5 mg/L, respectively). Dietary nitrate and

  9. Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) of chlorinated municipal drinking water in a confined aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Petersen, Christen E.; Glotzbach, Kenneth J.; Metzger, Loren F.; Christensen, Allen H.; Smith, Gregory A.; O'Leary, David R.; Fram, Miranda S.; Joseph, Trevor; Shannon, Heather

    2010-01-01

    About 1.02 x 106 m3 of chlorinated municipal drinking water was injected into a confined aquifer, 94-137 m below Roseville, California, between December 2005 and April 2006. The water was stored in the aquifer for 438 days, and 2.64 x 106 m3 of water were extracted between July 2007 and February 2008. On the basis of Cl data, 35% of the injected water was recovered and 65% of the injected water and associated disinfection by-products (DBPs) remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction. About 46.3 kg of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) entered the aquifer with the injected water and 37.6 kg of TTHM were extracted. As much as 44 kg of TTHMs remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction because of incomplete recovery of injected water and formation of THMs within the aquifer by reactions with freechlorine in the injected water. Well-bore velocity log data collected from the Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) well show as much as 60% of the injected water entered the aquifer through a 9 m thick, high-permeability layer within the confined aquifer near the top of the screened interval. Model simulations of ground-water flow near the ASR well indicate that (1) aquifer heterogeneity allowed injected water to move rapidly through the aquifer to nearby monitoring wells, (2) aquifer heterogeneity caused injected water to move further than expected assuming uniform aquifer properties, and (3) physical clogging of high-permeability layers is the probable cause for the observed change in the distribution of borehole flow. Aquifer heterogeneity also enhanced mixing of native anoxic ground water with oxic injected water, promoting removal of THMs primarily through sorption. A 3 to 4-fold reduction in TTHM concentrations was observed in the furthest monitoring well 427 m downgradient from the ASR well, and similar magnitude reductions were observed in depth-dependent water samples collected from the upper part of the screened interval in the ASR well near the end of the extraction

  10. Application of hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction for simultaneous determination of regulated and emerging iodinated trihalomethanes in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Tello, A; Arias-Borrego, A; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2015-07-10

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs) most commonly analyzed in quality control water supply due to their harmful effects on health. However, few data exist about the content of emerging iodo-trihalomethanes (I-THMs) which are present in drinking water at very low concentrations (in the order of ngL(-1)). For this reason a two-phase hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction method for the simultaneous determination of four regulated trihalomethanes and six emerging iodo-trihalomethanes using GC-μECD and GC-MS with detection limits in the range of few ngL(-1) has been developed. A central composite design was used to optimize conditions for simultaneous extraction. The best extraction recovery was obtained with 19.2min at 27.1°C and 900rpm, without salt addition, using a supported hollow fiber membrane of 10.5cm (0.6mm id) and 1-octanol as acceptor phase. The limits of detection for the regulated THMs and I-THMs were 3-44ngL(-1) and 1-3ngL(-1), respectively. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2)>0.995) and good repeatibility (3-22%). The relative recoveries in water were between 96.5% and 105.2%. The method was applied for the simultaneous determination of trihalomethanes in supply water samples from seven water distribution systems (WDS) in the Huelva area, located at the southwest Spain, which use different water-treatment processes. The highest concentrations of I-THMs, particularly CHBrClI and CHCl2I, were detected in water treated with advanced treatment process using pre-ozonation, however these compounds were not detected or decreased along distribution system. In the samples of treated water with conventional treatment, using pre-oxidation by permanganate and distribution network, CHCl2I, CHBrClI, CHClI2, CHBrI2 and CHI3 were detected at very low concentrations (1-18ngL(-1)). Finally, in water samples from underground origin without oxidation treatment, in which only disinfection with sodium hypochlorite was

  11. ANALYSIS OF IN VITRO AND IN VIVO DNA STRAND BREAKS INDUCED BY TRIHALOMETHANES (THMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of In Vitro and In Vivo DNA Strand Breaks Induced by Trihalomethanes (TRMs)

    The THMs are the most widely distributed and the most concentrated of the cWorine disinfection by-products (D BPs) found in finished drinking water. All of the THMs, cWoroform (CHCI3), br...

  12. Nitrate and nitrite ingestion and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Jones, Rena R.; Anderson, Kristin E.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Cerhan, James R.; Krasner, Stuart; Robien, Kim; Weyer, Peter J.; Ward, Mary H.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), potential human carcinogens. We evaluated the association of nitrate and nitrite ingestion with postmenopausal ovarian cancer risk in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Among 28,555 postmenopausal women, we identified 315 incident epithelial ovarian cancers from 1986 to 2010. Dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes were assessed at baseline using food frequency questionnaire data. Drinking water source at home was obtained in a 1989 follow-up survey. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels for Iowa public water utilities were linked to residences and average levels were computed based on each woman’s duration at the residence. We computed multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. We tested interactions of nitrate with TTHMs and dietary factors known to influence NOC formation. Ovarian cancer risk was 2.03 times higher (CI=1.22–3.38, ptrend=0.003) in the highest quartile (≥2.98 mg/L) compared with the lowest quartile (≤0.47 mg/L; reference) of NO3-N in public water, regardless of TTHM levels. Risk among private well users was also elevated (HR=1.53, CI=0.93–2.54) compared with the same reference group. Associations were stronger when vitamin C intake was

  13. Nitrate and nitrite ingestion and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Jones, Rena R; Anderson, Kristin E; Cantor, Kenneth P; Cerhan, James R; Krasner, Stuart; Robien, Kim; Weyer, Peter J; Ward, Mary H

    2015-07-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), potential human carcinogens. We evaluated the association of nitrate and nitrite ingestion with postmenopausal ovarian cancer risk in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Among 28,555 postmenopausal women, we identified 315 incident epithelial ovarian cancers from 1986 to 2010. Dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes were assessed at baseline using food frequency questionnaire data. Drinking water source at home was obtained in a 1989 follow-up survey. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 -N) and total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels for Iowa public water utilities were linked to residences and average levels were computed based on each woman's duration at the residence. We computed multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. We tested interactions of nitrate with TTHMs and dietary factors known to influence NOC formation. Ovarian cancer risk was 2.03 times higher (CI = 1.22-3.38, ptrend  = 0.003) in the highest quartile (≥2.98 mg/L) compared with the lowest quartile (≤0.47 mg/L; reference) of NO3 -N in public water, regardless of TTHM levels. Risk among private well users was also elevated (HR = 1.53, CI = 0.93-2.54) compared with the same reference group. Associations were stronger when vitamin C intake was

  14. EFFECTS OF DEFINED MIXTURES OF TRIHALOMETHANES AND HALOACETIC ACIDS ON PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE AND EYE DEVELOPMENT IN F 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although disinfection of drinking water is important for control of microbial contamination, it results in the formation of hundreds of disinfection by-products (DBPs). The most prevalent DBPs are trihalomethanes (THMs; chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane, bro...

  15. Predictors of blood trihalomethane concentrations in NHANES 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Riederer, Anne M; Dhingra, Radhika; Blount, Benjamin C; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-07-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are water disinfection by-products that have been associated with bladder cancer and adverse birth outcomes. Four THMs (bromoform, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane) were measured in blood and tap water of U.S. adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006. THMs are metabolized to potentially toxic/mutagenic intermediates by cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2D6 and CYP2E1 enzymes. We conducted exploratory analyses of blood THMs, including factors affecting CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 activity. We used weighted multivariable regressions to evaluate associations between blood THMs and water concentrations, survey year, and other factors potentially affecting THM exposure or metabolism (e.g., prescription medications, cruciferous vegetables, diabetes, fasting, pregnancy, swimming). From 1999 to 2006, geometric mean blood and water THM levels dropped in parallel, with decreases of 32%-76% in blood and 38%-52% in water, likely resulting, in part, from the lowering of the total THM drinking water standard in 2002-2004. The strongest predictors of blood THM levels were survey year and water concentration (n = 4,232 total THM; n = 4,080 bromoform; n = 4,582 chloroform; n = 4,374 bromodichloromethane; n = 4,464 dibromochloromethane). We detected statistically significant inverse associations with diabetes and eating cruciferous vegetables in all but the bromoform model. Medications did not consistently predict blood levels. Afternoon/evening blood samples had lower THM concentrations than morning samples. In a subsample (n = 230), air chloroform better predicted blood chloroform than water chloroform, suggesting showering/bathing was a more important source than drinking. We identified several factors associated with blood THMs that may affect their metabolism. The potential health implications require further study.

  16. Presence of Trihalomethanes in ready-to-eat vegetables disinfected with chlorine.

    PubMed

    Coroneo, Valentina; Carraro, Valentina; Marras, Barbara; Marrucci, Alessandro; Succa, Sara; Meloni, Barbara; Pinna, Antonella; Angioni, Alberto; Sanna, Adriana; Schintu, Marco

    2017-12-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) - CHCl 3 , CHCl 2 Br, CHClBr 2 and CHBr 3 - are drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs). These compounds can also be absorbed by different types of foods, including ready-to-eat (RTE) fresh vegetables. The potential absorption of THMs during washing of RTE vegetables could pose a potential risk to consumers' health. The concentration of THMs in the water used in the manufacturing process of these products shall not exceed the limit of 100 or 80 µgL -1 according to European Union (EU) and United States legislation, respectively. By contrast, there is little information about the presence of such compounds in the final product. This study evaluated the concentration of THMs in different types of RTE vegetables (carrots, iceberg lettuce, lettuce, mixed salad, parsley, parsley and garlic, rocket salad, valerian) after washing with chlorinated water. In the 115 samples analysed, the average value of total THMs was equal to 76.7 ng g -1 . Chloroform was the THM present in the largest percentage in all the RTE vegetables. These results show that the process of washing RTE vegetables should be optimised in order to reduce the risk for consumers associated with the presence of DBPs.

  17. Characterization of haloacetaldehyde and trihalomethane formation potentials during drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yu-Qin; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Guo, Xian-Fen; Yang, Hong-Wei; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2016-09-01

    Haloacetaldehydes (HAs) are the third prevalent group of disinfection by-products (DBPs) of great health concern. In this study, their formation and speciation during chlorination were investigated for raw and process waters collected at three O3-biological activated carbon (BAC) advanced drinking water treatment plants. The results showed that all HA formation potentials (HAFPs) were highly enhanced whenever ozone was applied before or after conventional treatment. Sand filtration and BAC filtration could substantially reduce HAFPs. Trihalomethanes (THMs) were also measured to better understand the role of HAs in DBPs. Very different from HAFPs, THMFPs kept decreasing with the progress of treatment steps, which was mainly attributed to the different precursors for HAs and THMs. Brominated HAs were detected in bromide-containing waters. Chloral hydrate (CH) contributed from 25% to 48% to the total HAs formed in waters containing 100-150 μg L(-1) bromide, indicating the wide existence of other HAs after chlorination besides CH production. In addition, bromide incorporation factor (BIF) in HAs and THMs increased with the progress of treatment steps and the BIF values of THMs were generally higher than those of HAs. The BAC filtration following ozonation could significantly reduce HA precursors produced from ozonation but without complete removal. The brominated HAFPs in the outflow of BAC were still higher than their levels in the raw water. As a result, O3-BAC combined treatment was effective at controlling the total HAs, whereas it should be cautious for waters with high bromide levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial degradation of plant leachate alters lignin phenols and trihalomethane precursors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Hernes, Peter J.; Saraceno, John Franco; Spencer, Robert G.M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the importance of vascular plant-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwater systems has been studied, the role of leached DOC as precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment is not well known. Here we measured the propensity of leachates from four crops and four aquatic macrophytes to form trihalomethanes (THMs)—a regulated class of DBPs—before and after 21 d of microbial degradation. We also measured lignin phenol content and specific UV absorbance (SUVA254) to test the assumption that aromatic compounds from vascular plants are resistant to microbial degradation and readily form DBPs. Leaching solubilized 9 to 26% of total plant carbon, which formed 1.93 to 6.72 mmol THM mol C-1 However, leachate DOC concentrations decreased by 85 to 92% over the 21-d incubation, with a concomitant decrease of 67 to 92% in total THM formation potential. Carbon-normalized THM yields in the residual DOC pool increased by 2.5 times on average, consistent with the preferential uptake of nonprecursor material. Lignin phenol concentrations decreased by 64 to 96% over 21 d, but a lack of correlation between lignin content and THM yields or SUVA254 suggested that lignin-derived compounds are not the source of increased THM precursor yields in the residual DOC pool. Our results indicate that microbial carbon utilization alters THM precursors in ecosystems with direct plant leaching, but more work is needed to identify the specific dissolved organic matter components with a greater propensity to form DBPs and affect watershed management, drinking water quality, and human health.

  19. The Application of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Determine Route-Specific Contributions to Tissue Dosimetry of Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project summary describes an improved approach for estimating route-specific exposures and tissue doses for trihalomethane (THM) compounds found in drinking water.

  1. Pregnancy loss and eye malformations in offspring of F344 rats following gestational exposure to mixtures of regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorination of drinking water results in the formation of hundreds of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), the most prevalent are trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). Four THMs (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane, bromoform) and five HAAs (chloroac...

  2. Identification of Trihalomethanes (THMs) Levels in Water Supply: A Case Study in Perlis, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalil, Mohd Faizal Ab; Hamidin, Nasrul; Anas Nagoor Gunny, Ahmad; Nihla Kamarudzaman, Ain

    2018-03-01

    In Malaysia, chlorination is used for drinking water disinfection at water treatment plants due to its cost-effectiveness and efficiency. However, the use of chlorine poses potential health risks due to the formation of disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs). THMs are formed due to the reaction between chlorine and some natural organic matter. The objective of the study is to analyze the level of THMs in the water supply in Perlis, Malaysia. The water samples were collected from end-user tap water near the water treatment plant (WTP) located in Perlis, including Timah Tasoh WTP, Kampung Sungai Baru WTP, Arau Phase I, II, III, and IV WTPs. The THMs were analyzed using a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the water supply from Timah Tasoh WTP generates the most THMs, whereas Kuala Sungai Baru shows the fewest amounts of total THMs. In conclusion, the presence of THMs in tap water has caused great concern since these components can cause cancer in humans. Therefore, the identification of THM formation is crucial in order to make sure that the tap water quality remains at acceptable safety levels.

  3. Mechanisms and kinetics study on the trihalomethanes formation with carbon nanoparticle precursors.

    PubMed

    Du, Tingting; Wang, Yingying; Yang, Xin; Wang, Wei; Guo, Haonan; Xiong, Xinyu; Gao, Rui; Wuli, Xiati; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Li, Yao

    2016-07-01

    With lots of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) applied in the industry, the possibilities of their environmental release have received much attention. As the CNPs may enter drinking water systems, and persist in water and wastewater treatment systems, their possible reaction with disinfectants should be studied. In this study, the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) with 5 types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was investigated. All CNPs could act as precursors of THMs in aqueous phase. Total concentrations of THMs formed with CNPs varied from 0.24 to 0.95 μM, much lower than that formed from chlorinated Suwannee River Natural Organic Matter (SRNOM) (approximately 9 μM). The kinetics of THMs formation with GO was 0.0814 M(-1) s(-1), which is higher than most of the chlorinated humic acid obtained from different natural waters. The study indicates that during chlorination, C-Cl bond could be formed on the surface of CNPs. However, carbon atoms at the middle of two meta-positioned OH groups on the benzene ring are more active and may prefer to form THMs with chlorine oxidation. The influences of pH and reactant doses on the formation of THMs were also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection and quantification of trihalomethanes in drinking water from Alexandria, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, A.A.M.; Benfenati, E.; Fanelli, R.

    1996-03-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are one group of harmful chlorinated compounds which are known to contaminate drinking water. The total concentration of the four THMs in drinking water may vary up to 1000 {mu}g/l but it should not exceed 100 {mu}g/l. Toxicological studies suggest that chloroform and other THMs may have detrimental effect on human health. Chloroform was reported to cause cancer in experimental animals. Other THMs, based on the structural similarity to chloroform, may be also classified as health hazard compounds. Accordingly, THMs in water supplies should be monitored closely so that measures may be taken to minimize or eliminate theirmore » presence whenever the concentration approach levels of concern. Little is known about the levels of THMs in drinking water of Egypt compared to other countries. Few studies have been reported from Cairo. To our knowledge, no studies concerning the THMs levels in drinking water have been reported from Alexandria. Therefore, the aim of this study is to detect and quantitate the levels of THMs in drinking water from some main districts in Alexandria, Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) is a fast, sensitive, inexpensive, portable and solvent-free method for extracting organic compounds from aqueous samples. It is amenable to automation and can be used with any gas chromatograph (or mass spectrometer). The technique meets detection limits specified by EPA methods and was therefore used in this work.« less

  5. Size and XAD fractionations of trihalomethane precursors from soils.

    PubMed

    Chow, Alex T; Guo, Fengmao; Gao, Suduan; Breuer, Richard S

    2006-03-01

    Soil organic matter is an important source of allochthonous dissolved organic matter inputs to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta waterways, which is a drinking water source for 22 million people in California, USA. Knowledge of trihalomethane (THM) formation potential of soil-derived organic carbon is important for developing effective strategies for organic carbon removal in drinking water treatment. In this study, soil organic carbon was extracted with electrolytes (deionized H2O and Na- or Ca-based electrolytes) of electrical conductivity bracketing those found in Delta leaching and runoff conditions. The extracts were physically and chemically separated into different fractions: colloidal organic carbon (0.45-0.1 microm), fine colloidal organic carbon (0.1-0.025 microm), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (<0.025 microm); hydrophobic acid (HPOA), transphilic acid, and hydrophilic acid. Two representative Delta soils, Rindge Muck (a peat soil) and Scribner Clay Loam (a mineral soil) were examined. Results showed that less than 2% of soil organic carbon was electrolyte-extractable and heterogeneous organic fractions with distinct THM reactivity existed. Regardless of soil and electrolytes, DOC and HPOA fractions were dominant in terms of total concentration and THMFP. The amounts of extractable organic carbon and THMFP were dependent on the cation and to a lesser extent on electrical conductivity of electrolytes. Along with our previous study on temperature and moisture effects on DOC production, we propose a conceptual model to describe the impacts of agricultural practices on DOC production in the Delta. DOC is mainly produced in the surface peat soils during the summer and is immobilized by accumulated salt in the soils. DOC is leached from soils to drainage ditches and finally to the Delta channels during winter salt leaching practices.

  6. Formation of trihalomethanes of dissolved organic matter fractions in reservoir and canal waters.

    PubMed

    Musikavong, Charongpun; Srimuang, Kanjanee; Tachapattaworakul Suksaroj, Thunwadee; Suksaroj, Chaisri

    2016-07-28

    The formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) of hydrophobic organic fraction (HPO), transphilic organic fraction (TPI), and hydrophilic organic fraction (HPI) of reservoir and canal waters from the U-Tapao River Basin, Songkhla, Thailand was investigated. Water samples were collected three times from two reservoirs, upstream, midstream, and downstream of the U-Tapao canal. The HPO was the major dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction in reservoir and canal waters. On average, the HPO accounted for 53 and 45% of the DOM in reservoir and canal waters, respectively. The TPI of 19 and 23% in reservoir and canal waters were determined, respectively. The HPI of 29% of the reservoir water and HPI of 32% of the canal water were detected. For the reservoir water, the highest trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP)/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was determined for the HPI, followed by the TPI and HPO, respectively. The average values of the THMFP/DOC of the HPI, TPI, and HPO of the reservoir water were 78, 52, and 49 µg THMs/mg C, respectively. The highest THMFP/DOC of the canal water was detected for the HPI, followed by HPO and TPI, respectively. Average values of the THMFP/DOC of HPI of water at upstream and midstream locations of 58 µg THMs/mg C and downstream location of 113 µg THMs/mg C were determined. Average values of THMFP/DOC of HPO of water at upstream and midstream and downstream locations were 48 and 93 µg THMs/mg C, respectively. For the lowest THMFP/DOC fraction, the average values of THMFP/DOC of TPI of water at upstream and midstream and downstream locations were 35 and 73 µg THMs/mg C, respectively.

  7. Disinfection byproduct formation during biofiltration cycle: Implications for drinking water production.

    PubMed

    Delatolla, R; Séguin, C; Springthorpe, S; Gorman, E; Campbell, A; Douglas, I

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of biofiltration to reduce the formation potential of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Particularly, the work investigates the effect of the duration of the filter cycle on the formation potential of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and five species of haloacetic acids (HAA5), dissolved oxygen (DO), organic carbon, nitrogen and total phosphorous concentrations along with biofilm coverage of the filter media and biomass viability of the attached cells. The study was conducted on a full-scale biologically active filter, with anthracite and sand media, at the Britannia water treatment plant (WTP), located in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The formation potential of both TTHMs and HAA5s decreased due to biofiltration. However the lowest formation potentials for both groups of DBPs and or their precursors were observed immediately following a backwash event. Hence, the highest percent removal of DBPs was observed during the early stages of the biofiltration cycle, which suggests that a higher frequency of backwashing will reduce the formation of DBPs. Variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM) analysis shows that biofilm coverage of anthracite and sand media increases as the filtration cycle progressed, while biomass viability analysis demonstrates that the percentage of cells attached to the anthracite and sand media also increases as the filtration cycle progresses. These results suggest that the development and growth of biofilm on the filters increases the DPB formation potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Suitability of Organic Matter Surrogates to Predict Trihalomethane Formation in Drinking Water Sources

    PubMed Central

    Pifer, Ashley D.; Fairey, Julian L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Broadly applicable disinfection by-product (DBP) precursor surrogate parameters could be leveraged at drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) to curb formation of regulated DBPs, such as trihalomethanes (THMs). In this study, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), fluorescence excitation/emission wavelength pairs (IEx/Em), and the maximum fluorescence intensities (FMAX) of components from parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis were evaluated as total THM formation potential (TTHMFP) precursor surrogate parameters. A diverse set of source waters from eleven DWTPs located within watersheds underlain by six different soil orders were coagulated with alum at pH 6, 7, and 8, resulting in 44 sample waters. DOC, UV254, IEx/Em, and FMAX values were measured to characterize dissolved organic matter in raw and treated waters and THMs were quantified following formation potential tests with free chlorine. For the 44 sample waters, the linear TTHMFP correlation with UV254 was stronger (r2=0.89) than I240/562 (r2=0.81, the strongest surrogate parameter from excitation/emission matrix pair picking), FMAX from a humic/fulvic acid-like PARAFAC component (r2=0.78), and DOC (r2=0.75). Results indicate that UV254 was the most accurate TTHMFP precursor surrogate parameter assessed for a diverse group of raw and alum-coagulated waters. PMID:24669183

  9. Characterization of dissolved organic matter for prediction of trihalomethane formation potential in surface and sub-surface waters.

    PubMed

    Awad, John; van Leeuwen, John; Chow, Christopher; Drikas, Mary; Smernik, Ronald J; Chittleborough, David J; Bestland, Erick

    2016-05-05

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters used for drinking purposes can vary markedly in character dependent on their sources within catchments. The character of DOM further influences the formation of disinfection by products when precursor DOM present in drinking water reacts with chlorine during disinfection. Here we report the development of models that describe the formation potential of trihalomethanes (THMFP) dependent on the character of DOM in waters from discrete catchments with specific land-use and soil textures. DOM was characterized based on UV absorbance at 254 nm, apparent molecular weight and relative abundances of protein-like and humic-like compounds. DOM character and Br concentration (up to 0.5 mg/L) were used as variables in models (R(2)>0.93) of THMFP, which ranged from 19 to 649 μg/L. Chloroform concentration (12-594 μg/L) and relative abundance (27-99%) were first modeled (R(2)>0.85) and from these, the abundances of bromodichloromethane and chlorodibromomethane estimated using power and exponential functions, respectively (R(2)>0.98). From these, the abundance of bromoform is calculated. The proposed model may be used in risk assessment of catchment factors on formation of trihalomethanes in drinking water, in context of treatment efficiency for removal of organic matter. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Source Water Management for Disinfection By-Product Control using New York City's Operations Support Tool and On-Line Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, W. J.; Becker, W.; Schindler, S.

    2012-12-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's 2006 Stage 2 Disinfectant / Disinfection Byproduct Rule (DBPR) for finished drinking waters is intended to reduce overall DBP levels by limiting the levels of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and five of the haloacetic acids (HAA5). Under Stage 2, maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), 80 μg/L for TTHM and 60 μg/L for HAA5, are based on a locational running annual average for individual sites instead of as the system-wide quarterly running annual average of the Stage 1 DBPR. This means compliance will have to be met at sampling locations of peak TTHM and HAA5 concentrations rather than an average across the entire system. Compliance monitoring under the Stage 2 DBPR began on April 1, 2012. The New York City (NYC) Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) began evaluating potential impacts of the Stage 2 DBPR on NYC's unfiltered water supply in 2002 by monitoring TTHM and HAA5 levels at various locations throughout the distribution system. Initial monitoring indicated that HAA5 levels could be of concern in the future, with the potential to intermittently violate the Stage 2 DBPR at specific locations, particularly those with high water age. Because of the uncertainty regarding the long-term prospect for compliance, DEP evaluated alternatives to ensure compliance, including operational changes (reducing chlorine dose, changing flow configurations to minimize water age, altering pH, altering source water withdrawals); changing the residual disinfectant from free chlorine to chloramines; and engineered treatment alternatives. This paper will discuss the potential for using DEP's Operations Support Tool (OST) and enhanced reservoir monitoring to support optimization of source water withdrawals to minimize finished water DBP levels. The OST is a state-of-the-art decision support system (DSS) to provide computational and predictive support for water supply operations and planning. It incorporates a water supply system

  11. Colorectal Cancer and Long-Term Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Spain and Italy.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Cristina M; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Bosetti, Cristina; Righi, Elena; Molina, Antonio José; Martín, Vicente; Boldo, Elena; Aragonés, Nuria; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Pollan, Marina; Acebo, Ines Gomez; Altzibar, Jone M; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Peiró, Rosana; Tardón, Adonina; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Tavani, Alessandra; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Pisa, Federica; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Palau, Margarita; Moreno, Victor; La Vecchia, Carlo; Aggazzotti, Gabriella; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2017-01-01

    Evidence on the association between colorectal cancer and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water is inconsistent. We assessed long-term exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the most prevalent group of chlorination by-products, to evaluate the association with colorectal cancer. A multicenter case-control study was conducted in Spain and Italy in 2008-2013. Hospital-based incident cases and population-based (Spain) and hospital-based (Italy) controls were interviewed to ascertain residential histories, type of water consumed in each residence, frequency and duration of showering/bathing, and major recognized risk factors for colorectal cancer. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (OR) for colorectal cancer in association with quartiles of estimated average lifetime THM concentrations in each participant's residential tap water (micrograms/liter; from age 18 to 2 years before the interview) and estimated average lifetime THM ingestion from drinking residential tap water (micrograms/day). We analyzed 2,047 cases and 3,718 controls. Median values (ranges) for average lifetime residential tap water concentrations of total THMs, chloroform, and brominated THMs were 30 (0-174), 17 (0-63), and 9 (0-145) μg/L, respectively. Total THM concentration in residential tap water was not associated with colorectal cancer (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.28 for highest vs. lowest quartile), but chloroform concentrations were inversely associated (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.41 for highest vs. lowest quartile). Brominated THM concentrations showed a positive association among men in the highest versus the lowest quartile (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.83, 2.46). Patterns of association were similar for estimated average THM ingestion through residential water consumption. We did not find clear evidence of an association between detailed estimates of lifetime total THM exposure and colorectal cancer in our large case-control study population. Negative associations with chloroform

  12. Distribution and relevance of iodinated X-ray contrast media and iodinated trihalomethanes in an aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhifa; Li, Xia; Hu, Xialin; Yin, Daqiang

    2017-10-01

    Distribution and relevance of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) in a real aquatic environment have been rarely documented. In this paper, some ICM were proven to be strongly correlated with I-DBPs through investigation of five ICM and five iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) in surface water and two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) of the Yangtze River Delta, China. The total ICM concentrations in Taihu Lake and the Huangpu River ranged from 88.7 to 131 ng L -1 and 102-252 ng L -1 , respectively. While the total I-THM concentrations ranged from 128 to 967 ng L -1 in Taihu Lake and 267-680 ng L -1 in the Huangpu River. Iohexol, the dominant ICM, showed significant positive correlation (p < 0.01) with CHClI 2 in Taihu Lake. Iopamidol and iomeprol correlated positively (p < 0.01) with some I-THMs in the Huangpu River. The observed pronounced correlations between ICM and I-THMs indicated that ICM play an important role in the formation of I-THMs in a real aquatic environment. Characteristics of the I-THM species distributions indicated that I-THMs may be transformed by natural conditions. Both DWTPs showed negligible removal efficiencies for total ICM (<20%). Strikingly high concentrations of total I-THMs were observed in the finished water (2848 ng L -1 in conventional DWTP and 356 ng L -1 in advanced DWTP). Obvious transformation of ICM to I-THMs was observed during the chlorination and ozonization processes in DWTPs. We suggest that ICM is an important source for I-DBP formation in the real aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations of trihalomethanes removal from water using boron nitride nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Azamat, Jafar; Khataee, Alireza; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the separation of trihalomethanes (THMs) from water using boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs). The studied systems included THM molecules and a functionalized BNNS membrane immersed in an aqueous solution. An external pressure was applied to the z axis of the systems. Two functionalized BNNSs with large fluorinated-hydrogenated pore (F-H-pores) and small hydrogen-hydroxyl pore (H-OH-pores) were used. The pores of the BNNS membrane were obtained by passivating each nitrogen and boron atoms at the pore edges with fluorine and hydrogen atoms in the large pore or with hydroxyl and hydrogen atoms in the small pore. The results show that the BNNS with a small functionalized pore was impermeable to THM molecules, in contrast to the BNNS with a large functionalized pore. Using these membranes, water contaminants can be removed at lower cost.

  14. Trihalomethanes in Lisbon indoor swimming pools: occurrence, determining factors, and health risk classification.

    PubMed

    Silva, Zelinda Isabel; Rebelo, Maria Helena; Silva, Manuela Manso; Alves, Ana Martins; Cabral, Maria da Conceição; Almeida, Ana Cristina; Aguiar, Fátima Rôxo; de Oliveira, Anabela Lopes; Nogueira, Ana Cruz; Pinhal, Hermínia Rodrigues; Aguiar, Pedro Manuel; Cardoso, Ana Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of water quality from indoor swimming pools, using chorine-based disinfection techniques, was performed during a 6-mo period to study the occurrence, distribution, and concentration factors of trihalomethanes (THM). Several parameters such as levels of water THM, water and air chloroform, water bromodichloromethane (BDCM), water dibromochloromethane (DBCM), water bromoform (BF), free residual chlorine (FrCl), pH, water and air temperature, and permanganate water oxidizability (PWO) were determined in each pool during that period. Chloroform (CF(W)) was the THM detected at higher concentrations in all pools, followed by BDCM, DBCM, and BF detected at 99, 34, and 6% of the samples, respectively. Water THM concentrations ranged from 10.1 to 155 μg/L, with 6.5% of the samples presenting values above 100 μg/L (parametric value established in Portuguese law DL 306/2007). In this study, air chloroform (CF(Air)) concentrations ranged from 45 to 373 μg/m³ with 24% of the samples presenting values above 136 μg/m³ (considered high exposure value). Several significant correlations were observed between total THM and other parameters, namely, CF(W), CF(Air), FrCl, water temperature (T(W)), and PWO. These correlations indicate that FrCl, T(W) and PWO are parameters that influence THM formation. The exposure criterion established for water THM enabled the inclusion of 67% of Lisbon pools in the high exposure group, which reinforces the need for an improvement in pool water quality.

  15. Investigating the role of biofilms in trihalomethane formation in water distribution systems with a multicomponent model.

    PubMed

    Abokifa, Ahmed A; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Lo, Cynthia S; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-11-01

    Biofilms are ubiquitous in the pipes of drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs), and recent experimental studies revealed that the chlorination of the microbial carbon associated with the biofilm contributes to the total disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation with distinct mechanisms from those formed from precursors derived from natural organic matter (NOM). A multiple species reactive-transport model was developed to explain the role of biofilms in DBPs formation by accounting for the simultaneous transport and interactions of disinfectants, organic compounds, and biomass. Using parameter values from experimental studies in the literature, the model equations were solved to predict chlorine decay and microbial regrowth dynamics in an actual DWDS, and trihalomethanes (THMs) formation in a pilot-scale distribution system simulator. The model's capability of reproducing the measured concentrations of free chlorine, suspended biomass, and THMs under different hydrodynamic and temperature conditions was demonstrated. The contribution of bacteria-derived precursors to the total THMs production was found to have a significant dependence on the system's hydraulics, seasonal variables, and the quality of the treated drinking water. Under system conditions that promoted fast bacterial re-growth, the transformation of non-microbial into microbial carbon DBP precursors by the biofilms showed a noticeable effect on the kinetics of THMs formation, especially when a high initial chlorine dose was applied. These conditions included elevated water temperature and high concentrations of nutrients in the influent water. The fraction of THMs formed from microbial sources was found to reach a peak of 12% of the total produced THMs under the investigated scenarios. The results demonstrated the importance of integrating bacterial regrowth dynamics in predictive DBPs formation models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. THE INDUCTION OF COLORECTAL NEOPLASIA BY A MIXTURE HIGH IN BROMINATED TRIHALOMETHANES (THMS) ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER TO MALE F344/N RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INDUCTION OF COLORECTAL NEOPLASIA BY A MIXTURE HIGH IN BROMINA TED TRIHALOMETHANES (THMS) ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING W A TER TO MALE F344/N RA TS.

    Abstract:

    The THMs are the most widely distributed and concentrated of the chlorine disinfection by-products (D...

  17. Drinking water treatment response following a Colorado wildfire.

    PubMed

    Hohner, Amanda K; Cawley, Kaelin; Oropeza, Jill; Summers, R Scott; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L

    2016-11-15

    Wildfires can greatly alter the vegetation, soils, and hydrologic processes of watersheds serving as drinking water supplies, which may negatively influence source water quality and treatment. To address wildfire impacts on treatment, a drinking water intake below a burned watershed and an upstream, unburned reference site were monitored following the High Park wildfire (2012) in the Cache la Poudre watershed of northern Colorado, USA. Turbidity, nutrients, dissolved organic matter (DOM) character, coagulation treatability, and disinfection byproduct formation were evaluated and compared to pre-fire data. Post-fire paired spatial differences between the treatment plant intake and reference site for turbidity, nitrogen, and phosphorus increased by an order of magnitude compared to pre-fire differences. Fluorescence index (FI) values were significantly higher at the intake compared to the reference site (Δ = 0.04), and higher than pre-fire years, suggesting the wildfire altered the DOM character of the river. Total trihalomethane (TTHM) and haloacetonitrile (HAN4) formation at the intake were 10.1 μg L -1 and 0.91 μg L -1 higher than the reference site. Post-fire water was amenable to conventional treatment at a 10 mg L -1 higher average alum dose than reference samples. The intake was also monitored following rainstorms. Post-rainstorm samples showed the maximum observed FI values (1.52), HAN4 (3.4 μg mg C -1 ) and chloropicrin formation yields (3.6 μg mg C -1 ), whereas TTHM and haloacetic acid yields were not elevated. Several post-rainstorm samples presented treatment challenges, and even at high alum doses (65 mg L -1 ), showed minimal dissolved organic carbon removal (<10%). The degraded water quality of the post-rainstorm samples is likely attributed to the combined effects of runoff from precipitation and greater erosion following wildfire. Wildfire impacts cannot be separated from rainfall effects due to the lack of post-rainstorm samples from the

  18. Exposure assessment for trihalomethanes in municipal drinking water and risk reduction strategy.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat

    2013-10-01

    Lifetime exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in municipal water may pose risks to human health. Current approaches of exposure assessments use DBPs in cold water during showering, while warming of chlorinated water during showering may increase trihalomethane (THM) formation in the presence of free residual chlorine. Further, DBP exposure through dermal contact during showering is estimated using steady-state condition between the DBPs in shower water impacting on human skin and skin exposed to shower water. The lag times to achieve steady-state condition between DBPs in shower water and human skin can vary in the range of 9.8-391.2 min, while shower duration is often less than the lag times. Assessment of exposure without incorporating these factors might have misinterpreted DBP exposure in some previous studies. In this study, exposure to THMs through ingestion was estimated using cold water THMs, while THM exposure through inhalation and dermal contact during showering was estimated using THMs in warm water. Inhalation of THMs was estimated using THM partition into the shower air, while dermal uptake was estimated by incorporating lag times (e.g., unsteady and steady-state phases of exposure) during showering. Probabilistic approach was followed to incorporate uncertainty in the assessment. Inhalation and dermal contact during showering contributed 25-60% of total exposure. Exposure to THMs during showering can be controlled by varying shower stall volume, shower duration and air exchange rate following power law equations. The findings might be useful in understanding exposure to THMs, which can be extended to other volatile compounds in municipal water. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Colorectal Cancer and Long-Term Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water: A Multicenter Case–Control Study in Spain and Italy

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Bosetti, Cristina; Righi, Elena; Molina, Antonio José; Martín, Vicente; Boldo, Elena; Aragonés, Nuria; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Pollan, Marina; Acebo, Ines Gomez; Altzibar, Jone M.; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Peiró, Rosana; Tardón, Adonina; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Tavani, Alessandra; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Pisa, Federica; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Palau, Margarita; Moreno, Victor; La Vecchia, Carlo; Aggazzotti, Gabriella; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the association between colorectal cancer and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water is inconsistent. Objectives: We assessed long-term exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the most prevalent group of chlorination by-products, to evaluate the association with colorectal cancer. Methods: A multicenter case–control study was conducted in Spain and Italy in 2008–2013. Hospital-based incident cases and population-based (Spain) and hospital-based (Italy) controls were interviewed to ascertain residential histories, type of water consumed in each residence, frequency and duration of showering/bathing, and major recognized risk factors for colorectal cancer. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (OR) for colorectal cancer in association with quartiles of estimated average lifetime THM concentrations in each participant’s residential tap water (micrograms/liter; from age 18 to 2 years before the interview) and estimated average lifetime THM ingestion from drinking residential tap water (micrograms/day). Results: We analyzed 2,047 cases and 3,718 controls. Median values (ranges) for average lifetime residential tap water concentrations of total THMs, chloroform, and brominated THMs were 30 (0–174), 17 (0–63), and 9 (0–145) μg/L, respectively. Total THM concentration in residential tap water was not associated with colorectal cancer (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.28 for highest vs. lowest quartile), but chloroform concentrations were inversely associated (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.41 for highest vs. lowest quartile). Brominated THM concentrations showed a positive association among men in the highest versus the lowest quartile (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.83, 2.46). Patterns of association were similar for estimated average THM ingestion through residential water consumption. Conclusions: We did not find clear evidence of an association between detailed estimates of lifetime total THM exposure and colorectal cancer in our large case

  20. Formation of trihalomethanes as disinfection byproducts in herbal spa pools.

    PubMed

    Fakour, Hoda; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2018-04-09

    Herbal spa treatments are favorite recreational activities throughout the world. The water in spas is often disinfected to control pathogenic microorganisms and guarantee hygiene. However, chlorinated water may cause the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although there have been many studies on DBP formation in swimming pools, the role of organic matter derived from herbal medicines applied in herbal spa water has been largely neglected. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effect of herbal medicines on the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in simulated herbal spa water. Water samples were collected from a spa pool, and then, disinfection and herbal addition experiments were performed in a laboratory. The results showed that the organic molecules introduced by the herbal medicines are significant precursors to the formation of THMs in spa pool water. Since at least 50% of THMs were produced within the first six hours of the reaction time, the presence of herbal medicines in spa water could present a parallel route for THM exposure. Therefore, despite the undeniable benefits of herbal spas, the effect of applied herbs on DBP formation in chlorinated water should be considered to improve the water quality and health benefits of spa facilities.

  1. Blood Biomarkers of Late Pregnancy Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water and Fetal Growth Measures and Gestational Age in a Chinese Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wen-Cheng; Zeng, Qiang; Luo, Yan; Chen, Hai-Xia; Miao, Dong-Yue; Li, Li; Cheng, Ying-Hui; Li, Min; Wang, Fan; You, Ling; Wang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Pan; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that elevated exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water during gestation may result in adverse birth outcomes. However, the findings of these studies remain inconclusive. Objective: The purpose of our study was to examine the association between blood biomarkers of late pregnancy exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water and fetal growth and gestational age. Methods: We recruited 1,184 pregnant women between 2011 and 2013 in Wuhan and Xiaogan City, Hubei, China. Maternal blood THM concentrations, including chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM), were measured as exposure biomarkers during late pregnancy. We estimated associations with gestational age and fetal growth indicators [birth weight, birth length, and small for gestational age (SGA)]. Results: Total THMs (TTHMs; sum of TCM, BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) were associated with lower mean birth weight (–60.9 g; 95% CI: –116.2, –5.6 for the highest vs. lowest tertile; p for trend = 0.03), and BDCM and DBCM exposures were associated with smaller birth length (e.g., –0.20 cm; 95% CI: –0.37, –0.04 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of DBCM; p for trend = 0.02). SGA was increased in association with the second and third tertiles of TTHMs (OR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.32, 6.42 and OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.01, 5.03; p for trend = 0.08). Conclusions: Our results suggested that elevated maternal THM exposure may adversely affect fetal growth. Citation: Cao WC, Zeng Q, Luo Y, Chen HX, Miao DY, Li L, Cheng YH, Li M, Wang F, You L, Wang YX, Yang P, Lu WQ. 2016. Blood biomarkers of late pregnancy exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water and fetal growth measures and gestational age in a Chinese cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:536–541; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409234 PMID:26340795

  2. Improving Student Understanding of Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis via GC/MS Using a Rapid SPME-Based Method for Determination of Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shu Rong; Palmer, Peter T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determination of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water via solid-phase microextraction (SPME) GC/MS as a means to develop and improve student understanding of the use of GC/MS for qualitative and quantitative analysis. In the classroom, students are introduced to SPME, GC/MS instrumentation, and the use of MS…

  3. Airborne exposure to trihalomethanes from tap water in homes with refrigeration-type and evaporative cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Kerger, Brent D; Suder, David R; Schmidt, Chuck E; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2005-03-26

    This study evaluates airborne concentrations of common trihalomethane compounds (THM) in selected living spaces of homes supplied with chlorinated tap water containing >85 ppb total THM. Three small homes in an arid urban area were selected, each having three bedrooms, a full bath, and approximately 1000 square feet; two homes had standard (refrigeration-type) central air conditioning and the third had a central evaporative cooling system ("swamp cooler"). A high-end water-use pattern was used at each home in this exposure simulation. THM were concurrently measured on 4 separate test days in tap water and air in the bathroom, living room, the bedroom closest to the bathroom, and outside using Summa canisters. Chloroform (trichloromethane, TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), and dibromochloromethane (DBCM) concentrations were quantified using U.S. EPA Method TO-14. The apparent volatilization fraction consistently followed the order: TCM > BDCM > DBCM. Relatively low airborne THM concentrations (similar to outdoors) were found in the living room and bedroom samples for the home with evaporative cooling, while the refrigeration-cooled homes showed significantly higher THM levels (three- to fourfold). This differential remained after normalizing the air concentrations based on estimated THM throughput or water concentrations. These findings indicate that, despite higher throughput of THM-containing water in homes using evaporative coolers, the higher air exchange rates associated with these systems rapidly clears THM to levels similar to ambient outdoor concentrations.

  4. Detecting trihalomethanes using nanoporous-carbon coated surface-acoustic-wave sensors

    DOE PAGES

    Siegal, Michael P.; Mowry, Curtis D.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; ...

    2015-03-07

    We study nanoporous-carbon (NPC) grown via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) as a sorbent coating on 96.5-MHz surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) devices to detect trihalomethanes (THMs), regulated byproducts from the chemical treatment of drinking water. Using both insertion-loss and isothermal-response measurements from known quantities of chloroform, the highest vapor pressure THM, we optimize the NPC mass-density at 1.05 ± 0.08 g/cm3 by controlling the background argon pressure during PLD. Precise THM quantities in a chlorobenzene solvent are directly injected into a separation column and detected as the phase-angle shift of the SAW device output compared to the drive signal. Using optimized NPC-coated SAWs,more » we study the chloroform response as a function of operating temperatures ranging from 10–50°C. Finally, we demonstrate individual responses from complex mixtures of all four THMs, with masses ranging from 10–2000 ng, after gas chromatography separation. As a result, estimates for each THM detection limit using a simple peak-height response evaluation are 4.4 ng for chloroform and 1 ng for bromoform; using an integrated-peak area response analysis improves the detection limits to 0.73 ng for chloroform and 0.003 ng bromoform.« less

  5. Birth Weight, Ethnicity, and Exposure to Trihalomethanes and Haloacetic Acids in Drinking Water during Pregnancy in the Born in Bradford Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel B.; Edwards, Susan C.; Best, Nicky; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Toledano, Mireille B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence for a relationship between trihalomethane (THM) or haloacetic acid (HAA) exposure and adverse fetal growth is inconsistent. Disinfection by-products exist as complex mixtures in water supplies, but THMs and HAAs have typically been examined separately. Objectives: We investigated joint exposure at the individual level to THMs and HAAs in relation to birth weight in the multi-ethnic Born in Bradford birth cohort. Methods: Pregnant women reported their water consumption and activities via questionnaire. These data were combined with area-level THM and HAA concentrations to estimate integrated uptake of THMs into blood and HAA ingestion, accounting for boiling/filtering. We examined the relationship between THM and HAA exposures and birth weight of up to 7,438 singleton term babies using multiple linear regression, stratified by ethnicity. Results: Among Pakistani-origin infants, mean birth weight was significantly lower in association with the highest versus lowest tertiles of integrated THM uptake (e.g., –53.7 g; 95% CI: –89.9, –17.5 for ≥ 1.82 vs. < 1.05 μg/day of total THM) and there were significant trends (p < 0.01) across increasing tertiles, but there were no associations among white British infants. Neither ingestion of HAAs alone or jointly with THMs was associated with birth weight. Estimated THM uptake via showering, bathing, and swimming was significantly associated with lower birth weight in Pakistani-origin infants, when adjusting for THM and HAA ingestion via water consumption. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the largest DBP and fetal growth study to date with individual water use data, and the first to examine individual-level estimates of joint THM–HAA exposure. Our findings demonstrate associations between THM, but not HAA, exposure during pregnancy and reduced birth weight, but suggest this differs by ethnicity. This study suggests that THMs are not acting as a proxy for HAAs, or vice-versa. Citation: Smith RB

  6. Bromine incorporation factors for trihalomethane formation for the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    The bromine incorporation factor describes the distribution of the four trihalomethane compounds in the mixture formed when a natural water is chlorinated. This factor was determined for the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers by chlorinating water samples at three levels each of pH and free chlorine concentration. Samples were collected during the summer, fall, and spring seasons of the year at 12 sites on the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, MN, to New Orleans, LA, and on the Missouri and Ohio Rivers 1.6 kilometers upstream from their confluences with the Mississippi. The bromine incorporation factor increased as the bromide concentration increased, and decreased as the pH, initial free-chlorine and dissolved organic-carbon concentrations increased. Variation of the bromine incorporation factor with distance along the Mississippi River approximately paralleled the variation of the bromide concentration with distance along the river, with the Missouri River samples having the highest bromine incorporation factors for all combinations of pH and free-chlorine concentration.

  7. Identification of dissolved organic matter in raw water supply from reservoirs and canals as precursors to trihalomethanes formation.

    PubMed

    Musikavong, Charongpun; Wattanachira, Suraphong

    2013-01-01

    The characteristic and quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as trihalomethanes precursors in water from the U-Tapao Basin, Songkhla, Thailand was investigated. The sources of water in the basin consisted of two reservoirs and the U-Tapao canal. The canal receives water discharge from reservoirs, treated and untreated wastewater from agricultural processes, communities and industries. Water downstream of the canal is utilized as a raw water supply. Water samples were collected from two reservoirs, upstream and midstream of the canal, and the raw water supply in the rainy season and summer. The DOM level in the canal water was higher than that of the reservoir water. The highest trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) was formed in the raw water supply. Fourier-transform infrared peaks of the humic acid were detected in the reservoir and canal waters. Aliphatic hydrocarbon and organic nitrogen were the major chemical classes in the reservoir and canal water characterized by a pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometer. The optimal condition of the poly aluminum chloride (PACl) coagulation was obtained at a dosage of 40 mg/L at pH 7. This condition could reduce the average UV-254 to 57%, DOC to 64%, and THMFP to 42%. In the coagulated water, peaks of O-H groups or H-bonded NH, C˭O of cyclic and acyclic compounds, ketones and quinines, aromatic C˭C, C-O of alcohols, ethers, and carbohydrates, deformation of COOH, and carboxylic acid salts were detected. The aliphatic hydrocarbon, organic nitrogen and aldehydes and ketones were the major chemical classes. These DOM could be considered as the prominent DOM for the water supply plant that utilized PACl as a coagulant.

  8. Changes in Breath Trihalomethane Levels Resulting from Household Water-Use Activities

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Sydney M.; Brinkman, Marielle C.; Ashley, David L.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Lyu, Christopher; Masters, John; Singer, Philip C.

    2006-01-01

    Common household water-use activities such as showering, bathing, drinking, and washing clothes or dishes are potentially important contributors to individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the major class of disinfection by-products of water treated with chlorine. Previous studies have focused on showering or bathing activities. In this study, we selected 12 common water-use activities and determined which may lead to the greatest THM exposures and result in the greatest increase in the internal dose. Seven subjects performed the various water-use activities in two residences served by water utilities with relatively high and moderate total THM levels. To maintain a consistent exposure environment, the activities, exposure times, air exchange rates, water flows, water temperatures, and extraneous THM emissions to the indoor air were carefully controlled. Water, indoor air, blood, and exhaled-breath samples were collected during each exposure session for each activity, in accordance with a strict, well-defined protocol. Although showering (for 10 min) and bathing (for 14 min), as well as machine washing of clothes and opening mechanical dishwashers at the end of the cycle, resulted in substantial increases in indoor air chloroform concentrations, only showering and bathing caused significant increases in the breath chloroform levels. In the case of bromodichloromethane (BDCM), only bathing yielded a significantly higher air level in relation to the preexposure concentration. For chloroform from showering, strong correlations were observed for indoor air and exhaled breath, blood and exhaled breath, indoor air and blood, and tap water and blood. Only water and breath, and blood and breath were significantly associated for chloroform from bathing. For BDCM, significant correlations were obtained for blood and air, and blood and water from showering. Neither dibromochloromethane nor bromoform gave measurable breath concentrations for any of the activities

  9. Ozone regeneration of granular activated carbon for trihalomethane control.

    PubMed

    He, Xuexiang; Elkouz, Mark; Inyang, Mandu; Dickenson, Eric; Wert, Eric C

    2017-03-15

    Spatial and temporal variations of trihalomethanes (THMs) in distribution systems have challenged water treatment facilities to comply with disinfection byproduct rules. In this study, granular activated carbon (GAC) and modified GAC (i.e., Ag-GAC and TiO 2 -GAC) were used to treat chlorinated tap water containing CHCl 3 (15-21μg/L), CHBrCl 2 (13-16μg/L), CHBr 2 Cl (13-14μg/L), and CHBr 3 (3μg/L). Following breakthrough of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), GAC were regenerated using conventional and novel methods. GAC regeneration efficiency was assessed by measuring adsorptive (DOC, UV absorbance at 254nm, and THMs) and physical (surface area and pore volume) properties. Thermal regeneration resulted in a brief period of additional DOC adsorption (bed volume, BV, ∼6000), while ozone regeneration was ineffective regardless of the GAC type. THM adsorption was restored by either method (e.g., BV for ≥80% breakthrough, CHBr 3  ∼44,000>CHBr 2 Cl ∼35,000>CHBrCl 2  ∼31,000>CHCl 3  ∼7000). Cellular and attached adenosine triphosphate measurements illustrated the antimicrobial effects of Ag-GAC, which may have allowed for the extended THM adsorption compared to the other GAC types. The results illustrate that ozone regeneration may be a viable in-situ alternative for the adsorption of THMs during localized treatment in drinking water distribution systems. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Description of trihalomethane levels in three UK water suppliers.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Heather; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Best, Nicola; Fawell, John; Gowers, Alison; Elliot, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Samples of drinking water are routinely analysed for four trihalomethanes (THMs), which are indicators of by-products of disinfection with chlorine, by UK water suppliers to demonstrate compliance with regulations. The THM data for 1992-1993 to 1997-1998 for three water suppliers in the north and midlands of England were made available for a UK epidemiological study of the association between disinfection by-products and adverse birth outcomes. This paper describes the THM levels in these three supply regions and discusses possible sources of variation. THM levels varied between different suppliers' water, and average THM levels were within the regulatory limits. Chloroform was the predominant THM in all water types apart from the ground water of one supplier. The supplier that distributed more ground and lowland surface water had higher dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and bromoform levels and lower chloroform levels than the other two suppliers. In the water of two suppliers, seasonal fluctuations in bromodichloromethane (BDCM) and DBCM levels were found with levels peaking in the summer and autumn. In the other water supplier, chloroform levels followed a similar seasonal trend whereas BDCM and DBCM levels did not. For all three water suppliers, chloroform levels declined throughout 1995 when there was a drought period. There was a moderate positive correlation between the THMs most similar in their structure (chloroform and BDCM, BDCM and DBCM, and DBCM and bromoform) and a slight negative correlation between chloroform and bromoform levels.

  11. Quantum Chemical Examination of the Sequential Halogen Incorporation Scheme for the Modeling of Speciation of I/Br/Cl-Containing Trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenyang; Li, Maodong; Han, Xuze; Yan, Mingquan

    2018-02-20

    The recently developed three-step ternary halogenation model interprets the incorporation of chlorine, bromine, and iodine ions into natural organic matter (NOM) and formation of iodine-, bromine-, and chlorine-containing trihalomethanes (THMs) based on the competition of iodine, bromine, and chlorine species at each node of the halogenation sequence. This competition is accounted for using the dimensionless ratios (denoted as γ) of kinetic rates of reactions of the initial attack sites or halogenated intermediates with chlorine, bromine, and iodine ions. However, correlations between the model predictions made and mechanistic aspects of the incorporation of halogen species need to be ascertained in more detail. In this study, quantum chemistry calculations were first used to probe the formation mechanism of 10 species of Cl-/Br-/I- THMs. The HOMO energy (E HOMO ) of each mono-, bi-, or trihalomethanes were calculated by B3LYP method in Gaussian 09 software. Linear correlations were found to exist between the logarithms of experimentally determined kinetic preference coefficients γ reported in prior research and, on the other hand, differences of E HOMO values between brominated/iodinated and chlorinated halomethanes. One notable exception from this trend was that observed for the incorporation of iodine into mono- and di-iodinated intermediates. These observations confirm the three-step halogen incorporation sequence and the factor γ in the statistical model. The combined use of quantum chemistry calculations and the ternary sequential halogenation model provides a new insight into the microscopic nature of NOM-halogen interactions and the trends seen in the behavior of γ factors incorporated in the THM speciation models.

  12. [Risk Assessment of Trihalomethane Production Using the Beijiang River and the Pearl River, Guangzhou as Drinking Water Sources].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hui-zhou; Wei, Chao-hai

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the risk of trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) in finished waters as drinking water sources, 70 samples, 114 samples, and 70 samples were collected in November 2013, April 2014 and July 2014, respectively from different locations in the Beijiang River and the Pearl River. After filtration by 0.45 μm filter membrane, a total of 254 samples were chlorinated using Uniform Formation Condition (UFC) method for determining their THM Formation Potential (THMFP). The cancer risk and non-cancer risk of THMs were estimated using USEPA risk assessment model while dominant factors for total risk potential were estimated using sensitivity analysis. Among four THM species, chloroform( CF) was the highest ranging from 101.92-2 590.85 μg x L(-1), followed by bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and bromoform (BF). Chloroform, the major THMs speciation, accounted for 96.17% of total THMs. Non-cancer and cancer risk from ingesting THMs was estimated. The result indicated that non-cancer risk of THMs level ranged from 2.03 x 10(-7) to 1.00 x 10(-5) and was not more than 1.0 x 10(-5), the minimum or negligible non-cancer risk level defined by the USEPA. The average cancer risk of THMs was 2.91 x 10(-4) for male and 3.30 x 10(-4) for female in the two rivers, respectively, exceeding the minimum or negligible risk level defined by the USEPA (1. 0 x 10 ~6). The difference of cancer risk between the two rivers was that BDCM ranging from 2.50 x 10(-5) to 6.37 x 10(-4) was approximately twice that of CF in Beijing River. BDCM played an important role in the total risk in the Beijiang River while CF played an important role in the total risk in the Pearl River, Guangzhou. Sensitivity analysis showed that CF played an important role in the estimation of total risk potential, and that the direct utilization of water sources from Beijiang River and the Pearl River Guangzhou is dangerous, thus pretreatment is necessary before chlorination.

  13. Trihalomethane hydrolysis in drinking water at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lu; Yang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Karanfil, Tanju; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2015-07-01

    Hydrolysis could contribute to the loss of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the drinking water at elevated temperatures. This study was aimed at investigating THM hydrolysis pertaining to the storage of hot boiled water in enclosed containers. The water pH value was in the range of 6.1-8.2 and the water temperature was varied from 65 to 95 °C. The effects of halide ions, natural organic matter, and drinking water matrix were investigated. Results showed that the hydrolysis rates declined in the order following CHBrCl2 > CHBr2Cl > CHBr3 > CHCl3. THM hydrolysis was primarily through the alkaline pathway, except for CHCl3 in water at relatively low pH value. The activation energies for the alkaline hydrolysis of CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 were 109, 113, 115 and 116 kJ/mol, respectively. No hydrolysis intermediates could accumulate in the water. The natural organic matter, and probably other constituents, in drinking water could substantially decrease THM hydrolysis rates by more than 50%. When a drinking water was at 90 °C or above, the first order rate constants for THM hydrolysis were in the magnitude of 10(-2)‒10(-1) 1/h. When the boiled real tap water was stored in an enclosed container, THMs continued increasing during the first few hours and then kept decreasing later on due to the competition between hydrolysis and further formation. The removal of THMs, especially brominated THMs, by hydrolysis would greatly reduce one's exposure to disinfection by-products by consuming the boiled water stored in enclosed containers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF A HIGH ANIMAL FAT DIET ON THE INDUCTION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI IN THE COLONS OF MALE F344/N RATS EXPOSED TO TRIHALOMETHANES IN THE DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Effects of a High Animal Fat Diet on the Induction of Aberrant Crypt Foci in the Colons of Male F344/N Rats Exposed to Trihalomethanes in the Drinking Water

    Abstract

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), identified as the putative precursor lesion in the development of co...

  15. Drinking Water Disinfection By-products, Genetic Polymorphisms, and Birth Outcomes in a European Mother-Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kogevinas, Manolis; Bustamante, Mariona; Gracia-Lavedán, Esther; Ballester, Ferran; Cordier, Sylvaine; Costet, Nathalie; Espinosa, Ana; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Danileviciute, Asta; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Karadanelli, Maria; Krasner, Stuart; Patelarou, Evridiki; Stephanou, Euripides; Tardón, Adonina; Toledano, Mireille B; Wright, John; Villanueva, Cristina M; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2016-11-01

    We examined the association between exposure during pregnancy to trihalomethanes, the most common water disinfection by-products, and birth outcomes in a European cohort study (Health Impacts of Long-Term Exposure to Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water). We took into account exposure through different water uses, measures of water toxicity, and genetic susceptibility. We enrolled 14,005 mothers (2002-2010) and their children from France, Greece, Lithuania, Spain, and the UK. Information on lifestyle- and water-related activities was recorded. We ascertained residential concentrations of trihalomethanes through regulatory records and ad hoc sampling campaigns and estimated route-specific trihalomethane uptake by trimester and for whole pregnancy. We examined single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variants in disinfection by-product metabolizing genes in nested case-control studies. Average levels of trihalomethanes ranged from around 10 μg/L to above the regulatory limits in the EU of 100 μg/L between centers. There was no association between birth weight and total trihalomethane exposure during pregnancy (β = 2.2 g in birth weight per 10 μg/L of trihalomethane, 95% confidence interval = 3.3, 7.6). Birth weight was not associated with exposure through different routes or with specific trihalomethane species. Exposure to trihalomethanes was not associated with low birth weight (odds ratio [OR] per 10 μg/L = 1.02, 95% confidence interval = 0.95, 1.10), small-for-gestational age (OR = 0.99, 0.94, 1.03) and preterm births (OR = 0.98, 0.9, 1.05). We found no gene-environment interactions for mother or child polymorphisms in relation to preterm birth or small-for-gestational age. In this large European study, we found no association between birth outcomes and trihalomethane exposures during pregnancy in the total population or in potentially genetically susceptible subgroups. (See video abstract at http://links.lww.com/EDE/B104.).

  16. Colon and rectal cancer incidence and water trihalomethane concentrations in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is evidence, although inconsistent, that long term exposure to disinfection by products (DBPs) increases the risk of bowel cancer. No study has been conducted in Australia to examine this association and due to difference in the methods of disinfection the risk can vary across geographical regions and. This study was conducted to analyse the association of trihalomethanes (THMs) in water with colon and rectal cancer in NSW Australia. Methods Average yearly concentrations of total and individual species of THMs were obtained for 50 local government areas (LGAs). Indirectly-standardized incidence rates of colon and rectal cancers in LGAs for the period 1995 to 2001 were regressed against mean THM concentrations lagged five years, adjusting for socioeconomic status, high risk drinking, smoking status, usual source of water and year of diagnosis, including local and global random effects within a Bayesian framework. The incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in THMs were estimated. Results Using five year lag of exposure there was a positive association between bromoform concentration and CRC in men (IRR = 1.025, 95% CI 1.010, 1.040) but not in women (IRR = 1.003, 95% CI 0.987, 1.018). The association in men was mainly found in colon cancer with bromoform (IRR = 1.035, 95% CI 1.017, 1.053). There was no appreciable association of colorectal cancer with other species of THMs. Sensitivity analyses did not materially change the associations observed. Conclusion A positive association was observed between colon cancer and water bromoform concentrations in men. Given the potential population impact of such an association, further research into the relationship between THMs, particularly brominated species, and colorectal cancer is warranted. PMID:24938491

  17. Trihalomethanes in Comerio Drinking Water and Their Reduction by Nanostructured Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Bourdon, Jorge Hernandez; Linares, Francisco Marquez

    2014-01-01

    The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlorination of drinking water is an issue which has drawn significant scientific attention due to the possible adverse effects that these compounds have on human health and the formation of another DBPs. Some factors that affect the formation of DBPs include: chlorine dose and residue, contact time, temperature, pH and natural organic matter (NOM). The most frequently detected DBPs in drinking water are trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). The MCLs are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for drinking water quality established in Stage 1, Disinfectants and Disinfectionmore » Byproducts Rule (DBPR), and they limit the amount of potentially hazardous substances that are allowed in drinking water. The water quality data for THMs were evaluated in the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA). During this evaluation, the THMs exceeded the maximum contamination limit (MCLs) for the Comerio Water Treatment Plant (CWTP). USEPA classified the THMs as Group B2 carcinogens (shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals). This research evaluated the THMs concentrations in the following sampling sites: CWTP, Río Hondo and Piñas Abajo schools, Comerio Health Center (CDT), and the Vázquez Ortiz family, in the municipality of Comerio Puerto Rcio. The results show that the factors affecting the formation of THMs occur in different concentrations across the distribution line. Furthermore, there are not specific ranges to determine the formation of THMs in drinking water when the chemical and physical parameters were evaluated. Three different nanostructured materials (graphene, mordenite (MOR) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)) were used in this research, to reduce the THMs formation by adsorption in specific contact times. The results showed that graphene is the best nanomaterial to reduce THMs in drinking water. Graphene can reduce 80 parts per

  18. Technical Report for Water Circulation Pumping System for Trihalomethanes (THMs)

    SciTech Connect

    Bellah, W.

    2015-06-08

    The TSWWS was added as an active source of supply to the permit (No. 03-10-13P-003) in 2010, but has never been used due to the potential for formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the distribution system. THMs are formed as a by-product when chlorine is used to disinfect water for drinking. THMs are a group of chemicals generally referred to as disinfection by-products (DBPs). THMs result from the reaction of chlorine with organic matter that is present in the water. Some of the THMs are volatile and may easily vaporize into the air. This fact forms the basis of the designmore » of the system discussed in this technical report. In addition, the design is based on the results of a study that has shown success using aeration as a means to reduce TTHMs to within allowable concentration levels with turn-over times as long as ten days. The Primary Drinking Water Standards of Regulated Contaminants Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for TTHMs is 80 parts per billion (ppb). No other changes to the existing drinking water distribution system and chlorination operations are anticipated before switching to the TSWWS as the primary drinking water source. The two groundwater wells (Wells 20 and 18) which are currently the primary and backup water sources for the system would be maintained for use as backup supply. In the future, one of the wells may be removed from the system. A permit amendment would be filed at that time if this modification was deemed appropriate.« less

  19. Risk of congenital anomalies in relation to the uptake of trihalomethane from drinking water during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Grazuleviciene, Regina; Kapustinskiene, Violeta; Vencloviene, Jone; Buinauskiene, Jurate; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Congenital anomalies have been inconsistently associated with maternal crude estimated exposure to drinking water trihalomethane (THM). We investigated the relationship between individual THM uptake during the first trimester of pregnancy and congenital anomalies. Methods We estimated maternal THM uptake for 3074 live births using residential tap water concentrations, drinking water ingestion, showering and bathing, and uptake factors of THM in the blood. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the association of THM exposure with congenital anomalies. Results We observed no statistically significant relationships between congenital anomalies and the total THM internal dose. We found little indication of a dose-response relationship for brominated THM and congenital heart anomalies. The relationship was statistically significant for bromodichloromethane (BDCM) (OR=2.16, 95% CI 1.05 to 4.46, highest vs lowest tertile) during the first month of pregnancy. During the first trimester of pregnancy, the probability of developing heart anomalies increased for every 0.1 μg/d increase in the BDCM and for every 0.01 μg/d increase in the internal dibromochloromethane (DBCM) dose (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.66, and OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.54, respectively). A dose-response relationship was evident for musculoskeletal anomalies and DBCM exposure during the first and second months of pregnancy, while BDCM exposure tended to increase the risk of urogenital anomalies. Conclusions This study shows some evidence for an association between the internal dose of THM and the risk of congenital anomalies. In particular, increased prenatal exposure to brominated THM might increase the risk of congenital heart and musculoskeletal anomalies. PMID:23404756

  20. Sources and haloacetic acid/trihalomethane formation potentials of aquatic humic substances in the Wakarusa River and Clinton Lake near Lawrence, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pomes, M.L.; Larive, C.K.; Thurman, E.M.; Green, W.R.; Orem, W.H.; Rostad, C.E.; Coplen, T.B.; Cutak, B.J.; Dixon, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Gram quantities of aquatic humic substances (AHS) were extracted from the Wakarusa River-Clinton Lake Reservoir system, near Lawrence, KS, to support nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimental studies, report concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and AHS, define sources of the AHS, and determine if the AHS yield sufficient quantities of haloacetic acids (HAA5) and trihalomethanes (THM4) that exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) in drinking water. AHS from the Wakarusa River and Clinton Lake originated from riparian forest vegetation, reflected respective effects of soil organic matter and aquatic algal/bacterial sources, and bore evidence of biological degradation and photodegradation. AHS from the Wakarusa River showed the effect of terrestrial sources, whereas Clinton Lake humicacid also reflected aquatic algal/bacterial sources. Greater amounts of carbon attributable to tannin-derived chemical structures may correspond with higher HAA5 and THM4 yields for Clinton Lake fulvic acid. Prior to appreciable leaf-fall from deciduous trees, the combined (humic and fulvic acid) THM4 formation potentials for the Wakarusa River approached the proposed EPA THM4 Stage I MCL of 80 ??g/L, and the combined THM4 formation potential for Clinton Lake slightly exceeded the proposed THM4 Stage II MCL of 40 ??g/L. Finally, AHS from Clinton Lake could account for most (>70%) of the THM4 concentrations in finished water from the Clinton Lake Water Treatment Plant based on September 23, 1996, THM4 results.Gram quantities of aquatic humic substances (AHS) were extracted from the Wakarusa River-Clinton Lake Reservoir system, near Lawrence, KS, to support nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimental studies, report concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and AHS, define sources of the AHS, and determine if the AHS yield sufficient quantities of haloacetic acids (HAA5) and trihalomethanes (THM4) that exceed U

  1. Determination of trihalomethanes in waters by ionic liquid-based single drop microextraction/gas chromatographic/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Herrador, Eva; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2008-10-31

    A simple, rapid, solventless method for the determination of trihalomethanes (THMs) (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform) in water samples is presented. The analytes are extracted from the headspace of the aqueous matrix into a 2 microL drop of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate working at 30 degrees C for 30 min. The separation and detection of the target compounds is accomplished by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry owing to the use of an interface that efficiently transfers the analytes extracted in the ionic liquid drop to the gas chromatograph while preventing the ionic liquid from entering the column. The detection limits obtained are below the values compelled by the legislation, ranging from 0.5 microg L(-1) for chloroform and bromodichloromethane to 0.9 microg L(-1) for dibromochloromethane. The use of ionic liquid in the extraction procedure avoids the use of organic solvents and leads to relative standard deviations that range from 3.1% to 4.8%.

  2. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of trihalomethanes by a Dehalobacter-containing co-culture.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Siyan; Rogers, Matthew J; He, Jianzhong

    2017-07-01

    Trihalomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, although well-known as a prominent class of disinfection by-products, are ubiquitously distributed in the environment due to widespread industrial usage in the past decades. Chloroform and bromoform are particularly concerning, of high concentrations detected and with long half-lives up to several hundred days in soils and groundwater. In this study, we report a Dehalobacter- and Desulfovibrio-containing co-culture that exhibits dehalogenation of chloroform (~0.61 mM) to dichloromethane and bromoform (~0.67 mM) to dibromomethane within 10-15 days. This co-culture was further found to dechlorinate 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) (~0.65 mM) to 1,1-dichloroethane within 12 days. The Dehalobacter species present in this co-culture, designated Dehalobacter sp. THM1, was found to couple growth with dehalogenation of chloroform, bromoform, and 1,1,1-TCA. Strain THM1 harbors a newly identified reductive dehalogenase (RDase), ThmA, which catalyzes chloroform, bromoform, and 1,1,1-TCA dehalogenation. Additionally, based on the sequences of thmA and other identified chloroform RDase genes, ctrA, cfrA, and tmrA, a pair of chloroform RDase gene-specific primers were designed and successfully applied to investigate the chloroform dechlorinating potential of microbial communities. The comparative analysis of chloroform RDases with tetrachloroethene RDases suggests a possible approach in predicting the substrate specificity of uncharacterized RDases in the future.

  3. Climatic, Geographic and Operational Determinants of Trihalomethanes (THMs) in Drinking Water Systems.

    PubMed

    Valdivia-Garcia, Maria; Weir, Paul; Frogbrook, Zoe; Graham, David W; Werner, David

    2016-10-20

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are conditionally carcinogenic compounds formed during chlorine disinfection in water treatment processes around the world. THMs occur especially when source waters are subject to marine influences, high and-or regular precipitation, and elevated levels of organic matter. THMs formation is then rooted in geographic, operational and climatic factors, the relative importance of which can only be derived from large datasets and may change in the future. Ninety three full-scale Scottish water treatment plants (WTPs) were assessed from Jan 2011 to Jan 2013 to identify factors that promote THMs formation. Correlation analysis showed that ambient temperature was the primary THMs formation predictor in potable water (r 2  = 0.66, p < 0.05) and water distribution systems (r 2  = 0.43, p = 0.04), while dissolved organic carbon (r 2  = 0.55, p < 0.001) and chloride (indicating marine influence; r 2  = 0.41, p < 0.001) also affected THMs formation. GIS mapping of median THMs levels indicated brominated THMs were most prevalent in coastal areas and on islands. This real-world dataset confirms both geographic and climatic factors are key to THMs formation. If ambient temperatures increase, THMs control will become more challenging, substantiating concerns about the impact of global warming on water quality.

  4. Climatic, Geographic and Operational Determinants of Trihalomethanes (THMs) in Drinking Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia-Garcia, Maria; Weir, Paul; Frogbrook, Zoe; Graham, David W.; Werner, David

    2016-10-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are conditionally carcinogenic compounds formed during chlorine disinfection in water treatment processes around the world. THMs occur especially when source waters are subject to marine influences, high and-or regular precipitation, and elevated levels of organic matter. THMs formation is then rooted in geographic, operational and climatic factors, the relative importance of which can only be derived from large datasets and may change in the future. Ninety three full-scale Scottish water treatment plants (WTPs) were assessed from Jan 2011 to Jan 2013 to identify factors that promote THMs formation. Correlation analysis showed that ambient temperature was the primary THMs formation predictor in potable water (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.05) and water distribution systems (r2 = 0.43, p = 0.04), while dissolved organic carbon (r2 = 0.55, p < 0.001) and chloride (indicating marine influence; r2 = 0.41, p < 0.001) also affected THMs formation. GIS mapping of median THMs levels indicated brominated THMs were most prevalent in coastal areas and on islands. This real-world dataset confirms both geographic and climatic factors are key to THMs formation. If ambient temperatures increase, THMs control will become more challenging, substantiating concerns about the impact of global warming on water quality.

  5. Climatic, Geographic and Operational Determinants of Trihalomethanes (THMs) in Drinking Water Systems

    PubMed Central

    Valdivia-Garcia, Maria; Weir, Paul; Frogbrook, Zoe; Graham, David W.; Werner, David

    2016-01-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are conditionally carcinogenic compounds formed during chlorine disinfection in water treatment processes around the world. THMs occur especially when source waters are subject to marine influences, high and-or regular precipitation, and elevated levels of organic matter. THMs formation is then rooted in geographic, operational and climatic factors, the relative importance of which can only be derived from large datasets and may change in the future. Ninety three full-scale Scottish water treatment plants (WTPs) were assessed from Jan 2011 to Jan 2013 to identify factors that promote THMs formation. Correlation analysis showed that ambient temperature was the primary THMs formation predictor in potable water (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.05) and water distribution systems (r2 = 0.43, p = 0.04), while dissolved organic carbon (r2 = 0.55, p < 0.001) and chloride (indicating marine influence; r2 = 0.41, p < 0.001) also affected THMs formation. GIS mapping of median THMs levels indicated brominated THMs were most prevalent in coastal areas and on islands. This real-world dataset confirms both geographic and climatic factors are key to THMs formation. If ambient temperatures increase, THMs control will become more challenging, substantiating concerns about the impact of global warming on water quality. PMID:27762332

  6. Exogenous and Endogenous Determinants of Blood Trihalomethane Levels after Showering

    PubMed Central

    Backer, Lorraine C.; Lan, Qing; Blount, Benjamin C.; Nuckols, J.R.; Branch, Robert; Lyu, Christopher W.; Kieszak, Stephanie M.; Brinkman, Marielle C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Flanders, W. Dana; Romkes, Marjorie; Cantor, Kenneth P.

    2008-01-01

    Background We previously conducted a study to assess whether household exposures to tap water increased an individual’s internal dose of trihalomethanes (THMs). Increases in blood THM levels among subjects who showered or bathed were variable, with increased levels tending to cluster in two groups. Objectives Our goal was to assess the importance of personal characteristics, previous exposures, genetic polymorphisms, and environmental exposures in determining THM concentrations in blood after showering. Methods One hundred study participants completed a health symptom questionnaire, a 48-hr food and water consumption diary, and took a 10-min shower in a controlled setting. We examined THM levels in blood samples collected at baseline and 10 and 30 min after the shower. We assessed the significance of personal characteristics, previous exposures to THMs, and specific gene polymorphisms in predicting postshower blood THM concentrations. Results We did not observe the clustering of blood THM concentrations observed in our earlier study. We found that environmental THM concentrations were important predictors of blood THM concentrations immediately after showering. For example, the chloroform concentration in the shower stall air was the most important predictor of blood chloroform levels 10 min after the shower (p < 0.001). Personal characteristics, previous exposures to THMs, and specific polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and GSTT1 genes were significant predictors of both baseline and postshowering blood THM concentrations as well as of changes in THM concentrations associated with showering. Conclusion The inclusion of information about individual physiologic characteristics and environmental measurements would be valuable in future studies to assess human health effects from exposures to THMs in tap water. PMID:18197300

  7. Kinetics of the oxidation of cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a with chlorine, monochloramine and permanganate.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Eva; Sordo, Ana; Metcalf, James S; Acero, Juan L

    2007-05-01

    Cyanobacteria produce toxins that may contaminate drinking water sources. Among others, the presence of the alkaloid toxins cylindrospermopsin (CYN) and anatoxin-a (ANTX) constitutes a considerable threat to human health due to the acute and chronic toxicity of these compounds. In the present study, not previously reported second-order rate constants for the reactions of CYN and ANTX with chlorine and monochloramine and of CYN with potassium permanganate were determined and the influence of pH and temperature was established for the most reactive cases. It was found that the reactivity of CYN with chlorine presents a maximum at pH 7 (rate constant of 1265 M(-1)s(-1)). However, the oxidation of CYN with chloramine and permanganate are rather slow processes, with rate constants <1 M(-1)s(-1). The first chlorination product of CYN was found to be 5-chloro-CYN (5-Cl-CYN), which reacts with chlorine 10-20 times slower than the parent compound. The reactivity of ANTX with chlorine and chloramines is also very low (k<1M(-1)s(-1)). The elimination of CYN and ANTX in surface water was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 1.5 mg l(-1) was enough to oxidize CYN almost completely. However, 3 mg l(-1) of chlorine was able to remove only 8% of ANTX, leading to a total formation of trihalomethanes (TTHM) at a concentration of 150 microg l(-1). Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for CYN degradation during oxidation and disinfection processes but not for ANTX removal. The permanganate dose required for CYN oxidation is very high and not applicable in waterworks.

  8. Photodegradation of iodinated trihalomethanes in aqueous solution by UV 254 irradiation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yongjun; Fan, Rongli; Zhang, Lifeng; Yue, Junqi; Webster, Richard D; Lim, Teik-Thye

    2014-02-01

    Photodegradation of 6 iodinated trihalomethanes (ITHMs) under UV irradiation at 254 nm was investigated in this study. ITHMs underwent a rapid photodegradation process through cleavage of carbon-halogen bond with first-order rate constants in the range of 0.1-0.6 min(-1). The effects of matrix species including nitrate, humic acid (HA), bicarbonate, sulfate, and chloride were evaluated. The degradation rate increased slightly in the presence of nitrate possibly due to generation of HO at a low quantum yield via direct photolysis of nitrate, while HA lowered the photodegradation rate of ITHMs due to its competitive UV absorption. Moreover, bicarbonate, sulfate, and chloride had no significant effect on photodegradation kinetics, as there is no UV absorption for these 3 species. In the study using surface water, treated water, and secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant, high turbidity and natural organic matters present in the water inhibited the photodegradation of ITHMs. The degradation rates of 6 ITHMs in UV/H2O2 system were rather comparable and significantly higher than those achieved in the UV system without H2O2. To develop a quantitative structure-reactivity relationship (QSAR) model, the logarithm of measured first-order rate constants was correlated with a number of molecular descriptors. The best correlation was obtained with a combination of 3 molecular descriptors, namely the bond strength of carbon-halogen to be broken in the rate-determining step, steric and electronic effects of all substituents to the carbon center. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors affecting the formation of iodo-trihalomethanes during oxidation with chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wanhong; Shan, Yingchun; Yang, Xin

    2014-01-15

    Effects of water characteristics, reaction time, temperature, bromide and iodide ion concentrations, oxidant doses, and pH on formation of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THM) during oxidation of iodide-containing water with chlorine dioxide (ClO2) were investigated. Among the water samples collected from ten water sources, iodoform (CHI3) was the predominant I-THM and trace amount of chlorodiiodomethane (CHClI2) was occasionally found. CHI3 yields correlated moderately with specific UV absorbance (SUVA) (R(2)=0.79), indicating that hydrophobic aromatic content were important precursors. Longer reaction time led to continued formation of CHI3. I-THM containing bromide was also found in waters containing both bromide and iodide, but CHI3 was dominant. The formation of CHI3 was higher at 25°C than 5°C and 35°C. CHI3 formation showed an increase followed by a decrease trend with increasing ClO2 doses and iodide concentrations and the highest yields occurred at iodide to ClO2 molar ratios of 1-2. pH 8 resulted in the highest CHI3 formation. It should be noted that a high iodide concentration was spiked to waters before adding ClO2 and the results may not reflect the formation yields of iodinated THMs in real conditions, but they provide information about formation trend of I-THM during oxidation of ClO2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Trihalomethanes in marine mammal aquaria: occurrences, sources, and health risks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jian; Chow, Alex T; Sweeney, Joelle M; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-08-01

    Disinfecting water containing the high levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) commonly generated during pinniped husbandry may cause the formation of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Little information is available on DBP levels, sources, and health risks in marine mammal aquaria. Using the commonly observed trihalomethanes (THMs) as a DBP indicator, we monitored concentrations for seven months at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California, one of the largest pinniped rehabilitation facilities in the world. Concentrations of THMs ranged 1.1-144.2 μg/L in pool waters and generally increased with number of animals housed (P < 0.05). To identify the sources of THM precursors in marine mammal aquaria, we intensively monitored the mass flows of potential THM precursors (i.e. food and wastes) in an isolated system with nine individual California sea lions to evaluate the sources and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for 2-5 weeks. The common frozen foods used in feeding pinnipeds, including herring, sardine, and squid, produced an average of 22-34 mg-DOC/g-food in water and 836-1066 μg-THM/g-food after chlorination, whereas the fecal materials, including fresh scat, decomposed scat, and urine, produced 2-16 mg-DOC/g-waste and 116-768 μg-THM/g-waste. Food not eaten by animals could cause a sharp increase of DOC and DBP production and therefore should be removed rapidly from pools. Marine mammal husbandry staff and trainers are at risk (5.16 × 10(-4) to 1.30 × 10(-3)) through exposure of THMs, exceeding the negligible risk level (10(-6)) defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Formation of iodinated trihalomethanes during UV/chloramination with iodate as the iodine source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Yang; Lin, Yi-Li; Wang, An-Qi; Tian, Fu-Xiang; Xu, Bin; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2016-07-01

    Iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) are a group of emerging disinfection by-products with high toxicity, and iodide (I(-)) as well as iodinated organic compounds are expected to be their iodine sources. Nevertheless, in this study, iodate (IO3(-)) was proven to be a new iodine source of I-THM formation during UV/chloramination. In the iodate-containing waters (without any other iodine sources), I-THM formation increased with the increase of UV dose, IO3(-) and NH2Cl concentrations. With the increase of Br(-)/IO3(-) molar ratio, I-THM formation (especially for the brominated species) increased. Besides, NOM species could affect I-THM formation from IO3(-) during UV/chloramination. Fulvic acid could promote IO3(-) phototransformation to I(-) but humic acid impeded the production of I(-) during UV irradiation. Under realistic drinking water treatment conditions (DOC = 5.0 mg-C/L, IO3(-) = 12.7 μg-I/L, UV dose = 50 mJ/cm(2), NH2Cl = 5 mg-Cl2/L), CHCl2I was detected as 0.17 μg/L using solid-phase microextraction method, and the production rate of I-THMs from IO3(-) was about 7% of that from I(-). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbon isotopic constraints on the contribution of plant material to the natural precursors of trihalomethanes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fram, M.S.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.; Aiken, G.R.; Fujii, R.

    1999-01-01

    The ??13C values of individual trihalomethanes (THM) formed on reaction of chlorine with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from maize (corn, Zea maize L) and Scirpus acutus (an aquatic bulrush), and with DOC extracted from agricultural drainage waters were determined using purge and trap introduction into a gas chromatograph-combustion-isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometer. We observed a 1-6.8??? difference between the ??13C values of THM produced from the maize and Scirpus leachates, similar to the isotopic difference between the whole plant materials. Both maize and Scirpus formed THM 12??? lower in 13C than whole plant material. We suggest that the low value of the THM relative to the whole plant material is evidence of distinct pools of THM-forming DOC, representing different biochemical types or chemical structures, and possessing different environmental reactivity Humic extracts of waters draining an agricultural field containing Scirpus peat soils and planted with maize formed THM with isotopic values intermediate between those of maize and Scirpus leachates, indicating maize may contribute significantly to the THM-forming DOC. The difference between the ??13C values of the whole isolate and that of the THM it yielded was 3 9???, however, suggesting diagenesis plays a role in determining the ??13C value of THM-forming DOC in the drainage waters, and precluding the direct use of isotopic mixing models to quantitatively attribute sources.The ??13C values of individual trihalomethanes (THM) formed on reaction of chlorine with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from maize (corn; Zea maize L.) and Scirpus acutus (an aquatic bulrush), and with DOC extracted from agricultural drainage waters were determined using purge and trap introduction into a gas chromatograph-combustion-isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometer. We observed a 16.8qq difference between the ??13C values of THM produced from the maize and Scirpus leachates, similar to the isotopic

  13. Occurrence of trihalomethanes in the nation's ground water and drinking-water supply wells, 1985-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.; Zogorski, John S.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the Nation's ground water and drinking-water supply wells based on analysis of 5,642 samples of untreated ground water and source water collected or compiled during 1985-2002 by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. THMs are a group of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with natural and anthropogenic sources that are of interest because they are associated with acute and chronic health problems in humans. THMs occur in water primarily from chlorination and are classified as disinfection by-products. In this report, the four THMs are discussed in the order of chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and then bromoform; this sequence corresponds to largest to smallest chlorine content and smallest to largest bromine content. Four trihalomethanes were detected in less than 20 percent of samples from studies of (1) aquifers, (2) shallow ground water in agricultural areas, (3) shallow ground water in urban areas, (4) domestic wells, and (5) public wells. Detection frequencies for individual THMs in the five studies ranged from zero for shallow ground water in agricultural areas to 19.5 percent for shallow ground water in urban areas. None of the samples from aquifer studies, domestic wells, or public wells had total THM concentrations (the sum of the concentrations of chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) greater than or equal to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 80 micrograms per liter (?g/L). Comparisons of results among studies of aquifers, shallow ground water in agricultural areas, and shallow ground water in urban areas were used to describe the occurrence of the four THMs in ground water for three different land-use settings-mixed, agricultural, and urban, respectively. At the 0.2-?g/L assessment level, one or more of the four THMs were detected in 7.9 percent of the samples

  14. Variability of chlorination by-product occurrence in water of indoor and outdoor swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Simard, Sabrina; Tardif, Robert; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2013-04-01

    Swimming is one of the most popular aquatic activities. Just like natural water, public pool water may contain microbiological and chemical contaminants. The purpose of this study was to study the presence of chemical contaminants in swimming pools, in particular the presence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and inorganic chloramines (CAMi). Fifty-four outdoor and indoor swimming pools were investigated over a period of one year (monthly or bi-weekly sampling, according to the type of pool) for the occurrence of DBPs. The results showed that DBP levels in swimming pools were greater than DBP levels found in drinking water, especially for HAAs. Measured concentrations of THMs (97.9 vs 63.7 μg/L in average) and HAAs (807.6 vs 412.9 μg/L in average) were higher in outdoor pools, whereas measured concentrations of CAMi (0.1 vs 0.8 mg/L in average) were higher in indoor pools. Moreover, outdoor pools with heated water contained more DBPs than unheated pools. Finally, there was significant variability in tTHM, HAA9 and CAMi levels in pools supplied by the same municipal drinking water network, suggesting that individual pool characteristics (number of swimmers) and management strategies play a major role in DBP formation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wet weather impact on trihalomethane formation potential in tributaries to drinking water reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Alkhatib, E; Peters, R

    2008-04-01

    During rain storm events, land surface runoff and resuspension of bottom sediments cause an increase in Trihalomethane (THM) precursors in rivers. These precursors, when chlorinated at water treatment facilities will lead to the formation of THMs and hence impact drinking water resources. In order to evaluate the wet weather impact on the potential formation of THMs, river samples were collected before, during and after three rain storms ranging from 15.2 to 24.9 mm precipitation. The samples were tested for THM formation potential and other indicators including UV254 absorbance, turbidity and volatile suspended solid (VSS). Average levels of THMs increased from 61 microg/l during dry weather to 131 microg/l during wet weather, and then went back to 81 microg/l after rain ended. Wet weather values of THM are well above the maximum contaminant level (MCL) 80 microg/l, set by EPA for drinking water. THM indicators also exhibited similar trends. Average levels increased from 0.6 to 1.8 abs; 2.6 to 6 ntu; and 7.5 to 15 mg/l respectively for UV254, turbidity and VSS. A positive correlation was observed between THM formation and THM indicators. The t-test of significance (p-value) was less than 0.05 for all indicators, and R values ranged from 0.85 to 0.92 between THMs and the indicators, and 0.72 to 0.9 among indicators themselves.

  16. Design of Stripping Columns Applied to Drinking Water to Minimize Carcinogenic Risk from Trihalomethanes (THMs)

    PubMed Central

    Canosa, Joel

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is the application of a software tool to the design of stripping columns to calculate the removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) from drinking water. The tool also allows calculating the rough capital cost of the column and the decrease in carcinogenic risk indeces associated with the elimination of THMs and, thus, the investment to save a human life. The design of stripping columns includes the determination, among other factors, of the height (HOG), the theoretical number of plates (NOG), and the section (S) of the columns based on the study of pressure drop. These results have been compared with THM stripping literature values, showing that simulation is sufficiently conservative. Three case studies were chosen to apply the developed software. The first case study was representative of small-scale application to a community in Córdoba (Spain) where chloroform is predominant and has a low concentration. The second case study was of an intermediate scale in a region in Venezuela, and the third case study was representative of large-scale treatment of water in the Barcelona metropolitan region (Spain). Results showed that case studies with larger scale and higher initial risk offer the best capital investment to decrease the risk. PMID:29562670

  17. Micro versus macro solid phase extraction for monitoring water contaminants: a preliminary study using trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Alexandrou, Lydon D; Spencer, Michelle J S; Morrison, Paul D; Meehan, Barry J; Jones, Oliver A H

    2015-04-15

    Solid phase extraction is one of the most commonly used pre-concentration and cleanup steps in environmental science. However, traditional methods need electrically powered pumps, can use large volumes of solvent (if multiple samples are run), and require several hours to filter a sample. Additionally, if the cartridge is open to the air volatile compounds may be lost and sample integrity compromised. In contrast, micro cartridge based solid phase extraction can be completed in less than 2 min by hand, uses only microlitres of solvent and provides comparable concentration factors to established methods. It is also an enclosed system so volatile components are not lost. The sample can also be eluted directly into a detector (e.g. a mass spectrometer) if required. However, the technology is new and has not been much used for environmental analysis. In this study we compare traditional (macro) and the new micro solid phase extraction for the analysis of four common volatile trihalomethanes (trichloromethane, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and tribromomethane). The results demonstrate that micro solid phase extraction is faster and cheaper than traditional methods with similar recovery rates for the target compounds. This method shows potential for further development in a range of applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of reaction time on the formation of disinfection byproducts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of reaction time on the trihalomethane and nonpurgeable total organic-halide formation potentials was determined by chlorinating water samples from the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers. Samples were collected for three seasons at 12 locations on the Mississippi from Minneapolis, Minnesota, to New Orleans, Louisiana, and on the Missouri and Ohio 1.6 kilometers above their confluences with the Mississippi. Both types of compounds formed rapidly during the initial stages of the reaction-time period, with formation rates decreasing with time. The ratio of the nonpurgeable total organic-halide and trihalomethane concentrations decreased with time, with the nonpurgeable total organic-halide compounds forming faster during the first stages of the time period and the trihalomethane compounds forming faster during the latter stages of the time period. Variation with distance along the Mississippi River of the formation rates approximately paralleled the variation of the dissolved organic carbon concentration, indicating that the rates of formation, as well as the concentrations of the compounds formed, depended on the dissolved organic carbon concentration.

  19. Influence of physical activity in the intake of trihalomethanes in indoor swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Marco, Esther; Lourencetti, Carolina; Grimalt, Joan O; Gari, Mercè; Fernández, Pilar; Font-Ribera, Laia; Villanueva, Cristina M; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the relationship between physical activity and intake of trihalomethanes (THMs), namely chloroform (CHCl3), bromodichloromethane (CHCl2Br), dibromochloromethane (CHClBr2) and bromoform (CHBr3), in individuals exposed in two indoor swimming pools which used different disinfection agents, chlorine (Cl-SP) and bromine (Br-SP). CHCl3 and CHBr3 were the dominant compounds in air and water of the Cl-SP and Br-SP, respectively. Physical exercise was assessed from distance swum and energy expenditure. The changes in exhaled breath concentrations of these compounds were measured from the differences after and before physical activity. A clear dependence between distance swum or energy expenditure and exhaled breath THM concentrations was observed. The statistically significant relationships involved higher THM concentrations at higher distances swum. However, air concentration was the major factor determining the CHCl3 and CHCl2Br intake in swimmers whereas distance swum was the main factor for CHBr3 intake. These two causes of THM incorporation into swimmers concurrently intensify the concentrations of these compounds into exhaled breath and pointed to inhalation as primary mechanism for THM uptake. Furthermore, the rates of THM incorporation were proportionally higher as higher was the degree of bromination of the THM species. This trend suggested that air-water partition mechanisms in the pulmonary system determined higher retention of the THM compounds with lower Henry's Law volatility constants than those of higher constant values. Inhalation is therefore the primary mechanisms for THM exposure of swimmers in indoor buildings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of drinking water biofilms on residual chlorine decay and trihalomethane formation: An experimental and modeling study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianeng; Huang, Conghui; Shi, Xiaoyang; Dong, Shengkun; Yuan, Baoling; Nguyen, Thanh H

    2018-06-13

    PVC pipe loops were constructed to simulate household premise plumbing. These pipe loops were exposed to water treated by physical processes at three water treatment plants in Xiamen, China from August 2016 to June 2017. After the biofilms were allowed to develop inside the pipes, these pipes were deconstructed and exposed to organic-free chlorine solution buffered at pH 6.8 ± 0.2 for 48 h. The decay of chlorine by these biofilms was higher than by the effluent waters that were used to grow the biofilms. A chlorine consumption mass balance model elucidated the role of both the diffusion of chlorine into the biofilm and the reaction of chlorine with the biofilm matrix. Comparable concentrations of trihalomethanes were quantified from the reaction between chlorine and source water organic matters, and chlorine and the biofilm, further emphasizing the role of biofilms in the safety of disinfected drinking water. These findings imply that when chlorine is used in the drinking water distribution system, the ubiquitous presence of biofilms may cause the depletion of chlorine and the formation of non-negligible levels of toxic disinfection byproducts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The fate of haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes in an aquifer storage and recovery program, Las Vegas, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.M.; McKay, W.A.; Colec, E.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The fate of disinfection byproducts during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is evaluated for aquifers in Southern Nevada. Rapid declines of haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations during ASR, with associated little change in Cl concentration, indicate that HAAs decline primarily by in situ microbial oxidation. Dilution is only a minor contributor to HAA concentration declines during ASR. Trihalomethane (THM) concentrations generally increased during storage of artificial recharge (AR) water and then declined during recovery. The decline of THM concentrations during recovery was primarily from dilution of current season AR water with residual AR water remaining in the aquifer from previous ASR seasons and native ground water. In more recent ASR seasons, for wells with the longest history of ASR, brominated THMs declined during storage and recovery by processes in addition to dilution. These conclusions about THMs are indicated by THM/Cl values and supported by a comparison of measured and model predicted THM concentrations. Geochemical mixing models were constructed using major-ion chemistry of the three end-member waters to calculate predicted THM concentrations. The decline in brominated THM concentrations in addition to that from dilution may result from biotransformation processes.

  2. Influence of tap water quality and household water use activities on indoor air and internal dose levels of trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Nuckols, John R; Ashley, David L; Lyu, Christopher; Gordon, Sydney M; Hinckley, Alison F; Singer, Philip

    2005-07-01

    Individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in tap water can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure. Studies indicate that activities associated with inhaled or dermal exposure routes result in a greater increase in blood THM concentration than does ingestion. We measured blood and exhaled air concentrations of THM as biomarkers of exposure to participants conducting 14 common household water use activities, including ingestion of hot and cold tap water beverages, showering, clothes washing, hand washing, bathing, dish washing, and indirect shower exposure. We conducted our study at a single residence in each of two water utility service areas, one with relatively high and the other low total THM in the residence tap water. To maintain a consistent exposure environment for seven participants, we controlled water use activities, exposure time, air exchange, water flow and temperature, and nonstudy THM sources to the indoor air. We collected reference samples for water supply and air (pre-water use activity), as well as tap water and ambient air samples. We collected blood samples before and after each activity and exhaled breath samples at baseline and post-activity. All hot water use activities yielded a 2-fold increase in blood or breath THM concentrations for at least one individual. The greatest observed increase in blood and exhaled breath THM concentration in any participant was due to showering (direct and indirect), bathing, and hand dishwashing. Average increase in blood THM concentration ranged from 57 to 358 pg/mL due to these activities. More research is needed to determine whether acute and frequent exposures to THM at these concentrations have public health implications. Further research is also needed in designing epidemiologic studies that minimize data collection burden yet maximize accuracy in classification of dermal and inhalation THM exposure during hot water use activities.

  3. Influence of Tap Water Quality and Household Water Use Activities on Indoor Air and Internal Dose Levels of Trihalomethanes

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, John R.; Ashley, David L.; Lyu, Christopher; Gordon, Sydney M.; Hinckley, Alison F.; Singer, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in tap water can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure. Studies indicate that activities associated with inhaled or dermal exposure routes result in a greater increase in blood THM concentration than does ingestion. We measured blood and exhaled air concentrations of THM as biomarkers of exposure to participants conducting 14 common household water use activities, including ingestion of hot and cold tap water beverages, showering, clothes washing, hand washing, bathing, dish washing, and indirect shower exposure. We conducted our study at a single residence in each of two water utility service areas, one with relatively high and the other low total THM in the residence tap water. To maintain a consistent exposure environment for seven participants, we controlled water use activities, exposure time, air exchange, water flow and temperature, and nonstudy THM sources to the indoor air. We collected reference samples for water supply and air (pre–water use activity), as well as tap water and ambient air samples. We collected blood samples before and after each activity and exhaled breath samples at baseline and postactivity. All hot water use activities yielded a 2-fold increase in blood or breath THM concentrations for at least one individual. The greatest observed increase in blood and exhaled breath THM concentration in any participant was due to showering (direct and indirect), bathing, and hand dishwashing. Average increase in blood THM concentration ranged from 57 to 358 pg/mL due to these activities. More research is needed to determine whether acute and frequent exposures to THM at these concentrations have public health implications. Further research is also needed in designing epidemiologic studies that minimize data collection burden yet maximize accuracy in classification of dermal and inhalation THM exposure during hot water use activities. PMID:16002374

  4. Comparison of three-dimensional fluorescence analysis methods for predicting formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids.

    PubMed

    Peleato, Nicolás M; Andrews, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated the application of several fluorescence excitation-emission matrix analysis methods as natural organic matter (NOM) indicators for use in predicting the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). Waters from four different sources (two rivers and two lakes) were subjected to jar testing followed by 24hr disinfection by-product formation tests using chlorine. NOM was quantified using three common measures: dissolved organic carbon, ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm, and specific ultraviolet absorbance as well as by principal component analysis, peak picking, and parallel factor analysis of fluorescence spectra. Based on multi-linear modeling of THMs and HAAs, principle component (PC) scores resulted in the lowest mean squared prediction error of cross-folded test sets (THMs: 43.7 (μg/L)(2), HAAs: 233.3 (μg/L)(2)). Inclusion of principle components representative of protein-like material significantly decreased prediction error for both THMs and HAAs. Parallel factor analysis did not identify a protein-like component and resulted in prediction errors similar to traditional NOM surrogates as well as fluorescence peak picking. These results support the value of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix-principal component analysis as a suitable NOM indicator in predicting the formation of THMs and HAAs for the water sources studied. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Trihalomethane formation potential of aquatic and terrestrial fulvic and humic acids: Sorption on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Abouleish, Mohamed Y Z; Wells, Martha J M

    2015-07-15

    Humic substances (HSs) are precursors for the formation of hazardous disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlorination of water. Various surrogate parameters have been used to investigate the generation of DBPs by HS precursors and the removal of these precursors by activated carbon treatment. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC)- and ultraviolet absorbance (UVA254)-based isotherms are commonly reported and presumed to be good predictors of the trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). However, THMFP-based isotherms are rarely published such that the three types of parameters have not been compared directly. Batch equilibrium experiments on activated carbon were used to generate constant-initial-concentration sorption isotherms for well-characterized samples obtained from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS). HSs representing type (fulvic acid [FA], humic acid [HA]), origin (aquatic, terrestrial), and geographical source (Nordic, Suwannee, Peat, Soil) were examined at pH6 and pH9. THMFP-based isotherms were generated and compared to determine if DOC- and UVA254-based isotherms were good predictors of the THMFP. The sorption process depended on the composition of the HSs and the chemical nature of the activated carbon, both of which were influenced by pH. Activated carbon removal of THM-precursors was pH- and HS-dependent. In some instances, the THMFP existed after UVA254 was depleted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of changes in source water quality on trihalomethane and haloacetonitrile formation in chlorinated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chonghua; Wang, Qi; Chu, Wenhai; Templeton, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), including nitrogenous DBPs, haloacetonitriles (HANs), and carbonaceous DBPs, trihalomethanes (THMs), upon chlorination of water samples collected from a conventional Chinese surface water treatment plant (i.e. applying coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration). Reductions in the average concentrations (and range, shown in brackets) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) from 4.8 (3.0-7.3) μg/L and 0.52 (0.20-0.81) μg/L in 2010 to 2.4 (1.4-3.7) μg/L and 0.17 (0.11-0.31) μg/L in 2012, respectively, led to a decrease in HANs and THMs from 5.3 and 28.5 μg/L initially to 0.85 and 8.2 μg/L, as average concentrations, respectively. The bromide concentration in the source water also decreased from 2010 to 2012, but the bromine incorporation factor (BIF) for the THMs did not change significantly; however, for HAN the BIFs increased because the reduction in DON was higher than that of bromide. There was good linear relationship between DOC and THM concentrations, but not between DON and HANs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water.

    PubMed

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla M S; Andersen, Henrik R

    2015-07-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  8. Trihalomethanes formed from natural organic matter isolates: Using isotopic and compositional data to help understand sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Fram, Miranda S.; Fujii, Roger; Aiken, George R.; Kendall, Carol; Silva, Steven R.

    2000-01-01

    Over 20 million people drink water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta despite problematic levels of natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide in Delta water, which can form trihalomethanes (THMs) during the treatment process. It is widely believed that NOM released from Delta peat islands is a substantial contributor to the pool of THM precursors present in Delta waters. Dissolved NOM was isolated from samples collected at five channel sites within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and Delta, California, USA, and from a peat island agricultural drain. To help understand the sources of THM precursors, samples were analyzed to determine their chemical and isotopic composition, their propensity to form THMs, and the isotopic composition of the THMs.The chemical composition of the isolates was quite variable, as indicated by significant differences in carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and carbon-to-nitrogen concentration ratios. The lowest propensity to form THMs per unit of dissolved organic carbon was observed in the peat island agricultural drain isolate, even though it possessed the highest fraction of aromatic material and the highest specific ultraviolet absorbance. Changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of the isolates and the isotopic composition of the THMs suggest that the source of the THMs precursors was different between samples and between isolates. The pattern of variability in compositional and isotopic data for these samples was not consistent with simple mixing of river- and peat-derived organic material.

  9. Size and resin fractionations of dissolved organic matter and trihalomethane precursors from four typical source waters in China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qunshan; Wang, Dongsheng; Wei, Qia; Qiao, Chunguang; Shi, Baoyou; Tang, Hongxiao

    2008-06-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its potential to form disinfection by-products (DBPs) during drinking water treatment raise challenges to water quality control. Understanding both chemical and physical characteristics of DOM in source waters is key to better water treatment. In this study, the DOM from four typical source waters in China was fractionated by XAD resin adsorption (RA) and ultrafiltration (UF) techniques. The trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) of all fractions in the DOM were investigated to reveal the major THM precursors. The fraction distributions of DOM could be related to their geographical origins in a certain extent. The dominant chemical fraction as THM precursors in the DOM from south waters (East-Lake reservoir in Shenzhen and Peal rivers in Guangzhou) was hydrophobic acid (HoA). The size fraction with molecular weight (MW) <1 kDa in both south waters had the highest THMFP. The results of cluster analysis showed that the parameters of fractions including DOC percentage (DOC%), UV254%, SUVA254 (specific UV254 absorbance) and THMFP were better for representing the differences of DOM from the studied waters than specific THMFP (STHMFP). The weak correlation between SUVA254 and STHMFP for either size or XAD fractions suggests that whether SUVA254 can be used as an indicator for the reactivity of THM formation is highly dependent on the nature of organic matter.

  10. Modeling and optimization of trihalomethanes formation potential of surface water (a drinking water source) using Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Rai, Premanjali; Pandey, Priyanka; Sinha, Sarita

    2012-01-01

    The present research aims to investigate the individual and interactive effects of chlorine dose/dissolved organic carbon ratio, pH, temperature, bromide concentration, and reaction time on trihalomethanes (THMs) formation in surface water (a drinking water source) during disinfection by chlorination in a prototype laboratory-scale simulation and to develop a model for the prediction and optimization of THMs levels in chlorinated water for their effective control. A five-factor Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface and optimization modeling was used for predicting the THMs levels in chlorinated water. The adequacy of the selected model and statistical significance of the regression coefficients, independent variables, and their interactions were tested by the analysis of variance and t test statistics. The THMs levels predicted by the model were very close to the experimental values (R(2) = 0.95). Optimization modeling predicted maximum (192 μg/l) TMHs formation (highest risk) level in water during chlorination was very close to the experimental value (186.8 ± 1.72 μg/l) determined in laboratory experiments. The pH of water followed by reaction time and temperature were the most significant factors that affect the THMs formation during chlorination. The developed model can be used to determine the optimum characteristics of raw water and chlorination conditions for maintaining the THMs levels within the safe limit.

  11. Static headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in canned vegetables.

    PubMed

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2016-07-08

    Canned vegetables appear to be a possible exposure pathway for hazardous disinfection by-products due to the use of sanitizers and treated water by the canning industry in the preparation of these foods. This work reports on two static headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods for the simultaneous determination of 10 trihalomethanes (THMs) and 13 haloacetic acids (HAAs) in both solid and liquid phases of the canned vegetables. Both methods carry out the whole process (including the leaching of target analytes from the vegetable), derivatization of HAAs and volatilization of THMs and HAA esters, in a single step within a static headspace unit. The methods proposed provide an efficient and simple tool for the determination of regulated disinfection by-products in canned vegetables. Average limits of detection for THMs and HAAs were 0.19 and 0.45μg/kg, respectively, in the solid phase of canned vegetables, and 0.05 and 0.09μg/L, respectively, in the liquid phase. Satisfactory recoveries (90-99%) and precision, calculated as relative standard deviations (RSD≤10%), were obtained in both phases of canned vegetables. The methods proposed were applied for the analysis of frequently-used canned vegetables and confirmed the presence of up to 3 THMs and 5 HAAs at microgram per kilogram or liter levels in both phases of the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of both N-nitrosodimethylamine and trihalomethanes precursors in a single treatment using ion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Beita-Sandí, Wilson; Karanfil, Tanju

    2017-11-01

    Drinking water utilities are relying more than ever on water sources impacted by wastewater effluents. Disinfection/oxidation of these waters during water treatment may lead to the formation of several disinfection by-products, including the probable human carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and the regulated trihalomethanes (THMs). In this study, the potential of ion exchange resins to control both NDMA and THMs precursors in a single treatment is presented. Two ion exchange resins were examined, a cation exchange resin (Plus) to target NDMA precursors and an anion exchange resin (MIEX) for THMs precursors control. We applied the resins, individually and combined, in the treatment of surface and wastewater effluent samples. The treatment with both resins removed simultaneously NDMA (43-85%) and THMs (39-65%) precursors. However, no removal of NDMA precursors was observed in the surface water with low initial NDMA FP (14 ng/L). The removals of NDMA FP and THMs FP with Plus and MIEX resins applied alone were (49-90%) and (41-69%), respectively. These results suggest no interaction between the resins, and thus the feasibility of effectively controlling NDMA and THMs precursors concomitantly. Additionally, the effects of the wastewater impact and the natural attenuation of precursors were studied. The results showed that neither the wastewater content nor the attenuation of the precursor affected the removals of NDMA and THMs precursors. Finally, experiments using a wastewater effluent sample showed that an increase in the calcium concentration resulted in a reduction in the removal of NDMA precursors of about 50%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Formation of iodo-trihalomethanes (I-THMs) during disinfection with chlorine or chloramine: Impact of UV/H2O2 pre-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Jing; He, Chuan-Shu; Qian, Chen; Mu, Yang

    2018-06-04

    Ultraviolet/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H 2 O 2 ) pre-oxidation has the potential to induce reactions with dissolved organic matter (DOM) and alter the generation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). This study evaluated the influence of UV/H 2 O 2 pretreatment on the formation of iodo-trihalomethanes (I-THMs) during disinfection with chlorine or chloramine. The changes of precursors, I - and Br - , after UV/H 2 O 2 pretreatment were investigated, and then, the formation and speciation of I-THMs during chlorination or chloramination after pre-oxidation were explored. Additionally, the effects of UV doses and H 2 O 2 concentrations on the formation and speciation of I-THMs were studied. It was found that UV/H 2 O 2 pretreatment could change larger molecular weight (MW) DOM to smaller MW species, which had less aromatic organic compounds and fluorescence substances. Additionally, insignificant transformations of I - and Br - were observed after UV/H 2 O 2 treatment. Compared to direct disinfection, UV/H 2 O 2 pretreatment resulted in 23.0 ± 3.5% reduction in I-THMs formation during post-chlorination while an enhancement was observed during post-chloramination at a UV dose of 460 mJ/cm 2 and 20 mg/L H 2 O 2 . Moreover, total I-THM concentration increased from 43.7 ± 2.4 to 97.6 ± 14.9 nM with the increase of UV doses from 0 to 1400 mJ/cm 2 during the post-chlorination process, while reduced when the UV fluence was >460 mJ/cm 2 during the post-chloramination. Additionally, the generation of I-THMs during both post-chlorination and post-chloramination was positively related to the H 2 O 2 levels from 0 to 20 mg/L in the UV/H 2 O 2 pretreatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products and pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Savitz, David A; Singer, Philip C; Herring, Amy H; Hartmann, Katherine E; Weinberg, Howard S; Makarushka, Christina

    2006-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that exposure to elevated levels of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) may cause pregnancy loss. In 2000-2004, the authors conducted a study in three US locations of varying DBP levels and evaluated 2,409 women in early pregnancy to assess their tap water DBP concentrations, water use, other risk factors, and pregnancy outcome. Tap water concentrations were measured in the distribution system weekly or biweekly. The authors considered DBP concentration and ingested amount and, for trihalomethanes only, bathing/showering and integrated exposure that included ingestion. On the basis of 258 pregnancy losses, they did not find an increased risk of pregnancy loss in relation to trihalomethane, haloacetic acid, or total organic halide concentrations; ingested amounts; or total exposure. In contrast to a previous study, pregnancy loss was not associated with high personal trihalomethane exposure (> or =75 micro g/liter and > or =5 glasses of water/day) (odds ratio = 1.1, 95% confidence interval: 0.7, 1.7). Sporadic elevations in risk were found across DBPs, most notably for ingested total organic halide (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 2.2 for the highest exposure quintile). These results provide some assurance that drinking water DBPs in the range commonly encountered in the United States do not affect fetal survival.

  15. Trihalomethanes in public drinking water and stillbirth and low birth weight rates: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Iszatt, Nina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Bennett, James E; Toledano, Mireille B

    2014-12-01

    During 2003-2004, United Utilities water company in North West England introduced enhanced coagulation (EC) to four treatment works to mitigate disinfection by-product (DBP) formation. This enabled examination of the relation between DBPs and birth outcomes whilst reducing socioeconomic confounding. We compared stillbirth, and low and very low birth weight rates three years before (2000-2002) with three years after (2005-2007) the intervention, and in relation to categories of THM change. We created exposure metrics for EC and trihalomethane (THM) concentration change (n=258 water zones). We linked 429,599 live births and 2279 stillbirths from national birth registers to the water zone at birth. We used Poisson regression to model the differences in birth outcome rates with an interaction between before/after the intervention and EC or THM change. EC treatment reduced chloroform concentrations more than non-treatment (mean -29.7 µg/l vs. -14.5 µg/l), but not brominated THM concentrations. Only 6% of EC water zones received 100% EC water, creating exposure misclassification concerns. EC intervention was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth outcome rates. Areas with the highest chloroform decrease (30 - 65 μg/l) had the greatest percentage decrease in low -9 % (-12, -5) and very low birth weight -16% (-24, -8) rates. The interaction between before/after intervention and chloroform change was statistically significant only for very low birth weight, p=0.02. There were no significant decreases in stillbirth rates. In a novel approach for studying DBPs and adverse reproductive outcomes, the EC intervention to reduce DBPs did not affect birth outcome rates. However, a measured large decrease in chloroform concentrations was associated with statistically significant reductions in very low birth weight rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT FORMATION BY ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS AND REMOVAL BY GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the use of the alternative disinfectants on the formation of halogenated disinfection by–products (DBPs) including total organic halide, trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate, and chloropicrin, were examined along ...

  17. Disinfection by-products of chlorine dioxide (chlorite, chlorate, and trihalomethanes): Occurrence in drinking water in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Otoum, Fatima; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Ahmed, Talaat A; Abu-Dieyeh, Mohammed; Ali, Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    The occurrence of chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water, namely, chlorite, chlorate, and trihalomethanes (THMs), was investigated. Two-hundred-ninety-four drinking water samples were collected from seven desalination plants (DPs), four reservoirs (R), and eight mosques (M) distributed within various locations in southern and northern Qatar. The ClO 2 concentration levels ranged from 0.38 to <0.02 mg L -1 , with mean values of 0.17, 0.12, and 0.04 mg L -1 for the DPs, Rs, and Ms, respectively. The chlorite levels varied from 13 μg L -1 to 440 μg L -1 , with median values varying from 13 to 230 μg L -1 , 77-320 μg L -1 , and 85-440 μg L -1 for the DPs, Rs, and Ms, respectively. The chlorate levels varied from 11 μg L -1 to 280 μg L -1 , with mean values varying from 36 to 280 μg L -1 , 11-200 μg L -1 , and 11-150 μg L -1 in the DPs, Rs, and Ms, respectively. The average concentration of THMs was 5 μg L -1 , and the maximum value reached 77 μg L -1 However, all of the DBP concentrations fell within the range of the regulatory limits set by GSO 149/2009, the World Health Organization (WHO), and Kahramaa (KM). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT FORMATION BY ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS AND REMOVAL BY GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the use of the alternative disinfectants on the formation of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPS) including total organic halide, trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacentonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate, and chloropicrin, were examined along with ...

  19. Simultaneous and high-throughput analysis of iodo-trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, and halonitromethanes in drinking water using solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: an optimization of sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qian; Chen, Xichao; Wei, Zi; Xu, Xiong; Wang, Donghong; Wang, Zijian

    2014-10-24

    When iodide and natural organic matter are present in raw water, the formation of iodo-trihalomethanes (Iodo-THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and halonitromethanes (HNMs) pose a potential health risk because they have been reported to be more toxic than their brominated or chlorinated analogs. In the work, simultaneous analysis of Iodo-THMs, HANs, and HNMs in drinking water samples in a single cleanup and chromatographic analysis was proposed. The DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber was found to be the most suitable for all target compounds, although 75μm CAR/PDMS was better for chlorinated HANs and 65μm PDMS/DVB for brominated HNMs. After optimization of the SPME parameters (DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber, extraction time of 30min at 40°C, addition of 40% w/v of salt, (NH4)2SO4 as a quenching agent, and desorption time of 3min at 170°C), detection limits ranged from 1 to 50ng/L for different analogs, with a linear range of at least two orders of magnitude. Good recoveries (78.6-104.7%) were obtained for spiked samples of a wide range of treated drinking waters, demonstrating that the method is applicable for analysis of real drinking water samples. Matrix effects were negligible for the treated water samples with total organic carbon concentration of less than 2.9mg/L. An effective survey conducted by two drinking water treatment plants showed the highest proportion of Iodo-THMs, HANs, and HNMs occurred in treated water, and concentrations of 13 detected compounds ranged between the ng/L and the μg/L levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Trihalomethanes (THMs) precursor fractions removal by coagulation and adsorption for bio-treated municipal wastewater: Molecular weight, hydrophobicity/hydrophily and fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Han, Qi; Yan, Han; Zhang, Feng; Xue, Nan; Wang, Yan; Chu, Yongbao; Gao, Baoyu

    2015-10-30

    Due to concerns over health risk of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) precursor from bio-treated wastewater by coagulation and adsorption was investigated in this study. Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and nonionic resins were applied to fractionate THMs precursor into various molecular weight (MW) fractions and hydrophobic/hydrophilic fractions. Characteristics of coagulated water and adsorbed water were evaluated by the three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Results showed that coagulation and adsorption were suitable for removing different hydrophobic/hydrophilic and fluorescent fractions. Coagulation decreased THMs concentration in hydrophobic acids (HoA) fraction from 59 μg/L to 39 μg/L, while the lowest THMs concentration (9 μg/L) in hydrophilic substances (HiS) fraction was obtained in adsorbed water. However, both coagulation and adsorption were ineffective for removing fractions with MW<5 kDa. Although coagulation and adsorption processes could reduce THMs formation, some specific THMs formation potential (STHMFP) in residual dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions increased in this study. Hydrophobic acid and hydrophilic fractions increased after coagulation treatment, and low MW and hydrophobic fractions increased after adsorption treatment. In addition, active carbon adsorbed more organic matter than coagulant, but brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs) in adsorbed water turned to the major THMs species after chlorination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors associated with sources, transport, and fate of chloroform and three other trihalomethanes in untreated groundwater used for drinking water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Moran, Michael J.; Zogorski, John S.; Price, Curtis V.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence for indicating factors associated with the sources, transport, and fate of chloroform and three other trihalomethanes (THMs) in untreated groundwater were revealed by evaluating low-level analytical results and logistic regression results for THMs. Samples of untreated groundwater from wells used for drinking water were collected from 1996-2007 from 2492 wells across the United States and analyzed for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform by a low-level analytical method implemented in April 1996. Using an assessment level of 0.02 μg/L, chloroform was detected in 36.5% of public-well samples and 17.6% of domestic-well samples, with most concentrations less than 1 μg/L. Brominated THMs occurred less frequently than chloroform but more frequently in public-well samples than domestic-well samples. For both public and domestic wells, THMs occurred most frequently in urban areas. Logistic regression analyses showed that the occurrence of THMs was related to nonpoint sources such as urban land use and to point sources like septic systems. The frequent occurrence and concentration distribution pattern of THMs, as well as their frequent co-occurrence with other organic compounds and nitrate, all known to have anthropogenic sources, and the positive associations between THM occurrence and dissolved oxygen and recharge indicate the recycling of water that contains THMs and other anthropogenic contaminants.

  2. DNA methylation levels and long-term trihalomethane exposure in drinking water: an epigenome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Lucas A; Bustamante, Mariona; Gonzalez, Juan R; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Moreno, Victor; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M

    2015-01-01

    Trihalomethanes (THM) are undesired disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed during water treatment. Mice exposed to DBPs showed global DNA hypomethylation and c-myc and c-jun gene-specific hypomethylation, while evidence of epigenetic effects in humans is scarce. We explored the association between lifetime THM exposure and DNA methylation through an epigenome-wide association study. We selected 138 population-based controls from a case-control study of colorectal cancer conducted in Barcelona, Spain, exposed to average lifetime THM levels ≤85 μg/L vs. >85 μg/L (N = 68 and N = 70, respectively). Mean age of participants was 70 years, and 54% were male. Average lifetime THM level in the exposure groups was 64 and 130 µg/L, respectively. DNA was extracted from whole blood and was bisulphite converted to measure DNA methylation levels using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Data preprocessing was performed using RnBeads. Methylation was compared between exposure groups using empirical Bayes moderated linear regression for CpG sites and Gaussian kernel for CpG regions. ConsensusPathDB was used for gene set enrichment. Statistically significant differences in methylation between exposure groups was found in 140 CpG sites and 30 gene-related regions, after false discovery rate <0.05 and adjustment for age, sex, methylation first principal component, and blood cell proportion. The annotated genes were localized to several cancer pathways. Among them, 29 CpGs had methylation levels associated with THM levels (|Δβ|≥0.05) located in 11 genes associated with cancer in other studies. Our results suggest that THM exposure may affect DNA methylation in genes related to tumors, including colorectal and bladder cancers. Future confirmation studies are required. PMID:26039576

  3. Factorial analysis of the trihalomethane formation in the reaction of colloidal, hydrophobic, and transphilic fractions of DOM with free chlorine.

    PubMed

    Platikanov, Stefan; Tauler, Roma; Rodrigues, Pedro M S M; Antunes, Maria Cristina G; Pereira, Dilson; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2010-09-01

    This study focuses on the factors that affect trihalomethane (THMs) formation when dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions (colloidal, hydrophobic, and transphilic fractions) in aqueous solutions were disinfected with chlorine. DOM fractions were isolated and fractionated from filtered lake water and were characterized by elemental analysis. The investigation involved a screening Placket-Burman factorial analysis design of five factors (DOM concentration, chlorine dose, temperature, pH, and bromide concentration) and a Box-Behnken design for a detailed assessment of the three most important factor effects (DOM concentration, chlorine dose, and temperature). The results showed that colloidal fraction has a relatively low contribution to THM formation; transphilic fraction was responsible for about 50% of the chloroform generation, and the hydrophobic fraction was the most important to the brominated THM formation. When colloidal and hydrophobic fraction solutions were disinfected, the most significant factors were the following: higher DOM fraction concentration led to higher THM concentration, an increase of pH corresponded to higher concentration levels of chloroform and reduced bromoform, higher levels of chlorine dose and temperature produced a rise in the total THM formation, especially of the chlorinated THMs; higher bromide concentration generates higher concentrations of brominated THMs. Moreover, linear models were implemented and response surface plots were obtained for the four THM concentrations and their total sum in the disinfection solution as a function of the DOM concentration, chlorine dose, and temperature. Overall, results indicated that THM formation models were very complex due to individual factor effects and significant interactions among the factors. In order to reduce the concentration of THMs in drinking water, DOM concentrations must be reduced in the water prior to the disinfection. Fractionation of DOM, together with an elemental

  4. The impact of commercially treated oil and gas produced water discharges on bromide concentrations and modeled brominated trihalomethane disinfection byproducts at two downstream municipal drinking water plants in the upper Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, USA.

    PubMed

    Landis, Matthew S; Kamal, Ali S; Kovalcik, Kasey D; Croghan, Carry; Norris, Gary A; Bergdale, Amy

    2016-01-15

    In 2010, a dramatic increase in the levels of total trihalomethane (THM) and the relative proportion of brominated species was observed in finished water at several Pennsylvania water utilities (PDW) using the Allegheny River as their raw water supply. An increase in bromide (Br(-)) concentrations in the Allegheny River was implicated to be the cause of the elevated water disinfection byproducts. This study focused on quantifying the contribution of Br(-) from a commercial wastewater treatment facility (CWTF) that solely treats wastes from oil and gas producers and discharges into the upper reaches of the Allegheny River, and impacts on two downstream PDWs. In 2012, automated daily integrated samples were collected on the Allegheny River at six sites during three seasonal two-week sampling campaigns to characterize Br(-) concentrations and river dispersion characteristics during periods of high and low river discharges. The CWTF discharges resulted in significant increases in Br(-) compared to upstream baseline values in PDW raw drinking water intakes during periods of low river discharge. During high river discharge, the assimilative dilution capacity of the river resulted in lower absolute halide concentrations, but significant elevations Br(-) concentrations were still observed at the nearest downstream PDW intake over baseline river levels. On days with active CWTF effluent discharge the magnitude of bromide impact increased by 39 ppb (53%) and 7 ppb (22%) for low and high river discharge campaigns, respectively. Despite a declining trend in Allegheny River Br(-) (2009-2014), significant impacts from CWTF and coal-fired power plant discharges to Br(-) concentrations during the low river discharge regime at downstream PDW intakes was observed, resulting in small modeled increases in total THM (3%), and estimated positive shifts (41-47%) to more toxic brominated THM analogs. The lack of available coincident measurements of THM, precursors, and physical parameters

  5. Association between exposures to brominated trihalomethanes, hepatic injury and type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Andrianou, Xanthi D; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Burch, James B; Seth, Ratanesh K; Ioannou, Androniki; Picolos, Michael; Christophi, Costas A; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common liver disorder in the Western world, commonly diagnosed in the majority of obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Metabolic disrupting chemicals with short half-lives, such as those of halogenated structure (trihalomethanes, THM) have been linked with hepatic insulin resistance phenomena in animal studies. However, human studies evaluating the role of THM exposure on liver pathogenesis and T2DM disease process are scarce. The objectives of this study were to: i) determine the association of urinary brominated THM (BrTHM) levels and T2DM disease status, and ii) investigate the association between urinary BrTHM levels and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations, often used as surrogate markers of NAFLD. A pilot case-control study was conducted in Nicosia, Cyprus (n=95). Cases were physician-diagnosed T2DM patients and controls were healthy individuals. Liver enzymes, leptin and TNF-α were measured in sera, while urinary THM levels were measured using tandem mass spectrometry. Diabetics had higher levels of serum leptin, body mass index and ALT than the controls. Among all study participants those with serum ALT levels above the median (17IU/L) had higher mean tribromomethane (TBM) concentrations compared to those with serum ALT below 17IU/L. A significant increase in the odds of having above the median serum ALT levels [OR 6.38, 95% CI: 1.11, 42.84 (p=0.044)] was observed for each unit increase in creatinine-unadjusted urinary TBM levels, along with BMI and past smoking, after adjusting for possible confounders, such as urinary creatinine, age, sex, and leptin; no other THM compound showed a significant association with serum ALT. Logistic regression models for T2DM using the urinary BrTHM as exposure variables did not reach the predetermined level of significance. The interplay between exposures to BrTHM and the initiation of key pathophysiological events relating to

  6. Seasonal and spatial evolution of trihalomethanes in a drinking water distribution system according to the treatment process.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Tello, A; Arias-Borrego, A; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2015-11-01

    This paper comparatively shows the influence of four water treatment processes on the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in a water distribution system. The study was performed from February 2005 to January 2012 with analytical data of 600 samples taken in Aljaraque water treatment plant (WTP) and 16 locations along the water distribution system (WDS) in the region of Andévalo and the coast of Huelva (southwest Spain), a region with significant seasonal and population changes. The comparison of results in the four different processes studied indicated a clear link of the treatment process with the formation of THM along the WDS. The most effective treatment process is preozonation and activated carbon filtration (P3), which is also the most stable under summer temperatures. Experiments also show low levels of THMs with the conventional process of preoxidation with potassium permanganate (P4), delaying the chlorination to the end of the WTP; however, this simple and economical treatment process is less effective and less stable than P3. In this study, strong seasonal variations were obtained (increase of THM from winter to summer of 1.17 to 1.85 times) and a strong spatial variation (1.1 to 1.7 times from WTP to end points of WDS) which largely depends on the treatment process applied. There was also a strong correlation between THM levels and water temperature, contact time and pH. On the other hand, it was found that THM formation is not proportional to the applied chlorine dose in the treatment process, but there is a direct relationship with the accumulated dose of chlorine. Finally, predictive models based on multiple linear regressions are proposed for each treatment process.

  7. Evaluation of thirteen haloacetic acids and ten trihalomethanes formation by peracetic acid and chlorine drinking water disinfection.

    PubMed

    Xue, Runmiao; Shi, Honglan; Ma, Yinfa; Yang, John; Hua, Bin; Inniss, Enos C; Adams, Craig D; Eichholz, Todd

    2017-12-01

    Free chlorine is a commonly used disinfectant in drinking water treatment. However, disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed during water disinfection. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs) are two major groups of DBPs. Iodo-HAAs and iodo-THMs (I-HAAs and I-THMs) are formed during the disinfection of the water containing high levels of iodide and are much more toxic than their chlorinated and brominated analogs. Peracetic acid (PAA) is a strong antimicrobial disinfectant that is expected to reduce the formation of HAAs and THMs during disinfection. In this study, the formations of thirteen HAAs and ten THMs, including the iodinated forms, have been investigated during PAA disinfection and chlorination as the comparison. The DBP formations under different iodide concentrations, pHs, and contact times were systematically investigated. Two types of commercial PAAs containing different concentrations of PAA and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) were studied. A solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was upgraded for THM analysis including I-THMs. HAAs were analyzed by following a recently developed high performance ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Results show that the ratio of PAA and H 2 O 2 concentration significantly affect the formation of I-THMs and I-HAAs. During PAA disinfection with lower PAA than H 2 O 2 , no detectable levels of THMs and HAAs were observed. During PAA disinfection with higher PAA than H 2 O 2 , low levels of monoiodoacetic acid, diiodoacetic acid, and iodoform were formed, and these levels were enhanced with the increase of iodide concentration. No significant quantities of chloro- or bromo-THMs and HAAs were formed during PAA disinfection treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure to trihalomethanes through different water uses and birth weight, small for gestational age, and preterm delivery in Spain.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Cristina M; Gracia-Lavedán, Esther; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa Marina, Loreto; Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Tardón, Adonina; Fernández, Mariana F; Freire, Carmen; Goñi, Fernando; Basagaña, Xavier; Kogevinas, Manolis; Grimalt, Joan O; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-12-01

    Evidence associating exposure to water disinfection by-products with reduced birth weight and altered duration of gestation remains inconclusive. We assessed exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) during pregnancy through different water uses and evaluated the association with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW), and preterm delivery. Mother-child cohorts set up in five Spanish areas during the years 2000-2008 contributed data on water ingestion, showering, bathing, and swimming in pools. We ascertained residential THM levels during pregnancy periods through ad hoc sampling campaigns (828 measurements) and regulatory data (264 measurements), which were modeled and combined with personal water use and uptake factors to estimate personal uptake. We defined outcomes following standard definitions and included 2,158 newborns in the analysis. Median residential THM ranged from 5.9 μg/L (Valencia) to 114.7 μg/L (Sabadell), and speciation differed across areas. We estimated that 89% of residential chloroform and 96% of brominated THM uptakes were from showering/bathing. The estimated change of birth weight for a 10% increase in residential uptake was -0.45 g (95% confidence interval: -1.36, 0.45 g) for chloroform and 0.16 g (-1.38, 1.70 g) for brominated THMs. Overall, THMs were not associated with SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery. Despite the high THM levels in some areas and the extensive exposure assessment, results suggest that residential THM exposure during pregnancy driven by inhalation and dermal contact routes is not associated with birth weight, SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery in Spain.

  9. Tracing dissolved organic carbon and trihalomethane formation potential between source water and finished drinking water at a lowland and an upland UK catchment.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Emma; Freeman, Christopher; Gough, Rachel; Holliman, Peter J

    2015-12-15

    Rising dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in many upland UK catchments represents a challenge for drinking water companies, in particular due to the role of DOC as a precursor in the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs). Whereas traditionally, the response of drinking water companies has been focussed on treatment processes, increasingly, efforts have been made to better understanding the role of land use and catchment processes in affecting drinking water quality. In this study, water quality, including DOC and THM formation potential (THMFP) was assessed between the water source and finished drinking water at an upland and a lowland catchment. Surprisingly, the lowland catchment showed much higher reservoir DOC concentrations apparently due to the influence of a fen within the catchment from where a major reservoir inflow stream originated. Seasonal variations in water quality were observed, driving changes in THMFP. However, the reservoirs in both catchments appeared to dampen these temporal fluctuations. Treatment process applied in the 2 catchments were adapted to reservoir water quality with much higher DOC and THMFP removal rates observed at the lowland water treatment works where coagulation-flocculation was applied. However, selectivity during this DOC removal stage also appeared to increase the proportion of brominated THMs produced. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Monitoring trihalomethanes in chlorinated waters using a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method with a non-chlorinated organic solvent and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Fernández, Idaira; Herrera-Fuentes, Ariadna; Delgado, Bárbara; Pino, Verónica; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2017-03-01

    The environmental monitoring of trihalomethanes (THMs) has been performed by setting up a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method in combination with gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). The optimized method only requires ∼26 µL of decanol as extractant solvent, dissolved in ∼1 mL of acetone (dispersive solvent) for 5 mL of the environmental water containing THMs. The mixture is then subjected to vortex for 1 min and then centrifuged for 2 min at 3500 rpm. The microdroplet containing the extracted THMs is then sampled with a micro-syringe, and injected (1 µL) in the GC-MS. The method is characterized for being fast (3 min for the entire sample preparation step) and environmentally friendly (low amounts of solvents required, being all non-chlorinated), and also for getting average relative recoveries of 90.2-106% in tap waters; relative standard deviation values always lower than 11%; average enrichment factors of 48-49; and detection limits down to 0.7 µg·L-1. Several waters: tap waters, pool waters, and wastewaters were successfully analyzed with the method proposed. Furthermore, the method was used to monitor the formation of THMs in wastewaters when different chlorination parameters, namely temperature and pH, were varied.

  11. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... disinfectant or oxidant. (2) Use of chlorine dioxide as an alternate or supplemental disinfectant or oxidant... of raw water. Use of ozone as an alternate or supplemental disinfectant or oxidant. (d) If the... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS...

  12. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS... average basis. (b) The Administrator in a state that does not have primary enforcement responsibility or a... community water system to install and/or use any treatment method identified in § 142.60(a) as a condition...

  13. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS... average basis. (b) The Administrator in a state that does not have primary enforcement responsibility or a... community water system to install and/or use any treatment method identified in § 142.60(a) as a condition...

  14. Analytical procedures for environmental quality control. Volume 2. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

    1989-01-15

    This report covers sixteen important documents. Some examples are: The determination of the maximum total trihalomethane potential; Nationwide approval of alternative test procedure for analysis of trihalomethanes; Volatile organic compounds in eater by purge and trap capillary column gas chromatography with photoionization and electrolytic conductivity detectors in series; Analysis of organohalide pesticides and arclors in drinking water by microextraction and gas chromatography; Testing for lead in school drinking water; Simplified methods for food and feed testing; Determination of nitroaromatic compounds and isophorone in industrial and municipal wastewaters; Sampling for giardia and/or cryptosporidium; determination of TCDD in industrial and municipal wastewaters;more » Determination of volatile organics in industrial and municipal wastewaters; Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial and municipal wastewaters.« less

  15. Composition profiles, levels, distributions and ecological risk assessments of trihalomethanes in surface water from a typical estuary of Bohai Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhiguang; Li, Xiaonan; Zhang, Ying

    2017-04-15

    To characterize the spatiotemporal distribution and potential ecological risk for trihalomethanes (THMs) in the surface water of a river estuary, surface water samples were collected over five consecutive months (from March to July 2016) from four sites in the Haihe River estuary of Bohai Bay. The potential ecological risks of THMs were evaluated quantitatively based on a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) model. The results demonstrate that trichloromethane (TCM) was the predominant THM in surface water of the Haihe River estuary (2.93±1.98μg/L) followed by tribromomethane (TBM) (0.42±0.33μg/L), bromodichloromethane (BDCM) (0.14±0.06μg/L) and dibromochloromethane (DBCM) (0.09±0.10μg/L). The concentration of TCM was higher in summer than that in spring, while TBM displayed the opposite trend. The TCM concentration decreased from the estuary to the adjacent sea. However, the levels of TBM and DBCM in the adjacent sea were higher than those in the estuary. The ecological risks of THMs in surface water of Haihe River were notably low, and the ecological risks of THMs in freshwater were generally higher than those in seawater. Compared with other contaminants in water and surface sediment from rivers and coastal areas, the ecological risk levels of THMs in surface water can be considered low. This study is a contribution to the progress of ecological risk assessment of THMs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Disinfection byproduct yields from the chlorination of natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Yields for the formation of trihalomethane and nonpurgeable total organic-halide disinfection byproducts were determined as a function of pH and initial free-chlorine concentration for the chlorination of water from the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers. Samples were collected at 12 sites on the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, MN, to New Orleans. LA, and on the Missouri and Ohio Rivers 1.6 km above their confluences with the Mississippi during the summer, fall, and spring seasons of the year. Yields varied little with distance along the Mississippi River, although the dissolved organic-carbon concentration decreased considerably with distance downstream. Yields for the Missouri and Ohio were comparable to yields for the Mississippi, despite much higher bromide concentrations for the Missouri and Ohio. Trihalomethane yields increased as the pH and initial free- chlorine concentration increased. Nonpurgeable total organic-halide yields also increased as the initial free-chlorine concentration increased, but decreased as the pH increased.

  17. Passive exposures of children to volatile trihalomethanes during domestic cleaning activities of their parents

    SciTech Connect

    Andra, Syam S.; Harvard-Cyprus Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Charisiadis, Pantelis

    Domestic cleaning has been proposed as a determinant of trihalomethanes (THMs) exposure in adult females. We hypothesized that parental housekeeping activities could influence children's passive exposures to THMs from their mere physical presence during domestic cleaning. In a recent cross-sectional study (n=382) in Cyprus [41 children (<18y) and 341 adults (≥18y)], we identified 29 children who met the study's inclusion criteria. Linear regression models were applied to understand the association between children sociodemographic variables, their individual practices influencing ingestion and noningestion exposures to ΣTHMs, and their urinary THMs levels. Among the children-specific variables, age alone showed a statistically significant inversemore » association with their creatinine-adjusted urinary ΣTHMs (r{sub S}=−0.59, p<0.001). A positive correlation was observed between urinary ΣTHMs (ng g{sup −1}) of children and matched-mothers (r{sub S}=0.52, p=0.014), but this was not the case for their matched-fathers (r{sub S}=0.39, p=0.112). Time spent daily by the matched-mothers for domestic mopping, toilet and other cleaning activities using chlorine-based cleaning products was associated with their children's urinary THMs levels (r{sub S}=0.56, p=0.007). This trend was not observed between children and their matched-fathers urinary ΣTHMs levels, because of minimum amount of time spent by the latter in performing domestic cleaning. The proportion of variance of creatinine-unadjusted and adjusted urinary ΣTHMs levels in children that was explained by the matched-mothers covariates was 76% and 74% (p<0.001), respectively. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model adequately predicted urinary chloroform excretion estimates, being consistent with the corresponding measured levels. Our findings highlighted the influence of mothers' domestic cleaning activities towards enhancing passive THMs exposures of their children. The duration of such activities

  18. Total Fluid and Water Consumption and the Joint Effect of Exposure to Disinfection By-Products on Risk of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Dominique S.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Garcia-Closas, Monteserrat; Rothman, Nathaniel; Malats, Nuria; Real, Francisco X.; Serra, Consol; Garcia-Closas, Reina; Tardon, Adonina; Carrato, Alfredo; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Silverman, Debra T.

    2007-01-01

    Background Findings on water and total fluid intake and bladder cancer are inconsistent; this may, in part, be due to different levels of carcinogens in drinking water. High levels of arsenic and chlorinated by-products in drinking water have been associated with elevated bladder cancer risk in most studies. A pooled analysis based on six case–control studies observed a positive association between tap water and bladder cancer but none for nontap fluid intake, suggesting that contaminants in tap water may be responsible for the excess risk. Objectives We examined the association between total fluid and water consumption and bladder cancer risk, as well as the interaction between water intake and trihalomethane (THM) exposure, in a large case–control study in Spain. Methods A total of 397 bladder cancer cases and 664 matched controls were available for this analysis. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, controlling for potential confounders. Results Total fluid intake was associated with a decrease in bladder cancer risk [OR = 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40–0.95 for highest vs. lowest quintile comparison]. A significant inverse association was observed for water intake (for > 1,399 vs. < 400 mL/day, OR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.33–0.66; p for trend < 0.0001), but not for other individual beverages. The inverse association between water intake and bladder cancer persisted within each level of THM exposure; we found no statistical interaction (p for interaction = 0.13). Conclusion Findings from this study suggest that water intake is inversely associated with bladder cancer risk, regardless of THM exposure level. PMID:18007986

  19. 40 CFR 141.605 - Subpart V compliance monitoring location recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... location recommendations. 141.605 Section 141.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... System Evaluations § 141.605 Subpart V compliance monitoring location recommendations. (a) Your IDSE report must include your recommendations and justification for where and during what month(s) TTHM and...

  20. 40 CFR 141.605 - Subpart V compliance monitoring location recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... System Evaluations § 141.605 Subpart V compliance monitoring location recommendations. (a) Your IDSE report must include your recommendations and justification for where and during what month(s) TTHM and... location recommendations. 141.605 Section 141.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  1. Speciation and formation of iodinated trihalomethane from microbially derived organic matter during the biological treatment of micro-polluted source water.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yan; Ma, Luming; Wang, Hongwu; Fan, Jinhong; Liu, Xiang; Dai, Rui-Hua

    2013-09-01

    Water sources are micro-polluted by the increasing range of anthropogenic activities around them. Disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors in water have gradually expanded from humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid to other important sources of potential organic matter. This study aimed to provide further insights into the effects of microbially derived organic matter as precursors on iodinated trihalomethane (I-THM) speciation and formation during the biological treatment of micro-polluted source water. The occurrence of I-THMs in drinking water treated by biological processes was investigated. The results showed for the first time that CHCl2I and CHBrClI are emerging DBPs in China. Biological pre-treatment and biological activated carbon can increase levels of microbes, which could serve as DBP precursors. Chlorination experiments with bovine serum albumin (BSA), starch, HA, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and fish oil, confirmed the close correlation between the I-THM species identified during the treatment processes and those predicted from the model compounds. The effects of iodide and bromide on the I-THM speciation and formation were related to the biochemical composition of microbially derived organic precursors. Lipids produced up to 16.98μgL(-1) of CHCl2I at an initial iodide concentration of 2mgL(-1). HA and starch produced less CHCl2I at 3.88 and 3.54μgL(-1), respectively, followed by BSA (1.50μgL(-1)) and DNA (1.35μgL(-1)). Only fish oil produced I-THMs when iodide and bromide were both present in solution; the four other model compounds formed brominated species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reducing Volatile Disinfection By-Products in Treated Drinking Water Using Aeration Technologies (WaterRF Report 4441)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address TTHM compliance at a water treatment plant clearwell. The project team worked closely with EPA Region 6 and the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to identify a...

  3. Algal removal from cyanobacteria-rich waters by preoxidation-assisted coagulation-flotation: Effect of algogenic organic matter release on algal removal and trihalomethane formation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jr-Lin; Hua, Lap-Cuong; Hung, Shih Kai; Huang, Chihpin

    2018-01-01

    The cyanobacteria-bloom in raw waters frequently causes an unpredictable chemical dosing of preoxidation and coagulation for an effective removal of algal cells in water treatment plants. This study investigated the effects of preoxidation with NaOCl and ClO 2 on the coagulation-flotation effectiveness in the removal of two commonly blooming cyanobacteria species, Microcystis aeruginosa (MA) and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (CR), and their corresponding trihalomethane (THM) formation potential. The results showed that dual dosing with NaOCl plus ClO 2 was more effective in enhancing the deformation of cyanobacterial cells compared to single dosing with NaOCl, especially for CR-rich water. Both preoxidation approaches for CR-rich water effectively reduced the CR cell count with less remained dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which benefited subsequent coagulation-flotation. However, preoxidation led to an adverse release of algogenic organic matter (AOM) in the case of MA-rich water. The release of AOM resulted in a poor removal in MA cells and a large amount of THM formation after oxidation-assisted coagulation-flotation process. The reduction in THM formation potential of CR-rich waters is responsible for effective algae and DOC removal by alum coagulation. It is concluded that the species-specific characteristic of cyanobacteria and their AOM released during chlorination significantly influences the performance of coagulation-flotation for AOM removal and corresponding THM formation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Physicochemical Quality and Chemical Safety of Chlorine as a Reconditioning Agent and Wash Water Disinfectant for Fresh-Cut Lettuce Washing

    PubMed Central

    Van Haute, Sam; Holvoet, Kevin; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Chlorine was assessed as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant in the fresh-cut produce industry. Artificial fresh-cut lettuce wash water, made from butterhead lettuce, was used for the experiments. In the reconditioning experiments, chlorine was added to artificial wash water inoculated with Escherichia coli O157 (6 log CFU/ml). Regression models were constructed based on the inactivation data and validated in actual wash water from leafy vegetable processing companies. The model that incorporated chlorine dose and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wash water accurately predicted inactivation. Listeria monocytogenes was more resistant to chlorine reconditioning in artificial wash water than Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. During the washing process with inoculated lettuce (4 log CFU/g), in the absence of chlorine, there was a rapid microbial buildup in the water that accumulated to 5.4 ± 0.4 log CFU/100 ml after 1 h. When maintaining a residual concentration of 1 mg/liter free chlorine, wash water contamination was maintained below 2.7, 2.5, and 2.5 log CFU/100 ml for tap water and artificial process water with COD values of 500 and 1,000 mg O2/liter, respectively. A model was developed to predict water contamination during the dynamic washing process. Only minor amounts of total trihalomethanes were formed in the water during reconditioning. Total trihalomethanes accumulated to larger amounts in the water during the wash water disinfection experiments and reached 124.5 ± 13.4 μg/liter after 1 h of execution of the washing process in water with a COD of 1,000 mg O2/liter. However, no total trihalomethanes were found on the fresh-cut lettuce after rinsing. PMID:23396332

  5. Physicochemical quality and chemical safety of chlorine as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant for fresh-cut lettuce washing.

    PubMed

    Van Haute, Sam; Sampers, Imca; Holvoet, Kevin; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-05-01

    Chlorine was assessed as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant in the fresh-cut produce industry. Artificial fresh-cut lettuce wash water, made from butterhead lettuce, was used for the experiments. In the reconditioning experiments, chlorine was added to artificial wash water inoculated with Escherichia coli O157 (6 log CFU/ml). Regression models were constructed based on the inactivation data and validated in actual wash water from leafy vegetable processing companies. The model that incorporated chlorine dose and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wash water accurately predicted inactivation. Listeria monocytogenes was more resistant to chlorine reconditioning in artificial wash water than Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. During the washing process with inoculated lettuce (4 log CFU/g), in the absence of chlorine, there was a rapid microbial buildup in the water that accumulated to 5.4 ± 0.4 log CFU/100 ml after 1 h. When maintaining a residual concentration of 1 mg/liter free chlorine, wash water contamination was maintained below 2.7, 2.5, and 2.5 log CFU/100 ml for tap water and artificial process water with COD values of 500 and 1,000 mg O2/liter, respectively. A model was developed to predict water contamination during the dynamic washing process. Only minor amounts of total trihalomethanes were formed in the water during reconditioning. Total trihalomethanes accumulated to larger amounts in the water during the wash water disinfection experiments and reached 124.5 ± 13.4 μg/liter after 1 h of execution of the washing process in water with a COD of 1,000 mg O2/liter. However, no total trihalomethanes were found on the fresh-cut lettuce after rinsing.

  6. An Optimized Analytical Method for the Simultaneous Detection of Iodoform, Iodoacetic Acid, and Other Trihalomethanes and Haloacetic Acids in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Songhui; Templeton, Michael R.; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    An optimized method is presented using liquid-liquid extraction and derivatization for the extraction of iodoacetic acid (IAA) and other haloacetic acids (HAA9) and direct extraction of iodoform (IF) and other trihalomethanes (THM4) from drinking water, followed by detection by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). A Doehlert experimental design was performed to determine the optimum conditions for the five most significant factors in the derivatization step: namely, the volume and concentration of acidic methanol (optimized values  = 15%, 1 mL), the volume and concentration of Na2SO4 solution (129 g/L, 8.5 mL), and the volume of saturated NaHCO3 solution (1 mL). Also, derivatization time and temperature were optimized by a two-variable Doehlert design, resulting in the following optimized parameters: an extraction time of 11 minutes for IF and THM4 and 14 minutes for IAA and HAA9; mass of anhydrous Na2SO4 of 4 g for IF and THM4 and 16 g for IAA and HAA9; derivatization time of 160 min and temperature at 40°C. Under optimal conditions, the optimized procedure achieves excellent linearity (R2 ranges 0.9990–0.9998), low detection limits (0.0008–0.2 µg/L), low quantification limits (0.008–0.4 µg/L), and good recovery (86.6%–106.3%). Intra- and inter-day precision were less than 8.9% and 8.8%, respectively. The method was validated by applying it to the analysis of raw, flocculated, settled, and finished waters collected from a water treatment plant in China. PMID:23613747

  7. Accounting for the impact of short-term variations in the levels of trihalomethane in drinking water on exposure assessment for epidemiological purposes. Part II: biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Catto, Cyril; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Rodriguez, Manuel; Tardif, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The variability of trihalomethane (THM) levels in drinking water raises the question of whether or not short-term variations (within-day) should be accounted for when assessing exposure to contaminants suspected of being carcinogenic and reprotoxic agents. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of the impact on predicted biological levels of THMs (internal doses) exerted by within-day variations of THMs in drinking water. A database extracted from a campaign in the Québec City distribution system served to produce 81, 79 and 64 concentration profiles for the three most abundant THMs, namely chloroform (TCM), dichlorobromomethane (DCBM) and chlorodibromomethane (CDBM), respectively. Using a physiologically based toxicokinetic modeling approach, we simulated exposures (1.5 l water per day and a 10-min shower) based on each of these profiles and predicted, for 2000 individuals (Monte-Carlo simulations), maximum blood concentrations (Cmax), areas under the time versus blood concentrations curve (24 h-AUCcv) and total absorbed doses (ADs). Three different hypotheses were tested: [A] assuming a constant THM concentration in water (e.g., mean value of a day); [B] accounting for within-day variations in THM levels; and [C] a worst-case scenario assuming within-day variations and showering while THM levels were maximal. For each exposure profile, exposure indicator and individual, we calculated the ratios of values obtained according to each hypothesis (e.g., CmaxB/CmaxA and CmaxC/CmaxA) and the values corresponding to the 5th and 95th percentiles of these ratios. The closer these percentiles are to the value of 1, the smaller the error associated with assuming constant THM concentrations rather than their actual variability. Results showed that the minimal gap between these percentiles was TCM-AD(B)/TCM-AD(A) (5th=0.91; 95th=1.09), whereas the maximal gap was CDBM-Cmax(C)/CDBM-Cmax(A) (5th=0.50; 95th=3.40). Overall, TCM and ADs were the less affected

  8. Regression models evaluating THMs, HAAs and HANs formation upon chloramination of source water collected from Yangtze River Delta Region, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiajia; Chen, Xi; Ansheng, Zhu; Hong, Huachang; Liang, Yan; Sun, Hongjie; Lin, Hongjun; Chen, Jianrong

    2018-09-30

    Present study aimed to generate multiple regression models to estimate the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) during chloramination of source water obtained from Yangtze River Delta Region, China. The results showed that the regression models for trichloromethane (TCM), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), dihaloacetic acids (DHAAs), 5 HAAs species regulated by U.S. EPA (HAA 5 ) and total haloacetic acids (HAA 9 ) have good evaluation ability (prediction accuracy reached 81-94%), while the models for total haloacetonitriles (HAN 4 ), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), trihaloacetic acids (THAAs) and total trihalomethanes (THM 4 ), they appeared relative low prediction accuracy (58-72%). For THMs, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was their key organic precursor, yet for HAN, DHAAs and THAAs, UVA 254 played the dominant role. The other key factors influencing DBP formation included the bromide (THM 4 , DHAAs and HAA 9 ), reaction time (DCAN, HAN 4 ), chloramine dose (TCM, DCAA, TCAA, HAA 5 and THAAs). These results provided important information for water works to optimize the water treatment process to control DBPs, and give an evaluating method for DBPs levels when estimating the health risks related with DBP exposure during chloramination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 40 CFR 142.16 - Special primacy requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... this chapter—How the State will approve a more representative annual data set than the data set... approve a more representative data set for optional TTHM and HAA5 monitoring and profiling. (ii) Section... set by the State subsequent to the initial 24-hour Tier 1 notice, as a result of their consultation...

  10. Reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential in surface river water by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Rakruam, Pharkphum; Wattanachira, Suraphong

    2014-03-01

    This research was aimed at investigating the reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) by in-line coagulation with 0.1 μm ceramic membrane filtration. The combination of ceramic membrane filtration with a coagulation process is an alternative technology which can be applied to enhance conventional coagulation processes in the field of water treatment and drinking water production. The Ping River water (high turbidity water) was selected as the raw surface water because it is currently the main raw water source for water supply production in the urban and rural areas of Chiang Mai Province. From the investigation, the results showed that the highest percent reductions of DOC, UV-254, and THMFP (47.6%, 71.0%, and 67.4%, respectively) were achieved from in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration at polyaluminum chloride dosage 40 mg/L. Resin adsorption techniques were employed to characterize the DOM in raw surface water and filtered water. The results showed that the use of a ceramic membrane with in-line coagulation was able to most efficiently reduce the hydrophobic fraction (HPOA) (68.5%), which was then followed by the hydrophilic fraction (HPIA) (49.3%). The greater mass DOC reduction of these two fractions provided the highest THMFP reductions (55.1% and 37.2%, respectively). Furthermore, the in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was able to reduce the hydrophobic (HPOB) fraction which is characterized by high reactivity toward THM formation. The percent reduction of mass DOC and THMFP of HPOB by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was 45.9% and 48.0%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Drinking water disinfection by-products and time to pregnancy.

    PubMed

    MacLehose, Richard F; Savitz, David A; Herring, Amy H; Hartmann, Katherine E; Singer, Philip C; Weinberg, Howard S

    2008-05-01

    Laboratory evidence suggests tap water disinfection by-products (DBPs) could have an effect very early in pregnancy, typically before clinical detectability. Undetected early losses would be expected to increase the reported number of cycles to clinical pregnancy. We investigated the association between specific DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, brominated-trihalomethanes, brominated-haloacetic acids, total organic halides, and bromodichloromethane) and time to pregnancy among women who enrolled in a study of drinking water and reproductive outcomes. We quantified exposure to DBPs through concentrations in tap water, quantity ingested through drinking, quantity inhaled or absorbed while showering or bathing, and total integrated exposure. The effect of DBPs on time to pregnancy was estimated using a discrete time hazard model. Overall, we found no evidence of an increased time to pregnancy among women who were exposed to higher levels of DBPs. A modestly decreased time to pregnancy (ie, increased fecundability) was seen among those exposed to the highest level of ingested DBPs, but not for tap water concentration, the amount absorbed while showering or bathing, or the integrated exposure. Our findings extend those of a recently published study suggesting a lack of association between DBPs and pregnancy loss.

  12. THE INDUCTION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI IN THE COLONS OF MALE F344/N RATS EXPOSED TO THIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES IN THE DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory


    THE INDUCTION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI IN THE COLONS OF MALE F344/N
    RATS EXPOSED TO TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES IN THE DRINKING WATER

    The trihalomethanes (THM), bromoform (TBM) and bromodichloromethane (BDCM), administered by corn oil gavage were found to increase large...

  13. Individual exposures to drinking water trihalomethanes, low birth weight and small for gestational age risk: a prospective Kaunas cohort study.

    PubMed

    Grazuleviciene, Regina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Vencloviene, Jone; Kostopoulou-Karadanelli, Maria; Krasner, Stuart W; Danileviciute, Asta; Balcius, Gediminas; Kapustinskiene, Violeta

    2011-04-19

    Evidence for an association between exposure during pregnancy to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water and impaired fetal growth is still inconsistent and inconclusive, in particular, for various exposure routes. We examined the relationship of individual exposures to THMs in drinking water on low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and birth weight (BW) in singleton births. We conducted a cohort study of 4,161 pregnant women in Kaunas (Lithuania), using individual information on drinking water, ingestion, showering and bathing, and uptake factors of THMs in blood, to estimate an internal dose of THM. We used regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between internal THM dose and birth outcomes, adjusting for family status, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, blood pressure, ethnic group, previous preterm, infant gender, and birth year. The estimated internal dose of THMs ranged from 0.0025 to 2.40 mg/d. We found dose-response relationships for the entire pregnancy and trimester-specific THM and chloroform internal dose and risk for LBW and a reduction in BW. The adjusted odds ratio for third tertile vs. first tertile chloroform internal dose of entire pregnancy was 2.17, 95% CI 1.19-3.98 for LBW; the OR per every 0.1 μg/d increase in chloroform internal dose was 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.19. Chloroform internal dose was associated with a slightly increased risk of SGA (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.87-1.63 and OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.89-1.68, respectively, for second and third tertile of third trimester); the risk increased by 4% per every 0.1 μg/d increase in chloroform internal dose (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.09). THM internal dose in pregnancy varies substantially across individuals, and depends on both water THM levels and water use habits. Increased internal dose may affect fetal growth.

  14. Individual exposures to drinking water trihalomethanes, low birth weight and small for gestational age risk: a prospective Kaunas cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence for an association between exposure during pregnancy to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water and impaired fetal growth is still inconsistent and inconclusive, in particular, for various exposure routes. We examined the relationship of individual exposures to THMs in drinking water on low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and birth weight (BW) in singleton births. Methods We conducted a cohort study of 4,161 pregnant women in Kaunas (Lithuania), using individual information on drinking water, ingestion, showering and bathing, and uptake factors of THMs in blood, to estimate an internal dose of THM. We used regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between internal THM dose and birth outcomes, adjusting for family status, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, blood pressure, ethnic group, previous preterm, infant gender, and birth year. Results The estimated internal dose of THMs ranged from 0.0025 to 2.40 mg/d. We found dose-response relationships for the entire pregnancy and trimester-specific THM and chloroform internal dose and risk for LBW and a reduction in BW. The adjusted odds ratio for third tertile vs. first tertile chloroform internal dose of entire pregnancy was 2.17, 95% CI 1.19-3.98 for LBW; the OR per every 0.1 μg/d increase in chloroform internal dose was 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.19. Chloroform internal dose was associated with a slightly increased risk of SGA (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.87-1.63 and OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.89-1.68, respectively, for second and third tertile of third trimester); the risk increased by 4% per every 0.1 μg/d increase in chloroform internal dose (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.09). Conclusions THM internal dose in pregnancy varies substantially across individuals, and depends on both water THM levels and water use habits. Increased internal dose may affect fetal growth. PMID:21501533

  15. Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water and Evaluation of Potential Health Risks of Long-Term Exposure in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Benson, Nsikak U; Akintokun, Oyeronke A; Adedapo, Adebusayo E

    2017-01-01

    Levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water from water treatment plants (WTPs) in Nigeria were studied using a gas chromatograph (GC Agilent 7890A with autosampler Agilent 7683B) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The mean concentrations of the trihalomethanes ranged from zero in raw water samples to 950  μ g/L in treated water samples. Average concentration values of THMs in primary and secondary disinfection samples exceeded the standard maximum contaminant levels. Results for the average THMs concentrations followed the order TCM > BDCM > DBCM > TBM. EPA-developed models were adopted for the estimation of chronic daily intakes (CDI) and excess cancer incidence through ingestion pathway. Higher average intake was observed in adults (4.52 × 10 -2  mg/kg-day), while the ingestion in children (3.99 × 10 -2  mg/kg-day) showed comparable values. The total lifetime cancer incidence rate was relatively higher in adults than children with median values 244 and 199 times the negligible risk level.

  16. MECHANISTIC INFORMATION ON DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Colon cancer is the second most common cancer in people from developed countries, and populations exposed t o 50?g/L or more of trihalomethanes for at 1east 35 years have been estimated to be 1.5 times more likely to develop colon cancer. Trihalomethanes are one of the classes ...

  17. Evaluation of associations between lifetime exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products and bladder cancer in dogs.

    PubMed

    Backer, Lorraine C; Coss, Angela M; Wolkin, Amy F; Flanders, W Dana; Reif, John S

    2008-06-01

    To assess the risk of bladder cancer in dogs from exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products and determine whether dogs could serve as sentinels for human bladder cancer associated with such exposures. Case-control study. 100 dogs with cancer of the urinary bladder and 100 control dogs. Case and control dogs were frequency-matched by age (within 2 years) and sex. Owners of dogs enrolled provided verbal informed consent and were interviewed by telephone. The telephone questionnaire included a complete residence history for each dog. Each dog's total exposure history to trihalomethanes was reconstructed from its residence history and corresponding drinking water utility company data. No association was detected between increasing years of exposure to chlorinated drinking water and risk of bladder cancer. Dogs with bladder cancer were exposed to higher total trihalomethanes concentrations than control dogs; however, the difference was not significant. Although humans and their dogs live in the same household, the activity patterns of dogs may lead to lower exposures to household tap water. Thus, although exposure to disinfection by-products in tap water may be a risk factor for human bladder cancer, this may not be true for canine bladder cancer at the concentrations at which dogs are exposed.

  18. Sources and occurrence of chloroform and other trihalomethanes in drinking-water supply wells in the United States, 1986-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivahnenko, Tamara; Zogorski, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Chloroform and three other trihalomethanes (THMs)--bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform--are disinfection by-products commonly produced during the chlorination of water and wastewater. Samples of untreated ground water from drinking-water supply wells (1,096 public and 2,400 domestic wells) were analyzed for THMs and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1986-2001, or compiled, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This report provides a summary of potential sources of THMs and of the occurrence and geographical distribution of THMs in samples from public and domestic wells. Evidence for an anthropogenic source of THMs and implications for future research also are presented. Potential sources of THMs to both public and domestic wells include the discharge of chlorinated drinking water and wastewater that may be intentional or inadvertent. Intentional discharge includes the use of municipally supplied chlorinated water to irrigate lawns, golf courses, parks, gardens, and other areas; the use of septic systems; or the regulated discharge of chlorinated wastewater to surface waters or ground-water recharge facilities. Inadvertent discharge includes leakage of chlorinated water from swimming pools, spas, or distribution systems for drinking water or wastewater sewers. Statistical analyses indicate that population density, the percentage of urban land, and the number of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous-waste facilities near sampled wells are significantly associated with the probability of detection of chloroform, especially for public wells. Domestic wells may have several other sources of THMs, including the practice of well disinfection through shock chlorination, laundry wastewater containing bleach, and septic system effluent. Chloroform was the most frequently detected VOC in samples from drinking-water supply wells (public and domestic wells) in the United States. Although

  19. Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water and Evaluation of Potential Health Risks of Long-Term Exposure in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akintokun, Oyeronke A.; Adedapo, Adebusayo E.

    2017-01-01

    Levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water from water treatment plants (WTPs) in Nigeria were studied using a gas chromatograph (GC Agilent 7890A with autosampler Agilent 7683B) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The mean concentrations of the trihalomethanes ranged from zero in raw water samples to 950 μg/L in treated water samples. Average concentration values of THMs in primary and secondary disinfection samples exceeded the standard maximum contaminant levels. Results for the average THMs concentrations followed the order TCM > BDCM > DBCM > TBM. EPA-developed models were adopted for the estimation of chronic daily intakes (CDI) and excess cancer incidence through ingestion pathway. Higher average intake was observed in adults (4.52 × 10−2 mg/kg-day), while the ingestion in children (3.99 × 10−2 mg/kg-day) showed comparable values. The total lifetime cancer incidence rate was relatively higher in adults than children with median values 244 and 199 times the negligible risk level. PMID:28900447

  20. Chloroform in the hydrologic system--sources, transport, fate, occurrence, and effects on human health and aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivahnenko, Tamara; Barbash, Jack E.

    2004-01-01

    Chloroform is one of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detected most frequently in both ground and surface water. Because it is also one of the four trihalomethanes (THMs) produced in the highest concentrations during the chlorination of drinking water and wastewater, the frequent detection of this compound in ground and surface water of the United States is presumed to be caused primarily by the input of chlorinated water to the hydrologic system. Although anthropogenic sources of the compound are substantial, they are currently estimated to constitute only 10 percent of the total global input to the hydrologic system. Natural sources of the compound include volcanic gases, biomass burning, marine algae, and soil microorganisms. Under most conditions (except in the presence of unusually high bromide concentrations), chloroform is the THM produced in the highest concentrations during chlorination. Furthermore, in most cases where more than one THM is produced from chlorination, the relative concentrations among the different compounds usually decrease with increasing bromination (chloroform > dichlorobromomethane > chlorodibromomethane > bromoform). This phenomenon is presumed to be responsible for the common observation that when more than one THM is detected during investigations of the occurrence of these compounds in the hydrologic system, this same trend is typically observed among their relative concentrations or, for a uniform reporting limit, their relative frequencies of detection. This pattern could provide a valuable means for distinguishing between chlorinated water and other potential sources of chloroform in the environment. Chloroform has been widely detected in national, regional, and local studies of VOCs in ground, surface, source, and drinking waters. Total THM (TTHM) concentrations of the compound, however, were typically less than the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 80 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) established by the U.S. Environmental

  1. CHLORINE DEMAND AND TTHM FORMATION KINETICS: A SECOND-ORDER MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much effort has been expended in attempting to develop mathematical models for chlorine demand in water and wastewater. Most of these efforts have centered around the use of first-order functions or modifications of first-order functions. Recently there has also been interest i...

  2. Final Decision Document for the Basin a Neck Groundwater Intercept and Treatment System Interim Response Action at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    PLAN A Health and Safety Plan has been developed for the prevention of occupational injuries and illnesses during field activities at RMA. This plan...Bicycloheptadiene BCHPD 0(2) Bromoform CHBR3 100(4) note: total trihalomethanes Cadmium CD 10(1) 5(3)* 10(4) I Carbon tetrachloride CCL4 0(3) 5(4) Chlordane CLDAN...comments, numerous carcinogenicity tests in a variety of animals indicate that aldrin and dieldrin promote only liver tumors and the tumors develop only

  3. Prenatal exposure to drinking-water chlorination by-products, cytochrome P450 gene polymorphisms and small-for-gestational-age neonates.

    PubMed

    Bonou, Samuella G; Levallois, Patrick; Giguère, Yves; Rodriguez, Manuel; Bureau, Alexandre

    2017-10-01

    Genetic susceptibility may modulate chlorination by-products (CBPs) effects on fetal growth, especially genes coding for the cytochrome P450 involved in the metabolism of CBPs and steroidogenesis. In a case-control study of 1432 mother-child pairs, we assessed the association between maternal and child single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6 and CYP17A1 genes and small-for-gestational-age neonates (SGA<10th percentile) as well as interaction between these SNPs and maternal exposure to trihalomethanes or haloacetic acids (HAAs) during the third trimester of pregnancy. Interactions were found between mother and neonate carrying CYP17A1 rs4919687A and rs743572G alleles and maternal exposure to total trihalomethanes or five regulated HAAs species. However, these interactions became non statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. There is some evidence, albeit weak, of a potential effect modification of the association between CBPs and SGA by SNPs in CYP17A1 gene. Further studies are needed to validate these observations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rural and Urban Differences in Air Quality, 2008–2012, and Community Drinking Water Quality, 2010–2015 — United States

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Caitlin; Monti, Michele; Yip, Fuyuen

    2017-01-01

    ). The water-quality measure compared the annual mean concentration for a community water system (CWS) to the maximum contaminant level (MCL) defined by EPA for 10 contaminants: arsenic, atrazine, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), haloacetic acids (HAA5), nitrate, perchloroethene (PCE), radium, trichloroethene (TCE), total trihalomethanes (TTHM), and uranium. Findings are presented by urban-rural classification scheme: four metropolitan (large central metropolitan, large fringe metropolitan, medium metropolitan, and small metropolitan) and two nonmetropolitan (micropolitan and noncore) categories. Regression modeling was used to determine whether differences in the measures by urban-rural categories were statistically significant. Results Patterns for all three air-quality measures suggest that air quality improves as areas become more rural (or less urban). The mean total number of ozone days decreased from 47.54 days in large central metropolitan counties to 3.81 days in noncore counties, whereas the mean total number of PM2.5 days decreased from 11.21 in large central metropolitan counties to 0.95 in noncore counties. The mean average annual PM2.5 concentration decreased from 11.15 μg/m3 in large central metropolitan counties to 8.87 μg/m3 in noncore counties. Patterns for the water-quality measure suggest that water quality improves as areas become more urban (or less rural). Overall, 7% of CWSs reported at least one annual mean concentration greater than the MCL for all 10 contaminants combined. The percentage increased from 5.4% in large central metropolitan counties to 10% in noncore counties, a difference that was significant, adjusting for U.S. region, CWS size, water source, and potential spatial correlation. Similar results were found for two disinfection by-products, HAA5 and TTHM. Arsenic was the only other contaminant with a significant result. Medium metropolitan counties had 3.1% of CWSs reporting at least one annual mean greater than the MCL, compared

  5. Rural and Urban Differences in Air Quality, 2008-2012, and Community Drinking Water Quality, 2010-2015 - United States.

    PubMed

    Strosnider, Heather; Kennedy, Caitlin; Monti, Michele; Yip, Fuyuen

    2017-06-23

    concentration for a community water system (CWS) to the maximum contaminant level (MCL) defined by EPA for 10 contaminants: arsenic, atrazine, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), haloacetic acids (HAA5), nitrate, perchloroethene (PCE), radium, trichloroethene (TCE), total trihalomethanes (TTHM), and uranium. Findings are presented by urban-rural classification scheme: four metropolitan (large central metropolitan, large fringe metropolitan, medium metropolitan, and small metropolitan) and two nonmetropolitan (micropolitan and noncore) categories. Regression modeling was used to determine whether differences in the measures by urban-rural categories were statistically significant. Patterns for all three air-quality measures suggest that air quality improves as areas become more rural (or less urban). The mean total number of ozone days decreased from 47.54 days in large central metropolitan counties to 3.81 days in noncore counties, whereas the mean total number of PM 2.5 days decreased from 11.21 in large central metropolitan counties to 0.95 in noncore counties. The mean average annual PM 2.5 concentration decreased from 11.15 μg/m 3 in large central metropolitan counties to 8.87 μg/m 3 in noncore counties. Patterns for the water-quality measure suggest that water quality improves as areas become more urban (or less rural). Overall, 7% of CWSs reported at least one annual mean concentration greater than the MCL for all 10 contaminants combined. The percentage increased from 5.4% in large central metropolitan counties to 10% in noncore counties, a difference that was significant, adjusting for U.S. region, CWS size, water source, and potential spatial correlation. Similar results were found for two disinfection by-products, HAA5 and TTHM. Arsenic was the only other contaminant with a significant result. Medium metropolitan counties had 3.1% of CWSs reporting at least one annual mean greater than the MCL, compared with 2.4% in large central counties. Noncore (rural) counties

  6. Effect of a constructed wetland on disinfection byproducts: Removal processes and production of precursors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Martin, B.S.; Barber, L.B.; Leenheer, J.A.; Daniel, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    The fate of halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in treatment wetlands and the changes in the DBP formation potential as wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)-derived water moves through the wetlands were investigated. Wetland inlet and outlet samples were analyzed for total organic halide (TOX), trihalomethanes (TH M), haloacetic acids (HAA), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV absorbance. Removal of DBPs by the wetland ranged from 13 to 55% for TOX, from 78 to 97% for THM, and from 67 to 96% for HAA. The 24-h and 7-day nonpurgeable total organic halide (NPTOX), THM, and HAA formation potential yields were determined at the inlet and outlet of these wetlands. The effect of wetlands on the production of DBP precursors and their DBP-formation potential yield from wastewater was dramatic. The wetlands increased DBP yield up to a factor of almost 30. Specific changes in the DOC precursors were identified using 13C NMR spectroscopy.The fate of halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in treatment wetlands and the changes in the DBP formation potential as wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)-derived water moves through the wetlands were investigated. Wetland inlet and outlet samples were analyzed for total organic halide (TOX), trihalomethanes (THM), haloacetic acids (HAA), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV absorbance. Removal of DBPs by the wetland ranged from 13 to 55% for TOX, from 78 to 97% for THM, and from 67 to 96% for HAA. The 24-h and 7-day nonpurgeable total organic halide (NPTOX), THM, and HAA formation potential yields were determined at the inlet and outlet of these wetlands. The effect of wetlands on the production of DBP precursors and their DBP-formation potential yield from wastewater was dramatic. The wetlands increased DBP yield up to a factor of almost 30. Specific changes in the DOC precursors were identified using 13C NMR spectroscopy.

  7. Removal of Intermediate Aromatic Halogenated DBPs by Activated Carbon Adsorption: A New Approach to Controlling Halogenated DBPs in Chlorinated Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingyi; Zhang, Xiangru; Zhu, Xiaohu; Li, Yu

    2017-03-21

    During chlorine disinfection of drinking water, chlorine may react with natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide ion in raw water to generate halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). To mitigate adverse effects from DBP exposure, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption has been considered as one of the best available technologies for removing NOM (DBP precursor) in drinking water treatment. Recently, we have found that many aromatic halogenated DBPs form in chlorination, and they act as intermediate DBPs to decompose and form commonly known DBPs including trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. In this work, we proposed a new approach to controlling drinking water halogenated DBPs by GAC adsorption of intermediate aromatic halogenated DBPs during chlorination, rather than by GAC adsorption of NOM prior to chlorination (i.e., traditional approach). Rapid small-scale column tests were used to simulate GAC adsorption in the new and traditional approaches. Significant reductions of aromatic halogenated DBPs were observed in the effluents with the new approach; the removals of total organic halogen, trihalomethanes, and haloacetic acids by the new approach always exceeded those by the traditional approach; and the effluents with the new approach were considerably less developmentally toxic than those with the traditional approach. Our findings indicate that the new approach is substantially more effective in controlling halogenated DBPs than the traditional approach.

  8. Coliphages as indicators of enteroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Stetler, R E

    1984-01-01

    Coliphages were monitored in conjunction with indicator bacteria and enteroviruses in a drinking-water plant modified to reduce trihalomethane production. Coliphages could be detected in the source water by direct inoculation, and sufficient coliphages were detected in enterovirus concentrates to permit following the coliphage levels through different water treatment processes. The recovery efficiency by different filter types ranged from 1 to 53%. Statistical analysis of the data indicated that enterovirus isolates were better correlated with coliphages than with total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, or standard plate count organisms. Coliphages were not detected in finished water. PMID:6093694

  9. The Effect of Different Boiling and Filtering Devices on the Concentration of Disinfection By-Products in Tap Water

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Goñi, Fernando; Rantakokko, Panu; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are ubiquitous contaminants in tap drinking water with the potential to produce adverse health effects. Filtering and boiling tap water can lead to changes in the DBP concentrations and modify the exposure through ingestion. Changes in the concentration of 4 individual trihalomethanes (THM4) (chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM)), MX, and bromate were tested when boiling and filtering high bromine-containing tap water from Barcelona. For filtering, we used a pitcher-type filter and a household reverse osmosis filter; for boiling, an electric kettle, a saucepan, and a microwave were used. Samples were taken before and after each treatment to determine the change in the DBP concentration. pH, conductivity, and free/total chlorine were also measured. A large decrease of THM4 (from 48% to 97%) and MX concentrations was observed for all experiments. Bromine-containing trihalomethanes were mostly eliminated when filtering while chloroform when boiling. There was a large decrease in the concentration of bromate with reverse osmosis, but there was a little effect in the other experiments. These findings suggest that the exposure to THM4 and MX through ingestion is reduced when using these household appliances, while the decrease of bromate is device dependent. This needs to be considered in the exposure assessment of the epidemiological studies. PMID:23476675

  10. Bromide's effect on DBP formation, speciation, and control; Part 1: Ozonation

    SciTech Connect

    Shukairy, H.M.; Summers, R.S.; Miltner, R.J.

    1994-06-01

    The effect of variable ozone dosage and bromide concentration on the formation of organic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and bromate were evaluated. Low ozone dosages resulted in oxidation of organic precursors, yielding decreases in the formation potential for total trihalomethanes (THMs), six haloacetic acids (HAAs), and total organic halide (TOX). Increasing the ozone dosage oxidized bromide to bromate, decreasing the bromide for incorporation into DBPs. Bromate concentrations were linearly correlated with ozone residuals. Changes in the bromine incorporation factors n and n[prime] reflected differences in the resulting speciation of THMs and HAAs, respectively. Because TOX measurements based on chloride equivalence maymore » underestimate the halogenated DBP yield for high-bromide waters, a procedure is described whereby bromide and bromate concentrations were used to correct the TOX measurement.« less

  11. Formation of disinfection byproducts in typical Chinese drinking water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbo; Zhao, Yanmei; Chow, Christopher W K; Wang, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Eight typical drinking water supplies in China were selected in this study. Both source and tap water were used to investigate the occurrence of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and seasonal variation in the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) of seven water sources was compared. The results showed that the pollution level for source water in China, as shown by DBP formation potential, was low. The most encountered DBPs were chloroform, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and chlorodibromoacetic acid. The concentration of every THMs and haloacetic acid (HAA) compound was under the limit of standards for drinking water quality. The highest total THMs concentrations were detected in spring.

  12. Characterization of dissolved organic matter from surface waters with low to high dissolved organic carbon and the related disinfection byproduct formation potential.

    PubMed

    Li, Angzhen; Zhao, Xu; Mao, Ran; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-04-30

    In this study, the disinfection byproduct formation potential (DBPFP) of three surface waters with the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of 2.5, 5.2, and 7.9mg/L was investigated. The formation and distribution of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids were evaluated. Samples collected from three surface waters in China were fractionated based on molecular weight and hydrophobicity. The raw water containing more hydrophobic (Ho) fraction exhibited higher formation potentials of haloacetic acid and trihalomethane. The DBPFP of the surface waters did not correlate with the DOC value. The values of DBPFP per DOC were correlated with the specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) for Ho and Hi fractions. The obtained results suggested that SUVA cannot reveal the ability of reactive sites to form disinfection byproducts for waters with few aromatic structures. Combined with the analysis of FTIR and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the raw waters and the corresponding fractions, it was concluded that the Ho fraction with phenolic hydroxyl and conjugated double bonds was responsible for the production of trichloromethanes and trichloroacetic acids. The Hi fraction with amino and carboxyl groups had the potential to form dichloroacetic acids and chlorinated trihalomethanes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  14. Subsequent Total Joint Arthroplasty After Primary Total Knee or Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Thomas L.; Maradit Kremers, Hilal; Schleck, Cathy D.; Larson, Dirk R.; Berry, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the large increase in total hip arthroplasties and total knee arthroplasties, the incidence and prevalence of additional contralateral or ipsilateral joint arthroplasty are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of additional joint arthroplasty after a primary total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty. Methods: This historical cohort study identified population-based cohorts of patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty (n = 1,933) or total knee arthroplasty (n = 2,139) between 1969 and 2008. Patients underwent passive follow-up through their medical records beginning with the primary total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty. We assessed the likelihood of undergoing a subsequent total joint arthroplasty, including simultaneous and staged bilateral procedures. Age, sex, and calendar year were evaluated as potential predictors of subsequent arthroplasty. Results: During a mean follow-up of 12 years after an initial total hip arthroplasty, we observed 422 contralateral total hip arthroplasties (29% at 20 years), 76 contralateral total knee arthroplasties (6% at 10 years), and 32 ipsilateral total knee arthroplasties (2% at 20 years). Younger age was a significant predictor of contralateral total hip arthroplasty (p < 0.0001), but not a predictor of the subsequent risk of total knee arthroplasty. During a mean follow-up of 11 years after an initial total knee arthroplasty, we observed 809 contralateral total knee arthroplasties (45% at 20 years), 31 contralateral total hip arthroplasties (3% at 20 years), and 29 ipsilateral total hip arthroplasties (2% at 20 years). Older age was a significant predictor of ipsilateral or contralateral total hip arthroplasty (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty can be informed of a 30% to 45% chance of a surgical procedure in a contralateral cognate joint and about a 5% chance of a surgical procedure

  15. Kinetic modeling and energy efficiency of UV/H₂O₂ treatment of iodinated trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yongjun; Zhang, Lifeng; Yue, Junqi; Webster, Richard D; Lim, Teik-Thye

    2015-05-15

    Photodegradation of I-THMs including CHCl2I and CHI3 by the UV/H2O2 system was investigated in this study. CHCl2I and CHI3 react rapidly with hydroxyl radical (OH) produced by the UV/H2O2 system, with second-order rate constants of 8.0 × 10(9) and 8.9 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. A fraction of CHCl2I could be completely mineralized within 15 min and the remaining fraction was mainly converted to formic acid (HCO2H). Cl(-) and I(-) were identified as the predominant end-products. No ClO3(-) was observed during the photodegradation process, while IO3(-) was detected but at less than 2% of the total liberated iodine species at the end of the reaction. The effects of pH, H2O2 dose, and matrix species such as humic acid (HA), HCO3(-), SO4(2-), Cl(-), NO3(-) on the photodegradation kinetics were evaluated. The steady-state kinetic model has been proven to successfully predict the destruction of CHCl2I and CHI3 by UV/H2O2 in different water matrices. On this basis, the kinetic model combined with electrical energy per order (EE/O) concept was applied to evaluate the efficiency of the photodegradation process and to optimize the H2O2 dose for different scenarios. The optimal H2O2 doses in deionized (DI) water, model natural water, and surface water are estimated at 5, 12, and 16 mg L(-1), respectively, which correspond to the lowest total energy consumption (EE/Ototal) of 0.2, 0.31, and 0.45 kWhm(-3)order(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Total Quality and Organization Development. Total Quality Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William M.; Petrick, Joseph A.

    As the global business environment becomes more turbulent, quality management seems more indispensable. This book offers strategies for integrating the theory and practice of Total Quality Management (TQM) with organizational-development (OD) theory at all organizational levels. Chapter 1 answers the question "Why Total Quality Management and…

  17. Biodegradation of disinfection byproducts as a potential removal process during aquifer storage recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The biodegradation potential of two drinking water disinfection byproducts was investigated using aquifer materials obtained from approximately 100 and 200 meters below land surface in an aerobic aquifer system undergoing aquifer storage recovery of treated surface water. No significant biodegradation of a model trihalomethane compound, chloroform, was observed in aquifer microcosms under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. In contrast, between 16 and 27 percent mineralization of a radiolabeled model haloacetic acid compound, chloroacetic acid, was observed. These results indicate that although the potential for biodegradation of chloroacetic acid exists in deep aquifer systems, chloroform entrained within these aquifers or formed in situ will tend to persist. These results have important implications for water managers planning to meet anticipated lowered permissible levels of tri-halomethanes in drinking water.The biodegradation potential of two drinking water disinfection byproducts was investigated using aquifer materials obtained from approximately 100 and 200 meters below land surface in an aerobic aquifer system undergoing aquifer storage recovery of treated surface water. No significant biodegradation of a model trihalomethane compound, chloroform, was observed in aquifer microcosms under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. In contrast, between 16 and 27 percent mineralization of a radiolabeled model haloacetic acid compound, chloroacetic acid, was observed. These results indicate that although the potential for biodegradation of chloroacetic acid exists in deep aquifer systems, chloroform entrained within these aquifers or formed in situ will tend to persist. These results have important implications for water managers planning to meet anticipated lowered permissible levels of trihalomethanes in drinking water.Aquifer-storage-recovery injection water often contains disinfection byproducts. Results are presented from a study in which two model disinfection

  18. Dairy-impacted wastewater is a source of iodinated disinfection byproducts in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle; Hubbard, Laura E.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Focazio, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are among the most toxic DBPs, but they are not typically measured in treated water. Iodinated DBPs can be toxic to humans, and they also have the potential to affect aquatic communities. Because of the specific use of iodine and iodine-containing compounds in dairies, such livestock operations can be a potential source of iodinated DBPs in corresponding receiving water bodies. DBPs [trihalomethanes (THMs), including iodinated THMs] were measured within dairy processing facilities (milking and cheese manufacturing) and surface waters that receive dairy-impacted effluents [either directly from the dairy or through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs)] in three areas of the United States (California, New York, and Wisconsin). Iodo-THMs comprised 15−29% of the total THMs in surface water near WWTP effluents that were impacted by dairy waste and 0−100% of the total THMs in samples from dairy processing facilities.

  19. Total N-nitrosamine Precursor Adsorption with Carbon Nanotubes: Elucidating Controlling Physiochemical Properties and Developing a Size-Resolved Precursor Surrogate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, Erin Michelle

    As drinking water sources become increasingly impaired with nutrients and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs)--such as trihalomethanes (THMs), dihaloacetonitriles (DHANs), and N-nitrosamines--during water treatment may also increase. N-nitrosamines may comprise the bulk of the chronic toxicity in treated drinking waters despite forming at low ng/L levels. This research seeks to elucidate physicochemical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for removal of DBP precursors, with an emphasis on total N-nitrosamines (TONO). Batch experiments with CNTs were completed to assess adsorption of THM, DHAN, and TONO precursors; physiochemical properties of CNTs were quantified through gas adsorption isotherms and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Numerical modeling was used to elucidate characteristics of CNTs controlling DBP precursor adsorption. Multivariate models developed with unmodified CNTs revealed that surface carboxyl groups and, for TONO precursors, cumulative pore volume (CPV), controlled DBP precursor adsorption. Models developed with modified CNTs revealed that specific surface area controlled adsorption of THM and DHAN precursors while CPV and surface oxygen content were significant for adsorption of TONO precursors. While surrogates of THM and DHAN precursors leverage metrics from UV absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy, a TONO precursor surrogate has proved elusive. This is important as measurements of TONO formation potential (TONOFP) require large sample volumes and long processing times, which impairs development of treatment processes. TONO precursor surrogates were developed using samples that had undergone oxidative or sorption treatments. Precursors were analyzed with asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with inline fluorescence detection (FLD) and whole water fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs). TONO precursor surrogates were discovered, capable of predicting changes in

  20. PBPK-MODEL ESTIMATES OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) DISTRIBUTION IN URINE AND BLADDER TISSUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent data indicate that noningestion exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), including BDCM is highly correlated with urinary THM levels. Characterizing urinary levels of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) will likely be important for understanding DBP-associated bladde...

  1. PBPK-MODEL ESTIMATES OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) DELIVERY TO THE HUMAN URINARY BLADDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent data indicate that noningestion exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), including BDCM is highly correlated with urinary THM levels. Characterizing urinary levels of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) will likely be important for understanding DBP-associated bladde...

  2. Bromine Incorporation in Regulated and Emerging DBPs and the Relative Predominance of Mono-, Di-, and Trihalogenated DBPs (Proceedings Paper)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research has shown that bromine incorporation into trihalogenated acetic acids (TXAAs) was similar to that of the trihalomethanes (THMs). Likewise, occurrence data for other trihalogenated DBPs (e.g., halonitromethanes [HNMs], haloacetaldehydes [HAs]) showed similar or ...

  3. Assessment of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Mixtures of Regulated Drinking Water Chlorination By-Products in a Multigenerational Rat Bioassay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological and animal toxicity studies have raised concerns regarding possible adverse reproductive and developmental effects of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. To address these concerns, we provided mixtures of the regulated trihalomethanes (THMs; chlorof...

  4. Characterization of halogenated DBPs and identification of new DBPs trihalomethanols in chlorine dioxide treated drinking water with multiple extractions.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiarui; Zhang, Xiangru; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhu, Xiaohu; Gong, Tingting

    2017-08-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) is a widely used alternative disinfectant due to its high biocidal efficiency and low-level formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. A major portion of total organic halogen (TOX), a collective parameter for all halogenated DBPs, formed in ClO 2 -treated drinking water is still unknown. A commonly used pretreatment method for analyzing halogenated DBPs in drinking water is one-time liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which may lead to a substantial loss of DBPs prior to analysis. In this study, characterization and identification of polar halogenated DBPs in a ClO 2 -treated drinking water sample were conducted by pretreating the sample with multiple extractions. Compared to one-time LLE, the combined four-time LLEs improved the recovery of TOX by 2.3 times. The developmental toxicity of the drinking water sample pretreated with the combined four-time LLEs was 1.67 times higher than that pretreated with one-time LLE. With the aid of ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, a new group of polar halogenated DBPs, trihalomethanols, were detected in the drinking water sample pretreated with multiple extractions; two of them, trichloromethanol and bromodichloromethanol, were identified with synthesized standard compounds. Moreover, these trihalomethanols were found to be the transformation products of trihalomethanes formed during ClO 2 disinfection. The results indicate that multiple LLEs can significantly improve extraction efficiencies of polar halogenated DBPs and is a better pretreatment method for characterizing and identifying new polar halogenated DBPs in drinking water. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Characteristics of molecular weight distribution of dissolved organic matter in bromide-containing water and disinfection by-product formation properties during treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Peng; Niu, Zhiguang

    2018-03-01

    The characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and bromide ion concentration have a significant influence on the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). In order to identify the main DBP precursors, DOM was divided into five fractions based on molecular weight (MW), trihalomethane formation potential and haloacetic acid formation potential were determined for fractions, and the change in contents of different fractions and total DBPs during treatment processes (pre-chlorination, coagulation, sand filtration, disinfection) were studied. Moreover, the relationship between bromide concentration and DBP generation characteristics in processes was also analyzed. The results showed that the main DBP precursors were the fraction with MW <1kDa and fraction with MW 3-10kDa, and the DBP's generation ability of lower molecular weight DOM (<10kDa) was higher than that of higher molecular weight DOM. During different processes, pre-chlorination and disinfection had limited effect on removing organics but could alter the MW distribution, and coagulation and filtration could effectively remove organics with higher MW. For DBPs, trihalomethanes (THMs) were mainly generated in pre-chlorination and disinfection, while haloacetic acids (HAAs) were mostly generated during pre-chlorination; coagulation and sand filtration had little effect on THMs but resulted in a slight removal of HAAs. In addition, the results of ANOVA tests suggested that molecular sizes and treatment processes have significant influence on DBP formation. With increasing bromide concentration, the brominated DBPs significantly increased, but the bromine incorporation factor in the processes was basically consistent at each concentration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. ENHANCED CONCENTRATION AND ANALYSIS METHOD FOR MEASURING WATER SOLUABLE ENDOGENOUS COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN BREATH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled human breath analysis has become a standard technique for assessing exposure to exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as trihalomethanes from water chlorination; aromatics, hydrocarbons, and oxygenates from fuels usage; and various chlorinated solvents from i...

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF NEW DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS FROM OZONE, CHLORINE DIOXIDE, CHLORAMINE, AND CHLORINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. Ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are currently popular alternatives to ...

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE AND CHLORAMINE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. Chlorine dioxide and chloramine are two popular alternative disinfectants, with...

  9. Evaluation of disinfection by-product formation during chlor(am)ination from algal organic matter after UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Deng, Jing; Li, Lei; Gao, Naiyun

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of low-pressure ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) from algal organic matter of Microcystis aeruginosa during subsequent chlorination and chloramination. The algal organic matter includes extracellular organic matter (EOM) and intracellular organic matter (IOM). The fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra indicated that the humic/fulvic acid-like organics of EOM and the protein-like organics of IOM may be preferentially degraded by UV treatment. UV irradiation with low specific UV absorbance values was effective in reducing the formation of trihalomethanes and dichloroacetic acid from EOM and IOM during the subsequent chlorination. During the UV-chloramine process, higher UV dose (1000 mJ/cm 2 ) led to the decrease of the formation of dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and haloketones from IOM by an average of 24%. Furthermore, UV irradiation can slightly increase the bromine substitution factors (BSFs) of haloacetic acids from EOM during chlorination, including dihaloacetic acids and trihaloacetic acids in the presence of bromide (50 μg/L). However, UV irradiation did not shift the formation of DBPs from IOM to more brominated species, since the BSFs of trihalomethanes, dihaloacetic acids, trihaloacetic acids, and dihaloacetonitriles almost kept unchanged during UV-chlorine process. As for UV-chloramine process, UV irradiation decreased the BSFs of trihalomethanes, while increased the BSFs of dihaloacetic acid for both EOM and IOM. Overall, the UV pretreatment process is a potential technology in treating algae-rich water.

  10. THE UPTAKE OF WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS INTO FOODS DURING HOME PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of organic compounds in tap water are produced as a result of disinfection process. Use of chlorine-containing chemicals for disinfection produces many disinfection by-products (DBPs) including trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles and haloacetic acid. Ozonation with secon...

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF TI02/UV DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concern over the presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated byproducts in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. One of the alternative treatment methods currently being evaluated for potential use with small systems ...

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF NEW DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfectants are being explored. Ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are popular alternatives, as they produce low...

  13. Biological Treatment of Water Disinfection Byproducts using Biotrickling Filter under Anaerobic Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation not available. Abstract provided. The chlorination of potable water leads to the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). Many of these compounds are volatile organic compounds (VOCs). DBPs may ...

  14. Factors influencing disinfection by-products formation in drinking water of six cities in China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Bixiong; Wang, Wuyi; Yang, Linsheng; Wei, Jianrong; E, Xueli

    2009-11-15

    Based on the measured chemical and physical data in drinking water from six cities in China, the factors including total organic carbon (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV(254)), pH, applied chlorine dosage, temperature, concentrations of bromide ion and several chemical elements which possibly affect the formation of trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) have been studied. The results showed that: in all factors, TOC and UV(254) have definite correlations with total THM, but have nonsignificant relationships with total HAA. In the studied pH range of 6.5-8.5 for drinking water, the total THM concentration increased with the increasing of pH value, but the total HAA concentration slightly decreased. A low but significant relationship (r=0.26, p<0.01) occurred between total THM and applied chlorine dosage. Similar relationship (r=0.21, p<0.01) was found between total HAA and applied chlorine dosage. When the water temperature was low, the variation of THMs and HAAs was little, but in warmer water, the concentration of THMs and HAAs varied quickly. The extent of bromine incorporation into the DBPs increases with increasing bromide ion concentration. Based on the effect of chemical elements for the DBPs remove effect, the polyferric chloride could be a preferred flocculant agent in waterworks.

  15. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concerns over trihalomethanes (THMs) and other halogenated by-products that can be formed during chlorination of drinking water, alternative disinfectants are being explored. Several drinking water treatment plants in the United States have altered their treatment methods...

  16. CONTRIBUTIONS OF WATER FILTRATION TO IMPROVING WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of water quality improvements can be accomplished by properly operated filtration plants. These include reduction of turbidity, micro-organisms, asbestos fibers, color, trihalomethane precursors, and organics adsorbed to particulate matter. The focus of the paper is on ...

  17. CHARACTERIZING TOXICOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concerns over trihalomethanes (THMs) and other halogenated by-products that can be formed during chlorination of drinking water, alternative disinfectants are being explored. Several drinking water treatment plants in the United States have altered their treatment methods...

  18. Cell proliferation and apoptosis during chloroform-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male F-344/N rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The carcinogenic potential of chlorinated organics is of direct importance in human risk assessment. Most drinking water chlorinated organics are disinfection by products (DBPs) of water chlorination and many test positive in rodent bioassays. Trihalomethanes (THMs) are the most ...

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS FORMED AT HIGH BROMIDE LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids, and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. Chlorine dioxide is a popular alternative, with over 500 dri...

  20. BROMODICHLOROMETHANE TOXICOKINETICS: LINKING METABOLISM TO EFFECT

    EPA Science Inventory


    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a trihalomethane (THM), is among the most prevalent disinfection byproducts found in chlorinated drinking water. Weak associations between THM exposure and cancers of the bladder and lower GI tract have been suggested by positive epidemiological s...

  1. Total curvature and total torsion of knotted random polygons in confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Yuanan; Ernst, Claus; Rawdon, Eric J.; Ziegler, Uta

    2018-04-01

    Knots in nature are typically confined spatially. The confinement affects the possible configurations, which in turn affects the spectrum of possible knot types as well as the geometry of the configurations within each knot type. The goal of this paper is to determine how confinement, length, and knotting affect the total curvature and total torsion of random polygons. Previously published papers have investigated these effects in the unconstrained case. In particular, we analyze how the total curvature and total torsion are affected by (1) varying the length of polygons within a fixed confinement radius and (2) varying the confinement radius of polygons with a fixed length. We also compare the total curvature and total torsion of groups of knots with similar complexity (measured as crossing number). While some of our results fall in line with what has been observed in the studies of the unconfined random polygons, a few surprising results emerge from our study, showing some properties that are unique due to the effect of knotting in confinement.

  2. OCCURRENCE OF IODINATED DBPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several drinking water treatment plants in the United States have altered their treatment methods and adopted alternative disinfectants in order to comply with a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulation that limits the level of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking wate...

  3. Chloramine chemistry - web based application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine disinfection remains quite popular in the United States, but because of the Stage 1 and Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rules, many United States utilities now use combinations of chlorine and chloramines to avoid excessive regulated trihalomethane and ...

  4. TECHNIQUES FOR ANALYZING COMPLEX MIXTURES OF DRINKING WATER DBPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although chlorine has been used to disinfect drinking water for approximately 100 years, there have been concerns raised over its use, due to the formation of potentially hazardous by-products. Trihalomethanes (THMs) were the first disinfection by-products (DBPs) identified and ...

  5. Use of Normal Human Colon Cells to Assess Toxicities of Unregulated Disinfection By-products and Mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The discovery of chlorination and chloramination by-products other than the regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids has created a need for short-term in vitro assays to address toxicities that might be associated with human exposure. Approximately 600 disinfection by-produ...

  6. PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE RAT CAUSED BY BROMODICHLOROMETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a trihalomethane, is a by-product of the chlorination of drinking water. In a recent epidemiological study, consumption of BDCM was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in pregnant women. We have previously shown that bromodich...

  7. Reproductive toxicity of a mixture of regulated drinking-water disinfection by-products in a multigenerational rat bioassay

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND:Trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloaretic acids (HAAs) are regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs); their joint reproductive toxicity in drinking water is unknown.OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate a drinking water mixture of the four regulated THMs and five regulated HAAs ...

  8. Haloacetic acids in drinking water and risk for stillbirth.

    PubMed

    King, W D; Dodds, L; Allen, A C; Armson, B A; Fell, D; Nimrod, C

    2005-02-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) occurring in public drinking water sources have been investigated in several epidemiological studies of fetal death and results support a modest association. Other classes of disinfection by-products found in drinking water have not been investigated. To investigate the effects of haloacetic acid (HAA) compounds in drinking water on stillbirth risk. A population based case-control study was conducted in Nova Scotia and Eastern Ontario, Canada. Estimates of daily exposure to total and specific HAAs were based on household water samples and questionnaire information on water consumption at home and work. The analysis included 112 stillbirth cases and 398 live birth controls. In analysis without adjustment for total THM exposure, a relative risk greater than 2 was observed for an intermediate exposure category for total HAA and dichloroacetic acid measures. After adjustment for total THM exposure, the risk estimates for intermediate exposure categories were diminished, the relative risk associated with the highest category was in the direction of a protective effect, and all confidence intervals included the null value. No association was observed between HAA exposures and stillbirth risk after controlling for THM exposures.

  9. STRAIN COMPARISON IN PREGNANT RATS OF ENDOCRINE RESPONSE TO BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: A DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a trihalomethane, is a by-product of the chlorination of drinking water. In an epidemiological study, consumption of drinking water with high levels of BDCM was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in pregnant women (Waller et al....

  10. ALTERNATIVE OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter reports on the efforts of the USEPA to study chloramines, chlorine dioxide and ozone as alternative oxidants/disinfectants to chlorine for the control of disinfection by-rpdocuts (DBPs) in drinking water. It examines the control of DBPs like trihalomethanes and haloa...

  11. Comparative Study on the Performance of Anaerobic and Aerobic Biotrickling Filter for Removal of Chloroform

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of biotrickling filter (BTF) for gas phase treatment of volatile trihalomethanes (THMs) stripped from water treatment plants could be an attractive treatment option. The aim of this study is to use laboratory-scale anaerobic BTF to treat gaseous chloroform (recalcitrant to bi...

  12. CARCINOGENICITY OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE ADMINISTERED IN DRINKING WATER TO THE MALE F344/N RAT AND B6C3F1 MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine added to surface waters for the purposes of disinfection, reacts with humic material in the water to produce a variety of compounds collectively known as disinfection by-product (DBPs). The trihalomethanes (THM), the class of DBPs that occur at the highest concentrations...

  13. Changes in Markers of Genotoxicity in Relation to Exposure to Disinfection By-Products in Swimming Pools

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) has been associated with cancer risk, but the mechanisms of action are poorly understood. A recent study found increased bladder cancer risk among subjects attending swimming pools, where uptake of DBPs, such as trihalomethanes (THMs) c...

  14. Impact of Tranexamic Acid in Total Knee and Total Hip Replacement.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Jaclyn A; Soric, Mate M

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the net clinical benefit of tranexamic acid use in patients undergoing total knee or total hip replacement. This is a retrospective study of patients undergoing total knee or total hip replacement. The primary outcome was the net clinical benefit of tranexamic acid use. Secondary outcomes included length of stay, incidence of venous thromboembolism, change in hemoglobin, and number of units of blood transfused. Four hundred and six patients were screened for inclusion and 327 patients met inclusion criteria; 174 patients received tranexamic acid versus 153 patients who received usual care. Tranexamic acid demonstrated a positive net clinical benefit versus usual care (40.8% vs 13.7%, P < .01) but did not affect length of stay (3.39 vs 3.37 days, respectively, P = .76). Venous thromboembolism was comparable between groups (2.3% vs 0.7%, P = .38). Average change in hemoglobin and need for transfusion were lower in the treatment group versus the usual care group, respectively (3.46 vs 4.26 mg/dL, P < .01). Tranexamic acid demonstrated a significant benefit in decreasing change in hemoglobin as well as the need for blood transfusion with no increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing total knee or total hip replacement.

  15. A method comparison of total and HMW adiponectin: HMW/total adiponectin ratio varies versus total adiponectin, independent of clinical condition.

    PubMed

    van Andel, Merel; Drent, Madeleine L; van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Heijboer, Annemieke C

    2017-02-01

    Total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin have been associated with endocrine and cardiovascular pathology. As no gold standard is available, the discussion about biological relevance of isoforms is complicated. In our study we perform a method comparison between two commercially available assays measuring HMW and total adiponectin, in various patient groups, thus contributing further to this discussion. We determined levels of HMW and total adiponectin using assays by Lumipulse® and Millipore® respectively, in 126 patients with different clinical characteristics (n=29 healthy volunteers, n=22 dialysis patients, n=25 elderly with body mass index (BMI) <21kg/m 2 , n=25 elderly with BMI 30-35kg/m 2 , n=26 children). The Passing & Bablock regression analysis resulted in HMW adiponectin LUMIPULSE ∗0.5-0.9=total adiponectin MILLIPORE , albeit with significant deviation from linearity (p<0.001). Pearson's correlation was R=0.987 (p=0.000). No significant differences between patient groups were observed (p=0.190). The HMW/total adiponectin ratio varies with total adiponectin concentration independent of clinical conditions studied. Our results imply that total and HMW adiponectin have similar utility when assessing adiponectin levels in blood, as the ratio is independent of clinical condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Image-guided total marrow and total lymphatic irradiation using helical tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey; Liu, An

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a treatment technique to spare normal tissue and allow dose escalation in total body irradiation (TBI). We have developed intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques for the total marrow irradiation (TMI), total lymphatic irradiation, or total bone marrow plus lymphatic irradiation using helical tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: For TBI, we typically use 12 Gy in 10 fractions delivered at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD). Using helical tomotherapy, it is possible to deliver equally effective doses to the bone marrow and lymphatics while sparing normal organs to a significant degree. In the TMI patients, whole body skeletal bone, including the ribsmore » and sternum, comprise the treatment target. In the total lymphatic irradiation, the target is expanded to include the spleen and major lymph node areas. Sanctuary sites for disease (brain and testes) are included when clinically indicated. Spared organs include the lungs, esophagus, parotid glands, eyes, oral cavity, liver, kidneys, stomach, small and large intestine, bladder, and ovaries. Results: With TBI, all normal organs received the TBI dose; with TMI, total lymphatic irradiation, and total bone marrow plus lymphatic irradiation, the visceral organs are spared. For the first 6 patients treated with TMI, the median dose to organs at risk averaged 51% lower than would be achieved with TBI. By putting greater weight on the avoidance of specific organs, greater sparing was possible. Conclusion: Sparing of normal tissues and dose escalation is possible using helical tomotherapy. Late effects such as radiation pneumonitis, veno-occlusive disease, cataracts, neurocognitive effects, and the development of second tumors should be diminished in severity and frequency according to the dose reduction realized for the organs at risk.« less

  17. Reduction of precursors of chlorination by-products in drinking water using fluidized-bed biofilm reactor at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shu-Guang; Wen, Dong-Hui; Shi, Dong-Wen; Tang, Xiao-Yan

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the reduction of chlorination by-products (CBPs) precursors using the fluidized-bed biofilm reactor (FBBR). Reduction of total organic carbon (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance (UV254), trihalomethane (THM) formation potential (THMFP), haloacetic acid (HAA) formation potential (HAAFP), and ammonia in FBBR were evaluated in detail. Results The reduction of TOC or UV254 was low, on average 12.6% and 4.7%, respectively, while the reduction of THMFP and HAAFP was significant. The reduction of ammonia was 30%-40% even below 3 degrees C, however, it could quickly rise to over 50% above 3degrees C. Conclusions The FBBR effectively reduces CBPs and ammonia in drinking water even at low temperature and seems to be a very promising and competitive drinking water reactor for polluted surface source waters, especially in China.

  18. Occurrence and Mammalian Cell Toxicity of Iodinated Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    An occurrence study was conducted to measure five iodo-acids (iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (Z)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, and (E)-2-iodo-3-methylbutenedioic acid) and two iodo-trihalomethanes (iodo-THMs), (dichloroiodomethane and b...

  19. [Total artificial heart].

    PubMed

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  20. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. Themore » close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.« less

  1. Formation of Toxic Iodinated Disinfection By-Products from Compounds Used in Medical Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) were investigated as a source of iodine in the formation of iodo-trihalomethane (iodo-THM) and iodo-acid disinfection byproducts (DBPs), both of which are highly genotoxic and/or cytotoxic in mammalian cells. ICM are widely used at medical cen...

  2. Chemical modifications of estuarine water by a power plant using continuous chlorination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helz, G.R.; Sugam, R.; Sigleo, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    A season long study at a major electric power plant on the Patuxent Estuary, MD, indicated that more than 88% of the applied chlorine (22-38 ??N) disappeared within the plant. The remainder decayed in a manner approximated by a first-order rate law (T1/2 = 0.6-4.6 h). Increases in dissolved ammonia (contrary to conventional breakpoint chemistry) and losses in dissolved manganese were generally observed between the intake and discharge canals. The ammonia buildup must have derived either from the particulate (e.g., microorganism) nitrogen or from dissolved organic nitrogen. Only traces of trihalomethanes were observed, but there was evidence for a >6 km long discharge plume containing colloidal bromocarbons. The near absence of trihalomethanes is believed to be a result of the extremely rapid disappearance of free halogen oxidants. Sediments in the discharge canal were notably enriched in copper, probably from the Cu90Ni10 condenser tubes, but negligible enrichment was observed beyond the discharge canal. ?? 1984 American Chemical Society.

  3. Modeling Trihalomethane Formation Potential from Wastewater Chlorination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    Aerated Lagoon Chlor/Dechlor - - - King Salmon River Luke, AZ Tertiary Ultraviolet 1.2 MGD Agua Fria River / Irrigation MacDD, FL Activated Sludge...November 1988). Tchobanoglous, George and Burton, Franklin L. Wastewater engineering: treatment, disposal, and reuse / Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. -3rd ed

  4. Total Quality Leadership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  5. Concentration and flux of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids for monitored tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Annual and daily concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids were estimated for 18 monitored tributaries to Lake Champlain by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Seasons regression model. Estimates were made for 21 or 23 years, depending on data availability, for the purpose of providing timely and accessible summary reports as stipulated in the 2010 update to the Lake Champlain “Opportunities for Action” management plan. Estimates of concentration and flux were provided for each tributary based on (1) observed daily discharges and (2) a flow-normalizing procedure, which removed the random fluctuations of climate-related variability. The flux bias statistic, an indicator of the ability of the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season regression models to provide accurate representations of flux, showed acceptable bias (less than ±10 percent) for 68 out of 72 models for total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride. Six out of 18 models for total suspended solids had moderate bias (between 10 and 30 percent), an expected result given the frequently nonlinear relation between total suspended solids and discharge. One model for total suspended solids with a very high bias was influenced by a single extreme value; however, removal of that value, although reducing the bias substantially, had little effect on annual fluxes.

  6. Characterization and disinfection by-product formation potential of natural organic matter in surface and ground waters from Northern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Leenheer, J.A.; Katz, B.; Martin, B.S.; Noyes, T.I.

    2000-01-01

    Streamwaters in northern Florida have large concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM), and commonly flow directly into the ground water system through karst features, such as sinkholes. In this study NOM from northern Florida stream and ground waters was fractionated, the fractions characterized by infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and then chlorinated to investigate their disinfection by-product (DBP) formation potential (FP). As the NOM character changed (as quantified by changes in NOM distribution in various fractions, such as hydrophilic acids or hydrophobic neutrals) due to migration through the aquifer, the total organic halide (TOX)-FP and trihalomethane (THM)-FP yield of each of these fractions varied also. In surface waters, the greatest DBP yields were produced by the colloid fraction. In ground waters, DBP yield of the hydrophobic acid fraction (the greatest in terms of mass) decreased during infiltration.

  7. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  8. Total Health Organization.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Total Health Organization is a holistic care an humanitarian relief agency with special emphasis on Africa and Third World countries. It was founded in 1987 with a focus on hunger relief, health assistance, handicap, habitat and human rights of destitutes, socially disadvantaged persons and communities which it has adopted as the socially forgotten people (SFP). Total Health Organization is a non-political, non-profit, and international non-governmental organization, having official relations with several national, regional and world bodies. Some of the project activities include: free mobile clinics to rural destitutes, AIDS and related health education, an information and research library, and an NGO Development Center. For more information, please contact: Dr. Obi Osisiogu, Founder and President, Total Health International Center, 147 Ikot-Ekpene Road, P.O. Box 1726, Aba, Abia State Nigeria, Tel: 082-222279, Telex: 63311 ANYA NG, Fax: 234-82-227512. full text

  9. Four groups of new aromatic halogenated disinfection byproducts: effect of bromide concentration on their formation and speciation in chlorinated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Xiangru

    2013-02-05

    Bromide is naturally present in source waters worldwide. Chlorination of drinking water can generate a variety of chlorinated and brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although substantial efforts have been made to examine the effect of bromide concentration on the formation and speciation of halogenated DBPs, almost all previous studies have focused on trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. Given that about 50% of total organic halogen formed in chlorination remains unknown, it is still unclear how bromide concentration affects the formation and speciation of the new/unknown halogenated DBPs. In this study, chlorinated drinking water samples with different bromide concentrations were prepared, and a novel approach-precursor ion scan using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry-was adopted for the detection and identification of polar halogenated DBPs in these water samples. With this approach, 11 new putative aromatic halogenated DBPs were identified, and they were classified into four groups: dihalo-4-hydroxybenzaldehydes, dihalo-4-hydroxybenzoic acids, dihalo-salicylic acids, and trihalo-phenols. A mechanism for the formation of the four groups of new aromatic halogenated DBPs was proposed. It was found that increasing the bromide concentration shifted the entire polar halogenated DBPs as well as the four groups of new DBPs from being less brominated to being more brominated; these new aromatic halogenated DBPs might be important intermediate DBPs formed in drinking water chlorination. Moreover, the speciation of the four groups of new DBPs was modeled: the speciation patterns of the four groups of new DBPs well matched those determined from the model equations, and the reactivity differences between HOBr and HOCl in reactions forming the four groups of new DBPs were larger than those in reactions forming trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids.

  10. Total Quality in Higher Education. Total Quality Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ralph G.; Smith, Douglas H.

    This volume offers a detailed argument for and description of Total Quality Management (TQM) for institutions of higher education. Chapter 1 elaborates on why TQM is good for higher education and includes some warning as to why implementation at colleges and universities may not be easy. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the history of the TQM…

  11. Total and inorganic arsenic in foods of the first Hong Kong total diet study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephen Wai-cheung; Lam, Chi-ho; Chan, Benny Tsz-pun

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) is a metalloid that occurs in different inorganic and organic forms, which are found in the environment from both natural occurrence and anthropogenic activity. The inorganic forms of As (iAs) are more toxic as compared with the organic As, but so far most of the occurrence data in food collected in the framework of official food control are still reported as total As without differentiating the various As species. In this paper, total As and iAs contents of 600 total diet study (TDS) samples, subdivided into 15 different food groups, were quantified by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP/MS) and hydride generation (HG) ICP/MS respectively. The method detection limits for both total As and iAs were 3 μg As kg(-1). As the samples were prepared for TDS, food items were purchased directly from the market or prepared as for normal consumption, i.e. table ready, in the manner most representative of and consistent with cultural habits in Hong Kong as far as practicable. The highest total As and iAs content were found in 'fish, seafood and their products' and 'vegetables and their products' respectively. Besides, this paper also presents the ratios of iAs and total As content in different ready-to-eat food items. The highest ratio of iAs to total As was found in 'vegetables and their products'. It is likely that iAs in vegetables maintained its status even after cooking.

  12. Total Synthesis of Avrainvilleol.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Aaron; Miller, Kenneth A

    2017-11-03

    The first total synthesis of the marine natural product avrainvilleol is reported. The total synthesis features the first application of the transition-metal-free coupling of a tosyl hydrazone and a boronic acid to the preparation of a complex natural product, and the first example of this coupling with a hindered diortho substituted hydrazone substrate.

  13. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Total Colectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Oluwatosin J.; Carne, David; Guyton, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To present our experience with a single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy, along with a literature review of all published cases on single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy. Methods: A total of 22 cases were published between 2010 and 2011, with our patient being case 23. These procedures were performed in the United States and United Kingdom. Surgical procedures included total colectomy with end ileostomy, proctocolectomy with ileorectal anastomosis, and total proctocolectomy with ileopouch-anal anastomosis. Intraoperative and postoperative data are analyzed. Results: Twenty-two of the 23 cases were performed for benign cases including Crohns, ulcerative colitis, and familial adenomatous polyposis. One case was performed for adenocarcinoma of the cecum. The mean age was 35.3 years (range, 13 to 64), the mean body mass index was 20.1 (range, 19 to 25), mean operative time was 175.9 minutes (range, 139 to 216), mean blood loss was 95.3mL (range, 59 to 200), mean incision length was 2.61cm (range, 2 to 3). Average follow-up was 4.6 months with 2 reported complications. Conclusions: Single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy is feasible and safe in the hands of an experienced surgeon. It has been performed for both benign and malignant cases. It is comparable to the conventional multi-port laparoscopic total colectomy. PMID:22906326

  14. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids in Selected Indian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, C. T.; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-01-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity. PMID:23439764

  15. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in selected Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-05-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.

  16. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    A total solar eclipse is seen on Monday, August 21, 2017 from onboard a NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center’s Gulfstream III 25,000 feet above the Oregon coast. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Thomas)

  17. Processes Affecting the Trihalomethane Concentrations Associated with the Third Injection, Storage, and Recovery Test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, March 1998 through April 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Fujii, Roger; Clark, Jordan F.

    2003-01-01

    The formation and fate of trihalomethanes (THM) during the third injection, storage, and recovery test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, were investigated as part of a program to assess the long-term feasibility of using injection, storage, and recovery as a water-supply method and as a way to reduce water-level declines and land-subsidence in the Antelope Valley. The program was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency. The water used for injection, storage, and recovery must be disinfected before injection and thus contains THMs and other disinfection by-products. THMs (chloroform, CHCl3, bromodichloromethane, CHCl2Br, dibromochloromethane, CHClBr2, and bromoform, CHBr3) are formed by reaction between natural dissolved organic carbon that is present in water and chlorine that is added during the disinfection step of the drinking water treatment process. THMs are carcinogenic compounds, and their concentrations in drinking water are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. During previous cycles of the Lancaster program, extracted water still contained measurable concentrations of THMs long after continuous pumping had extracted a greater volume of water than had been injected. This raised concerns about the potential long-term effect of injection, storage, and recovery cycles on ground-water quality in Antelope Valley aquifers. The primary objectives of this investigation were to determine (1) what controlled continued THM formation in the aquifer after injection, (2) what caused of the persistence of THMs in the extracted water, even after long periods of pumping, (3) what controlled the decrease of THM concentrations during the extraction period, and (4) the potential for natural attenuation of THMs in the aquifer. Laboratory experiments on biodegradation of THMs in microcosms of aquifer materials indicate that aquifer

  18. Application of Highly Purified Electrolyzed Chlorine Dioxide for Tilapia Fillet Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chen-Hsing; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Chung, Chao-Chin; Huang, Hao-Hsun

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an electrolysis method to generate high-concentration chlorine dioxide (ClO2) for tilapia fillet disinfection. The designed generator produced up to 3500 ppm of ClO2 at up to 99% purity. Tilapia fillets were soaked in a 400 ppm ClO2 solution for 5, 10, and 25 min. Results show that total plate counts of tilapia, respectively, decreased by 5.72 to 3.23, 2.10, and 1.09 log CFU/g. In addition, a 200 ppm ClO2 solution eliminated coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in 5 min with shaking treatment. Furthermore, ClO2 and trihalomethanes (THMs) residuals on tilapia fillets were analyzed by GC/MS and were nondetectable (GC-MS detection limit was 0.12 ppb). The results conform to Taiwan's environmental protection regulations and act governing food sanitation. PMID:24696651

  19. US Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory Annual Progress Report for FY 82.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. US ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND Fort Detrick Frederick, MD 21701 r-. , -. , 4 .. %! NOTICE Disclaimer The findings...CMPLTINGORM .REPORT 4UER 2. P3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER MEDDH-28 (RI) _____________ 4 . TITLE (mnd ,bu .*o) S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED US Army Medical...21 Trihalomethane (THM) Degradation ......................... 23 Silver Chloride Photovoltaic Cell

  20. Waste stream recycling: Its effect on water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, D.A.; Lee, R.G.

    1994-11-01

    Waste streams recycled to the influent of a water treatment plant typically contain contaminants at concentrations that are of concern. These contaminants may include giardia and Cryptosporidium, trihalomethanes, manganese, and assimilable organic carbon. This research shows that proper management--treatment, equalization, and monitoring--of the waste streams can render them suitable for recycling in many situations.

  1. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    The diamond-ring effect occurred at the beginning and end of totality during a total solar eclipse. As the last bits of sunlight pass through the valleys on the moon's limb, and the faint corona around the sun is just becoming visible, it looks like a ring with glittering diamonds on it. Credit: (NASA/Carla Thomas)

  2. Total Quality Management (TQM) Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    GTE FIE COPY DTIC c" ECTE 8JUL 25 1990u TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) BIBLIOGRAPHY APRIL-1990 Jointly supported by __’__________-_________ Jointly...Arsenal, AL 35898-5241 1I. TITLE (Include Security Classification) TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) BIBL IRAPHY APRIL-1990 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Knott...implementation of the concept of total quality management (TQM). The selected coverage includes books, periodical articles, conference papers and reports. Coded

  3. Trends in total column ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, F. S.; Angell, J.; Attmannspacher, W.; Bloomfield, P.; Bojkov, R. D.; Harris, N.; Komhyr, W.; Mcfarland, M.; Mcpeters, R.; Stolarski, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    It is important to ensure the best available data are used in any determination of possible trends in total ozone in order to have the most accurate estimates of any trends and the associated uncertainties. Accordingly, the existing total ozone records were examined in considerable detail. Once the best data set has been produced, the statistical analysis must examine the data for any effects that might indicate changes in the behavior of global total ozone. The changes at any individual measuring station could be local in nature, and herein, particular attention was paid to the seasonal and latitudinal variations of total ozone, because two dimensional photochemical models indicate that any changes in total ozone would be most pronounced at high latitudes during the winter months. The conclusions derived from this detailed examination of available total ozone can be split into two categories, one concerning the quality and the other the statistical analysis of the total ozone record.

  4. Biodegradation of Trihalomethanes and Other Halogenated Aliphatic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. B.

    1996-01-01

    The biological dehalogenation of common water pollutants such as trichloromethane (chloroform) and other halogenated aliphatic compounds was the subject of this project. Samples from diverse water environments such as from groundwater contaminated with halogenated compounds and wastewaters from regional treatment plants were studied to identify conditions that favor certain dehalogenation reactions over others. Gene probe analyses of DNA extracted from the dichlormethane-degrading wastewater indicated the presence of the gene coding for dichloromethane dehalogenase, indicating the genetic basis for the dechlorination activity observed. These studies indicate that methanogenic bacteria are the organisms responsible for the chloroform dechlorination. Dechlorination of a common chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-11) was identified in samples taken from a regional aquifer contaminated with halogenated aliphatic compounds.

  5. Hydrogeology, water quality, and water-resources development potential of the upper Floridan Aquifer in the Valdosta area, south-central Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnell, J.B.; Hacke, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Valdosta, Georgia area is adversely affected by direct recharge from the Withlacoochee River. Water enters the aquifer along a short reach of the river where sinkholes have formed in the stream bed. The water receives little filtration as it recharges the Upper Floridan aquifer through these sinkholes. Naturally occurring organic material in the river provides a readily available source of energy for the growth of microbiota in the aquifer. Microbiological processes and chemical reactions in the aquifer produce methane and hydrogen sulfide as the water from the river mixes with ground water and moves downgradient in the aquifer. Humic substances associated with the organic material in the ground water in this area can form trihalomethanes when the water is chlorinated for public supply. To assess areas most suitable for ground-water supply development, areal distributions of total organic carbon, total sulfide, and methane in the Upper Floridan aquifer were mapped and used to evaluate areas affected by recharge from the Withlacoochee River. Areas where concentrations of total organic carbon, total sulfide, and methane were less than or equal to 2.0 milligrams per liter, 0.5 milligrams per liter, and 100 micrograms per liter, respectively, were considered to be relatively unaffected by recharge from the river and to have the greatest potential for water- resources development.

  6. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of cinchona ledgeriana leaves ethanol extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundowo, Andini; Artanti, Nina; Hanafi, M.; Minarti, Primahana, Gian

    2017-11-01

    C ledgeriana is a medicinal plant that contains alkaloids, especially on the barks for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. The main alkaloids in this plant are cinchonine, cinchonidine, quinine and quinidine. Besides for antiamalarial this plant is also commonly used to treat whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. Compare to other medicinal plants, nowadays only very few studies were conducted in Cinchona species. Our current study aims to determine the content of phytochemical, total phenol and total flavonoids from C. ledgeriana leaves 70% ethanol extract. The extraction was performed by maceration method using 70% ethanol solvent and then fractionated into hexane, ethylacetate and butanol. Phytochemical screening was performed to determine the content of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and alumunium chloride colorimetric methods using gallic acid and quercetin as standards. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The results of phytochemical screening showed that the 70% ethanol extract of C. ledgeriana leaves contained alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. The total phenol and total flavonoids analysis showed that ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenol (40.23%) and total flavonoids (65.34%).

  7. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    The Moon is seen passing in front of the Sun during a total solar eclipse on Monday, August 21, 2017 from onboard a NASA Gulfstream III aircraft flying 25,000 feet above the Oregon coast. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Thomas)

  8. Assessment of conservation easements, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids in West Fork Beaver Creek, Minnesota, 1999-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Kieta, Kristen A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined conservation easements and their effectiveness at reducing phosphorus and solids transport to streams. The U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources and worked collaboratively with the Hawk Creek Watershed Project to examine the West Fork Beaver Creek Basin in Renville County, which has the largest number of Reinvest In Minnesota land retirement contracts in the State (as of 2013). Among all conservation easement programs, a total of 24,218 acres of agricultural land were retired throughout Renville County, and 2,718 acres were retired in the West Fork Beaver Creek Basin from 1987 through 2012. Total land retirement increased steadily from 1987 until 2000. In 2000, land retirement increased sharply because of the Minnesota River Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program, then leveled off when the program ended in 2002. Streamflow data were collected during 1999 through 2011, and total phosphorus and total suspended solids data were collected during 1999 through 2012. During this period, the highest peak streamflow of 1,320 cubic feet per second was in March 2010. Total phosphorus and total suspended solids are constituents that tend to increase with increases in streamflow. Annual flow-weighted mean total-phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.140 to 0.759 milligrams per liter, and annual flow-weighted mean total suspended solids concentrations ranged from 21.3 to 217 milligrams per liter. Annual flow-weighted mean total phosphorus and total suspended solids concentrations decreased steadily during the first 4 years of water-quality sample collection. A downward trend in flow-weighted mean total-phosphorus concentrations was significant from 1999 through 2008; however, flow-weighted total-phosphorus concentrations increased substantially in 2009, and the total phosphorus trend was no longer significant. The high annual flow-weighted mean concentrations for total phosphorus and total suspended solids

  9. Formation of halogenated organics during waste-water disinfection

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, P.C.; Brown, R.A.; Wiseman, J.F.

    The research examined the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and total organic halides (TOX) during wastewater chlorination at three wastewater treatment plants in the central Piedmont of North Carolina. Secondary effluent samples were collected before and after the addition of chlorine at each of the three treatment facilities; chlorinated samples were taken from various locations within the chlorine contact chambers and at the plant discharge. Water samples were also collected upstream and downstream from two of the plant outfalls to determine the increase and persistence of THMs and TOX below each plant. TOX and THM formation was evaluated in terms ofmore » effluent wastewater quality (e.g., residual chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon and ammonia concentration), chlorine dose, chlorine contacting system, methods of chlorine addition, and chlorine-to-ammonia ratio. The results showed that TOX was present in the unchlorinated wastewater and that additional TOX was formed immediately after chlorine addition. Small to insignificant amounts of THMS were detected. TOX formation did not increase with increasing contact time, due to the rapid depletion of free chlorine and the formation of combined chlorine in the chlorine contact chamber.« less

  10. Total Water Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will investigate total water management (TWM) as a way of improving water resource management and reducing waste streams. This project will also improve management of potable water, wastewater and wet-weather flow through combined management, reuse and recycling wil...

  11. Disinfection By-Product Formation and Mitigation Strategies in Point-of-Use Chlorination with Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Lantagne, Daniele S.; Cardinali, Fred; Blount, Ben C.

    2010-01-01

    Almost a billion persons lack access to improved drinking water, and diarrheal diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets are widely recommended for household water treatment to reduce diarrhea. Because NaDCC is directly added to untreated water sources, concerns have been raised about the potential health impact of disinfection by-products. This study investigated trihalomethane (THM) production in water from six sources used for drinking (0.6–888.5 nephelometric turbidity units) near Arusha, Tanzania. No sample collected at 1, 8, and 24 hours after NaDCC addition exceeded the World Health Organization guideline values for either individual or total THMs. Ceramic filtration, sand filtration, cloth filtration, and settling and decanting were not effective mitigation strategies to reduce THM formation. Chlorine residual and THM formation were not significantly different in NaDCC and sodium hypochlorite treatment. Household chlorination of turbid and non-turbid waters did not create THM concentrations that exceeded health risk guidelines. PMID:20595492

  12. Using RSSCTs to predict field-scale GAC control of DBP formation

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, L.; Summers, R.S.

    1994-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT) for predicting the control of disinfection by-product (DBP) formation by granular activated carbon (GAC). DBP formation was assessed by using a simulated distribution system (SDS) test and measuring trihalomethanes and total organic halide in the influent and effluent of the laboratory- and field-scale columns. It was observed that for the water studied, the RSSCTs effectively predicted the nonabsorbable fraction, time to 50 percent breakthrough, and the shape of the breakthrough curve for DBP formation. The advantage of RSSCTs is that conclusions aboutmore » the amenability of a GAC for DBP control can be reached in a short time period instead of at the end of a long-term pilot study. The authors recommend that similar studies be conducted with a range of source waters because the effectiveness of GAC is site-specific.« less

  13. Levels of exposure from drinking water.

    PubMed

    van Dijk-Looijaard, A M; van Genderen, J

    2000-01-01

    The relative exposure from drinking water is generally small, although there is a lack of information on total daily intake of individual organic micropollutants. There are, however, a few exceptions. Materials used in domestic distribution systems (lead, copper and plastics) may cause a deterioration of the water quality, especially in stagnant water. The relative exposure to the related compounds may increase considerably. Monitoring data from the tap (with defined sampling techniques) are needed. Also, disinfection/oxidation by-products (bromate, trihalomethanes) can be present in drinking water in considerable amounts and the relative exposure from drinking water may even approach 100%. Especially for volatile organic micropollutants, exposure routes from drinking water other than ingestion must be taken into account (inhalation, percutaneous uptake). When there is a need for detection of substances at very low levels it is important that the measurements are reliable. International interlaboratory comparisons for organic micropollutants are lacking at the moment.

  14. Operational resource theory of total quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Si-ren; Yu, Chang-shui

    2018-01-01

    Quantum coherence is an essential feature of quantum mechanics and is an important physical resource in quantum information. Recently, the resource theory of quantum coherence has been established parallel with that of entanglement. In the resource theory, a resource can be well defined if given three ingredients: the free states, the resource, the (restricted) free operations. In this paper, we study the resource theory of coherence in a different light, that is, we consider the total coherence defined by the basis-free coherence maximized among all potential basis. We define the distillable total coherence and the total coherence cost and in both the asymptotic regime and the single-copy regime show the reversible transformation between a state with certain total coherence and the state with the unit reference total coherence. Extensively, we demonstrate that the total coherence can also be completely converted to the total correlation with the equal amount by the free operations. We also provide the alternative understanding of the total coherence, respectively, based on the entanglement and the total correlation in a different way.

  15. Total water withdrawals in Mississippi, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    During 1990, the amount of water withdrawn from ground- and surface-water sources in Mississippi was about 3,600 Mgal/d (million gallons per day). Of this amount, 91 percent, or 3,300 Mgal/d, was withdrawn from freshwater sources. Of the total freshwater withdrawals, about 82 percent, or 2,700 Mgal/d, was withdrawn from ground-water sources. Total water withdrawals in Mississippi in 1990 for eight categories of use were as follows: irrigation, 1,900 Mgal/d; thermoelectric power, 700 Mgal/d; aquaculture, 400 Mgal/d; public supply, 320 Mgal/d; industrial and mining, 270 Mgal/d; domestic, 33 Mgal/d; commercial, 16 Mgal/d; and livestock, 16 Mgal/d. Overall, total withdrawals increased by 20 percent from 1985 to 1990, although the total population decreased about 2 percent. During the same period, total freshwater withdrawals increased by about 17 percent. Total saline with- drawals increased by about 60 percent from 1985 due to an increase in salin withdrawals for thermo- electric power generation. Total fresh and saline surface-water withdrawals decreased by about 6 percent from 1985, due to decrease in surface-water withdrawals for irrigation. Fresh ground-water withdrawals in Mississippi increased by about 33 percent, primarily due to an increase in irrigation. Since 1960, total ground- and surface-water with- drawals increased 70 percent for the same period. Irrigation had the greatest increase in with- drawals since 1960, with a 269 percent increase. Public supply had the second greatest, with a 178 percent increase.

  16. Removal of humic acid using TiO2 photocatalytic process--fractionation and molecular weight characterisation studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sanly; Lim, May; Fabris, Rolando; Chow, Christopher; Chiang, Ken; Drikas, Mary; Amal, Rose

    2008-05-01

    The photocatalytic removal of humic acid (HA) using TiO2 under UVA irradiation was examined by monitoring changes in the UV(254) absorbance, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, apparent molecular weight distribution, and trihalomethane formation potentials (THMFPs) over treatment time. A resin fractionation technique in which the samples were fractionated into four components: very hydrophobic acids (VHA), slightly hydrophobic acids, hydrophilic charged (CHA) and hydrophilic neutral (NEU) was also employed to elucidate the changes in the chemical nature of the HA components during treatment. The UVA/TiO2 process was found to be effective in removing more than 80% DOC and 90% UV(254) absorbance. The THMFPs of samples were decreased to below 20 microg l(-1) after treatments, which demonstrate the potential to meet increasingly stringent regulatory level of trihalomethanes in water. Resin fractionation analysis showed that the VHA fraction was decreased considerably as a result of photocatalytic treatments, forming CHA intermediates which were further degraded with increased irradiation time. The NEU fraction, which comprised of non-UV-absorbing low molecular weight compounds, was found to be the most persistent component.

  17. Total quality management in American industry.

    PubMed

    Widtfeldt, A K; Widtfeldt, J R

    1992-07-01

    The definition of total quality management is conformance to customer requirements and specifications, fitness for use, buyer satisfaction, and value at an affordable price. The three individuals who have developed the total quality management concepts in the United States are W.E. Deming, J.M. Juran, and Philip Crosby. The universal principles of total quality management are (a) a customer focus, (b) management commitment, (c) training, (d) process capability and control, and (e) measurement through quality improvement tools. Results from the National Demonstration Project on Quality Improvement in Health Care showed the principles of total quality management could be applied to healthcare.

  18. CSF total protein

    MedlinePlus

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  19. Stapler Esophageal Closure During Total Laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Ismi, Onur; Unal, Murat; Vayisoglu, Yusuf; Yesilova, Mesut; Helvaci, Ilter; Gorur, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical esophageal closure with stapler during total laryngectomy has been used by various authors to decrease the surgical time and pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) rates. In a few of the studies, surgical site infection (SSI) rates are mentioned and none of the studies emphasize the effect of decreased surgical time on postoperative cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. In this study, the authors compared the PCF rates, SSI rates, operation times between 30 mechanical stapler and 40 manual esophageal closure during total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer patients. National Nasocomial Infections Surveillance system (NNISS) scores were recorded and compared between groups. Total laryngectomy and total operation times were lower in the stapler group patients (P < 0.001 for total laryngectomy time, P = 0.024 for total operation time). There were lower rates of pharyngocutaneous fistula (P = 0.032), surgical site infection (P = 0.019), and NNISS scores (P = 0.009) in the stapler group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding postoperative systemic complications (P = 0.451). In conclusion, stapler esophageal closure decreases operation time, PCF, SSI rates, and NNISS scores but not the systemic complication rates. Comorbid illnesses and prolonged surgical time are risk factors for postoperative systemic complications in total laryngectomy patients, but patients with additional illnesses must not encourage the surgeon to use stapler for decreasing postoperative systemic complications.

  20. Physician Update: Total Health

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    As an integrated prepaid health care system, Kaiser Permanente (KP) is in a unique position to demonstrate that affordability in health care can be achieved by disease prevention. During the past decade, KP has significantly improved the quality care outcomes of its members with preventable diseases. However, because of an increase in the incidence of preventable disease, and the potential long-term and short-term costs associated with the treatment of preventable disease, KP has developed a new strategy called Total Health to meet the current and future needs of its patients. Total Health means healthy people in healthy communities. KP’s strategic vision is to be a leader in Total Health by making lives better. KP hopes to make lives better by 1) measuring vital signs of health, 2) promoting healthy behaviors, 3) monitoring disease incidence, 4) spreading leading practices, and 5) creating healthy environments with our community partners. Best practices, spread to the communities we serve, will make health care more affordable, prevent preventable diseases, and save lives. PMID:24694316

  1. The Total Library *

    PubMed Central

    Annan, Gertrude L.

    1968-01-01

    Changing functions and techniques of today's libraries have led to questioning the very substance of the library of the future. Ralph Shaw points out that the total library must be “a living force for the enrichment of mankind.” The Medical Research Library of Brooklyn at its very inauguration is uniquely prepared and equipped to work toward that goal. It imaginatively serves the needs of the immediate area by generous sharing of resources, use of its computerized program, and participation in a state-wide system. The large collection of the Academy of Medicine of Brooklyn offers thousands of volumes for the historian, both great works as highlights of medical achievements and more modest contributions of both early and recent date. The total library must serve as an intellectual resource, as well as a mechanism for the rapid transfer of current information. PMID:5644795

  2. Mortality After Total Knee and Total Hip Arthroplasty in a Large Integrated Health Care System.

    PubMed

    Inacio, Maria C S; Dillon, Mark T; Miric, Alex; Navarro, Ronald A; Paxton, Elizabeth W

    2017-01-01

    The number of excess deaths associated with elective total joint arthroplasty in the US is not well understood. To evaluate one-year postoperative mortality among patients with elective primary and revision arthroplasty procedures of the hip and knee. A retrospective analysis was conducted of hip and knee arthroplasties performed in 2010. Procedure type, procedure volume, patient age and sex, and mortality were obtained from an institutional total joint replacement registry. An integrated health care system population was the sampling frame for the study subjects and was the reference group for the study. Standardized 1-year mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 10,163 primary total knee arthroplasties (TKAs), 4963 primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs), 606 revision TKAs, and 496 revision THAs were evaluated. Patients undergoing primary THA (SMR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-0.7) and TKA (SMR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.3-0.5) had lower odds of mortality than expected. Patients with revision TKA had higher-than-expected mortality odds (SMR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-2.5), whereas patients with revision THA (SMR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.4-1.5) did not have higher-than-expected odds of mortality. Understanding excess mortality after joint surgery allows clinicians to evaluate current practices and to determine whether certain groups are at higher-than-expected mortality risk after surgery.

  3. Total Quality Management (TQM). Implementers Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-15

    SHEE’T :s t’ii ,rrl DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE May 15, 1990 Lfl CN I TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) Implementers Workshop © Copyright 1990 Booz.Allen...must be continually performed in order to achieve successful TQM implementation. 1-5 = TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Implementers Workshop Course Content...information, please refer to the student manual, Total Quality Management (TOM) Awareness Seminar, that was provided for the Awareness Course. You may

  4. Calcaneal stress fracture: an adverse event following total hip and total knee arthroplasty: a report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Miki, Takaaki; Miki, Takahito; Nishiyama, Akihiro

    2014-01-15

    Stress fractures have been reported to occur in the pubis, femoral neck, proximal part of the tibia, and fabella during the postoperative period following total knee or total hip arthroplasty. However, to our knowledge, calcaneal stress fractures after total hip or total knee arthroplasty have not been reported in the English-language literature. Most orthopaedic surgeons are not familiar with calcaneal stress fractures that may occur in elderly patients after a total knee or total hip arthroplasty. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features, imaging findings, and bone mineral content of the proximal part of the femur and the distal end of the radius in five patients who had a calcaneal stress fracture after a total knee or total hip arthroplasty. All patients were women with a mean age of 76.8 years. All fractures occurred in the calcaneus on the same side as the arthroplasty. The fracture appeared at a mean of 10.2 weeks postoperatively. All patients reported heel pain on walking. Swelling and local heat were found in four and three patients, respectively. Pain was elicited by squeezing the calcaneus in all patients. Early radiographs had normal findings in two patients, and an irregular sclerotic line appeared later in the radiographs of all patients. All fractures were treated conservatively. Four fractures healed uneventfully, but one fracture displaced. All patients had osteoporosis. Calcaneal stress fractures during the postoperative period following total knee or total hip arthroplasty may not be as rare as previously thought. Because clinical symptoms of the fracture appear insidiously and radiographic findings are absent or subtle in the early stage, a high index of suspicion is needed for orthopaedic surgeons to make the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging or repeated radiographs may be necessary to make the correct diagnosis when no abnormality is apparent on the initial radiograph.

  5. 38 CFR 8.18 - Total disability-speech.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premium Waivers and Total Disability § 8.18 Total disability—speech. The organic loss of speech shall be deemed to be total disability under National Service Life Insurance. [67 FR...

  6. 38 CFR 8.18 - Total disability-speech.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premium Waivers and Total Disability § 8.18 Total disability—speech. The organic loss of speech shall be deemed to be total disability under National Service Life Insurance. [67 FR...

  7. Enhanced formation of disinfection byproducts in shale gas wastewater-impacted drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kimberly M; Zeng, Teng; Harkness, Jennifer; Vengosh, Avner; Mitch, William A

    2014-10-07

    The disposal and leaks of hydraulic fracturing wastewater (HFW) to the environment pose human health risks. Since HFW is typically characterized by elevated salinity, concerns have been raised whether the high bromide and iodide in HFW may promote the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and alter their speciation to more toxic brominated and iodinated analogues. This study evaluated the minimum volume percentage of two Marcellus Shale and one Fayetteville Shale HFWs diluted by fresh water collected from the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers that would generate and/or alter the formation and speciation of DBPs following chlorination, chloramination, and ozonation treatments of the blended solutions. During chlorination, dilutions as low as 0.01% HFW altered the speciation toward formation of brominated and iodinated trihalomethanes (THMs) and brominated haloacetonitriles (HANs), and dilutions as low as 0.03% increased the overall formation of both compound classes. The increase in bromide concentration associated with 0.01-0.03% contribution of Marcellus HFW (a range of 70-200 μg/L for HFW with bromide = 600 mg/L) mimics the increased bromide levels observed in western Pennsylvanian surface waters following the Marcellus Shale gas production boom. Chloramination reduced HAN and regulated THM formation; however, iodinated trihalomethane formation was observed at lower pH. For municipal wastewater-impacted river water, the presence of 0.1% HFW increased the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during chloramination, particularly for the high iodide (54 ppm) Fayetteville Shale HFW. Finally, ozonation of 0.01-0.03% HFW-impacted river water resulted in significant increases in bromate formation. The results suggest that total elimination of HFW discharge and/or installation of halide-specific removal techniques in centralized brine treatment facilities may be a better strategy to mitigate impacts on downstream drinking water treatment plants than altering

  8. Gas chromatography coupled to tunable pulsed glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry for environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Solà-Vázquez, Auristela; Lara-Gonzalo, Azucena; Costa-Fernández, José M; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2010-05-01

    A tuneable microsecond pulsed direct current glow discharge (GD)-time-of-flight mass spectrometer MS(TOF) developed in our laboratory was coupled to a gas chromatograph (GC) to obtain sequential collection of the mass spectra, at different temporal regimes occurring in the GD pulses, during elution of the analytes. The capabilities of this set-up were explored using a mixture of volatile organic compounds of environmental concern: BrClCH, Cl(3)CH, Cl(4)C, BrCl(2)CH, Br(2)ClCH, Br(3)CH. The experimental parameters of the GC-pulsed GD-MS(TOF) prototype were optimized in order to separate appropriately and analyze the six selected organic compounds, and two GC carrier gases, helium and nitrogen, were evaluated. Mass spectra for all analytes were obtained in the prepeak, plateau and afterpeak temporal regimes of the pulsed GD. Results showed that helium offered the best elemental sensitivity, while nitrogen provided higher signal intensities for fragments and molecular peaks. The analytical performance characteristics were also worked out for each analyte. Absolute detection limits obtained were in the order of ng. In a second step, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS SPME), as sample preparation and preconcentration technique, was evaluated for the quantification of the compounds under study, in order to achieve the required analytical sensitivity for trihalomethanes European Union (EU) environmental legislation. The analytical figures of merit obtained using the proposed methodology showed rather good detection limits (between 2 and 13 microg L(-1) depending on the analyte). In fact, the developed methodology met the EU legislation requirements (the maximum level permitted in tap water for the "total trihalomethanes" is set at 100 microg L(-1)). Real analysis of drinking water and river water were successfully carried out. To our knowledge this is the first application of GC-pulsed GD-MS(TOF) for the analysis of real samples. Its ability to provide elemental

  9. Determining total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of loquat cultivars grown in Hatay.

    PubMed

    Polat, A Aytekin; Calişkan, Oğuzhan; Serçe, Sedat; Saraçoğlu, Onur; Kaya, Cemal; Ozgen, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Several fruit characteristics of five loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) cultivars/selections grown in Dörtyol, Hatay, Turkey were investigated in 2008. The cultivars/selections included 'Baduna 5', Güzelyurt 1, 'Hafif Cukurgöbek', 'Ottaviani,' and Type 1. The characteristics evaluated included fruit weight, width, length, seed number and weight, flesh/seed ratio, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, acidity, total phenolic (TP) content, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The analyses were conducted by three replicates, with 30 fruits in each replicate. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the cultivars, for all the traits tested. For example, 'Hafif Cukurgöbek' and 'Ottaviani' had smaller fruits than others, although 'Hafif Cukurgöbek' had heavier seeds. The flesh/seed ratio was the highest in Type 1, while 'Hafif Cukurgöbek' had the highest pH and high soluble solids. 'Baduna 5' and 'Hafif Cukurgöbek' had the highest acidity. The TP ranged from 129 ('Baduna 5') to 578 ('Hafif Cukurgöbek') mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg fresh fruit (fw). 'Hafif Cukurgöbek' also had the highest FRAP mean (12.1 mmol Trolox Equivalent (TE)/kg fw). The results suggest that loquat cultivars have a variable range of TP content and a relatively high total antioxidant capacity, which is crucial for human health.

  10. Total Quality Management, DLA Finance Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    ton. DC 20503. DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED SJuly 1989 4. TITLE AND SUBTIT’LE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Total Quality Management , DLA Finance Center 6...1989 ~ D 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES TQM (Total Quality Management ), Continuous Process Improvement. ., I Management 16. PRICE CODE 17...CONCEPTS TQM BASICS Total Quality Management (TQM) is a concept which is based on the work of a variety of people in a variety of fields. It includes

  11. Total Quality Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus in Change, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The philosophy known as Total Quality Management (TQM) is frequently presented as a way to change and improve public education. This issue of "Focus in Change" examines Deming's original 14 TQM points and their application to education. Myron Tribus lays out the core philosophy of the movement and discusses its possible application to…

  12. 20 CFR 718.204 - Total disability and disability causation defined; criteria for determining total disability and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total disability and disability causation... Section 718.204 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.204 Total disability and...

  13. Fluorogenic membrane overlays to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and seawater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three assays were developed to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and other foods and in seawater and other environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on non-selective agar plates to detect ß-glucuronidase and lysyl am...

  14. Total pollution effect of urban surface runoff.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongbing; Luo, Lin; Huang, Gu; Liu, Ping; Li, Jingxian; Hu, Sheng; Wang, Fuxiang; Xu, Rui; Huang, Xiaoxue

    2009-01-01

    For pollution research with regard to urban surface runoff, most sampling strategies to date have focused on differences in land usage. With single land-use sampling, total surface runoff pollution effect cannot be evaluated unless every land usage spot is monitored. Through a new sampling strategy known as mixed stormwater sampling for a street community at discharge outlet adjacent to river, this study assessed the total urban surface runoff pollution effect caused by a variety of land uses and the pollutants washed off from the rain pipe system in the Futian River watershed in Shenzhen City of China. The water quality monitoring indices were COD (chemical oxygen demand), TSS (total suspend solid), TP (total phosphorus), TN (total nitrogen) and BOD (biochemical oxygen demand). The sums of total pollution loads discharged into the river for the four indices of COD, TSS, TN, and TP over all seven rainfall events were very different. The mathematical model for simulating total pollution loads was established from discharge outlet mixed stormwater sampling of total pollution loads on the basis of four parameters: rainfall intensity, total land area, impervious land area, and pervious land area. In order to treat surface runoff pollution, the values of MFF30 (mass first flush ratio) and FF30 (first 30% of runoff volume) can be considered as split-flow control criteria to obtain more effective and economical design of structural BMPs (best management practices) facilities.

  15. Total Precipitable Water

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2012-01-01

    The simulation was performed on 64K cores of Intrepid, running at 0.25 simulated-years-per-day and taking 25 million core-hours. This is the first simulation using both the CAM5 physics and the highly scalable spectral element dynamical core. The animation of Total Precipitable Water clearly shows hurricanes developing in the Atlantic and Pacific.

  16. 21 CFR 862.1470 - Lipid (total) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lipid (total) test system. 862.1470 Section 862....1470 Lipid (total) test system. (a) Identification. A lipid (total) test system is a device intended to measure total lipids (fats or fat-like substances) in serum and plasma. Lipid (total) measurements are...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1470 - Lipid (total) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lipid (total) test system. 862.1470 Section 862....1470 Lipid (total) test system. (a) Identification. A lipid (total) test system is a device intended to measure total lipids (fats or fat-like substances) in serum and plasma. Lipid (total) measurements are...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1470 - Lipid (total) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lipid (total) test system. 862.1470 Section 862....1470 Lipid (total) test system. (a) Identification. A lipid (total) test system is a device intended to measure total lipids (fats or fat-like substances) in serum and plasma. Lipid (total) measurements are...

  19. Design forms of total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Walker, P S; Sathasivam, S

    2000-01-01

    The starting point of this article is a general design criterion applicable to all types of total knee replacement. This criterion is then expanded upon to provide more specifics of the required kinematics, and the forces which the total knee must sustain. A characteristic which differentiates total knees is the amount of constraint which is required, and whether the constraint is translational or rotational. The different forms of total knee replacement are described in terms of these constraints, starting with the least constrained unicompartments to the almost fully constrained fixed and rotating hinges. Much attention is given to the range of designs in between these two extreme types, because they constitute by far the largest in usage. This category includes condylar replacements where the cruciate ligaments are preserved or resected, posterior cruciate substituting designs and mobile bearing knees. A new term, 'guided motion knees', is applied to the growing number of designs which control the kinematics by the use of intercondylar cams or specially shaped and even additional bearing surfaces. The final section deals with the selection of an appropriate design of total knee for specific indications based on the design characteristics.

  20. Evaluation of total aboveground biomass and total merchantable biomass in Missouri

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Goerndt; David R. Larsen; Charles D. Keating

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the state of Missouri has been converting to biomass weight rather than volume as the standard measurement of wood for buying and selling sawtimber. Therefore, there is a need to identify accurate and precise methods of estimating whole tree biomass and merchantable biomass of harvested trees as well as total standing biomass of live timber for...

  1. Determining total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of loquat cultivars grown in Hatay

    PubMed Central

    Polat, A. Aytekin; Çalişkan, Oğuzhan; Serçe, Sedat; Saraçoğlu, Onur; Kaya, Cemal; Özgen, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Several fruit characteristics of five loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) cultivars/selections grown in Dörtyol, Hatay, Turkey were investigated in 2008. The cultivars/selections included ‘Baduna 5’, Güzelyurt 1, ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’, ‘Ottaviani,’ and Type 1. The characteristics evaluated included fruit weight, width, length, seed number and weight, flesh/seed ratio, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, acidity, total phenolic (TP) content, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The analyses were conducted by three replicates, with 30 fruits in each replicate. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the cultivars, for all the traits tested. For example, ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ and ‘Ottaviani’ had smaller fruits than others, although ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ had heavier seeds. The flesh/seed ratio was the highest in Type 1, while ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ had the highest pH and high soluble solids. ‘Baduna 5’ and ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ had the highest acidity. The TP ranged from 129 (‘Baduna 5’) to 578 (‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’) mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg fresh fruit (fw). ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ also had the highest FRAP mean (12.1 mmol Trolox Equivalent (TE)/kg fw). The results suggest that loquat cultivars have a variable range of TP content and a relatively high total antioxidant capacity, which is crucial for human health. PMID:20548929

  2. Total Triiodothyronine by Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay (FPIA),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Graves ’ disease . Traditionally, radioimmunoassays (RIA) have been employed for the determination of total T3. Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and fluorescence immunoassays (FIA) have been developed for many of the analytes that formerly were measured using RIA. One variation of this new generation of immunoassays is fluorescence polarization. A fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) method for total T3 has been automated by adaptation to the TDx (Abbott, Chicago, IL) clinical analyzer. The TDx total T3 assay has been evaluated as a replacement for an RIA total T3

  3. Effects of temperature, total dissolved solids, and total suspended solids on survival and development rate of larval Arkansas River Shiner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Julia S.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Worthington, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Decreases in the abundance and diversity of stream fishes in the North American Great Plains have been attributed to habitat fragmentation, altered hydrological and temperature regimes, and elevated levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Pelagic-broadcast spawning cyprinids, such as the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi, may be particularly vulnerable to these changing conditions because of their reproductive strategy. Our objectives were to assess the effects of temperature, total dissolved solids, and total suspended solids on the developmental and survival rates of Arkansas River Shiner larvae. Results suggest temperature had the greatest influence on the developmental rate of Arkansas River Shiner larvae. However, embryos exposed to the higher levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids reached developmental stages earlier than counterparts at equivalent temperatures. Although this rapid development may be beneficial in fragmented waters, our data suggest it may be associated with lower survival rates. Furthermore, those embryos incubating at high temperatures, or in high levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids resulted in less viable embryos and larvae than those incubating in all other temperature, total dissolved solid, and total suspended solid treatment groups. As the Great Plains ecoregion continues to change, these results may assist in understanding reasons for past extirpations and future extirpation threats as well as predict stream reaches capable of sustaining Arkansas River Shiners and other species with similar early life-history strategies.

  4. Achieving total quality through intelligence.

    PubMed

    Fuld, L M

    1992-02-01

    American firms want 'total quality'. The time and money spent by U.S. companies attempting to qualify for the coveted Baldrige Award exemplifies corporate America's desire to achieve new quality standards. Corporate intelligence and 'total quality' are inextricably linked. In this article, the authors demonstrate how shared and properly-used information can be a powerful tool for elevating quality standards, and how corporate intelligence programmes can provide the information links vital for success in attaining the highest standards of quality.

  5. Total body calcium analysis. [neutron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, T. K.; Nelp, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    A technique to quantitate total body calcium in humans is developed. Total body neutron irradiation is utilized to produce argon 37. The radio argon, which diffuses into the blood stream and is excreted through the lungs, is recovered from the exhaled breath and counted inside a proportional detector. Emphasis is placed on: (1) measurement of the rate of excretion of radio argon following total body neutron irradiation; (2) the development of the radio argon collection, purification, and counting systems; and (3) development of a patient irradiation facility using a 14 MeV neutron generator. Results and applications are discussed in detail.

  6. TOTAL user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  7. Performance and Biofilm Activity of Nitrifying Biofilters Removing Trihalomethanes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrifying biofilters seeded with three different mixed-culture sources degraded trichloromethane (TCM) and dibromochloromethane (DBCM). In addition, resuspended biofilm degraded TCM, bromododichloromethane (BDCM), DBCM, and tribromomethane (TBM) in backwash batch kinetic tests,...

  8. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  9. Need total sulfur content? Use chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Kubala, S.W.; Campbell, D.N.; DiSanzo, F.P.

    Regulations issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency require petroleum refineries to reduce or control the amount of total sulfur present in their refined products. These legislative requirements have led many refineries to search for online instrumentation that can produce accurate and repeatable total sulfur measurements within allowed levels. Several analytical methods currently exist to measure total sulfur content. They include X-ray fluorescence (XRF), microcoulometry, lead acetate tape, and pyrofluorescence techniques. Sulfur-specific chemiluminescence detection (SSCD) has recently received much attention due to its linearity, selectivity, sensitivity, and equimolar response. However, its use has been largely confined to the areamore » of gas chromatography. This article focuses on the special design considerations and analytical utility of an SSCD system developed to determine total sulfur content in gasoline. The system exhibits excellent linearity and selectivity, the ability to detect low minimum levels, and an equimolar response to various sulfur compounds. 2 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  10. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  11. Creating the Total Quality Effective School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lezotte, Lawrence W.

    This book shows how Deming's Total Quality Management (TQM) theory for organizational management can be integrated with the effective-schools literature. Part 1 compares the 14 principles of TQM with the tenets of effective-schools research. The second part develops a blueprint for creating the total quality effective school. The conceptual…

  12. Total Quality Management: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    Total Quality Management (TQM) in the Department of Defense is a strategy for continuously improving performance at every level, and in all areas of...reflects selected books, documents, periodical articles, and videos on the subject of Total Quality Management (TQM) in the collection of the U.S. Army War College Library.

  13. Occurrence of regulated and emerging iodinated DBPs in the Shanghai drinking water.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao; Chen, Xin; Wang, Xia; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhang, Dong; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Ong, Choon Nam; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water chlorination plays a pivotal role in preventing pathogen contamination against water-borne disease. However, chemical disinfection leads to the formation of halogenated disinfection by products (DBPs). Many DBPs are highly toxic and are of health concern. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive measurements of DBPs, including iodoacetic acid (IAA), iodoform (IF), nine haloacetic acids and four trihalomethanes in drinking waters from 13 water plants in Shanghai, China. The results suggested that IAA and IF were found in all the water treatment plants, with maximum levels of 1.66 µg/L and 1.25 µg/L for IAA and IF, respectively. Owing to deterioration of water quality, the Huangpu River has higher IAA and IF than the Yangtze River. Our results also demonstrated that low pH, high natural organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, and iodide in source waters increased IAA and IF formation. Compared to chlorine, chloramines resulted in higher concentration of iodinated DBP, but reduced the levels of trihalomethanes. This is the first study to reveal the widespread occurrence of IAA and IF in drinking water in China. The data provide a better understanding on the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts and the findings should be useful for treatment process improvement and disinfection byproducts controls.

  14. Occurrence of Regulated and Emerging Iodinated DBPs in the Shanghai Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiao; Chen, Xin; Wang, Xia; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhang, Dong; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Ong, Choon Nam; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water chlorination plays a pivotal role in preventing pathogen contamination against water-borne disease. However, chemical disinfection leads to the formation of halogenated disinfection by products (DBPs). Many DBPs are highly toxic and are of health concern. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive measurements of DBPs, including iodoacetic acid (IAA), iodoform (IF), nine haloacetic acids and four trihalomethanes in drinking waters from 13 water plants in Shanghai, China. The results suggested that IAA and IF were found in all the water treatment plants, with maximum levels of 1.66 µg/L and 1.25 µg/L for IAA and IF, respectively. Owing to deterioration of water quality, the Huangpu River has higher IAA and IF than the Yangtze River. Our results also demonstrated that low pH, high natural organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, and iodide in source waters increased IAA and IF formation. Compared to chlorine, chloramines resulted in higher concentration of iodinated DBP, but reduced the levels of trihalomethanes. This is the first study to reveal the widespread occurrence of IAA and IF in drinking water in China. The data provide a better understanding on the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts and the findings should be useful for treatment process improvement and disinfection byproducts controls. PMID:23555742

  15. Simultaneous control of microorganisms and disinfection by-products by sequential chlorination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; He, Wen-Jie; Han, Hong-Da

    2007-04-01

    To introduce a new sequential chlorination disinfection process in which short-term free chlorine and chloramine are sequentially added. Pilot tests of this sequential chlorination were carried out in a drinking water plant. The sequential chlorination disinfection process had the same or better efficiency on microbe (including virus) inactivation compared with the free chlorine disinfection process. There seemed to be some synergetic disinfection effect between free chlorine and monochloramine because they attacked different targets. The sequential chlorination disinfection process resulted in 35.7%-77.0% TTHM formation and 36.6%-54.8% THAA5 formation less than the free chlorination process. The poorer the water quality was, the more advantage the sequential chlorination disinfection had over the free chlorination. This process takes advantages of free chlorine's quick inactivation of microorganisms and chloramine's low disinfection by-product (DBP) yield and long-term residual effect, allowing simultaneous control of microbes and DBPs in an effective and economic way.

  16. Simultaneous determination of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in environmental waters using alkaline persulfate digestion and ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    De Borba, Brian M; Jack, Richard F; Rohrer, Jeffrey S; Wirt, Joan; Wang, Dongmei

    2014-11-21

    An ion chromatography (IC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of total nitrogen and total phosphorus after alkaline persulfate digestion. This study takes advantage of advances in construction of high-resolution, high-capacity anion-exchange columns that can better tolerate the matrices typically encountered when a determination of total nitrogen and total phosphorous is required. Here, we used an electrolytically generated hydroxide eluent combined with a high-capacity, hydroxide-selective, anion-exchange column for the determination of total nitrogen (as nitrate-N) and total phosphorus (as phosphate-P) in environmental samples by IC. This method yielded LODs for nitrate-N and phosphate-P of 1.0 and 1.3 μg/L, respectively. The LOQs determined for these analytes were 3.4 and 4.2 μg/L, respectively. Due to the dilution factor required and the blank nitrate-N concentration after the persulfate digestion, the quantification limits increased for nitrate-N and phosphate-P to 171 and 63 μg/L, respectively. The suitability of the method was evaluated by determining the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations from known concentrations of organic-containing nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. In addition, environmental samples consisting of six different wastewaters and 48 reservoir samples were evaluated for total nitrogen and phosphorus. The recoveries of nitrogen and phosphorus from the organic-containing compounds ranged from 93.1 to 100.1% and 85.2 to 97.1%, respectively. In addition, good correlation between results obtained by the colorimetric method and IC was also observed. The linearity, accuracy, and evaluation of potential interferences for determining TN and TP will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Total Water Management - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  18. Defense Depot Tracy Total Quality Management Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    PAGES TQM (Total Quality Management ), Depot Operations, Continuous Process Improvement 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY...make up our pcrceptions of Total Quality Management . Our goal is to improve those proven management processes that have brought us success while being...MANIAGEMENT F. QUALITY AUDITS OF PRODUCTS AND OPERATIONS ASSETS MANAGEMENT 00 i .......... / ~899 29 03 1 EFENSE DEPOT TACY TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN

  19. Effect of peracetic acid, ultraviolet radiation, nanofiltration-chlorine in the disinfection of a non conventional source of water (Tula Valley).

    PubMed

    Trujillo, J; Barrios, J A; Jimenez, B

    2008-01-01

    Water supply for human consumption requires certain quality that reduces health risks to consumers. In this sense, the process of disinfection plays an important role in the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms. Even though chlorination is the most applied process based on its effectiveness and cost, its application is being questioned considering the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). Therefore, alternative disinfectants are being evaluated and some treatment processes have been proposed to remove DBPs precursors (organic matter. This paper reports the results of disinfection of a non conventional source of water (aquifer recharged unintentionally with raw wastewater) with peracetic acid (PAA) and ultraviolet radiation (UV) as well as nanofiltration (NF) followed by chlorination to produce safe drinking water. The results showed that a dose of 2 mg/L PAA was needed to eliminate total and faecal coliforms. For UV light, a dose of 12.40 mWs/cm2 reduced total and faecal coliforms below the detection limit. On the other hand, chlorine demand of water before NF was 1.1-1.3 mg/L with a trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) of 118.62 microg/L, in contrast with chlorination after NF where the demand was 0.5 mg/L and THMFP of 17.64 microg/L. The recommended scheme is nanofiltration + chlorination.

  20. Predictive models for water sources with high susceptibility for bromine-containing disinfection by-product formation: implications for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kalinda; Farré, Maria José; Birt, James; McGree, James; Knight, Nicole

    2015-02-01

    This study examines a matrix of synthetic water samples designed to include conditions that favour brominated disinfection by-product (Br-DBP) formation, in order to provide predictive models suitable for high Br-DBP forming waters such as salinity-impacted waters. Br-DBPs are known to be more toxic than their chlorinated analogues, in general, and their formation may be favoured by routine water treatment practices such as coagulation/flocculation under specific conditions; therefore, circumstances surrounding their formation must be understood. The chosen factors were bromide concentration, mineral alkalinity, bromide to dissolved organic carbon (Br/DOC) ratio and Suwannee River natural organic matter concentration. The relationships between these parameters and DBP formation were evaluated by response surface modelling of data generated using a face-centred central composite experimental design. Predictive models for ten brominated and/or chlorinated DBPs are presented, as well as models for total trihalomethanes (tTHMs) and total dihaloacetonitriles (tDHANs), and bromide substitution factors for the THMs and DHANs classes. The relationships described revealed that increasing alkalinity and increasing Br/DOC ratio were associated with increasing bromination of THMs and DHANs, suggesting that DOC lowering treatment methods that do not also remove bromide such as enhanced coagulation may create optimal conditions for Br-DBP formation in waters in which bromide is present.

  1. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of whole plant extracts Torilis leptophylla L

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to screen various solvent extracts of whole plant of Torilis leptophylla to display potent antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in order to find possible sources for future novel antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Material and methods A detailed study was performed on the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of whole plant of Torilis leptophylla (TLM) and its derived fractions {n-hexane (TLH), chloroform (TLC) ethyl acetate (TLE) n-butanol (TLB) and residual aqueous fraction (TLA)} by in vitro chemical analyses and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic injuries (lipid peroxidation and glutathione contents) in male Sprague-Dawley rat. The total yield, total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of all the fractions were also determined. TLM was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening test for various constituents. Results The total phenolic contents (TPC) (121.9±3.1 mg GAE/g extract) of TLM while total flavonoid contents (TFC) of TLE (60.9 ±2.2 mg RTE/g extract) were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions. Phytochemical screening of TLM revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, phlobatannins, tannins and terpenoids. The EC50 values based on the DPPH (41.0±1 μg/ml), ABTS (10.0±0.9 μg/ml) and phosphomolybdate (10.7±2 μg/ml) for TLB, hydroxyl radicals (8.0±1 μg/ml) for TLC, superoxide radicals (57.0±0.3 μg/ml) for TLM and hydrogen peroxide radicals (68.0±2 μg/ml) for TLE were generally lower showing potential antioxidant properties. A significant but marginal positive correlation was found between TPC and EC50 values for DPPH, hydroxyl, phosphomolybdate and ABTS, whereas another weak and positive correlation was determined between TFC and EC50 values for superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals. Results of in vivo experiment

  2. Airway Complications of Total Artificial Heart.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Vikas; Donovan, Colin; Malhotra, Rajiv

    2017-02-01

    The total artificial heart is the mechanical device which is used as a bridge to the heart transplant in patients with biventricular failure. Due to the mechanical nature of the device, patients receiving total artificial heart (TAH) require to be on anticoagulation therapy. Hemorrhage and coagulopathy are few of the known complications of TAH.

  3. Percentile Distributions of Median Nitrite Plus Nitrate as Nitrogen, Total Nitrogen, and Total Phosphorus Concentrations in Oklahoma Streams, 1973-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haggard, Brian E.; Masoner, Jason R.; Becker, Carol J.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrients are one of the primary causes of water-quality impairments in streams, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries in the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed regional-based nutrient criteria using ecoregions to protect streams in the United States from impairment. However, nutrient criteria were based on nutrient concentrations measured in large aggregated nutrient ecoregions with little relevance to local environmental conditions in states. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is using a dichotomous process known as Use Support Assessment Protocols to define nutrient criteria in Oklahoma streams. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is modifying the Use Support Assessment Protocols to reflect nutrient informa-tion and environmental characteristics relevant to Oklahoma streams, while considering nutrient information grouped by geographic regions based on level III ecoregions and state boundaries. Percentile distributions of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorous concentrations were calculated from 563 sites in Oklahoma and 4 sites in Arkansas near the Oklahoma and Arkansas border to facilitate development of nutrient criteria for Oklahoma streams. Sites were grouped into four geographic regions and were categorized into eight stream categories by stream slope and stream order. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus concentrations were greater in the Ozark Highland ecoregion and were less in the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion when compared to other geographic areas used to group sites. The 50th percentiles of median concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were least in first, second, and third order streams. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the Ozark Highland and Ouachita Mountains ecoregions were least in

  4. Sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in passion fruit (Passiflora) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Devi Ramaiya, Shiamala; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Zakaria, Muta Harah; King, Wong Sing; Shaffiq Sahrir, Muhd Arif

    2013-03-30

    The levels of sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) were determined in fruit juices from seven passion fruit (Passiflora spp.) cultivars: P. edulis cultivars Purple, Frederick, Yellow, Pink, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. maliformis and P. quadrangularis (we also tested this cultivar's mesocarp). Purple and Yellow P. edulis had significantly higher total sugar, 142.85 ± 0.17 g kg⁻¹ and 139.69 ± 0.12 g kg⁻¹, respectively, than other cultivars. Glucose and fructose content were higher in juice from vine-ripened fruits of Purple, Frederick and Yellow P. edulis, P. quadrangularis and P. maliformis. Sucrose content was significantly higher in juice of non-vine-ripened fruits of P. edulis (Pink) and P. edulis f. flavicarpa. Ascorbic acid, TPC and TAA were significantly higher in vine-ripened Purple and Yellow P. edulis; ranges were 0.22-0.33 g kg⁻¹, 342.80-382.00 mg gallic acid equivalent L⁻¹ and 409.13-586.70 µmol Trolox L⁻¹, respectively. Based on principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, the main variables - °Brix, total sugar, glucose, fructose, ascorbic acid, TPC and TAA - formed the characteristics for the group comprising Purple and Yellow P. edulis. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, TAA and TPC were quantified in passion fruit juices. Variation of the above variables in juices of Passiflora depends on the cultivar and ripeness. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Estuarine Total Ecosystem Metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total ecosystem metabolism (TEM), both as discrete measurements and as a theoretical concept, has an important history in ecosystem ecology, particularly in estuaries. Some of the earliest ecological studies were developed to determine how energy flowed through an ecosystem and w...

  6. Total Pancreatectomy With Islet Autotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bellin, Melena D.; Gelrud, Andres; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Dunn, Ty B.; Humar, Abhinav; Morgan, Katherine A.; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Rastellini, Cristiana; Rickels, Michael R.; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J.; Andersen, Dana K.

    2015-01-01

    A workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases focused on research gaps and opportunities in total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) for the management of chronic pancreatitis. The session was held on July 23, 2014 and structured into 5 sessions: (1) patient selection, indications, and timing; (2) technical aspects of TPIAT; (3) improving success of islet autotransplantation; (4) improving outcomes after total pancreatectomy; and (5) registry considerations for TPIAT. The current state of knowledge was reviewed; knowledge gaps and research needs were specifically highlighted. Common themes included the need to identify which patients best benefit from and when to intervene with TPIAT, current limitations of the surgical procedure, diabetes remission and the potential for improvement, opportunities to better address pain remission, GI complications in this population, and unique features of children with chronic pancreatitis considered for TPIAT. The need for a multicenter patient registry that specifically addresses the complexities of chronic pancreatitis and total pancreatectomy outcomes and postsurgical diabetes outcomes was repeatedly emphasized. PMID:25599324

  7. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, John T.; Kunz, Walter E.; Cates, Michael R.; Franks, Larry A.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for .sup.239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

  8. The Total Quality Movement in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuenberger, John A.; Whitaker, Sheldon V., Jr.

    The total quality movement began as a result of the desire of W. Edwards Deming, an American statistician, to permit the economic system to maintain its edge in a growing global market. The 14 points Deming listed as essential to "total quality management" have recently been adapted to the field of education. The success of the total…

  9. The total cost of EHR ownership.

    PubMed

    Eastaugh, Steven R

    2013-02-01

    Consider total cost of ownership, not just initial cost of acquisition and annual maintenance, when reviewing electronic health record (EHR) system bids. Support costs--a key part of total cost of ownership--include FTEs dedicated to the system. The long-term costs of an EHR system can vary dramatically (up to 200 percent) depending on which system is selected.

  10. Improving Operational Readiness through Total Quality Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-21

    DTIC AD-A236 611 EL CT F NAVAL WAR COLL GE C Newport, R. I. IMPROVING OPERATIONAL READINESS THROUGH TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT by Herb Westphal Defense...IMPROVING OPERATIONAL READINESS THROUGH TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) A Case Study: The Defense Mapping Agency Combat Support Center (DMACSC) initiated a...of the Defense Mapping Agency Combat Support Center’s (DMACSC) Total Quality Management (TQM) improvement methodology. This allows the reader to

  11. Total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Hye-Jin; Cho, Mi Ran; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Yuri; Oh, Se-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to measure and/or estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-one plant foods that were expected to exhibit rather high antioxidant activities were selected from the Korean diet using the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES V). These foods were categorized into 11 food groups: cereals, potatoes, legumes, nuts, vegetables, kimchies, mushrooms, fruits, fruit juices, sea weeds, and oils. The foods were mixed in the proportions specified in traditional Korean recipes and analyzed. The measured indicators for antioxidant capacities were total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). RESULTS Total phenolics were high in the fruit juices, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; and the average DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values were high in the vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, and nuts. The correlation coefficient between the content of total phenolics of each food and the in vitro antioxidant capacity was relatively high at 0.851. The intake of total phenolics per capita per day in the Republic of Korea was estimated to be 127 mg. The total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) values, which were obtained from the total antioxidant capacity of each food, taking into account the intake of each food, were 20,763, 54,335, and 876.4 µmol of Trolox equivalents using the DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC methods, respectively. The food group that contributed the most to the Korean TDAC was cereals at 39.7%, followed by fruits and vegetables at 27.8% and 13.9%, respectively. The contribution of legumes, nuts, fruit juices, and mushrooms was quite minimal at less than 2% each. CONCLUSIONS The content of total phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet are significantly correlated and the high contributing food groups are cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:24741403

  12. Total Water Management - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  13. Water disinfection agents and disinfection by-products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilavský, J.; Barloková, D.; Kapusta, O.; Kunštek, M.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe factors of water quality change in the distribution network and legislative requirements in Slovakia for disinfectants and disinfection byproducts (DBPs). In the experimental part, the time dependence of the application of the chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite on the formation of some by-products of disinfection for drinking water from WTP Hriňová is studied. We monitored trihalomethanes, free chlorine, chlorine dioxide and chlorites.

  14. Resource use and costs associated with opioid-induced constipation following total hip or total knee replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Wittbrodt, Eric T; Gan, Tong J; Datto, Catherine; McLeskey, Charles; Sinha, Meenal

    2018-01-01

    Constipation is a well-known complication of surgery that can be exacerbated by opioid analgesics. This study evaluated resource utilization and costs associated with opioid-induced constipation (OIC). This retrospective, observational, and propensity-matched cohort study utilized the Premier Healthcare Database. The study included adults ≥18 years of age undergoing total hip or total knee replacement as inpatients who received an opioid analgesic and were discharged between January 1, 2012, and June 30, 2015. Diagnosis codes identified patients with OIC who were then matched 1:1 to patients without OIC. Generalized linear and logistic regression models were used to compare inpatient resource utilization, total hospital costs, inpatient mortality, and 30-day all-cause readmissions and emergency department visits. Of 788,448 eligible patients, 40,891 (5.2%) had OIC. Covariates were well balanced between matched patients with and without OIC (n=40,890 each). In adjusted analyses, patients with OIC had longer hospital lengths of stay (3.6 versus 3.3 days; p <0.001), higher total hospital costs (US$17,479 versus US$16,265; p <0.001), greater risk of intensive care unit admission (odds ratio [OR]=1.12, 95% CI: 1.01-1.24), and increased likelihood of 30-day hospital read-missions (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.11-1.22) and emergency department visits (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.07-1.79) than patients without OIC. No statistically significant difference was found with inpatient mortality (OR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.59-1.35). OIC was associated with greater resource utilization and hospital costs for patients undergoing primarily elective total hip or total knee replacement surgery. These results support OIC screening and management strategies as part of perioperative care management.

  15. Total Quality Management Implementation Plan: Defense Depot, Ogden

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    NUMBERS Total Quality Management Implementation Plan Defense Depot Ogden 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING...PAGES TQM (Total Quality Management ), Continuous Process Improvement, Depot Operations, Process Action Teams 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...034 A Message From The Commander On Total Quality Management i fully support the DLA aoproacii to Total Quality Management . As stated by General

  16. Total solar eclipse of 3 November 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1993-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from the southern half of the Western Hemisphere on 3 November 1994. The path of the Moon's shadow passes through Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Brazil. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include tables of geographic coordinates of the path of totality, local circumstances for hundreds of cities, maps of the path of total and partial eclipse, weather prospects, and the lunar limb profile.

  17. "Total Deposition (TDEP) Maps"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides an update on the use of a hybrid methodology that relies on measured values from national monitoring networks and modeled values from CMAQ to produce of maps of total deposition for use in critical loads and other ecological assessments. Additionally, c...

  18. Total Quality Management Implementation Plan: DLA-N

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    e Wastimto , n. Othe 20 Seato3 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS DLA-N Total Quality Management 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...PAGES TQM (Total Quality Management ), Continuous Process Improvement.(; , Defense National Stockpile 16. PRICE CODEI17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18...IUNCLASSIFIED UL NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) pr"!Cbed ty ANSI Std Z39’B6 296-102 DLA - N TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION PLAN I

  19. The total ozone at mid latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendeva, Bogdana

    The total ozone at mid latitudes B.D.Mendeva 1, D.G. Krastev 1, Ts.N.Gogosheva 2 1 Solar Terrestrial Influences Laboratory, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Stara Zagora De-partment, Bulgaria, bmendeva@abv.bg 2 Institute of Astronomy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria, This paper presents the total ozone content (TOC) behaviour over Bulgaria from satellite ex-periments (TOMS on the Earth Probe satellite and SCIAMACHY on board ENVISAT (ESA)). The long-term variations of the total ozone monthly means values in the period 1997-2009 are examined. The calculated linear ozone trend for this time interval is shown. An analysis of the total ozone over the Balkan region is also presented. For this purpose data from the SCIA-MACHY are used. The investigation is made for Athens (37o 59'N, 23o46'E), Thessaloniki (40o31'N, 22o58'E), Sofia (42o39'N, 23o23'E) and Bucharest (44o28'N, 26o17'E) in the period 2003-2009. A comparison between the courses of the monthly mean ozone values over these places is shown.

  20. Total pressing Indonesian gas development, exports

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-24

    Total is on track to become Indonesia's leading gas exporter by the turn of the century. Total's aggressive development of its Mahakam Delta acreage in East Kalimantan is intended to keep pace with growing liquefied natural gas demand, mainly from Japan but also increasingly from South Korea and Taiwan. A frantic scramble is under way among natural gas suppliers in the Pacific Rim region, particularly those with current LNG export facilities, to accommodate projections of soaring natural gas demand in the region. Accordingly, Total's Indonesian gas production goal is the centerpiece of a larger strategy to become a major playermore » in the Far East Asia gas scene. Its goals also fall in line with Indonesia's. Facing flat or declining oil production while domestic oil demand continues to soar along with a rapidly growing economy, Indonesia is heeding some studies that project the country could become a net oil importer by the turn of the century. The paper describes Total's Far East strategy, the Mahakam acreage which it operates, the shift to gas development, added discoveries, future development, project spending levels, and LNG export capacity.« less

  1. Revision total hip arthroplasty due to pain from hypersensitivity to cobalt-chromium in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kosukegawa, Ima; Nagoya, Satoshi; Kaya, Mitsunori; Sasaki, Koichi; Sasaki, Mikito; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2011-09-01

    We report a case with hypersensitivity to CoCr in total hip arthroplasty coupled with conventional polyethylene and CoCr femoral head. The patient complained of left hip pain and systemic fever, and computed tomography imaging revealed a periprosthetic cystic lesion, so we performed revision total hip arthroplasty using a titanium stem and ceramic head and highly crosslinked polyethylene. Hip pain and cystic lesion disappeared 3 years after revision surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Total System Design (TSD) Methodology Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    hardware implementation. Author: Martin - Marietta Aerospace Title: Total System Design Methodology Source: Martin - Marietta Technical Report MCR -79-646...systematic, rational approach to computer systems design is needed. Martin - Marietta has produced a Total System Design Methodology to support such design...gathering and ordering. The purpose of the paper is to document the existing TSD methoeology at Martin - Marietta , describe the supporting tools, and

  3. Effect of sulfite treatment on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and total free sulfydryl groups contents in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Herken, Emine Nur; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Kucukatay, Vural

    2009-08-01

    Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfite to sulfate protecting cells from sulfite toxicity. This article investigated the effect of sulfite on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and total free sulfydryl groups (-SH) levels in normal and SOX-deficient male albino rat plasma. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: control, sulfite-treated, SOX-deficient, and sulfite-treated SOX-deficient groups. SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten. Sulfite (70 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. SOX deficiency together with sulfite treatment caused a significant increase in the plasma LOOH and total oxidant status levels. -SH content of rat plasma significantly decreased by both sulfite treatment and SOX deficiency compared to the control. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TAC level by sulfite treatment. In conclusion, sulfite treatment affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance of the plasma cells of the rats toward oxidants in SOX-deficient groups.

  4. Total cross sections for positrons scattered elastically from helium based on new measurements of total ionization cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diana, L. M.; Chaplin, R. L.; Brooks, D. L.; Adams, J. T.; Reyna, L. K.

    1990-01-01

    An improved technique is presented for employing the 2.3m spectrometer to measure total ionization cross sections, Q sub ion, for positrons incident on He. The new ionization cross section agree with the values reported earlier. Estimates are also presented of total elastic scattering cross section, Q sub el, obtained by subtracting from total scattering cross sections, Q sub tot, reported in the literature, the Q sub ion and Q sub Ps (total positronium formation cross sections) and total excitation cross sections, Q sub ex, published by another researcher. The Q sub ion and Q sub el measured with the 3m high resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for 54.9eV positrons are in accord with the results from the 2.3m spectrometer. The ionization cross sections are in fair agreement with theory tending for the most part to be higher, especially at 76.3 and 88.5eV. The elastic cross section agree quite well with theory to the vicinity of 50eV, but at 60eV and above the experimental elastic cross sections climb to and remain at about 0.30 pi a sub o sq while the theoretical values steadily decrease.

  5. The total carbon column observing network.

    PubMed

    Wunch, Debra; Toon, Geoffrey C; Blavier, Jean-François L; Washenfelder, Rebecca A; Notholt, Justus; Connor, Brian J; Griffith, David W T; Sherlock, Vanessa; Wennberg, Paul O

    2011-05-28

    A global network of ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers has been founded to remotely measure column abundances of CO(2), CO, CH(4), N(2)O and other molecules that absorb in the near-infrared. These measurements are directly comparable with the near-infrared total column measurements from space-based instruments. With stringent requirements on the instrumentation, acquisition procedures, data processing and calibration, the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) achieves an accuracy and precision in total column measurements that is unprecedented for remote-sensing observations (better than 0.25% for CO(2)). This has enabled carbon-cycle science investigations using the TCCON dataset, and allows the TCCON to provide a link between satellite measurements and the extensive ground-based in situ network. © 2011 The Royal Society

  6. 40 CFR 503.44 - Operational standard-total hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons. 503.44 Section 503.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... standard—total hydrocarbons. (a) The total hydrocarbons concentration in the exit gas from a sewage sludge incinerator shall be corrected for zero percent moisture by multiplying the measured total hydrocarbons...

  7. 40 CFR 503.44 - Operational standard-total hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons. 503.44 Section 503.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... standard—total hydrocarbons. (a) The total hydrocarbons concentration in the exit gas from a sewage sludge incinerator shall be corrected for zero percent moisture by multiplying the measured total hydrocarbons...

  8. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract.

    PubMed

    San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.

  9. [The relations of corneal, lenticular and total astigmatism].

    PubMed

    Liang, D; Guan, Z; Lin, J

    1995-06-01

    To determine the relations of corneal, lenticular and total astigmatism and the changes of the astigmatism with age. Out-patients with refractive errors were refracted with retinoscope after using cycloplegic drops and measured the radii of anterior corneal curvature. One hundred and ninety-four cases (382 eyes) with refractive errors were studied. Of the eyes 67.9% had regular corneal astigmatism, 68.1% irregular lenticular astigmatism and 60.7% regular total astigmatism, 88.5% of the corneal astigmatism has the same quality as the total astigmatism. The total astigmatism in 46% of the eyes included the summation of corneal and lenticular astigmatism, but in 41.3% of the eyes irregular lenticular astigmatism corrected the regular corneal astigmatism. The astigmatism of cornea, lens and total astigmatism changed from regular to irregular with the increase of age. The linear correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between the power of horizontal corneal refraction and age, and a negative corrlation between the power of vertical corneal refraction and age. The shape of cornea was the major cause of total astigmatism. The influence of lens on the total astigmatism was different. The reasons for the change of the total astigmatism from regular to irregular with the increase of age were the changes of the power of corneal refraction, particularly the increase of the power of horizontal corneal refraction and lenticular irregular astigmatism.

  10. Asymmetric total synthesis of cladosporin and isocladosporin.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huaiji; Zhao, Changgui; Fang, Bowen; Jing, Peng; Yang, Juan; Xie, Xingang; She, Xuegong

    2012-07-06

    The first asymmetric total syntheses of cladosporin and isocladosporin were accomplished in 8 steps with 8% overall yield and 10 steps with 26% overall yield, respectively. The relative configuration of isocladosporin was determined via this total synthesis.

  11. Total synthesis of (-)-strychnine.

    PubMed

    Kaburagi, Yosuke; Tokuyama, Hidetoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2004-08-25

    Total synthesis of (-)-strychnine is described. Notable features of our synthesis include (1) palladium-catalyzed coupling of the indole and vinyl epoxide moieties, (2) synthesis of the nine-membered cyclic amine derivative from the diol precursor in a one-pot procedure, and (3) transannular cyclization of the nine-membered cyclic amine.

  12. Investigating social inequalities in exposure to drinking water contaminants in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Delpla, Ianis; Benmarhnia, Tarik; Lebel, Alexandre; Levallois, Patrick; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have assessed social inequalities in exposure to drinking water contaminants. This study explores this issue in 593 rural municipalities of Québec, Canada. Quartiles of an ecological composite deprivation index were used as a proxy of socioeconomic status. Total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and lead were chosen as proxies of chemical drinking water quality. The results show that the majority of deprived rural municipalities apply no treatment to their water (26%) or use a basic treatment (51%), whereas a relative majority of the wealthiest municipalities (40%) use advanced treatment. The proportion of municipalities having important lead (>5 μg/L) levels is highest in most deprived municipalities. Moreover, most deprived municipalities have a higher risk of high tap lead levels (RR = 1.33; 95%CI: 1.30, 1.36). Conversely, most deprived municipalities have a lower risk of high TTHMs levels (RR = 0.78; 95%CI: 0.69, 0.86). These findings suggest an environmental inequality in drinking water contaminants distribution in rural municipalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Regression equations for disinfection by-products for the Mississippi, Ohio and Missouri rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Trihalomethane and nonpurgeable total organic-halide formation potentials were determined for the chlorination of water samples from the Mississippi, Ohio and Missouri Rivers. Samples were collected during the summer and fall of 1991 and the spring of 1992 at twelve locations on the Mississippi from New Orleans to Minneapolis, and on the Ohio and Missouri 1.6 km upstream from their confluences with the Mississippi. Formation potentials were determined as a function of pH, initial free-chlorine concentration, and reaction time. Multiple linear regression analysis of the data indicated that pH, reaction time, and the dissolved organic carbon concentration and/or the ultraviolet absorbance of the water were the most significant variables. The initial free-chlorine concentration had less significance and bromide concentration had little or no significance. Analysis of combinations of the dissolved organic carbon concentration and the ultraviolet absorbance indicated that use of the ultraviolet absorbance alone provided the best prediction of the experimental data. Regression coefficients for the variables were generally comparable to coefficients previously presented in the literature for waters from other parts of the United States.

  14. 21 CFR 872.3940 - Total temporomandibular joint prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Total temporomandibular joint prosthesis. 872.3940... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3940 Total temporomandibular joint prosthesis. (a) Identification. A total temporomandibular joint prosthesis is a device that is intended to be...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3940 - Total temporomandibular joint prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total temporomandibular joint prosthesis. 872.3940... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3940 Total temporomandibular joint prosthesis. (a) Identification. A total temporomandibular joint prosthesis is a device that is intended to be...

  16. French government to trim direct stake in Total

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    This paper reports that the French government has decided to slash its direct stake in partly state owned oil company Total to 5% from 31.7%, a surprise move expected to raise 10 billion francs ($1.8 billion). At the same time, other state owned entities will be asked to boost their combined 2.2% stake in Total to 10%, leaving the government with a net 15% interest in Total vs. the current 34%. Initially, state owned insurance companies Groupe des Assurances Nationales and Assurances Generale de France will be asked to hike their stakes in Total, but others could be asked tomore » join if needed to meet the 10% target. The government the its phase-down of participation in Total, established in 1924 to manage French interests in Iraq Petroleum Co., was prompted by the evolution of the oil context, which differs greatly from what had prompted a significant stake of the state in Total's capital.« less

  17. Why, How, and Where to View Totality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulco, Charles

    2017-01-01

    This article is a follow-up to previous articles on the August 2017 Great American Eclipse. The author discusses what totality is when viewing the eclipse and the spots across the United States where totality will take place.

  18. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse Across America Promo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-10

    On Monday, August 21, 2017, all of North America will be treated to an eclipse of the sun. Anyone within the path of totality can see one of nature’s most awe inspiring sights - a total solar eclipse.

  19. A high performance totally ordered multicast protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian; Kaplan, Simon

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP). RMP provides a totally ordered, reliable, atomic multicast service on top of an unreliable multicast datagram service such as IP Multicasting. RMP is fully and symmetrically distributed so that no site bears un undue portion of the communication load. RMP provides a wide range of guarantees, from unreliable delivery to totally ordered delivery, to K-resilient, majority resilient, and totally resilient atomic delivery. These QoS guarantees are selectable on a per packet basis. RMP provides many communication options, including virtual synchrony, a publisher/subscriber model of message delivery, an implicit naming service, mutually exclusive handlers for messages, and mutually exclusive locks. It has commonly been held that a large performance penalty must be paid in order to implement total ordering -- RMP discounts this. On SparcStation 10's on a 1250 KB/sec Ethernet, RMP provides totally ordered packet delivery to one destination at 842 KB/sec throughput and with 3.1 ms packet latency. The performance stays roughly constant independent of the number of destinations. For two or more destinations on a LAN, RMP provides higher throughput than any protocol that does not use multicast or broadcast.

  20. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: research models

    PubMed Central

    PETRILLO, STEFANO; LONGO, UMILE GIUSEPPE; GULOTTA, LAWRENCE V.; BERTON, ALESSANDRA; KONTAXIS, ANDREAS; WRIGHT, TIMOTHY; DENARO, VINCENZO

    2016-01-01

    Purpose the past decade has seen a considerable increase in the use of research models to study reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). Nevertheless, none of these models has been shown to completely reflect real in vivo conditions. Methods we performed a systematic review of the literature matching the following key words: “reverse total shoulder arthroplasty” or “reverse total shoulder replacement” or “reverse total shoulder prosthesis” and “research models” or “biomechanical models” or “physical simulators” or “virtual simulators”. The following databases were screened: Medline, Google Scholar, EMBASE, CINAHIL and Ovid. We identified and included all articles reporting research models of any kind, such as physical or virtual simulators, in which RTSA and the glenohumeral joint were reproduced. Results computer models and cadaveric models are the most commonly used, and they were shown to be reliable in simulating in vivo conditions. Bone substitute models have been used in a few studies. Mechanical testing machines provided useful information on stability factors in RTSA. Conclusion because of the limitations of each individual model, additional research is required to develop a research model of RTSA that may reduce the limitations of those presently available, and increase the reproducibility of this technique in the clinical setting. PMID:28217660

  1. Genetic improvement of total milk yield and total lactation persistency of the first three lactations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Togashi, K; Lin, C Y

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare 6 selection criteria in terms of 3-parity total milk yield and 9 selection criteria in terms of total net merit (H) comprising 3-parity total milk yield and total lactation persistency. The 6 selection criteria compared were as follows: first-parity milk estimated breeding value (EBV; M1), first 2-parity milk EBV (M2), first 3-parity milk EBV (M3), first-parity eigen index (EI(1)), first 2-parity eigen index (EI(2)), and first 3-parity eigen index (EI(3)). The 9 selection criteria compared in terms of H were M1, M2, M3, EI(1), EI(2), EI(3), and first-parity, first 2-parity, and first 3-parity selection indices (I(1), I(2), and I(3), respectively). In terms of total milk yield, selection on M3 or EI(3) achieved the greatest genetic response, whereas selection on EI(1) produced the largest genetic progress per day. In terms of total net merit, selection on I(3) brought the largest response, whereas selection EI(1) yielded the greatest genetic progress per day. A multiple-lactation random regression test-day model simultaneously yields the EBV of the 3 lactations for all animals included in the analysis even though the younger animals do not have the opportunity to complete the first 3 lactations. It is important to use the first 3 lactation EBV for selection decision rather than only the first lactation EBV in spite of the fact that the first-parity selection criteria achieved a faster genetic progress per day than the 3-parity selection criteria. Under a multiple-lactation random regression animal model analysis, the use of the first 3 lactation EBV for selection decision does not prolong the generation interval as compared with the use of only the first lactation EBV. Thus, it is justified to compare genetic response on a lifetime basis rather than on a per-day basis. The results suggest the use of M3 or EI(3) for genetic improvement of total milk yield and the use of I(3) for genetic improvement of total net merit H

  2. Estimating total suspended sediment yield with probability sampling

    Treesearch

    Robert B. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    The ""Selection At List Time"" (SALT) scheme controls sampling of concentration for estimating total suspended sediment yield. The probability of taking a sample is proportional to its estimated contribution to total suspended sediment discharge. This procedure gives unbiased estimates of total suspended sediment yield and the variance of the...

  3. Correlation of total, diffuse, and direct solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buyco, E. H.; Namkoong, D.

    1977-01-01

    Present requirements for realistic solar energy system evaluations necessitate a comprehensive body of solar-radition data. The data should include both diffuse and direct solar radiation as well as their total on an hourly (or shorter) basis. In general, however, only the total solar radiation values were recorded. This report presents a correlation that relates the diffuse component of an hourly total solar radiation value to the total radiation ratio of the maximum value attainable. The data used were taken at the Blue Hill Observatory in Milton, Massachusetts, for the period 1952. The relation - in the form of the data plots - can be used in situations in which only the hourly total radiation data are available but the diffuse component is desired.

  4. STRONTIUM-90 IN THE TOTAL DIET

    SciTech Connect

    None

    Food, milk, and drinking water representative of the total diet of a hungry teen-ager were collected in 24 cities throughout the United States and one in Canada. The diets were analyzed for strontium-90 content. Results are compared with the strontium-90 levels in milk samples collected in the same cities. Results indicate that milk furnished only slightly more than half of the strontium-90 consumed in the total diet. (C.H.)

  5. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  6. Modeling of the Ionospheric Scintillation and Total Electron Content Observations during the 21 August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta-Barua, S.; Gachancipa, J. N.; Deshpande, K.; Herrera, J. A.; Lehmacher, G. A.; Su, Y.; Gyuk, G.; Bust, G. S.; Hampton, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    High concentration of free electrons in the ionosphere can cause fluctuations in incoming electromagnetic waves, such as those from the different Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The behavior of the ionosphere depends on time and location, and it is highly influenced by solar activity. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of a total solar eclipse on the local ionosphere in terms of ionospheric scintillations, and on the global ionosphere in terms of TEC (Total Electron Content). The studied eclipse occurred on 21 August 2017 across the continental United States. During the eclipse, we expected to see a decrease in the scintillation strength, as well as in the TEC values. As a broader impact part of our recently funded NSF proposal, we temporarily deployed two GNSS receivers on the eclipse's totality path. One GNSS receiver was placed in Clemson, SC. This is a multi-frequency GNSS receiver (NovAtel GPStation-6) capable of measuring high and low rate scintillation data as well as TEC values from four different GNSS systems. We had the receiver operating before, during, and after the solar eclipse to enable the comparison between eclipse and non-eclipse periods. A twin receiver collected data at Daytona Beach, FL during the same time, where an 85% partial solar eclipse was observed. Additionally, we set up a ground receiver onsite in the path of totality in Perryville, Missouri, from which the Adler Planetarium of Chicago launched a high-altitude balloon to capture a 360-degree video of the eclipse from the stratosphere. By analyzing the collected data, this study looks at the effects of partial and total solar eclipse periods on high rate GNSS scintillation data at mid-latitudes, which had not been explored in detail. This study also explores the impact of solar eclipses on signals from different satellite constellations (GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo). Throughout the eclipse, the scintillation values did not appear to have dramatic changes

  7. 21 CFR 862.1175 - Cholesterol (total) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cholesterol (total) test system. 862.1175 Section... Systems § 862.1175 Cholesterol (total) test system. (a) Identification. A cholesterol (total) test system is a device intended to measure cholesterol in plasma and serum. Cholesterol measurements are used in...

  8. Refractometric total protein concentrations in icteric serum from dogs.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aradhana; Stockham, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether high serum bilirubin concentrations interfere with the measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry and to assess potential biases among refractometer measurements. Evaluation study. Sera from 2 healthy Greyhounds. Bilirubin was dissolved in 0.1M NaOH, and the resulting solution was mixed with sera from 2 dogs from which food had been withheld to achieve various bilirubin concentrations up to 40 mg/dL. Refractometric total protein concentrations were estimated with 3 clinical refractometers. A biochemical analyzer was used to measure biuret assay-based total protein and bilirubin concentrations with spectrophotometric assays. No interference with refractometric measurement of total protein concentrations was detected with bilirubin concentrations up to 41.5 mg/dL. Biases in refractometric total protein concentrations were detected and were related to the conversion of refractive index values to total protein concentrations. Hyperbilirubinemia did not interfere with the refractometric estimation of serum total protein concentration. The agreement among total protein concentrations estimated by 3 refractometers was dependent on the method of conversion of refractive index to total protein concentration and was independent of hyperbilirubinemia.

  9. EVALUATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS ANALYSIS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rationale and supporting experimental data for revising EPA's 1996 "Guidance for Total Organics" are summarized in this document. It reports the results of reseach and investigation of improvements to the Total Organic Emissions (TOE) guidance used by EPA to measure recovera...

  10. Expressions for the Total Yaw Angle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    1. Introduction 1 2. Mathematical Notation 1 3. Total Yaw Expression Derivations 2 3.1 First Derivation 2 3.2 Second Derivation 4 3.3 Other...4 iv Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1. Introduction The total yaw angle, γt , of a ballistic projectile is... elevation angles from spherical coordinates.∗ We again place point A at the end point of V. Now imagine a plane parallel to the y-z plane that includes

  11. Total quality management in orthodontic practice.

    PubMed

    Atta, A E

    1999-12-01

    Quality is the buzz word for the new Millennium. Patients demand it, and we must serve it. Yet one must identify it. Quality is not imaging or public relations; it is a business process. This short article presents quality as a balance of three critical notions: core clinical competence, perceived values that our patients seek and want, and the cost of quality. Customer satisfaction is a variable that must be identified for each practice. In my practice, patients perceive quality as communication and time, be it treatment or waiting time. Time is a value and cost that must be managed effectively. Total quality management is a business function; it involves diagnosis, design, implementation, and measurement of the process, the people, and the service. Kazien is a function that reduces value services, eliminates waste, and manages time and cost in the process. Total quality management is a total commitment for continuous improvement.

  12. Total Lightning as an Indicator of Mesocyclone Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, Sarah M.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Apparent relationship between total lightning (in-cloud and cloud to ground) and severe weather suggests its operational utility. Goal of fusion of total lightning with proven tools (i.e., radar lightning algorithms. Preliminary work here investigates circulation from Weather Suveilance Radar- 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) coupled with total lightning data from Lightning Mapping Arrays.

  13. 21 CFR 862.1635 - Total protein test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 862.9. [52 FR 16122, May 1, 1987, as amended at 63 FR 59225, Nov. 3, 1998] ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total protein test system. 862.1635 Section 862....1635 Total protein test system. (a) Identification. A total protein test system is a device intended to...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1635 - Total protein test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 862.9. [52 FR 16122, May 1, 1987, as amended at 63 FR 59225, Nov. 3, 1998] ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Total protein test system. 862.1635 Section 862....1635 Total protein test system. (a) Identification. A total protein test system is a device intended to...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1635 - Total protein test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 862.9. [52 FR 16122, May 1, 1987, as amended at 63 FR 59225, Nov. 3, 1998] ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Total protein test system. 862.1635 Section 862....1635 Total protein test system. (a) Identification. A total protein test system is a device intended to...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1635 - Total protein test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 862.9. [52 FR 16122, May 1, 1987, as amended at 63 FR 59225, Nov. 3, 1998] ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Total protein test system. 862.1635 Section 862....1635 Total protein test system. (a) Identification. A total protein test system is a device intended to...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1635 - Total protein test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 862.9. [52 FR 16122, May 1, 1987, as amended at 63 FR 59225, Nov. 3, 1998] ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Total protein test system. 862.1635 Section 862....1635 Total protein test system. (a) Identification. A total protein test system is a device intended to...

  18. [Formation and Variation of Brominated Disinfection By-products in A Combined Ultrafiltration and Reverse Osmosis Process for Seawater Desalination].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhe; Sun, Ying-xue; Shi, Na; Hu, Hong-ying

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and brominated disinfection by-products ( Br-DBPs ) during a seawater desalination ultrafiltration (UF) combined reverse osmosis (RO) process were studied. The seawater contained high level of bromide ion (45.6-50.9 mg x L(-1)) and aromatic compounds with specific ultraviolet absorbance ( SUVA) of 3.6-6.0 L x (mg x m)(-1). The tryptophan-like aromatic protein, fulvic acid-like and soluble microbial by-product-like were the main fluorescent DOM in the seawater. After pre-chlorination of the seawater, the concentrations of DBPs was significantly increased in the influent of UF, which was dominantly the Br-DBPs. Bromoform (CHBr3) accounted for 70.48% - 91.50% of total trihalomethanes (THMs), dibromoacetic acid (Br2CHCO2H) occupied 81.14% - 100% of total haloacetic acids (HAAs) and dibromoacetonitrile (C2HBr2N) occupied 83.77% - 87.45% of total haloacetonitriles ( HANs). The removal efficiency of THMs, HAAs and HANs by the UF membrane was 36.63% - 40.39%, 73.83% - 95.38% and 100%, respectively. The RO membrane could completely remove the HAAs, while a little of the THMs was penetrated. The antiestrogenic activity in the seawater was 0.35 - 0.44 mg x L(-1), which was increased 32% - 69% after the pre-chlorination. The DBPs and other bio-toxic organics which formed during the UF-RO process were finally concentrated in the UF concentrate and RO concentrate.

  19. Preliminary Results form the Japanese Total Lightning Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobara, Y.; Ishii, H.; Kumagai, Y.; Liu, C.; Heckman, S.; Price, C. G.; Williams, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the initial observational results from the first Japanese Total Lightning Detection Network (JTLN) in relation to severe weather phenomena. The University of Electro-Communications (UEC) has deployed the Earth Networks (EN) Total Lightning System over Japan to carry out research on the relationship between thunderstorm activity and severe weather phenomena since 2013. In this paper we first demonstrate the current status of our new network followed by the initial scientific results. The lightning jump algorithm was applied to our total lightning data to study the relationship between total lighting activity and hazardous weather events such as gust fronts and tornadoes over land reported by the JMA (Japanese Meteorological Agency) in 2014. As a result, a clear increase in total lighting flash rate as well as lightning jumps are observed prior to most hazardous weather events (~20 min) indicating potential usefulness for early warning in Japan. Furthermore we are going to demonstrate the relationship of total lightning activities with meteorological radar data focusing particularly on Japanese Tornadic storms.

  20. Total solar eclipse of 1995 October 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1994-01-01

    A total eclipse of the sun will be visible from Asia and the Pacific Ocean on 24 Oct. 1995. The path of the moon's shadow begins in the Middle East and sweeps across India, Southeast Asia, and the waters of the Indonesian archipelago before ending at sunset in the Pacific. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality.

  1. Total to withdraw from Qatar methanol - MTBE?

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    Total is rumored to be withdrawing from the $700-million methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Qatar Fuel Additives Co., (Qafac) project. The French company has a 12.5% stake in the project. Similar equity is held by three other foreign investors: Canada`s International Octane, Taiwan`s Chinese Petroleum Corp., and Lee Change Yung Chemical Industrial Corp. Total is said to want Qafac to concentrate on methanol only. The project involves plant unit sizes of 610,000 m.t./year of MTBE and 825,000 m.t./year of methanol. Total declines to comment.

  2. [Local infiltration analgesia in total joint replacement].

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Tamás; Görgényi, Szabolcs; Szabó, Gabriella; Torkos, Miklós Bulcsú

    2017-03-01

    Total hip and knee replacment surgeries are characterized by severe postoperative pain. Local infiltration analgesia is proved to be very effective. However this method has not been widely used in Hungary. To evaluate the efficacy of the local infiltration analgesia with modified components in patients underwent total hip or knee replacement surgery. Data of 99 consecutive patients underwent primary total hip or knee replacement surgery were evaluated prospectively. In all the 99 surgeries modified local infiltration analgesia was applied. Postoperative pain reported on a visual analog scale was recorded as well as the need for further analgetics during the first 18 hours after surgery. The cost of the analgetic drugs was calculated. The control group comprised 97 consecutive patients underwent total hip or knee replacement, where local infiltration analgesia was not applied. Statistical analysis was done. Patients received local infiltration analgesia reported significantly less pain (p<0.001). The need for postoperatively given analgetics was almost 50% less, and the cost of all postoperative analgetics was 47% less than in the control group. In total hip and knee replacement surgeries the modified local infiltration analgesia decreases postoperative pain effectively and contribute to the early mobilization of the patients. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(9), 352-357.

  3. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  4. Total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb., an Indian medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Sen, Saikat; De, Biplab; Devanna, N; Chakraborty, Raja

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of different leaf extracts of Meyna spinosa Roxb. ex Link, a traditional medicinal plant of India. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential of the methanol, ethyl acetate, and petroleum ether extracts of Meyna spinosa leaves were investigated using several in vitro and ex vivo assays, including the 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, superoxide anion scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, nitric oxide radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, metal chelating assay, and reducing power ability method. Total antioxidant activity of the extracts was estimated by the ferric thiocyanate method. Inhibition assay of lipid peroxidation and oxidative hemolysis were also performed to confirm the protective effect of the extracts. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were estimated using standard chemical assay procedures. Methanol extracts showed the highest polyphenolic content and possessed the better antioxidant activity than the other two extracts. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the methanol extract were (90.08 ± 0.44) mg gallic acid equivalents/g and (58.50 ± 0.09) mg quercetin equivalents/g, respectively. The IC50 of the methanol extract in the DPPH(·), superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and metal chelating assays were (16.4 ± 0.41), (35.9 ± 0.19), (24.1 ± 0.33), (23.7 ± 0.09), (126.8 ± 2.92), and (117.2 ± 1.01) μg·mL(-1), respectively. The methanol extract showed potent reducing power ability, total antioxidant activity, and significantly inhibit lipid peroxidation and oxidative hemolysis which was similar to that of standards. The results indicated a direct correlation between the antioxidant activity and the polyphenolic content of the extracts, which may the foremost

  5. The Elementary School as a Total Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Thomas; Langenbach, Michael

    The proliferation of additional responsibilities in health, welfare, and recreation suggests the justification of the conceptualization of the elementary school as a total institution. This research was undertaken to investigate the application of Goffman's concept of total institution to the public elementary school. An exploratory field study…

  6. 42 CFR 412.110 - Total Medicare payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Payments to Hospitals Under the Prospective Payment Systems § 412.110 Total Medicare payment. Under the prospective payment systems, Medicare... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Total Medicare payment. 412.110 Section 412.110...

  7. Total prompt γ-ray emission in fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.; Kwan, E.; Henderson, R. A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A. C.; Lee, H. Y.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2017-09-01

    The total prompt γ-ray energy distributions were measured for the neutron-induced fission of 235U, 239,241Pu at incident neutron energy of 0.025 eV-100 keV, and the spontaneous fission of 252Cf using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) array in coincidence with the detection of fission fragments by a parallel-plate avalanche counter. Corrections were made to the measured distribution by unfolding the two-dimension spectrum of total prompt γ-ray energy vs multiplicity using a simulated DANCE response matrix. A summary of this work is presented with the emphasis on the comparison of total prompt fission γ-ray energy between our results and previous ones. The mean values of the total prompt γ-ray energy ⟨Eγ,tot⟩, determined from the unfolded distributions, are ˜20% higher than those derived from measurements using single γ-ray detector for all the fissile nuclei studied.

  8. Total Quality Management Implementation: Selected Readings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    October 1986; Kaoru Ishikawa , Watj is Total Quality Control? The Japanese Way (Englewood Cliffs, NJ.r Prentice Hall, Inc. 1985), pp. 59-71 and chapter 7...and teachings of Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa and Prcfess:- Yoshikazu Tsuda. In their presentations I find ideas which conflict with current belie’s in t- s cou...responsible for S. Kaoru Ishikawa . 147iat is Total Quahn Control’ Th, Japar,,I the safety of all passengers and their belongings. w. (Englewood Hills. NJ

  9. Environmental and personal determinants of the uptake of disinfection by-products during swimming.

    PubMed

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Schmalz, Christina; Zwiener, Christian; Marco, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiangru; Mitch, William; Critelli, Rossana; Naccarati, Alessio; Heederik, Dick; Spithoven, Jack; Arjona, Lourdes; de Bont, Jeroen; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Villanueva, Cristina M

    2016-08-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) in exhaled breath and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in urine are internal dose biomarkers of exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools. We assessed how these biomarkers reflect the levels of a battery of DBPs in pool water and trichloramine in air, and evaluated personal determinants. A total of 116 adults swam during 40min in a chlorinated indoor pool. We measured chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform in exhaled breath and TCAA in urine before and after swimming, trichloramine in air and several DBPs in water. Personal determinants included sex, age, body mass index (BMI), distance swum, energy expenditure, heart rate and 12 polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTZ1 and CYP2E1 genes. Median level of exhaled total THMs and creatinine adjusted urine TCAA increased from 0.5 to 14.4µg/m(3) and from 2.5 to 5.8µmol/mol after swimming, respectively. The increase in exhaled brominated THMs was correlated with brominated THMs, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloramines, total organic carbon and total organic halogen in water and trichloramine in air. Such correlations were not detected for exhaled chloroform, total THMs or urine TCAA. Exhaled THM increased more in men, urine TCAA increased more in women, and both were affected by exercise intensity. Genetic variants were associated with differential increases in exposure biomarkers. Our findings suggest that, although affected by sex, physical activity and polymorphisms in key metabolizing enzymes, brominated THMs in exhaled breath could be used as a non-invasive DBP exposure biomarker in swimming pools with bromide-containing source waters. This warrants confirmation with new studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of clinical pathways for total knee and total hip arthroplasty: literature review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Stephen; Losina, Elena; Solomon, Daniel H; Wright, John; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2003-01-01

    Although many hospitals have implemented clinical pathways to standardize the process of care, the effectiveness of clinical pathways for total hip and knee arthroplasties has not been reviewed critically. We searched for articles comparing outcomes of total hip or knee arthroplasty for patients who were treated using clinical pathways as opposed to patients treated without these pathways. Eleven studies met criteria for inclusion. Ten used historical controls, and 1 was a randomized trial. The studies had important methodological limitations. In general, the articles showed that patients treated using pathways experienced shorter hospital stays and lower costs, with comparable clinical outcomes as compared with patients treated without clinical pathways. We concluded that clinical pathways appear successful in reducing costs and length of stay in the acute care hospital, with no compromise in patient outcomes. However, interpretation of these studies is complicated by substantial methodological limitations, particularly the use of historical controls and failure to account for length of stay in rehabilitation facilities. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  11. Development of Software Sensors for Determining Total Phosphorus and Total Nitrogen in Waters

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunhyoung; Han, Sanghoon; Kim, Hyunook

    2013-01-01

    Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations are important parameters to assess the quality of water bodies and are used as criteria to regulate the water quality of the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Korea. Therefore, continuous monitoring of TN and TP using in situ instruments is conducted nationwide in Korea. However, most in situ instruments in the market are expensive and require a time-consuming sample pretreatment step, which hinders the widespread use of in situ TN and TP monitoring. In this study, therefore, software sensors based on multiple-regression with a few easily in situ measurable water quality parameters were applied to estimate the TN and TP concentrations in a stream, a lake, combined sewer overflows (CSOs), and WWTP effluent. In general, the developed software sensors predicted TN and TP concentrations of the WWTP effluent and CSOs reasonably well. However, they showed relatively lower predictability for TN and TP concentrations of stream and lake waters, possibly because the water quality of stream and lake waters is more variable than that of WWTP effluent or CSOs. PMID:23307350

  12. Totally implantable system for peritoneal access.

    PubMed

    Pfeifle, C E; Howell, S B; Markman, M; Lucas, W E

    1984-11-01

    A totally implantable system for providing access to the peritoneal cavity was evaluated. Fifty-six Port-A-Cath (Pharmacia Nu Tech, Piscataway, NJ) peritoneal access systems were implanted in 54 cancer patients receiving intraperitoneal chemotherapy. The catheters are accessed by transcutaneous placement of a Huber point needle through a silicone septum at the top of the portal. A total of 32 patient years of experience are reported. The Port-A-Caths have been in place for a median of 22 weeks (range, one to 85). A total of 401 entries have been made for paracentesis, chemotherapy administration, antibiotic administration, peritoneal lavage for cytology, and catheter flushing. There have been six episodes of peritonitis (five Staphylococcus epidermidis, one S aureus) in three patients. There have been no mechanical failures of the Port-A-Caths. Loss of bidirectional flow through the catheter due to fibrin deposition about the catheter has been the major cause of catheter failure. Patient acceptance of the Port-A-Cath has been excellent.

  13. Effects of the Length of Stay on the Cost of Total Knee and Total Hip Arthroplasty from 2002 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Ilda B; Martin, Brook I; Moschetti, Wayne E; Jevsevar, David S

    2017-03-01

    Utilization of total knee and hip arthroplasty has greatly increased in the past decade in the United States; these are among the most expensive procedures in patients with Medicare. Advances in surgical techniques, anesthesia, and care pathways decrease hospital length of stay. We examined how trends in hospital cost were altered by decreases in length of stay. Procedure, demographic, and economic data were collected on 6.4 million admissions for total knee arthroplasty and 2.8 million admissions for total hip arthroplasty from 2002 to 2013 using the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample, a component of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Trends in mean hospital costs and their association with length of stay were estimated using inflation-adjusted, survey-weighted generalized linear regression models, controlling for patient demographic characteristics and comorbidity. From 2002 to 2013, the length of stay decreased from a mean time of 4.06 to 2.97 days for total knee arthroplasty and from 4.06 to 2.75 days for total hip arthroplasty. During the same time period, the mean hospital cost for total knee arthroplasty increased from $14,988 (95% confidence interval [CI], $14,927 to $15,049) in 2002 to $22,837 (95% CI, $22,765 to $22,910) in 2013 (an overall increase of $7,849 or 52.4%). The mean hospital cost for total hip arthroplasty increased from $15,792 (95% CI, $15,706 to $15,878) in 2002 to $23,650 (95% CI, $23,544 to $23,755) in 2013 (an increase of $7,858 or 49.8%). If length of stay were set at the 2002 mean, the growth in cost for total knee arthroplasty would have been 70.8% instead of 52.4% as observed, and the growth in cost for total hip arthroplasty would have been 67.4% instead of 49.8% as observed. Hospital costs for joint replacement increased from 2002 to 2013, but were attenuated by reducing inpatient length of stay. With demographic characteristics showing an upward trend in the utilization of joint arthroplasty, including a shift

  14. Failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    Leta, Tesfaye H; Lygre, Stein Håkon L; Skredderstuen, Arne; Hallan, Geir; Furnes, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose In Norway, the proportion of revision knee arthroplasties increased from 6.9% in 1994 to 8.5% in 2011. However, there is limited information on the epidemiology and causes of subsequent failure of revision knee arthroplasty. We therefore studied survival rate and determined the modes of failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties. Method This study was based on 1,016 aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register between 1994 and 2011. Revisions done for infections were not included. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the survival rate and the relative risk of re-revision with all causes of re-revision as endpoint. Results 145 knees failed after revision total knee arthroplasty. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of re-revision (28%), followed by instability (26%), loose tibial component (17%), and pain (10%). The cumulative survival rate for revision total knee arthroplasties was 85% at 5 years, 78% at 10 years, and 71% at 15 years. Revision total knee arthroplasties with exchange of the femoral or tibial component exclusively had a higher risk of re-revision (RR = 1.7) than those with exchange of the whole prosthesis. The risk of re-revision was higher for men (RR = 2.0) and for patients aged less than 60 years (RR = 1.6). Interpretation In terms of implant survival, revision of the whole implant was better than revision of 1 component only. Young age and male sex were risk factors for re-revision. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of failure of revision of aseptic total knee arthroplasties. PMID:25267502

  15. Total Synthesis of Jiadifenolide**

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Ian; Xuan, Mengyang; Dalby, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As a potent neurotrophic agent, the sesquiterpenoid jiadifenolide represents a valuable small-molecule lead for the potential therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. A stereocontrolled total synthesis of this densely functionalized natural product is reported, central to which is an adventurous samarium-mediated cyclization reaction to establish the tricyclic core and the adjacent C5 and C6 quaternary stereocenters. PMID:24861364

  16. Total Dose Survivability of Hubble Electronic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Stauffer, C.; Jordan, T.; Poivey, C.; Haskins, D. N.; Lum, G.; Pergosky, A. M.; Smith, D. C.; LaBel, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    A total dose analysis for exposure of electronic parts at the box level is presented for the Hubble Space Telescope. This was done using solid angle sectoring/3-dimensional ray trace and Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. Results are discussed in terms of parts that are potential total dose concerns.

  17. 26 CFR 1.801-5 - Total reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-5 Total reserves. (a) Total reserves defined. For... the reserve is claimed. For example, during the taxable year 1958 a life insurance company sells life... insurance company may be illustrated by the following example: Example. The books of Y, an insurance company...

  18. 26 CFR 1.801-5 - Total reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-5 Total reserves. (a) Total reserves defined. For purposes of... claimed. For example, during the taxable year 1958 a life insurance company sells life insurance and... insurance company may be illustrated by the following example: Example. The books of Y, an insurance company...

  19. 26 CFR 1.801-5 - Total reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-5 Total reserves. (a) Total reserves defined. For... the reserve is claimed. For example, during the taxable year 1958 a life insurance company sells life... insurance company may be illustrated by the following example: Example. The books of Y, an insurance company...

  20. 26 CFR 1.801-5 - Total reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-5 Total reserves. (a) Total reserves defined. For... the reserve is claimed. For example, during the taxable year 1958 a life insurance company sells life... insurance company may be illustrated by the following example: Example. The books of Y, an insurance company...

  1. 26 CFR 1.801-5 - Total reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-5 Total reserves. (a) Total reserves defined. For... the reserve is claimed. For example, during the taxable year 1958 a life insurance company sells life... insurance company may be illustrated by the following example: Example. The books of Y, an insurance company...

  2. 20 CFR 606.2 - Total credits allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total credits allowable. 606.2 Section 606.2 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS UNDER THE... credits allowable. The total credits allowed to an employer subject to the tax imposed by section 3301 of...

  3. Stapler-assisted closure in total laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Anand, Akash G

    2013-01-01

    The total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure that requires technically sound reconstruction in order to preserve a patient's swallowing function. Traditionally, a handsewn technique has been utilized to accomplish this endeavor. Recent applications of surgical stapling devices have been noted in an attempt to circumvent the need for handsewn reconstruction. This paper documents the application of a surgical stapling device in reconstructing a total laryngectomy defect. A brief review of the literature is provided to compare the differences between handsewn techniques and stapling techniques.

  4. Bilateral transaxillary endoscopic total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Miyano, Go; Lobe, Thom E; Wright, Simon K

    2008-02-01

    Minimal-access thyroid surgery using various techniques is well described. The present study reviews our initial experience with total thyroidectomy using a robotic-assisted bilateral transaxillary endoscopic approach (R-BAEA) and a non-robotic-assisted bilateral transaxillary endoscopic approach (BAEA) to assess it's safety and feasibility. The study group was 13 consecutive patients who were candidates for total thyroidectomy with benign thyroid disease. Two young adult patients who were older than 20 years and 2 teenage patients who underwent a transaxillary endoscopic thyroid lobectomy were excluded from this study that was composed of 9 children. A detailed description of the surgical technique is provided. Eight patients were female and one was male. The mean age was 13.5 +/- 3.0 years. Two R-BAEAs and 7 BAEAs were performed. The initial diagnosis was Graves disease in all 9 cases. The mean operating time was 385 minutes (range, 364-407 minutes) for R-BAEA and 259 minutes (range, 135-385 minutes) for BAEA. The mean diameter of the resected specimens was 5.9 cm (range, 4.5-8.3 cm); the mean intraoperative blood loss was 15.0 mL (range, 10-30 mL). The recurrent laryngeal nerve and parathyroid glands were identified and preserved intact in all cases. No patients required conversion. There was one instance of postoperative wound erythema, and 2 patients experienced hypocalcemia that resolved spontaneously. Two patients with large glands experienced a transient postoperative hoarseness. The mean total postoperative morphine dose administered in the first 24 hours was 1.5 mg (range, 0-4 mg). Postoperative pain was minimal, and cosmetic results were considered excellent by all patients. All except one were discharged the day after surgery and returned immediately to normal activities. Total thyroidectomy using BAEA with or without robotic assistance is feasible and safe. The advantages of this approach are no cervical scar, no significant morbidity, less

  5. Total quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louzon, E.

    1989-12-01

    Quality, cost, and schedule are three factors affecting the competitiveness of a company; they require balancing so that products of acceptable quality are delivered, on time and at a competitive cost. Quality costs comprise investment in quality maintenance and failure costs which arise from failure to maintain standards. The basic principle for achieving the required quality at minimum cost is that of prevention of failures, etc., through production control, attention to manufacturing practices, and appropriate management and training. Total quality control involves attention to the product throughout its life cycle, including in-service performance evaluation, servicing, and maintenance.

  6. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Rana, Ziaul Hasan; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-09-14

    In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC) and total polyphenol content (TPC). Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Sweet Potato 7 (SP7) contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  7. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Rana, Ziaul Hasan; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC) and total polyphenol content (TPC). Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Sweet Potato 7 (SP7) contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition. PMID:28231159

  8. Effects of different components of Mao Dongqing's total flavonoids and total saponins on transient ischemic attack (TIA) model of rats.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ming-San; Peng, Meng-Fan; Ma, Rui-Juan; Bai, Ming; Liu, Bao-Song

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To study the effects of the different components of the total flavonoids and total saponins from Mao Dongqing's active site on the rats of TIA model, determine the optimal reactive components ratio of Mao Dongqing on the rats of TIA. Methods: TIA rat model was induced by tail vein injection of tert butyl alcohol, the blank group was injected with the same amount of physiological saline, then behavioral score wasevaluated. Determination the level of glutamic acid in serum, the activity of Na+-K+-ATP enzyme, CA ++ -ATP enzyme and Mg ++ -ATP enzyme in Brain tissue, observe the changes of hippocampus in brain tissue, the comprehensive weight method was used to evaluate the efficacy of each component finally. Results: The contents of total flavonoids and total saponins in the active part of Mao Dongqing can significantly improve the pathological changes of brain tissue in rats, improve the activity of Na + -K + -ATP enzyme, Ca ++ -ATP enzyme and Mg ++ -ATP enzyme in the brain of rats, and reduce the level of glutamic acid in serum. The most significant of the contents was the ratio of 10:6. The different proportions of total flavonoids and total saponins in the active part of Mao Dongqing all has a better effect on the rats with TIA, and the ratio of 10:6 is the best active component for preventing and controlling TIA.

  9. Developing LED UV fluorescence sensors for online monitoring DOM and predicting DBPs formation potential during water treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Tao; Jin, Jing; Li, Qiang; Wu, Chen-Fei; Lu, Hai; Zhou, Qing; Li, Ai-Min

    2016-04-15

    Online monitoring dissolved organic matter (DOM) is urgent for water treatment management. In this study, high performance size exclusion chromatography with multi-UV absorbance and multi-emission fluorescence scans were applied to spectrally characterize samples from 16 drinking water sources across Yangzi River and Huai River Watersheds. The UV absorbance indices at 254 nm and 280 nm referred to the same DOM components and concentration, and the 280 nm UV light could excite both protein-like and humic-like fluorescence. Hence a novel UV fluorescence sensor was developed out using only one UV280 light-emitting diode (LED) as light source. For all samples, enhanced coagulation was mainly effective for large molecular weight biopolymers; while anion exchange further substantially removed humic substances. During chlorination tests, UVA280 and UVA254 showed similar correlations with yields of disinfection byproducts (DBPs); the humic-like fluorescence obtained from LED sensors correlated well with both trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids yields, while the correlation between protein-like fluorescence and trihalomethanes was relatively poor. Anion exchange exhibited more reduction of DBPs yields as well as UV absorbance and fluorescence signals than enhanced coagulation. The results suggest that the LED UV fluorescence sensors are very promising for online monitoring DOM and predicting DBPs formation potential during water treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biological Treatment of Water Disinfection Byproducts using ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Major disinfection by-products (DBPs) from the chlorination process of drinking water include trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acides (HAA5). THMs mainly consist of chloroform, and other harsh chemicals. Prolonged consumptions of drinking water containing high levels of THMs has been linked with diseases of the liver, kidneys, bladder, or central nervous system and may increase likelihood of cancer. A risk also exists for THMs exposure via inhalation while showering, bathing or washing clothes and dishes. Due to these risks, the U.S. EPA regulate THMs content in drinking water. This research investigates biological degradation of THM using chloroform as a model compound. The study aims to decrease possible risks of THMs through filtration. Throughout this year’s presentations, there is a common theme of health and safety concerns. UC researchers are working hard to clean water ways of naturally occurring contaminates as well as man-made toxins found in our waterways. The significance of these presentations translates into the promise of safer environments, and more importantly saved lives, as UC’s faculty continues to produce real-world solutions to problems threatening the world around us. A biotech process has been developed and demonstrated that effectively remove and treat volatile disinfection by-products from drinking water. The process strips low concentration disinfection by-products, such as trihalomethanes, that are formed during the chlori

  11. Disinfection byproduct formation from chlorination of pure bacterial cells and pipeline biofilms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jian; Liu, Xin; Ng, Tsz Wai; Xiao, Jie-Wen; Chow, Alex T; Wong, Po Keung

    2013-05-15

    Disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation is commonly attributed to the reaction between natural organic matters and disinfectants, yet few have considered the contribution from disinfecting bacterial materials - the essential process of water disinfection. Here, we explored the DBP formation from chlorination and chloramination of Escherichia coli and found that most selected DBPs were detectable, including trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, chloral hydrate, chloropicrin, and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-propanone. A positive correlation (P = 0.08-0.09) between DBP formation and the log reduction of E. coli implied that breaking down of bacterial cells released precursors for DBP formation. As Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a dominant bacterial species in pipeline biofilms, the DBP formation potentials (DBPFPs) from its planktonic cells and biofilms were characterized. Planktonic cells formed 7-11 times greater trihalomethanes per carbon of those from biofilms but significantly lower (P < 0.05) chloral hydrate, highlighting the bacterial phenotype's impact on the bacteria-derived DBPFP. Pipe material appeared to affect the DBPFP of bacteria, with 4-28% lower bromine incorporation factor for biofilms on polyvinyl chloride compared to that on galvanized zinc. This study revealed both the in situ disinfection of bacterial planktonic cells in source water and ex situ reaction between biofilms and residual chlorine in pipeline networks as hitherto unknown DBP sources in drinking water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Total Quality Management in Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallis, Edward

    Quality is at the top of most agendas, and improving quality is probably the most important task facing any institution. In addition, quality is difficult to define or measure. This book, the second edition of "Total Quality Management in Education," introduces the key concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM) and demonstrates how they…

  13. 12 CFR 932.2 - Total capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Total capital requirement. 932.2 Section 932.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.2 Total capital requirement. (a) Each Bank shall...

  14. 12 CFR 932.2 - Total capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Total capital requirement. 932.2 Section 932.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.2 Total capital requirement. (a) Each Bank shall...

  15. An Operational Perspective of Total Lightning Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, David J.; Darden, Christopher B.; Stano, Geoffrey; Buechler, Dennis E.

    2009-01-01

    The close and productive collaborations between the NWS Warning and Forecast Office, the Short Term Prediction and Research Transition Center at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville have provided a unique opportunity for science sharing and technology transfer. One significant technology transfer that has provided immediate benefits to NWS forecast and warning operations is the use of data from the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array. This network consists of ten VHF receivers deployed across northern Alabama and a base station located at the National Space Science and Technology Center. Preliminary investigations done at WFO Huntsville, along with other similar total lightning networks across the country, have shown distinct correlations between the time rate-of-change of total lightning and trends in intensity/severity of the parent convective cell. Since May 2003 when WFO HUN began receiving these data - in conjunction with other more traditional remotely sensed data (radar, satellite, and surface observations) -- have improved the situational awareness of the WFO staff. The use of total lightning information, either from current ground based systems or future space borne instrumentation, may substantially contribute to the NWS mission, by enhancing severe weather warning and decision-making processes. Operational use of the data has been maximized at WFO Huntsville through a process that includes forecaster training, product implementation, and post event analysis and assessments. Since receiving these data, over 50 surveys have been completed highlighting the use of total lightning information during significant events across the Tennessee Valley. In addition, around 150 specific cases of interest have been archived for collaborative post storm analysis. From these datasets, detailed trending information from radar and total lightning can be compared to corresponding damage reports. This presentation will emphasize

  16. Imaging Total Stations - Modular and Integrated Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauth, Stefan; Schlüter, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Keywords: 3D-Metrology, Engineering Geodesy, Digital Image Processing Initialized in 2009, the Institute for Spatial Information and Surveying Technology i3mainz, Mainz University of Applied Sciences, forces research towards modular concepts for imaging total stations. On the one hand, this research is driven by the successful setup of high precision imaging motor theodolites in the near past, on the other hand it is pushed by the actual introduction of integrated imaging total stations to the positioning market by the manufacturers Topcon and Trimble. Modular concepts for imaging total stations are manufacturer independent to a large extent and consist of a particular combination of accessory hardware, software and algorithmic procedures. The hardware part consists mainly of an interchangeable eyepiece adapter offering opportunities for digital imaging and motorized focus control. An easy assembly and disassembly in the field is possible allowing the user to switch between the classical and the imaging use of a robotic total station. The software part primarily has to ensure hardware control, but several level of algorithmic support might be added and have to be distinguished. Algorithmic procedures allow to reach several levels of calibration concerning the geometry of the external digital camera and the total station. We deliver insight in our recent developments and quality characteristics. Both the modular and the integrated approach seem to have its individual strengths and weaknesses. Therefore we expect that both approaches might point at different target applications. Our aim is a better understanding of appropriate applications for robotic imaging total stations. First results are presented. Stefan Hauth, Martin Schlüter i3mainz - Institut für Raumbezogene Informations- und Messtechnik FH Mainz University of Applied Sciences Lucy-Hillebrand-Straße 2, 55128 Mainz, Germany

  17. DLA-X Total Quality Management (TQM) Implementation Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    PAGES TOM (Total Quality Management ), Continuous Process Improvement.( .) 4L-- Administration 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY...NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Pr.-cr,bed by ANSI Std ,,fl.f 296-102 DLA-X TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) IMPLEMENTATION PLAN o...application of proven Total Quality Management techniques. Quality Policy: Responsibility for quality is delegated to every employee ;11 DLA-X. Every

  18. 40 CFR 141.628 - Requirements for remaining on increased TTHM and HAA5 monitoring based on subpart L results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.628 Requirements for remaining on...

  19. 40 CFR 141.628 - Requirements for remaining on increased TTHM and HAA5 monitoring based on subpart L results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.628 Requirements for remaining on...

  20. 40 CFR 141.628 - Requirements for remaining on increased TTHM and HAA5 monitoring based on subpart L results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.628 Requirements for remaining on...

  1. 40 CFR 141.628 - Requirements for remaining on increased TTHM and HAA5 monitoring based on subpart L results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.628 Requirements for remaining on...

  2. 40 CFR 141.628 - Requirements for remaining on increased TTHM and HAA5 monitoring based on subpart L results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.628 Requirements for remaining on...

  3. Total renin after gonadotropin stimulation in polycystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Matinlauri, I; Anttila, L; Jaatinen, T A; Koskinen, P; Aalto, M; Irjala, K; Nikkanen, V

    1995-02-01

    To examine the influence of polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) on the levels of total renin in plasma and follicular fluid (FF) after stimulation with hMG. Comparative study of the plasma and FF concentrations of total renin in women with and without PCOD after stimulation with hMG. In vitro fertilization-embryo transfer program at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the University Central Hospital of Turku, Finland. Thirty-six women undergoing IVF-ET for infertility with (n = 10) or without (n = 26) ultrasonographically diagnosed PCOD. Of the latter group, 15 women had tubal infertility, and the rest suffered from an anovulatory infertility and reacted with PCO-like ovarian response to stimulation. The concentrations of total renin in plasma and FF, serum E2, and protein in FF. The concentrations of plasma total renin after the gonadotropin stimulation were significantly higher in the PCOD and PCO-like groups when compared with the tubal group. The concentration of total renin in FF and the ratio of total renin per protein in FF were higher in the PCOD and PCO-like groups than in the tubal group, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Positive correlations were found between the plasma total renin and serum E2 concentrations in the PCO-like and in the tubal group and between plasma total renin concentrations and the number of mature follicles in all groups. Follicular fluid total renin did not correlate with FF protein in any group. All findings were independent of the total hMG dosage used and the body mass index of the patients. In the present study the concentrations of total renin in plasma were enhanced markedly after gonadotropin stimulation in women with PCOD compared with women having tubal infertility. The pattern of the hormonal secretions revealed a group of infertile patients reacting biochemically like women with PCOD.

  4. Predictors of perioperative blood loss in total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Park, Jai Hyung; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Mortazavi, S M Javad; Tokarski, Anthony T; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Parvizi, Javad

    2013-10-02

    UPDATE The print version of this article has errors that have been corrected in the online version of this article. In the Materials and Methods section, the sentence that reads as "During the study period, our institution offered preoperative autologous blood donation to all patients who were scheduling for total joint arthroplasty with a hemoglobin level of no less than 11 mg/dL or a hematocrit level of at least 33%." in the print version now reads as "During the study period, our institution offered preoperative autologous blood donation to all patients who were scheduling for total joint arthroplasty with a hemoglobin level of no less than 11 g/dL or a hematocrit level of at least 33%." in the online version. In Table III, the footnote that reads as "The values are given as the estimate and the standard error in milligrams per deciliter." in the print version now reads as "The values are given as the estimate and the standard error in grams per deciliter." in the online version. Despite advances in surgical and anesthetic techniques, lower-extremity total joint arthroplasty is associated with considerable perioperative blood loss. As predictors of perioperative blood loss and allogenic blood transfusion have not yet been well defined, the purpose of this study was to identify clinical predictors for perioperative blood loss and allogenic blood transfusion in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty. From 2000 to 2008, all patients undergoing unilateral primary total hip or knee arthroplasty who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Perioperative blood loss was calculated with use of a previously validated formula. The predictors of perioperative blood loss and allogenic blood transfusion were identified in a multivariate analysis. Eleven thousand three hundred and seventy-three patients who underwent total joint arthroplasty, including 4769 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty and 6604 patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty

  5. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, J.T.; Kunz, W.E.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.

    1982-07-07

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fission are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for /sup 239/Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

  6. BROMINATED TRIHALOMETHANE (BrTHM) TOXICITY IN HUMAN BLADDER CELL LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiology studies have consistently found that greater exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is associated with an increased risk for bladder cancer. In 2010, Cantor et al. (Environ. Health Perspect. 118: 1545) reported that this increased risk was depende...

  7. Total medical costs of treating femoral neck fracture patients with hemi- or total hip arthroplasty: a cost analysis of a multicenter prospective study.

    PubMed

    Burgers, P T P W; Hoogendoorn, M; Van Woensel, E A C; Poolman, R W; Bhandari, M; Patka, P; Van Lieshout, E M M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the total medical costs for treating displaced femoral neck fractures with hemi- or total hip arthroplasty in fit elderly patients. The mean total costs per patient at 2 years of follow-up were €26,399. These results contribute to cost awareness. The absolute number of hip fractures is rising and increases the already significant burden on society. The aim of this study was to determine the mean total medical costs per patient for treating displaced femoral neck fractures with hemi- or total hip arthroplasty in fit elderly patients. The population was the Dutch sample of an international randomized controlled trial consisting of femoral neck fracture patients treated with hemi- or total hip arthroplasty. Patient data and health care utilization were prospectively collected during a total follow-up period of 2 years. Costs were separated into costs for hospital care during primary stay, hospital costs for clinical follow-up, and costs generated outside the hospital during rehabilitation. Multiple imputations were used to account for missing data. Data of 141 participants (mean age 81 years) were included in the analysis. The 2-year mortality rate was 19 %. The mean total cost per patient after 10 weeks of follow-up was €15,216. After 1 and 2 years of follow-up the mean total costs were €23,869 and €26,399, respectively. Rehabilitation was the main cost determinant, and accounted for 46 % of total costs. Primary hospital admission days accounted for 22 % of the total costs, index surgery for 11 %, and physical therapy for 7 %. The main cost determinants for hemi- or total hip arthroplasty after treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures (€26,399 per patient until 2 years) were rehabilitation and nursing homes. Most of the costs were made in the first year. Reducing costs after hip fracture surgery should focus on improving the duration and efficiency of the rehabilitation phase.

  8. Improved estimates of filtered total mercury loadings and total mercury concentrations of solids from potential sources to Sinclair Inlet, Kitsap County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Conn, Kathleen E.; DeWild, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations examined sources and sinks of mercury to Sinclair Inlet based on historic and new data. This included an evaluation of mercury concentrations from various sources and mercury loadings from industrial discharges and groundwater flowing from the Bremerton naval complex to Sinclair Inlet. This report provides new data from four potential sources of mercury to Sinclair Inlet: (1) filtered and particulate total mercury concentrations of creek water during the wet season, (2) filtered and particulate total mercury releases from the Navy steam plant following changes in the water softening process and discharge operations, (3) release of mercury from soils to groundwater in two landfill areas at the Bremerton naval complex, and (4) total mercury concentrations of solids in dry dock sumps that were not affected by bias from sequential sampling. The previous estimate of the loading of filtered total mercury from Sinclair Inlet creeks was based solely on dry season samples. Concentrations of filtered total mercury in creek samples collected during wet weather were significantly higher than dry weather concentrations, which increased the estimated loading of filtered total mercury from creek basins from 27.1 to 78.1 grams per year. Changes in the concentrations and loading of filtered and particulate total mercury in the effluent of the steam plant were investigated after the water softening process was changed from ion-exchange to reverse osmosis and the discharge of stack blow-down wash began to be diverted to the municipal water-treatment plant. These changes reduced the concentrations of filtered and particulate total mercury from the steam plant of the Bremerton naval complex, which resulted in reduced loadings of filtered total mercury from 5.9 to 0.15 grams per year. Previous investigations identified three fill areas on the Bremerton naval complex, of which the western fill area is thought to be the largest source of mercury on the base

  9. Z3 -vertex magic total labeling and Z3 -edge magic total labelingfor the extended duplicate graph of quadrilateral snake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indira, P.; Selvam, B.; Thirusangu, K.

    2018-04-01

    Based on the works of Kotzig, Rosa and MacDougall et.al., we present algorithms and prove the existence of Z3-vertex magic total labeling and Z3-edge magic total labeling for the extended duplicate graph of quadrilateral snake.

  10. Total brain death: a reply to Alan Shewmon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Patrick; GriseZ, Germain

    2012-06-01

    D. Alan Shewmon has advanced a well-documented challenge to the widely accepted total brain death criterion for death of the human being. We show that Shewmon’s argument against this criterion is unsound, though he does refute the standard argument for that criterion. We advance a distinct argument for the total brain death criterion and answer likely objections. Since human beings are rational animals--sentient organisms of a specific type--the loss of the radical capacity for sentience (the capacity to sense or to develop the capacity to sense) involves a substantial change, the passing away of the human organism. In human beings total brain death involves the complete loss of the radical capacity for sentience, and so in human beings total brain death is death.

  11. [Contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins as well as composition of saponin monomers of Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chang-ling; Yang, Sheng-chao; Chen, Zhong-jian; Shen, Yong; Wei, Fu-gang; Wang, Wu; Long, Ting-ju

    2014-10-01

    The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins as well as the composition of saponin monomers of Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were studied to compare the medicinal quality and commercial values. Three-year-old Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma was selected as the research materials. The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins were determined by spectrophotometry. The compositions of saponin monomers were monitored by HPLC. The significance of content differences was determined by variance analysis. The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizomawere about 204.85% and 33.86% higher than those of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. The Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma both contained five saponin monomers whose contents were as follows: ginsenoside Rg1 > ginsenoside Rb1 > notoginsenoside R1 > ginsenoside Rd > ginsenoside Re. The contents of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were about 16.03%, 10.83% and 5.39% higher than those of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. However, the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were about 0.93% and 3.33% higher than those of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. With respect to Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, the increase of the total anthocyanins in Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma reached a significant level, but the increases of total saponins, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re and the decreases of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 did not. The total anthocyanins accumulation in Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma implies the content increases of the total saponins, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re, and the slight decreases of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 contents; but the type and relative contents of saponin monomers remain unchanged. The medicinal

  12. Total synthesis of teixobactin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-08-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product.

  13. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    NASA employees and contractors use protective glasses to view a partial solar eclipse from NASA Headquarters Monday, Aug. 21, 2017 in Washington. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Gwen Pitman)

  14. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-22

    NASA employees and contractors use protective glasses to view a partial solar eclipse from NASA Headquarters Tuesday, Aug. 22, 2017 in Washington. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Gwen Pitman)

  15. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    Robert Lightfoot, acting NASA administrator and Thomas Zurbuchen NASA AA for the science mission directorate view a partial eclipse solar eclipse Monday, August 21, 2017, from onboard a NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center’s Gulfstream III 35,000 feet above the Oregon Coast. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Thomas)

  16. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    This composite image of nine pictures shows the progression of a partial solar eclipse near Banner, Wyoming on Monday, Aug. 21, 2017. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  17. Defense Depot Mechanicsburg Total Quality Management Implementation Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    B T I TLEE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS Defense Depot Mechanicsburg Total Quality Management Implementation Plan 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) L296- 102 Acces.ion For NYI J ... I:: ted DEFENSE DEPOT MECHANICSBURG PENNSYLVANIAL--I By_ TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT K_~ t buty-n...IMPLEMENTATION PLAN Avmail-t!Ilty Codes IvLl c 2Dd/or JUN 3 0 1989 iDizt Special PURPOSE The purpose of this Total Quality Management Implementation

  18. Total Quality Management Implementation Plan Defense Depot Memphis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    W.ungilon. 0 t :0.O. )RT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED I July 1989 _ 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Total Quality Management Implementation...improvement goals, implementation strategy and milestones. 6’ SEP 291989 /; ELECTE i= E 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES TQM (Total Quality Management ), Depot...changing work environment where change is the norm. We are talking about changes in attitudes and habits. Total Quality Management is not a panacea

  19. Total Quality Management Implementation Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Quality Management Implementation Plan 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Defense General...E 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES TOM (Total Quality Management ), Continuous Process Improvement,_________ Depot Operations, Supply Support 16

  20. Total Solar Eclipse of 2008 August 01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, F.; Anderson, J.

    2007-01-01

    On 2008 August 01, a total eclipse of the Sun is visible from within a narrow corridor that traverses half the Earth. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in northern Canada and extends across Greenland, the Arctic, central Russia, Mongolia, and China. A partial eclipse is seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes northeastern North America, most of Europe and Asia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 308 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  1. [Eleven-Year Experience with Total Ankle Arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Popelka, S; Sosna, A; Vavřík, P; Jahoda, D; Barták, V; Landor, I

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Total joint replacement is one of the options in surgical treatment of advanced ankle arthritis. It allows the ankle to remain mobile but, unfortunately, it does not provide the same longevity as total knee or hip replacements. Therefore, decisions concerning the kind of treatment are very individual and depend on the clinical status and opinion of each patient. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 132 total ankle replacements were carried out in the period from 2004 to 2015. The prostheses used included the Ankle Evolutive System (AES) in 52 patients, Mobility Total Ankle System (DePuy) in 24 patients and, recently, Rebalance Total Ankle Replacement implant in 53 patients. Three patients allergic to metal received the Taric prosthesis. Revision arthroplasty using the Hintegra prosthesis was carried out in four patients. The outcome of arthroplasty was evaluated on the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scoring scale. Indications for total ankle arthroplasty included post-traumatic arthritis in 83 patients, rheumatoid arthritis in 37 and primary arthritis in 12 patients. There were 78 women and 54 men, with an average age of 55.6 years at the time of surgery. RESULTS The average follow-up was 6.1 years (1-11 years). The average AOFAS score of the whole group increased from 33.2 before surgery to 82.5 after it. The primary indication had an important role. Arthroplasty outcomes were poorer in patients with post-traumatic arthritis than in those with rheumatoid arthritis or primary arthritis. In patients with post-traumatic arthritis, the average AOFAS score rose to 78.6 due to restricted motion of the ankle, and some patients continued to have pain when walking. The average AOFAS score in a total of 49 patients who had rheumatoid arthritis or primary arthritis reached a value of 86.4. Post-operative complications were recorded in ten patients (7.6%) in whom part of the wound was healing by second intention. Ossification was also a

  2. Physical activity of elderly patients after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cukras, Zbigniew; Praczko, Katarzyna; Kostka, Tomasz; Jegier, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the most common method of treatment of severe hip osteoarthritis. There is little data concerning the physical activity of total hip arthroplasty patients in Poland and investigations to explore this area are useful. The aim of the study was to describe the post-operative physical activity of total hip arthroplasty patients. A total of 146 adult people were examined, among which 28 men and 41 women had undergone total hip arthroplasty due to primary osteoarthritis of the hip, while another 32 men and 41 women matched for age who had not undergone hip surgery for osteoarthritis served as controls. The physical activity of study participants was assessed with the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire. All participants were also asked about the type and amount of physical activity they engaged in to maintain good health. Physical activity measured as the total amount of calories expended through physical activity per week was similar in the post-THA patients compared to the controls. The only differences were a smaller amount of calories expended during low-intensity physical activity by men after total hip arthroplasty compared to men who had not undergone surgery for osteoarthritis and a smaller amount of calories expended through high-intensity physical activity by women after total hip arthroplasty compared to female controls. The kinds of recreational physical activity most commonly practised by patients a mean of two years after total hip arthroplasty were marching, bicycling and general body conditioning exercises (usually the continuation of exercises recommended during post-operative rehabilitation). The percentage of post-THA patients undertaking physical activity for the prevention of non-communicable diseases was low. Physical activity should be more effectively encouraged in patients after total hip arthroplasty.

  3. The "Total Immersion" Meeting Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Coleman

    1980-01-01

    The designing of intelligently planned meeting facilities can aid management communication and learning. The author examines the psychology of meeting attendance; architectural considerations (lighting, windows, color, etc.); design elements and learning modes (furniture, walls, audiovisuals, materials); and the idea of "total immersion meeting…

  4. 10 CFR 603.520 - Reasonableness of total project funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonableness of total project funding. 603.520 Section 603.520 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Total Funding § 603.520 Reasonableness of total project funding. In...

  5. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  6. Heliophysics at total solar eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2017-08-01

    Observations during total solar eclipses have revealed many secrets about the solar corona, from its discovery in the 17th century to the measurement of its million-kelvin temperature in the 19th and 20th centuries, to details about its dynamics and its role in the solar-activity cycle in the 21st century. Today's heliophysicists benefit from continued instrumental and theoretical advances, but a solar eclipse still provides a unique occasion to study coronal science. In fact, the region of the corona best observed from the ground at total solar eclipses is not available for view from any space coronagraphs. In addition, eclipse views boast of much higher quality than those obtained with ground-based coronagraphs. On 21 August 2017, the first total solar eclipse visible solely from what is now United States territory since long before George Washington's presidency will occur. This event, which will cross coast-to-coast for the first time in 99 years, will provide an opportunity not only for massive expeditions with state-of-the-art ground-based equipment, but also for observations from aloft in aeroplanes and balloons. This set of eclipse observations will again complement space observations, this time near the minimum of the solar activity cycle. This review explores the past decade of solar eclipse studies, including advances in our understanding of the corona and its coronal mass ejections as well as terrestrial effects. We also discuss some additional bonus effects of eclipse observations, such as recreating the original verification of the general theory of relativity.

  7. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    The Moon is seen passing in front of the Sun during a solar eclipse from Ross Lake, Northern Cascades National Park, Washington on Monday, Aug. 21, 2017. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    The Sun is seen as it rises behind Jack Mountain head of the solar eclipse, Monday, Aug. 21, 2017, Ross Lake, Northern Cascades National Park, Washington. A total solar eclipse will sweep across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    This composite image shows the progression of a partial solar eclipse over Ross Lake, in Northern Cascades National Park, Washington on Monday, Aug. 21, 2017. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Bark-beetle infestation affects water quality in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelson, K.; Dickenson, E.; Maxwell, R. M.; McCray, J. E.; Sharp, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    In the previous decade, millions of acres in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado have been infested by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) leading to large-scale tree mortality. These vegetation changes can impact hydrological and biogeochemical processes, possibly altering the leaching of natural organic matter to surrounding waters and increasing the potential for harmful disinfection byproducts (DBP) during water treatments. To investigate these adverse outcomes, we have collected water quality data sets from local water treatment facilities in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado that have either been infested with MPB or remain a control. Results demonstrate significantly more total organic carbon (TOC) and DBPs in water treatment facilities receiving their source water from infested watersheds as compared to the control sites. Temporal DBP concentrations in MPB-watersheds also have increased significantly in conjunction with the bark-beetle infestation. Interestingly, only modest increases in TOC concentrations were observed in infested watersheds despite more pronounced increases in DBP concentrations. Total trihalomethanes, a heavily regulated DBP, was found to approach the regulatory limit in two out of four reporting quarters at facilities receiving their water from infested forests. These findings indicate that bark-beetle infestation alters TOC composition and loading in impacted watersheds and that this large-scale phenomenon has implications on the municipal water supply in the region.

  11. Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Seok L; Gravante, Gianpiero; Pollard, Cristina A; Webb, M'Balu A; Illouz, Severine; Dennison, Ashley R

    2009-01-01

    Pain control is one of the most challenging aspects in the management of chronic pancreatitis. Total pancreatectomy can successfully relieve the intractable abdominal pain in these patients but will inevitably result in insulin-dependent diabetes. Islet autotransplantation aims to preserve, as far as possible, the insulin secretory function of the islet cell mass thereby reducing (or even removing) the requirement for exogenous insulin administration after a total pancreactomy. Despite the relatively small number of centres able to perform these procedures, there are important technical variations in the details of their approaches. The aim of this review is to provide details of the current surgical practice for total pancreatectomy combined with islet autotransplantation, and outline the potential advantages and disadvantages of the variations adopted in each centre. PMID:20495628

  12. Revised Total Coliform Rule Assessments and Corrective Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has developed the Revised Total Coliform Rule Assessment and Corrective Actions Guidance Manual for public water systems (e.g., owners and operators) to assist in complying with the requirements of the Revised Total Coliform Rule.

  13. Total Quality Management in the Department of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    DTI ELECT SDu TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE THESIS BRUCE E. SPRINGS, B.S. CAPTAIN, USAF AFIT/GLN/LSR/ 89S -57 I1- DEPARTMENT...13 0 3 AFIT/GLM/LSR/89S-57 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE THESIS BRUCE E. SPRINGS, B.S. CAPTAIN, USAF AFIT/GLH/LSR/89S-57...Defense. # AFIT/GLM/LSR/89S-57 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Systems and Logistics

  14. Total laparoscopic living donor right hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Han, Ho-Seong; Cho, Jai Young; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Hwang, Dae Wook; Kim, Young Ki; Shin, Hong Kyung; Lee, Woohyung

    2015-01-01

    Right lobe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is the predominant form of adult-to-adult LDLT. Accordingly, cosmetic and functional demand by young donors is increasing. We developed the world first total laparoscopic donor right hepatectomy (LDRH) in adult living donors. Total LDRH was performed in two young donors without vascular clamping. Modified extended right graft (right liver including all the middle hepatic vein branches) was retrieved from suprapubic transverse incision. After full mobilization of right liver, hilar dissection was done. First, right portal vein was isolated under retracting common bile duct laterally. Right hepatic artery was cautiously dissected and isolated without injuring. An exact transection line was drawn during transient clamping of the hepatic artery and portal vein on the right side of the liver using bulldog clamp. Dissection was meticulously performed along the right side of the middle hepatic vein until the origin of middle hepatic vein until exposure of the hilar plate. Anterior section vein branches (V5 and V8) were finely dissected and were reconstructed using an artificial vascular graft. A modified extended right graft with preservation of the middle hepatic vein branches was extracted through the suprapubic incision. There was no complication in both donors and recipients. Postoperative hospital stay of donors was 10 and 8 days, respectively. After follow-up of more than 1 year, all donors and recipients live well with normal liver function. Total LDRH was feasible in selected adult donors. If this procedure will be more standardized, then total LDRH will be new option for adult LDLT, which meets demand by donors and diminish guilty feeling by recipients.

  15. Climate Change and Tropical Total Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, R.; Petersen, W.; Buechler, D.; Goodman, S.; Blakeslee, R.; Christian, H.

    2009-01-01

    While global warming is regarded as a fact by many in the scientific community, its future impact remains a challenge to be determined and measured. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report (IPCC, 2007) shows inconclusive answers on global rainfall trends and general agreement on a future drier climate with increased global warming. The relationship between temperature, humidity and convection is not linear and is strongly dependent on regional scale features, such as topography and land cover. Furthermore, the relationship between convective lightning production (thunderstorms) and temperature is even more complicated, being subjected to the cloud dynamics and microphysics. Total lightning (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) monitoring is a relatively new field of observation. Global and tropical total lightning began to be more extensively measured by satellites in the mid 90s. In this scope, the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) has been operational for over 11 years. Here we address total lightning trends observed by LIS from 1998 to 2008 in different temporal (annual and seasonal) and spatial (large and regional) scales. The observed 11-year trends are then associate to different predicted/hypothesized climate change scenarios.

  16. The Error in Total Error Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Witnauer, James E.; Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2013-01-01

    Most models of human and animal learning assume that learning is proportional to the discrepancy between a delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by all cues present during that trial (i.e., total error across a stimulus compound). This total error reduction (TER) view has been implemented in connectionist and artificial neural network models to describe the conditions under which weights between units change. Electrophysiological work has revealed that the activity of dopamine neurons is correlated with the total error signal in models of reward learning. Similar neural mechanisms presumably support fear conditioning, human contingency learning, and other types of learning. Using a computational modelling approach, we compared several TER models of associative learning to an alternative model that rejects the TER assumption in favor of local error reduction (LER), which assumes that learning about each cue is proportional to the discrepancy between the delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by that specific cue on that trial. The LER model provided a better fit to the reviewed data than the TER models. Given the superiority of the LER model with the present data sets, acceptance of TER should be tempered. PMID:23891930

  17. The error in total error reduction.

    PubMed

    Witnauer, James E; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R

    2014-02-01

    Most models of human and animal learning assume that learning is proportional to the discrepancy between a delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by all cues present during that trial (i.e., total error across a stimulus compound). This total error reduction (TER) view has been implemented in connectionist and artificial neural network models to describe the conditions under which weights between units change. Electrophysiological work has revealed that the activity of dopamine neurons is correlated with the total error signal in models of reward learning. Similar neural mechanisms presumably support fear conditioning, human contingency learning, and other types of learning. Using a computational modeling approach, we compared several TER models of associative learning to an alternative model that rejects the TER assumption in favor of local error reduction (LER), which assumes that learning about each cue is proportional to the discrepancy between the delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by that specific cue on that trial. The LER model provided a better fit to the reviewed data than the TER models. Given the superiority of the LER model with the present data sets, acceptance of TER should be tempered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 34 CFR 685.213 - Total and permanent disability discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Total and permanent disability discharge. 685.213... § 685.213 Total and permanent disability discharge. (a) General. (1) A borrower's Direct Loan is... on a total and permanent disability, a borrower must submit a discharge application to the Secretary...

  19. Measuring Total and Germinable Spore Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noell, A.C.; Yung, P.T.; Yang, W.; Lee, C.; Ponce, A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that bacterial endospores can be enumerated using a microscopy based assay that images the luminescent halos from terbium ions bound to dipicolinic acid, a spore specific chemical marker released upon spore germination. Further development of the instrument has simplified it towards automation while at the same time improving image quality. Enumeration of total spore populations has also been developed allowing measurement of the percentage of viable spores in any population by comparing the germinable/culturable spores to the total. Percentage viability will allow a more quantitative comparison of the ability of spores to survive across a wide range of extreme environments.

  20. 21 CFR 610.16 - Total solids in serums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total solids in serums. 610.16 Section 610.16 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.16 Total solids in serums. Except as... solids. ...