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Sample records for toyama prefecture japan

  1. Prevalence of Legionella species isolated from shower water in public bath facilities in Toyama Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanatani, Jun-Ichi; Isobe, Junko; Norimoto, Shiho; Kimata, Keiko; Mitsui, Chieko; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Sata, Tetsutaro; Watahiki, Masanori

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. isolated from shower water in public bath facilities in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. In addition, we analyzed the genetic diversity among Legionella pneumophila isolates from shower water as well as the genetic relationship between isolates from shower water and from stock strains previously analyzed from sputum specimens. The isolates were characterized using serogrouping, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and sequence-based typing. Legionella spp. were isolated from 31/91 (34.1%) samples derived from 17/37 (45.9%) bath facilities. Isolates from shower water and bath water in each public bath facility were serologically or genetically different, indicating that we need to isolate several L. pneumophila colonies from both bath and shower water to identify public bath facilities as sources of legionellosis. The 61 L. pneumophila isolates from shower water were classified into 39 sequence types (STs) (index of discrimination = 0.974), including 19 new STs. Among the 39 STs, 12 STs match clinical isolates in the European Working Group for Legionella Infections database. Notably, ST505 L. pneumophila SG 1, a strain frequently isolated from patients with legionellosis and from bath water in this area, was isolated from shower water. Pathogenic L. pneumophila strains including ST505 strain were widely distributed in shower water in public bath facilities, with genetic diversity showing several different origins. This study highlights the need to isolate several L. pneumophila colonies from both bath water and shower water to identify public bath facilities as infection sources in legionellosis cases. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A pathway from low socioeconomic status to dementia in Japan: results from the Toyama dementia survey.

    PubMed

    Nakahori, Nobue; Sekine, Michikazu; Yamada, Masaaki; Tatsuse, Takashi; Kido, Hideki; Suzuki, Michio

    2018-04-27

    The association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and dementia is reportedly mediated by lifestyle-related diseases (i.e., diabetes) in European countries and the United States; however, in Japan, the link between low SES and dementia has not been investigated. This study evaluated the possibility of a mediating role of lifestyle-related diseases in the relationship between low SES and dementia in Japan. A retrospective case-control study design, with data from the Toyama Dementia Survey, Japan, was used. Individuals aged ≥65 years (institutionalized and noninstitutionalized) living in Toyama prefecture were randomly selected, with a sampling rate of 0.5%. Of them, 1303 agreed to participate (response rate 84.8%). Overall, 137 cases of dementia and 1039 unimpaired controls were identified. Structured interviews with participants and family members or proxies were conducted, if necessary. Participants' history of medically diagnosed disease, lifestyle factors (i.e., smoking and alcohol drinking habits), and SES (educational attainment and occupational history) were assessed. The possibility of low SES being a risk factor for dementia via lifestyle-related diseases was investigated using the Sobel test. The odds ratio (OR) for dementia was higher for participants with low educational attainment (6 years or less) than for highly educated participants [age- and sex-adjusted OR 3.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.84-5.81]; it was also higher for participants with a blue-collar job history than a white-collar job history (age- and sex-adjusted OR 1.26; 95% CI 0.80-1.98). After adjustment for employment history, the OR for dementia for participants with low educational attainment was 3.23-3.56. Former habitual alcohol consumption and a medical history of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, stroke, and angina pectoris/cardiovascular disease were found to increase the risk of dementia. Educational attainment was not associated with alcohol consumption, smoking

  3. Distribution of oil-degrading bacteria in coastal seawater, Toyama Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Daisuke; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Yamashiro, Yoko; Nakamura, Shogo

    2008-10-01

    Oil-degrading bacteria are considered to play an important role in the biodegradation of spilled or released oil in the sea. The distribution of indigenous oil-degrading bacteria in the coastal seawater of Toyama Bay, Japan, was examined. Surface seawater samples with or without oil film in fishing port were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the PCR-amplified V3 region of bacterial 16S rDNA. Sequence analysis revealed that several DGGE bands clearly detected only in samples with oil film corresponded to Cyanobacteria. Moreover, we cultured surface seawater samples with oil film in two different liquid culture media, a marine broth and an NSW medium; each culture contained 0.5% (w/v) C-heavy oil. Emulsification of the oil was observed at day 6 in the marine broth and day 9 in the NSW medium. Time-dependent changes of bacterial communities in those culture media were analyzed by DGGE. Interestingly, we found that Alcanivorax sp. became one of the dominant bacteria in each culture medium when emulsification of the oil began. Alcanivorax sp. is one of the well-known oil-degrading bacteria in seawater and is associated with the production of biosurfactants. These results suggest that Cyanobacteria and Alcanivorax play important roles in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated areas in Toyama Bay.

  4. Toyama Kametaro and Vernon Kellogg: silkworm inheritance experiments in Japan, Siam, and the United States, 1900-1912.

    PubMed

    Onaga, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Japanese agricultural scientist Toyama Kametaro's report about the Mendelian inheritance of silkworm cocoon color in Studies on the Hybridology of Insects (1906) spurred changes in Japanese silk production and thrust Toyama and his work into a scholarly exchange with American entomologist Vernon Kellogg. Toyama's work, based on research conducted in Japan and Siam, came under international scrutiny at a time when analyses of inheritance flourished after the "rediscovery" of Mendel's laws of heredity in 1900. The hybrid silkworm studies in Asia attracted the attention of Kellogg, who was concerned with how experimental biology would be used to study the causes of natural selection. He challenged Toyama's conclusions that Mendelism alone could explain the inheritance patterns of silkworm characters such as cocoon color because they had been subject to hundreds of years of artificial selection, or breeding. This examination of the intersection of Japanese sericulture and American entomology probes how practical differences in scientific interests, societal responsibilities, and silkworm materiality were negotiated throughout the processes of legitimating Mendelian genetics on opposite sides of the Pacific. The ways in which Toyama and Kellogg assigned importance to certain silkworm properties show how conflicting intellectual orientations arose in studies of the same organism. Contestation about Mendelism took place not just on a theoretical level, but the debate was fashioned through each scientist's rationale about the categorization of silkworm breeds and races and what counted as "natural". This further mediated the acceptability of the silkworm not as an experimental organism, but as an appropriately "natural" insect with which to demonstrate laws of inheritance. All these shed light on the challenges that came along with the use of agricultural animals to convincingly articulate new biological principles.

  5. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, 1989 S&T Agency Annual 33

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-10

    enter- prises are being put into operation. 46 JPRS-JST-91-001 10 January 1991 Shizuoka Prefecture, the Toyama Prefecture and Ishikawa Prefecture...Technology Agency, Ishikawa Prefecture "Topics in 21st-Century-Oriented Science and Technology Promotion in Ishikawa Prefecture" 200 people (From...Shiga Atomic Energy Ooi3 Ikata3 Genkai Atomic Energy 3 Shizuoka Prefecture, Oryu District, Hamaoka Town Ishikawa Prefecture, Hanesa District

  6. The impact of Japan's 2004 postgraduate training program on intra-prefectural distribution of pediatricians in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rie; Wang, Wei; Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Goto, Rei; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Inequity in physician distribution poses a challenge to many health systems. In Japan, a new postgraduate training program for all new medical graduates was introduced in 2004, and researchers have argued that this program has increased inequalities in physician distribution. We examined the trends in the geographic distribution of pediatricians as well as all physicians from 1996 to 2010 to identify the impact of the launch of the new training program. The Gini coefficient was calculated using municipalities as the study unit within each prefecture to assess whether there were significant changes in the intra-prefectural distribution of all physicians and pediatricians before and after the launch of the new training program. The effect of the new program was quantified by estimating the difference in the slope in the time trend of the Gini coefficients before and after 2004 using a linear change-point regression design. We categorized 47 prefectures in Japan into two groups: 1) predominantly urban and 2) others by the definition from OECD to conduct stratified analyses by urban-rural status. The trends in physician distribution worsened after 2004 for all physicians (p value<.0001) and pediatricians (p value = 0.0057). For all physicians, the trends worsened after 2004 both in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0012) and others (p value<0.0001), whereas, for pediatricians, the distribution worsened in others (p value = 0.0343), but not in predominantly urban prefectures (p value =0.0584). The intra-prefectural distribution of physicians worsened after the launch of the new training program, which may reflect the impact of the new postgraduate program. In pediatrics, changes in the Gini trend differed significantly before and after the launch of the new training program in others, but not in predominantly urban prefectures. Further observation is needed to explore how this difference in trends affects the health status of the child population.

  7. The Impact of Japan's 2004 Postgraduate Training Program on Intra-Prefectural Distribution of Pediatricians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Rie; Wang, Wei; Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Goto, Rei; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective Inequity in physician distribution poses a challenge to many health systems. In Japan, a new postgraduate training program for all new medical graduates was introduced in 2004, and researchers have argued that this program has increased inequalities in physician distribution. We examined the trends in the geographic distribution of pediatricians as well as all physicians from 1996 to 2010 to identify the impact of the launch of the new training program. Methods The Gini coefficient was calculated using municipalities as the study unit within each prefecture to assess whether there were significant changes in the intra-prefectural distribution of all physicians and pediatricians before and after the launch of the new training program. The effect of the new program was quantified by estimating the difference in the slope in the time trend of the Gini coefficients before and after 2004 using a linear change-point regression design. We categorized 47 prefectures in Japan into two groups: 1) predominantly urban and 2) others by the definition from OECD to conduct stratified analyses by urban-rural status. Results The trends in physician distribution worsened after 2004 for all physicians (p value<.0001) and pediatricians (p value = 0.0057). For all physicians, the trends worsened after 2004 both in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0012) and others (p value<0.0001), whereas, for pediatricians, the distribution worsened in others (p value = 0.0343), but not in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0584). Conclusion The intra-prefectural distribution of physicians worsened after the launch of the new training program, which may reflect the impact of the new postgraduate program. In pediatrics, changes in the Gini trend differed significantly before and after the launch of the new training program in others, but not in predominantly urban prefectures. Further observation is needed to explore how this difference in trends affects

  8. Multi-GPGPU Tsunami simulation at Toyama-bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuyama, Shoichi; Ueda, Yuki

    2017-07-01

    Accelerated multi General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) calculation for Tsunami run-up simulation was achieved at the wide area (whole Toyama-bay in Japan) by faster computation technique. Toyama-bay has active-faults at the sea-bed. It has a high possibility to occur earthquakes and Tsunami waves in the case of the huge earthquake, that's why to predict the area of Tsunami run-up is important for decreasing damages to residents by the disaster. However it is very hard task to achieve the simulation by the computer resources problem. A several meter's order of the high resolution calculation is required for the running-up Tsunami simulation because artificial structures on the ground such as roads, buildings, and houses are very small. On the other hand the huge area simulation is also required. In the Toyama-bay case the area is 42 [km] × 15 [km]. When 5 [m] × 5 [m] size computational cells are used for the simulation, over 26,000,000 computational cells are generated. To calculate the simulation, a normal CPU desktop computer took about 10 hours for the calculation. An improvement of calculation time is important problem for the immediate prediction system of Tsunami running-up, as a result it will contribute to protect a lot of residents around the coastal region. The study tried to decrease this calculation time by using multi GPGPU system which is equipped with six NVIDIA TESLA K20xs, InfiniBand network connection between computer nodes by MVAPICH library. As a result 5.16 times faster calculation was achieved on six GPUs than one GPU case and it was 86% parallel efficiency to the linear speed up.

  9. Inter-prefecture disparity in under-5 mortality: 115 year trend in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Chie; Moriichi, Akinori; Morisaki, Naho; Gai-Tobe, Ruoyan; Ishiguro, Akira; Mori, Rintaro

    2017-07-01

    Child poverty is a growing, serious issue in Japan, where various social disparities are increasing. Numerous reports have focused on the relationship between social inequity and health, but few studies have assessed how the overall magnitude of disparities in child health has changed in the course of drastic social and economic transitions from 1899 to more recent times. In this study, we assessed the trend of the under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) and its inter-prefecture disparity in Japan. This is a secondary analysis of Japan's vital statistics data from 1899 to 2014 (115 years), which covers a core period of modern Japan. We calculated the U5MR of each prefecture and its Theil index by year to assess the trend of inter-prefecture disparity in child health from 1899 to 2014. The U5MR monotonically decreased from 238 per 1,000 births in 1899 to 3 in 2014. The Theil index of the U5MR increased in the post-war period, peaked in 1962 (0.027) and gradually reduced to <0.01 in the 1970s. In the 2000s, however, even though U5MR continued to decrease, the Theil index started to increase, and in 2014 (0.013) it exceeded that in 1970 and was more similar to that before World War II. The disparities in child health appear to be widening, and may serve as a warning to today's society that increasing socioeconomic gradients may lead to rising health inequity among children. Further investigations into the causes, mechanisms, and possible interventions are needed. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Geographical structures and the cholera epidemic in modern Japan: Fukushima prefecture in 1882 and 1895.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chun-Lin; Fukui, Hiromichi

    2007-06-30

    Disease diffusion patterns can provide clues for understanding geographical change. Fukushima, a rural prefecture in northeast Japan, was chosen for a case study of the late nineteenth century cholera epidemic that occurred in that country. Two volumes of Cholera Ryu-ko Kiji (Cholera Epidemic Report), published by the prefectural government in 1882 and 1895, provide valuable records for analyzing and modelling diffusion. Text descriptions and numerical evidence culled from the reports were incorporated into a temporal-spatial study framework using geographic information system (GIS) and geo-statistical techniques. Changes in diffusion patterns between 1882 and 1895 reflect improvements in the Fukushima transportation system and growth in social-economic networks. The data reveal different diffusion systems in separate regions in which residents of Fukushima and neighboring prefectures interacted. Our model also shows that an area in the prefecture's northern interior was dominated by a mix of diffusion processes (contagious and hierarchical), that the southern coastal region was affected by a contagious process, and that other infected areas experienced relocation diffusion. In addition to enhancing our understanding of epidemics, the spatial-temporal patterns of cholera diffusion offer opportunities for studying regional change in modern Japan. By highlighting the dynamics of regional reorganization, our findings can be used to better understand the formation of an urban hierarchy in late nineteenth century Japan.

  11. Total Dust Deposition Flux During Precipitation in Toyama, Japan, in the Spring of 2009: A Sensitivity Analysis with the NASA GEOS-5 Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.; Colarco, Peter R.; Lau, William K. M.; Osada, Kazuo; Kido, Mizuka; Mahanama, Sarith P. P.; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Da Silva, Arlindo M.

    2015-01-01

    We compared the observed total dust deposition fluxes during precipitation (TDP) mainly at Toyama in Japan during the period January - April 2009 with results available from four NASA GEOS-5 global model experiments. The modeled results were obtained from three previous experiments and carried out in one experiment, which were all driven by assimilated meteorology and simulating aerosol distributions for the time period. We focus mainly on the observations of two distinct TDP events, which were reported in Osada et al. (2011), at Toyama, Japan, in February (Event B) and March 2009 (Event C). Although all of our GEOS-5 simulations captured aspects of the observed TDP, we found that our low horizontal spatial resolution control experiment performed generally the worst. The other three experiments were run at a higher spatial resolution, with the first differing only in that respect from the control, the second adding imposed a prescribed corrected precipitation product, and the final experiment adding as well assimilation of aerosol optical depth based on MODIS observations. During Event C, the increased horizontal resolution could increase TDP with precipitation increase. There was no significant improvement, however, due to the imposition of the corrected precipitation product. The simulation that incorporated aerosol data assimilation performed was by far the best for this event, but even so could only reproduce less than half of the observed TDP despite the significantly increased atmospheric dust mass concentrations. All three of the high spatial resolution experiments had higher simulated precipitation at Toyama than was observed and that in the lower resolution control run. During Event B, the aerosol data assimilation run did not perform appreciably better than the other higher resolution simulations, suggesting that upstream conditions (i.e., upstream cloudiness), or vertical or horizontal misplacement of the dust plume did not allow for significant

  12. Post-tsunami outbreaks of influenza in evacuation centers in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Masumitsu; Endo, Shiro; Tokuda, Koichi; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Arai, Kazuaki; Yano, Hisakazu; Ishibashi, Noriomi; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Inomata, Shinya; Kanamori, Hajime; Gu, Yoshiaki; Kitagawa, Miho; Hirakata, Yoichi; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    We describe 2 post-tsunami outbreaks of influenza A in evacuation centers in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, in 2011. Although containment of the outbreak was challenging in the evacuation settings, prompt implementation of a systemic approach with a bundle of control measures was important to control the influenza outbreaks.

  13. Resources for business continuity in disaster-based hospitals in the great East Japan earthquake: survey of Miyagi Prefecture disaster base hospitals and the prefectural disaster medicine headquarters.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Koido, Yuichi; Matsumura, Takashi; Abe, Yoshiko; Konishi, Ryota; Matoba, Masaaki; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2013-10-01

    To clarify advance measures for business continuity taken by disaster base hospitals involved in the Great East Japan Earthquake. The predisaster situation regarding stockpiles was abstracted from a 2010 survey. Timing of electricity and water restoration and sufficiency of supplies to continue operations were investigated through materials from Miyagi Prefecture disaster medicine headquarters (prefectural medical headquarters) and disaster base hospitals (14 hospitals) in Miyagi Prefecture after the East Japan earthquake. The number of hospitals with less than 1 day of stockpiles in reserve before the disaster was 7 (50%) for electricity supplies, 8 (57.1%) for water, 6 (42.9%) for medical goods, and 6 (42.9%) for food. After the disaster, restoration of electricity and water did not occur until the second day or later at 8 of 13 (61.5%) hospitals, respectively. By the fourth postdisaster day, 14 hospitals had requested supplies from the prefectural medical headquarters: 9 (64.3%) for electricity supplies, 2 (14.3%) for water trucks, 9 (64.3%) for medical goods, and 6 (42.9%) for food. The lack of supplies needed to continue operations in disaster base hospitals following the disaster clearly indicated that current business continuity plans require revision.

  14. The Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) in Fukushima Prefecture-A progress report on the enrollment stage.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koichi; Yasumura, Seiji; Fujimori, Keiya; Kyozuka, Hyo; Wakaki, Yu; Sato, Akiko; Hanzawa, Haruko; Yokoyama, Tadahiko; Sato, Testushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2017-08-09

    The Japan Environment and Children's Study is an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study that is being conducted at 15 regional centers throughout Japan. The recruitment of subjects in the study area within Fukushima Prefecture, which includes Fukushima City, Minami Soma City and Futaba County, was begun on January 31, 2011 with the cooperation of the obstetrics and gynecology departments of local medical institutions. On March 11, soon after the start of recruitment, the Tohoku region was hit by an unprecedented disaster in the shape of the Great East Japan Earthquake, which was closely followed by the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. As a result of the disaster, the study area in Fukushima Prefecture was expanded on October 1, 2012 to include 59 municipalities across Fukushima Prefecture. Three points are seen as particularly important: 1) Radiation risk communication, 2) The motto is "Be attentive. Be supportive.", and 3) Establishing cooperating partnerships. With the cooperation of all concerned, the recruitment period ended on March 31, 2014. The tentative total number of the participants enrolled at the Fukushima Regional Center was 34,666 (13,134 pregnant mothers, 8,695 fathers and 12,837 children born before November 30, 2014 as of June 2016).

  15. Transplant Procurement Management Model Training: Marked Improvement in the Mindset of In-Hospital Procurement Coordinators at Hyogo Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Yoshinaga, K; Imamura, Y; Hayashi, T; Osako, T; Takahashi, K; Kaneko, M; Fujisawa, M; Kamidono, S

    2016-09-01

    The organ donation rate in Japan is much lower than that in other developed countries for several reasons. An advanced educational program for in-hospital procurement coordinators is a possible solution for this. We introduced a Transplant Procurement Management (TPM) educational program at Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Ten healthcare professionals at Hyogo Prefecture participated in the Advanced International TPM course to educate themselves on TPM and held 2 TPM Model Organ Procurement Training Workshops at Hyogo Prefecture for in-hospital procurement coordinators. Furthermore, we held 2 workshops outside Hyogo Prefecture and at the same time undertook a pre-workshop questionnaire survey to evaluate the ability and motivation with respect to organ donation. To evaluate the effectiveness of the workshops, we conducted post-workshop and 3-months-after workshop questionnaire surveys. The results of the pre-workshop survey revealed that in-hospital procurement coordinators lacked the knowledge regarding the entire organ donation process, the current status of organ donation in Japan, and the definition of brain death. Moreover, they did not completely understand the meaning of "organ donation." The results of the post-workshop questionnaire survey showed that the educational program was effective to improve the knowledge and skills of organ donation and motivated behavioral changes among the participants. The survey results showed that our TPM model educational program offered sufficient knowledge and skills to increase organ donation at Hyogo Prefecture. We will continue this program and make an effort to further contribute to the Japanese organ donation activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidence of pests and viral disease on pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ok-Kyung; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Sato, Takuma; Shinohara, Hirosuke; Takahata, Ken

    2017-01-01

    The solanaceous fruit crop pepino ( Solanum muricatum Ait.), originating in the Andes, is grown commercially in South American countries and New Zealand. In these areas, pests and diseases of pepino have been identified well; however, to date, these have seldom been investigated in detail in Japan. Herein, we attempt to reconstruct an agricultural production system for commercial pepino crops in Japan, and evaluate the incidence of pests and viral diseases on pepino. The findings of this study will facilitate in developing a better crop system for the commercial cultivation of healthy pepino fruits. A total of 11 species, comprising nine insects and two mites, were recognized as pests of pepino plants in our experimental fields in Kanagawa Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan. Of these pest species, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 and the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877, were remarkably abundant than the other pest species. Eventually, 13 species, including two previously recorded, are currently recognized as the pests of pepino in Japan. With regard to viruses, we tested two species Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), as well as three genera Carlavirus , Potexvirus , and Potyvirus . No virus was detected in symptomatic pepino leaves collected in our experimental fields. This is a first report on the identification of pests on pepino plants in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and elucidates the relationship between currently occurring pests of pepino plants and potential viral pathogens that they can transmit.

  17. Changes in air temperature and its relation to ambulance transports due to heat stroke in all 47 prefectures of Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shoko; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Sakano, Noriko

    2012-09-01

    Changes in air temperature and its relation to ambulance transports due to heat stroke in all 47 prefectures, in Japan were evaluated. Data on air temperature were obtained from the Japanese Meteorological Agency. Data on ambulance transports due to heat stroke was directly obtained from the Fire and Disaster Management Agency, Japan. We also used the number of deaths due to heat stroke from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, and population data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Chronological changes in parameters of air temperature were analyzed. In addition, the relation between air temperature and ambulance transports due to heat stroke in August 2010 was also evaluated by using an ecological study. Positive and significant changes in the parameters of air temperature that is, the mean air temperature, mean of the highest air temperature, and mean of the lowest air temperature were noted in all 47 prefectures. In addition, changes in air temperature were accelerated when adjusted for observation years. Ambulance transports due to heat stroke was significantly correlated with air temperature in the ecological study. The highest air temperature was significantly linked to ambulance transports due to heat stroke, especially in elderly subjects. Global warming was demonstrated in all 47 prefectures in Japan. In addition, the higher air temperature was closely associated with higher ambulance transports due to heat stroke in Japan.

  18. The Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS) in Fukushima Prefecture-A progress report on the enrollment stage

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Koichi; Yasumura, Seiji; Fujimori, Keiya; Kyozuka, Hyo; Wakaki, Yu; Sato, Akiko; Hanzawa, Haruko; Yokoyama, Tadahiko; Sato, Testushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Japan Environment and Children’s Study is an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study that is being conducted at 15 regional centers throughout Japan. The recruitment of subjects in the study area within Fukushima Prefecture, which includes Fukushima City, Minami Soma City and Futaba County, was begun on January 31, 2011 with the cooperation of the obstetrics and gynecology departments of local medical institutions. On March 11, soon after the start of recruitment, the Tohoku region was hit by an unprecedented disaster in the shape of the Great East Japan Earthquake, which was closely followed by the Tokyo Electric Power Company’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. As a result of the disaster, the study area in Fukushima Prefecture was expanded on October 1, 2012 to include 59 municipalities across Fukushima Prefecture. Three points are seen as particularly important: 1) Radiation risk communication, 2) The motto is “Be attentive. Be supportive.”, and 3) Establishing cooperating partnerships. With the cooperation of all concerned, the recruitment period ended on March 31, 2014. The tentative total number of the participants enrolled at the Fukushima Regional Center was 34,666 (13,134 pregnant mothers, 8,695 fathers and 12,837 children born before November 30, 2014 as of June 2016). PMID:28680007

  19. Distribution of Rotavirus Genotypes from the 2008/2009 to the 2015/2016 Season in Nara Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Daichi; Nakano, Mamoru; Inada, Machi; Fujitani, Misako; Chiba, Shoko; Sakai, Takeshi

    2017-09-25

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of rotavirus genotypes in Nara Prefecture, Japan before and after the introduction of rotavirus vaccination in 2011. Since the 2011/2012 season, DS-1-like G1P[8] strains have been detected in Nara Prefecture, accounting for about half of all strains in the 2014/2015 season. During the 2015/2016 season, no DS-1-like G1P[8] strains were detected; G2P[4] was the predominant genotype.

  20. Lifestyle and Overweight Among Japanese Adolescents: The Toyama Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yingchun; Sekine, Michikazu; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of lifestyle factors on overweight among Japanese adolescents. Methods We studied 5753 junior high school students (2842 boys and 2911 girls) aged 12 to 13 years. The students were residents of Toyama prefecture, Japan and completed a questionnaire about their height, weight, and lifestyle factors, in June and July 2002. Subjects with a body-mass index (BMI) higher than age- and sex-specific cut-off points were defined as obese. Parental overweight was defined as a BMI of 25 or higher. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between lifestyle factors and overweight. Results Skipping breakfast, eating quickly, excessive eating, physical inactivity, and long hours of TV watching were positively and significantly associated with overweight in both sexes. There was a negative association between snacking and overweight in girls (P < 0.001); no such association was found in boys (P > 0.05). Nighttime snacking was negatively associated with overweight in boys and girls (P < 0.05). Extended video game playing (≥2 hours; OR = 2.00, P = 0.012) and short sleep duration (<7 hours; OR = 1.81, P = 0.004) were significantly associated with overweight in girls only. The respective risks of overweight that derived from the subjects’ fathers and mothers were 2.0 and 2.5 times, respectively, in boys and 1.9 and 3.0 times in girls. Conclusions Parental overweight, skipping breakfast, eating quickly, excessive eating, long hours of TV watching, long hours of video game playing, physical inactivity, and short sleep duration were associated with adolescent overweight. Furthermore, there were significant negative associations between adolescent overweight and snacking in girls and nighttime snacking in both sexes. PMID:19776497

  1. Incidence of pests and viral disease on pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ok-Kyung; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Sato, Takuma; Shinohara, Hirosuke; Takahata, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The solanaceous fruit crop pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.), originating in the Andes, is grown commercially in South American countries and New Zealand. In these areas, pests and diseases of pepino have been identified well; however, to date, these have seldom been investigated in detail in Japan. Herein, we attempt to reconstruct an agricultural production system for commercial pepino crops in Japan, and evaluate the incidence of pests and viral diseases on pepino. The findings of this study will facilitate in developing a better crop system for the commercial cultivation of healthy pepino fruits. New information A total of 11 species, comprising nine insects and two mites, were recognized as pests of pepino plants in our experimental fields in Kanagawa Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan. Of these pest species, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 and the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877, were remarkably abundant than the other pest species. Eventually, 13 species, including two previously recorded, are currently recognized as the pests of pepino in Japan. With regard to viruses, we tested two species Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), as well as three genera Carlavirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus. No virus was detected in symptomatic pepino leaves collected in our experimental fields. This is a first report on the identification of pests on pepino plants in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and elucidates the relationship between currently occurring pests of pepino plants and potential viral pathogens that they can transmit. PMID:28947875

  2. Supports for libraries'restoration from the Great East Japan Earthquake : Challenges we address at Miyagi Prefectural Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Shinichiro

    This article overviews the situations of damage and reconstruction of mainly public libraries in Miyagi Prefecture about 9 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Serious damage of library buildings was due not only to the tsunami or seismic sea wave but to violent shaking, the latter less reported by the media. We at the Miyagi Prefectural Library implemented reconstruction assistance for regional public libraries in both direct and indirect ways. Among them, we report in detail on the support we offered until the Minami-sanriku Town Library reopened its service. We highlight a prefectural library's role, acting between supporters and those supportees, to consider the necessity of middle organizations. We clarify what challenges we face and examine how best to provide assistance in case of large-scale disasters.

  3. Incidence of Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Females After the Great East Japan Earthquake in Miyagi Prefecture: The Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kasumi; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Toshie; Mizuno, Satoshi; Obara, Taku; Iwama, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Zen; Ishikuro, Mami; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Sugawara, Junichi; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Arima, Takahiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Metoki, Hirohito; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Nakai, Kunihiko; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify the correlation between the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and domestic violence (DV) against pregnant females after the disaster in Miyagi Prefecture, an area damaged by the earthquake and tsunami. We analyzed 7600 pregnant females from June to December 2011. The incidence of physical and mental DV and the proportions in the inland, north coastal, and south coastal areas of Miyagi Prefecture and nationwide were calculated, and a chi-square test was conducted for comparison. The risk factors for DV were estimated with multivariate logistic regression analyses on a prefecture-wide basis. The incidence levels for physical DV were found to be 5.9% in the north coastal area, which was significantly higher than in the inland area (1.3%, P=0.0007) and nationwide (1.5%, P<0.0001). There were no significant differences in the incidence of mental DV between the 3 areas in Miyagi Prefecture (inland 15.2%, north coast 15.7%, and south coast 18.8%) or nationwide (13.8%). Experiencing disease or injury in someone close and changes in the family structure were significantly associated with mental DV in Miyagi Prefecture. Continuous monitoring and support for pregnant females may be necessary to address this issue in disaster-affected areas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:216-226).

  4. Effective educational practice of river learning by using of Hiikawa-river of elementary school, Shimane prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomoyuki, U.; Matsumoto, I.

    2012-12-01

    The importance of field learning has been increasing at elementary school and junior high school in Japan. However, In Japan, it is little actual situation that there is in an opportunity for the field learning enforced in the school science lesson. This tendency is strong as much as school of the city and that circumference. I think that this cause is that there are few suitable places for educational tool to observe geological field near the school. Children learn about "Function of running water" in Grade 5 of elementary school in Japan. Therefore, In this study, We remark the river called "Hiikawa-river" which flow in Izumo city, Shimane prefecture as the science teaching materials. Hiikawa is the river which flowing through the granitic rock district. Therefore We can observe granitic rock from in the upper stream, midstream, to the down stream. That is, we can observe the function of running water and diameter (size) of granitic boulders. It is mean that Hiikawa is the one of good educational tool for Children to learn the function of running water. Though it is the place where nature is comparatively rich even in Japan, it can't be said that field learning is relatively popular in Shimane prefecture. I think that teacher has to learning experience at field, because teacher should settle confidence to guide to the student at the field. That is, if it is not, you can not teach children with truly important of curriculum view point of natural and field science. In this research, we introduce practice of geological field learning at the public elementary school of the Shimane prefecture by using of Hiikawa as educational tool which children learn about the function of running water in grade 5, elementary school. In addition, we hope that this study contribute to teachers teaching method and to children natural science literacy.

  5. Pregnancy and birth survey after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Fukushima prefecture.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Keiya; Kyozuka, Hyo; Yasuda, Shun; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Ota, Misao; Ohtsuru, Akira; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Hata, Kenichi; Suzuki, Kouta; Nakai, Akihito; Sato, Mieko; Matsui, Shiro; Nakano, Kyoko; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by a powerful tsunami hit the Pacific Coast of Northeast Japan and damaged Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, causing a radiation hazard in Fukushima Prefecture. The objective of this report is to describe some results of a questionnaire-based pregnancy and birth survey conducted by the Radiation Medical Science Center for the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Questionnaires were sent to women who received maternal and child health handbooks from municipal officers in Fukushima Prefecture between 1 August 2010 and 31 July 2011, with the aim of reaching those who were pregnant at the time of the disaster. Mailing began 18 January 2012. Data were analyzed separately for six geographic areas in Fukushima Prefecture. The total number of women meeting survey criteria was 15,972. The number of responses received to date is 9,298 (58.2%). Data from 8602 respondents were analyzed after excluding 634 invalid responses and 5 induced and 57 spontaneous abortions (less than 22 gestational weeks). The incidences of stillbirth (over 22 completed gestational weeks), preterm birth, low birth weight and congenital anomalies were 0.25%, 4.4%, 8.7% and 2.72%, respectively. These incidences are similar to recent averages elsewhere in Japan. Considering the pregnancy and birth survey data in aggregate, our disaster seemed to provoke no significant adverse outcomes over the whole of Fukushima prefecture. But post-disaster prenatal care and support intended for patients' safety and security should be coupled with ongoing surveillance and rigorous data analysis.

  6. The 2011 Great East Japan earthquake: a report of a regional hospital in Fukushima Prefecture coping with the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Irisawa, Atsushi

    2012-05-01

    A catastrophic undersea megathrust earthquake of magnitude 9.0 off the coast of Japan occurred at 14:46 JST on Friday, 11 March 2011. The earthquake triggered powerful tsunami waves, and the tsunami precipitated Fukushima nuclear accidents. After the terrible earthquake, many people fled from the nuclear accident and arrived at places far from the nuclear power plant. In this article, I present a story of one measure devised to deal with the problem of the Fukushima nuclear accident at a regional hospital of Fukushima prefecture, Aizu General Hospital, which is located far from the Fukushima nuclear plant. In addition, I briefly report the current situation of Fukushima prefecture after the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. In our hospital, the countermeasure headquarters was established to supply medical care for those who had been injured by tsunami waves and the Fukushima nuclear accident. Especially, the screening for radioactive exposure using a dosimeter to take decontamination measures for cases of external exposure was extremely important task. Nevertheless, because the accurate knowledge related to radioactive contamination didn't provide, most medical staff fell into confusion. Fukushima prefecture has been 'shrinking' since the nuclear accident. However, today, although some hot spots remain in residential areas, the radioactive contamination is decreasing little by little. Many people in Fukushima Prefecture advance as one, facing forward. Recently, decontamination projects started. Efforts must be continued over a long period. © 2012 The Author. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  7. Continuous Presence of Noroviruses and Sapoviruses in Raw Sewage Reflects Infections among Inhabitants of Toyama, Japan (2006 to 2008) ▿

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, Masae; Hasegawa, Sumiyo; Obara, Mayumi; Nakamura, Kazuya; Horimoto, Eiji; Takizawa, Takenori; Kurata, Takeshi; Sogen, Shun-ichi; Shiraki, Kimiyasu

    2009-01-01

    Various genotypes of norovirus (NoV) (genogroup I genotype 1 [GI.1], -2, -4, -5, -8, -11, -12, and -14; GII.3, -4, -6, -7, -10, -13, -14, and -15), and sapovirus (SaV) (GI.1 and GI.2, GII.1, and GIV.1) were detected from raw sewage from April 2006 to March 2008, while limited numbers of genotypes of NoV (GI.8, GII.4, GII.6, and GII.13) and SaV (GII.3 and GIV.1) and of NoV (GII.4, GII.7, and GII.13) were detected from clinical cases and healthy children, respectively. During the winter 2006 to 2008, a large number of sporadic gastroenteritis outbreaks and many outbreaks caused by NoV GII.4 occurred among inhabitants in Toyama, Japan. The copy number of genomes of NoV GII detected from raw sewage changed in relation to the number of outbreaks. NoV strains of the same genotypes observed in both raw sewage and human specimens belonged to the same cluster by phylogenetic analysis and had almost identical nucleotide sequences among each genotype. These data suggest that NoVs and SaVs detected from raw sewage reflect the viruses circulating in the community, irrespective of symptoms, and that subclinical infections of NoV are common in Japan. Combined surveys of raw sewage with those of clinical cases help us to understand the relationship between infection of these viruses and gastroenteritis. PMID:19124591

  8. Daily radionuclide ingestion and internal radiation doses in Aomori prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2013-10-01

    To assess internal annual dose in the general public in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, 80 duplicate cooked diet samples, equivalent to the food consumed over a 400-d period by one person, were collected from 100 volunteers in Aomori City and the village of Rokkasho during 2006–2010 and were analyzed for 11 radionuclides. To obtain average rates of ingestion of radionuclides, the volunteers were selected from among office, fisheries, agricultural, and livestock farm workers. Committed effective doses from ingestion of the diet over a 1-y period were calculated from the analytical results and from International Commission on Radiological Protection dose coefficients; for 40K, an internal effective dose rate from the literature was used. Fisheries workers had significantly higher combined internal annual dose than the other workers, possibly because of high rates of ingestion of marine products known to have high 210Po concentrations. The average internal dose rate, weighted by the numbers of households in each worker group in Aomori Prefecture, was estimated at 0.47 mSv y-1. Polonium-210 contributed 49% of this value. The sum of committed effective dose rates for 210Po, 210Pb, 228Ra, and 14C and the effective dose rate of 40K accounted for approximately 99% of the average internal dose rate.

  9. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on health, medical care and public health systems in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, 2011.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Masaru

    2011-10-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in global history. The damage was spread over a wide area, with the worst-hit areas being Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures. In this paper we report on the damage and the impact of the damage to describe the health consequences among disaster victims in Iwate Prefecture. In Iwate Prefecture the tsunami claimed 4659 lives, with 1633 people missing. In addition to electricity, water and gas being cut off following the disaster, communication functions were paralysed and there was a lack of gasoline. Medical and public health teams from Iwate Prefecture and around the country, including many different specialists, engaged in a variety of public health activities mainly at evacuation centres, including medical and mental health care and activities to prevent infectious diseases. Given the many fatalities, there were relatively few patients who required medical treatment for major injuries. However, there were significant medical needs in the subacute and chronic phases of care in evacuation centres, with great demand for medical treatment and public health assistance, measures to counteract infection and mental health care. By referring to past experiences of national and international large-scale disasters, it was possible to respond effectively to the health-related challenges. However, there are still challenges concerning how to share information and coordinate overall activities among multiple public health response teams. Further examination will be required to ensure better preparedness in response to future disasters.

  10. A model-based estimation of inter-prefectural migration of physicians within Japan and associated factors: A 20-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Okada, Naoki; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Morita, Tomohiro; Higuchi, Asaka; Yoshida, Izumi; Kosugi, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Yuto; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Ozaki, Akihiko; Tsuda, Kenji; Mori, Jinichi; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Ward, Larry Wesley; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Yuji, Koichiro; Kami, Masahiro

    2018-06-01

    Despite an increase in the number of physicians in Japan, misdistribution of physicians within the 47 prefectures remains a major issue. Migration of physicians among prefectures might partly explain the misdistribution. However, geographical differences and the magnitude of physicians' migration are unclear. The aim of this study was to estimate the extent of migration of physicians among prefectures and explore possible factors associated with physicians' migration patterns.Using a publicly available government database from 1995 to 2014, a quantitative estimation of physicians' migration after graduation from a medical school was performed. The inflow and outflow of physicians were ostensibly calculated in each prefecture based on the differences between the number of newly licensed physicians and the actual number of practicing physicians after an adjustment for the number of deceased or retired physicians. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine socio-demographic background factors.During the 20-year study period, the mean annual numbers of newly licensed physicians, deceased or retired physicians, and increase in practicing physicians in the whole country were 7416, 3382, and 4034, respectively. Among the 47 prefectures, the median annual number of newly licensed physicians to 100,000 population ratio (PPR) was 6.4 (range 1.5-16.5), the median annual adjusted number of newly licensed physicians was 61 (range, -18 to 845; the negative and positive values denote outflow and inflow, respectively), whereas the median annual number of migrating physicians was 13 (range, -171 to 241). The minimum and maximum migration ratios observed were -68% and 245%, respectively. In the final regression model of the 8 variables examined, only "newly licensed PPR" remained significantly associated with physician's migration ratios.A significant inequality in the proportion of the migration of physicians among prefectures in Japan was observed

  11. Questionnaire survey on mumps vaccination for parents in Nara prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Taito; Nishikawa, Hiroki; Onaka, Masayuki; Ishihara, Mariko; Nishiyama, Atsuko; Yoshida, Sayaka

    2018-04-01

    Although the mumps vaccine has not been included in the national immunization program (NIP) in Japan, it has been shown that a two-dose routine vaccine program would be highly cost-effective. In this study, we carried outa questionnaire-based study to investigate how many Japanese parents want the mumps vaccine to be included in the NIP with proper information. The questionnaire was given to parents who visited the Pediatrics or neonatal intensive care unit of Nara Prefecture General Medical Center, Nara City, Japan, between 1 March 2017 and 31 August 2017. The questionnaire consisted of information about mumps and six questions, for example (i) do parents know that mumps can be prevented by vaccine; (ii) do they know that they need to pay for mumps vaccines; and (iii) do they hope that the government will resume routine mumps vaccination. In total, 1,224 parents answered the questionnaire. A total of 81% and 75.4% of parents knew that mumps can be prevented by vaccination and that mumps vaccine is not included in the NIP, respectively, before reading the information. After reading the information, 95.0% of parents thought that mumps vaccine should be included in the NIP. While 61.7% of parents answered that they would choose two-dose vaccination without governmental financial support, 92.1% of them would choose two-dose vaccination with governmental financial support (P < 0.0001). Japanese parents want the mumps vaccine to be included in the NIP. Japan is able to start routine use of the mumps vaccine now. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Enhancement of the surface methane hydrate-bearing layer based on the specific microorganisms form deep seabed sediment in Japan Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, T.; Yoneda, J.; Yamamoto, K.

    2017-12-01

    A methane hydrate-bearing layer located near the Japan Sea has been investigated as a new potential energy resource. In this study examined the feasibility of the seabed surface sediment strength located in the Japan Sea improvement technologies for enhancing microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) process. First, the authors cultivated the specific urease production bacterium culture medium from this surface methane hydrate-bearing layer in the seabed (-600m depth) of Japan Sea. After that, two types of the laboratory test (consolidated-drained triaxial tests) were conducted using this specific culture medium from the seabed in the Japan Sea near the Toyama Prefecture and high urease activities bacterium named Bacillus pasteurii. The main outcomes of this research are as follows. 1) Specific culture medium focused on the urease production bacterium can enhancement of the urease activities from the methane hydrate-bearing layer near the Japan Sea side, 2) This specific culture medium can be enhancement of the surface layer strength, 3) The microbial induced carbonate precipitation process can increase the particle size compared to that of the original particles coating the calcite layer surface, 4) The mechanism for increasing the soil strength is based on the addition of cohesion like a cement stabilized soil.

  13. Regional differences in population-based cancer survival between six prefectures in Japan: application of relative survival models with funnel plots.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuri; Ioka, Akiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Ajiki, Wakiko; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Rachet, Bernard; Coleman, Michel P

    2009-07-01

    We used new methods to examine differences in population-based cancer survival between six prefectures in Japan, after adjustment for age and stage at diagnosis. We applied regression models for relative survival to data from population-based cancer registries covering each prefecture for patients diagnosed with stomach, lung, or breast cancer during 1993-1996. Funnel plots were used to display the excess hazard ratio (EHR) for each prefecture, defined as the excess hazard of death from each cancer within 5 years of diagnosis relative to the mean excess hazard (in excess of national background mortality by age and sex) in all six prefectures combined. The contribution of age and stage to the EHR in each prefecture was assessed from differences in deviance-based R(2) between the various models. No significant differences were seen between prefectures in 5-year survival from breast cancer. For cancers of the stomach and lung, EHR in Osaka prefecture were above the upper 95% control limits. For stomach cancer, the age- and stage-adjusted EHR in Osaka were 1.29 for men and 1.43 for women, compared with Fukui and Yamagata. Differences in the stage at diagnosis of stomach cancer appeared to explain most of this excess hazard (61.3% for men, 56.8% for women), whereas differences in age at diagnosis explained very little (0.8%, 1.3%). This approach offers the potential to quantify the impact of differences in stage at diagnosis on time trends and regional differences in cancer survival. It underlines the utility of population-based cancer registries for improving cancer control.

  14. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on Regional Obstetrical Care in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Junichi; Hoshiai, Tetsuro; Sato, Kazuyo; Tokunaga, Hideki; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Arai, Takanari; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    The authors report the results of surveys on the emergency transport or evacuation status of obstetric patients conducted in Miyagi prefecture, one of the major disaster areas of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami. The surveys examined the damages to maternity institutions, evacuation status and transport of pregnant women, and prehospital childbirths and were conducted in 50 maternity institutions and 12 fire departments in Miyagi. Two coastal institutions were destroyed completely, and four institutions were destroyed partially by the tsunami, forcing them to stop medical services. In the two-month period after the disaster, 217 pregnant women received hospital transport or gave birth after evacuation. Satisfactory perinatal outcomes were maintained. Emergency obstetric transport increased to approximately 1.4 fold the number before the disaster. Twenty-three women had prehospital childbirths, indicating a marked increase to approximately three times the number of the previous year. In the acute phase of the tsunami disaster, maternity institutions were damaged severely and perinatal transport was not possible; as a result, pregnant women inevitably gave birth in unplanned institutions, and the number of prehospital births was increased extremely. To obtain satisfactory obstetric outcomes, it is necessary to construct a future disaster management system and to re-recognize pregnant women as people with special needs in disaster situations. Sugawara J , Hoshiai T , Sato K , Tokunaga H , Nishigori H , Arai T , Okamura K , Yaegashi N . Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on regional obstetrical care in Miyagi Prefecture. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):255- 258.

  15. Radioactive materials deposition in Iwate prefecture, northeast japan, due to the Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Hideyuki

    2013-04-01

    A catastrophic earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011, and additional tsunami gave the big damage along the pacific coastline of the northeast Japan. Tsunami also caused the accident of Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP), released of massive amount of radioactive materials to all over the northeast to central Japan. Ministry of Education, cultural, sports, science and technology (MEXT), Japan, carried out the airborne monitoring survey on several times, however, it is impossible to know the deposition of low level radiation under 0.1μSv/h. On the other hand, radioactive material was detected in Iwate by farm and livestock products, and it was necessary to understand an accurate contamination status in Iwate prefecture. Behavior of radioactive material is very similar to the ashfall by the volcanic eruption. Therefore, it is possible to apply the knowledge of volcanology to evaluation of the natural radiation dose. The author carried out the detailed contamination mapping across the Iwate prefecture. To γ-ray measurement, using scintillation counter A2700 of the clearpulse, measured on 1m grass field above ground, for one minute. The total measurement point became more than 800 point whole in Iwate. Field survey were carried out from April to November, 2011, therefore, it is necessary to consider to the half - life of the radioactive element of the cesium 134 and 137. In this study, the author reconstructed a deposition of April, 2011, just after the accident. In addition, the author also carried out the revision of the natural radiation dose included in the granite and so on. From the result, Concentration of radioactive materials depend on the topography, it tend to high concentrate in the basin or along the valley. The feeble deposition 0.01-0.2μsv/h with the radioactive material was recognized in whole prefecture. High contamination area distributed over the E-W directions widely in the southern part of the prefecture, and it also existence of the

  16. Meteorological factors affecting scrub typhus occurrence: a retrospective study of Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, 1984-2014.

    PubMed

    Seto, J; Suzuki, Y; Nakao, R; Otani, K; Yahagi, K; Mizuta, K

    2017-02-01

    Climate change, by its influence on the ecology of vectors might affect the occurrence of vector-borne diseases. This study examines the effects of meteorological factors in Japan on the occurrence of scrub typhus, a mite-borne zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Using negative binomial regression, we analysed the relationships between meteorological factors (including temperature, rainfall, snowfall) and spring-early summer cases of scrub typhus in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, during 1984-2014. The average temperature in July and August of the previous year, cumulative rainfall in September of the previous year, snowfall throughout the winter, and maximum depth of snow cover in January and February were positively correlated with the number of scrub typhus cases. By contrast, cumulative rainfall in July of the previous year showed a negative relationship to the number of cases. These associations can be explained by the life-cycle of Leptotrombidium pallidum, a predominant vector of spring-early summer cases of scrub typhus in northern Japan. Our findings show that several meteorological factors are useful to estimate the number of scrub typhus cases before the endemic period. They are applicable to establish an early warning system for scrub typhus in northern Japan.

  17. Studies of felonious crimes by the University Department of Forensic Medicine in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsunenari, S; Kibayashi, K; Honjyo, K; Hamada, C

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives an understanding of Japan in the respect of forensic medicine. The fight against felonious crimes in Kumamoto is introduced by reference to the police system, crime statistics, an association of police surgeons and medico-legal autopsy in Kumamoto Prefecture. The police have 23 local police stations with 2,670 police officers and the unique Hashutsu-sho and Chyuzai-sho systems. The crime rate is not very high, but crimes committed by Yakuza groups and traffic accidents are major problems in Kumamoto. Medico-legal autopsy is performed in the university department on only criminal and suspected cases after examination of the body externally by a police surgeon. Two illustrative cases are also introduced in this report, which shows good cooperation among the police force, the university department of forensic medicine, and police surgeons in Kumamoto, Japan.

  18. Geometry and slip rates of active blind thrusts in a reactivated back-arc rift using shallow seismic imaging: Toyama basin, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Kato, Naoko; Sato, Hiroshi; Koshiya, Shin; Toda, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Kenta

    2017-10-01

    Active blind thrust faults, which can be a major seismic hazard in urbanized areas, are commonly difficult to image with seismic reflection surveys. To address these challenges in coastal plains, we collected about 8 km-long onshore high-resolution two-dimensional (2D) seismic reflection data using a dense array of 800 geophones across compressionally reactivated normal faults within a failed rift system located along the southwestern extension of the Toyama trough in the Sea of Japan. The processing of the seismic reflection data illuminated their detailed subsurface structures to depths of about 3 km. The interpreted depth-converted section, correlated with nearby Neogene stratigraphy, indicated the presence of and along-strike variation of previously unrecognized complex thrust-related structures composed of active fault-bend folds coupled with pairs of flexural slip faults within the forelimb and newly identified frontal active blind thrusts beneath the alluvial plain. In addition, growth strata and fold scarps that deform lower to upper Pleistocene units record the recent history of their structural growth and fault activity. This case shows that shallow seismic reflection imaging with densely spaced seismic recorders is a useful tool in defining locations, recent fault activity, and complex geometry of otherwise inaccessible active blind thrust faults.

  19. Geological field study for science education on Elementary and Junior high school student, in Shimane prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, I.

    2011-12-01

    The importance of learning at field has been increasing in the elementary and the junior high school in Japan. And, an environmental education is one of the important subjects even in the school education, too. It was important, as for science education, understanding with actual feeling and learning were specified as for the Teaching outlines (the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) of the new science textbook of the elementary and the junior high school as well. However, It is a little actual situation that there is in an opportunity for the field learning enforced in the school lesson by the investigation of JST (Japan Science and Tecnology Agency). This tendency is strong as much as school of the city and that circumference. I have this cause think that there are a few suitable places for learning to observe geological and biological field near school. In addition, below two is pointed out as a big problem to obstruct the execution of field learning. 1) A natural experience isn't being done sufficient as much as a teacher can teach to the student. 2) It doesn't have the confidence that a teacher teaches a student geology and biology at the field. I introduce the practical example of geological field learning at the public elementary school of the Shimane prefecture by this research. Though it is the place where nature is comparatively rich even in Japan, it can't be said that field learning is popular in Shimane prefecture. A school teacher has to learning experience at field, and he must settle confidence to guide a student at the field. A specialist in the university and the museum must support continuous learning for that to the school teacher.

  20. Seeding Experiment of Liquid Carbon Dioxide for Enhancing Winter-time Precipitation in Saga Prefecture,Northern Kyushu,Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakimizu, K.; Nishiyama, K.; Tomine, K.; Maki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Morita, O.

    2012-12-01

    Many droughts (shortage of water) have broken out by extreme small amount rainfall in recent Japan. So far,in order to prevent these droughts,artificial rainfall methods with 'AgI' or 'dry ice' have been widely used in Japan. However,these methods have many problems,which a large amount of overcooling liquid in the cumulus cloud was not able to be converted into precipitation efficiently. So as to solve these problems,new artificial rainfall method using liquid carbon dioxide (LC) was proposed by Fukuta (1996). This new method consists of the generation of ice particles by homogeneous nucleation using LC and the subsequent more effective growth for ice particles without competition process. And, this method is called 'Low-Level Penetration Seeding of Homogeneous Ice Nucleant (LOLEPSHIN)' ; this induces a 'Roll-up Expansion of Twin Horizontal Ice-crystal Thermals (RETHIT)' and a subsequent 'Falling growth-Induced Lateral Air Spreading (FILAS)'. This LC method was applied to thin super-cooled cumulus clouds in Saga prefecture, Northern Kyushu, Japan on February 4,2006. The seeding airplane took off the Atugi Airport in Kanagawa Prefecture toward the Iki Island around 0830JST. Many cloud bands were cofirmed in the flight going to the experimental area and the cloud base temperature was approximately -9C (1200m). Scince some young developing thin cumuli were found over the Iki Island, LC seeding to these clouds was carried out two times from 0841JST until 0919JST penetrating the -9C (1200m) altitude. The first precipitation seeding ebded in failure. The second penetration seeding was done for 115 seconds around 0917JST. This penetration led to success of developing one artificial echo (Echo I) in the leeward side of the Iki Island. Eco I moved from NNW to SSW. The maximum area of Echo I were 48km2 (at 1033JST) and first comfirmed by the Kyushu University radar (KU radar) at 1006JST (46 min. after LC seeding) around Mt.Sefuri in Saga Prefecture. It can be inferred that

  1. Characteristics of visiting nurse agencies with high home death rates: A prefecture-wide study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Masayo; Tamiya, Nanako; Murata, Masako

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify characteristics of visiting nurse agencies (VNA) in Japan with high home death rates by a prefecture-wide survey. A cross-sectional study of visiting nurse agencies (n = 101) in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, was completed. Data included the basic characteristics of each VNA, the type of services provided, level of coordination with other service providers, total number of VNA patients who died per year and place of death and contractual relationship with home-care supporting clinics providing end-of-life care services in the home 24 h a day. The VNA characteristics were analyzed by logistic regression, using the home death rate per VNA as a dependent variable. A total 69 agencies, excluding those that did not report number of deaths (n = 14) and those without deaths during the year (n = 6), were analyzed. The median home death rate of the 69 VNA was 29.8%. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that higher home death rate was significantly associated with lack of attachment to a hospital, existence of a contractual relationship with home-care supporting clinics and existence of an interactive information exchange through telephone/face-to-face communication with attending physicians. In order to increase the home death rate of people using VNA, policymakers must consider establishing home-based service systems within the community that can provide home end-of-life care services 24 h a day, and support the interactive exchange of information between the visiting nurse and the attending physician. © 2014 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Geriatrics Society.

  2. Annual incidences of visual impairment during 10-year period in Mie prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikesugi, Kengo; Ichio, Takako; Tsukitome, Hideyuki; Kondo, Mineo

    2017-07-01

    To determine the annual incidence of visual impairment in a Japanese population during a 10-year period. We examined the physical disability certificates issued yearly between 2004 and 2013 in Mie prefecture, Japan. During this period 2468 visually impaired people were registered under the newly defined Act on Welfare of the Physically Disabled Persons' criteria. The age, sex distribution, and causes of visual impairment were determined from the certificates. The major causes of visual impairment during the ten-year period were glaucoma (23.3%), diabetic retinopathy (17.3%), retinitis pigmentosa (12.2%), macular degeneration (9.0%), chorioretinal degeneration or high myopia (7.4%), optic atrophy (5.8%), stroke or brain tumor (5.4%) and cataracts (3.7%). The incidence of glaucoma was significantly higher throughout the period (2004-2013), and that of diabetic retinopathy was lower between 2007 and 2013. The incidence of retinitis pigmentosa did not change significantly during the 10-year period. The incidence of macular degeneration tended to increase between 2004 and 2007, but it decreased significantly between 2007 and 2013. The results indicate that in Japan, the rates of the major causes of visual impairment altered in the most recent 10-year period reflecting the recent changes in the social background and advances in ocular and systemic treatment.

  3. Population size dependency of measles epidemic that was scalable from Japanese prefectures to European countries.

    PubMed

    Yoshikura, Hiroshi

    2018-04-27

    Relation between number of measles patients (y) and population size (x) was expressed by an equation y = ax s , where a is a constant and s the slope of the plot; s was 2.04-2.17 for prefectures in Japan, i.e., the number of patients was proportional to square of the prefecture population size. For European countries that joined European Union no later than 2009, the slope was 1.43-1.87. The measles' population dependency found among prefectures in Japan was thus scalable up to European countries. It was surprising because, unlike Japan, population density in EU countries was not uniform and not proportional to the population size. The population size dependency was not observed among Western Pacific and South-East Asian countries probably on account of confounding interacting socioeconomic factors. Correlation between measles incidence and birth rate, infant mortality or GDP per capita was almost insignificant.Size distribution of local infection clusters (LICs) of measles and rubella in Japan followed power law. For measles, though the population dependency remained unchanged after "elimination", there was change in the Zipf-type plot of LIC sizes. After the "elimination", LICs linked to importation-related outbreaks in less populated prefectures emerged as the top-ranked LICs.

  4. Bath water contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria in 24-hour home baths, hot springs, and public bathhouses of Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bath water samples were collected from 116 hot springs, 197 public bathhouses, and 38 24-hour home baths in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, during the period of April 2009 to November 2011, for determining the presence and extent of contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Cultures positive for Legionella were observed in 123 of the 3,314 bath water samples examined. The distribution and abundance of Legionella and/or combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria were investigated to clarify the contamination levels. The abundance of Legionella was demonstrated to correlate considerably with the levels of combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Legionella spp. were obtained from 61% of the water samples from 24-hour home baths, but only from 3% of the samples from public bathhouses and hot springs. This is despite the fact that a few outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Nagano Prefecture as well as other regions of Japan have been traced to bath water contamination. The comparatively higher rate of contamination of the 24-hour home baths is a matter of concern. It is therefore advisable to routinely implement good maintenance of the water basins, particularly of the 24-hour home baths.

  5. Estimation of Effective Dose from External Exposure in The Six Prefectures adjacent to Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyatake, Hirokazu; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Takizawa, Mari; Kawai, Masaki; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Suzuki, Gen

    2017-09-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident caused a release of radionuclides. Radionuclides were deposited on the ground not only in Fukushima prefecture but also in nearby prefectures. Since the accident, measurement of radiation in environment such as air dose rate and deposition density of radionuclides has been performed by many organizations and universities. In particular, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been performing observations of air dose rate using a car-borne survey system continuously and over wide areas. In our study, using the data measured by JAEA, we estimated effective dose from external exposure in the six prefectures adjacent to Fukushima prefecture. Since car-borne survey was started a few months later after the accident, measured air dose rate in this method is mainly contributed by 137Cs and 134Cs whose half-lives are relatively long. Therefore, based on air dose rate of 137Cs and 134Cs and the ratio of deposition density of short-half-life nuclides to that of 137Cs and 134Cs, we also estimated effective dose contributed from not only 137Cs and 134Cs but also other short-half-life nuclides. We compared the effective dose estimated by the method above with that of UNSCEAR and measured data using personal dosimeters in some areas.

  6. Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside pollution in the restricted Midagahara area of Mt. Tateyama, Toyama, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kazuo; Horikawa, Keiji; Sakai, Hideo

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic biomonitoring techniques and in situ topsoil magnetic susceptibility measurements have been shown to be rapid, cost-effective, and useful methods for investigating roadside pollution. However, combustible vegetation in samples makes it very difficult to use them in high-temperature magnetic experiments although the thermal alteration of spontaneous magnetization is a fundamental magnetic property and can be used to identify reliably the magnetic minerals. Here, we report the first magnetic biomonitoring results of dust deposited on plant leaves along the Tateyama-Kurobe Alpine route at the highly protected Midagahara wetland areas of Mt. Tateyama in Toyama, Japan. In-field magnetic susceptibility from 15 sites (161 points) shows higher susceptibilities near the roadside. Dust deposited on the leaves of Sasa kurilensis, or dwarf bamboo, has been wiped off at 12 sites (64 samples) with a commercial ethanol wipe sheet or silica wool damped in ethanol and subjected to rock magnetic analyses. Thermomagnetic remanence curves and low-temperature behaviors for samples collected near the roadside using silica wool show clearly that the main magnetic mineral in the dust is partially oxidized magnetite. Further, detailed rock magnetic analyses and elemental analyses of leaves in the study area indicate that (a) the magnetic mineralogy on leaves' surface is consistent throughout the study area and (b) higher saturation isothermal remanent magnetization intensities as well as higher concentrations of Pb, Fe, Cr, and Y are observed near the roadside, i.e., the closer to the roadside, the more anthropogenic materials, including partially oxidized magnetite, are present. Also, microscopic observations show the lack of spherical grains, indicating that dust on the roadside leaves is derived from passing vehicle rather than industrial process. Both rock magnetic and geochemical results show that S. kurilensis would be an excellent candidate for investigating air pollution

  7. Peptic Ulcers in Fukushima Prefecture Related to the Great East Japan Earthquake, Tsunami and Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    Hikichi, Takuto; Sato, Masaki; Watanabe, Ko; Nakamura, Jun; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Ejiri, Yutaka; Ishihata, Ryoichi; Irisawa, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yuta; Saito, Hironobu; Takagi, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Rei; Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Konno, Naoki; Waragai, Yuichi; Asama, Hiroyuki; Takasumi, Mika; Sato, Yuki; Ohira, Hiromasa; Obara, Katsutoshi

    2017-01-01

    Objective Due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in March 2011, many residents of Fukushima Prefecture were affected by a radiation accident in addition to suffering loss or damage from the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami. The aim of this study was to evaluate the actual condition of patients with peptic ulcers related to the disaster. Methods Patients with peptic ulcers at six hospitals in three different regions of Fukushima Prefecture during the two months following the disaster and the corresponding period of the year before and the year after the disaster were enrolled in this study. Changes by period and region in the number of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) examinations and the number of peptic ulcer patients were evaluated as the primary endpoints. Changes in the frequencies of hemorrhagic ulcers were evaluated by period and by region as secondary endpoints. Results The numbers of EGDs and peptic ulcer cases compared to the previous year decreased in 2011 and then increased in 2012. However, the ratio of hemorrhagic ulcers to peptic ulcers was higher in 2011 (51.9%) than in 2010 (38.1%) and 2012 (31.1%), and the 2011 hemorrhagic ulcer ratio was the highest at 63.6% in the coastal area. Regarding bleeding cases during 2011, the rate at 1 month after the disaster (64.1%) was higher than the rate at 2 months after the disaster (40.5%) (p=0.033). Conclusion The number of patients with peptic ulcers did not increase immediately following the disaster in Fukushima Prefecture. However, the rate of bleeding patients increased soon after the disaster, especially in the coastal area. PMID:29269647

  8. Case-based surveillance enhanced with measles virus detection/genotyping is essential to maintain measles elimination in Aichi Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, Hiroko; Yasui, Yoshihiro; Adachi, Hirokazu; Ito, Miyabi; Hirose, Emi; Nakamura, Noriko; Hata, Mami; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Yamashita, Teruo

    2015-11-09

    Japan was verified as having achieved measles elimination by the Measles Regional Verification Commission in the Western Pacific Region in March 2015. Verification of measles elimination implies the absence of continuous endemic transmission. After the last epidemic in 2007 with an estimated 18,000 cases, Japan introduced nationwide case-based measles surveillance in January 2008. Laboratory diagnosis for all suspected measles cases is essentially required by law, and virus detection tests are mostly performed by municipal public health institutes. Despite relatively high vaccination coverage and vigorous response to every case by the local health center staff, outbreak of measles is repeatedly observed in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Measles virus N and H gene detection by nested double RT-PCR was performed with all specimens collected from suspected cases and transferred to our institute. Genotyping and further molecular epidemiological analyses were performed with the direct nucleotide sequence data of appropriate PCR products. Between 2010 and 2014, specimens from 389 patients suspected for measles were tested in our institute. Genotypes D9, D8, H1 and B3 were detected. Further molecular epidemiological analyses were helpful to establish links between patients, and sometimes useful to discriminate one outbreak from another. All virus-positive cases, including 49 cases involved in three outbreaks without any obvious epidemiological link with importation, were considered as import-related based on the nucleotide sequence information. Chain of transmission in the latest outbreak in 2014 terminated after the third generations, much earlier than the 2010-11 outbreak (6th generations). Since 2010, almost all measles cases reported in Aichi Prefecture are either import or import-related, based primarily on genotypes and nucleotide sequences of measles virus detected. In addition, genotyping and molecular epidemiological analyses are indispensable to prove the interruption

  9. [Utilization of Big Data in Medicine and Future Outlook].

    PubMed

    Kinosada, Yasutomi; Uematsu, Machiko; Fujiwara, Takuya

    2016-03-01

    "Big data" is a new buzzword. The point is not to be dazzled by the volume of data, but rather to analyze it, and convert it into insights, innovations, and business value. There are also real differences between conventional analytics and big data. In this article, we show some results of big data analysis using open DPC (Diagnosis Procedure Combination) data in areas of the central part of JAPAN: Toyama, Ishikawa, Fukui, Nagano, Gifu, Aichi, Shizuoka, and Mie Prefectures. These 8 prefectures contain 51 medical administration areas called the second medical area. By applying big data analysis techniques such as k-means, hierarchical clustering, and self-organizing maps to DPC data, we can visualize the disease structure and detect similarities or variations among the 51 second medical areas. The combination of a big data analysis technique and open DPC data is a very powerful method to depict real figures on patient distribution in Japan.

  10. Social factors of mental disorder and suicide in Japan-for understanding circumstance of suicides in each prefecture-.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Hideyuki; Fujimoto, Atsuko; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira; Yano, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there have been over 30000 suicides annually in Japan. This is one of the most serious problems for Japanese society. Because mental disorder is closely associated with suicide, factors related to the increase in mental disorders and suicides should be clarified. In this study, various data regarding social factors were evaluated to assess the correlation of the number of patients with mental disorders and suicides among the 47 prefectures of Japan. Various data regarding social factors, such as income, savings, or rate of divorce, were obtained from the database of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Among the factors, the annual income and the amount of savings were significantly correlated with the number of patients with mental disorder. On the other hand, while the annual income did not have a significant correlation with suicides, the amount of savings had a significant correlation with suicides. In conclusion, the annual income and amount of savings may both be one of the important factors involved in mental disorders, and the savings may also be a factor affecting suicides. These analyses are valuable in helping to clarify the causes of mental disease, and can hopefully contribute to the health and welfare of Japanese.

  11. A Case Study of the High School Entrance Examination in Chiba Prefecture, Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the role of the Japanese prefecture (a regional government unit analogous to U.S. states) in school administration through a case study of the Chiba prefectural board of education's role in administering the high school entrance examination. Finds that the examination stratifies students into an educational hierarchy. (NL)

  12. Survey of Preventable Disaster Deaths at Medical Institutions in Areas Affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: Retrospective Survey of Medical Institutions in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Mase, Tomohiko; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Koido, Yuichi; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2017-10-01

    Introduction In 2015, the authors reported the results of a preliminary investigation of preventable disaster deaths (PDDs) at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011). This initial survey considered only disaster base hospitals (DBHs) and hospitals that had experienced at least 20 patient deaths in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan); therefore, hospitals that experienced fewer than 20 patient deaths were not investigated. This was an additional study to the previous survey to better reflect PDD at hospitals across the entire prefecture. Of the 147 hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture, the 14 DBHs and 82 non-DBHs that agreed to participate were included in an on-site survey. A database was created based on the medical records of 1,243 patient deaths that occurred between March 11, 2011 and April 1, 2011, followed by determination of their status as PDDs. A total of 125 cases of PDD were identified among the patients surveyed. The rate of PDD was significantly higher at coastal hospitals than inland hospitals (17.3% versus 6.3%; P<.001). Preventable disaster deaths in non-DBHs were most numerous in facilities with few general beds, especially among patients hospitalized before the disaster in hospitals with fewer than 100 beds. Categorized by area, the most frequent causes of PDD were: insufficient medical resources, disrupted lifelines, delayed medical intervention, and deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters in coastal areas; and were delayed medical intervention and disrupted lifelines in inland areas. Categorized by hospital function, the most frequent causes were: delayed medical intervention, deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters, and insufficient medical resources at DBHs; while those at non-DBHs were disrupted lifelines, insufficient medical resources, delayed medical intervention, and lack of capacity for transport within the area. Preventable disaster death at medical

  13. Combined Effects of Working Hours, Income, and Leisure Time on Suicide in All 47 Prefectures of Japan

    PubMed Central

    TAKEUCHI, Akito; SAKANO, Noriko; MIYATAKE, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    This study describes an ecological study that evaluated the combined effects of working hours, income, and leisure time on suicide in all 47 prefectures of Japan. In men, the age-adjusted rate of suicide (per 100,000 population) was significantly correlated with working hours (r=0.587, p<0.0001) as well as significantly and negatively correlated with income (r=−0.517, p=0.0002) and times for the leisure activities of self-education (r=−0.447, p=0.0016) and hobbies (r=−0.511, p=0.0002). In addition, a stepwise multiple regression analysis identified time for leisure social activities as a determining factor in suicide rate, even after adjusting for working hours and income. However, the impact of time for leisure social activities on suicide rate was smaller than that of working hours and income. In contrast, none of these factors affected suicide rate in women. These results suggest that increasing leisure time may be useful for preventing suicide among men in Japan. PMID:24464025

  14. Spatial transmission of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses among wild birds in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, 2016-2017.

    PubMed

    Tsunekuni, Ryota; Yaguchi, Yuji; Kashima, Yuki; Yamashita, Kaoru; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Mine, Junki; Tanikawa, Taichiro; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Takehiko

    2018-05-01

    From 29 November 2016 to 24 January 2017, sixty-three cases of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections were detected in wild birds in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Here, we analyzed the genetic, temporal, and geographic correlations of these 63 HPAIVs to elucidate their dissemination throughout the prefecture. Full-genome sequence analysis of the Ibaraki isolates showed that 7 segments (PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP, NA, NS) were derived from G1.1.9 strains while the M segment was from G1.1 strains; both groups of strains circulated in south China. Pathological studies revealed severe systemic infection in dead swans (the majority of dead birds and the only species necropsied), thus indicating high susceptibility to H5N6 HPAIVs. Coalescent phylogenetic analysis using the 7 G1.1.9-derived segments enabled detailed analysis of the short-term evolution of these highly homologous HPAIVs. This analysis revealed that the H5N6 HPAIVs isolated from wild birds in Ibaraki Prefecture were divided into 7 groups. Spatial analysis demonstrated that most of the cases concentrated around Senba Lake originated from a single source, and progeny viruses were transmitted to other locations after the infection expanded in mute swans. In contrast, within just a 5-km radius of the area in which cases were concentrated, three different intrusions of H5N6 HPAIVs were evident. Multi-segment analysis of short-term evolution showed that not only was the invading virus spread throughout Ibaraki Prefecture but also that, despite the small size of this region, multiple invasions had occurred during winter 2016-2017.

  15. [Contribution of the Department of Laboratory Medicine for the Protection and the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus in Tokushima Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Noma, Yoshihiko

    2006-09-01

    Diabetes mortality rates of Tokushima prefecture have been worst one in Japan for 12 years. We started up the organization named "Tokushima Medical Doctors Association against Diabetes" for the disease prevention and the improvement of the treatments in Tokushima prefecture. More than 240 medical doctors in Tokushima prefecture joined the association. The activities of the association are ( 1) training of medical doctors, (2) education for co-medical staffs, (3) education and enlightenment for patients and the public, (4) cooperation with Tokushima prefectural medical association and the communities. For the purpose of education for the co-medical staffs, we organized the association of Certified Diabetes Educator of Japan in Tokushima and support the association as the secretariat office. We also work as Tokushima branch office of Japan Association for Diabetes and Education and Care. The prevention of disease and the improvement of medical activity level are one of the big roles those the university hospital is responsible, because the university hospital is anticipated to work as a medical leader in the community. As the University hospital can take care of all medical staffs, so it is thought to be important to contribute the local medical treatment level different with the medical association and prefecture secretariat. The promotion conference for Diabetes mellitus was established last year. The relation among the associations we take care, the local medical association, and the prefecture secretariat are getting better. We hope that our cooperative activities will contribute to reducing morbidity and mortality from diabetes in Tokushima prefecture.

  16. Mental Health Distress and Related Factors Among Prefectural Public Servants Seven Months After the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yuriko; Fukasawa, Maiko; Obara, Akiko; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Background To develop an empirically informed support measure for workers, we examined mental health distress and its risk factors among prefectural public servants who were affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake and faced a demanding workload in the midterm of the disaster. Methods We conducted a self-administered health survey of all public servants in the Miyagi prefectural government two and seven months after the Great East Japan Earthquake (3743 workers, 70.6% of all employees). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mental distress (defined as K6 score ≥10) in the domain of disaster-work-related stressors, work-related stressors, and disaster-related stressors. Results Among those with better levels of workplace communication, the only factor that increased the risk of mental distress was not taking a non-work day each week (adjusted OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.27–5.14). Among those with poorer levels of workplace communication, in addition to not taking a non-work day each week (adjusted OR 3.93, 95% CI 3.00–5.15), handling residents’ complaints (adjusted OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.00–2.42), having dead or missing family members (adjusted OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.53–5.38), and living in a shelter more than two months after the disaster (adjusted OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.32–5.95) increased the risk of mental distress. Conclusions All workers should be encouraged to take a non-work day each week. Among workers with poor workplace communication, special attention should be given to those who handle residents’ complaints, have lost a family member(s), and are living in a shelter for a prolonged period of time. PMID:24857952

  17. [A quantitative analysis of information-seeking behaviors regarding medical institutions with Spanish language support among South American Spanish-speaking migrants in Aichi Prefecture, Japan].

    PubMed

    Takaku, Michiko; Ichikawa, Seiichi; Kaneko, Noriyo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the factors associated with information-seeking behaviors regarding medical institutions with Spanish language support among South American Spanish-speaking migrants living in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The survey targeted South American Spanish-speaking migrants aged 18 years and older currently residing in Aichi Prefecture who had lived in Japan for at least three months and who had previously seen a doctor in Japan. The questionnaire was written in Spanish and the survey was conducted from April to July, 2010. Wilson's information behavior model was used to study information-seeking behavior regarding medical institutions with Spanish language support among 245 respondents who completed the questionnaires (response rate: 58.9%). Experience seeking medical institutions with Spanish language support in the Tokai area was set as the dependent variable and a chi-square test was conducted to examine relationships with language support needs, recognition of and access to medical institutions with Spanish language support, living situation in Japan, and Japanese language skills. Among the 245 respondents, 106 were male (43.3%) and 139 were female (56.7%). The average age was 39.6±11.2 years old and 84.5% were Peruvian. The average length of residency in Japan was 11.0±5.7 years, and 34.3% of respondents had lived in Aichi for 5-9 years. A total of 165 respondents (67.3%) had searched for medical institutions with Spanish language support, while 80 (32.7%) had not. Information-seeking behavior regarding medical institutions with Spanish language support was associated with having previously experienced a need for Spanish language support when seeing doctors in Japan, finding and attending medical institutions with Spanish language support in the Tokai area, length of residency in Japan, Japanese language skills, and the language used in daily life. Experience in requiring Spanish support when sick or injured in Japan motivated respondents to

  18. Influence of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster on the birth weight of newborns in Fukushima Prefecture: Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Shun; Kyozuka, Hyo; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Fujimori, Keiya; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Hata, Kennichi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-12-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster occurred on 11 March 2011. We investigated the incidence of SGA (small for gestational age) in the Fukushima Prefecture in newborns delivered by women who were pregnant at the time of the disasters and identified any risk factors for SGA. Subjects were women who were pregnant at the time of the disasters. Questionnaires were sent to the women who lived in the Hamadori area (seaside and near to the nuclear power plant) at the time of the disasters as well as to a control group of women who lived outside the Hamadori area. The incidence of SGA was compared. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for SGA. In total, 325(5.6%) women had infants with SGA. Neither area nor the trimester of pregnancy at the time of the disasters influenced the incidence of SGA. Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) was higher in the SGA group. PIH was found to be an independent risk factor for SGA. We found no evidence that the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster increased the incidence of SGA in the Fukushima Prefecture.

  19. Within-country variation of salt intake assessed via urinary excretion in Japan: a multilevel analysis in all 47 prefectures.

    PubMed

    Uechi, Ken; Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    Salt intake in Japan remains high; therefore, exploring within-country variation in salt intake and its cause is an important step in the establishment of salt reduction strategies. However, no nationwide evaluation of this variation has been conducted by urinalysis. We aimed to clarify whether within-country variation in salt intake exists in Japan after adjusting for individual characteristics. Healthy men (n=1027) and women (n=1046) aged 20-69 years were recruited from all 47 prefectures of Japan. Twenty-four-hour sodium excretion was estimated using three spot urine samples collected on three nonconsecutive days. The study area was categorized into 12 regions defined by the National Health and Nutrition Survey Japan. Within-country variation in sodium excretion was estimated as a population (region)-level variance using a multilevel model with random intercepts, with adjustment for individual biological, socioeconomic and dietary characteristics. Estimated 24 h sodium excretion was 204.8 mmol per day in men and 155.7 mmol per day in women. Sodium excretion was high in the Northeastern region. However, population-level variance was extremely small after adjusting for individual characteristics (0.8 and 2% of overall variance in men and women, respectively) compared with individual-level variance (99.2 and 98% of overall variance in men and women, respectively). Among individual characteristics, greater body mass index, living with a spouse and high miso-soup intake were associated with high sodium excretion in both sexes. Within-country variation in salt intake in Japan was extremely small compared with individual-level variation. Salt reduction strategies for Japan should be comprehensive and should not address the small within-country differences in intake.

  20. Assessing the Mental Health Impact of the 2011 Great Japan Earthquake, Tsunami, and Radiation Disaster on Elementary and Middle School Children in the Fukushima Prefecture of Japan.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Mark

    2017-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off of Japan's Pacific coast, which was followed by huge tsunamis that destroyed many coastal cities in the area. Due to the earthquake and subsequent tsunami, malfunctions occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi (Fukushima I) nuclear power plant, resulting in the release of radioactive material in the region. While recent studies have investigated the effects of these events on the mental health of adults in the region, no studies have yet been performed investigating similar effects among children. This study aims to fill that gap by: 1) assessing the mental health of elementary and middle school children living within the Fukushima prefecture of Japan, and 2) identifying risk and protective factors that are associated with the children's mental health scores. These factors were quantified using an original demographics survey, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the latter two of which have been previously validated in a Japanese setting. The surveys were distributed to approximately 3,650 elementary and middle school students during the months of February and March, 2012. The data suggests that those children who had been relocated to the city of Koriyama had significantly higher SDQ scores than those children who were native to Koriyama (p < .05) as well as a control group that lived outside of the Fukushima prefecture (p < .01). Using a multivariate regression, we also found that younger age and parental trauma were significantly correlated with higher SDQ scores (p < .001), while gender, displacement from one's home, and exposure to violence were not. These results suggest that, among children affected by natural disasters, younger children and those with parents suffering from trauma-related distress are particularly vulnerable to the onset of pediatric mental disturbances.

  1. The great East Japan earthquake disaster: distribution of hospital damage in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Sae; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Lewis, James; Hodgson, Susan; Murray, Virginia

    2014-06-01

    In catastrophic events, a key to reducing health risks is to maintain functioning of local health facilities. However, little research has been conducted on what types and levels of care are the most likely to be affected by catastrophic events. Problem The Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster (GEJED) was one of a few "mega disasters" that have occurred in an industrialized society. This research aimed to develop an analytical framework for the holistic understanding of hospital damage due to the disaster. Hospital damage data in Miyagi Prefecture at the time of the GEJED were collected retrospectively. Due to the low response rate of questionnaire-based surveillance (7.7%), publications of the national and local governments, medical associations, other nonprofit organizations, and home web pages of hospitals were used, as well as literature and news sources. The data included information on building damage, electricity and water supply, and functional status after the earthquake. Geographical data for hospitals, coastline, local boundaries, and the in undated areas, as well as population size and seismic intensity were collected from public databases. Logistic regression was conducted to identify the risk factors for hospitals ceasing inpatient and outpatient services. The impact was displayed on maps to show the geographical distribution of damage. Data for 143 out of 147 hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (97%) were obtained. Building damage was significantly associated with closure of both inpatient and outpatient wards. Hospitals offering tertiary care were more resistant to damage than those offering primary care, while those with a higher proportion of psychiatric care beds were more likely to cease functioning, even after controlling for hospital size, seismic intensity, and distance from the coastline. Implementation of building regulations is vital for all health care facilities, irrespective of function. Additionally, securing electricity and water supplies

  2. Use of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    TAKASAKI, Hiroshi; ELKINS, Mark R.; MOSELEY, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) may help users to overcome some obstacles to evidence-based physiotherapy. Understanding the extent to which Japanese physiotherapists access research evidence via the PEDro website may suggest strategies to enhance evidence-based physiotherapy in Japan. Objectives: To quantify usage of PEDro in Japan, to compare this to usage in other countries, and to examine variations in PEDro usage within Japan. Design: An observational study of PEDro usage with geographic analysis. Methods: Data about visits to the home-page and searches of the database were recorded for 4 years. These data were analysed by each region of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, each country in the Asia Western Pacific region, and each prefecture in Japan. Results: From 2010 to 2013, users of PEDro made 2.27 million visits to the home-page and ran 6.28 million searches. Usage (ie, number of searches normalised by population) was highest in Europe, followed by North America Carribean, South America, Asia Western Pacific, and Africa. Within the Asia Western Pacific region, population-normalised usage was highest in Australia, then New Zealand and Singapore. Japan ranked 10 among the 26 countries in the region. Within Japan, the highest population-normalised usage was in the Nagano, Kumamoto and Aomori prefectures, which was ten-fold higher usage than in some other prefectures. Conclusions: Although Japan has higher PEDro usage than many other countries in the Asia Western Pacific region, some prefectures had very low usage, suggesting that evidence-based practice may not be being adopted uniformly across Japan. PMID:28289582

  3. [The number of deaths by suicide after the Great East Japan Earthquake based on demographic statistics in the coastal and non-coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures].

    PubMed

    Masaki, Naoko; Hashimoto, Shuji; Kawado, Miyuki; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Takeshima, Tadashi; Matsubara, Miyuki; Mitoku, Kazuko; Ogata, Yukiko

    2018-01-01

    Objective The number of deaths by suicide after the Great East Japan Earthquake was surveyed based on demographic statistics. In particular, this study examined whether or not there were excessive deaths due to suicide (excluding people who were injured in the earthquake) after the Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. This examination surveyed municipalities in coastal and non-coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures (referred to below as the "three prefectures").Methods The demographic statistics questionnaire survey information supplied by Article 33 of the Statistics Act (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare's published statistics Vol. 0925 No.4, September 25 th , 2014) were used as the basic data with particular reference to the information on the deaths from January 1 st , 2010 to March 31 st , 2013. The information obtained included the date of death, the municipality where the address of the deceased was registered, the gender of the deceased, age at the time of death, and cause of death codes (International Classification of Disease Codes 10 th revision: ICD-10). Additionally, information was gathered about the population based on the resident register from 2009 to 2013 and the 2010 National Census; the number of deaths by suicide was then totalled by period and area. The areas were classified as municipalities within three prefectures and those located elsewhere using the municipality where the address of the deceased was registered.Results The SMR for suicides did not show a tendency to increase for coastal or non-coastal areas throughout the two-year period after the earthquake disaster (from March 2011 to February 2013). The SMR for the three prefectures 0-1 years after the disaster compared with the year before the disaster was 0.92 and for 1-2 years after the disaster was 0.93. Both these values were significantly low. Looking at both the non-coastal and coastal areas from each of the three prefectures, the SMR for suicides

  4. Infectivity of HBV DNA positive donations identified in look-back studies in Hyogo-Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Bouike, Y; Imoto, S; Mabuchi, O; Kokubunji, A; Kai, S; Okada, M; Taniguchi, R; Momose, S; Uchida, S; Nishio, H

    2011-04-01

    To clarify transfusion incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected blood negative for mini pool-nucleic acid amplification testing (MP-NAT). Japanese Red Cross (JRC) blood centres screen donated blood to avoid contamination with HBV. However, a low copy number of HBV may be overlooked. In Hyogo-Prefecture, JRC blood centres screened 787 695 donations for HBV from April 2005 to March 2009. Of these, 685 844 were donations from the repeat donors. To detect the donors with HBV, serological tests, MP-NAT and/or individual donation (ID)-NAT were performed. To detect the recipients with transfusion-transmitted HBV infection (TTHBI), serological analysis and/or ID-NAT were performed. In this study, 265 of the 685 844 repeat donations were serologically and/or MP-NAT positive for HBV. Their repository samples from the previous donation were examined in a look-back study; 13 of the 265 repository samples proved ID-NAT positive. Twelve recipients were transfused with HBV-infected blood components derived from 10 of the 13 HBV-infected donors. Only 1 of the 12 recipients was identified as TTHBI case. Seven of the 12 recipients escaped from our follow-up study and 4 recipients were negative for HBV during the observation period. On the basis of the look-back study among the repeat donors in Hyogo-Prefecture, Japan, donations with HBV-infected blood negative for MP-NAT occurred with a frequency of 13 in 685 844 donations (∼1/53 000 donations). However, more than half of the recipients transfused with HBV-infected blood negative for MP-NAT could not be followed up. It is necessary to establish a more cautious follow-up system. © 2010 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2010 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  5. Deposition in Chiba prefecture, Japan, of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant fallout.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Tagami, Keiko; Takata, Hyoe; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Kawaguchi, Isao; Watanabe, Yoshito; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-02-01

    Radioactivity from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1NPP) accident in deposition samples has been monitored at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, located about 220 km south-southwest of the F-1NPP. Sampling was carried out from 15 March 2011, two to three times a day for 10 d and then once a day until 22 April 2011. Gamma-ray spectrometry of fallout deposition samples revealed the presence of (131)I, (132)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs. The largest deposition was observed during 7:00-16:00 on 21 March. The estimated total deposition densities at NIRS were 1.40 × 10(5) Bq m(-2) for (131)I, 4.12 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) for (132)Te, 1.45 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) for (134)Cs, and 1.48 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) for (137)Cs (corrected to 11 March 2011). The obtained densities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also supported by the accumulated amount of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in soil near the deposition sampling site. For the vertical profile of those radionuclides in soil at NIRS, about 94% of the total deposition was distributed in the top 10 mm depth on 26 April 2011.

  6. Water supply facility damage and water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in miyagi prefecture in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Takashi; Osaki, Shizuka; Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Abe, Yoshiko; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Egawa, Shinichi; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light on damage to water supply facilities and the state of water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011), in order to identify issues concerning the operational continuity of hospitals in the event of a disaster. In addition to interview and written questionnaire surveys to 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture, a number of key elements relating to the damage done to water supply facilities and the operation of water resources were identified from the chronological record of events following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nine of the 14 hospitals experienced cuts to their water supplies, with a median value of three days (range=one to 20 days) for service recovery time. The hospitals that could utilize well water during the time that water supply was interrupted were able to obtain water in quantities similar to their normal volumes. Hospitals that could not use well water during the period of interruption, and hospitals whose water supply facilities were damaged, experienced significant disruption to dialysis, sterilization equipment, meal services, sanitation, and outpatient care services, though the extent of disruption varied considerably among hospitals. None of the hospitals had determined the amount of water used for different purposes during normal service or formulated a plan for allocation of limited water in the event of a disaster. The present survey showed that it is possible to minimize the disruption and reduction of hospital functions in the event of a disaster by proper maintenance of water supply facilities and by ensuring alternative water resources, such as well water. It is also clear that it is desirable to conclude water supply agreements and formulate strategic water allocation plans in preparation for the eventuality of a long-term interruption to water services.

  7. E55_Inflight_JAXA_Gifu_Prefecture__2018_0529_1112_659069

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-30

    SPACE STATION CREW MEMBER DISCUSSES LIFE IN SPACE WITH JAPANESE STUDENTS--- Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 55 Flight Engineer Norishige Kanai of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) discussed life and space on the orbital outpost during an in-flight educational event May 29 with students gathered at the Gifu Prefecture Air and Space Museum in Japan. Kanai is in the final week of his six month mission on the complex, headed for a landing in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft June 3 on the south central steppe of Kazakhstan.

  8. Isolation of a novel Saccharophagus species (Myt-1) capable of degrading a variety of seaweeds and polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Sakatoku, A; Wakabayashi, M; Tanaka, Y; Tanaka, D; Nakamura, S

    2012-01-01

    A bacterial strain, Myt-1, was isolated in Toyama Bay in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. Myt-1 was capable of reducing the thalli of various seaweed species to single cell detritus particles. A 16S rDNA homology search revealed that the closest relative of Myt-1 was Saccharophagus degradans 2–40 (CP000282; 100% similarity), which was first isolated in Chesapeake Bay in Virginia, USA. The Myt-1 strain was capable of degrading more than 10 polysaccharides, almost all of which were also degraded by S. degradans 2–40. Analyses of alginase gene DNA sequence homology, DNA–DNA homology, and zymogram analysis of obtained polysaccharidases suggested that Myt-1 was a new species of Saccharophagus. Thus, Myt-1 is only the second species in this genus, which has contained only one strain and species since 1988, and was tentatively designated Saccharophagus sp. Myt-1. Myt-1 has considerable potential for reducing the volume of seaweed wastes, and for producing functional materials from seaweed substrate. PMID:22950007

  9. Structural Changes in Molluscan Community over a 15-Year Period before and after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Subsequent Tsunami around Matsushima Bay, Miyagi Prefecture, Northeastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shin'ichi; Chiba, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    We examined structural changes in the molluscan community for ten years (2001-2010) before and five years (2011-2015) after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami around Matsushima Bay, Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Before the earthquake and tsunami, Ruditapes philippinarum, Macoma incongrua, Pillucina pisidium, and Batillaria cumingii were dominant, and an alien predator Laguncula pulchella appeared in 2002 and increased in number. After the tsunami, R. philippinarum and M. incongrua populations quickly recovered in 2012, but P. pisidium and B. cumingii populations did not recover until 2015. By contrast, Musculista senhousia, Mya arenaria, Retusa sp., and Solen strictus were found in low densities before the tsunami, but they rapidly increased in abundance/number over five years after the tsunami. These results suggest that the molluscan community on the Tona Coast was drastically changed by the earthquake and tsunami, and some species mainly inhabiting the intertidal-subtidal zone may have increased in number because of land subsidence. We also emphasize that the seawall delayed recovery of the intertidal community after the earthquake and tsunami.

  10. Structural Changes in Molluscan Community over a 15-Year Period before and after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Subsequent Tsunami around Matsushima Bay, Miyagi Prefecture, Northeastern Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    We examined structural changes in the molluscan community for ten years (2001–2010) before and five years (2011–2015) after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami around Matsushima Bay, Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Before the earthquake and tsunami, Ruditapes philippinarum, Macoma incongrua, Pillucina pisidium, and Batillaria cumingii were dominant, and an alien predator Laguncula pulchella appeared in 2002 and increased in number. After the tsunami, R. philippinarum and M. incongrua populations quickly recovered in 2012, but P. pisidium and B. cumingii populations did not recover until 2015. By contrast, Musculista senhousia, Mya arenaria, Retusa sp., and Solen strictus were found in low densities before the tsunami, but they rapidly increased in abundance/number over five years after the tsunami. These results suggest that the molluscan community on the Tona Coast was drastically changed by the earthquake and tsunami, and some species mainly inhabiting the intertidal—subtidal zone may have increased in number because of land subsidence. We also emphasize that the seawall delayed recovery of the intertidal community after the earthquake and tsunami. PMID:27936182

  11. Results of second-stage screening for skin cancers in Oita Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kai, Yoshitaka; Ishikawa, Kazushi; Goto, Mayuko; Sakai, Takashi; Ito, Akiko; Shono, Tomoko; Shimada, Hiromitsu; Shimizu, Fumiaki; Goto, Mizuki; Hatano, Yutaka; Okamoto, Osamu; Katagiri, Kazumoto; Aono, Hiroshi; Eshima, Nobuoki; Fujiwara, Sakuhei

    2015-12-01

    We performed skin cancer screenings for 2 or 3 days annually from 2006 through 2013 in Oita Prefecture, Japan. Screening of approximately 3000 people in total allowed us to identify and treat several skin cancers, including five cases of malignant melanoma, four of squamous cell carcinoma, 16 of basal cell carcinoma, 11 of Bowen's disease, 17 of actinic keratosis, one of extramammary Paget's disease and one of metastatic breast carcinoma. The sensitivity and specificity for the category defined by an identified lesion associated with risk of cancer and requiring further examination (category C) were 92.7% and 95%, respectively. We cannot estimate the outcome of our skin cancer screenings in terms of cancer mortality because of the small number of subjects examined and the brief follow-up period. However, we did estimate the effectiveness of these screenings in terms of stages or sizes of cancerous lesions. The relative numbers of subjects with malignant melanoma at various clinical stages, identified during skin cancer screenings and during a routine visit to our hospital, were significantly different. We also compared, statistically, the sizes of lesions in Bowen's disease that were found during cancer screenings and during a direct visit to our hospital. The former lesions were smaller than the latter. Our data suggest the benefits of our skin cancer screenings and the importance of campaigns and education to encourage people to visit dermatologists for the detection of skin cancers at an early stage. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  12. Relationships between mental health distress and work-related factors among prefectural public servants two months after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Maiko; Suzuki, Yuriko; Obara, Akiko; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2015-02-01

    In times of disaster, public servants face multiple burdens as they engage in a demanding and stressful disaster-response work while managing their own needs caused by the disaster. We investigated the effects of work-related factors on the mental health of prefectural public servants working in the area devastated by the Great East Japan Earthquake to identify some ideas for organizational work modifications to protect their mental health. Two months after the earthquake, Miyagi prefecture conducted a self-administered health survey of prefectural public servants and obtained 4,331 (82.8%) valid responses. We investigated relationships between mental health distress (defined as K6 ≥ 13) and work-related variables (i.e., job type, overwork, and working environment) stratified by level of earthquake damage experienced. The proportion of participants with mental health distress was 3.0% in the group that experienced less damage and 5.9% in the group that experienced severe damage. In the group that experienced less damage, working >100 h of overtime per month (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.82) and poor workplace communication (adjusted OR, 10.96; 95% CI, 6.63-18.09) increased the risk of mental health distress. In the group that experienced severe damage, handling residents' complaints (adjusted OR, 4.79; 95% CI, 1.55-14.82) and poor workplace communication (adjusted OR, 9.14; 95% CI, 3.34-24.97) increased the risk, whereas involvement in disaster-related work (adjusted OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.86) decreased the risk. Workers who have experienced less disaster-related damage might benefit from working fewer overtime hours, and those who have experienced severe damage might benefit from avoiding contact with residents and engaging in disaster-related work. Facilitating workplace communication appeared important for both groups of workers.

  13. Design of prospective study of acute coronary syndrome hospitalization after smoking ban in public places in Hyogo prefecture: comparison with Gifu, a prefecture without a public smoking ban.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yukihito; Minatoguchi, Shinya; Nishigaki, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Ken-ichi; Masuyama, Tohru; Furukawa, Yutaka; Uematsu, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Otsuji, Satoru; Iida, Mami; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi

    2014-02-01

    Hyogo is the second prefecture, after Kanagawa, to enact a smoking ban in public places in Japan. The effect of this smoking ban on acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has not been evaluated. Changes in the annual number of ACS hospital cases in Hyogo Prefecture, before and after the enactment of the prefectural legislative ban on smoking in public places, are to be compared with those in Gifu Prefecture, where there is no smoking-ban legislation. Consecutive Hyogo residents with ACS, admitted to 33 major hospitals in the Hanshin-Awaji-Kobe district, which covers 56% of the population, during the 12 months before implementation of the legislation (April 2012 through March 2013) and during the same 24 months thereafter (April 2013 through March 2015) will be enrolled. Consecutive patients with ACS, who are Gifu residents, treated at the 20 major hospitals in Gifu Prefecture will be enrolled as geographical controls. The primary endpoint is the change in number of ACS admissions from April 2012 through March 2015, considering the periods before and after the smoking-ban legislation in Hyogo prefecture. Our study has certain strengths: (1) This is the first large Japanese study of ACS registry with smoking-ban legislation. (2) Major hospitals in the Hanshin-Awaji-Kobe district are included. (3) The data will cover 3 years including 1 year before legislation enactment. (4) The data will be compared with those of Gifu Prefecture, where smoking-ban legislation will not be enacted. (5) The very large database makes possible analysis of subgroups based on age and gender. Copyright © 2013 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Shear-rate-dependent strength control on the dynamics of rainfall-triggered landslides, Tokushima Prefecture, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.; Suemine, A.; Schulz, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    A typhoon (Typhoon No. 10) attacked Shikoku Island and the Tyugoku area of Japan in 2004. This typhoon produced a new daily precipitation record of 1317 mm on Shikoku Island and triggered hundreds of landslides in Tokushima Prefecture. One catastrophic landslide was triggered in the Shiraishi area of Kisawa village, and destroyed more than 10 houses while also leaving an unstable block high on the slope. The unstable block kept moving after the event, showing accelerating and decelerating movement during and after rainfall and reaching a displacement of several meters before countermeasures were put into place. To examine the mechanism for this landsliding characteristic, samples (weathered serpentinite) were taken from the field, and their shear behaviours examined using ring shear tests. The test results revealed that the residual shear strength of the samples is positively dependent on the shear rate, which may provide an explanation for the continuous acceleratingdecelerating process of the landsliding. The roughness of the shear surface and the microstructure of the shear zone were measured and observed by laser microscope and SEM techniques in an attempt to clarify the mechanism of shear rate effect on the residual shear strength. Copyright ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Okinawa: an exception to the social gradient of life expectancy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, W C; Yamori, Y

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines why the social gradient of life expectancy does not apply in Japan when Okinawa is considered. The social gradient thesis links differences in longevity to social rank, with people and populations in higher status hierarchical positions having lower mortality and longer life expectancies than those beneath them in the social scale. Japan has been cited as a major example of this thesis in that Japanese life expectancy improved dramatically as Japan rose to the top echelon of nations in economic rank in the late 20th century. Thus it follows that Japan's most affluent and leading prefectures should be the major catalysts behind the nation's rise in life expectancy as well to the number one position in the world. However, this is not the case as life expectancy in Okinawa, Japan's poorest prefecture, exceeds that of Japan as a whole. We find that the social gradient of life expectancy does not apply at the prefectural level and question its validity for geographical areas. We suggest that healthy lifestyles, especially diet and the social support of family and friends, are more important than sense of hierarchy for longevity in Okinawa.

  16. [Two types of malaria epidemics during the postwar occupation period in Japan].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiji; Sugita, Satoru; Marui, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the condition of malaria epidemics during the postwar Occupation period in Japan. The statistical records listed in the appendices of the "Weekly Bulletin", an official document of the General Headquarters, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (GHQ/SCAP) that is currently kept in the National Diet Library Modern Japanese Political History Materials Room, were converted into electronic files. On the basis of these records, the monthly prevalence of malaria was plotted in graphs to analyze the course of epidemics with respect to time and place. The prevalence was high in all regions in the summer of 1946, when the present records were initiated. As a general trend, the prevalence was high in western Japan and low in eastern Japan. In all regions except the Kinki region, the prevalence decreased with time thereafter and virtually no epidemics occurred after 1948. In the Kinki region, epidemics with a prevalence of over 70 cases per 100,000 individuals repeatedly occurred until 1949, but the prevalence rapidly decreased in 1950. By prefecture, Saga Prefecture showed the highest prevalence in the nation in July 1946. While the prevalence in most prefectures decreased with time, Shiga Prefecture was the only prefecture with recurring epidemics with a prevalence of over 800 cases per 100,000 individuals until 1949. Malaria epidemics during the Occupation were classified into epidemics caused by "imported malaria", which was observed in many prefectures, and those caused by "indigenous malaria", which was observed only in Shiga Prefecture.

  17. Evaluation of National Tsutsugamushi Disease Surveillance--Japan, 2000.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Tamano; Kramer, Michael H; Mendlein, James M; Osaka, Ken; Ohyama, Takaaki; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ono, Tomomichi; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2002-12-01

    In Japan, Tsutsugamushi disease, which is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is re-emerging with newly recognized strains and is now endemic in all prefectures except Hokkaido and Okinawa. We analyzed recent surveillance data to describe the epidemiology of Tsutsugamushi disease and to evaluate the newly implemented national surveillance system according to the CDC guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. In 2000, 756 cases of Tsutsugamushi disease were reported from 37 of 47 prefectures; two of these cases were fatal. The median age of case-patients was 64 years (range: 2 - 94 years); 414 (54.8%) were male. In northern Japan, most cases were diagnosed in the months of May through July and in the months of October through December, and in southern Japan, cases were diagnosed almost year-round with a peak from October through December and in January. Reporting and transfer of surveillance information from the prefecture to the national level was effective and timely, but the completeness and quality of case reporting could still be improved. The current system for Tsutsugamushi disease surveillance is useful for describing epidemiologic patterns by time, prefecture, and demographic characteristics. However, collection of additional information on suspected place of transmission, activity performed at the place of transmission, or the case-patient's profession would likely make the system more valuable for outbreak detection and for better defining populations at risk.

  18. [Surveillance report of drug-resistant bacteria from 2007 to 2012 in Saga Prefecture, Japan (the second report)].

    PubMed

    Kiyosuke, Makiko; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Hotta, Taeko; Utsumi, Takashi; Kang, Dongchon; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Drug-resistant bacteria are a problematic issue in Japan. Surveillance of drug-resistant bacteria is important because the frequency of isolation and kinds of such bacteria vary between hospitals and local areas. This study summarizes the results of detection of drug-resistant bacteria in Saga Prefecture from July 2007 to June 2012. Data presented in this study were collected through questionnaire survey that was conducted in 12 hospitals. Frequency of drug-resistant bacteria are as follows: 62.5% of Staphylococcus aureus was methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA); 62.2% of Streptococcus pneumoniae was penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (PISP) or penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP); 26.4% of Haemophilus influenzae was beta-lactamase negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae (BLNAR); 0.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) P. aeruginosa; 0.5% of P. aeruginosa was multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa (MDRP); 12.9% and 5.1% of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively, were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms. While the isolation frequencies of MRSA and PISP/PRSP were unchanged, those of BLNAR, ESBL producing E. coli and ESBL producing K. pneumoniae raised from 15.4% to 34.2%, from 5.7% to 18.4% and from 2.6% to 8.2%, respectively, over the past 5 years. The frequencies of isolation of MDRP and two drug resistant P. aeruginosa declined. This study revealed that the overall trend in the long-term changes of isolation frequency of drug-resistant bacteria in Saga Prefecture is similar to the trend in the national data. It also showed that the frequency and kinds of drug-resistant bacteria are variable between hospitals and local areas. Further study, such as examination of the usage and MIC value of antimicrobial drugs, will enable us to gain more detailed information on the drug-resistant bacteria.

  19. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice. PMID:25731663

  20. The relationship between suicide and five climate issues in a large-scale and long-term study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Nishimura, Y; Fujita, Y; Ono, Y; Fukunaga, T

    2012-08-01

    Suicide rates in Japan were high in 1998 and have remained high since then. Many researchers have discussed the current state of suicide in Japan and the world; however, there are various opinions about the relationship between suicide and climate. In the present study, we report on long-term data of suicide and examine five climatic issues in Japan as a whole and in 10 selected prefectures: the five with the highest suicide rates in 2006 (Akita, Iwate, Shimane, Yamagata and Miyazaki Prefectures) and the five with the lowest (Nara, Tokushima, Okayama, Kanagawa and Kyoto Prefectures). Annual age-adjusted suicide rates were found to have a significant inverse correlation with annual mean air temperature in the five prefectures with the highest suicide rates and in the three prefectures with the lowest suicide rates among women. Annual age-adjusted suicide rates were significantly correlated with annual mean relative humidity in the three prefectures with the highest suicide rates among women and with the annual total sunshine duration in the three prefectures with the highest suicide rates among women. It is important that these associations between suicide and climatic factors be discussed further from various viewpoints, including those of many researchers and relevant organizations.

  1. Fukushima after the Great East Japan Earthquake: lessons for developing responsive and resilient health systems.

    PubMed

    Fukuma, Shingo; Ahmed, Shahira; Goto, Rei; Inui, Thomas S; Atun, Rifat; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2017-06-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake, followed by a tsunami and nuclear-reactor meltdowns, produced one of the most severe disasters in the history of Japan. The adverse impact of this 'triple disaster' on the health of local populations and the health system was substantial. In this study we examine population-level health indicator changes that accompanied the disaster, and discuss options for re-designing Fukushima's health system, and by extension that of Japan, to enhance its responsiveness and resilience to current and future shocks. We used country-level (Japan-average) or prefecture-level data (2005-2014) available from the portal site of Official Statistics of Japan for Fukushima, Miyagi, and Iwate, the prefectures that were most affected by the disaster, to compare trends before (2005-2010) and after (2011-2014) the 'disaster'. We made time-trend line plots to describe changes over time in age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates in each prefecture. All three prefectures, and in particular Fukushima, had lower socio-economic indicators, an older population, lower productivity and gross domestic product per capita, and less higher-level industry than the Japan average. All three prefectures were 'medically underserved', with fewer physicians, nurses, ambulance calls and clinics per 100 000 residents than the Japan average. Even before the disaster, age-adjusted all-cause mortality in Fukushima was in general higher than the national rates. After the triple disaster we found that the mortality rate due to myocardial infarction increased substantially in Fukushima while it decreased nationwide. Compared to Japan average, spikes in mortality due to lung disease (all three prefectures), stroke (Iwate and Miyagi), and all-cause mortality (Miyagi and Fukushima) were also observed post-disaster. The cause-specific mortality rate from cancer followed similar trends in all three prefectures to those in Japan as a whole. Although we found a sharp

  2. Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan, 2008/09-2013/14.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Noriko; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Minagawa, Hiroko; Matsushita, Tadashi; Sugiura, Wataru; Iwatani, Yasumasa

    2016-07-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a critical infectious disease that affects infants and young children throughout the world, including Japan. This retrospective study was conducted from September 2008 to August 2014 (six seasons: 2008/09-2013/14) to investigate the incidence of enteric viruses responsible for 1,871 cases of acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan. Of the 1,871 cases, 1,100 enteric viruses were detected in 978 samples, of which strains from norovirus (NoV) genogroup II (60.9%) were the most commonly detected, followed by strains of rotavirus A (RVA) (23.2%), adenovirus (AdV) type 41 (8.2%), sapovirus (SaV) (3.6%), human astrovirus (HAstV) (2.8%), and NoV genogroup I (1.3%). Sequencing of the NoV genogroup II (GII) strains revealed that GII.4 was the most common genotype, although four different GII.4 variants were also identified. The most common G-genotype of RVA was G1 (63.9%), followed by G3 (27.1%), G2 (4.7%) and G9 (4.3%). Three genogroups of SaV strains were found: GI (80.0%), GII (15.0%), and GV (5.0%). HAstV strains were genotyped as HAstV-1 (80.6%), HAstV-8 (16.1%), and HAstV-3 (3.2%). These results show that NoV GII was the leading cause of sporadic acute viral gastroenteritis, although a variety of enteric viruses were detected during the six-season surveillance period. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The origins of scientific psychology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takasuna, Miki

    2006-01-01

    The origins of scientific psychology in Japan arrived primarily through six routes. First, psychology was imported through translations by Amane Nishi, which resulted in the coining of words such as "psychology," "subject," and "object." Second, psychology arrived in the form of education that was directed by American Christian missionaries. The third route brought psychology through lectures presented at universities (e.g., Masakazu Toyama began lecturing at the University of Tokyo in 1877). The fourth route relates to teacher education: Shuji Izawa and Hideo Takamine introduced psychology as part of the first curriculum at Tokyo Higher Normal School in 1879. The fifth route was created by Japanese philosophers who studied abroad, such as Tetsujiro Inouye. Finally, the sixth and most important avenue involved the introduction of experimental psychology, as well as a formal educational curriculum for psychologists (e.g., Yujiro Motora was the first Japanese to introduce experimental psychology to Japan, where he trained many students). Consequently, the establishment of scientific psychology in Japan was primarily owed to the Japanese scholars who studied abroad in the U.S. and Germany.

  4. Possibility of relationship between the yellow sand and the foot-and-mouth disease in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan in March 2010 by using MODIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yoshinobu

    2014-11-01

    In Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, the O-type foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) appeared and spread from March to July, 2010. The first infected livestock by FMD virus was detected on March 26, 2010 at Tsuno Town in Miyazaki Prefecture. The O-type FMD was found on March 14 at the suburb of Lanzhou City in Gansu, and on March 25, 2010 in Shanxi, China. The duration of FMD virus incubation is 2 to 8 days. Maki et al. (2011, 2012) presumed the cause of the first FMD in Miyazaki as follows: The yellow sand adhered with FMD virus was transported from Gansu to Miyazaki by global westerly winds. In this paper, we investigate whether the yellow sand generated in Gansu flew to Miyazaki in March, 2010 by using MODIS data of Terra and Aqua satellites. True-color mosaic images, AVI mosaic images and T11 mosaic images from China to Japan are made and examined. The aerosol vapor index (AVI) is defined as AVI=T12-T11, where T12 and T11 are the brightness temperatures at 12μm and 11μm wavelength, respectively. The AVI can detect the dust and sandstorms (DSS, i.e., yellow sands) in satellite images both at daytime and night. AVI values are classified into six levels from 0 to 5. From AVI images, DSS existed in the vicinity of Lanzhou on March 19, and in the south area of Shanxi on March 20, and in the vicinity of Tsuno Town on March 21. If Maki et al. are right, the cause of the first FMD in Miyazaki in March 2010 is that DSS generated in Gansu on March 19 flew to Miyazaki on March 21.

  5. Survey of preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: a retrospective preliminary investigation of medical institutions in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Tsuruwa, Miho; Ueki, Yuzuru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Koido, Yuichi; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2015-04-01

    The 2011, magnitude (M) 9, Great East Japan Earthquake and massive tsunami caused widespread devastation and left approximately 18,500 people dead or missing. The incidence of preventable disaster death (PDD) during the Great East Japan Earthquake remains to be clarified; the present study investigated PDD at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake in order to improve disaster medical systems. A total of 25 hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) that were disaster base hospitals (DBHs), or had at least 20 patient deaths between March 11, 2011 and April 1, 2011, were selected to participate based on the results of a previous study. A database was created using the medical records of all patient deaths (n=868), and PDD was determined from discussion with 10 disaster health care professionals. A total of 102 cases of PDD were identified at the participating hospitals. The rate of PDD was higher at coastal hospitals compared to inland hospitals (62/327, 19.0% vs 40/541, 7.4%; P<.01). No difference was observed in overall PDD rates between DBHs and general hospitals (GHs); however, when analysis was limited to cases with an in-hospital cause of PDD, the PDD rate was higher at GHs compared to DBHs (24/316, 7.6% vs 21/552, 3.8%; P<.05). The most common causes of PDD were: insufficient medical resources, delayed medical intervention, disrupted lifelines, deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters at coastal hospitals, and delayed medical intervention at inland hospitals. Meanwhile, investigation of PDD causes based on type of medical institution demonstrated that, while delayed medical intervention and deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters were the most common causes at DBHs, insufficient medical resources and disrupted lifelines were prevalent causes at GHs. Preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred mainly at

  6. Aftershock distribution and heterogeneous structure in and around the source area of the 2014 northern Nagano Prefecture earthquake (Mw 6.2) , central Japan, revealed by dense seismic array observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashimo, E.; Hirata, N.; Iwasaki, T.; Sakai, S.; Obara, K.; Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.

    2015-12-01

    A shallow earthquake (Mw 6.2) occurred on November 22 in the northern Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. Aftershock area is located near the Kamishiro fault, which is a part of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL). ISTL is one of the major tectonic boundaries in Japan. Precise aftershock distribution and heterogeneous structure in and around the source region of this earthquake is important to constrain the process of earthquake occurrence. We conducted a high-density seismic array observation in and around source area to investigate aftershock distribution and crustal structure. One hundred sixty-three seismic stations, approximately 1 km apart, were deployed during the period from December 3, 2014 to December 21, 2014. Each seismograph consisted of a 4.5 Hz 3-component seismometer and a digital data recorder (GSX-3). Furthermore, the seismic data at 40 permanent stations were incorporated in our analysis. During the seismic array observation, the Japan Meteorological Agency located 977 earthquakes in a latitude range of 35.5°-37.1°N and a longitude range of 136.7°-139.0°E, from which we selected 500 local events distributed uniformly in the study area. To investigate the aftershock distribution and the crustal structure, the double-difference tomography method [Zhang and Thurber, 2003] was applied to the P- and S-wave arrival time data obtained from 500 local earthquakes. The relocated aftershock distribution shows a concentration on a plane dipping eastward in the vicinity of the mainshock hypocenter. The large slip region (asperity) estimated from InSAR analysis [GSI, 2014] corresponds to the low-activity region of the aftershocks. The depth section of Vp structure shows that the high Vp zone corresponds to the large slip region. These results suggest that structural heterogeneities in and around the fault plane may have controlled the rupture process of the 2014 northern Nagano Prefecture earthquake.

  7. Assessing cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Despite the enormous cost of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, it is not clear what levels of reduction in external radiation exposure are possible in the Special Decontamination Area, the Intensive Contamination Survey Areas and the whole of Fukushima. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture in its entirety. Using a geographic information system, we calculated the costs of removal, storage containers, transport, and temporary and interim storage facilities as well as the reduction in air dose rate for a cumulative external exposure for 9000 1 km × 1 km mesh units incorporating 51 municipalities. The decontamination cost for the basic scenario, for which forested areas within 20 m of habitation areas were decontaminated, was JPY2.53-5.12 trillion; the resulting reduction in annual external dose was about 2500 person-Sv. The transport, storage, and administrative costs of decontamination waste and removed soil reached JPY1.55-2.12 trillion under this scenario. Although implementing decontamination of all forested areas provides some major reductions in the external radiation dose for the average inhabitant, decontamination costs could potentially exceed JPY16 trillion. These results indicate that technologies for reducing the volume of decontamination waste and removed soil should be considered to reduce storage costs and that further discussions about forest decontamination policies are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The national financial adjustment policy and the equalisation of health levels among prefectures.

    PubMed

    Takano, T; Nakamura, K

    2001-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine (1) trends concerning financial assistance from the national government to local governments, (2) trends regarding death rates and life expectancies among prefectures, and (3) the effect of the national financial adjustment policy in equalising both the revenues of local governments and variations in the health levels among prefectures in terms of death rates and life expectancies. The study analysed prefectural income, the amount of national taxes collected, financial assistance from the national government to local governments, and age adjusted death rates and life expectancies of all of the prefectures in Japan during the period from 1965 through 1995. (1) Under the financial adjustment policy, financial assistance from the national government to the local governments, which consists of the sum of the local allocation tax and treasury disbursements, increased from 1831 billion yen in 1965 to 31 116 billion yen in 1995. (2) During the same period, the age adjusted death rate per 100 000 people decreased from 1168.9 (1965) to 545.3 (1995). The range of variation in the age adjusted death rate among prefectures diminished as the coefficient of variation of the death rate declined from 0.060 in 1965 to 0.043 in 1995. (3) There was a significant statistical correlation between higher prefectural incomes and lower mortality rates during from 1965 until 1975 (p < 0.05), whereas this correlation was indistinct in the 1980s and has not been observed since 1990. (4) The relative health level of Tokyo has declined in terms of its ranking among all the prefectures with regard to life expectancy, from being the best in 1965 to below average in 1995. The national financial adjustment policy to balance the revenues of local governments has increased the health levels of rural prefectures. It is probable that the policy reduced the disparity in death rates and life expectancies among prefectures throughout the country. However, the

  9. Assessing the Mental Health Impact of the 2011 Great Japan Earthquake, Tsunami, and Radiation Disaster on Elementary and Middle School Children in the Fukushima Prefecture of Japan

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off of Japan’s Pacific coast, which was followed by huge tsunamis that destroyed many coastal cities in the area. Due to the earthquake and subsequent tsunami, malfunctions occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi (Fukushima I) nuclear power plant, resulting in the release of radioactive material in the region. While recent studies have investigated the effects of these events on the mental health of adults in the region, no studies have yet been performed investigating similar effects among children. Methods and Findings This study aims to fill that gap by: 1) assessing the mental health of elementary and middle school children living within the Fukushima prefecture of Japan, and 2) identifying risk and protective factors that are associated with the children’s mental health scores. These factors were quantified using an original demographics survey, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Impact of Event Scale–Revised (IES-R), the latter two of which have been previously validated in a Japanese setting. The surveys were distributed to approximately 3,650 elementary and middle school students during the months of February and March, 2012. The data suggests that those children who had been relocated to the city of Koriyama had significantly higher SDQ scores than those children who were native to Koriyama (p < .05) as well as a control group that lived outside of the Fukushima prefecture (p < .01). Using a multivariate regression, we also found that younger age and parental trauma were significantly correlated with higher SDQ scores (p < .001), while gender, displacement from one’s home, and exposure to violence were not. Conclusions These results suggest that, among children affected by natural disasters, younger children and those with parents suffering from trauma-related distress are particularly vulnerable to the onset of pediatric mental disturbances. PMID:28099497

  10. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident on Assisted Reproductive Technology in Fukushima Prefecture: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masako; Fujimori, Keiya; Yasumura, Seiji; Nakai, Akihito

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidences and obstetric outcomes of women who conceived using assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures in Fukushima Prefecture before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Information was collected and analyzed from 12,070 women who conceived with or without ART in Fukushima Prefecture during the 9 months before and after the disaster. During the 9 months before and after the disaster, 138 (2.0%) and 102 (1.9%) women conceived with in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET), respectively. The proportion of women who conceived with IVF-ET decreased during the 2 months immediately after the disaster, but returned to pre-disaster levels 3 months after the disaster. In the case of women who conceived without IVF-ET, the incidences of preterm birth and low birth weight increased after the disaster. In contrast, women who conceived with IVF-ET did not differ significantly in obstetric outcomes before and after the disaster but had a higher incidence of cesarean section and low birth weight compared to those conceived without IVF-ET, regardless of the study period. The influence of the disaster on woman who conceived using ART procedures was minimal.

  11. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident on Assisted Reproductive Technology in Fukushima Prefecture: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Masako; Fujimori, Keiya; Yasumura, Seiji; Nakai, Akihito

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidences and obstetric outcomes of women who conceived using assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures in Fukushima Prefecture before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Methods Information was collected and analyzed from 12,070 women who conceived with or without ART in Fukushima Prefecture during the 9 months before and after the disaster. Results During the 9 months before and after the disaster, 138 (2.0%) and 102 (1.9%) women conceived with in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET), respectively. The proportion of women who conceived with IVF-ET decreased during the 2 months immediately after the disaster, but returned to pre-disaster levels 3 months after the disaster. In the case of women who conceived without IVF-ET, the incidences of preterm birth and low birth weight increased after the disaster. In contrast, women who conceived with IVF-ET did not differ significantly in obstetric outcomes before and after the disaster but had a higher incidence of cesarean section and low birth weight compared to those conceived without IVF-ET, regardless of the study period. Conclusion The influence of the disaster on woman who conceived using ART procedures was minimal. PMID:28811855

  12. Fukushima after the Great East Japan Earthquake: lessons for developing responsive and resilient health systems

    PubMed Central

    Fukuma, Shingo; Ahmed, Shahira; Goto, Rei; Inui, Thomas S; Atun, Rifat; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2017-01-01

    Background On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake, followed by a tsunami and nuclear–reactor meltdowns, produced one of the most severe disasters in the history of Japan. The adverse impact of this ‘triple disaster’ on the health of local populations and the health system was substantial. In this study we examine population–level health indicator changes that accompanied the disaster, and discuss options for re–designing Fukushima’s health system, and by extension that of Japan, to enhance its responsiveness and resilience to current and future shocks. Methods We used country–level (Japan–average) or prefecture–level data (2005–2014) available from the portal site of Official Statistics of Japan for Fukushima, Miyagi, and Iwate, the prefectures that were most affected by the disaster, to compare trends before (2005–2010) and after (2011–2014) the ‘disaster’. We made time–trend line plots to describe changes over time in age–adjusted cause–specific mortality rates in each prefecture. Findings All three prefectures, and in particular Fukushima, had lower socio–economic indicators, an older population, lower productivity and gross domestic product per capita, and less higher–level industry than the Japan average. All three prefectures were ‘medically underserved’, with fewer physicians, nurses, ambulance calls and clinics per 100 000 residents than the Japan average. Even before the disaster, age–adjusted all–cause mortality in Fukushima was in general higher than the national rates. After the triple disaster we found that the mortality rate due to myocardial infarction increased substantially in Fukushima while it decreased nationwide. Compared to Japan average, spikes in mortality due to lung disease (all three prefectures), stroke (Iwate and Miyagi), and all–cause mortality (Miyagi and Fukushima) were also observed post–disaster. The cause–specific mortality rate from cancer followed similar trends in

  13. Assessment of landslide distribution map reliability in Niigata prefecture - Japan using frequency ratio approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahardianto, Trias; Saputra, Aditya; Gomez, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Research on landslide susceptibility has evolved rapidly over the few last decades thanks to the availability of large databases. Landslide research used to be focused on discreet events but the usage of large inventory dataset has become a central pillar of landslide susceptibility, hazard, and risk assessment. Indeed, extracting meaningful information from the large database is now at the forth of geoscientific research, following the big-data research trend. Indeed, the more comprehensive information of the past landslide available in a particular area is, the better the produced map will be, in order to support the effective decision making, planning, and engineering practice. The landslide inventory data which is freely accessible online gives an opportunity for many researchers and decision makers to prevent casualties and economic loss caused by future landslides. This data is advantageous especially for areas with poor landslide historical data. Since the construction criteria of landslide inventory map and its quality evaluation remain poorly defined, the assessment of open source landslide inventory map reliability is required. The present contribution aims to assess the reliability of open-source landslide inventory data based on the particular topographical setting of the observed area in Niigata prefecture, Japan. Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and statistical approach are applied to analyze the data. Frequency ratio method is utilized to model and assess the landslide map. The outcomes of the generated model showed unsatisfactory results with AUC value of 0.603 indicate the low prediction accuracy and unreliability of the model.

  14. Generational and regional differences in trends of mortality from ischemic heart disease in Japan from 1969 to 1992.

    PubMed

    Okayama, A; Ueshima, H; Marmot, M; Elliott, P; Choudhury, S R; Kita, Y

    2001-06-15

    The authors compared generational and regional trends of premature mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD) from 1969 to 1992 for persons aged 30-69 years. They selected Tokyo and Osaka prefectures as the most urbanized and compared them with the rest of Japan. The data were divided into two periods: period I (1969-1978, International Classification of Diseases, Eight Revision) and period II (1979-1992, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision). In both populations, IHD mortality decreased for both sexes, but mortality from nonspecific heart disease remained constant in men and decreased in women. In Tokyo and Osaka prefectures, the percentage decline per year in IHD mortality for both sexes was significantly smaller in period II than in period I. However, in the rest of Japan, it did not decrease for either sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the percentage decline per year in period II was smallest for the group aged 30-49 years (men, 0.05%; women, 0.76%) in Tokyo and Osaka prefectures, while it was similar for all age groups in the rest of Japan. For men, the IHD mortality rate in 1991-1992 for those aged 30-49 years was higher in Tokyo and Osaka prefectures (9.4/100,000) than in the rest of Japan (5.4/100,000).

  15. Pregnant Women's Awareness of Social Capital in the Great East Japan Earthquake-Affected Areas of Miyagi Prefecture: The Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Toshie; Sakurai, Kasumi; Mizuno, Satoshi; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Watanabe, Zen; Iwama, Noriyuki; Ishikuro, Mami; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Sugawara, Junichi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Arima, Takahiro; Nakai, Kunihiko; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to clarify the correlation between the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and pregnant women's awareness of social capital 3 to 9 months after the tsunami disaster. We analyzed data on responses to a questionnaire by 7451 pregnant women in their second to third trimesters. The proportions of social capital-related items were calculated in the north and south coastal areas of Miyagi Prefecture and were compared with national samples. The factors associated with social capital were estimated by use of multivariate logistic regression analyses. The proportion of women feeling that they had helpful neighbors was higher (69.0% vs 56.7%, P=0.0005), the proportion of women regarding their communities as safe and secure was lower (51.7% vs 62.4%, P=0.002), and the proportion of women feeling that most people were trustworthy was lower (23.7% vs 32.9%, P=0.006) in the north coastal area than nationwide. Such differences were not observed in the less severely affected south coastal area. Age of 35 years or older, extended family, college or university graduation, and being multiparous were associated with the feeling of having helpful neighbors. The current status of pregnant women's awareness of social capital in disaster-affected areas was revealed. Continuous monitoring and support may be necessary to address this issue.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:355-364).

  16. Life history and reproductive ecology of the endangered Itasenpara bitterling Acheilognathus longipinnis (Cyprinidae) in the Himi region, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishio, M; Kawamoto, T; Kawakami, R; Edo, K; Yamazaki, Y

    2015-09-01

    The life history, reproductive ecology and habitat utilization of the Itasenpara (deepbody) bitterling Acheilognathus longipinnis were investigated in a lowland segment of the Moo River in Toyama Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan. Analysis of 1285 individuals revealed that the study population comprised a single size class, an age at maturation of 3 months and a life span of 1 year. On the basis of the growth pattern, the life cycle was divided into two stages: the juvenile stage, characterized by rapid growth, and the adult stage at which growth ceased. Spawning by A. longipinnis was recorded between early September and late October. Female A. longipinnis in the 0+ year age class began to mature when they reached a standard length (LS ) of 56·4 mm. Mature females had a large clutch size (maximum 273 eggs) and deposited highly adhesive and relatively large eggs (2·55 mm(3) ; major axis, 3·12 mm; minor axis, 1·22 mm) via a short ovipositor (mean length, 21·5 mm) into freshwater mussels. The embryos remained in the gill cavities of the freshwater mussels (used as a spawning substratum) and emerged as juveniles (LS , 9 mm). Habitat utilization during spawning was analysed using a generalized linear model. The best-fit model showed that three environmental factors (freshwater mussel availability, water depth and vegetation cover) were important variables for habitat utilization by A. longipinnis. Shallow areas (water depth, 250-330 mm) created for rice paddy management and areas with an abundance of cover were particularly effective for predator avoidance. These results suggest that maintenance of water level fluctuations corresponding with rice cultivation and the abundance of vegetation on the river bank (particularly avoidance of concrete revetments) is essential for conservation of this species under current practices for rice cultivation in Japan. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Prevalence of antibodies against Parainfluenza virus type 3, Respiratory syncitial virus and bovine Herpesvirus type 1 in sheep from Northern Prefectures of Japan.

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, Massimo; Savini, Giovanni; Orusa, Riccardo; Osawa, Takeshi; Harasawa, Ryô

    2013-01-01

    Ovine sera collected in the Prefectures of Hokkaido, Aomori and Iwate in the Northern Japan were examined for the presence of antibodies against Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis: IBR) and Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) using serum neutralisation (SN) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. Twenty-three animals (11.73%) out of the 196 tested were sero-positive to PIV3. Sixteen animals (8.69%) out of the 184 tested reacted to RSV. No animals were positive to IBR antigen. Sero-conversions to PIV3 were detected in Hokkaido and Iwate (14.92% and 8.82%, respectively). Antibodies against RSV were detected in Hokkaido (9.23%) and Aomori (14.28%). Although no diagnostic measures were in place, the infections did not appear to be related to any reduction in sheep productivity.

  18. Sedimentary Environment Changes between Tsunami Events in the Central Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumoto, S.; Goto, T.; Satake, K.; Sugai, T.; Yoneda, M.; Omori, T.; Ozaki, H.

    2016-12-01

    Many tsunami deposits were found in the Tohoku region, Japan from recent and past tsunamis. Study of tsunami deposits is particularly important in the central to southern Fukushima Prefecture, which is the southern limit of the distributions of tsunami deposits of the 869 Jogan, 1454 Kyotoku and 1611 Keicho-Sanriku earthquakes. Previous studies reported that there were at least five tsunami deposits (EV1-EV5) consisted of fine-middle sand and the sedimentary environment was inner-bay or lagoon for the past 2,600 years (Goto and Aoyama, 2005; JpGU, Oikawa et al., 2011; JpGU, Oota and Hoyanagi, 2014; GSJ, Kusumoto et al., 2016; JpGU). However, the sedimentary environment changes between or across historical tsunamis have not been examined. In this study, we try to estimate the sedimentary environment changes using Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Total Nitrogen (TN) concentrations and organic Carbon-to-Nitrogen (C/N) ratio. We took 13 geological core samples of length 2.0-2.5 m at 11 locations 0.6-2.7 km from the coast. The deposits consisted of silt and massive sand with graded beddings, laminas and rip-up clasts. For samples, we performed grain-size analysis, radiocarbon age measurement and CN elemental analysis. We found three interesting characteristics. First, grain size of ordinary deposits between EV4 and EV5 tend to fine upward slightly. It suggests that tidal current became gradually weak. Second, C/N ratio is about 5-10 at every depth, meaning that organic material source was phytoplankton or zooplankton (Müller, 1977; GCA). Finally, TOC and TN concentrations slowly increase between EV4 and EV5, and they rapidly decrease across EV3 and EV4. Their slow increases correspond to sedimentary environment change from anaerobic to aerobic, whereas rapid decreases correspond to sedimentary environment change from aerobic to anaerobic. These characteristics might indicate development of sand bar between tsunami events and sudden collapse of sand bar by historical

  19. A Molecular and Serological Survey of Rickettsiales Bacteria in Wild Sika Deer (Cervus nippon nippon) in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan: High Prevalence of Anaplasma Species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongxing; Wuritu; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Gaowa; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Ikegaya, Asaka; Ohtake, Masayoshi; Ohashi, Masataka; Shimada, Masahiko; Takada, Ayumi; Iwai, Katsuki; Ohashi, Norio

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed Rickettsiales bacteria, including Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Neoehrlichia, in wild sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) from Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. In spleen samples from 187 deer, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (deer type), A. bovis, and A. centrale were successfully detected by PCR assay targeting to 16S rDNA or p44/msp2, and their positive rates were 96.3% (180/187), 53.5% (100/187), and 78.1% (146/187), respectively. Additionally, 2 or 3 Anaplasma species could be detected from a single deer in 165 spleen samples (88.2%), indicating dual or triple infection. In contrast, A. phagocytophilum (human type) 16S rDNA, Rickettsia gltA, Ehrlichia p28/omp-1, and Neoehrlichia 16S rDNA could not be amplified. The serological test of 105 deer serum samples by immunofluorescence assay showed that the detection of antibodies against antigens of A. phagocytophilum HZ (US-human isolate) and Rickettsia japonica YH were 29.5% (31/105) and 75.2% (79/105), respectively. These findings suggest that A. phagocytophilum (deer type), A. centrale, and A. bovis are highly dominant and prevalent in wild sika deer from Shizuoka, a central region of Japan, and that the antibodies against some Rickettsiales bacteria have also been retained in deer blood.

  20. Earthquake Preparedness Among Japanese Hemodialysis Patients in Prefectures Heavily Damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors related to earthquake preparedness in Japanese hemodialysis patients. We focused on three aspects of the related factors: health condition factors, social factors, and the experience of disasters. A mail survey of all the members of the Japan Association of Kidney Disease Patients in three Japanese prefectures (N = 4085) was conducted in March, 2013. We obtained 1841 valid responses for analysis. The health factors covered were: activities of daily living (ADL), mental distress, primary renal diseases, and the duration of dialysis. The social factors were: socioeconomic status, family structure, informational social support, and the provision of information regarding earthquake preparedness from dialysis facilities. The results show that the average percentage of participants that had met each criterion of earthquake preparedness in 2013 was 53%. Hemodialysis patients without disabled ADL, without mental distress, and requiring longer periods of dialysis, were likely to meet more of the earthquake preparedness criteria. Hemodialysis patients who had received informational social support from family or friends, had lived with spouse and children in comparison to living alone, and had obtained information regarding earthquake preparedness from dialysis facilities, were also likely to meet more of the earthquake preparedness criteria. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  1. Source Rupture Process of the 2016 Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan, Earthquake Derived from Near-Source Strong-Motion Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, A.; Zhang, W.

    2016-12-01

    On 15 April, 2016 the great earthquake with magnitude Mw7.1 occurred in Kumamoto prefecture, Japan. The focal mechanism solution released by F-net located the hypocenter at 130.7630°E, 32.7545°N, at a depth of 12.45 km, and the strike, dip, and the rake angle of the fault were N226°E, 84° and -142° respectively. The epicenter distribution and focal mechanisms of aftershocks implied the mechanism of the mainshock might have changed in the source rupture process, thus a single focal mechanism was not enough to explain the observed data adequately. In this study, based on the inversion result of GNSS and InSAR surface deformation with active structures for reference, we construct a finite fault model with focal mechanism changes, and derive the source rupture process by multi-time-window linear waveform inversion method using the strong-motion data (0.05 1.0Hz) obtained by K-NET and KiK-net of Japan. Our result shows that the Kumamoto earthquake is a right-lateral strike slipping rupture event along the Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone, and the seismogenic fault is divided into a northern segment and a southern one. The strike and the dip of the northern segment are N235°E, 60° respectively. And for the southern one, they are N205°E, 72° respectively. The depth range of the fault model is consistent with the depth distribution of aftershocks, and the slip on the fault plane mainly concentrate on the northern segment, in which the maximum slip is about 7.9 meter. The rupture process of the whole fault continues for approximately 18-sec, and the total seismic moment released is 5.47×1019N·m (Mw 7.1). In addition, the essential feature of the distribution of PGV and PGA synthesized by the inversion result is similar to that of observed PGA and seismic intensity.

  2. Impact of suspended sediment and nutrient loading from land uses against water quality in the Hii River basin, Japan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lake Shinji lies in eastern Shimane Prefecture, and is typical of brackish lakes in Japan. Water quality of the lake does not meet the expected environmental standards for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), even though the national and prefectural governments have tried to improve water...

  3. Divorce in contemporary Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukurai, H; Alston, J

    1990-10-01

    Data from the 1985-86 Japanese census are analysed to explore the determinants of the divorce rates in Japan's forty-seven prefectures, using two theoretical models: (a) the social integration model, which is shown to have a greater utility in predicting Japanese divorce levels than (b), the human capital model. Female emigration patterns play a significant role in affecting the divorce rate. Population increase and net household income are also important predictors of the Japanese divorce rate and urbanization has a great influence in modern Japan. Demographic and aggregate variables such as migration, urbanization, and socioeconomic factors are useful when organized under a social integration model.

  4. Crustal architecture of the eastern margin of Japan Sea: back-arc basin opening and contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    No, T.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.; Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.

    2012-12-01

    Although large earthquakes such as the 1964 Niigata earthquake (M 7.5), 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake (M 7.8), and 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake (M 7.8) have caused large amounts of damage to the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, a substantial number of seismic studies have been conducted for the seismogenic zone on the Pacific Ocean side of Japan. In addition, the detail of the source fault model for the eastern margin of the Japan Sea is not well defined for all cases. This highlights the need for further studies to investigate seismic imaging. Therefore, we have collaborated with other Japanese research institutions for a project titled "Priority Investigations of Strain Concentration Areas" (which is funded by Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, Japan). This project has conducted seismic surveys from 2009 to 2012 using the deep-sea research vessel, Kairei, from the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology. There is a strain concentration area in the eastern part of the survey area (Okamura et al., 1995). The western part of the survey area includes the Yamato Basin and Japan Basin. It is very important to study the crustal structure in the seismotectonic studies of the eastern margin of the Japan Sea. We conducted a marine seismic survey by using a multichannel seismic (MCS) system and ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) along the eastern margin of the Japan Sea. Seismic data were acquired along 42 lines with a total length of approximately 9,000 km. The following results were obtained from seismic imaging. On the basis of the results of the MCS imaging, active reverse faults and folds were observed in the margin of the Toyama Trough; however, the sedimentary layers in the trough were flat. In the sedimentary layers and crusts of the Sado Ridge, Mogami Trough, and source area of the 1964 Niigata earthquake located north of the Sado Island, greater deformation was observed. The deformation weakened toward the Yamato

  5. Occurrence of a pig respiratory disease associated with swine influenza A (H1N2) virus in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Shuji; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Hirokazu; Usami, Yoshihide; Kubo, Masanori; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Takehiko

    2010-04-01

    In February 2008, a feeder pig herd of the affected farm in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan, showed increasing respiratory symptoms; by April, the situation worsened with 12-16 pigs dying daily. Diagnostic tests revealed the presence of H1N2 subtype of swine influenza virus (SIV) and Pasteurella multocida from nasal swab and lung emulsion. Serological tests by hemagglutination inhibition method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (ELISA; imported from U.S.A.) indicated the spread of SIV into the pig herds of the affected farm around April 2008. The severe infection and subsequent damage were considered as a result of the combined infection of SIV (H1N2) and bacteria that may have been prevalent in the pig farm. Genetic homology search of sequences for the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of A/swine/Tochigi/1/08 showed high homology to Japanese SIVs (H1N2) isolated in the 2000s. Therefore, we considered that Japanese SIV (H1N2) has established an independent stable lineage and participated in infecting pig populations as one of the factors of the pig respiratory disease complex. Consistent surveillance would contribute to clarifying the prevalence of dominant SIVs.

  6. Temperature deviation index and elderly mortality in Japan.

    PubMed

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Reid, Colleen E; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have examined how the precedence of abnormal temperatures in previous neighboring years affects the population's health. In the present study, we attempted to quantify the health effects of abnormal weather patterns by creating a metric called the temperature deviation index (TDI) and estimated the effects of TDI on mortality in Japan. We used data from 47 prefectures in Japan to compute the TDI on days between May and September from 1966 to 2010. The TDI is a summed product of an indicator of absence of high temperatures in the neighboring years, and more weights were assigned to the years closest to the current year. To estimate the TDI effects on elderly mortality, we used generalized linear modeling with a Poisson distribution after adjusting for apparent temperature, barometric pressure, day of the week, and time trend. For each prefecture, we estimated the TDI effects and pooled the estimates to yield a national average for 1991-2010 in Japan. The estimated effects of TDI in middle- or high-latitude prefectures were greater than in low-latitude prefectures. The estimated national average of TDI effects was a 0.5 % (95 % confidence intervals [CI], 0.1, 1.0) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit (around 1 standard deviation) increase in the TDI. The significant pooled estimation of TDI effects was mainly due to the TDI effects on summer days with moderate temperature (25th-49th percentile, mean temperature 22.9 °C): a 1.9 % (95 % CI, 1.1, 2.6) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit increase in the TDI. However, TDI effects were insignificant in other temperature ranges. These findings suggest that elderly deaths increased on moderate temperature days in the summer that differed substantially from days during that time window in the neighboring years. Therefore, not only high temperature itself but also temperature deviation compared to previous years could be considered to be a risk factor for elderly mortality in the summer.

  7. Alterations in physique among young children after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Results from a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Kikuya, Masahiro; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Sato, Yuki; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Kato, Noriko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kure, Shigeo; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2017-10-01

    Data for earthquake-related alterations in physique among young children in developed countries is lacking. The Great East Japan Earthquake caused severe damage in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures in northeastern Japan. We retrospectively obtained anthropometric measurements in nursery school from 40,046 (cohort 1, historical control) and 53,492 (cohort 2) children aged 3.5-4.5 years without overweight in October 2008, and in October 2010, respectively. At the time of the earthquake in March, 2011, children in cohort 1 had already graduated from nursery school; however, children in cohort 2 were still enrolled in nursery school at this time. We compared the onset of overweight at 1 year after the baseline between children enrolled in their school located in one of the three target prefectures versus those in other prefectures using a logistic regression model, with adjustment for sex, age, history of disease, and obesity index at baseline. Overweight was defined as an obesity index of >+15%, which was calculated as (weight minus sex- and height-specific standard weight)/sex- and height-specific standard weight. The odds ratio (OR) for the onset of overweight in the three target prefectures was significant in cohort 2 (OR 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.55) but not in cohort 1. When the two cohort were pooled (n = 93,538), the OR of the interaction term for school location × cohort was significant (OR 1.56; 95% CI, 1.09-2.23). Incident overweight in young children was significantly more common in the three prefectures affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake than in other prefectures after the disaster. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. First fossil occurrence of a filefish (Tetraodontiformes; Monacanthidae) in Asia, from the Middle Miocene in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Yusuke; Koike, Hakuichi; Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    2014-04-10

    A new fossil filefish, Aluterus shigensis sp. nov., with a close resemblance to the extant Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck), is described from the Middle Miocene Bessho Formation in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. It is characterized by: 21 total vertebrae; very slender and long first dorsal spine with tiny anterior barbs; thin and lancet-shaped basal pterygiophore of the spiny dorsal fin, with its ventral margin separated from the skull; proximal tip of moderately slender first pterygiophore of the soft dorsal fin not reaching far ventrally; soft dorsal-fin base longer than anal-fin base; caudal peduncle having nearly equal depth and length; and tiny, fine scales with slender, straight spinules. The occurrence of this fossil filefish from the Bessho Formation is consistent with the influence of warm water currents suggested by other fossils, but it is inconsistent with the deep-water sedimentary environment of this Formation. This is the first fossil occurrence of a filefish in Asia; previously described fossil filefishes are known from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of Italy, the Pliocene of Greece, and the Miocene and Pliocene of North America. These fossil records suggest that the genus Aluterus had already been derived and was widely distributed during the Middle Miocene with taxa closely resembling Recent species.

  9. Spatial variations in zooplankton community structure along the Japanese coastline in the Japan Sea: influence of the coastal current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Taketoshi; Wagawa, Taku; Iguchi, Naoki; Takada, Yoshitake; Takahashi, Takashi; Fukudome, Ken-Ichi; Morimoto, Haruyuki; Goto, Tsuneo

    2018-06-01

    This study evaluates spatial variations in zooplankton community structure and potential controlling factors along the Japanese coast under the influence of the coastal branch of the Tsushima Warm Current (CBTWC). Variations in the density of morphologically identified zooplankton in the surface layer in May were investigated for a 15-year period. The density of zooplankton (individuals per cubic meter) varied between sampling stations, but there was no consistent west-east trend. Instead, there were different zooplankton community structures in the west and east, with that in Toyama Bay particularly distinct: Corycaeus affinis and Calanus sinicus were dominant in the west and Oithona atlantica was dominant in Toyama Bay. Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-RDA) was used to characterize the variation in zooplankton community structure, and four axes (RD1-4) provided significant explanation. RD2-4 only explained < 4.8 % of variation in the zooplankton community and did not show significant spatial difference; however, RD1, which explained 89.9 % of variation, did vary spatially. Positive and negative species scores on RD1 represent warm- and cold-water species, respectively, and their variation was mainly explained by water column mean temperature, and it is considered to vary spatially with the CBTWC. The CBTWC intrusion to the cold Toyama Bay is weak and occasional due to the submarine canyon structure of the bay. Therefore, the varying bathymetric characteristics along the Japanese coast of the Japan Sea generate the spatial variation in zooplankton community structure, and dominance of warm-water species can be considered an indicator of the CBTWC.

  10. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914-1933.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Aiko; Tojinbara, Kageaki; Kadowaki, Hazumu; Hampson, Katie; Yamada, Akio; Makita, Kohei

    2017-03-01

    Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0), the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases) during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases) than the first (879 cases), but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42). The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP) and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928), and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p < 0.001), indicated that increased awareness and use of PEP might have prevented disease. Although significantly more dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p < 0.01), there were fewer dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p < 0.01). We suggest that the combination of mass vaccination and restriction of dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed to

  11. Temporal and spatial variations of radioactive cesium levels in Northeast Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takaomi

    2016-10-01

    Radioactive emissions into the environment from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident led to global contamination. Radionuclides such as 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs were further transported to North America and Europe. Thus, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident is a global concern for both human health and the ecosystem because a number of countries ban or impose restrictions the import of Japanese products. In the present study, three-year (May 2011 to May 2014) fluctuations and accumulations of Cs, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs in two salmonid fish, white-spotted char and masu salmon were examined in Northeast Japan. The total Cs, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs levels in the fish gradually decreased throughout the three-year studied period after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident; however, higher levels (more than 100 Bq kg -1 ) were still detected in the Fukushima prefecture and neighboring prefectures in Japan 3 years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Spatial radiocesium levels gradually decreased with increasing distance from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (Fukushima prefecture). The radiocesium levels facing the Pacific Ocean area were generally higher than those facing the Sea of Japan area. These results suggest that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant are still widely distributed and remain in the natural environment in Northeast Japan.

  12. Paddy rice productivity under climate and land-use change in northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, R.; Fukui, S.; Shimada, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Iwasaki, T.

    2013-12-01

    An evaluation of the best rice cultivar under climate change is an important issue because the projected climate change has a potential to bring a negative impact on crop yield. In this study, we estimate an impact of climate change on rice yield and potential best cultivar in northern Japan where the larger paddy field is located than other regions in Japan. Two global climate model data, MIROC5 (RCP 4.5) and MRI-AGCM (SRES A1B), are applied as the future scenario. These data are too coarse to resolve the regional differences in northern Japan; we conduct the downscale experiments by a regional climate model (JMA-NHM) with a 10-km grid spacing. Considering that rice yield is sensitive to warm season climate, we conduct the downscaling from 28th May to 1st September during 1981-2000 and 2081-2099. The biases of downscaled two scenarios are corrected to match their cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of present climate with that of the station-based observation. The derived CDF-based biases are also used to correct the future scenarios. These corrected scenarios are applied to rice growth model (NIAES-Rice). To take account for the impacts of land use change (LUC) on climate and rice yield, we consider the additional temperature changes due to the LUC. As a reference, we add the LUC-induced temperature change in southwest Japan because the data are available from the previous study. We first check the climate change in northern Japan. General tendencies derived from the bias-corrected-downscaled future climates are that 1) surface warming was approximately twice in low elevation area relative to mountainous area and 2) downward shortwave radiation homogeneously increased 7-8 W m-2. Then, we evaluated the simulated yield through comparing with observation. Using observed ambient conditions as input data, the NIAES-Rice model provides the reasonable performance in simulating the rice yield with biases ranging from -19.0 to 29.2 % in prefecture base. Climate

  13. Impact of a low severity fire on soil organic carbon and nitrogen characteristics in Japanese cedar soil Yamagata Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Felix

    2017-04-01

    Slash and burn practices are widely used around the globe with different degrees of success which are mostly related to the impact of fire on the soil properties. In Japan slash and burn practises, known as Yakihata, have a long history and are still used in Yamagata Prefecture today. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a low severity controlled fire on Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest soil (Cambisol) which is the dominant species among plantations in Japan. We measured organic carbon and nitrogen content as well as changes in carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope composition in a steep west facing slope under heavy precipitation ( 2600 mm/a) and heavy snowfall ( 3-4 m/a). The results show that Ctotal and Ntotal values as well as the isotopes ratios of C and N change with decreasing elevation in the forest as well as in the burned site being consistent with leaching and erosion. The accumulation of Ctotal and Ntotal at the bottom of the slopes was remarkably higher at the slash and burned site than in the control forest site. After slash and burn δ15N isotopes in the slope in general became significantly lighter than in the control forest while the δ13C did not show any significant difference between the two sites except at the bottom of the slopes where δ13C was heavier in the forest. The reason for these changes in nitrogen and carbon isotopes appears to be related to the physical changes in soil horizon sequence of the original forest soil layer. Keywords: high precipitation, Japanese cedar forest soil, low severity fire, stable isotopes, steep slopes

  14. Impact of the great east Japan earthquake on the body mass index of preschool children: a nationwide nursery school survey.

    PubMed

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Zheng, Wei; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kato, Noriko; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-04-07

    To evaluate the impact of the 2011 great east Japan earthquake on body mass index (BMI) of preschool children. Retrospective cohort study and ecological study. Affected prefectures (Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate) and unaffected prefectures in northeast Japan. The cohort study assessed 2033 and 1707 boys and 1909 and 1658 girls in 3 affected prefectures and unaffected prefectures, respectively, all aged 3-4 years at the time of the earthquake. The ecological study examined random samples of schoolchildren from the affected prefectures. The cohort study compared postdisaster changes in BMIs and the prevalence of overweight and obese children. The ecological study evaluated postdisaster changes in the prevalence of overweight children. 1 month after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were observed among girls (+0.087 kg/m(2) vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima and among boys and girls (+0.165 and +0.124 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Iwate. 19 months after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were detected among boys and girls (+0.137 and +0.200 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima, whereas significantly decreased BMIs were observed among boys and girls (-0.218 and -0.082 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Miyagi. 1 month after the earthquake, Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate had a slightly increased prevalence of overweight boys, whereas Fukushima had a slightly decreased prevalence of overweight girls, compared with the unaffected prefectures. The ecological study detected increases in the prevalence of overweight boys and girls in Fukushima who were 6-11 and 6-10 years of age, respectively. These results suggest that in the affected prefectures, preschool children gained weight immediately after the earthquake. The long-term impact of the earthquake on early childhood growth was more variable among the affected prefectures, possibly as a result of different speeds of

  15. Complete Genome Sequences of Getah Virus Strains Isolated from Horses in 2016 in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Ochi, Akihiro; Niwa, Hidekazu; Murakami, Satoshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kokado, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takashi

    2017-08-03

    Getah virus is mosquito-borne and causes disease in horses and pigs. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genomes of three strains isolated from horses in Ibaraki Prefecture, eastern Japan, in 2016. They were almost identical to the genomes of strains recently isolated from horses, pigs, and mosquitoes in Japan. Copyright © 2017 Nemoto et al.

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection and its related factors in junior high school students in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yoshiko; Lin, Yingsong; Hongo, Minoru; Hidaka, Hiroya; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2017-04-01

    There have been few reports on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in asymptomatic Japanese children and adolescents. We hypothesized that the prevalence of H. pylori infection is very low among Japanese children and that clinical variables such as serum pepsinogen and iron levels are associated with H. pylori infection. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 454 junior high school students aged 12-15 years in four areas in Nagano Prefecture. A commercial ELISA kit (E-plate Eiken H. pylori antibody) was used to measure IgG antibody against H. pylori. Serum pepsinogen and iron levels were also measured using standard methods. A urea breath test was performed for seropositive students. The overall prevalence of H. pylori was 3.1% (14/454). There were no significant differences in H. pylori prevalence among mountain, rural, and urban areas. The mean level of both serum pepsinogen (PG I) and PG II was significantly increased in the seropositive subjects compared with the seronegative subjects. When the cutoff values for adults (PG I: 70 ng/mL and PG I/II ratio: 3) were used, 4 of 14 subjects had PG I ≤70 ng/mL and PG I/II ratio ≤3. The results of a logistic regression analysis showed that low serum iron levels were significantly associated with H. pylori infection (P=.02). The prevalence of H. pylori infection is as low as 3% among junior high school students aged 12-15 years in Japan. The disappearance of H. pylori is accelerating in Japanese children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [A study on the 1946 smallpox epidemic in Japan and measures taken against it].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiji; Sugita, Satoru; Marui, Eiji

    2014-09-01

    In early 1946, immediately after World War II, there was a smallpox epidemic in Japan. In this paper we investigated trends in the occurrence of smallpox by week and region using official documents of the General Headquarters, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (GHQ/SCAP), which are stored in the National Diet Library Modern Japanese Political History Materials Room, and summarized the measures taken against this epidemic. The following two points were clarified: 1) The 1946 smallpox epidemic peaked in Week 13 (March 24-30; 1,405 new patients), and the highest morbidity during this epidemic was seen in Hyogo Prefecture, followed by Osaka Prefecture, Aichi Prefecture, Tokyo Prefecture, and Hokkaido Prefecture. 2) Measures taken against this epidemic were classified into the following three stages: 1. "Vaccine shortage/Manufacture acceleration stage," 2. "Vaccine sufficiency/Smallpox vaccination program implementation stage," and 3. "Detection of defects in vaccination technique/Reimplementation of the smallpox vaccination program stage".

  18. Effect of tree thinning and litter removal on the radiocesium (Cs-134, 137) discharge rates in the Kawauchi forest plantation (Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Junko; Kato, Hiroaki; Hisadome, Keigo

    2016-04-01

    On 11 March 2011 a 9.0 earthquake and the resulting tsunami occurred in central-eastern Japan triggering, one day after, the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident. Despite the bulk of radionuclides (ca. 80%) were transported offshore and out over the Pacific Ocean, significant wet and dry deposits of those radionuclides occurred mainly in the Fukushima Prefecture and in a minor way in the Miyagi, Tochigi, Gunma and Ibaraki Prefectures. As a consequence and among other radionuclides, a total of 511,000 TBq of I-131, 13,500 TBq of Cs-134 and 13,600 TBq of Cs-137 were released into the atmosphere and the ocean, contaminating cultivated soils, rivers, settlements and forested areas. This accident caused severe environmental and economic damages. Several decontamination practices have done, including tree thinning and litter removal within the forests and tree plantations. In this study we analysed the effect of eight different management practices on the radiocesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) discharge rates during 20 months (May'2013 - Dec'2014) in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation (stand age of 57 years), located in a hillslope near the Kawauchi village, Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan. This study area (37⁰ 20' 04" N, 140⁰ 53' 13.5" E) is located 16 km southwestern from the DNPP and within the evacuation area. The soils are Andosols. Ten runoff plots (5 x 2 meters) were installed and measurements started on May 2013. Two plots remained without any treatment as control plots and the other eight plots represented the following management practices: Mng1) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng2) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng3) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng4) Litter removal; Mng5) Thinning (logged area); Mng6) Thinning (under remnant trees); Mng7) Litter removal + thinning (logged area); Mng8) Litter removal + thinning (under remnant trees). Each plot had a gauging station and sediment samples

  19. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914–1933

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Aiko; Tojinbara, Kageaki; Kadowaki, Hazumu; Hampson, Katie; Yamada, Akio

    2017-01-01

    Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0), the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases) during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases) than the first (879 cases), but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42). The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP) and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928), and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p < 0.001), indicated that increased awareness and use of PEP might have prevented disease. Although significantly more dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p < 0.01), there were fewer dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p < 0.01). We suggest that the combination of mass vaccination and restriction of dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed to

  20. Association of Ocean Energy Exploitation of Resources Promotion Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, C.; Aoyama, S.

    2014-12-01

    Nine prefectures of 1 local government prefecture of the Sea of Japan side established "Association of Ocean Energy Exploitation of Resources Promotion Sea of Japan" (the following, Association of Sea of Japan) in September, 2012. They support methane hydrate exploitation of resources of the government and aim at the local activation and job creation. Niigata and Hyogo that were members of the association of Sea of Japan carried out a prefecture original methane hydrate investigation. They appeal to the government for development promotion of the government by showing the result. On the other hand, Wakayama located on the Pacific side wants to appeal to the government for the reexamination of the development sea area by showing that outer layer type methane hydrate exists to the sea area that is nearer the landside than the sea area that the government develops. The Independent Institute carried out collaborative investigation each with Niigata, Hyogo and Wakayama in 2013. I show the results of research. In the joint investigation with Niigata, plural plumes were observed in Mogami trough east slope (from depth of the water 200m 600m) . In the joint investigation with Hyogo, I carried out observation of a methane plume and the structure and the seafloor topography under the sea bottom in Oki east sea area. Furthermore, I performed a piston core ring and gathered five samples and confirmed plural traces of the methane hydrate. In the joint investigation with Wakayama, plural plumes were observed in Shionomisaki canyon (from depth of the water 1,700m 2,200m). There is hardly the report of the plume on the Pacific side so far. Therefore I want to continue observing it in future.

  1. 77 FR 64487 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... more about the policy and regulatory landscape for renewable energy developing in Japan at this time. Following the Roundtable, the delegation will travel to Fukushima Prefecture and Sendai for site visits...; and Travel to the northeast region to see firsthand how communities are incorporating renewable energy...

  2. Regional differences in infant 25-Hydroxyvitamin D: Pilot study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Ayabe, Tadayuki; Yamamoto-Hanada, Kiwako; Mezawa, Hidetoshi; Konishi, Mizuho; Ishitsuka, Kazue; Saito, Mayako; Fukami, Maki; Michikawa, Takehiro; Yamazaki, Shin; Senju, Ayako; Kusuhara, Koichi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Kato, Kiyoko; Oda, Masako; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Katoh, Takahiko; Monden, Yukifumi; Mise, Nathan; Kayama, Fujio; Saito, Hirohisa; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, a resurgence in the number of infants with vitamin D deficiency has been noted. In addition to seasonal differences in exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, regional differences in dietary habits and lifestyles may affect susceptibility to vitamin D deficiency. No studies have been conducted, however, on infants in multiple regions of Japan to determine the extent of differences in vitamin D status. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was measured on radioimmunoassay in 126 infants aged 2-4 years, who participated in the Pilot Study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) by the Ministry of Environment of Japan. A multiple regression model with 25OHD level as the outcome variable, and season and region as explanatory variables, was generated. Both region and season during which infants participated in this study significantly affected 25OHD level (P = 0.0087 and <0.0001, respectively; Wald test). Reflecting decreased exposure to UV rays, infants who were examined in winter had lower 25OHD than those examined in summer. Infants from both Fukuoka Prefecture (33°N) and Kumamoto Prefecture (32°N), however, had lower 25OHD than those from Tochigi Prefecture (36°N), contrary to expectations given the extent of UV exposure. Regional differences in daily habits and/or environmental factors affect 25OHD level in Japanese infants. The JECS is expected to identify those factors to provide guidance on preventing infantile vitamin D deficiency. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Educational Reform in Postwar Japan: A Case Study of the High School Entrance Examination in Chiba Prefecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, David M.

    In structure and in function, the Japanese high school entrance examination--as exemplified by data from Chiba prefecture in 1986--survives as a prewar hierarchical cultural pattern. Postwar American occupation reforms offered "democratic education" in the form of a single-track system with 9 years of compulsory schooling; such a system,…

  4. Intra-Cultural Variation in Child Care Practices in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    This study, comprising three sub-studies, aims to examine how child-rearing practices vary according to different social circumstances in Japan. By comparing teacher-child interaction at mealtimes in day care centres both on an isolated small island located in Okinawa prefecture, Tarama, and in a large industrialised city, Tokyo, the following was…

  5. Follow-up study of the regional quota system of Japanese medical schools and prefecture scholarship programmes: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Takeuchi, Keisuke; Tanaka, Junko; Tazuma, Susumu; Inoue, Kazuo; Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Iguchi, Seitaro; Maeda, Takahiro

    2016-04-15

    Given the shortage of physicians, particularly in rural areas, the Japanese government has rapidly expanded the number of medical school students by adding chiikiwaku (regional quotas) since 2008. Quota entrants now account for 17% of all medical school entrants. Quota entrants are usually local high school graduates who receive a scholarship from the prefecture government. In exchange, they temporarily practise in that prefecture, including its rural areas, after graduation. Many prefectures also have scholarship programmes for non-quota students in exchange for postgraduate in-prefecture practice. The objective of this cohort study, conducted by the Japanese Council for Community-based Medical Education, is to evaluate the outcomes of the quota admission system and prefecture scholarship programmes nationwide. There are 3 groups of study participants: quota without scholarship, quota with scholarship and non-quota with scholarship. Under the support of government ministries and the Association of Japan Medical Colleges, and participation of all prefectures and medical schools, passing rate of the National Physician License Examination, scholarship buy-out rate, geographic distribution and specialties distribution of each group are analysed. Participants who voluntarily participated are followed by linking their baseline information to data in the government's biennial Physician Census. Results to date have shown that, despite medical schools' concerns about academic quality, the passing rate of the National Physician License Examination in each group was higher than that of all medical school graduates. The Ethics Committee for Epidemiological Research of Hiroshima University and the Research Ethics Committee of Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences permitted this study. No individually identifiable results will be presented in conferences or published in journals. The aggregated results will be reported to concerned government ministries

  6. The role of temperature in reported chickenpox cases from 2000 to 2011 in Japan.

    PubMed

    Harigane, K; Sumi, A; Mise, K; Kobayashi, N

    2015-09-01

    Annual periodicities of reported chickenpox cases have been observed in several countries. Of these, Japan has reported a two-peaked, bimodal annual cycle of reported chickenpox cases. This study investigated the possible underlying association of the bimodal cycle observed in the surveillance data of reported chickenpox cases with the meteorological factors of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. A time-series analysis consisting of the maximum entropy method spectral analysis and the least squares method was applied to the chickenpox data and meteorological data of 47 prefectures in Japan. In all of the power spectral densities for the 47 prefectures, the spectral lines were observed at the frequency positions corresponding to the 1-year and 6-month cycles. The optimum least squares fitting (LSF) curves calculated with the 1-year and 6-month cycles explained the underlying variation of the chickenpox data. The LSF curves reproduced the bimodal and unimodal cycles that were clearly observed in northern and southern Japan, respectively. The data suggest that the second peaks in the bimodal cycles in the reported chickenpox cases in Japan occurred at a temperature of approximately 8·5 °C.

  7. [Subsidized project of hearing aid purchase for mild-moderate hearing impaired children in Akita prefecture].

    PubMed

    Sato, Teruyuki; Nakazawa, Misao; Takahashi, Shin; Ishikawa, Kazuo

    2013-06-01

    The dissemination of newborn hearing screening has detected children with mild-moderate hearing impairment at an early age. However, there is no nation-wide welfare system for children with mild-moderate hearing impairment in Japan. Under these kinds of social conditions, a subsidized project of hearing aid purchase for mild-moderate hearing impaired children has come into force from April 2010 in Akita prefecture. All 18 candidates who applied for this project were subsidized in Akita prefecture. Eighteen children purchased their hearing aids using this subsidy. The feature of this project was that every child could have access to subsidies as long as their doctor recognized the effectiveness of hearing aids because children with hearing impairment need to learn language. They contacted the hospital, prefectural government and institutes related to hearing loss before this project come into force. We recognized parents who are raising a child with mild-moderate hearing impairment have high interest in this project. Hearing aids can represent a considerable expense for young parents who are raising a child. We encountered some children who had to give up the idea of hearing aids due to their parents' economic circumstances before this project become effective. These situations were completely avoided after this project came into being. This administrative purpose was of demonstrated value in children with mild-moderate hearing impairment.

  8. Web survey-based selection of controls for epidemiological analyses of a multi-prefectural outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 in Japan associated with consumption of self-grilled beef hanging tender.

    PubMed

    Yahata, Y; Ohshima, N; Odaira, F; Nakamura, N; Ichikawa, H; Matsuno, K; Shuri, J; Toyozawa, T; Terajima, J; Watanabe, H; Nakashima, K; Sunagawa, T; Taniguchi, K; Okabe, N

    2018-03-01

    An outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in multiple prefectures of Japan in November 2009. We conducted two case-control studies with trace-back and trace-forward investigations to determine the source. The case definition was met by 21 individuals; 14 (66.7%) were hospitalised, but no haemolytic uraemic syndrome, acute encephalopathy or deaths occurred. Median age was 23 (range 12-48) years and 14 cases were male (66.7%). No significant associations with food were found in a case-control study by local public health centres, but our matched case-control study using Internet surveys found that beef hanging tender (or hanger steak), derived from the diaphragm of the cattle, was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio = 15.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.00-124.11). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates from patients and the suspected food showed five different patterns: two in faecal and food samples, and another three in patient faecal samples only, although there were epidemiological links to the meat consumed at the restaurants. Trace-back investigation implicated a common food processing company from outside Japan. Examination of the logistics of the meat processing company suggested that contamination did not occur in Japan. We concluded that the source of the outbreak was imported hanging tender. This investigation revealed that Internet surveys could be useful for outbreak investigations.

  9. Effect of age and social connection on perceived anxiety over radiation exposure among decontamination workers in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Jinnouchi, Takanobu; Sato, Sei; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Nakano, Shinichi; Koyama, Kikuo; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2016-05-25

    To reveal the effect of age and other factors on perceived anxiety over radiation exposure among decontamination workers in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. A survey questionnaire was sent to 1505 workers, with questions regarding age, presence of a written employment contract, previous residence, radiation passbook ownership, presence of close persons for consultation, knowledge of how to access public assistance, and a four-point scale of radiation-related anxiety (1= "Very much," 2= "Somewhat," 3= "A little bit," and 4= "None" ). The relationships between the degree of anxiety and variables were analyzed using the chi-square test and residual analysis. In all, 512 participants responded to the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 46.2 years (SD: 13.1, range: 18-77). Of them, 50, 233, 168, and 61 workers chose "Very much," "Somewhat," "A little bit," and "None," respectively, on the anxiety scale. Chi-square test showed that participants aged 61 years and over had higher degrees of anxiety (p<0.001). Ordinal logistic regression showed that the degree of anxiety increased if they did not have a written contract (p=0.042) or persons to consult (p=0.034) and if they routinely checked the dose rate (p=0.046). Decontamination workers who do not have a written contract or who are in socially isolated situations have greater anxiety over radiation exposure. Thus, it is important to both create supportive human relationships for consultation and enhance labor management in individual companies.

  10. Historical extreme wave and landslide deposits on the Shirasuka coastal lowlands, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Ed; Riedesel, Svenja; Fujiwara, Osamu; Walstra, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Schmidt, Sabine; Brill, Dominik; Roberts, Helen; Duller, Geoff; Brückner, Hulmut; De Batist, Marc; Heyvaert, Vanessa

    2017-04-01

    Future megathrust earthquakes and consequential tsunamis pose exceptional hazards to densely populated and highly industrialised coastlines facing the Nankai-Suruga Trough, south central Japan. Geological investigations of coastal sedimentary sequences play a key role in understanding megathrust behaviour and developing seismic and tsunami hazard assessments. In this study, we revisit a previously published palaeoseismic site at Shirasuka, located on the Enshu-nada coastline of Shizuoka Prefecture, seeking both to provide further information on past earthquakes and tsunamis and to explore the prospects and limitations of geological data with respect to assessing seismic and tsunami hazards. At Shirasuka, six closely-spaced vibrocores reveal four sand layers interbedded with organic muds. Photographs, X-ray CT scans and grain size analysis reveal a variety of sedimentary structures within these layers, including abrupt contacts, massive sands, rip-up clasts, internal mud drapes and cross bedding. Microfossil assemblages (diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs) and optically stimulated luminescence overdispersion values of single grain feldspars highlight varying sediment sources and transport mechanisms. We suggest that the uppermost sand layer records a landslide from the landward margin of the site, while the remaining three sand layers reflect at least four extreme wave events, some of which are overprinted. We refine the published chronology using AMS radiocarbon, radionuclide and infrared stimulated luminescence approaches. Our Bayesian age models suggest that the oldest two sand layers relate to historically documented tsunamis in AD 1361 and 1498. The second youngest sand layer provides ages consistent with tsunamis in AD 1605 and 1707 and potentially also storm surges in 1680 and/or 1699. The modelled age of the landslide sand layer is consistent with the AD 1944 earthquake. The presence of a fresh scarp in US military aerial photographs from 1947 and

  11. A case study of liquefaction risk analysis based on the thickness and depth of the liquefaction layer using CPT and electric resistivity data in the Hinode area, Itako City, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinguuji, Motoharu; Toprak, Selcuk

    2017-12-01

    The Hinode area of Itako City in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, suffered some of the most severe liquefaction damage of any areas in the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake in 2011. This liquefaction damage has been investigated by Itako City, as well as by universities and research institutes in Japan. The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) has carried out numerous investigations along the Tone River, and in particular, intensive surveys were done in the Hinode area. We have conducted a risk analysis based on the thickness and depth of the liquefaction layer measured using cone penetration testing (CPT) data and electric resistivity data obtained in the Hinode area. The distribution of the risk estimated from CPT at 143 points, and that obtained from analysis of the resistivity survey data, agreed with the distribution of actual damage. We also carried out conventional risk analyses method using the liquefaction resistance factor (FL) and liquefaction potential index (PL) methods with CPT data. The results show high PL values over the entire area, but their distribution did not agree well with actual damage in some parts of the study area. Because the analysis of the thickness and depth of the liquefaction layer, using geophysical prospecting methods, can cover a widespread area, this method will be very useful in investigating liquefaction risk, especially for gas and water pipelines.

  12. Aftershocks associated with impaired health caused by the great East Japan disaster among youth across Japan: a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Takashi; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Yuki

    2013-12-20

    The Great East Japan earthquake, subsequent tsunamis and the Fukushima nuclear incident had a tremendous impact on Japanese society. Although small-scale surveys have been conducted in highly affected areas, few have elucidated the disaster's effect on health from national perspective, which is necessary to prepare national policy and response. The aim of the present study was to describe prefecture-level health status and investigate associations with number of aftershocks, seismic intensity, a closer geographical location to the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, or higher reported radiation dose in each prefecture even after adjusting for individual socioeconomic factors, by utilizing individual-level data acquired from a national cross-sectional Internet survey as well as officially reported prefecture-level data. A Japanese government research institute obtained 12,000 participants by quota sampling and 7335 participants were eligible for the analysis in an age range between 17 and 27 years old. We calculated the percentage of people with decreased subjective health in each prefecture after the earthquake. Variability introduced by a small sample size for some prefectures was smoothed using empirical Bayes estimation with a random-intercept logistic model, with and without demographic factors. Multilevel logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for change of subjective health associated with prefecture-level and individual-level factors. Adjusted empirical Bayes estimates were higher for respondents commuting in the northeast region (Iwate 14%, Miyagi 19%, and Fukushima 28%), which faces the Pacific Ocean, while the values for Akita (10%) and Yamagata (8%) prefectures, which do not face the Pacific Ocean, were lower than those of Tokyo (12%). The values from the central to the western region were clearly lower. The number of aftershocks was coherently associated with decreased health (OR 1.05 per 100 times, 95% CI 1.04-1.06; P<.001

  13. Geo-Demography of HIV/AIDS in Japan from 1985 to 2011: Incidence and Transmission Mode under Influence of Population Size/Density.

    PubMed

    Yoshikura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A stable relation was found between number of HIV/AIDS patients (P) and population size (N) and between HIV/AIDS incidence (I) and population density (D). The relation could be expressed as P = kN(m) or I = hD(n), where k, h, m, and n are constants. For "AIDS"/"AIDS diagnosis", the constant m was 1.5 for Japan and 1.3 for the United States of America (USA); n was 0.38 for both Japan and the USA. These observations indicated that larger population sizes related to disproportionately larger numbers of HIV/AIDS patients, and denser populations had disproportionately higher incidences of HIV/AIDS. Considering the wide geo-demographic difference between the two countries, it was striking that the same equations with constants within a narrow range were applicable to both Japan and the USA. Modes of HIV transmission appeared to be variable among prefectures in Japan. Homosexual transmission was suggested as being more predominant in more populated prefectures.

  14. Recent damaging earthquakes in Japan, 2003-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, Robert E

    2008-01-01

    During the last six years, from 2003-2008, Japan has been struck by three significant and damaging earthquakes: The most recent M6.6 Niigata Chuetsu Oki earthquake of July 16, 2007 off the coast of Kashiwazaki City, Japan; The M6.6 Niigata Chuetsu earthquake of October 23, 2004, located in Niigata Prefecture in the central Uonuma Hills; and the M8.0 Tokachi Oki Earthquake of September 26, 2003 effecting southeastern Hokkaido Prefecture. These earthquakes stand out among many in a very active period of seismicity in Japan. Within the upper 100 km of the crust during this period, Japan experienced 472 earthquakes of magnitude 6, or greater. Both Niigata events affected the south-central region of Tohoku Japan, and the Tokachi-Oki earthquake affected a broad region of the continental shelf and slope southeast of the Island of Hokkaido. This report is synthesized from the work of scores of Japanese and US researchers who led and participated in post-earthquake reconnaissance of these earthquakes: their noteworthy and valuable contributions are listed in an extended acknowledgements section at the end of the paper. During the Niigata Chuetsu Oki event of 2007, damage to the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, structures, infrastructure, and ground were primarily the product of two factors: (1) high intensity motions from this moderate-sized shallow event, and (2) soft, poor performing, or liquefiable soils in the coastal region of southwestern Niigata Prefecture. Structural and geotechnical damage along the slopes of dunes was ubiquitous in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa region. The 2004 Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake was the most significant to affect Japan since the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Forty people were killed, almost 3,000 were injured, and many hundreds of landslides destroyed entire upland villages. Landslides were of all types; some dammed streams, temporarily creating lakes threatening to overtop their new embankments and cause flash floods and mudslides. The numerous

  15. Spatiotemporal variation in heat-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during the summer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2017-04-01

    Although several studies have reported the impacts of extremely high temperature on cardiovascular diseases, few studies have investigated the spatiotemporal variation in the incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) due to extremely high temperature in Japan. Daily OHCA data from 2005 to 2014 were acquired from all 47 prefectures of Japan. We used time-series Poisson regression analysis combined with a distributed lag non-linear model to assess the temporal variability in the effects of extremely high temperature on OHCA incidence in each prefecture, adjusted for time trends. Spatial variability in the relationships between extremely high temperature and OHCA between prefectures was estimated using a multivariate random-effects meta-analysis. We analyzed 166,496 OHCA cases of presumed cardiac origin occurring during the summer (June to September) that met the inclusion criteria. The minimum morbidity percentile (MMP) was the 51st percentile of temperature during the summer in Japan. The overall cumulative relative risk at the 99th percentile vs. the MMP over lags 0-10days was 1.21 (95% CI: 1.12-1.31). There was also a strong low temperature effect during the summer periods. No substantial difference in spatial or temporal variability was observed over the study period. Our study demonstrated spatiotemporal homogeneity in the risk of OHCA during periods of extremely high temperature between 2005 and 2014 in Japan. Our findings suggest that public health strategies for OHCA due to extremely high temperatures should be finely adjusted and should particularly account for the unchanging risk during the summer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychological distress during pregnancy in Miyagi after the Great East Japan Earthquake: The Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Zen; Iwama, Noriyuki; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Toshie; Mizuno, Satoshi; Sakurai, Kasumi; Ishikuro, Mami; Obara, Taku; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Nakai, Kunihiko; Arima, Takahiro; Takeda, Takashi; Sugawara, Junichi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Metoki, Hirohito; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2016-01-15

    To examine psychological distress among pregnant women in Miyagi prefecture which was directly affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami and compare other areas of Japan that were less damaged. This study was conducted in conjunction with the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS). We examined 10,129 Japanese women using the primary fixed data of the JECS. The Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6) was administered to 7473 eligible women including 998 in Miyagi unit center ('Miyagi UC') and 6475 in the other unit centers ('13UCs'). We compared the prevalence and the risk of distress (K6 ≥ 13) during pregnancy in 'Miyagi UC' and '13UCs'. More women in 'Miyagi UC' (4.9%) suffered psychological distress, compared with '13UCs' (3.1%) (p<0.001). A significantly higher prevalence of women in 'Miyagi UC' (55.5%) had experienced negative life events, whereas '13UCs' showed 42.7% (p<0.0001). In multivariable logistic analyses adjusted for baseline characteristics, there was a significant regional difference of psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio; aOR in Miyagi UC=1.488; 95%CI, 1.059-2.090). After further adjusting for negative life events, the association was diminished (aOR=1.338; 95%CI, 0.949-1.884). The JECS had no data before the earthquake and the extent of damage was not investigated. Possible regional representativeness is also a limitation. After the Great East Japan Earthquake, the prevalence of pregnant women with psychological distress (K6 ≥ 13) were high in Miyagi prefecture. Especially in the coastal area directly affected by tsunami, it is high with or without negative life events experienced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Annual variation in the atmospheric radon concentration in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Yasuoka, Yumi; Omori, Yasutaka; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Sanada, Tetsuya; Muto, Jun; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Homma, Yoshimi; Ihara, Hayato; Kubota, Kazuhito; Mukai, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    Anomalous atmospheric variations in radon related to earthquakes have been observed in hourly exhaust-monitoring data from radioisotope institutes in Japan. The extraction of seismic anomalous radon variations would be greatly aided by understanding the normal pattern of variation in radon concentrations. Using atmospheric daily minimum radon concentration data from five sampling sites, we show that a sinusoidal regression curve can be fitted to the data. In addition, we identify areas where the atmospheric radon variation is significantly affected by the variation in atmospheric turbulence and the onshore-offshore pattern of Asian monsoons. Furthermore, by comparing the sinusoidal regression curve for the normal annual (seasonal) variations at the five sites to the sinusoidal regression curve for a previously published dataset of radon values at the five Japanese prefectures, we can estimate the normal annual variation pattern. By fitting sinusoidal regression curves to the previously published dataset containing sites in all Japanese prefectures, we find that 72% of the Japanese prefectures satisfy the requirements of the sinusoidal regression curve pattern. Using the normal annual variation pattern of atmospheric daily minimum radon concentration data, these prefectures are suitable areas for obtaining anomalous radon variations related to earthquakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Japanese encephalitis in a 114-month-old cow: pathological investigation of the affected cow and genetic characterization of Japanese encephalitis virus isolate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is classified into the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. JEV can cause febrile illness and encephalitis mainly in humans and horses, and occasionally in cattle. Case presentation In late September 2010, a 114-month-old cow showed neurological symptoms similar to the symptoms observed in previous bovine cases of Japanese encephalitis (JE); therefore, we conducted virological and pathological tests on the cow. As a result, JEV was isolated from the cerebrum of the affected cow. We determined the complete genome sequence of the JEV isolate, which we named JEV/Bo/Aichi/1/2010, including the envelope (E) gene region and 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR). Our phylogenetic analyses of the E region and complete genome showed that the isolate belongs to JEV genotype 1 (G1). The isolate, JEV/Bo/Aichi/1/2010, was most closely related to several JEV G1 isolates in Toyama Prefecture, Japan in 2007–2009 by the phylogenetic analysis of the E region. In addition, the nucleotide alignment revealed that the deletion in the 3’UTR was the same between JEV/Bo/Aichi/1/2010 and several other JEV G1 isolates identified in Toyama Prefecture in 2008–2009. A hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was conducted for the detection of anti-JEV antibodies in the affected cow, and the test detected 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME)-sensitive HI antibodies against JEV in the serum of the affected cow. The histopathological investigation revealed nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis in the affected cow, and the immunohistochemical assay detected JEV antigen in the cerebrum. Conclusion We diagnosed the case as JE of a cow based on the findings of nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis observed in the central nervous system, JEV antigen detected in the cerebrum, JEV isolated from the cerebrum, and 2-ME-sensitive HI antibodies against JEV detected in the serum. This is the first reported case of JE in a cow over 24 months old. PMID:24618225

  19. Japanese encephalitis in a 114-month-old cow: pathological investigation of the affected cow and genetic characterization of Japanese encephalitis virus isolate.

    PubMed

    Kako, Naomi; Suzuki, Seiji; Sugie, Norie; Kato, Tomoko; Yanase, Tohru; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shirafuji, Hiroaki

    2014-03-11

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is classified into the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. JEV can cause febrile illness and encephalitis mainly in humans and horses, and occasionally in cattle. In late September 2010, a 114-month-old cow showed neurological symptoms similar to the symptoms observed in previous bovine cases of Japanese encephalitis (JE); therefore, we conducted virological and pathological tests on the cow. As a result, JEV was isolated from the cerebrum of the affected cow. We determined the complete genome sequence of the JEV isolate, which we named JEV/Bo/Aichi/1/2010, including the envelope (E) gene region and 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). Our phylogenetic analyses of the E region and complete genome showed that the isolate belongs to JEV genotype 1 (G1). The isolate, JEV/Bo/Aichi/1/2010, was most closely related to several JEV G1 isolates in Toyama Prefecture, Japan in 2007-2009 by the phylogenetic analysis of the E region. In addition, the nucleotide alignment revealed that the deletion in the 3'UTR was the same between JEV/Bo/Aichi/1/2010 and several other JEV G1 isolates identified in Toyama Prefecture in 2008-2009. A hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was conducted for the detection of anti-JEV antibodies in the affected cow, and the test detected 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME)-sensitive HI antibodies against JEV in the serum of the affected cow. The histopathological investigation revealed nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis in the affected cow, and the immunohistochemical assay detected JEV antigen in the cerebrum. We diagnosed the case as JE of a cow based on the findings of nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis observed in the central nervous system, JEV antigen detected in the cerebrum, JEV isolated from the cerebrum, and 2-ME-sensitive HI antibodies against JEV detected in the serum. This is the first reported case of JE in a cow over 24 months old.

  20. Mortality among Japanese construction workers in Mie Prefecture

    PubMed Central

    Sun, J; Kubota, H; Hisanaga, N; Shibata, E; Kamijima, M; Nakamura, K

    2002-01-01

    Aims: A historical cohort mortality study was conducted among 17 668 members of the Construction Workers' Health Insurance Society of Mie Prefecture in Japan, in order to verify the relation between occupations and mortality status. Methods: The cohort was followed from 2 April 1973 to 1 April 1998. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for all members and each job classification. Results: 98.7% of the members were traced successfully until the date when the follow up terminated. When all members were considered together, significant excess mortality was observed for "accidents and adverse effects". Significant excess mortalities were also observed for lung cancers among scaffold men and ironworkers, for cancer of the oesophagus among plumbers, and for "chronic liver disease and cirrhosis" among scaffold men and painters. Conclusion: Results suggest that more detailed investigations, which would include some minor job classifications should be undertaken. This is an updated cohort study which was partially completed in 1997. PMID:12151606

  1. Euschoengastia suzukii (Acari: Trombiculidae): A new species of chigger mite collected from soil samples in the nest burrows of streaked shearwater in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mamoru; Fukaya, Hajime; Takahashi, Hisae

    2005-07-01

    Euschoengastia suzukii Takahashi, Fukaya & Takahashi is described and illustrated. The type material was collected from soil samples in the nest burrows of the sea bird streaked shearwater, Calonectris leucomelas (Temminck), living on Mikurajima Island in Tokyo; Oomorijima Island, Oki, Shimane Prefecture; and Awashima Island, Niigata Prefecture, in Japan, indicating that C. leucomelas is the main parasitic host of E. suzukii new species.

  2. Molecular Epidemiological Study of Mumps Epidemics of 2015 in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kuba, Yumani; Kyan, Hisako; Arakaki, Eri; Takara, Taketoshi; Kato, Takashi; Okano, Sho; Oshiro, Yuko; Kudaka, Jun; Kidokoro, Minoru

    2017-05-24

    Although major mumps epidemics occurred every 4-5 years in Okinawa Prefecture in Japan, no laboratory diagnoses were conducted. A mumps epidemic started in Okinawa in October 2014, and we collected clinical samples from 31 patients in 4 areas (Hokubu, Nanbu, Miyako, and Yaeyama) from July to December 2015, for virus isolation and RT-PCR, whose positive ratios were 52% and 87%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all isolates were classified into genotype G, and with one exception, consisted of 2 subgenotypes, Ge (55.6%) and Gw (40.7%), which have been prominent in Japan recently. One isolate was classified in another lineage, which was detected in Japan for the first time, and was similar to a Hong Kong isolate from 2014. Remarkably, the geographic distributions of the 2 major lineages were separated. The Ge viruses were isolated from the main island of Okinawa and the Yaeyama Islands, whereas the Gw isolates were mainly detected from the Miyako Islands. These results suggest that the Ge and Gw mumps viruses mainly caused the mumps epidemics of 2015 in Okinawa, and that they spread independently in separate regions. This is the first report describing the molecular epidemiology of mumps epidemics in Okinawa Prefecture.

  3. Body size distributions of the pale grass blue butterfly in Japan: Size rules and the status of the Fukushima population

    PubMed Central

    Taira, Wataru; Iwasaki, Mayo; Otaki, Joji M.

    2015-01-01

    The body size of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, has been used as an environmental indicator of radioactive pollution caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident. However, geographical and temporal size distributions in Japan and temperature effects on size have not been established in this species. Here, we examined the geographical, temporal, and temperature-dependent changes of the forewing size of Z. maha argia in Japan. Butterflies collected in 2012 and 2013 from multiple prefectures throughout Japan demonstrated an inverse relationship of latitude and forewing size, which is the reverse of Bergmann’s cline. The Fukushima population was significantly larger than the Aomori and Miyagi populations and exhibited no difference from most of the other prefectural populations. When monitored at a single geographic locality every other month, forewing sizes were the largest in April and the smallest in August. Rearing larvae at a constant temperature demonstrated that forewing size followed the temperature-size rule. Therefore, the converse Bergmann’s rule and the temperature-size rule coexist in this multivoltine species. Our study establishes this species as a useful environmental indicator and supports the idea that the size reduction observed only in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 was caused by the environmental stress of radioactive pollution. PMID:26197998

  4. Effect of age and social connection on perceived anxiety over radiation exposure among decontamination workers in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Jinnouchi, Takanobu; Sato, Sei; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Nakano, Shinichi; Koyama, Kikuo; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To reveal the effect of age and other factors on perceived anxiety over radiation exposure among decontamination workers in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Methods: A survey questionnaire was sent to 1505 workers, with questions regarding age, presence of a written employment contract, previous residence, radiation passbook ownership, presence of close persons for consultation, knowledge of how to access public assistance, and a four-point scale of radiation-related anxiety (1= "Very much," 2= "Somewhat," 3= "A little bit," and 4= "None" ). The relationships between the degree of anxiety and variables were analyzed using the chi-square test and residual analysis. Results: In all, 512 participants responded to the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 46.2 years (SD: 13.1, range: 18-77). Of them, 50, 233, 168, and 61 workers chose "Very much," "Somewhat," "A little bit," and "None," respectively, on the anxiety scale. Chi-square test showed that participants aged 61 years and over had higher degrees of anxiety (p<0.001). Ordinal logistic regression showed that the degree of anxiety increased if they did not have a written contract (p=0.042) or persons to consult (p=0.034) and if they routinely checked the dose rate (p=0.046). Conclusions: Decontamination workers who do not have a written contract or who are in socially isolated situations have greater anxiety over radiation exposure. Thus, it is important to both create supportive human relationships for consultation and enhance labor management in individual companies. PMID:27010088

  5. Study and application of molluscicides in Japan*

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Yoshitaka

    1961-01-01

    For several years after the First World War calcium oxide was the main compound used in the control of Oncomelania nosophora in Japan. This was generally replaced in 1944 by calcium cyanamide; since 1952 the prefectural authorities in areas of endemic bilharziasis have increasingly turned to the use of sodium pentachlorophenate as the molluscicide of choice. Applied at a rate of 5 g per m2, this compound has been found to kill 70%-80% of snails per application. Laboratory and field experiments with calcium-arsenic compounds have been conducted in Japan and have indicated that these products have a relatively high molluscicidal effect; they have, however, not been used on a wide scale for snail control. PMID:14458130

  6. "Shool Biotope" as science and environment educational tools in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    2011-12-01

    We have very small artificial pond in elementary school and junior high school in Japan. There are small fish, aquatic insect, and plant, and we can easily check and study. Recently, this type very small artificial pond that we call "Biotope" has been reconsidered as educational tool for study about biology and ecology. We introduce the some cases of the elementary school in Shimane Prefecture, Japan. And then, we pick up some important good educational materials and methods and their problems. Shimane prefecture is the place where relatively much nature is left even in Japan, and children are favored in the opportunity which usually touches nature and study it. It thought about use for Biotope in the inside of school of such from the viewpoint of science and environment education. It is possible with Biotope in the inside of school that a fish, aquatic insect, and plant in Biotope and that's environment are observed for every day and for a long time. As for the teacher of the elementary and junior high schools, it is important to make a plan of Biotope corresponding to the subject and those contents of learning through the year. We define School-Biotope as a thing that a teacher recognizes that educational importance and to make the most of as an education subject intentionally.

  7. Community Revitalization by Geotourism: Tourism Study with Geoscience in Wakayama, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakakushi, T.; Hisatomi, K.; Konomatsu, M.; Furukubo, A.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents our community-revitalization project in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Wakayama Prefecture is the southwestern part of the Kii Peninsula. The Kii Peninsula, especially its southern part, has many geoscientifically important natural heritages such as the volcano-plutonic complex including well exposed ring dyke in the Kumano region. Those geoheritages have been considered just as on-site educational tools, and not received enough attentions as contents for geotours. UNESCO defines that a Geopark is a geographical area where geological heritage sites are part of a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development. UNESCO also describes that it is necessary to also include and highlight sites of ecological, archaeological, historical and cultural value within each Geopark. In many societies, natural, cultural and social history are inextricably linked and cannot be separated. We plan to have the region registered as a geopark by Japan (or Global) Geopark Network. In the context of community-revitalization, a "regional brand" has drawn attention for its potential to attract tourists. A Geopark may contribute to establish a regional brand.

  8. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of human enteric viruses other than norovirus using samples collected from gastroenteritis patients in Fukui Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kowada, Kazuaki; Takeuchi, Kenji; Hirano, Eiko; Toho, Miho; Sada, Kiyonao

    2018-01-01

    There are many varieties of gastroenteritis viruses, of which norovirus (NoV) accounts for over 90% of the viral food poisoning incidents in Japan. However, protocols for rapidly identifying other gastroenteritis viruses need to be established to investigate NoV-negative cases intensively. In this study, a multiplex real-time PCR assay targeting rotavirus A, rotavirus C, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, and enterovirus was developed using stool samples collected from gastroenteritis patients between 2010 and 2013 in Fukui Prefecture, Japan. Of the 126 samples collected sporadically from pediatric patients with suspected infectious gastroenteritis, 51 were positive for non-NoV target viruses, whereas 27 were positive for NoV, showing a high prevalence of non-NoV viruses in pediatric patients. In contrast, testing in 382 samples of 58 gastroenteritis outbreaks showed that non-NoV viruses were detected in 13 samples, with NoV in 267. Of the 267 NoV-positive patients, only two were co-infected with non-NoV target viruses, suggesting that testing for non-NoV gastroenteritis viruses in NoV-positive samples was mostly unnecessary in outbreak investigations. Given these results, multiplex real-time PCR testing for non-NoV gastroenteritis viruses, conducted separately from NoV testing, may be helpful to deal with two types of epidemiological investigations, regular surveillance of infectious gastroenteritis and urgent testing when gastroenteritis outbreaks occur. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Decomposing Cost Efficiency in Regional Long-term Care Provision in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro

    2015-07-12

    Many developed countries face a growing need for long-term care provision because of population ageing. Japan is one such example, given its population's longevity and low birth rate. In this study, we examine the efficiency of Japan's regional long-term care system in FY2010 by performing a data envelopment analysis, a non-parametric frontier approach, on prefectural data and separating cost efficiency into technical, allocative, and price efficiencies under different average unit costs across regions. In doing so, we elucidate the structure of cost inefficiency by incorporating a method for restricting weight flexibility to avoid unrealistic concerns arising from zero optimal weight. The results indicate that technical inefficiency accounts for the highest share of losses, followed by price inefficiency and allocation inefficiency. Moreover, the majority of technical inefficiency losses stem from labor costs, particularly those for professional caregivers providing institutional services. We show that the largest share of allocative inefficiency losses can also be traced to labor costs for professional caregivers providing institutional services, while the labor provision of in-home care services shows an efficiency gain. However, although none of the prefectures gains efficiency by increasing the number of professional caregivers for institutional services, quite a few prefectures would gain allocative efficiency by increasing capital inputs for institutional services. These results indicate that preferred policies for promoting efficiency might vary from region to region, and thus, policy implications should be drawn with care.

  10. Decomposing Cost Efficiency in Regional Long-term Care Provision in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Many developed countries face a growing need for long-term care provision because of population ageing. Japan is one such example, given its population's longevity and low birth rate. In this study, we examine the efficiency of Japan's regional long-term care system in FY2010 by performing a data envelopment analysis, a non-parametric frontier approach, on prefectural data and separating cost efficiency into technical, allocative, and price efficiencies under different average unit costs across regions. In doing so, we elucidate the structure of cost inefficiency by incorporating a method for restricting weight flexibility to avoid unrealistic concerns arising from zero optimal weight. The results indicate that technical inefficiency accounts for the highest share of losses, followed by price inefficiency and allocation inefficiency. Moreover, the majority of technical inefficiency losses stem from labor costs, particularly those for professional caregivers providing institutional services. We show that the largest share of allocative inefficiency losses can also be traced to labor costs for professional caregivers providing institutional services, while the labor provision of in-home care services shows an efficiency gain. However, although none of the prefectures gains efficiency by increasing the number of professional caregivers for institutional services, quite a few prefectures would gain allocative efficiency by increasing capital inputs for institutional services. These results indicate that preferred policies for promoting efficiency might vary from region to region, and thus, policy implications should be drawn with care. PMID:26493427

  11. [Geographication of centenarians and its related factors in Japan].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, K; Yagyu, K

    1998-10-01

    This study explores the factors associated with longevity in Japan by considering the geographic distribution of centenarians based on the 1990 population census. The proportion of centenarians was calculated based on the population of those aged 65 years or older. The findings were 11.0 males and 28.2 females per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older. In this analysis, the rate ratio, RR, was used as an index for fluctuation of centenarians by prefecture. RR is also the proportion of centenarians in a prefecture to that in the nation. When the RR of both sexes is over 100, the region is defined as high proportion and less than this as low proportion. The high proportion regions were located in the western part of Japan i.e. from the Chugoku to the Kyusyu district, the low proportion regions were located in the eastern part of Japan i.e. from the Tohoku to the Kanto district both sexes. The relationship between the geographical distribution of centenarians and environmental factors was analyzed. The correlation coefficient of the proportion of centenarians and the temperature as index of a regional difference was the highest among the factors investigated. After adjusting for mean temperature, the mean value of factors associated with a high quality of welfare work and of medical service, and that of having leisure time were significantly higher in high proportion regions than in low proportion regions.

  12. Higher mortality in areas of lower socioeconomic position measured by a single index of deprivation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Keiko; Takano, Takehito

    2007-03-01

    To formulate an index representing area deprivation and elucidate the relation between the index and mortality in Japan. Ecological study for prefectures (N=47) and municipalities (N=3366) across Japan. Based on socioeconomic indicators of seven domains of deprivation (i.e. unemployment, overcrowding, low social class and poverty, low education, no home ownership, low income and vulnerable group), an index was formulated using the z-scoring method. The relation between the index and mortality was examined by correlation analysis, hierarchical Poisson regression and comparison of standardized mortality ratio according to the index. The deprivation index ranged from -7.48 to 10.98 for prefectures and from -16.97 to 13.82 for municipalities. The index was significantly positively correlated with prefectural mortality, especially in the population aged under 74 years: r=0.65 for men and r=0.41 for women. At the municipal level, hierarchical Poisson regression showed a significant positive coefficient of the index to mortality for both men and women, and excess mortality in the most deprived fifth compared to the least deprived fifth was 26.4% in men and 11.8% in women. We formulated a deprivation index, which was substantially related to mortality at the prefectural and municipal levels. This study highlights the higher risk of dying among populations in socially disadvantaged areas and encourages the use of indices representing area socioeconomic conditions for further studies of area effects on health.

  13. Sleep habits of students attending elementary schools, and junior and senior high schools in Akita prefecture.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Takaubu; Funaki, Kensaku; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Kawamoto, Kentaro; Tsutsui, Kou; Saito, Yasushi; Aizawa, Rika; Inomata, Shoko; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2002-06-01

    It is widely accepted that students in Japan sleep fewer hours than what they actually need. However, epidemiological data on sleep habits among students are scarce. The sleep habits and related problems among 1650 students in Akita prefecture were studied. The results revealed that schoolchildren attending elementary schools seemed to sleep for a sufficient number of hours, whereas students attending junior or senior high schools were not sleeping enough. In particular, approximately half of the students attending senior high schools answered that they slept 6 h or less on weekdays and nodded off during classes more than twice a week.

  14. Sub-annual paleoenvironmental information evaluated from intensity variations of fluorescent annual layers in a stalagmite from Ryuo-do Cave, Nagasaki Prefecture, western Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Hana; Onishi, Yuri; Ishihara, Yoshiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    2017-04-01

    Stalagmites can provide various types of paleoenvironmental information such as information on vegetation and climate changes. Fluorescent annual layers formed by humic substances (mainly fulvic acids: FA) in these stalagmites can also provide a time proxy, and a time series on precipitation. Fluorescence intensity patterns in these annual layers can be classified into symmetric, gradually increasing and gradually decreasing types. Onishi et al. (EGU2016) demonstrated the existence of these fluorescence intensity patterns in the annual layers, and their stratigraphic changes, by numerical simulations, and suggested that the patterns could provide paleoenvironmental information at a sub-annual resolution. In this study, we carried out an analysis of fluorescence intensity patterns in the annual layers of a stalagmite from Ryuo-do Cave, Nagasaki Prefecture, western Japan, and also simulated the patterns in the stalagmite, to obtain paleoenvironmental information. Fluorescence intensity patterns in the annual layers are strongly affected by annual variations in FA concentration and precipitation rates of calcite. As the result of simulations of fluorescence intensity patterns, cumulative variations and various types of pattern are reproduced. These differences are depending on time lags between the variation of the FA concentration in the drip waters, and that of the growth rate of the stalagmite. Co-precipitation models of FA are divided into the "Hiatus model" in which FA are preferentially preserved in the stalagmite when its growth rate is relatively low, and the "Partition coefficient (PC) model" in which FA concentrations in the stalagmite increase when the calcite precipitation rate is relatively high. However, various fluorescence intensity patterns in the annual layers could be formed under a combination or either of both of the models. Fluorescence intensity patterns in an annual layer in the stalagmite from Ryuo-do Cave, Nagasaki Prefecture, western Japan

  15. Web-based Recruiting for a Survey on Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer Prevention Among Young Women Living in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Miyagi, Etsuko; Motoki, Yoko; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Taguri, Masataka; Morita, Satoshi; Hirahara, Fumiki; Wark, John D.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cervical cancer (CC) incidence and mortality among young women have been increasing in Japan. To develop effective measures to combat this, we assessed the feasibility of using a social networking site (SNS) to recruit a representative sample of young women to conduct a knowledge and attitude study about CC prevention via an internet-based questionnaire. Methods From July 2012 to March 2013, advertising banners targeting women aged 16 to 35 years in Kanagawa Prefecture were placed on Facebook in a similar manner as an Australian (AUS) study conducted in 16- to 25-year-olds in 2010 and on a homepage to advertise our CC advocacy activities. Eligible participants were emailed instructions for accessing our secure Web site where they completed an online survey including demographics, awareness, and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and CC. Data for the study population were compared with the general Japanese population and the AUS study. Results Among 394 women who expressed interest, 243 (62%) completed the survey, with 52% completing it via Facebook. Women aged 26 to 35 years, living in Yokohama City, with an education beyond high school, were overrepresented. Participants had high awareness and knowledge of HPV and CC, comparable with the AUS study participants. However, the self-reported HPV vaccination rate (22% among participants aged 16–25 years) and the recognition rate of the link between smoking and CC (31%) were significantly lower than in the AUS study (58% and 43%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Significant predictors of high knowledge scores about HPV included awareness of HPV vaccine (P < 0.001) and self-reported HPV vaccination (P < 0.05). Conclusions The SNS and homepage are efficient methods to recruit young women into health surveys, which can effectively be performed online. A nationwide survey using SNSs would be an appropriate next step to better understand the current lack of uptake of the national HPV vaccine program by young women

  16. Web-based recruiting for a survey on knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer prevention among young women living in Kanagawa prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Etsuko; Motoki, Yoko; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Taguri, Masataka; Morita, Satoshi; Hirahara, Fumiki; Wark, John D; Garland, Suzanne M

    2014-09-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) incidence and mortality among young women have been increasing in Japan. To develop effective measures to combat this, we assessed the feasibility of using a social networking site (SNS) to recruit a representative sample of young women to conduct a knowledge and attitude study about CC prevention via an internet-based questionnaire. From July 2012 to March 2013, advertising banners targeting women aged 16 to 35 years in Kanagawa Prefecture were placed on Facebook in a similar manner as an Australian (AUS) study conducted in 16- to 25-year-olds in 2010 and on a homepage to advertise our CC advocacy activities. Eligible participants were emailed instructions for accessing our secure Web site where they completed an online survey including demographics, awareness, and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and CC. Data for the study population were compared with the general Japanese population and the AUS study. Among 394 women who expressed interest, 243 (62%) completed the survey, with 52% completing it via Facebook. Women aged 26 to 35 years, living in Yokohama City, with an education beyond high school, were overrepresented. Participants had high awareness and knowledge of HPV and CC, comparable with the AUS study participants. However, the self-reported HPV vaccination rate (22% among participants aged 16-25 years) and the recognition rate of the link between smoking and CC (31%) were significantly lower than in the AUS study (58% and 43%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Significant predictors of high knowledge scores about HPV included awareness of HPV vaccine (P < 0.001) and self-reported HPV vaccination (P < 0.05). The SNS and homepage are efficient methods to recruit young women into health surveys, which can effectively be performed online. A nationwide survey using SNSs would be an appropriate next step to better understand the current lack of uptake of the national HPV vaccine program by young women in Japan.

  17. Insufficient preparedness of primary care practices for pandemic influenza and the effect of a preparedness plan in Japan: a prefecture-wide cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cases of emerging infectious diseases, including H5N1 influenza, H7N9 influenza, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, have been reported in recent years, and the threat of pandemic outbreaks persists. In Japan, primary care is the frontline against emerging infectious diseases in communities. Although the importance of pandemic preparedness in primary care has been highlighted previously, few studies have thus far investigated the preparedness among primary care practices (PCPs) or differences in the preparedness of different institutional settings. We examined PCP preparedness and response to the 2009 influenza pandemic in Japan, and explored the role of a pandemic preparedness plan during the pandemic. Methods We used a survey questionnaire to assess how well individual PCPs in Okinawa, Japan, were prepared for the 2009 influenza pandemic. The questionnaire was mailed to all eligible PCPs (N = 465) in Okinawa, regardless of their institutional setting. In addition, we assessed the differences in the preparedness of clinics and hospitals and determined whether the national preparedness plan affected individual preparedness and response. Data were analyzed using descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 174 (37.4%) PCPs responded to our survey. In general, high-level personal protective equipment (PPE) such as N95 masks (45.4%), gowns (30.5%), and eye protection (21.3%) was stocked at a low rate. Clinic-based PCPs were significantly less prepared than hospital-based PCPs to provide N95 masks (OR 0.34), gowns (OR 0.15), and eye protection (OR 0.18). In addition, only 32.8% of PCPs adopted an adequate business continuity plan (BCP). After controlling for institutional setting, reading the national preparedness plan was significantly associated with establishment of a BCP (OR 5.86), and with knowledge of how to transfer a swab specimen to a local medical laboratory (OR 5.60). Conclusions With regard to PPE availability, PCPs

  18. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9-50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years.

  19. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9–50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years. PMID:28129382

  20. Geochemical evaluation of the land use and human activities at a Medieval harbor site, Masuda city, Shimane Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalai, Banzragch; Ishiga, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale harbor and settlement sites from the latter half of the eleventh through sixteenth centuries have recently been discovered in the northern part of Masuda City, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The sites were constructed at the river mouth delta of the Takatsu and Masuda rivers, facing the Sea of Japan. In former time, the mouths of the two rivers are thought to have formed a shallow lagoon connecting with the Sea of Japan. The harbor was thus well located for ships sailing along the sea coast, especially for conducting trade with the China mainland and the Korean peninsula. Archaeological investigations have identified over 800 construction pits, blacksmith hearths, harbor structures and numerous fragments of ceramic porcelain originating both from within Japan and from Asia (China, Korea, Vietnam and Thailand). It seems that the maritime trade network operated from this Medieval harbor site by the Masuda Clan was on an East Asian scale. Consequently, the harbor site can be expected to have received a considerable amount of ancient anthropogenic matter. Concentrations of 22 elements in 66 soil samples from the Nakazu Higashihara site were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, in order to identify the land use and human impacts on soil chemistry at the harbor site. The results show that significant differences in geochemical compositional exist between the northern and southern parts of the site due to differences in lithology and land use practice. The south area was a production area of this harbor site. Three different activity areas were recognized within this area (fire pit and charcoal area, building pillars, and a blacksmith furnace area), based on geochemical and archaeological information. Cluster analysis shows a strong relationship exists between As, Pb, Cu, Br, TS, MnO and P2O5 in the fire pit and charcoal area. These charcoal materials were likely derived from fuel used in firing and heating. Close relationships occur between Cr, Sr, Sc

  1. Seasonal Change in Bacterial Flora and Biomass in Mountain Snow from the Tateyama Mountains, Japan, Analyzed by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing and Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Segawa, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Koji; Ushida, Kazunari; Agata, Kiyokazu; Okada, Norihiro; Kohshima, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    The bacterial flora and biomass in mountain snow from the Tateyama Mountains, Toyama Prefecture, Japan, one of the heaviest snowfall regions in the world, were analyzed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis followed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA quantification by real-time PCR. Samples of surface snow collected in various months during the melting season contained a psychrophilic bacterium, Cryobacterium psychrophilum, and two psychrotrophic bacteria, Variovorax paradoxus and Janthinobacterium lividum. Bacterial colonies that developed in an in situ meltwater medium at 4°C were revealed to be V. paradoxus. The biomasses of C. psychrophilum, J. lividum, and V. paradoxus, as estimated by real-time PCR, showed large increases during the melting season from March to October (2.0 × 105-fold, 1.5 × 105-fold, and 1.0 × 104-fold increases, respectively), suggesting their rapid growth in the surface snow. The biomasses of C. psychrophilum and J. lividum increased significantly from March to April, reached a maximum in August, and dropped at the end of the melting season. In contrast, the biomass of V. paradoxus did not increase as rapidly during the early melting season but continued to increase from June until October. The differences in development observed among these bacterial species suggest that their growth was promoted by different nutrients and/or environmental conditions in the snow. Since these three types of bacteria have also been reported to be present in a glacier in Antarctica and a Greenland ice core, they seem to be specialized members of the snow biota that are distributed in snow and ice environments in various parts of the world. PMID:15640179

  2. Seasonal change in bacterial flora and biomass in mountain snow from the Tateyama Mountains, Japan, analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Koji; Ushida, Kazunari; Agata, Kiyokazu; Okada, Norihiro; Kohshima, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    The bacterial flora and biomass in mountain snow from the Tateyama Mountains, Toyama Prefecture, Japan, one of the heaviest snowfall regions in the world, were analyzed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis followed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA quantification by real-time PCR. Samples of surface snow collected in various months during the melting season contained a psychrophilic bacterium, Cryobacterium psychrophilum, and two psychrotrophic bacteria, Variovorax paradoxus and Janthinobacterium lividum. Bacterial colonies that developed in an in situ meltwater medium at 4 degrees C were revealed to be V. paradoxus. The biomasses of C. psychrophilum, J. lividum, and V. paradoxus, as estimated by real-time PCR, showed large increases during the melting season from March to October (2.0 x 10(5)-fold, 1.5 x 10(5)-fold, and 1.0 x 10(4)-fold increases, respectively), suggesting their rapid growth in the surface snow. The biomasses of C. psychrophilum and J. lividum increased significantly from March to April, reached a maximum in August, and dropped at the end of the melting season. In contrast, the biomass of V. paradoxus did not increase as rapidly during the early melting season but continued to increase from June until October. The differences in development observed among these bacterial species suggest that their growth was promoted by different nutrients and/or environmental conditions in the snow. Since these three types of bacteria have also been reported to be present in a glacier in Antarctica and a Greenland ice core, they seem to be specialized members of the snow biota that are distributed in snow and ice environments in various parts of the world.

  3. Income inequality, parental socioeconomic status, and birth outcomes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Ito, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of income inequality and parental socioeconomic status on several birth outcomes in Japan. Data were collected on birth outcomes and parental socioeconomic status by questionnaire from Japanese parents nationwide (n = 41,499) and then linked to Gini coefficients at the prefectural level in 2001. In multilevel analysis, z scores of birth weight for gestational age decreased by 0.018 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.029, -0.006) per 1-standard-deviation (0.018-unit) increase in the Gini coefficient, while gestational age at delivery was not associated with the Gini coefficient. For dichotomous outcomes, mothers living in prefectures with middle and high Gini coefficients were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48) times more likely, respectively, to deliver a small-for-gestational-age infant than mothers living in more egalitarian prefectures (low Gini coefficients), although preterm births were not significantly associated with income distribution. Parental educational level, but not household income, was significantly associated with the z score of birth weight for gestational age and small-for-gestational-age status. Higher income inequality at the prefectural level and parental educational level, rather than household income, were associated with intrauterine growth but not with shorter gestational age at delivery.

  4. [Acute encephalopathy caused by cyanogenic fungi in 2004, and magic mushroom regulation in Japan].

    PubMed

    Gonmori, Kunio; Yokoyama, Kazumasa

    2009-03-01

    Two topics, related to mushroom poisoning of recent interest in Japan, have been presented. In autumn 2004, 59 cases of acute encephalopathy were reported across 9 prefectures in Japan (24 from Akita Prefecture with 8 deaths; age 48-93, average 70; female 14, male 10). Of 24 cases, 20 had kidney dysfunction. Four poisoned subjects showed no kidney trouble. Of the 24 poisoning cases, 23 people ate Pleurocybella porrigens, and one ate Grifola frondosa. The latter subject (female, late 40's) was receiving dialysis for more than 35 years. In August, she felt dizziness, headache and tinnitus. She visited hospital and asked to stay there. In the hospital she ate 5g of stewed G. frondosa and 10g of the same fungus boiled with chicken and taro on different days. Fourteen to 18 days after the eatings, she developed cramps and lost consciousness, and fell into a coma. Her cramp and coma continued for about 10 days almost until her death. Her symptoms caused by G. frondosa were similar to those observed for the above 23 cases of P. porrigens ingestion. Therefore, we concluded that encephalopathy experienced in Akita Prefecture caused by was the cyanogenic fungi such as P. porrigens , G. frondosa, Pleurotus eringii etc. Although the amounts of mushrooms eaten by poisoned subjects were not so clear, we estimated that the amounts of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) taken into human bodies exceeded the detoxication limit of HCN, resulting in HCN poisoning. However, it has not been proved that the encephalopathy is directly or indirectly caused by the HCN poisoning. Many typhoons came across Japan and landed 10 times in 2004, and mushroom size was larger than usual one, and HCN contents in fruit-bodies seemed to be increased especially in the late-stage of their growth. Thirteen species of magic mushrooms were prohibited by the law from 2002 in Japan. They include Copelandia (Panaeolus) cyanescens, Panaeolus papilionaceus, Panaeolus sphinctrinus, Panaeolus subbalteatus, Psilocybe argentipes

  5. Geographical distribution of radiotherapy resources in Japan: investigating the inequitable distribution of human resources by using the Gini coefficient.

    PubMed

    Tanikawa, Takumi; Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Okuda, Yasuo; Ando, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    This is a pilot study that aims to elucidate regional disparities in the distribution of medical resources in Japan. For this purpose, we employed the Gini coefficient (GC) in order to analyze the distribution of radiotherapy resources, which are allocated to each prefecture in Japan depending on the size of its population or physical area. Our study used data obtained from the 2005 and 2007 national surveys on the structure of radiation oncology in Japan, conducted by the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO). Our analysis showed that the regional disparities regarding the radiation oncologists and radiotherapy technologists were small, and concluded that such resources were almost equitably distributed. However, medical physicists are inequitably distributed. Thus, policymakers should create and implement measures to train and retain medical physicists in areas with limited radiotherapy resources. Further, almost 26% of the secondary medical service areas lacked radiotherapy institutions. We attribute this observation to the existence of tertiary medical service areas, and almost all of prefectures face a shortage of such resources. Therefore, patients' accessibility to these resources in such areas should be improved.

  6. Growth and (137)Cs uptake of four Brassica species influenced by inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus in three contaminated farmlands in Fukushima prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Aung, Han Phyo; Djedidi, Salem; Oo, Aung Zaw; Aye, Yi Swe; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-07-15

    The effectiveness of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus regarding growth promotion and radiocesium ((137)Cs) uptake was evaluated in four Brassica species grown on different (137)Cs contaminated farmlands at Fukushima prefecture in Japan from June to August 2012. B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance growth in any of the plants, although it resulted in a significant increase of (137)Cs concentration and higher (137)Cs transfer from the soil to plants. The Brassica species exhibited different (137)Cs uptake abilities in the order Komatsuna>turnip>mustard>radish. TF values of (137)Cs ranged from 0.018 to 0.069 for all vegetables. Komatsuna possessed the largest root surface area and root volume, and showed a higher (137)Cs concentration in plant tissue and higher (137)Cs TF values (0.060) than the other vegetables. Higher (137)Cs transfer to plants was prominent in soil with a high amount of organic matter and an Al-vermiculite clay mineral type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tanohataite, LiMn2Si3O8(OH): a new mineral from the Tanohata mine, Iwate Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Toshiro; Hori, Hidemichi; Kitamine, Mizuya; Nagashima, Mariko; Abduriyim, Ahmadjan; Kuribayashi, Takahiro

    Tanohataite, LiMn2Si3O8(OH), the Li analogue of serandite, has been found in a metamorphosed manganese ore deposit of the Tanohata mine, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. The mineral has the triclinic space group P1 with a = 7.612(7), b = 7.038(4), c = 6.700(4) Å, α = 90.23(6)°, β = 94.70(7)°, γ = 105.26 (8)°, V =345.0(3) Å3, and Z = 2. The seven strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are [d(Å), (I), (hkl)]: 6.64(35)(001), 3.67(26)(200), 3.13(89)(102), 3.11(69)(211), 2.95(100)(102), 2.81(33)(120), and 2.18(40)(103). Electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry gave an SiO2 content of 51.97; MnO, 37.99; MgO, 1.06; CaO, 0.41; Na2O, 1.97; Li2O, 3.34; total, 96.74 wt%, corresponding to an empirical formula of (Li0.78Na0.22)Σ1.00(Mn1.86Ca0.03Mg0.09)Σ1.98Si3.01O8(OH) on the basis of O = 9. Tanohataite is transparent and pinkish white with a vitreous and silky luster. The streak is white. The cleavage is perfect on {001} and {100}. On the Mohs' scale, the hardness is 5-51/2. The calculated density is 3.33 g/cm3. Optically, tanohataite is biaxial positive with 2Vcalc = 82(2)°, α = 1.593(3), β = 1.618(3), and γ = 1.653(3). Tanohataite occurs as an aggregation of fibrous crystals in veinlets composed mainly of quartz, aegirine, Mn-arfvedsonite, nambulite, natronambulite, and barite.

  8. Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Tochigi prefecture, a local region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizukoshi, Fuminori; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Iwai, Hiroki; Suzuki, Takako; Kiritani, Reiko; Kirikae, Teruo; Funatogawa, Keiji

    2017-05-25

    Foreign-born patients with tuberculosis (TB) may introduce globally disseminated isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis into large cities in Japan. The risk of dissemination of these isolates into local regions, however, has not been determined. This study analyzed the molecular epidemiology of M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from TB patients living in a local region of Japan. Whole genome sequences of 169 M. tuberculosis isolates, obtained from 148 Japanese-born and 21 foreign-born patients living in Tochigi, Japan, were analyzed using the Comprehensive analysis server for the Mycobacterium t u b erculosis complex (CASTB). The 169 isolates were clustered into four clades; Lineage 2 (111 isolates 65.7%), Lineage 4 (43 isolates, 25.4%), Lineage 1 (13 isolates, 7.7%), and Lineage 3 (2 isolates, 1.2%). Of the 111 isolates belonging to Lineage 2, 79 (71.2%) were of the atypical Beijing sub-genotype. Of the 13 Lineage 1 isolates, nine (69.2%) were from foreign-born patients. The isolates belonging to Lineage 4 were further clustered into three clades, two containing isolates shared by both Japanese- and foreign-born patients. The two isolates belonging to Lineage 3 were obtained from foreign-born patients. The genotypic diversity of M. tuberculosis in a local region of Japan is increased primarily by the presence of isolates obtained from foreign-born patients.

  9. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) isolated from whooper swans, Japan.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yuko; Mase, Masaji; Yoneda, Kumiko; Kimura, Atsumu; Obara, Tsuyoshi; Kumagai, Seikou; Saito, Takehiko; Yamamoto, Yu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Shigeo

    2008-09-01

    On April 21, 2008, four whooper swans were found dead at Lake Towada, Akita prefecture, Japan. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype was isolated from specimens of the affected birds. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2 in the HA phylogenetic tree.

  10. Longterm and spatial variability of Aerosol optical properties measured by sky radiometer in Japan sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, K.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosols and cloud play an important role in the climate change. We started the long-term monitoring of aerosol and cloud optical properties since 1990's by using sky radiometer (POM-01, 02; Prede Co. Ltd., Japan). We provide the information, in this presentation, on the aerosol optical properties with respect to their temporal and spatial variability in Japan site (ex. Sapporo, Toyama, Kasuga and etc). The global distributions of aerosols have been derived from earth observation satellite and have been simulated in numerical models, which assume optical parameters. However, these distributions are difficult to derive because of variability in time and space. Therefore, Aerosol optical properties were investigated using the measurements from ground-based and ship-borne sky radiometer. The sky radiometer is an automatic instrument that takes observations only in daytime under the clear sky conditions. Observation of diffuse solar intensity interval was made every ten or five minutes by once. The aerosol optical properties were computed using the SKYRAD.pack version 4.2. The obtained Aerosol optical properties (Aerosol optical thickness, Ångström exponent, Single scattering albedo, and etc.) and size distribution volume clearly showed spatial and temporal variability in Japan area. In this study, we present the temporal and spatial variability of Aerosol optical properties at several Japan sites, applied to validation of satellite and numerical models. This project is validation satellite of GCOM-C, JAXA. The GCOM-C satellite scheduled to be launched in early 2017.

  11. [Cancer treatment situation in Japan with regard to the type of medical facility using medical claim data of Health Insurance Societies].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Higashi, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the cancer treatment situation in Japan is an important public health issue, especially because of increasing crude cancer morbidity in a rapidly aging society. This study aimed to examine where cancer patients received treatment, with special attention to designated regional cancer hospitals, and the treatment modality they received. Using health insurance claim data (1,064,875 subjects on December 2011) managed by the Japan Medical Data Center, we included patients that received treatments for stomach, colon, liver, lung, or breast cancer, the most common cancers in Japan, between 2005 and 2011. We divided the medical facilities where they were treated into five groups: prefectural designated regional cancer hospitals, local designated regional cancer hospitals, large/medium hospitals (≥100 beds), small hospitals (20-99 beds), and clinics (0-19 beds). We calculated the percentage of patients treated at each type of medical facility with different treatment modalities. The study included 2,901 patients. In total, 43.9% patients were treated at designated regional cancer hospitals (prefectural or local). This percentage was the highest for lung cancer (60.0%) and the lowest for colon cancer (31.3%). Surgeries for liver cancer (67.6%) and lung cancer (61.9%) were performed more at designated regional cancer hospitals (prefectural or local) than surgeries for stomach cancer (45.5%), colon cancer (40.1%), and breast cancer (49.8%). Some procedures were performed at small hospitals or clinics (surgery for stomach cancer [9.4%], surgery for breast cancer [9.3%], endoscopic procedures for stomach cancer [14.1%] and colon cancer [40.6%], and chemotherapy for breast cancer [11.4%]). Colon and breast cancer patients treated at prefectural designated regional cancer hospitals or clinics were younger than those treated at other types of facilities. The distribution of facilities at which cancer patients received treatment differed significantly according to cancer

  12. DNA types of aspermic Fasciola species in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Madoka; Iwata, Noriyuki; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2010-10-01

    In order to reveal DNA types of aspermic Fasciola forms in Japan, Fasciola specimens obtained from eight prefectures that had not been previously reported were analyzed for DNA of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) gene. Five combinations in DNA types of both ITS1 and ND1 were revealed from the results of this study and previous studies. The DNA type Fsp2, which is identical to that of F. gigantica in both ITS1 and ND1, was the most predominant in Japan, followed by Fsp1, which is the same DNA type as that of F. hepatica. Fasciola forms with Fsp1 mainly occurred in the northern region of Japan and those with Fsp2 were mainly in the western region. The founder effect related to migration of definitive host and susceptibility of intermediate host snail might play an important role in both geographical distribution and frequency of DNA types in Japanese Fasciola specimens.

  13. Heat-Related Mortality in Japan after the 2011 Fukushima Disaster: An Analysis of Potential Influence of Reduced Electricity Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoonhee; Gasparrini, Antonio; Honda, Yasushi; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Armstrong, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Background: In March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake devastated several power stations and caused severe electricity shortages. This accident was followed by the implementation of policies to reduce summer electricity consumption in the affected areas, for example, by limiting air-conditioning (AC) use. This provided a natural experimental scenario to investigate if these policies were associated with an increase in heat-related mortality. Objectives: We examined whether the reduced electricity consumption in warm season modified heat-related mortality from 2008 to 2012. Methods: We conducted prefecture-specific interrupted time-series (ITS) analyses to compare temperature–mortality associations before and after the earthquake, and used meta-analysis to generate combined effect estimates for the most affected and less affected areas (prefectures with >10% or ≤10% reductions in electricity consumption, respectively). We then examined whether the temperature–mortality association in Tokyo, one of the most affected areas, was modified by the percent reduction in electricity consumption relative to expected consumption for comparable days before the earthquake. Results: Contrary to expectations, we estimated a 5–9% reduction in all-cause heat-related mortality after the earthquake in the 15 prefectures with the greatest reduction in electricity consumption, and little change in the other prefectures. However, the percent reduction in observed vs. expected daily electricity consumption after the earthquake did not significantly modify daily heat-related mortality in Tokyo. Conclusions: In the prefectures with the greatest reductions in electricity consumption, heat-related mortality decreased rather than increased following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Additional research is needed to determine whether this finding holds for other populations and regions, and to clarify its implications for policies to reduce the consequences of climate change on

  14. Heat-Related Mortality in Japan after the 2011 Fukushima Disaster: An Analysis of Potential Influence of Reduced Electricity Consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonhee; Gasparrini, Antonio; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Armstrong, Ben

    2017-07-06

    In March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake devastated several power stations and caused severe electricity shortages. This accident was followed by the implementation of policies to reduce summer electricity consumption in the affected areas, for example, by limiting air-conditioning (AC) use. This provided a natural experimental scenario to investigate if these policies were associated with an increase in heat-related mortality. We examined whether the reduced electricity consumption in warm season modified heat-related mortality from 2008 to 2012. We conducted prefecture-specific interrupted time-series (ITS) analyses to compare temperature-mortality associations before and after the earthquake, and used meta-analysis to generate combined effect estimates for the most affected and less affected areas (prefectures with >10% or ≤10% reductions in electricity consumption, respectively). We then examined whether the temperature-mortality association in Tokyo, one of the most affected areas, was modified by the percent reduction in electricity consumption relative to expected consumption for comparable days before the earthquake. Contrary to expectations, we estimated a 5-9% reduction in all-cause heat-related mortality after the earthquake in the 15 prefectures with the greatest reduction in electricity consumption, and little change in the other prefectures. However, the percent reduction in observed vs. expected daily electricity consumption after the earthquake did not significantly modify daily heat-related mortality in Tokyo. In the prefectures with the greatest reductions in electricity consumption, heat-related mortality decreased rather than increased following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Additional research is needed to determine whether this finding holds for other populations and regions, and to clarify its implications for policies to reduce the consequences of climate change on health. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP493.

  15. [Cooperation and support activities of infection control after the Great East Japan Earthquake].

    PubMed

    Hatta, Masumitsu; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2013-12-01

    On 11 March 2011, an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale occurred off the northeast coast of Honshu Island, Japan, produced a devastating tsunami that destroyed many towns and villages near the coast in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures. Miyagi Prefecture was the area most severely devastated by the tsunami, with extensive loss of life and property; hundreds of thousands of people lost their houses and were forced to move to evacuation areas. In the days and weeks following devastating natural disasters, the threat of infectious disease outbreak is high. We initiated cooperation and support activities in terms of infection control at evacuation centers in the aftermath of the disaster. For example, we assessed sanitary and infectious risk factors in evacuation centers, in collaboration with Miyagi Prefectural Government and public health centers in the devastated area, to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases among evacuees. We also supported the control of two outbreaks of influenza A, which occurred in different centers in Miyagi Prefecture in the early period after the disaster. Both outbreaks subsided without any complicated or fatal cases of influenza as a result of the prompt implementation of a systemic approach with a bundle of control measures.

  16. Canine tumor development and crude incidence of tumors by breed based on domestic dogs in Gifu prefecture

    PubMed Central

    KOMAZAWA, Satoshi; SAKAI, Hiroki; ITOH, Yusuke; KAWABE, Mifumi; MURAKAMI, Mami; MORI, Takashi; MARUO, Kohji

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the status of tumor development in dogs by breed based on tumor cases that presented to the Department of Veterinary Pathology of the Gifu University for diagnostic examinations over eight years (2005–2012). We also calculated the crude incidence of tumors in dogs by breed based on the results of a survey conducted in 2011 in Gifu Prefecture. The most common sites of tumor development included the skin, digestive organs and mammary glands. Smaller dogs showed a tendency to have a higher incidence of breast tumors. We thus identified dog breeds with a higher crude incidence of tumors (Bernese mountain dog, golden retriever, corgi, etc.) and those with a lower crude incidence of tumors (Pomeranian, poodle, Chihuahua, etc.). Unlike the current trends for domestic dogs in the US and Europe, Japan has a higher number of small dogs as pets; it is therefore necessary to develop a policy for canine cancer specific to Japan. PMID:27150207

  17. Evaluation of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program for Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nagano, Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakurai, Ryo; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Co-existing with wildlife and maintaining rural livelihoods are common challenges in remote villages in Japan. The authors assess the effects of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program developed to reduce wildlife conflicts and to revitalize a community in Nagano Prefecture. Development of a logic model helped guide interviews with…

  18. Early detection and response for measles and rubella cases through the (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance System in Ibaraki Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Miki; Kurita, Junko; Takagi, Takeshi; Nagata, Noriko; Nagasu, Natsuki; Sugawara, Tamie; Ohkusa, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Ibaraki Prefecture, all (nursery) schools have joined the (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance System (hereafter denoted as (N)SASSy), which is operated by the Japan School Health Association to monitor the prevalence of infectious diseases, the early detection and response for outbreaks, and prevention of large outbreaks. Prefectural government officers also utilize it as a control measure for infectious diseases. In particular, when cases of measles or rubella are registered, (N)SASSy sends e-mails automatically to prefectural government officers to activate control measures. This paper summarizes administrative responses by prefectural government officers for measles or rubella cases using (N)SASSy and discusses the future challenges.Methods We summarized registration, detection, and first response data for measles or rubella cases in (N)SASSy and compared the number of detected and reported cases enforced by the Infectious Diseases Control Law from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014.Results The public health center questioned hospitals/clinics and (nursery) schools about all registered measles or rubella cases in (N)SASSy on the same day to check the entered information. In the past 2 years, there were 5 measles and 56 rubella cases in 2013 and 1 measles and 19 rubella cases in 2014 registered with (N)SASSy. All cases were checked and investigated by the public health center. Of all cases detected by (N)SASSy, 7 rubella cases in 2013 and 1 rubella case in 2014 were reported based on the law. No measles cases were reported in the 2 years. The results of investigations and laboratory tests were given as feedback to the (nursery) schools. If the case did not case definition determined by the law, we changed the status in (N)SASSy to suspected or discarded cases.Conclusion Since (N)SASSy assists prefectural government officers with earlier detection of and response for infectious diseases, it definitely contributes to infection control

  19. Changes in Rotavirus Genotypes before and after Vaccine Introduction: a Multicenter, Prospective Observational Study in Three Areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takaaki; Kamiya, Hajime; Asada, Kazutoyo; Suga, Shigeru; Ido, Masaru; Umemoto, Masakazu; Ouchi, Kazunobu; Ito, Hiroaki; Kuroki, Haruo; Nakano, Takashi; Taniguchi, Koki

    2017-07-24

    In Japan, monovalent and pentavalent rotavirus (RV) vaccines were approved in 2011 and 2012, respectively. To monitor changes in the RV genotypes before and after vaccine introduction, we performed a prospective observational study among children (< 5 years) with gastroenteritis who tested RV-positive on antigen rapid tests. Stool samples were collected from 3 different sites in Japan: Tsu City, Mie Prefecture; Kurashiki City, Okayama Prefecture; and Isumi City, Chiba Prefecture. RV genotypes were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In Tsu City, G3P[8] was dominant (61.0-77.1%) before vaccine introduction, but decreased after introduction. Meanwhile, in an inverse proportion to the decrease in G3P[8], G1P[8] increased until the 2013/14 season, when a sudden predominance of G2P[4] (100%) occurred. A similar trend was observed in Kurashiki City in terms of the extent of reduction in G3P[8] and the emergence of G2P[4]. In Isumi City, G1P[8] was dominant (70.3%) before vaccine introduction, and G9P[8] became predominant (83.3%) in the 2013/14 season. To determine whether the genotype changes are attributable to vaccines or natural epidemiological changes, ongoing continuous monitoring of the RV genotypes is required.

  20. An overview of the geotechnical damage brought by the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemanta Hazarika,; Takaji Kokusho,; Kayen, Robert E.; Dashti, Shideh; Yutaka Tanoue,; Shuuichi Kuroda and Kentaro Kuribayashi,; Daisuke Matsumoto,; Furuichi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.0 (Japanese intensity = 7) that struck on April 16 brought devastation in many areas of Kumamoto Prefecture and partly in Oita Prefecture in Kyushu Region, Japan. The earthquake succeeds a foreshock of magnitude 6.5 (Japanese intensity = 7) on April 14. The authors conducted two surveys on the devastated areas: one during April 16-17, and the other during May 11-14. This report summarizes the damage brought to geotechnical structures by the two consecutive earthquakes within a span of twenty-eight hours. This report highlights some of the observed damage and identifies reasons for such damage. The geotechnical challenges towards mitigation of losses from such earthquakes are also suggested.

  1. Current situation and issues using maternal and child health-related information in the "Healthy parents and children 21" campaign across municipalities in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Ritei; Shinohara, Ryoji; Akiyama, Yuka; Ichikawa, Kaori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Matsuura, Kencho; Yamazaki, Yoshihisa; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The use of maternal and child health-related information is an issue faced by the "Healthy parents and children 21" campaign, a national campaign to improve the health standards of mothers and children in Japan. This study described the current situation and issues faced by municipalities across Japan that use this information.Methods Data across municipalities selected for the current survey of promoting the "Healthy parents and children 21" campaign in 2013 were analyzed in this study. First, we chose prefectures where collected and analyzed maternal and child health-related information was provided by the municipalities. Then, we divided the municipalities according to those prefectures where the municipalities regularly reported the maternal and child health-related information and those that did not report it regularly. Finally, the characteristics about maternal and child health in those municipalities were investigated.Results Of the 47 prefectures analyzed, 35 prefectures (74.5%) collected and analyzed maternal and child health-related information provided by the municipalities. The 35 prefectures included 1,242 municipalities, of which 700 (56.4%) regularly reported maternal and child health-related information, and 542 (43.6%) did not report it regularly. The proportion of municipalities, where information about smoking during pregnancy, immunization, or low birth weight in infants was positively used, was significantly lower among municipalities that did not regularly report maternal and child health-related information than among those that regularly reported it (P<0.001). The proportion of municipalities that coordinated projects on prevention of child abuse or low birth weight in infants with the prefectures was significantly lower among municipalities that did not regularly report maternal and child health-related information than among those that regularly reported it.Conclusion Among municipalities that did not regularly report

  2. National survey on school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing programme in Japan: regional spread conditions from preschool to junior high school in 2010.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Karin; Kimoto, Kazunari; Taura, Katsuhiko; Sakai, Osamu

    2014-06-01

    We surveyed the state of implementation of the school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing programme (S-FMR) in schools in Japan from March 2010. Questionnaires on the implementation status of S-FMR in each type of school (including preschool and kindergarten) were sent by post to the oral health administration departments of all 47 prefectures and 89 cities (18 ordinance-designated cities, 23 special wards, 41 core cities and seven public health centres in ordinance-designated cities) with public health centres. The S-FMR implementation rate was low, at only 11% of all schools in Japan and only 6% of all participating school children aged 4-14 years. In many regions, the S-FMR was implemented more widely and received higher participation from children in either elementary schools and junior high schools or preschools and kindergartens. Inter-prefectural disparities were seen in S-FMR implementation, as some prefectures and cities did not include topical fluoride application in their health promotion plans, and some local public bodies did not include targets for fluoride mouth-rinsing. To reduce this disparity in Japan where systemic fluoride application is not performed, each local public body must consider implementing the S-FMR as a public health measure. We propose using the results of this survey as basic data for formulating S-FMR goals (numerical targets) and adopting S-FMR as a concrete measure in the second Healthy Japan 21, to be launched in the fiscal year for 2013, and within the basic matters of the Act Concerning the Promotion of Dental and Oral Health. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  3. National survey on school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing programme in Japan: regional spread conditions from preschool to junior high school in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Komiyama, Karin; Kimoto, Kazunari; Taura, Katsuhiko; Sakai, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Aims We surveyed the state of implementation of the school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing programme (S-FMR) in schools in Japan from March 2010. Methods Questionnaires on the implementation status of S-FMR in each type of school (including preschool and kindergarten) were sent by post to the oral health administration departments of all 47 prefectures and 89 cities (18 ordinance-designated cities, 23 special wards, 41 core cities and seven public health centres in ordinance-designated cities) with public health centres. Results The S-FMR implementation rate was low, at only 11% of all schools in Japan and only 6% of all participating school children aged 4–14 years. In many regions, the S-FMR was implemented more widely and received higher participation from children in either elementary schools and junior high schools or preschools and kindergartens. Conclusions Inter-prefectural disparities were seen in S-FMR implementation, as some prefectures and cities did not include topical fluoride application in their health promotion plans, and some local public bodies did not include targets for fluoride mouth-rinsing. To reduce this disparity in Japan where systemic fluoride application is not performed, each local public body must consider implementing the S-FMR as a public health measure. We propose using the results of this survey as basic data for formulating S-FMR goals (numerical targets) and adopting S-FMR as a concrete measure in the second Healthy Japan 21, to be launched in the fiscal year for 2013, and within the basic matters of the Act Concerning the Promotion of Dental and Oral Health. PMID:24256345

  4. Political and environmental attitude toward participatory energy and environmental governance: A survey in post-Fukushima Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hidenori

    2017-10-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent Fukushima nuclear accident triggered citizen dialogue on energy and environmental management in Japan. However, an international survey has shown that the willingness of Japanese citizens to participate in political and social activities has declined since the Fukushima accident. Employing an internet-based survey in four urban or nuclear power plant-hosting prefectures in Japan, this study examines the willingness to participate in random sampling deliberation on post-disaster energy and environmental policy. It focuses on the effects of political, environmental, and social attitudes towards willingness to participate in citizen dialogue. The survey shows around 40% of respondents may participate in energy and environmental deliberation. Statistical analysis reveals that environmental consciousness raises the propensity to participate in deliberation, while political obedience and social hesitation decreases the will to participate. The effect of environmental attitudes is larger than that of political and social attitudes. The survey also finds that governmental response to deliberation, i.e., information generation and disclosure based on requests from citizen dialogue, encourages participation in deliberation in a conservative prefecture, when citizen dialogue is held at the national level. Random sampling deliberation opens a new mode of environmental governance regardless of local political and social characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mortality in the 2011 Tsunami in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Shinji; Ichikawa, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Introduction On 11 March 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake caused a huge tsunami that struck Northeast Japan, resulting in nearly 20 000 deaths. We investigated mortality patterns by age, sex, and region in the 3 most severely affected prefectures. Methods Using police data on earthquake victims in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures, mortality rates by sex, age group, and region were calculated, and regional variability in mortality rates across age groups was compared using rate ratios (RRs), with the rates in Iwate as the reference. Results In all regions, age-specific mortality showed a tendency to increase with age; there were no sex differences. Among residents of Iwate, mortality was markedly lower among school-aged children as compared with other age groups. In northern Miyagi and the southern part of the study area, RRs were higher among school-aged children than among other age groups. Conclusions The present study could not address the reasons for the observed mortality patterns and regional differences. To improve preparedness policies, future research should investigate the reasons for regional differences. PMID:23089585

  6. Venom and Antivenom of the Redback Spider (Latrodectus hasseltii) in Japan. Part I. Venom Extraction, Preparation, and Laboratory Testing.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Takayuki; Mashiko, Reona; Sato, Tomomi; Itokawa, Kentaro; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Ogawa, Kohei; Isawa, Haruhiko; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Mori, Shigemi; Horita, Akira; Ginnaga, Akihiro; Miyatsu, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Motohide; Taki, Hisashi; Hifumi, Toru; Sawabe, Kyoko; Ato, Manabu

    2018-03-22

    The redback spider (Latrodectus hasseltii Thorell) reportedly invaded Japan in September 1995. To date, 84 redback spider bite cases have been reported; 7 of these cases employed the antivenom. Antivenom has been imported from Australia in the past, but because of restrictions on exportation it was evident that nearly all of the antivenom present in Japan would expire during 2014. In 2014, a plan was proposed to experimentally manufacture and stockpile a horse antiserum for ourselves, using redback spiders indigenous to Japan. A total of 11,403 female spiders were captured alive: 1,217 from the vicinity of Nishinomiya City, Hyogo prefecture, and 10,186 from Osaka prefecture. Of these, 10,007 females were dissected, and the venom was extracted from the venom glands of individuals and subjected to crude purification to yield 4 lots, of which the majority was α-latrotoxin. Among them, a large amount of single lots with an estimated protein content of 236 mg is subsequently scheduled to be used for immunizing horses. We also determined lethal toxicity of the venom (LD 50 : 9.17 μg per mouse), and established the assay for the determination of an anti-lethal titer of antivenom in mice.

  7. A study of home deaths in Japan from 1951 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Limin; Sakamoto, Naoko; Marui, Eiji

    2006-01-01

    Background Several surveys in Japan have indicated that most terminally ill Japanese patients would prefer to die at home or in a homelike setting. However, there is a great disparity between this stated preference and the reality, since most Japanese die in hospital. We report here national changes in home deaths in Japan over the last 5 decades. Using prefecture data, we also examined the factors in the medical service associated with home death in Japan. Methods Published data on place of death was obtained from the vital statistics compiled by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan. We analyzed trends of home deaths from 1951 to 2002, and describe the changes in the proportion of home deaths by region, sex, age, and cause of death. Joinpoint regression analysis was used for trend analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify secular trends in home deaths, and the impact of age, sex, year of deaths and cause of deaths on home death. We also examined the association between home death and medical service factors by multiple regression analysis, using home death rate by prefectures in 2002 as a dependent variable. Results A significant decrease in the percentage of patients dying at home was observed in the results of joinpoint regression analysis. Older patients and males were more likely to die at home. Patients who died from cancer were less likely to die at home. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that home death was related to the number of beds in hospital, ratio of daily occupied beds in general hospital, the number of families in which the elderly were living alone, and dwelling rooms. Conclusion The pattern of the place of death has not only been determined by social and demographic characteristics of the decedent, but also associated with the medical service in the community. PMID:16524485

  8. Quantitative analysis of ions in spring water in three different areas of Hyogo Prefecture in Japan by far ultraviolet spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mitsuoka, Motoki; Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Morisawa, Yusuke; Kariyama, Naomi; Higashi, Noboru; Tsuboi, Motohiro; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    Far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra in the 190-300 nm region were measured for spring water in Awaji-Akashi area, Tamba area and Rokko-Arima area in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, these areas have quite different geology features. The spectra of the spring water in the Awaji-Akashi area can be divided into two groups: the spring water samples containing large amounts of NO(3)(-) and/or Cl(-), and those containing only small amounts of NO(3)(-) and Cl(-). The former shows a saturated band below 190 nm due to NO(3)(-) and/or Cl(-). These two types of spectra correspond to different lithological areas: sedimentary lithology near the sea shore containing many ions in the seawater and gravitic lithology far from the sea side, in the Awaji-Akashi area. The spring water from the Tamba area, which is far from the sea, contains relatively small amounts of NO(3)(-) and Cl(-); it does not yield a strong band in the region observed. The FUV spectra of three of four kinds of spring water samples in the Arima Hotspring show characteristic spectral patterns. They are quite different from the spectra of the spring water samples of the Rokko area. Calibration models were developed for NO(3)(-), Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), Na(+), and Mg(2+) in the nine kinds of spring water collected in the Awaji-Akashi area, Tamba, and Rokko-Arima area by using univariate analysis of the first derivative spectra and the actual values obtained by ion chromatography. NO(3)(-) yields the best results: correlation coefficient of 0.999 and standard deviation of 0.09 ppm with the wavelength of 212 nm. Cl(-) also gives good results: correlation coefficient of 0.993 and standard deviation of 0.5 ppm with the wavelength of 192 nm.

  9. A Revision of the Adult and Larval Mosquitoes of Japan (Including the Ryukyu Archipelago and the Ogasawara Islands) and Korea (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    Ryukyu Archipelago Ogasawara and Volcano islands Prefectures of Japan (large bold numerals) 13. Hyogo 14. Ibaraki 15. Ishikawa 16. Iwate 17...Kishimoto, 1969: 33, Haneji and Ishikawa , Okinawa Is. ; &omi and Sonae, Iriomote Is. ; Ryukyu Archipelago. Descriptions based on specimens from Taiwan...d, 9, P, L). Type-locality: Mt. Hakusan, Ishikawa Pref., Japan. FEMALE (Fig. 216). Wing length 5.1-5.4 mm. Head. Eyes narrowly narrowly separated

  10. A hybrid supported employment program for persons with schizophrenia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fuller, T R; Oka, M; Otsuka, K; Yokoyama, N; Liberman, R P; Niwa, S I

    2000-07-01

    INTRODUCTION BY THE COLUMN EDITORS: Because the mental health system in Japan has emphasized hospital-based treatment (1), patients with schizophrenia often remain institutionalized for long periods, even after their symptoms have stabilized. In addition, the introduction of modern community-based methods of treatment and rehabilitation was delayed by an antipsychiatry movement in the 1970s and the ascendance of a reductionistic biological approach to services (2). Lack of adequate outpatient services and community residential care in Japan has been a serious obstacle to destigmatization of mental disorders and has contributed to the heavy burden and stress experienced by families of mentally ill persons (3). More than 80 percent of patients discharged from mental hospitals return to live with their families, who are ill prepared to provide the supportive services required for community tenure. Involvement in work activities can facilitate community reentry for people with serious and persistent mental illness because employment displaces symptoms, provides structure and meaning in daily life, offers socialization with peers, and permits workers to earn income for shelter and food. In this issue's Rehab Rounds column, the authors describe an innovative vocational rehabilitation program for patients with schizophrenia that was designed to overcome obstacles to discharge and community adjustment. The program at Yabuki Prefecture Psychiatric Hospital, in the northern prefecture of Fukushima, Japan, has been successful in training patients for competitive work while capitalizing on the importance of work in Japanese culture and its traditionally supportive employer-employee relationships. The program is termed "hybrid" because it combines elements of transitional employment with supported employment (4).

  11. Detection of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pet Djungarian hamsters in Japan

    PubMed Central

    KAMEYAMA, Mitsuhiro; YABATA, Junko; OBANE, Noriko; OTSUKA, Hitoshi; NOMURA, Yasuharu

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was examined in 151 pet animals including 108 rodents, 39 rabbits and four sugar gliders from 13 pet stores in the Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:3 biotype 3 negative for the Voges-Proskauer reaction (O:3/3 variant VP-) was isolated from five Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) raised at the same pet store. These pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates carried the virulence genes, yadA, ail and virF, and were shown to be clonal by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with NotI digestion. This is a first report of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica O:3/3 variant VP- in pet Djungarian hamsters in Japan. PMID:27396397

  12. Food-borne botulism in Japan in March 2012.

    PubMed

    Momose, Yoshika; Asakura, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Masaru; Okada, Yumiko; Ueda, Yutaka; Hanabara, Yutaro; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Iwaki, Masaaki; Kato, Haru; Shibayama, Keigo; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2014-07-01

    In March 2012, two patients were transported urgently to the hospital in Tottori Prefecture, Japan, because of symptoms suggestive of botulism. Botulinum neurotoxin type A was detected in the clinical specimens and the food consumed by the two patients (vacuum packed adzuki-batto, a sweet adzuki bean soup containing noodles). We were able to make a prompt diagnosis of food botulism associated with the consumption of adzuki-batto, from which the causative pathogen Clostridium botulinum Ab was cultured. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with ground beef from a U.S. military installation--Okinawa, Japan, February 2004.

    PubMed

    2005-01-21

    In February 2004, the Okinawa Prefectural Chubu Health Center (OCHC) and the Okinawa Prefectural Institute of Health and Environment (OIHE), Japan, investigated three cases of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in a Japanese family associated with eating ground beef. Public health officials from multiple agencies in Japan and the United States collaborated on this investigation, which resulted in a voluntary recall of approximately 90,000 pounds of frozen ground beef in the United States and at U.S. military bases in the Far East. This was the first reported instance in which Japanese public health officials identified contaminated, commercially distributed ground beef that was produced in the United States. This report summarizes epidemiologic and laboratory investigations conducted by OCHC and OIHE. The results underscore the importance of using standardized molecular subtyping methods throughout the world to facilitate international public health communication and intervention.

  14. ANALYSIS FOR HOUSE DAMAGE PROPERTY OF 2007 MID-NIIGATA PREFECTURE OFFSHORE EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochiai, Hirokazu; Yamada, Kento; Ohtsuka, Satoru; Isobe, Koichi

    This paper reports the result of correlation analysis for house damage in 2007 Mid-piigata prefecture offshore earthquake by focusing geomorphological land classification and other factors as landform and ground properties with organizing the house damage data of disaster victim certificate conducted by public administrations. In former part of the paper, the features of house damage at 2007 Mid-Niigata prefecture offshore earthquake were analyzed for various influencing factors. The authors discussed the affrecting factors to houses at earthquake. In latter part, the features of house damage at 2007 Mid-Niigata prefecture offshore earthquake was discussed with that at 2004 Mid-Niigata prefecture earthquake. The house damage function of distance from the epicenter was proposed based on the analysis on house damage ratio recorded in two earthquakes.

  15. Nicotine dependence and cost-effectiveness of individualized support for smoking cessation: evidence from practice at a worksite in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Koshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Morikawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Shin-ya; Ishizaki, Masao; Kido, Teruhiko; Naruse, Yuchi; Suwazono, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Given the lack of economic studies evaluating the outcomes of smoking cessation programs from the viewpoint of program sponsors, we conducted a case study to provide relevant information for worksites. The present study was carried out between 2006 and 2008 at a manufacturing factory in the Toyama Prefecture of Japan and included subjects who voluntarily entered a smoking cessation program. The program included face-to-face counselling followed by weekly contact to provide encouragement over six months using e-mail or inter-office mail. Nicotine patches were available if required. All 151 participants stopped smoking immediately. Over the 24-month study period, self-report showed 49.7% abstained continuously from smoking. The rate of 24-month consecutive abstinence was higher in participants with lower Fagerström Test scores for Nicotine Dependence at baseline than in those with higher scores (63.6% for 0-2 points vs. 46.5% for 3-6 points vs. 43.8% for 7-10 points; chi-square test p = 0.19). A logistic regression model showed a significant linear trend for the association between the score and abstinence status after adjustment for possible confounding factors (p = 0.03). The crude incremental cost for one individual to successfully quit smoking due to the support program was ¥46,379 (i.e., ¥100 = $1.28, £0.83, or €1.03 at foreign exchange rates). The corresponding costs for the three categories of the Fagerström Test score for Nicotine Dependence were ¥31,953, ¥47,450 and ¥64,956, respectively. When a sensitivity analysis was conducted based on the 95% confidence interval of the success rate, the variance in the corresponding costs was ¥25,514-45,034 for 0-2 points, ¥38,344-61,824 for 3-6 points, and ¥45,698-108,260 for 7-10 points. The degree of nicotine dependence may therefore be an important determinant of the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation programs.

  16. The Role of Social Trust in Reducing Long-Term Truancy and Forming Human Capital in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine how social trust influences human capital formation using prefectural level data in Japan. To this end, I constructed a proxy for social trust, based on the Japanese General Social Surveys. After controlling for socioeconomic factors, I found that social trust plays an important role in reducing the rate of long-term…

  17. Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Human Rotavirus G8P[8] Outbreak Strain, Japan, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Kenji; Tsugawa, Takeshi; Ono, Mayumi; Ohara, Toshio; Fujibayashi, Shinsuke; Tahara, Yasuo; Kubo, Noriaki; Nakata, Shuji; Higashidate, Yoshihito; Fujii, Yoshiki; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Yoto, Yuko; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    During March-July 2014, rotavirus G8P[8] emerged as the predominant cause of rotavirus gastroenteritis among children in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. Clinical characteristics were similar for infections caused by G8 and non-G8 strains. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses suggest the strains were generated by multiple reassortment events between DS-1-like P[8] strains and bovine strains from Asia.

  18. [Trend survey of ocular infections with bacteria at Toyama University Hospital over the past six years--from the standpoint of laboratory examination].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Tomomi; Hayashi, Shirou; Niimi, Hideki; Kitajima, Isao

    2012-07-01

    Specimens of bacterial ocular infections are frequently received in the clinical laboratory. However, a comprehensive trend survey of ocular infections with bacteria is very rare. Our objective is to understand the current tendency of ocular infections with bacteria in patients at Toyama University Hospital from the standpoint of laboratory examination. We studied 263 cases of ocular infection with bacteria diagnosed at Toyama University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2011. 123 were male and 140 were female, with a mean age of 61.2(0-98) years. Specimens were subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Cultures were positive in 174(66.2%) patients. The most common bacterial isolate was Staphylococcus (28.1%), followed by Corynebacterium (19.3%), Streptococcus (9.3%), and Propionibacterium (8.6%). MRSA accounted for 18.8% of all S. aureus isolates, and has increased in recent years. The number of bacteria detected was larger in March, June, July, August, and October. Age distribution indicated that around 70% of bacterial isolates were detected from patients over 60 years old. The most common specimen of ocular infections with bacteria was eye discharge (detection rate; 87.8%), followed by corneal scraping(41%), aqueous humor (19%), and vitreous body (27%). Nearly 80% of bacterial isolates were detected from patients with keratitis, endophthalmitis, dacryocystitis, and conjunctivitis. As for the disease specific detection rate, endophthalmitis was very low (38.3%). The detection rate by years indicated that the way doctors pick up the specimens greatly affects the detection rate. Based on this survey, we need close cooperation with medical doctors concerning laboratory examination in ocular infection with bacteria, and we must improve the detection sensitivity of specimens from patients with endophthalmitis.

  19. Two species of Nilothauma Kieffer (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Japan, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Niitsuma, Hiromi

    2016-02-16

    The male and female adults and pupa of Nilothauma niidaense n. sp. are described and illustrated on the basis of the material collected from a fontal stream in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. N. sasai Adam & Sæther is treated as a junior synonym of N. hibaratertium Sasa, of which the male is redescribed. The Adam & Sæther key to Nilothauma males is revised.

  20. 3D numerical modelling of negative apparent conductivity anomalies in loop-loop electromagnetic measurements: a case study at a dacite intrusion in Sugisawa, Akita Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selepeng, Ame Thato; Sakanaka, Shin'ya; Nishitani, Tadashi

    2017-04-01

    Under certain geological conditions, low induction number electromagnetic (LIN-EM) instruments are known to produce negative apparent conductivity (σa) responses. This is particularly the case when the shallow subsurface is characterised by highly conductive bodies, however little attention has been given to this issue in the research literature. To analyse negative σa anomalies and their causative structures, we make use of a 3D integral equation forward modelling technique based on a 3D weighting function. We present 3D numerical modelling results over a volcanic tuff body intruded by several dacite dikes, in Sugisawa, Akita Prefecture, Japan. Apparent conductivity data were acquired using a Geonics EM-34-3 system in the horizontal magnetic dipole (HMD) and vertical magnetic dipole (VMD) operating modes. Our 3D model resolved the horizontal and vertical extent of the dacite dikes and also delineated a high conductive zone between the volcanic tuff and the intrusive dacite dikes. This zone is the causative structure for negative σa responses in the VMD data, and is interpreted to be an alteration zone. Interestingly, the negative σa response was absent when the instrument alignment azimuth was changed, implying an anisotropic effect on the EM signature in the study area. The true conductivity model achieved by 3D forward modelling is shown to compare favourably with the DC resistivity data acquired in the same area.

  1. Onsite medical rounds and fact-finding activities conducted by Nippon Medical School in Miyagi prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Akira; Igarashi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Kim, Shiei; Tsujii, Atsuko; Kawai, Makoto; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    This report describes our onsite medical rounds and fact-finding activities conducted in the acute phase and medical relief work conducted in the subacute phase in Miyagi prefecture following the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami that occurred off northeastern Honshu on March 11, 2011. As part of the All-Japan Hospital Association medical team deployed to the disaster area, a Nippon Medical School team conducted fact-finding and onsite medical rounds and evaluated basic life and medical needs in the affected areas of Shiogama and Tagajo. We performed triage for more than 2,000 casualties, but in our medical rounds of hospitals, clinics, and nursing homes, we found no severely injured person but did find 1 case of hyperglycemia. We conducted medical rounds at evacuation shelters in Kesennuma City during the subacute phase of the disaster, from March 17 through June 1, as part of the Tokyo Medical Association medical teams deployed. Sixty-seven staff members (17 teams), including 46 physicians, 11 nurses, 3 pharmacists, and 1 clinical psychotherapist, joined this mission. Most patients complained of a worsening of symptoms of preexisting conditions, such as hypertension, respiratory problems, and diabetes, rather than of medical problems specifically related to the tsunami. In the acute phase of the disaster, the information infrastructure was decimated and we could not obtain enough information about conditions in the affected areas, such as how many persons were severely injured, how severely lifeline services had been damaged, and what was lacking. To start obtaining this information, we conducted medical rounds. This proved to be a good decision, as we found many injured persons in evacuation shelters without medication, communication devices, or transportation. Also, basic necessities for life, such as water and food, were lacking. We were able to evaluate these basic needs and inform local disaster headquarters of them. In Kesennuma City, we

  2. Thyroid Cancer Detection by Ultrasound Among Residents Ages 18 Years and Younger in Fukushima, Japan: 2011 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Tokinobu, Akiko; Yamamoto, Eiji; Suzuki, Etsuji

    2016-01-01

    Background: After the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in March 2011, radioactive elements were released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Based on prior knowledge, concern emerged about whether an increased incidence of thyroid cancer among exposed residents would occur as a result. Methods: After the release, Fukushima Prefecture performed ultrasound thyroid screening on all residents ages ≤18 years. The first round of screening included 298,577 examinees, and a second round began in April 2014. We analyzed the prefecture results from the first and second round up to December 31, 2014, in comparison with the Japanese annual incidence and the incidence within a reference area in Fukushima Prefecture. Results: The highest incidence rate ratio, using a latency period of 4 years, was observed in the central middle district of the prefecture compared with the Japanese annual incidence (incidence rate ratio = 50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 25, 90). The prevalence of thyroid cancer was 605 per million examinees (95% CI = 302, 1,082) and the prevalence odds ratio compared with the reference district in Fukushima Prefecture was 2.6 (95% CI = 0.99, 7.0). In the second screening round, even under the assumption that the rest of examinees were disease free, an incidence rate ratio of 12 has already been observed (95% CI = 5.1, 23). Conclusions: An excess of thyroid cancer has been detected by ultrasound among children and adolescents in Fukushima Prefecture within 4 years of the release, and is unlikely to be explained by a screening surge. PMID:26441345

  3. Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Human Rotavirus G8P[8] Outbreak Strain, Japan, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Kenji; Ono, Mayumi; Ohara, Toshio; Fujibayashi, Shinsuke; Tahara, Yasuo; Kubo, Noriaki; Nakata, Shuji; Higashidate, Yoshihito; Fujii, Yoshiki; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Yoto, Yuko; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    During March–July 2014, rotavirus G8P[8] emerged as the predominant cause of rotavirus gastroenteritis among children in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. Clinical characteristics were similar for infections caused by G8 and non-G8 strains. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses suggest the strains were generated by multiple reassortment events between DS-1–like P[8] strains and bovine strains from Asia. PMID:28518031

  4. Significance of and prospects for fuel recycle in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, K.; Ikeda, K.

    Japan's nuclear power plant capacity ranks fourth in the world at around 20 GW. But nuclear fuel cycle industries (enrichment, reprocessing and radioactive waste management) are still in their infancy compared with the size and stage of the power plants. Thus it is a matter of urgency to establish a nuclear fuel cycle in Japan which can promote nuclear energy as a quasi-indigenous energy source. Some moves toward establishing a nuclear fuel cycle have been observed recently. As a case in point, in July 1984, the Federation of Electric Power Companies has formally requested Aomori Prefecture to locate nuclear fuelmore » cycle facilities in the Shimokita Peninsula region. Plutonium recovered from spent fuel will be utilized in LWR, ATR, and FBR. Research and development activities on these technologies are in progress.« less

  5. Industry Speed Bumps on Local Tobacco Control in Japan? The Case of Hyogo.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Keiko; Mori, Nagisa; Kashiwabara, Mina; Yasuda, Sakiko; Horie, Rumi; Yamato, Hiroshi; Garçon, Loic; Armada, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a signatory since 2004, Japan has not yet fully implemented Article 8 of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control regarding 100% protection against exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The Japanese government still recognizes designated smoking rooms (DSRs) in public space as a valid control measure. Furthermore, subnational initiatives for tobacco control in Japan are of limited effectiveness. Through an analysis of the Hyogo initiative in 2012, we identified key barriers to the achievement of a smoke-free environment. Using a descriptive case-study approach, we analyzed the smoke-free policy development process. The information was obtained from meeting minutes and other gray literature, such as public records, well as key informant interviews. Hyogo Prefecture established a committee to propose measures against SHS, and most committee members agreed with establishing completely smoke-free environments. However, the hospitality sector representatives opposed regulation, and tobacco companies were allowed to make a presentation to the committee. Further, political power shifted against completely smoke-free environments in the context of upcoming local elections, which was an obvious barrier to effective regulation. Throughout the approving process, advocacy by civil society for stronger regulation was weak. Eventually, the ordinance approved by the Prefectural Assembly was even weaker than the committee proposal and included wide exemptions. The analysis of Hyogo's SHS control initiative shed light on three factors that present challenges to implementing tobacco control regulations in Japan, from which other countries can also draw lessons: incomplete national legislation, the weakness of advocacy by the civil society, and the interference of the tobacco industry.

  6. Epidemiology of Tsutsugamushi disease in relation to the serotypes of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi isolated from patients, field mice, and unfed chiggers on the eastern slope of Mount Fuji, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Kawamori, F; Akiyama, M; Sugieda, M; Kanda, T; Akahane, S; Uchikawa, K; Yamada, Y; Kumada, N; Furuya, Y; Yoshida, Y

    1992-01-01

    A total of 59 strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were isolated from patients (24 isolates), Apodemus speciosus mice (30 isolates), and unfed larvae of Leptotrombidium scutellare (2 isolates) and Leptotrombidium pallidum (3 isolates) in the Gotenba-Oyama District, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. All these isolates were classified into the three serotypes Karp, Kawasaki, and Kuroki based on reactivity with strain-specific monoclonal antibodies. Kawasaki- and Karp-type rickettsiae were isolated from L. scutellare and L. pallidum, respectively, and the geographic distribution of patients and rodents infected with these two types of rickettsiae coincided with the areas densely populated by the respective chiggers. From these results, we conclude that Kawasaki-type rickettsiae are transmitted by L. scutellare and Karp-type ones are transmitted by L. pallidum. Kawasaki-type rickettsial infections were prevalent in early autumn, and Karp-type infections showed a peak of occurrence in the late autumn, reflecting the seasonal fluctuations of L. scutellare and L. pallidum. Isolates of Kuroki-type rickettsiae were obtained only from four patients in October and November, and the relationship between this type of rickettsia and its vector species could not be fully defined. PMID:1452653

  7. Social and Geographical Inequalities in Suicide in Japan from 1975 through 2005: A Census-Based Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Kashima, Saori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S. V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advances in our understanding of the countercyclical association between economic contraction and suicide, less is known about the levels of and changes in inequalities in suicide. The authors examined social and geographical inequalities in suicide in Japan from 1975 through 2005. Methods Based on quinquennial vital statistics and census data, the authors analyzed the entire population aged 25–64 years. The total number of suicides was 75,840 men and 30,487 women. For each sex, the authors estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% credible intervals (CIs) for suicide using multilevel logistic regression models with “cells” (cross-tabulated by age and occupation) at level 1, seven different years at level 2, and 47 prefectures at level 3. Prefecture-level variance was used as an estimate of geographical inequalities in suicide. Results Adjusting for age and time-trends, the lowest odds for suicide was observed among production process and related workers (the reference group) in both sexes. The highest OR for men was 2.52 (95% CI: 2.43, 2.61) among service workers, whereas the highest OR for women was 9.24 (95% CI: 7.03, 12.13) among security workers. The degree of occupational inequalities increased among men with a striking change in the pattern. Among women, we observed a steady decline in suicide risk across all occupations, except for administrative and managerial workers and transport and communication workers. After adjusting for individual age, occupation, and time-trends, prefecture-specific ORs ranged from 0.76 (Nara Prefecture) to 1.36 (Akita Prefecture) for men and from 0.79 (Kanagawa Prefecture) to 1.22 (Akita Prefecture) for women. Geographical inequalities have increased primarily among men since 1995. Conclusions The present findings demonstrate a striking temporal change in the pattern of social inequalities in suicide among men. Further, geographical inequalities in suicide have considerably increased across 47 prefectures

  8. Trichosporon Species Isolated from Guano Samples Obtained from Bat-Inhabited Caves in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sugita, Takashi; Kikuchi, Ken; Makimura, Koichi; Urata, Kensaku; Someya, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Niimi, Masakazu; Uehara, Yoshimasa

    2005-01-01

    Yeasts from caves have rarely been examined. We examined yeasts collected from bat guano samples from 20 bat-inhabited limestone and volcanic caves located in 11 prefectures in Japan. Of ∼700 yeast-like colonies, nine Trichosporon species were recovered from 15 caves. Two of these were known species, and the remaining seven are potentially novel species, based on molecular phylogenetic analyses. In addition to Trichosporon species, identifiable strains of eight ascomycetous yeasts and one basidiomycetous yeast were recovered at frequencies of 5 to 35%. Our findings suggest that Trichosporon spp. are the major yeast species in bat guano in Japan and that bat guano is a potentially rich source of previously undescribed yeast species. PMID:16269819

  9. Trichosporon species isolated from guano samples obtained from bat-inhabited caves in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Takashi; Kikuchi, Ken; Makimura, Koichi; Urata, Kensaku; Someya, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Niimi, Masakazu; Uehara, Yoshimasa

    2005-11-01

    Yeasts from caves have rarely been examined. We examined yeasts collected from bat guano samples from 20 bat-inhabited limestone and volcanic caves located in 11 prefectures in Japan. Of approximately 700 yeast-like colonies, nine Trichosporon species were recovered from 15 caves. Two of these were known species, and the remaining seven are potentially novel species, based on molecular phylogenetic analyses. In addition to Trichosporon species, identifiable strains of eight ascomycetous yeasts and one basidiomycetous yeast were recovered at frequencies of 5 to 35%. Our findings suggest that Trichosporon spp. are the major yeast species in bat guano in Japan and that bat guano is a potentially rich source of previously undescribed yeast species.

  10. Tropical Storm Toraji Spawns Tornadoes in Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    The outflow from Tropical Storm Toraji spawned tornadoes that caused injuries and property damage in Koshigaya, Saitama Prefecture, Japan, just northeast of Tokyo, on September 2, 2013. This image was taken by the Suomi NPP satellite's VIIRS instrument around 0425Z on September 2, 2013. Credit: NASA/NOAA NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  11. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government's response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products were released for areas at risk of

  12. Nationwide tsunami hazard assessment project in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Nakamura, H.; Osada, M.; Ohsumi, T.; Morikawa, N.; Kawai, S.; Aoi, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Matsuyama, H.; Toyama, N.; Kito, T.; Murashima, Y.; Murata, Y.; Inoue, T.; Saito, R.; Akiyama, S.; Korenaga, M.; Abe, Y.; Hashimoto, N.

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, we began a project of nationwide Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) in Japan to support various measures (Fujiwara et al., 2013, JpGU; Hirata et al., 2014, AOGS). The most important strategy in the nationwide PTHA is predominance of aleatory uncertainty in the assessment but use of epistemic uncertainty is limited to the minimum, because the number of all possible combinations among epistemic uncertainties diverges quickly when the number of epistemic uncertainties in the assessment increases ; we consider only a type of earthquake occurrence probability distribution as epistemic uncertainty. We briefly show outlines of the nationwide PTHA as follows; (i) we consider all possible earthquakes in the future, including those that the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japanese Government, already assessed. (ii) We construct a set of simplified earthquake fault models, called "Characterized Earthquake Fault Models (CEFMs)", for all of the earthquakes by following prescribed rules (Toyama et al., 2014, JpGU; Korenaga et al., 2014, JpGU). (iii) For all of initial water surface distributions caused by a number of the CEFMs, we calculate tsunamis by solving a nonlinear long wave equation, using FDM, including runup calculation, over a nesting grid system with a minimum grid size of 50 meters. (iv) Finally, we integrate information about the tsunamis calculated from the numerous CEFMs to get nationwide tsunami hazard assessments. One of the most popular representations of the integrated information is a tsunami hazard curve for coastal tsunami heights, incorporating uncertainties inherent in tsunami simulation and earthquake fault slip heterogeneity (Abe et al., 2014, JpGU). We will show a PTHA along the eastern coast of Honshu, Japan, based on approximately 1,800 tsunami sources located within the subduction zone along the Japan Trench, as a prototype of the nationwide PTHA. This study is supported by part of the research

  13. Birth cohort study on the effects of desert dust exposure on children's health: protocol of an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children’s Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanatani, Kumiko T; Adachi, Yuichi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Noma, Hisashi; Onishi, Kazunari; Hamazaki, Kei; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ito, Isao; Egawa, Miho; Sato, Keiko; Go, Tohshin; Kurozawa, Youichi; Inadera, Hidekuni; Konishi, Ikuo; Nakayama, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Desert dust is estimated to constitute about 35% of aerosol in the troposphere. Desertification, climatic variability and global warming all can contribute to increased dust formation. This study aims to examine possible health effects of desert dust exposure on pregnant women and their children. The purpose of this report was to present the study protocol. Methods and analysis This 4-year birth cohort study began in 2011 as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children’s Study (JECS) involving three regions: Kyoto, Toyama and Tottori. The JECS participants of the three regions above who also agreed to participate in this adjunct study were enrolled prior to delivery. Light Detecting and Ranging (LIDAR) with a polarisation analyser, which can distinguish mineral dust particles from other particles, is used for exposure measurements. Outcomes are allergic symptoms for mothers and development of asthma and other allergic or respiratory diseases for their children. Data are acquired in a timely manner by connecting local LIDAR equipment to an online questionnaire system. Participants answer the online questionnaire using mobile phones or personal computers. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the ethics committees of Kyoto University, University of Toyama and Tottori University. All participants provided written informed consent. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the scientific community and general public. Trial Registration number UMIN000010826. PMID:24958210

  14. Weather Webcam System for the Safety of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services in Miyazaki, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanemaru, Katsuhiro; Katzer, Robert; Hanato, Syu; Nakamura, Koji; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Ochiai, Hidenobu

    In Japan, the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) system was initiated in 2001 and introduced to Miyazaki Prefecture in 2012. Mountainous areas occupy 88% of Miyazaki's land area, and HEMS flights can be subject to the effects of weather. Therefore, ensuring safety in changing weather conditions is a necessity for HEMS. The weather webcam system (WWS) was established to observe the meteorological conditions in 29 locations. Assessments of the probability of a flight based on conventional data including a weather chart provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency and meteorological reports provided by the Miyazaki Airport were compared with the assessment based on the combination of the information obtained from the WWS and the conventional data. The results showed that the probability of a flight by HEMS increased when using the WSS, leading to an increased transportation opportunity for patients in the mountains who rely on HEMS. In addition, the results indicate that the WWS may prevent flights in unfavorable weather conditions. The WWS used in conjunction with conventional weather data within Miyazaki HEMS increased the pilot's awareness of current weather conditions throughout the Prefecture, increasing the probability of accepting a flight. Copyright © 2017 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An outbreak of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kamomae, Masahiro; Kameyama, Mamoru; Ishii, Jun; Nabe, Mikoto; Ogura, Yuji; Iseki, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yu; Mase, Masaji

    2017-05-23

    In June 2015, a highly fatal and acute disease broke out in a duckling farm in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The birds exhibited poor growth, reduced movement, lying in a dorsal recumbent position, depression, lethargy, ataxia and opisthotonus, with a high mortality rate of approximately 76%. By performing a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers specific for duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1), we obtained the PCR products of a predicted size. The nucleotide sequences of the PCR products showed a >96% identity with that of the DHAV-1, HB02 strain, which was isolated in China. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the DHAV-1 virus has been isolated since its outbreak in Japan in 1963.

  16. Biodiversity data mining from Argus-eyed citizens: the first illegal introduction record of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819 in Japan based on Twitter information.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yusuke; Teramura, Akinori; Senou, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    An apparent illegal introduction of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus from Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, is reported based on a juvenile specimen and a photograph of two adults collected on 14 June 2015 and deposited in the Kangawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History. The specimens and photographs were initially reported on the internet-based social networking site, Twitter. Two specimens of Carassius auratus, including an aquarium form, were also reported at the same locality and date, suggesting that the illegal introductions originated from an aquarium release. Our report demonstrates an example of web data mining in the discipline of Citizen Science.

  17. Petrogenesis of an Early Cretaceous lamprophyre dike from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan: Implications for the generation of high-Nb basalt magmas in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaoka, Teruyoshi; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Mariko; Nakashima, Kazuo; Kamei, Atsushi; Yagi, Koshi; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Kiji, Michio

    2017-10-01

    We studied a 107 Ma vogesite (a kind of lamprophyre with alkali-feldspar > plagioclase, and hornblende ± clinopyroxene ± biotite) dike in the Kinki district of the Tamba Belt, Kyoto Prefecture, SW Japan, using petrography, mineralogy, K-Ar ages, and geochemistry to evaluate its petrogenesis and tectonic implications. The dike has the very specific geochemical characteristics of a primitive high-Mg basalt, with 48-50 wt.% SiO2 (anhydrous basis), high values of Mg# (67.3-72.4), and high Cr ( 431 ppm), Ni ( 371 ppm), and Co ( 52 ppm) contents. The vogesite is alkaline and ne-normative with high concentrations of large ion lithophile elements (LILEs: Sr = 1270-2200 ppm, Ba = 3910-26,900 ppm), light rare earth elements (LREEs) [(La/Yb)n = 58-62), and high field strength elements (HFSEs: TiO2 = 1.5-1.8 wt.%, Nb = 24-33 ppm, Zr = 171-251 ppm), and the vogesite can be classified as a high-Nb basalt (HNB). The vogesite was formed by the lowest degree of melting of metasomatized mantle in the garnet stability field, and it may also have been formed at higher melting pressures than other Kyoto lamprophyres. The low degree of melting is the primary reason for the high-Nb content of the vogesite, not mantle metasomatism, and a higher degree of melting would have changed the primary magma composition from a HNB to a Nb-enriched basalt (NEB). The vogesite magma was contaminated at an early stage of its development by melts derived from sediments drawn down a subduction zone, as indicated by some geochemical indices and the initial Nd isotope ratios. The vogesite exhibits positive correlations between εSr(107 Ma) values (5.4-50.9) and its high Ba and Sr concentrations, and it has a limited range of εNd(107 Ma) values (+ 0.97 to + 2.4). The fact that the vogesite contains centimeter-sized xenoliths of chert, which are composed of polycrystalline quartz, calcite, barite, pyrite, and magnetite, indicates that the barium contamination took place during the ascent of the

  18. Spatial and temporal variation in emergency transport during periods of extreme heat in Japan: A nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2016-02-15

    Several studies have reported the burden of climate change on extreme heat-related mortality or morbidity. However, few studies have investigated the spatial and temporal variation in emergency transport during periods of extreme heat on a national scale. Daily emergency ambulance dispatch data from 2007 to 2010 were acquired from all 47 prefectures of Japan. The temporal variability in the relationship between heat and morbidity in each prefecture was estimated using Poisson regression combined with a distributed lag non-linear model and adjusted for time trends. The spatial variability in the heat-morbidity relationships between prefectures was estimated using a multivariate meta-analysis. A total of 5,289,660 emergency transports were reported during the summer months (June through September) within the study period. The overall cumulative relative risk (RR) at the 99th percentile vs. the minimum morbidity percentile was 1.292 (95% CI: 1.251-1.333) for all causes, 1.039 (95% CI: 0.989-1.091) for cardiovascular diseases, and 1.287 (95% CI: 1.210-1.368) for respiratory diseases. Temporal variation in the estimated effects indicated a non-linear relationship, and there were differences in the temporal variations between heat and all-cause and cause-specific morbidity. Spatial variation between prefectures was observed for all causes (Cochran Q test, p<0.001; I(2)=45.8%); however, there was no significant spatial heterogeneity for cardiovascular (Cochran Q test, p=0.054; I(2)=15.1%) and respiratory (Cochran Q test, p=0.681; I(2)=1.0%) diseases. Our nationwide study demonstrated differences in the spatial and temporal variations in the relative risk for all-cause and cause-specific emergency transport during periods of extreme heat in Japan between 2007 and 2010. Our results suggest that public health strategies aimed at controlling heat-related morbidity should be tailored according to region-specific weather conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Industry Speed Bumps on Local Tobacco Control in Japan? The Case of Hyogo

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Keiko; Mori, Nagisa; Kashiwabara, Mina; Yasuda, Sakiko; Horie, Rumi; Yamato, Hiroshi; Garçon, Loic; Armada, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite being a signatory since 2004, Japan has not yet fully implemented Article 8 of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control regarding 100% protection against exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The Japanese government still recognizes designated smoking rooms (DSRs) in public space as a valid control measure. Furthermore, subnational initiatives for tobacco control in Japan are of limited effectiveness. Through an analysis of the Hyogo initiative in 2012, we identified key barriers to the achievement of a smoke-free environment. Methods Using a descriptive case-study approach, we analyzed the smoke-free policy development process. The information was obtained from meeting minutes and other gray literature, such as public records, well as key informant interviews. Results Hyogo Prefecture established a committee to propose measures against SHS, and most committee members agreed with establishing completely smoke-free environments. However, the hospitality sector representatives opposed regulation, and tobacco companies were allowed to make a presentation to the committee. Further, political power shifted against completely smoke-free environments in the context of upcoming local elections, which was an obvious barrier to effective regulation. Throughout the approving process, advocacy by civil society for stronger regulation was weak. Eventually, the ordinance approved by the Prefectural Assembly was even weaker than the committee proposal and included wide exemptions. Conclusions The analysis of Hyogo’s SHS control initiative shed light on three factors that present challenges to implementing tobacco control regulations in Japan, from which other countries can also draw lessons: incomplete national legislation, the weakness of advocacy by the civil society, and the interference of the tobacco industry. PMID:26155758

  20. Diagnosis and Characters of Non-Specific Low Back Pain in Japan: The Yamaguchi Low Back Pain Study

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hidenori; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Imajo, Yasuaki; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Nishida, Norihiro; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross sectional data from the Yamaguchi low back pain study conducted in Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan, was used for this analysis. Methods A total of 320 patients were recruited from walk-in orthopedic clinics in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. Patients visited the clinics primarily for low back pain (LBP) and sought treatment between April and May 2015. A self-questionnaire was completed by patients, while radiographic testing and neurological and physical examination was performed by the orthopedist in each hospital. The cause and characters of LBP was determined following examination of the data, regional anesthesia and block injection. Results ‘Specific LBP’ was diagnosed in 250 (78%) patients and non-diagnosable, ‘non-specific LBP’ in 70 (22%) patients. The VAS scores of patients were: LBP, 5.8±0.18; leg pain, 2.9±0.18 and the intensity of leg numbness was 1.9±0.16. Item scores for SF-8 were: general health, 46.6±0.40; physical function, 43.5±0.51; physical limitations, 42.8±0.53; body pain, 42.1±0.52; vitality, 48.4±0.37; social function, 46.9±0.53; emotional problems, 48.9±0.43; mental health, 46.9±0.43. Conclusions The incidence of non-specific LBP in Japan was lower than previous reports from western countries, presumably because of variation in the diagnosis of LBP between different health care systems. In Japan, 78% of cases were classified as ‘specific LBP’ by orthopedists. Identification of the definitive cause of LBP should help to improve the quality of LBP treatment. PMID:27548658

  1. Dioctophyme renale (Nematoda: Dioctophymatoidea) in the abdominal cavity of Rattus norvegicus in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Harunari, Tsunehito; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Akao, Nobuaki; Ohta, Nobuo

    2011-09-01

    We collected 24 brown rats, Rattus norvegicus, in Kanagawa Prefecture in Japan and found one rat harboring a dioctophymatid nematode. A single male and a female worm were recovered from the abdominal cavity and were identified as Dioctophyme renale based on morphologic features and a BLAST DNA sequence analysis. We describe the morphological features of the adult worms and eggs from this extremely rare case of D. renale infection in a brown rat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Results of a Prospective Study of Acute Coronary Syndrome Hospitalization After Enactment of a Smoking Ban in Public Places in Hyogo Prefecture - Comparison With Gifu, a Prefecture Without a Public Smoking Ban.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yukihito; Minatoguchi, Shinya; Nishigaki, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Masuyama, Tohru; Furukawa, Yutaka; Uematsu, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Otsuji, Satoru; Iida, Mami; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi

    2016-11-25

    Hyogo Prefecture is the 2nd prefecture in Japan, after Kanagawa, to enact a ban with penal code on smoking in public places, although the restriction is partial.Methods and Results:This study included consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who were admitted to 33 major hospitals in the Hyogo District during the 12 months before implementation of the legislation and during the 24 months thereafter. Consecutive patients with ACS from Gifu Prefecture who were admitted to 20 major hospitals were enrolled as geographical controls. The number of ACS admissions did not change from the years 2012-2015 in both Hyogo District (1,774 in the pre-year, 1,784 in the 1st year, and 1,720 in the 2nd year) and Gifu Prefecture (1,226 in the pre-year, 1,174 in the 1st year, and 1,206 in the 2nd year). However, a clear reduction was observed in the subanalysis for Kobe City (895 in the preceding year, 830 (-7.3%) in the 1st year, and 792 (-11.5%) in the 2nd year), where adherence to the smoking ban was higher than in other Hyogo districts. The primary endpoint did not show a significant change. However, the subanalysis showed a significant decrease in ACS admissions in Kobe City. These results suggest that ACS reduction may depend on the degree of adherence to a smoking ban. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2528-2532).

  3. Birth cohort study on the effects of desert dust exposure on children's health: protocol of an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Kanatani, Kumiko T; Adachi, Yuichi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Noma, Hisashi; Onishi, Kazunari; Hamazaki, Kei; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ito, Isao; Egawa, Miho; Sato, Keiko; Go, Tohshin; Kurozawa, Youichi; Inadera, Hidekuni; Konishi, Ikuo; Nakayama, Takeo

    2014-06-23

    Desert dust is estimated to constitute about 35% of aerosol in the troposphere. Desertification, climatic variability and global warming all can contribute to increased dust formation. This study aims to examine possible health effects of desert dust exposure on pregnant women and their children. The purpose of this report was to present the study protocol. This 4-year birth cohort study began in 2011 as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children's Study (JECS) involving three regions: Kyoto, Toyama and Tottori. The JECS participants of the three regions above who also agreed to participate in this adjunct study were enrolled prior to delivery. Light Detecting and Ranging (LIDAR) with a polarisation analyser, which can distinguish mineral dust particles from other particles, is used for exposure measurements. Outcomes are allergic symptoms for mothers and development of asthma and other allergic or respiratory diseases for their children. Data are acquired in a timely manner by connecting local LIDAR equipment to an online questionnaire system. Participants answer the online questionnaire using mobile phones or personal computers. The study protocol was approved by the ethics committees of Kyoto University, University of Toyama and Tottori University. All participants provided written informed consent. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the scientific community and general public. UMIN000010826. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Rural-Urban Disparity in Emergency Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Japan.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Jun; Kishi, Mikio; Kumagai, Naoto; Yamazaki, Toru; Sakata, Kenji; Higuma, Takumi; Ogimoto, Akiyoshi; Dohi, Kaoru; Tanigawa, Takashi; Hanada, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Mashio; Sokejima, Shigeru; Takayama, Morimasa; Higaki, Jitsuo; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Okumura, Ken; Ito, Masaaki

    2018-05-25

    There are few reports examining regional differences between rural prefectures and metropolitan areas in the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Japan.Methods and Results:In the Rural AMI registry, a prospective, multi-prefectural registry of AMI in 4 rural prefectures (Ishikawa, Aomori, Ehime and Mie), a total of 1,695 consecutive AMI patients were registered in 2013. Among them, 1,313 patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) within 24 h of onset were enrolled in this study (Rural group), and compared with the cohort data from the Tokyo CCU Network registry for AMI in the same period (Metropolitan group, 2,075 patients). The prevalence of direct ambulance transport to PCI-capable facilities in the Rural group was significantly lower than that in the Metropolitan group (43.8% vs. 60.3%, P<0.01), which resulted in a longer onset-to-balloon time (OTB: 225 vs. 210 min, P=0.02) and lower prevalence of PPCI in a timely fashion (OTB ≤2 h: 11.5% vs. 20.7%, P<0.01) in the Rural group. Multivariate analysis revealed that direct ambulance transport was the strongest predictor for PPCI in a timely fashion (odds ratio=4.13, P<0.001). AMI patients in rural areas were less likely to be transported directly to PCI-capable facilities, resulting in time delay to PPCI compared with those in metropolitan areas.

  5. Epidemiology of Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry and Surrounding Prefectures, Guinea, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Rico, Adriana; Brody, Debra; Coronado, Fátima; Rondy, Marc; Fiebig, Lena; Carcelen, Andrea; Deyde, Varough M; Mesfin, Samuel; Retzer, Kyla D; Bilivogui, Pepe; Keita, Sakoba; Dahl, Benjamin A

    2016-02-01

    In 2014, Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was first reported during March in 3 southeastern prefectures in Guinea; from there, the disease rapidly spread across West Africa. We describe the epidemiology of EVD cases reported in Guinea's capital, Conakry, and 4 surrounding prefectures (Coyah, Dubreka, Forecariah, and Kindia), encompassing a full year of the epidemic. A total of 1,355 EVD cases, representing ≈40% of cases reported in Guinea, originated from these areas. Overall, Forecariah had the highest cumulative incidence (4× higher than that in Conakry). Case-fatality percentage ranged from 40% in Conakry to 60% in Kindia. Cumulative incidence was slightly higher among male than female residents, although incidences by prefecture and commune differed by sex. Over the course of the year, Conakry and neighboring prefectures became the EVD epicenter in Guinea.

  6. 2014 Anthrax epidemic in Koubia prefecture, Guinea-Conakry.

    PubMed

    Sow, M S; Boushab, M B; Balde, H; Camara, A; Sako, F B; Traoré, F A; Diallo, M O S; Diallo, M D; Keita, M; Sylla, A O; Tounkara, T M; Cissé, M

    2016-11-01

    Anthrax disease is an anthropozoonosis caused by a Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. Our objective was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of the 2014 epidemic in Koubia prefecture. This retrospective study examined all of the anthrax cases reported in Fafaya, Koubia Prefecture. In March and April 2014, there were 39 cases of human anthrax reported, for an incidence of 1.135%. The mean age was 20.9 (± 18.3) with a sex ratio of 2.54 (28/11) in favor of men. Seventy-six percent (23/39) were single. More than one half were students (53.8%). The main clinical signs were fever in 71, 8% (n = 28 /), papules 59% (n = 23), vesicles of 59% (n = 23) Digestive and cutaneous signs represented 35.9 % and 64.1% respectively; 35% had ingested contaminated meat and 17.95% were in direct contact with a sick animal. We didn't find any correlation between the mode of infection and onset of signs. The fatality rate was 28.21%. The 2014 epidemic of anthrax disease in the Koubia prefecture was marked by a high incidence and lethality. Clinical manifestations were cutaneaous and digestive. These results may serve further interventions to fight against anthrax disease. They should mainly focus on an awareness of peasants, surveillance and vaccination of cattle. Other studies seem to be necessary.

  7. Impact of the school lunch program on overweight and obesity among junior high school students: a nationwide study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, A; Lee, J S; Kobayashi, Y

    2018-06-05

    Japan has experienced a low prevalence of childhood obesity. The Japanese nationwide school lunch program is suggested to have helped this phenomenon, but it has not been proven. From official statistics, we combined annual data for 2006-15 about the prefecture-level school lunch coverage rate for public junior high school students and the prefecture-level nutritional indicators calculated by randomly selected age-sex groups of 13-15-year olds: the percentage of overweight, obese or underweight children, who are 20% heavier, 30% heavier or 20% lighter than the standard weight by sex, age and height; and mean body weight (kg) or height (cm). We estimated the impact of the school lunch coverage rate on the nutritional indicators in subsequent years, adjusting for the lagged dependent variable and dummies for prefecture, age and year. A 10 percentage point increase in the prefecture-level school lunch coverage rate significantly decreased the percentage of overweight (0.37%, 95% CI: 0.18-0.56) and obesity (0.23%, 0.10-0.37) in subsequent years among boys, but not among girls. No significant effect on the percentage of underweight or mean body weight/height was observed for either sex. Appropriate nutritional intake through school lunch may be effective to reduce childhood obesity.

  8. Impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on obesity of children in Japan (2008-2014).

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    This study used prefecture-level panel data from Japan for the period 2008-2014 to investigate the influence of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident on the body mass index (BMI) z-score and obesity rates of children over time. I adopted a difference-in-differences approach and found the following: (1) for the cohort aged 5-7 years in 2010, the BMI z-score and obesity rates in disaster-affected areas were higher than in other areas, although this was not observed for the other cohorts; (2) for the cohort aged 5-7 years in 2010, the influence of the accident persisted even after 3 years; and (3) the differences in the BMI z-score and obesity rate before and after the accident were greater for Fukushima Prefecture than for the other affected areas (Iwate and Miyagi prefectures). I infer that health-conscious parents, whose children had lower BMIs, may have moved from Fukushima, thereby increasing the BMI z-score of the child population living in Fukushima by around 0.05 for the cohort aged 5-7 years. The enforced reduction in physical activity increased the BMI z-score of children living in Fukushima by around 0.19 for that cohort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Social and geographic inequalities in premature adult mortality in Japan: a multilevel observational study from 1970 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Saori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine trends in social and geographic inequalities in all-cause premature adult mortality in Japan. Design Observational study of the vital statistics and the census data. Setting Japan. Participants Entire population aged 25 years or older and less than 65 years in 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005. The total number of decedents was 984 022 and 532 223 in men and women, respectively. Main outcome measures For each sex, ORs and 95% CIs for mortality were estimated by using multilevel logistic regression models with ‘cells’ (cross-tabulated by age and occupation) at level 1, 8 years at level 2 and 47 prefectures at level 3. The prefecture-level variance was used as an estimate of geographic inequalities of mortality. Results Adjusting for age and time-trends, compared with production process and related workers, ORs ranged from 0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.98) among administrative and managerial workers to 2.22 (95% CI 2.19 to 2.24) among service workers in men. By contrast, in women, the lowest odds for mortality was observed among production process and related workers (reference), while the highest OR was 12.22 (95% CI 11.40 to 13.10) among security workers. The degree of occupational inequality increased in both sexes. Higher occupational groups did not experience reductions in mortality throughout the period and was overtaken by lower occupational groups in the early 1990s, among men. Conditional on individual age and occupation, overall geographic inequalities of mortality were relatively small in both sexes; the ORs ranged from 0.87 (Okinawa) to 1.13 (Aomori) for men and from 0.84 (Kanagawa) to 1.11 (Kagoshima) for women, even though there is a suggestion of increasing inequalities across prefectures since 1995 in both sexes. Conclusions The present findings suggest that both social and geographic inequalities in all-cause mortality have increased in Japan during the last 3 decades. PMID:22389360

  10. Reintroduction of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus by migratory water birds, causing poultry outbreaks in the 2010-2011 winter season in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Ito, Hiroshi; Uchida, Yuko; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Soda, Kosuke; Nomura, Naoki; Kuribayashi, Saya; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Sunden, Yuji; Umemura, Takashi; Usui, Tatsufumi; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Murase, Toshiyuki; Ito, Toshihiro; Saito, Takehiko; Takada, Ayato; Kida, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was reintroduced and caused outbreaks in chickens in the 2010-2011 winter season in Japan, which had been free from highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) since 2007 when HPAI outbreaks occurred and were controlled. On 14 October 2010 at Lake Ohnuma, Wakkanai, the northernmost part of Hokkaido, Japan, H5N1 HPAIVs were isolated from faecal samples of ducks flying from their nesting lakes in Siberia. Since then, in Japan, H5N1 HPAIVs have been isolated from 63 wild birds in 17 prefectures and caused HPAI outbreaks in 24 chicken farms in nine prefectures by the end of March in 2011. Each of these isolates was genetically closely related to the HPAIV isolates at Lake Ohnuma, and those in China, Mongolia, Russia and Korea, belonging to genetic clade 2.3.2.1. In addition, these isolates were genetically classified into three groups, suggesting that the viruses were transmitted by migratory water birds through at least three different routes from their northern territory to Japan. These isolates were antigenic variants, which is consistent with selection in poultry under the immunological pressure induced by vaccination. To prevent the perpetuation of viruses in the lakes where water birds nest in summer in Siberia, prompt eradication of HPAIVs in poultry is urgently needed in Asian countries where HPAI has not been controlled.

  11. End-of-life care bonus promoting end-of-life care in nursing homes: An 11-year retrospective longitudinal prefecture-wide study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Sho; Sugaya, Nagisa; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Mizushima, Shunsaku

    2017-03-22

    The end-of-life (EOL) care bonus introduced by the Japanese government works as a financial incentive and framework of quality preservation, including advance care planning, for EOL care among nursing home residents. This study aims to clarify the effects of the EOL care bonus in promoting EOL care in nursing homes. A longitudinal observational study using a questionnaire was conducted. We invited 378 nursing homes in Kanagawa prefecture in Japan, a region with a rapidly aging population, to participate in the study. The outcome was the number of residents dying in nursing homes from 2004 to 2014. In a linear mixed model, fixed-effect factors included year established, unit care, regional elderly population rate and hospital beds, adjacent affiliated hospital, full-time physician on site, physician's support during off-time, basic EOL care policy, usage of the EOL care bonus, EOL care conference, and staff experience of EOL care. A total of 237 nursing home facilities responded (62.7%). The linear mixed model showed that the availability of the EOL care bonus (coefficient 3.1, 95 % CI 0.67-5.51, p = 0.012) and years of usage of the EOL care bonus (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with increased numbers of residents dying in nursing homes. Our analysis revealed that the EOL care bonus has the potential to increase the number of residents receiving EOL care in nursing homes over several years. EOL care conferences, physician support for emergency care during off-time, and the presence of an adjacent affiliated hospital may also increase the number of residents receiving EOL care in nursing homes. These results suggest that a government financial incentive may contribute to effective EOL care among nursing home residents in other developed countries with rapidly aging populations.

  12. Effect of the number of request calls on the time from call to hospital arrival: a cross-sectional study of an ambulance record database in Nara prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hanaki, Nao; Yamashita, Kazuto; Kunisawa, Susumu; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2016-12-09

    In Japan, ambulance staff sometimes must make request calls to find hospitals that can accept patients because of an inadequate information sharing system. This study aimed to quantify effects of the number of request calls on the time interval between an emergency call and hospital arrival. A cross-sectional study of an ambulance records database in Nara prefecture, Japan. A total of 43 663 patients (50% women; 31.2% aged 80 years and over): (1) transported by ambulance from April 2013 to March 2014, (2) aged 15 years and over, and (3) with suspected major illness. The time from call to hospital arrival, defined as the time interval from receipt of an emergency call to ambulance arrival at a hospital. The mean time interval from emergency call to hospital arrival was 44.5 min, and the mean number of requests was 1.8. Multilevel linear regression analysis showed that ∼43.8% of variations in transportation times were explained by patient age, sex, season, day of the week, time, category of suspected illness, person calling for the ambulance, emergency status at request call, area and number of request calls. A higher number of request calls was associated with longer time intervals to hospital arrival (addition of 6.3 min per request call; p<0.001). In an analysis dividing areas into three groups, there were differences in transportation time for diseases needing cardiologists, neurologists, neurosurgeons and orthopaedists. The study revealed 6.3 additional minutes needed in transportation time for every refusal of a request call, and also revealed disease-specific delays among specific areas. An effective system should be collaboratively established by policymakers and physicians to ensure the rapid identification of an available hospital for patient transportation in order to reduce the time from the initial emergency call to hospital arrival. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  13. Effect of the number of request calls on the time from call to hospital arrival: a cross-sectional study of an ambulance record database in Nara prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hanaki, Nao; Yamashita, Kazuto; Kunisawa, Susumu; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Japan, ambulance staff sometimes must make request calls to find hospitals that can accept patients because of an inadequate information sharing system. This study aimed to quantify effects of the number of request calls on the time interval between an emergency call and hospital arrival. Design and setting A cross-sectional study of an ambulance records database in Nara prefecture, Japan. Cases A total of 43 663 patients (50% women; 31.2% aged 80 years and over): (1) transported by ambulance from April 2013 to March 2014, (2) aged 15 years and over, and (3) with suspected major illness. Primary outcome measures The time from call to hospital arrival, defined as the time interval from receipt of an emergency call to ambulance arrival at a hospital. Results The mean time interval from emergency call to hospital arrival was 44.5 min, and the mean number of requests was 1.8. Multilevel linear regression analysis showed that ∼43.8% of variations in transportation times were explained by patient age, sex, season, day of the week, time, category of suspected illness, person calling for the ambulance, emergency status at request call, area and number of request calls. A higher number of request calls was associated with longer time intervals to hospital arrival (addition of 6.3 min per request call; p<0.001). In an analysis dividing areas into three groups, there were differences in transportation time for diseases needing cardiologists, neurologists, neurosurgeons and orthopaedists. Conclusions The study revealed 6.3 additional minutes needed in transportation time for every refusal of a request call, and also revealed disease-specific delays among specific areas. An effective system should be collaboratively established by policymakers and physicians to ensure the rapid identification of an available hospital for patient transportation in order to reduce the time from the initial emergency call to hospital arrival. PMID:27940625

  14. Roles of National and Local Governments and the Dietetic Association in Nutrition Assistance Response to Natural Disasters: Systems and Experiences in Japan and the USA.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    In the first half of this symposium, the disaster response system in Japan will be introduced. The ultimate aim of nutrition assistance is to keep people in disaster areas healthy. This is a task for the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the health departments of prefectural governments. Our first speaker, Dr. Yasuhiro Kanatani, National Institute of Public Health, will briefly overview the disaster response system in Japan and its related laws. He will also mention how the Ministry responded to the Great East Japan Earthquake. In the second presentation, I will play one chapter of DVD that we released in last September. In that chapter, Ms. Makiko Sawaguchi, a registered dietitian working for a public health center in the area affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake, talks about her experience in supporting disaster victims. As an employee of Iwate Prefectural Government, she helped affected municipal governments and coordinated outside support. One type of outside support was registered dietitians dispatched by the Japan Dietetic Association (JDA). Dr. Nobuyo Tsuboyama-Kasaoka will report what those dietitians did in the affected areas. She will also explain the aim and training of the JDA-Disaster Assistance Team. Provision of food is essential in nutrition assistance. This is a task for the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Our fourth speaker, Mr. Kunihiro Doi, analyzed the government procurement data and will discuss the limitations of government emergency food supplies and lessons learned from the Great East Japan Earthquake. As for the systems and experiences in the US, we invited Ms. Toni Abernathy from the Office of Emergency Management, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), United States Department of Agriculture.

  15. Development of a Course of Training Programs for Young Engineers at Work to Nurture the “Basic Competencies of Employees”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Michiko; Jomura, Makoto; Hongo, Tetsuyuki; Chohji, Tetsuji

    According to our feasibility study in 2005, many of small and medium-sized companies in and around Toyama city asked their young engineers for originality and strong will to try and solve problems positively in their workplaces. These skills have a lot in common with “Basic Competencies of Employees” advocated by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan. Since Toyama National College of Technology has an accumulated educational know-how to nurture “Basic Competencies of Employees” , we have applied this to develop a course of training programs for young engineers. Through four year‧s practice and improvement, we have established and evaluated this training course. We show the details of our course in this report.

  16. Career redevelopment programmes for inactive nurses in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sachiko; Serizawa, Takako; Sakaguchi, Chizuru

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the challenges and problems in using career redevelopment programmes and individual hospital programmes to prepare inactive nurses to re-enter into the workforce in Japan. It is critical to supply sufficient skilled health human resources for medical care. Although, Japan has a mandatory retraining programme for supporting nurses to return to the workplace after a career break, it is unclear to what extent there are benefits to nurses from these programmes. The research of career redevelopment programme was undertaken in three administrative divisions' nurse centres in local prefecture A, B and C. A survey of nurses participating in the programme running in T Hospital was also conducted. The issues examined were the background and motivations of participants, the length of career break, the percentages returning to work and the effectiveness of each programme. The average age of participants was 40 years, ranging widely from the 20-60 years. Local prefecture A tended to have narrower age range than others, namely from the 30-50 years. The average period of career break was around eight years at two of three. Length of experience was quite varied from entry level to 20 or 30 years in nursing. Feedback from nurses in the case study T Hospital suggests that the most effective ways of providing support through the programme was to meet the need for continuing support, including working styles after return to work and using the resources programme in their own area of domicile. In the potential return of the nurse, the following are important: (i) job support system by using social resources effectively in the community level; and (ii) introduction of diverse working styles that take account of varying work-life balance, as well as childcare support, by using existing facilities or human resources.

  17. Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Young Children 2 Years After the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Yagi, Junko; Homma, Hiroaki; Mashiko, Hirofumi; Nagao, Keizo; Okuyama, Makiko

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its association with each traumatic experience among 5- to 8-year-old children 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Children ages 5-8 years who were in selected preschool classes on March 11, 2011, in 3 prefectures affected by the earthquake and 1 prefecture that was unaffected, participated in the study (N=280). PTSD symptoms were assessed through questionnaires completed by caregivers and interviews by psychiatrists or psychologists conducted between September 2012 and May 2013 (ie, 1.5-2 years after the earthquake). Among children who experienced the earthquake, 33.8% exhibited PTSD symptoms. Of the different traumatic experiences, experiencing the earthquake and the loss of distant relatives or friends were independently associated with PTSD symptoms; prevalence ratios: 6.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.06-23.0) and 2.48 (95% CI: 1.21-5.08), respectively. Approximately 1 in 3 young children in the affected communities exhibited PTSD symptoms, even 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. These data may be useful for preventing PTSD symptoms after natural disasters and suggest the importance of providing appropriate mental health services for children. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:207-215).

  18. Nicotine Dependence and Cost-Effectiveness of Individualized Support for Smoking Cessation: Evidence from Practice at a Worksite in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Koshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Morikawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Shin-ya; Ishizaki, Masao; Kido, Teruhiko; Naruse, Yuchi; Suwazono, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Given the lack of economic studies evaluating the outcomes of smoking cessation programs from the viewpoint of program sponsors, we conducted a case study to provide relevant information for worksites. The present study was carried out between 2006 and 2008 at a manufacturing factory in the Toyama Prefecture of Japan and included subjects who voluntarily entered a smoking cessation program. The program included face-to-face counselling followed by weekly contact to provide encouragement over six months using e-mail or inter-office mail. Nicotine patches were available if required. All 151 participants stopped smoking immediately. Over the 24-month study period, self-report showed 49.7% abstained continuously from smoking. The rate of 24-month consecutive abstinence was higher in participants with lower Fagerström Test scores for Nicotine Dependence at baseline than in those with higher scores (63.6% for 0–2 points vs. 46.5% for 3–6 points vs. 43.8% for 7–10 points; chi-square test p = 0.19). A logistic regression model showed a significant linear trend for the association between the score and abstinence status after adjustment for possible confounding factors (p = 0.03). The crude incremental cost for one individual to successfully quit smoking due to the support program was ¥46,379 (i.e., ¥100 = $1.28, £0.83, or €1.03 at foreign exchange rates). The corresponding costs for the three categories of the Fagerström Test score for Nicotine Dependence were ¥31,953, ¥47,450 and ¥64,956, respectively. When a sensitivity analysis was conducted based on the 95% confidence interval of the success rate, the variance in the corresponding costs was ¥25,514–45,034 for 0–2 points, ¥38,344–61,824 for 3–6 points, and ¥45,698–108,260 for 7–10 points. The degree of nicotine dependence may therefore be an important determinant of the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation programs. PMID:23383289

  19. Detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi (Rickettsiales: rickettsiaceae) in unengorged chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae) from Oita Prefecture, Japan, by nested polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Pham, X D; Otsuka, Y; Suzuki, H; Takaoka, H

    2001-03-01

    The current study surveyed the 56-kDa type-specific antigen (TSA) gene DNAs of Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hayashi) in approximately 4.000 unengorged chiggers obtained from the soil or ground surface in an endemic and a nonendemic area of the Tsutsugamushi disease in Oita Prefecture, southwestern Japan, by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serotypes of O. tsutsugamushi were identified by restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. In the endemic area, 242 pools from five species [234 pools of Leptotrombidium scutellare (Nagayo, Miyagawa, Mitamura, Tamiya and Tenjin), two L. pallidum (Nagayo, Miyagawa, Mitamura and Tamiya), four L. kitasatoi (Fukuzumi & Obata), one L. fuji (Kuwata, Berge and Philip), and one Neotrombicula japonica (Tanaka, Kaiwa, Teramura and Kagaya)] were tested, and eight (seven pools of L. scutellare and one N. japonica) were positive for O. tsutsugamushi. Among the seven positive pools of L. scutellare, the distribution of serotypes was as follows: Kuroki (4), Gilliam (1), Karp (1), and Kawasaki (1). The first two serotypes (Kuroki and Gilliam) were identified for the first time in this species. In the nonendemic area, 128 pools from eight species were tested, and 13 were positive for O. tsutsugamushi. The positive rate was as follows: L. pallidum (4/41). L. kitasatoi (1/18), Gahrliepia saduski Womersley (2/10), L. fuji (4/50), L. himizu (Sasa, Kumada, Hayashi, Enomoto, Fukuzumi and Obata) (1/2), and Miyatrombicula kochiensis (Sasa, Kawashima and Egashira) (1/3). The latter three species were shown for the first time to harbor O. tsutsugamushi. All ofthe positive pools were Kuroki, except for two pools (one L. pallidum and one L. fuji), which were Gilliam (this serotype was also detected for the first time in L. pallidum). Further analysis revealed no differences in the nucleotide sequences (125 bp of variable domain 1 of TSA gene) of the same serotypes (i.e., Kuroki and Gilliam) among the positive samples. These data indicate

  20. Delayed increase in male suicide rates in tsunami disaster-stricken areas following the great east japan earthquake: a three-year follow-up study in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Orui, Masatsugu; Sato, Yasuhiro; Tazaki, Kanako; Kawamura, Ikuko; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2015-03-01

    Devastating natural disasters and their aftermath are known to cause psychological distress. However, little information is available regarding suicide rates following tsunami disasters that destroy regional social services and networks. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the tsunami disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 has influenced suicide rates. The study period was from March 2009 to February 2014. Tsunami disaster-stricken areas were defined as the 16 municipalities facing the Pacific Ocean in Miyagi Prefecture. Inland areas were defined as other municipalities in Miyagi that were damaged by the earthquake. Suicide rates in the tsunami disaster-stricken areas were compared to national averages, using a time-series analysis and the Poisson distribution test. In tsunami disaster-stricken areas, male suicide rates were significantly lower than the national average during the initial post-disaster period and began to increase after two years. Likewise, male suicide rates in the inland areas decreased for seven months, and then increased to exceed the national average. In contrast, female post-disaster suicide rates did not change in both areas compared to the national average. Importantly, the male suicide rates in the inland areas started to increase earlier compared to the tsunami-stricken areas, which may reflect the relative deficiency of mental healthcare services in the inland areas. Considering the present status that many survivors from the tsunami disaster still live in temporary housing and face various challenges to rebuild their lives, we should continue intensive, long-term mental healthcare services in the tsunami-stricken areas.

  1. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government’s response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. Methods and Findings We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products

  2. Non-physician communities in Japan: are they still disadvantaged?

    PubMed

    Kashima, S; Inoue, K; Matsumoto, M; Takeuchi, K

    2014-01-01

    Non-physician community' (NPC) is a policy term that indicates a medically underserved area in Japan. Designated NPCs are politically targeted as the foci of medical resource allocation. NPC is defined as a specified district where 50 or more persons dwell within a geographic diameter of 4 km and medical care is not easily accessible. The definition of NPC was first introduced in 1960 and has been unchanged for more than half a century despite radical social changes in rural Japan. This study examines whether designated NPCs are still more disadvantaged in terms of geographical access to healthcare in comparison to other communities. Hiroshima prefecture, which has the largest number of NPCs in terms of tertiary healthcare areas of Japan, was used as the study area. Targeted communities were all the NPCs in the prefecture, and, as controls, two community groups were selected: non-NPC adjacent to NPC, and municipal center. We measured driving time from NPCs and control communities to the nearest healthcare facilities, which were classified into the following two types: primary or secondary care facilities (n=2636) and tertiary care facilities (equal to tertiary emergency care centers; n=6). We further calculated the driving time to the nearest facilities for secondary emergency care (n=246) extracted from the 2636 primary or secondary care facilities. The median driving times to the nearest primary or secondary healthcare facility for NPC, non-NPC, and municipal center were 11 minutes, 11 minutes, and 1 minute, respectively; the times to a tertiary healthcare facility (equal to an accident and emergency care center) were 80 minutes, 84 minutes, and 68 minutes, respectively; and the times to a secondary emergency care facility were 24 minutes, 18 minutes, and 15 minutes, respectively. Although a municipal center was significantly more advantageous in driving time compared to a primary or secondary care facility, the disadvantage of a NPC in access was no more obvious

  3. Epidemiology of Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry and Surrounding Prefectures, Guinea, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Debra; Coronado, Fátima; Rondy, Marc; Fiebig, Lena; Carcelen, Andrea; Deyde, Varough M.; Mesfin, Samuel; Retzer, Kyla D.; Bilivogui, Pepe; Keita, Sakoba; Dahl, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was first reported during March in 3 southeastern prefectures in Guinea; from there, the disease rapidly spread across West Africa. We describe the epidemiology of EVD cases reported in Guinea’s capital, Conakry, and 4 surrounding prefectures (Coyah, Dubreka, Forecariah, and Kindia), encompassing a full year of the epidemic. A total of 1,355 EVD cases, representing ≈40% of cases reported in Guinea, originated from these areas. Overall, Forecariah had the highest cumulative incidence (4× higher than that in Conakry). Case-fatality percentage ranged from 40% in Conakry to 60% in Kindia. Cumulative incidence was slightly higher among male than female residents, although incidences by prefecture and commune differed by sex. Over the course of the year, Conakry and neighboring prefectures became the EVD epicenter in Guinea. PMID:26812047

  4. Ecological study of solar radiation and cancer mortality in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2004-11-01

    Geographic observation of the increased mortality of some cancers at higher latitudes has led to a hypothesis that vitamin D produced after exposure to solar radiation has anti-carcinogenic effects. However, it is unclear whether such association would be observed in countries like Japan, where fish consumption, and therefore dietary vitamin D intake, is high. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between averaged annual solar radiation levels for the period from 1961 through 1990 and cancer mortality in the year 2000 in 47 prefectures in Japan, with adjustments for regional per capita income and dietary factors. A moderate, inverse correlation with solar radiation was observed for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, and gallbladder and bile ducts in both sexes (correlation coefficient, ranging from -0.6 to -0.3). The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased exposure to solar radiation reduces the risk of cancers of the digestive organs.

  5. Location of early aftershocks of the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture Earthquake (M = 6.8) in central Japan using seismogram envelopes as templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuga, M.

    2013-12-01

    The location of early aftershocks is very important to obtain information of mainshock fault, however, it is often difficult due to the long-lasting coda wave of mainshock and successive occurrence of afterrshocks. To overcome this difficulty, we developed a method of location using seismogram envelopes as templates, and applied the method to the early aftershock sequence of the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture (Chuetsu) Earthquake (M = 6.8) in central Japan. The location method composes of three processes. The first process is the calculation of cross-correlation coefficients between a continuous (target) and template envelopes. We prepare envelopes by taking the logarithm of root-mean-squared amplitude of band-pass filtered seismograms. We perform the calculation by shifting the time window to obtain a set of cross-correlation values for each template. The second process is the event detection (selection of template) and magnitude estimate. We search for the events in descending order of cross-correlation in a time window excluding the dead times around the previously detected events. Magnitude is calculated by the amplitude ratio of target and template envelopes. The third process is the relative event location to the selected template. We applied this method to the Chuetsu earthquake, a large inland earthquake with extensive aftershock activity. The number of detected events depends on the number of templates, frequency range, and the threshold value of cross-correlation. We set the threshold as 0.5 by referring to the histogram of cross-correlation. During a period of one-hour from the mainshock, we could detect more events than the JMA catalog. The location of events is generally near the catalog location. Though we should improve the methods of relative location and magnitude estimate, we conclude that the proposed method works adequately even just after the mainshock of large inland earthquake. Acknowledgement: We thank JMA, NIED, and the University of Tokyo for

  6. Bordetella pertussis population dynamics and phylogeny in Japan after adoption of acellular pertussis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zomer, Aldert; Otsuka, Nao; Hiramatsu, Yukihiro; Kamachi, Kazunari; Nishimura, Naoko; Ozaki, Takao; Poolman, Jan; Geurtsen, Jeroen

    2018-05-17

    Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, has experienced a resurgence in the past 15 years, despite the existence of both whole-cell and acellular vaccines. Here, we performed whole genome sequencing analysis of 149 clinical strains, provided by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Japan, isolated in 1982-2014, after Japan became the first country to adopt acellular vaccines against B. pertussis. Additionally, we sequenced 39 strains provided by the Konan Kosei Hospital in Aichi prefecture, Japan, isolated in 2008-2013. The genome sequences afforded insight into B. pertussis genome variability and population dynamics in Japan, and revealed that the B. pertussis population in Japan was characterized by two major clades that divided more than 40 years ago. The pertactin gene was disrupted in about 20 % of the 149 NIID isolates, by either a deletion within the signal sequence (ΔSS) or the insertion of IS element IS481 (prn :: IS481). Phylogeny suggests that the parent clones for these isolates originated in Japan. Divergence dating traced the first generation of the pertactin-deficient mutants in Japan to around 1990, and indicated that strains containing the alternative pertactin allele prn2 may have appeared in Japan around 1974. Molecular clock data suggested that observed fluctuations in B. pertussis population size may have coincided with changes in vaccine usage in the country. The continuing failure to eradicate the disease warrants an exploration of novel vaccine compositions.

  7. Forecasting the regional distribution and sufficiency of physicians in Japan with a coupled system dynamics-geographic information system model.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tomoki; Fujiwara, Kensuke; Ohba, Hisateru; Suzuki, Teppei; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2017-09-12

    In Japan, the shortage of physicians has been recognized as a major medical issue. In our previous study, we reported that the absolute shortage will be resolved in the long term, but maldistribution among specialties will persist. To address regional shortage, several Japanese medical schools increased existing quota and established "regional quotas." This study aims to assist policy makers in designing effective policies; we built a model for forecasting physician numbers by region to evaluate future physician supply-demand balances. For our case study, we selected Hokkaido Prefecture in Japan, a region displaying disparities in healthcare services availability between urban and rural areas. We combined a system dynamics (SD) model with geographic information system (GIS) technology to analyze the dynamic change in spatial distribution of indicators. For Hokkaido overall and for each secondary medical service area (SMSA) within the prefecture, we analyzed the total number of practicing physicians. For evaluating absolute shortage and maldistribution, we calculated sufficiency levels and Gini coefficient. Our study covered the period 2010-2030 in 5-year increments. According to our forecast, physician shortage in Hokkaido Prefecture will largely be resolved by 2020. Based on current policies, we forecast that four SMSAs in Hokkaido will continue to experience physician shortages past that date, but only one SMSA would still be understaffed in 2030. The results show the possibility that diminishing imbalances between SMSAs would not necessarily mean that regional maldistribution would be eliminated, as seen from the sufficiency levels of the various SMSAs. Urgent steps should be taken to place doctors in areas where our forecasting model predicts that physician shortages could occur in the future.

  8. School-Based Fluoride Mouth-Rinse Program Dissemination Associated With Decreasing Dental Caries Inequalities Between Japanese Prefectures: An Ecological Study.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Aida, Jun; Taura, Katsuhiko; Kimoto, Kazunari; Ando, Yuichi; Aoyama, Hitoshi; Morita, Manabu; Ito, Kanade; Koyama, Shihoko; Hase, Akihiro; Tsuboya, Toru; Osaka, Ken

    2016-11-05

    Dental caries inequalities still severely burden individuals' and society's health, even in countries where fluoride toothpastes are widely used and the incidence of dental caries has been decreasing. School-based fluoride mouth-rinse (S-FMR) programs, a population strategy for dental caries prevention, might decrease dental caries inequalities. This study investigated the association between S-FMR and decreasing dental caries prevalence and caries-related inequalities in 12-year-olds by Japanese prefecture. We conducted an ecological study using multi-year prefecture-level aggregated data of children born between 1994 and 2000 in all 47 Japanese prefectures. Using two-level linear regression analyses (birth year nested within prefecture), the association between S-FMR utilization in each prefecture and 12-year-olds' decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT), which indicates dental caries experience in their permanent teeth, were examined. Variables that could explain DMFT inequalities between prefectures, such as dental caries experience at age 3 years, dentist density, and prefectural socioeconomic circumstances, were also considered. High S-FMR utilization was significantly associated with low DMFT at age 12 (coefficient -0.011; 95% confidence interval, -0.018 to -0.005). S-FMR utilization explained 25.2% of the DMFT variance between prefectures after considering other variables. Interaction between S-FMR and dental caries experience at age 3 years showed that S-FMR was significantly more effective in prefectures where the 3-year-olds had high levels of dental caries experience. S-FMR, administered to children of all socioeconomic statuses, was associated with lower DMFT. Utilization of S-FMR reduced dental caries inequalities via proportionate universalism.

  9. Developmental stages of fish blood flukes, Cardicola forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae), in their polychaete intermediate hosts collected at Pacific bluefin tuna culture sites in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Shin, Sang Phil; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Sugihara, Yukitaka; Uchida, Hiro'omi

    2017-02-01

    Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Also, Neoamphitrite vigintipes (formerly as Amphitrite sp. sensu Shirakashi et al., 2016), the intermediate host of C. forsteri, were collected from culture cages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The terebellid intermediate hosts harbored the sporocysts and cercariae in their body cavity. Developmental stages of these blood flukes were molecularly identified using species specific PCR primers. In this paper, we describe the cercaria and sporocyst stages of C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri and compare their morphological characteristics among three Cardicola blood flukes infecting PBT. We also discuss phylogenetic relations of the six genera of the terebellid intermediate hosts (Artacama, Lanassa, Longicarpus, Terebella, Nicolea and Neoamphitrite) of blood flukes infecting marine fishes, based on their morphological characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimation of Regional-Scale Actual Evapotranspiration in Okayama prefecture in Japan using Complementary Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroizumi, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Miura, T.

    2008-12-01

    It is important to estimate accurately a water balance in watershed for proposing a reuse of water resources and a proper settlement of water utilization. Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important factor of water balance. Therefore, it is needed to estimate accurately the actual ET. The objective of this study is to estimate accurately monthly actual ET in Yoshii, Asahi, and Takahashi River watersheds in Okayama prefecture from 1999 to 2000. The monthly actual ET was calculated by a Morton and a modified Brutsaert and Stricker (B&S) method, using Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition Systems (AMeDAS) in the basin. The actual ET was estimated using land covers which were classified in 11 categories. The land covers includes the effects of albedo. The actual ET was related to the elevation at each AMeDAS station. Using this relationship, the actual ET at the 1 or 5 km grid-interval mesh in the basin was calculated, and finally, the distribution of actual ET was mapped. The monthly ET estimated by the modified B&S method were smaller than that by Morton method which showed a same tendency as the Penman potential ET (PET). The annual values of Morton"fs ET, modified B&S"fs ET, and PET were estimated as 796, 645, and 800 mm, respectively. The ET by the modified B&S was larger in hilly and mountainous areas than in settlement or city. In general, it was a reasonable result because city or settlement areas were covered with concrete and asphalt and the ET was controlled.

  11. Design of the health examination survey on early childhood physical growth in the Great East Japan Earthquake affected areas.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Chida, Shoichi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ono, Atsushi; Kato, Noriko; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1) children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43-48 months of age, 2) children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19-24 months of age, and 3) children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred. We collected their health examination data from local governments in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures. We also collected data from Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures to use as a control group. The survey items included birth information, anthropometric measurements, and methods of nutrition during infancy. Eighty municipalities from Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures and 21 from the control prefectures participated in the survey. As a result, we established three retrospective cohorts consisting of 13,886, 15,474, and 32,202 preschool children. The large datasets acquired for the present survey will provide valuable epidemiological evidence that should shed light on preschool children's physical growth in relation to the disaster. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. School-Based Fluoride Mouth-Rinse Program Dissemination Associated With Decreasing Dental Caries Inequalities Between Japanese Prefectures: An Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Aida, Jun; Taura, Katsuhiko; Kimoto, Kazunari; Ando, Yuichi; Aoyama, Hitoshi; Morita, Manabu; Ito, Kanade; Koyama, Shihoko; Hase, Akihiro; Tsuboya, Toru; Osaka, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental caries inequalities still severely burden individuals’ and society’s health, even in countries where fluoride toothpastes are widely used and the incidence of dental caries has been decreasing. School-based fluoride mouth-rinse (S-FMR) programs, a population strategy for dental caries prevention, might decrease dental caries inequalities. This study investigated the association between S-FMR and decreasing dental caries prevalence and caries-related inequalities in 12-year-olds by Japanese prefecture. Methods We conducted an ecological study using multi-year prefecture-level aggregated data of children born between 1994 and 2000 in all 47 Japanese prefectures. Using two-level linear regression analyses (birth year nested within prefecture), the association between S-FMR utilization in each prefecture and 12-year-olds’ decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT), which indicates dental caries experience in their permanent teeth, were examined. Variables that could explain DMFT inequalities between prefectures, such as dental caries experience at age 3 years, dentist density, and prefectural socioeconomic circumstances, were also considered. Results High S-FMR utilization was significantly associated with low DMFT at age 12 (coefficient −0.011; 95% confidence interval, −0.018 to −0.005). S-FMR utilization explained 25.2% of the DMFT variance between prefectures after considering other variables. Interaction between S-FMR and dental caries experience at age 3 years showed that S-FMR was significantly more effective in prefectures where the 3-year-olds had high levels of dental caries experience. Conclusions S-FMR, administered to children of all socioeconomic statuses, was associated with lower DMFT. Utilization of S-FMR reduced dental caries inequalities via proportionate universalism. PMID:27108752

  13. A new species of seagrass-boring Limnoria (Limnoriidae, Isopoda, Crustacea) from Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hiroki; Watabe, Hikari; Ohsawa, Takeshi A

    2017-02-15

    The marine seagrass-boring isopod, Limnoria rhombipunctata sp. nov. (Limnoriidae) is described from the rhizome of Phyllospadix iwatensis seagrass, in shallow coastal waters off Chiba Prefecture, Japan. L. rhombipunctata sp. nov. is distinguished from other Limnoria species by the unique carinae of pleonite 5 and pleotelson, two branched lacinia mobilis of the right mandible, 3 flagellar articles of antenna 1, and triangular epipod of the maxilliped. Specimens of L. magadanensis, a species similar to L. rhombipunctata sp. nov., are re-examined and compared with L. rhombipunctata sp. nov.

  14. Epidemiology of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle in Hokkaido, Japan, between September 2001 and December 2006.

    PubMed

    Kadohira, M; Stevenson, M A; Kanayama, T; Morris, R S

    2008-12-13

    Between October 2001 and December 2006 an estimated total of 6 million cattle in Japan were tested for BSE, with 31 returning a positive result. Exploratory mapping, the space-time scan statistic, and ordinal logistic regression have been used to describe the epidemiology of the 24 cases identified in the prefecture of Hokkaido, and to quantify the risk factors for the disease. Two birth cohort groups were affected: cattle born during a period of seven months in 1996, and cattle born between 1999 and 2001. The descriptive spatial analyses showed that eight of the 10 cases born in 1996 were born in areas with a relatively high density of dairy farms in the east of Hokkaido, but that the 14 later cases were more widely distributed throughout the prefecture, with equal numbers of cases in the east and the west. These findings provide indirect evidence of a single localised contamination of the cattle feed supply in 1996, and recycling of the infection after 1999.

  15. Participatory Investigation of the Great East Japan Disaster: PhotoVoice from Women Affected by the Calamity.

    PubMed

    Yoshihama, Mieko; Yunomae, Tomoko

    2018-05-02

    Disasters exacerbate predisaster inequities and intensify the vulnerability of women and other marginalized and disempowered groups. Thus, disaster policies and responses should incorporate the experiences and perspectives of those who are marginalized. The authors sought to conduct a participatory research project to help develop more inclusive, gender-informed disaster responses and policies in Japan. In June 2011, following three months of planning and preparation, they initiated a participatory examination of the impact of the Great East Japan Disaster using PhotoVoice methodology. Engaging the very women affected by the calamity, the authors first implemented the project in three localities in the hardest-hit areas of northern Japan-the prefectures of Fukushima, Miyagi, and Iwate. The authors have since expanded the project to other locations, and the project is ongoing. Focused on the planning, implementation, and outcomes of the initial phase, this article examines the role and potential of participatory action research using the PhotoVoice methodology in the aftermath of a major disaster.

  16. Novel reassortant influenza A(H1N2) virus derived from A(H1N1)pdm09 virus isolated from swine, Japan, 2012.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Miho; Takayama, Ikuyo; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Mika; Ishioka, Taisei; Yokota, Yoko; Kimura, Hirokazu; Tashiro, Masato; Kozawa, Kunihisa

    2013-12-01

    We isolated a novel influenza virus A(H1N2) strain from a pig on January 13, 2012, in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain was a novel type of double-reassortant virus derived from the swine influenza virus strains H1N1pdm09 and H1N2, which were prevalent in Gunma at that time.

  17. Changing Susceptibility to Non-Optimum Temperatures in Japan, 1972-2012: The Role of Climate, Demographic, and Socioeconomic Factors.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yeonseung; Yang, Daewon; Gasparrini, Antonio; Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Fook Sheng Ng, Chris; Kim, Yoonhee; Honda, Yasushi; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2018-05-02

    Previous studies have shown that population susceptibility to non-optimum temperatures has changed over time, but little is known about the related time-varying factors that underlie the changes. Our objective was to investigate the changing population susceptibility to non-optimum temperatures in 47 prefectures of Japan over four decades from 1972 to 2012, addressing three aspects: minimum mortality temperature (MMT) and heat- and cold-related mortality risks. In addition, we aimed to examine how these aspects of susceptibility were associated with climate, demographic, and socioeconomic variables. We first used a two-stage time-series design with a time-varying distributed lag nonlinear model and multivariate meta-analysis to estimate the time-varying MMT, heat- and cold-related mortality risks. We then applied linear mixed effects models to investigate the association between each of the three time-varying aspects of susceptibility and various time-varying factors. MMT increased from 23.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 23, 23.6] to 28.7 (27.0, 29.7) °C. Heat-related mortality risk [relative risk (RR) for the 99th percentile of temperature vs. the MMT] decreased from 1.18 (1.15, 1.21) to 1.01 (0.98, 1.04). Cold-related mortality risk (RR for the first percentile vs. the MMT) generally decreased from 1.48 (1.41, 1.54) to 1.35 (1.32, 1.40), with the exception of a few eastern prefectures that showed increased risk. The changing patterns in all three aspects differed by region, sex, and causes of death. Higher mean temperature was associated ( p <0.01) with lower heat risk, whereas higher humidity was associated with higher cold risk. A higher percentage of elderly people was associated with a higher cold risk, whereas higher economic strength of the prefecture was related to lower cold risk. Population susceptibility to heat has decreased over the last four decades in Japan. Susceptibility to cold has decreased overall except for several eastern prefectures where

  18. Influence of combustion-originated dioxins in atmospheric deposition on water quality of an urban river in Japan.

    PubMed

    Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Rie

    2018-02-01

    Bulk (wet and dry) deposition samples were collected in Saitama Prefecture, Japan throughout a year (February 8, 2012 to February 7, 2013) to estimate the influence of dioxins emitting from waste incinerators on river water quality. The annual deposition flux of dioxins was 3.3ng-toxic equivalent (TEQ)/m 2 /year. Source identification using indicative congeners estimated that 82% of dioxin TEQ in the bulk deposition (2.7ng-TEQ/m 2 /year) was combustion-originated, indicating that most of the dioxins in the deposition were derived from waste incinerators. In Saitama prefecture the annual flux of combustion-originated dioxins in depositions was apparently consistent with that of dioxin emission into the air from waste incinerators. The TEQ of combustion-originated dioxins in the deposition per rainfall was 2.4pg-TEQ/L on annual average, exceeding the environmental quality standard (EQS) for water in Japan of 1pg-TEQ/L. This suggests there is a possibility that dioxins in atmospheric deposition have a significant influence on the water quality of urban rivers which rainwater directly flows into because of many paved areas in the basins. The influence of combustion-originated dioxin in the deposition on the water quality of Ayase River, an urban river heavily polluted with dioxins, was estimated at 0.29pg-TEQ/L on annual average in 2015. It seems that dioxins in atmospheric deposition from waste incinerators have a significant influence on water quality of some urban rivers via rainwater though the dioxins in the ambient air have achieved the EQS for atmosphere at all monitoring sites in Japan. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Burden of disease in Japan: using national and subnational data to inform local health policy.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Stuart; Liao, Yi; Bilano, Ver; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-05-01

    The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study has been instrumental in guiding global health policy development since the early 1990s. The GBD 2010 project provided rich information about the key causes of mortality, disability-adjusted life years, and their associated risk factors in Japan and provided a unique opportunity to incorporate these data into health planning. As part of the latest update of this project, GBD 2013, the Japanese GBD collaborators plan to update and refine the available burden of disease data by incorporating sub-national estimates of the burden of disease at the prefectural level. These estimates will provide health planners and policy makers at both the national and prefectural level with new, more refined tools to adapt local public health initiatives to meet the health needs of local populations. Moreover, they will enable the Japanese health system to better respond to the unique challenges in their rapidly aging population and as a complex combination of non-communicable disease risk factors begin to dominate the policy agenda. Regional collaborations will enable nations to learn from the experiences of other nations that may be at different stages of the epidemiological transition and have different exposure profiles and associated health effects. Such analyses and improvements in the data collection systems will further improve the health of the Japanese, maintain Japan's excellent record of health equity, and provide a better understanding of the direction of health policy in the region.

  20. Sleep duration among children 8 months after the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami.

    PubMed

    Usami, Masahide; Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Kodaira, Masaki; Watanabe, Kyota; Aoki, Momoko; Katsumi, Chiaki; Matsuda, Kumi; Makino, Kazunori; Iijima, Sonoko; Harada, Maiko; Tanaka, Hiromi; Sasaki, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Ushijima, Hirokage; Saito, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate relationships between disaster damage conditions and sleep duration among children who survived the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami. The subjects comprised 12,524 children in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Ishinomaki City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. The Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms for Children 15 items (PTSSC-15), a self-completion questionnaire on traumatic symptoms, and a sleep questionnaire were distributed to them. A questionnaire regarding disaster damage conditions of the children's homes was distributed to their teachers. Of 12,524, an effective response was obtained from 11,692 (93.3%). Relationships between sleep duration and traumatic symptoms were displayed low correlations. Children with house damage and/or evacuation experiences slept for a significantly shorter time than children without these experiences. It is critical not only to examine traumatic symptoms in children but also to collect sleep duration and disaster damage conditions following natural disasters.

  1. Epizootiological Investigation of Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses in Japan in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Manabu; Ochi, Akihiro; Kikuchi, Takuya; Kobayashi, Minoru; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the factors causing an outbreak in 2014 of Getah virus infection among racehorses at the Miho training center, Japan, we isolated virus strains and performed an epizootiological investigation of affected horses and related horse populations. Three Getah virus isolates were recovered from clinical samples, and one of them (14-I-605) was used in a virus-neutralizing test. Of the affected horses (n = 33), 20 (60.6%) were 2-year-olds. We investigated the histories of Getah virus vaccination of the affected horses and the whole population at the Miho training center. Among the 2-year-old population, the prevalence of the disease in horses that had been vaccinated once was 14.1%. This was significantly higher than that in horses that had been vaccinated twice or more (1.3%; P < 0.01). Among horses that had entered the training center from farms in Ibaraki Prefecture surrounding the training center and from neighboring Chiba Prefecture, the rate of seropositivity for Getah virus was 13.0% in September 2014 and 42.9% in October 2014; that in the corresponding periods in 2010 and 2013 was 0%. In conclusion, we identified two possible causes of the outbreak of Getah virus infection in the training center in 2014: (i) the existence of susceptible horses that had received only one dose of vaccination before the outbreak and (ii) increased risk of exposure to the virus because of epizootic Getah virus infection among horses on surrounding farms in Ibaraki and Chiba prefectures. PMID:25972425

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Internet Addiction Among Employed Adults in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Nagisa; Tsuboi, Satoshi; Takahashi, Kenzo

    2018-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) among employed adults has not been reported using a large sample. To clarify the actual status of addictive Internet use among employed adults, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and the risk factors of IA and at-risk IA among employed adults in Japan. Methods This cross-sectional study surveyed all junior and senior high school personnel in Shimane Prefecture, a rural area in Japan. Eligible participants included 3,211 junior and senior high school personnel (1,259 men and 1,952 women). Participants completed a questionnaire on their activities and factors related to Internet use. Results The prevalence of IA and at-risk IA was 0.03% and 4.82%, respectively. Furthermore, game playing was shown to be the Internet activity most closely associated with at-risk IA. Conclusions This study showed that around 5% of school personnel in a rural area in Japan are at risk for developing addiction to the Internet and that using the Internet for game playing is related to at-risk IA. Our results suggest that employed adults should be instructed to use the Internet properly. PMID:29151474

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Internet Addiction Among Employed Adults in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsumura, Hideki; Kanda, Hideyuki; Sugaya, Nagisa; Tsuboi, Satoshi; Takahashi, Kenzo

    2018-04-05

    The prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) among employed adults has not been reported using a large sample. To clarify the actual status of addictive Internet use among employed adults, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and the risk factors of IA and at-risk IA among employed adults in Japan. This cross-sectional study surveyed all junior and senior high school personnel in Shimane Prefecture, a rural area in Japan. Eligible participants included 3,211 junior and senior high school personnel (1,259 men and 1,952 women). Participants completed a questionnaire on their activities and factors related to Internet use. The prevalence of IA and at-risk IA was 0.03% and 4.82%, respectively. Furthermore, game playing was shown to be the Internet activity most closely associated with at-risk IA. This study showed that around 5% of school personnel in a rural area in Japan are at risk for developing addiction to the Internet and that using the Internet for game playing is related to at-risk IA. Our results suggest that employed adults should be instructed to use the Internet properly.

  4. ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE DOSE FROM EXTERNAL EXPOSURE DUE TO SHORT-LIVED NUCLIDES IN THE PREFECTURES SURROUNDING FUKUSHIMA.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Hirokazu; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Gen

    2018-05-11

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in a release of radionuclides into the environment. Since the accident, measurements of radiation in the environment such as air dose rate and deposition density of radionuclides have been performed by various organizations and universities. In particular, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been performing observations of air dose rate using a car-borne survey system continuously over widespread areas. Based on the data measured by JAEA, we estimated effective dose from external exposure in the prefectures surrounding Fukushima. Since car-borne survey started a few months after the accident, the main contribution to measured data comes from 137Cs and 134Cs whose half-lives are relatively long. Using air dose rate of 137Cs and 134Cs and the ratio of deposition density of short-lived nuclides to that of 137Cs and 134Cs, we also estimated contributions to the effective dose from other short-lived nuclides.

  5. [Contribution of the rapid diagnostic tests for infectious diseases to the patient management in the Great East Japan earthquake].

    PubMed

    Hatta, Masumitsu; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale off the northeast coast of Honshu Island, Japan, produced a devastating tsunami that destroyed many towns and villages near the coast in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures. Miyagi Prefecture was the area most severely devastated by the tsunami, with extensive loss of life and property; hundreds of thousands of people lost their houses and were forced to move to evacuation areas. In the days and weeks following devastating natural disasters, the threat of infectious disease outbreak is high. Rapid diagnostic tests can be performed at or near the site of patient care and the tests were very useful in this disaster, because they enabled us to manage patients appropriately in the settings where medical resources were limited. Here we report actual cases where the rapid diagnostic tests for infectious diseases were useful in the patient management.

  6. Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H1N2) Virus Derived from A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Isolated from Swine, Japan, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Miho; Takayama, Ikuyo; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Mika; Ishioka, Taisei; Yokota, Yoko; Kimura, Hirokazu; Tashiro, Masato

    2013-01-01

    We isolated a novel influenza virus A(H1N2) strain from a pig on January 13, 2012, in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain was a novel type of double-reassortant virus derived from the swine influenza virus strains H1N1pdm09 and H1N2, which were prevalent in Gunma at that time. PMID:24274745

  7. Estimate of the Potential Amount of Low-Level Waste from the Fukushima Prefecture - 12370

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Carolyn; Olson, Eric A.J.; Elmer, John

    2012-07-01

    The amount of waste generated by the cleanup of the Fukushima Prefecture (Fukushima-ken) following the releases from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident (March 2011) is dependent on many factors, including: - Contamination amounts; - Cleanup levels determined for the radioisotopes contaminating the area; - Future land use expectations and human exposure scenarios; - Groundwater contamination considerations; - Costs and availability of storage areas, and eventually disposal areas for the waste; and - Decontamination and volume reduction techniques and technologies used. For the purposes of estimating these waste volumes, Fukushima-ken is segregated into zones of similar contamination level andmore » expected future use. Techniques for selecting the appropriate cleanup methods for each area are shown in a decision tree format. This approach is broadly applied to the 20 km evacuation zone and the total amounts and types of waste are estimated; waste resulting from cleanup efforts outside of the evacuation zone is not considered. Some of the limits of future use and potential zones where residents must be excluded within the prefecture are also described. The size and design of the proposed intermediate storage facility is also discussed and the current situation, cleanup, waste handling, and waste storage issues in Japan are described. The method for estimating waste amounts outlined above illustrates the large amount of waste that could potentially be generated by remediation of the 20 km evacuation zone (619 km{sup 2} total) if the currently proposed cleanup goals are uniformly applied. The Japanese environment ministry estimated in early October that the 1 mSv/year exposure goal would make the government responsible for decontaminating about 8,000 km{sup 2} within Fukushima-ken and roughly 4,900 km{sup 2} in areas outside the prefecture. The described waste volume estimation method also does not give any consideration to areas with localized hot

  8. Molecular characterization of Fasciola flukes obtained from wild sika deer and domestic cattle in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Shiroma, Tomoko; Kariya, Tatsuya; Nakao, Ryo; Ohari, Yuma; Hayashi, Kei; Fukumoto, Shinya

    2017-10-01

    The number of wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) continues to increase in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. The major concern for the livestock industry is the transmission of pathogens between sika deer and cattle. Fasciolosis is an important disease that can occur in both animals. The aim of this study was to examine the possible mutual transmission of this disease in Hokkaido Prefecture. A total of 105 Fasciola flukes were obtained from sika deer and 96 from domestic cattle. The Fasciola flukes in Japan are reported to possess no mature sperm. However, in this study, 14 flukes from sika deer and eight flukes from cattle contained mature sperm in their seminal vesicles. All the Fasciola flukes from the two host animals had Fh/Fg type in nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) gene, with a mixed fragment pattern derived from F. hepatica and F. gigantica, which are considered to be hybrid Fasciola flukes. However, almost all the flukes had Fsp1 haplotype in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene, indicating that their maternal lineage was F. hepatica. A new haplotype, Fsp3, was detected in one fluke obtained from cattle and differed in one nucleotide from Fsp1. Therefore, the Fasciola flukes detected in both host species had almost identical molecular characteristics. These findings suggest the mutual transmission of Fasciola flukes between sika deer and domestic cattle in Hokkaido. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Assessment of potable water quality including organic, inorganic, and trace metal concentrations.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Mst Shamsun; Zhang, Jing

    2012-02-01

    The quality of drinking water (tap, ground, and spring) in Toyama Prefecture, Japan was assessed by studying quality indicators including major ions, total carbon, and trace metal levels. The physicochemical properties of the water tested were different depending on the water source. Major ion concentrations (Ca(2+), K(+), Si(4+), Mg(2+), Na(+), SO(4)(2-), HCO(3)(-), NO(3)(-), and Cl(-)) were determined by ion chromatography, and the results were used to generate Stiff diagrams in order to visually identify different water masses. Major ion concentrations were higher in ground water than in spring and tap water. The relationship between alkaline metals (Na(+) and K(+)), alkaline-earth metals (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)), and HCO(3)(-) showed little difference between deep and shallow ground water. Toyama ground, spring, and tap water were all the same type of water mass, called Ca-HCO(3). The calculated total dissolved solid values were below 300 mg/L for all water sources and met World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. Trace levels of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, Zn, Sr, and Hg were detected in ground, spring, and tap water sources using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, and their levels were below WHO and Japanese water quality standard limits. Volatile organic carbon compounds were quantified by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the measured concentrations met WHO and Japanese water quality guidelines. Total trihalomethanes (THMs) were the major contaminant detected in all natural drinking water sources, but the concentration was highest in tap water (37.27 ± 0.05 μg/L). Notably, THMs concentrations reached up to 1.1 ± 0.05 μg/L in deep ground water. The proposed model gives an accurate description of the organic, inorganic, and trace heavy metal indicators studied here and may be used in natural clean water quality management. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  10. PRESENT CONDITION AND MEASURES TO EXPAND OF VOLUNTARY AGREEMENT ON PLASTIC SHOPPING BAGS REDUCTION AT THE PREFECTURAL LEVEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Mayuka; Kanaya, Ken

    Purpose of this research is to clear present condition and measures to expand of voluntary agreement on plastic shopping bags reduction at the prefectural level. Methods of this research are questionnaire survey to prefectures implementing the agreement and survey by i town page to the number of stores of companies and the number of companies in the prefectures. Findings of this research are as follows: 1. The refusal rate of plastic shopping bags was 10-40% before the implementation of voluntary agreements. And the rate is approximately 70-90% after the implementation. Therefore, before and after the implementation of voluntary agreements, the refusal rate of plastic shopping bags is approximately 40-70% less. 2. It is suggested that the time and number of meetings from proposal to conclusion of the agreement are related in some way, to the ratio of stores participating. On the participation of administration, the ratio of stores participating in the case in which prefecture and cities participate is higher than in the case in which prefecture participates.

  11. Reliability of telecommunications systems following a major disaster: survey of secondary and tertiary emergency institutions in Miyagi Prefecture during the acute phase of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Abe, Yoshiko; Washio, Toshikatsu; Arafune, Tatsuhiko; Sato, Dai; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Ochi, Sae; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2014-04-01

    Telecommunication systems are important for sharing information among health institutions to successfully provide medical response following disasters. The aim of this study was to clarify the problems associated with telecommunication systems in the acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11, 2011). All 72 of the secondary and tertiary emergency hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture were surveyed to evaluate the telecommunication systems in use during the 2011 Great Japan Earthquake, including satellite mobile phones, multi-channel access (MCA) wireless systems, mobile phones, Personal Handy-phone Systems (PHS), fixed-line phones, and the Internet. Hospitals were asked whether the telecommunication systems functioned correctly during the first four days after the earthquake, and, if not, to identify the cause of the malfunction. Each telecommunication system was considered to function correctly if the hospital staff could communicate at least once in every three calls. Valid responses were received from 53 hospitals (73.6%). Satellite mobile phones functioned correctly at the highest proportion of the equipped hospitals, 71.4%, even on Day 0. The MCA wireless system functioned correctly at the second highest proportion of the equipped hospitals. The systems functioned correctly at 72.0% on Day 0 and at 64.0% during Day 1 through Day 3. The main cause of malfunction of the MCA wireless systems was damage to the base station or communication lines (66.7%). Ordinary (personal or general communication systems) mobile phones did not function correctly at any hospital until Day 2, and PHS, fixed-line phones, and the Internet did not function correctly at any area hospitals that were severely damaged by the tsunami. Even in mildly damaged areas, these systems functioned correctly at <40% of the hospitals during the first three days. The main causes of malfunction were a lack of electricity (mobile phones, 25.6%; the Internet, 54.8%) and damage to the base stations

  12. Investigation of formaldehyde pollution of tap water and rain water using a novel visual colorimetry.

    PubMed

    Murai, K; Okano, M; Kuramitz, H; Hata, N; Kawakami, T; Taguchi, S

    2008-01-01

    The pollution of tap water and rain water with formaldehyde in Toyama Pref., Japan was investigated by means of a simple, rapid and cost-effective visual colorimetry developed by us. The levels of formaldehyde in three tap waters from different sources of dams on mountainside and a well-water pumped in urban area in Toyama Pref. were lower than 0.01 mg L(-1) that was the detection limit of the colorimetry. On the other hand, rain waters were seriously polluted with formaldehyde. Rain waters were sampled from three different sites (urban area, top of hill and industrial area) in Toyama Pref. from autumn to winter in 2006. The levels of formaldehyde in the rain waters ranged from 0.07 to 0.30 mg L(-1). The analytical results by the visual colorimetry were in good agreement with those obtained by GC-MS method. It was confirmed that the colorimetry is excellent for practical use for the determination of formaldehyde. It must be concerned about the pollution of rainwater with formaldehyde, when rain water is applied for tap water and miscellaneous purpose. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  13. Estimation and Simulation of Inter-station Green's Functions in the Beppu-Bay Area, Oita Prefecture, Southwest Japan: the Effect of Sedimentary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, T.; Yoshimi, M.; Komatsu, M.; Takenaka, H.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous long-term observations of ambient noise (microseisms) were performed from August 2014 to February 2017 in the Beppu-Bay area, Oita prefecture, to investigate S-wave velocity structure of deep sedimentary basin (Hayashida et al., 2015SSJ; Yoshimi and Hayashida, 2017WCEE). The observation array consists of 12 broadband stations with an average spacing of 12 km. We applied the seismic interferometry technique to the ambient noise data and derived nine-component ambient noise cross-correlation functions (Z-R, Z-T, Z-Z, R-R, R-T, R-Z, T-R, T-T, and T-Z components) between 66 pairs of stations (distance of 6.4 km to 65.2 km). We assumed the stacked cross-correlation functions as "observed Green's functions" between two stations and estimated group velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in the frequency between 0.2 and 0.5 Hz (Hayashida et al., 2017AGU-JpGU). Theoretical Green's functions for all stations pairs were also calculated using the finite difference method (HOT-FDM, Nakamura et al., 2012BSSA), with an existing three-dimensional basin structure model (J-SHIS V2) with land and seafloor topography and a seawater layer (Okunaka et al., 2016JpGU) and a newly constructed basin structure model of the target area (Yoshimi et al., 2017AGU). The comparisons between observed and simulated Green's functions generally show good agreements in the frequency range between 0.2 and 0.5 Hz. On the other hand, both observed and simulated Green's functions for some station pairs whose traverse lines run across the deeper part of the sedimentary basin (> 2000 m) show prominent later phases that might be generated and propagated inside the basin. This indicates that the understanding of the phase generation and propagation processes can be a key factor to validate the basin structure model and we investigated the characteristics of the later phases, such as its particle motions and arrival times, using observed and simulated Green's functions in detail. Acknowledgements

  14. Deriving the 12-Lead Electrocardiogram From Four Standard Leads Based on the Frank Torso Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    System The University of Aizu, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan Abstract – This paper proposes a lead method and a processing means for monitoring the 12...Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es) The University of Aizu Graduate School of Information System Fukushima Prefecture, Japan Performing

  15. [Suicides in Tochigi Prefecture in 2007-2008: epidemiologic features based on police data].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yosikazu; Ito, Takeshi; Chihara, Izumi; Sadakane, Atsuko; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Aoyama, Yasuko; Uehara, Ritei

    2010-09-01

    To reveal the epidemiologic features of suicides in Tochigi Prefecture using police data, and to discuss critical points to improve suicide prevention and advantages and disadvantages of police data. Individual data for suicides during a 2 year period of 2007 and 2008 provided by the Tochigi Police were analyzed. In the observed 2 years, there were 1166 cases of suicide (865 males and 301 females), a higher rate per population in Tochigi than that for the whole of Japan. The age-specific number was highest in the 50's among males, whereas the numbers were similar between the 30's and 70's among females. The age-specific number per population was higher than that for the whole of Japan for individuals in their 20's and 30's. The number was highest in early morning at around 10 o'clock in the weekdays. Of all cases, 58.1% committed suicides at home, and 58.0% were by hanging. As causes of suicides, selected as the 3 most common by the police, health problems were top (61.3%), followed by economic (22.7%) and familial (17.3%) difficulties. With health problems, physical and mental diseases each accounted for approximately half. Those committing suicides because of the economic problems were dominantly males aged 20-69 years, many of whom had multiple debts. One third of the deceased cases left testamentary letters, and 15.9% had experiences of attempted suicide in the past. According to these results, we consider that the following 6 points are important to prevent suicides in Tochigi (1) improvement of school and occupational health targeting males aged 20 to 39 years; (2) persons at high risk should be kept always under close observation by someone such as a family member; (3) those having experience of attempted suicides should be formally treated as high risk persons; (4) consultation systems for various problems, especially for multiple debts, should be prepared and appropriately advertised; (5) mental health care should be provided for patients with physical

  16. Sleep Duration among Children 8 Months after the 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami

    PubMed Central

    Usami, Masahide; Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Kodaira, Masaki; Watanabe, Kyota; Aoki, Momoko; Katsumi, Chiaki; Matsuda, Kumi; Makino, Kazunori; Iijima, Sonoko; Harada, Maiko; Tanaka, Hiromi; Sasaki, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Ushijima, Hirokage; Saito, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Background To elucidate relationships between disaster damage conditions and sleep duration among children who survived the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami. Methods The subjects comprised 12,524 children in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Ishinomaki City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. The Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms for Children 15 items (PTSSC-15), a self-completion questionnaire on traumatic symptoms, and a sleep questionnaire were distributed to them. A questionnaire regarding disaster damage conditions of the children’s homes was distributed to their teachers. Of 12,524, an effective response was obtained from 11,692 (93.3%). Results Relationships between sleep duration and traumatic symptoms were displayed low correlations. Children with house damage and/or evacuation experiences slept for a significantly shorter time than children without these experiences. Conclusion It is critical not only to examine traumatic symptoms in children but also to collect sleep duration and disaster damage conditions following natural disasters. PMID:23738015

  17. Risk factors for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in Aomori, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohkuma, Hiroki; Tabata, Hidefumi; Suzuki, Shigeharu; Islam, Md Shafiqul

    2003-01-01

    Japan is known to have an incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) as high as that in Finland, where SAH is especially common. However, the risk factors for SAH in Japan are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors and then examine their possible roles in cases of SAH in Japan. Case-control data were collected in the Aomori prefecture between June 2000 and May 2001 and in the Shimokita area between 1989 and 1998. A history of hypertension, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus were examined as possible risk factors for SAH by using stepwise logistic regression analysis. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that a history of hypertension and current smoking increased the risk of SAH and that a history of hypercholesterolemia decreased the risk of SAH. Alcohol consumption and a history of diabetes mellitus were excluded from the model, because their log-likelihood ratios were not significant. The adjusted odds ratios, obtained by forcing matching factors, were 2.29 for a history of hypertension (95% CI, 1.66 to 3.16), 3.12 for current smoking (95% CI, 2.05 to 4.77), and 0.41 for a history of hypercholesterolemia (95% CI, 0.24 to 0.71). The prevalence of hypertension in control subjects was 27% in men and 31% in women, whereas the prevalence of cigarette smoking in control subjects was 46% in men and 9% in women. Hypertension and cigarette smoking seem to be independent risk factors for SAH in Japan. The high prevalence of hypertension in both sexes and the high prevalence of cigarette smoking in men in the general population might contribute to the high incidence of SAH in Japan.

  18. Fallen star legends and traditional religion of Japan: an aspect of star lore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Japanese star lore is a complex mixture of animism, Buddhism, Shinto-ism, Confucianism and folk beliefs. Although some studies have been done on rituals concerning constellation developed in esoteric Buddhism (e.g. Journal Culture and Cosmos, Vol. 10 no 1 and 2), studies on other aspects of Japanese star lore are limited, in particular, to the English audience.In historic literatures, there often mentioned abnormal astronomical phenomena, such as, eclipse, meteors and comets. In this paper, I will discuss the possibility of reference to these astronomical phenomena in order to talk about some historical facts.In western part of Japan, there are Shinto shrines and Buddhistic temples that are said to be built as monuments of fallen stars. Usually fallen stars were divided into three, and a trio of shrines/temples are said to be the remnants of this phenomenon. Similar legends are found in Kudamatsu (that means "fallen pine=pine where stars fallen") of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Bisei-cho (that means "beautiful star") of Okayama Prefecture, Hoshida (that means "rice field or village of star") shrine of Osaka, and also Hoshida shrine of Nagoya.The purpose of this presentation is not to argue whether fallen star legend was truly astronomical phenomenon, such as, meteor or not. Instead, I will discuss why similar legends have been talked concerning the origin of particular shrines or temples. Citing Eliade who related gorge and alchemy producing spark to astronomical phenomena, I will disclose the possibility to relate these astronomical legends to the coming of the naturalized Japanese from Korean Peninsula who introducd forge to Japan abound 5 to 6 centuries.

  19. Social Capital Enhanced Disaster Preparedness and Health Consultations after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Power Station Accident

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Murakami, Michio; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in 2011, there was a strong demand to promote disaster preparedness approaches and health checkups for the prevention of lifestyle diseases. This study examined the yearly change in the percentage of those who prepared for disasters and who utilized health checkups in Fukushima Prefecture, and identified the factors governing disaster preparedness and utilization of health checkups. We used the public opinion survey from 2011 to 2015 (n = 677–779 each year) on prefectural policies that is conducted every year by the Fukushima Prefecture government Public Consultation Unit. We found that the percentage of those who prepare for disasters decreased, while that for health checkups did not significantly change. With regard to disaster preparedness, experiences of disaster enhance disaster preparedness, while bonds with other local people help to maintain preparedness. For health checkups, familiarity with the welfare service was the most important factor governing such consultations. The findings suggest that social capital should be promoted in order to improve disaster preparedness. The findings also suggest that residents’ accessibility to medical and welfare services is also important in promoting the utilization of health checkups. PMID:29538320

  20. Flood Hazard Assessment of the coastal lowland in the Kujukuri Plain of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, using GIS and multicriteria decision analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, Huali; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Ito, Yuka; Sawamukai, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Floods, the most common natural disaster in the world, cause serious loss of life and economic damage. Flood is one of the disasters in the coastal lowland along the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Many natural and human activities have changed the surface environment of the Plain. These include agricultural development, urban and industrial development, change of the drainage patterns of the land surface, deposition and/or erosion of the river valleys, and so on. In addition, wide spread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by the abstraction of natural gas dissolved in groundwater. The locations of the groundwater extraction include nearby the coast, and it may increase the flood risk. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to develop hazard maps for protecting surface environment and land-use planning. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) provides methodology and techniques for analyzing complex decision problems, which often involve incommensurable data or criteria. Also, Geographical Information System (GIS) is the powerful tool since it manages large amount of spatial data involved in MCDA. The purpose of this study is to present a flood hazard model using MCDA techniques with GIS support in a region where primary data are scare. The model incorporates six parameters: river system, topography, land-use, flood control project, passing flood from coast, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 meter resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30,000 scale river watershed map, and precipitation data from precipitation observation stations around the study area. River system map was created by merging the river order, the line density, and the river sink point density layers. Land-use data were derived from Landsat-TM images. A final hazard map for 2004, as an example, was

  1. Isolation and characterization of a novel Rhabdovirus from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kouji; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Hamasaki, Chinami; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Endoh, Daiji; Nagata, Noriyo; Nagai, Makoto; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Maeda, Ken

    2015-09-30

    A novel rhabdovirus was isolated from the serum of a healthy Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and identified using the rapid determination system for viral nucleic acid sequences (RDV), next-generation sequencing, and electron microscopy. The virus was tentatively named wild boar rhabdovirus 1 (WBRV1). Phylogenetic analysis of the entire genome sequence indicated that WBRV1 is closely related to Tupaia rhabdovirus (TRV), which was isolated from cultured cells of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue of tree shrew. TRV has not been assigned to any genus of Rhabdoviridae till date. Analysis of the L gene indicated that WBRV1 belongs to the genus Vesiculovirus. These observations suggest that both TRV and WBRV1 belong to a new genus of Rhabdoviridae. Next-generation genome sequencing of WBRV1 revealed 5 open reading frames of 1329, 765, 627, 1629, and 6336 bases in length. The WBRV1 gene sequences are similar to those of other rhabdoviruses. Epizootiological analysis of a population of wild boars in Wakayama prefecture in Japan indicated that 6.5% were positive for the WBRV1 gene and 52% were positive for WBRV1-neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, such viral neutralizing antibodies were found in domestic pigs in another prefecture. WBRV1 was inoculated intranasally and intraperitoneally into SCID and BALB/c mice and viral RNA was detected in SCID mice, suggesting that WBRV1 can replicate in immunocompromised mice. These results indicate this novel virus is endemic in wild animals and livestock in Japan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates dispersed across Japan by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yingxin; Terajima, Jun; Saito, Yasunori; Suzuki, Reiko; Takai, Nobuko; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Morita-Ishihara, Tomoko; Ohnishi, Makoto; Miura, Masashi; Iyoda, Sunao; Mitobe, Jiro; Wang, Binyou; Watanabe, Haruo

    2008-01-01

    We identified seven distinct subtypes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 isolates that were derived from sporadic cases and outbreaks from multiple prefectures in Japan in 2005. A surveillance system utilizing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PulseNet Japan, was used. Some strains showed indistinguishable PFGE patterns using another restriction enzyme (BlnI or SpeI) in each subtype of EHEC O157:H7 isolates that were routinely subtyped by the XbaI PFGE pattern. In order to examine the genotypic relatedness of these strains, we carried out a multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). By using the MLVA system, we found that three of seven subtypes of EHEC O157:H7 strains that were isolated from sporadic cases dispersed across multiple prefectures within a few months showed indistinguishable PFGE patterns and identical MLVA types. Strains belonging to the other four subtypes of EHEC O157:H7 in the PFGE analysis were further classified into different clusters of EHEC O157:H7. Therefore, compared to PFGE, MLVA showed greater discriminatory power with respect to analysis of the isolates in this study.

  3. Management of a typhoon-induced landslide in Otomura (Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Kazunori; Marcato, Gianluca; Nomura, Yasuhiro; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2010-12-01

    Late in January 2004 slope instability evidence such as cracks and subsidence appeared on a retaining wall along National Highway 168, near Otomura (Nara Prefecture, Japan). This road plays a strategic role as a long distance route for passenger vehicles and trucks, therefore detailed investigations and constant surveillance have to be carried out in order to manage the induced risk situations. Six months later, on August 10th, a large landslide occurred due to heavy rainfalls related to typhoons #10 and #11 that hit Japan on the first week of August. Field and aerial surveys of the site were carried out soon after the appearance of the first geomorphologic evidence of landslide movements, and a monitoring system was immediately set up. Landslide displacements have been measured since the early stage of movement and road traffic was strictly controlled in order to minimize possible damage. This paper illustrates the effects of landslide activation and the investigations carried out in order to assess landslide hazard and predict the time of failure. Suitable methods for risk management oriented to increase the public safety and including risk control and crisis mitigation acts are also discussed.

  4. Radiology diagnostic devices under emergency electric power at disaster base hospitals during the acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake: results of a survey of all disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Maezawa, Shota; Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Matsumura, Takashi; Egawa, Shinichi; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the management of emergency electric power and the operation of radiology diagnostic devices after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Timing of electricity restoration, actual emergency electric power generation, and whether radiology diagnostic devices were operational and the reason if not were investigated through a questionnaire submitted to all 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture in February and March 2013. Commercial electricity supply resumed within 3 days after the earthquake at 13 of 14 hospitals. Actual emergency electric power generation was lower than pre-disaster estimates at most of the hospitals. Only 4 of 11 hospitals were able to generate 60% of the power normally consumed. Under emergency electric power, conventional X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scanners worked in 9 of 14 (64%) and 8 of 14 (57%) hospitals, respectively. The main reason conventional X-ray and CT scanners did not operate was that hospitals had not planned to use these devices under emergency electric power. Only 2 of the 14 hospitals had a pre-disaster plan to allocate emergency electric power, and all devices operated at these 2 hospitals. Pre-disaster plans to allocate emergency electric power are required for disaster base hospitals to effectively operate radiology diagnostic devices after a disaster. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;8:548-552).

  5. [History of ignorance of methylmercury toxicity and intoxication in Japan in relation to Minamata disease].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    The first reports of methylmercury intoxication appeared in 1865 and 1866. These reports had sensational effects in European countries, and were introduced not only in journals but also in newspapers. These two reports were referable in Japan at the latest in 1927. The formation of organic mercury in the production of acetoaldehyde was also referable in 1906 in Japan. In 1931 (one year before the start of acetoaldehyde production in Minamata) these important reports cited above were referable in Kumamoto University, and there were warnings about the toxicity of organic mercury and environmental pollution prior to the start of acetoaldehyde production. However, not only the plant, authorities (Ministry of Welfare), and Kumamoto Prefectural Office, but also the scientists completely ignored these reports. Waste was dumped into the environment without any treatment. Serious pollution of the environment by organic mercury started, which resulted in the outbreak of Minamata disease (=methylmercury intoxication).

  6. Discrimination of wine from grape cultivated in Japan, imported wine, and others by multi-elemental analysis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hideaki; Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Kamada, Aya; Koyama, Kazuya; Okuda, Masaki; Fukuda, Hisashi; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2018-04-01

    Differences in mineral concentrations were examined among three types of wine in the Japanese market place: Japan wine, imported wine, and domestically produced wine mainly from foreign ingredients (DWF), where Japan wine has been recently defined by the National Tax Agency as domestically produced wine from grapes cultivated in Japan. The main objective of this study was to examine the possibility of controlling the authenticity of Japan wine. The concentrations of 18 minerals (Li, B, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni, Ga, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ba, and Pb) in 214 wine samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ICP-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In general, Japan wine had a higher concentration of potassium and lower concentrations of eight elements (Li, B, Na, Si, S, Co, Sr, and Pb) as compared with the other two groups of wine. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models based on concentrations of the 18 minerals facilitated the identification of three wine groups: Japan wine, imported wine, and DWF with a 91.1% classification score and 87.9% prediction score. In addition, an LDA model for discrimination of wine from four domestic geographic origins (Yamanashi, Nagano, Hokkaido, and Yamagata Prefectures) using 18 elements gave a classification score of 93.1% and a prediction score of 76.4%. In summary, we have shown that an LDA model based on mineral concentrations is useful for distinguishing Japan wine from other wine groups, and can contribute to classification of the four main domestic wine-producing regions of Japan. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurements of air dose rates in and around houses in the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan after the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Norihiro; Mikami, Satoshi; Sato, Tetsuro; Saito, Kimiaki

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of air dose rates for 192 houses in a less contaminated area (<0.5 μSv h -1 ) of the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan were conducted in both living rooms and/or bedrooms using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters and around the houses via a man-borne survey at intervals of several meters. The relation of the two air dose rates (inside and outside) for each house, including the background from natural radionuclides, was divided into several categories, determined by construction materials (light and heavy) and floor number, with the dose reduction factors being expressed as the ratio of the dose inside to that outside the house. For wooden and lightweight steel houses (classed as light), the dose rates inside and outside the houses showed a positive correlation and linear regression with a slope-intercept form due to the natural background, although the degree of correlation was not very high. The regression coefficient, i.e., the average dose reduction factor, was 0.38 on the first floor and 0.49 on the second floor. It was found that the contribution of natural radiation cannot be neglected when we consider dose reduction factors in less contaminated areas. The reductions in indoor dose rates are observed because a patch of ground under each house is not contaminated (this is the so-called uncontaminated effect) since the shielding capability of light construction materials is typically low. For reinforced steel-framed concrete houses (classed as heavy), the dose rates inside the houses did not show a correlation with those outside the houses due to the substantial shielding capability of these materials. The average indoor dose rates were slightly higher than the arithmetic mean value of the outdoor dose rates from the natural background because concrete acts as a source of natural radionuclides. The characteristics of the uncontaminated effect were clarified through Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that there is a great variation

  8. Epidemiological evaluation of cats rescued at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Miharu, Fukushima, after the Great East Japan Earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Aki; Martinez-Lopez, Beatriz; Kass, Philip

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this research were to report characteristics of rescued cats at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Fukushima prefecture, Japan, and evaluate how adoptability, stress level, upper respiratory infection (URI) syndrome incidence, and URI pathogen prevalence were associated with the cat's shelter intake source and shelter characteristics. All cats admitted to the Miharu shelter, Fukushima Prefecture from 2012 to 2014 were included in the study. The results demonstrate that in situ corticosteroid and antibiotic use were associated with cats subsequently developing upper respiratory infections (URI). Disease and cat behavior were unassociated with adoption. Cats in group housing had lower stress metrics than cats individually housed. Prevalences of URI pathogens exceeded 80%, but symptomatic cats were uncommon. Environmental enrichment and stress reduction strategies are important in controlling URI and reducing the need for corticosteroids and antibiotics in shelters. Preemptive protocols are important in preventing shelter admission of cats during disasters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An occurrence of salmonella infection in cranes at the Izumi Plains, Japan.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y; Tohya, Y; Nakagami, Y; Yamashita, M; Sugimura, T

    2001-08-01

    Ten thousand or more cranes migrate from Siberia and stay at the Izumi Plains, in the northern part of Kagoshima prefecture, Japan, every winter season. Four hundred and twenty samples of cranes feces were obtained 1995 to 1997 and investigated for Salmonella. As a result, twenty-nine of Salmonella strains were isolated. All isolates were determined to be identical, Salmonella Typhimurium (04:i: 1,2). since all of them indicated the same patterns of plasmid profiling and antibiotic sensitive spectrums. The isolates showed a high pathogenicity to chicken, and most of them were isolated in the latter half of the winter season; therefore the cranes were infected with the isolates during the winter season.

  10. [Distributions of the numbers of monitoring stations in the surveillance of infectious diseases in Japan].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Y; Hashimoto, S; Taniguchi, K; Nagai, M

    1999-12-01

    To describe the characteristics of monitoring stations for the infectious disease surveillance system in Japan, we compared the distributions of the number of monitoring stations in terms of population, region, size of medical institution, and medical specialty. The distributions of annual number of reported cases in terms of the type of diseases, the size of medical institution, and medical specialty were also compared. We conducted a nationwide survey of the pediatrics stations (16 diseases), ophthalmology stations (3 diseases) and the stations of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) (5 diseases) in Japan. In the survey, we collected the data of monitoring stations and the annual reported cases of diseases. We also collected the data on the population, served by the health center where the monitoring stations existed, from the census. First, we compared the difference between the present number of monitoring stations and the current standard established by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW). Second, we compared the distribution of all medical institutions in Japan and the monitoring stations in terms of the size of the medical institution. Third, we compared the average number of annual reported cases of diseases in terms of the size of medical institution and the medical specialty. In most health centers, the number of monitoring stations achieved the current standard of MHW, while a few health centers had no monitoring station, although they had a large population. Most prefectures also achieved the current standard of MHW, but some prefectures were well below the standard. Among pediatric stations, the sampling proportion of large hospitals was higher than other categories. Among the ophthalmology stations, the sampling proportion of hospitals was higher than other categories. Among the STD stations, the sampling proportion of clinics of obstetrics and gynecology was lower than other categories. Except for some diseases, it made little difference in the

  11. [Start of PTB (Phthisis) mortality statistics in Japan (1)].

    PubMed

    Shimao, Tadao

    2008-12-01

    First "Statistics Annual", which included the population and vital statistics was published in Japan in 1882, and the numbers of death classified by major causes of death were tabulated by sex and age groups and by prefecture. Koch R reported the discovery of tubercle bacilli as the pathogen for TB in 1882, and since the latter half of 1883, the numbers of death due to PTB (Phthisis) were tabulated by prefecture, and by sex and age groups since 1884 annually except for 1885. Based on the population statistics and the numbers of PTB death, PTB (Phthisis) mortality was calculated by sex and age groups, and the results were shown in Table 1. PTB mortality per 100,000 increased from 78.2 in 1884 to 171.9 in 1899. Sex- and age-specific PTB mortality in 1884 showed a pattern increasing with age, and the PTB mortality of male was higher than that of female in adult as shown in Fig. 2. In 1889, low peak of mortality was seen in the age groups 15-19 and 20-29, and in these age groups, the PTB mortality was higher in female than in male. Such trend was seen more markedly in 1894 and 1899, while the rate was higher in male than in female in the age groups over 40. Trend of PTB mortality by sex and age groups was shown in Fig. 3. Rapid increase of PTB mortality in the age groups 10-14 and 20-29 could be explained by the rapid increase of young women workers in fast growing silk and spinning industries, but how rapid increase of PTB mortality in infants be explained? In "Statistics Annual", PTB (Phthisis) mortality rate by prefecture was printed, and the summarized table was shown in Table 2. The rates in 1883 and 1884 were calculated from the numbers of PTB death and the B-type population shown in the "Statistics Annual", which will be described in the next issue of this paper.

  12. Role of age and tumour stage in the temporal pattern of 'cure' from stomach cancer: a population-based study in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuri; Nakayama, Tomio; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Miyashiro, Isao; Ioka, Akiko; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Rachet, Bernard

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate progress in stomach cancer care in Japan since 1975. Population-based study of data extracted from the Osaka Cancer Registry. Population-based cancer registry in the area of Osaka Prefecture. All 66,032 cases diagnosed with a stomach cancer in Osaka Prefecture, Japan between 1975 and 2000 and registered in the Osaka Cancer Registry. 'Cure' fraction and median survival time for 'uncured' patients were estimated with multivariable mixture 'cure' model. The role played by age and stage at diagnosis on the changes in 'cure' parameters between 1975 and 2000 was evaluated. Missing stage was handled by multiple imputation approach. More than 50% of the patients diagnosed with a stomach cancer in 1996-2000 were estimated 'cured' from their cancer, corresponding to a 20% increase since 1975-1980. Median survival time for 'uncured' patients however remained unchanged at about 8 months. 'Cure' fraction was over 85% for localised tumours and 30% for regional tumours, but stayed as low as 2.5% for distant metastatic cancers. Improvement was underestimated by about 10% because of ageing of cancer patients. Changes in stage distribution explained up to 40% of the increase in 'cure' fraction among men and up to 13% in women. Overdiagnosis was unlikely to play any role in these patterns. 'Cure' fraction from stomach cancer dramatically increased in Osaka, Japan since 1975, partly because of earlier stage at diagnosis, but mostly due to improvement in treatment of stomach cancer patients. This study, based on a leading country in term of stomach cancer management, provides insightful results for other countries in which 'cure' fraction is usually much lower. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. INVESTIGATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTS RELATED TO THE TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE (THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE) CONDUCTED IN FUKUSHIMA

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, TOSHIYUKI; HASHIMOTO, YASUHIRO; YOSHIDA, MASAYUKI; OHNO, KIKUO; OHTO, HITOSHI; ABE, MASAFUMI

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Backgrounds: On March 11th 2011, the Tohoku region of Japan was struck by catastrophic disasters. Thousands of people were killed due to a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and its subsequent tsunami. Furthermore, a serious nuclear crisis occurred in Fukushima Prefecture as a result of the disasters, and an emergency evacuation was ordered to people living near the nuclear power plants. There was a lot of anxiety regarding lost families as well as the influences of radioactivity on the health of people and their children. Based on these urgent and uncertain situations, a number of research projects were developed at many institutes both inside and outside Fukushima. Methods: We herein report the investigative research projects related to the Tohoku Earthquake (The Great East Japan Earthquake) conducted after the disasters. The research projects were reviewed by the Institutional Review Board in Fukushima Medical University during the two years following the disasters. The research projects conducted in universities other than Fukushima Medical University were also examined using questionnaire analysis. Results: Among the research projects conducted in Fukushima Medical University (n=424), 7% (n=32) were disaster-related investigative research. The mean duration planned to pursue the projects was 25.5 months. Among these projects, those focusing on the health of Fukushima citizens were most common (n=9), followed by the influence of chronic exposure of radiation on chronic inflammatory disorders (n=6), and the mental health of Fukushima citizens (n=5). They were carefully reviewed for the purpose, suitability, and necessity from ethical as well as scientific viewpoints. The majority of the research projects focused on the effects of the Tohoku Earthquake and/or chronic exposure to low-dose radioactivity on the health of children and pregnant women, as well as on various disorders, such as mental health and chronic inflammatory diseases. On the other hand, among 58

  14. INVESTIGATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTS RELATED TO THE TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE (THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE) CONDUCTED IN FUKUSHIMA.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Masayuki; Ohno, Kikuo; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    On March 11(th) 2011, the Tohoku region of Japan was struck by catastrophic disasters. Thousands of people were killed due to a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and its subsequent tsunami. Furthermore, a serious nuclear crisis occurred in Fukushima Prefecture as a result of the disasters, and an emergency evacuation was ordered to people living near the nuclear power plants. There was a lot of anxiety regarding lost families as well as the influences of radioactivity on the health of people and their children. Based on these urgent and uncertain situations, a number of research projects were developed at many institutes both inside and outside Fukushima. We herein report the investigative research projects related to the Tohoku Earthquake (The Great East Japan Earthquake) conducted after the disasters. The research projects were reviewed by the Institutional Review Board in Fukushima Medical University during the two years following the disasters. The research projects conducted in universities other than Fukushima Medical University were also examined using questionnaire analysis. Among the research projects conducted in Fukushima Medical University (n=424), 7% (n=32) were disaster-related investigative research. The mean duration planned to pursue the projects was 25.5 months. Among these projects, those focusing on the health of Fukushima citizens were most common (n=9), followed by the influence of chronic exposure of radiation on chronic inflammatory disorders (n=6), and the mental health of Fukushima citizens (n=5). They were carefully reviewed for the purpose, suitability, and necessity from ethical as well as scientific viewpoints. The majority of the research projects focused on the effects of the Tohoku Earthquake and/or chronic exposure to low-dose radioactivity on the health of children and pregnant women, as well as on various disorders, such as mental health and chronic inflammatory diseases. On the other hand, among 58 projects we collected from 22

  15. Radiation-related anxiety among public health nurses in the Fukushima Prefecture after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Koji; Orita, Makiko; Goto, Aya; Kumagai, Atsushi; Yasui, Kiyotaka; Ohtsuru, Akira; Hayashida, Naomi; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Objective In Japan, public health nurses (PHNs) play important roles in managing the health of local residents, especially after a disaster. In this study, we assessed radiation anxiety and the stress processing capacity of PHNs in the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan, after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey among the PHNs (n=430) in July of 2015 via postal mail. The questions included demographic factors (sex, age and employment position), knowledge about radiation, degree of anxiety about radiation at the time of the FDNPS accident (and at present), by asking them to answer questions about radiation and the Sense of Coherence-13 (SOC-13). We classified the low and high levels of anxiety by asking them to answer questions about radiation, and compared the anxiety-negative (−) group with the anxiety-positive (+) group. Results Of the PHNs, 269 (62.6%) were classified in the anxiety (−) group and 161 (37.4%) were in the anxiety (+) group. When the multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted, the PHNs at the time of the accident (OR: 2.37, p=0.007), current general anxieties about radiation (OR: 3.56, p<0.001), current possession of materials to obtain knowledge about radiation (OR: 2.11, p=0.006) and knowledge of the childhood thyroid cancer increase after the Chernobyl accident (OR: 1.69, p=0.035) were significantly associated with anxiety after the FDNPS accident. The mean SOC-13 was 43.0±7.7, with no significant difference between the anxiety (−) group and anxiety (+) group (p=0.47). Conclusions Our study suggested that anxiety about radiation was associated with materials and knowledge about radiation in the PHNs in the Fukushima Prefecture 4 years after the FDNPS accident. It is important for PHNs to obtain knowledge and teaching materials about radiation, and radiation education programmes for PHNs must be established in areas that have nuclear facilities. PMID

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from feces of wild cranes migrating to Kagoshima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kitadai, Noriyuki; Obi, Takeshi; Yamashita, Shogo; Murase, Toshiyuki; Takase, Kozo

    2012-03-01

    Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was examined for 138 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from 192 fecal samples of wild cranes that migrated for wintering to the Izumi plain, Kagoshima prefecture in Japan. The numbers of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobials used in this study are as follows: oxytetracycline (OTC), 22 isolates; minocycline, 7 isolates; ampicillin (ABPC), 4 isolates; nalidixic acid, 4 isolates; enrofloxacin, 2 isolates; kanamycin, one isolate. Multidrug resistant isolates exhibiting 2-4 drug resistances were obtained. All of the OTC-resistant isolates carried either the tet (A) or tet(B) gene. The bla(TEM) gene was found in all of the ABPC-resistant isolates.

  17. Mapping the genetic diversity of HLA haplotypes in the Japanese populations

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Woei-Yuh; Liu, Xuanyao; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Kimura, Ryosuke; Nabika, Toru; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Tabara, Yasuharu; Yamamoto, Ken; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Akiyama, Koichi; Asano, Hiroyuki; Asayama, Kei; Haga, Toshikazu; Hara, Azusa; Hirose, Takuo; Hosaka, Miki; Ichihara, Sahoko; Imai, Yutaka; Inoue, Ryusuke; Ishiguro, Aya; Isomura, Minoru; Isono, Masato; Kamide, Kei; Kato, Norihiro; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Kikuya, Masahiro; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Matsuda, Ayako; Metoki, Hirohito; Miki, Tetsuro; Murakami, Keiko; Nabika, Toru; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohnaka, Keizo; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Rakugi, Hiromi; Satoh, Michihiro; Shiwaku, Kunihiro; Sugimoto, Ken; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takami, Yoichi; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Yamamoto, Ken; Yamamoto, Koichi; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Yasui, Daisaku; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Teo, Yik-Ying; Kato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Japan has often been viewed as an Asian country that possesses a genetically homogenous community. The basis for partitioning the country into prefectures has largely been geographical, although cultural and linguistic differences still exist between some of the districts/prefectures, especially between Okinawa and the mainland prefectures. The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) region has consistently emerged as the most polymorphic region in the human genome, harbouring numerous biologically important variants; nevertheless the presence of population-specific long haplotypes hinders the imputation of SNPs and classical HLA alleles. Here, we examined the extent of genetic variation at the MHC between eight Japanese populations sampled from Okinawa, and six other prefectures located in or close to the mainland of Japan, specifically focusing at the haplotypes observed within each population, and what the impact of any variation has on imputation. Our results indicated that Okinawa was genetically farther to the mainland Japanese than were Gujarati Indians from Tamil Indians, while the mainland Japanese from six prefectures were more homogeneous than between northern and southern Han Chinese. The distribution of haplotypes across Japan was similar, although imputation was most accurate for Okinawa and several mainland prefectures when population-specific panels were used as reference. PMID:26648100

  18. Increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yasumura, Seiji; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Sakai, Akira; Ohtsuru, Akira; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that control of cardiovascular risk factors deteriorates among residents after a natural disaster. This study assessed the hypothesis that the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) increased among residents in the evacuation zone of Fukushima prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake. This longitudinal study examined subjects aged 40-90 years using data collected from 26,163 participants (11,628 men and 14,535 women) sourced from general health checkups conducted in twelve communities, including the evacuation zone specified by the government, between 2008 and 2010. The study obtained 12-lead ECG tracings and conducted follow-up examinations from June 2011 to the end of March 2013. A total of 12,410 participants (5704 men and 6706 women, follow-up proportion: 47%) received follow-up examinations after the earthquake, with an average follow-up of 1.4 years. The prevalence of AF increased among participants after the earthquake (before: 1.9% vs. after: 2.4%, P<.001). During the follow-up period, 79 incidences of AF occurred among participants. Excess ethanol intake (≥44 g/day) and obesity showed associations with an increased risk of AF after the earthquake, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of 3.07 (1.55-6.08) and 1.87 (1.19-2.94), respectively. The prevalence of AF increased among residents in the evacuation zone of Fukushima prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake, with excess alcohol intake and obesity associated with an increased risk of AF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increasing Incidence of Tuberculosis Infection in the Coastal Region of Northern Miyagi after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tatsuya; Ohuchi, Miyako; Terui, Yuki; Kiryu, Kouji; Shikano, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake struck off the northeast coast of Japan. Within an hour of the earthquake, devastating tsunamis swept over the coastal region of the Miyagi Prefecture, facing Pacific Ocean. Accordingly, more than 400,000 residents were forced to stay at evacuation shelters. We investigated the changes in tuberculosis prevalence after the disaster. Annual data for all tuberculosis patients between April 1, 2009 and March 31, 2013 were extracted from the database of the Miyagi Prefectural Government. In the coastal region of Northern Miyagi, the number of tuberculosis patients increased in the post-disaster period (p < 0.001, 9.6 vs.19.1 per 100,000 people), compared to the pre-disaster period. In contrast, its prevalence did not change in the inland region of Northern Miyagi and the coastal and inland regions of Southern Miyagi. Importantly, in the inland and coastal regions of Northern Miyagi, the number of patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) increased in the post-disaster period (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in the coastal shelters, 11 evacuees with the history of contacting tuberculosis patients were diagnosed with LTBI, whereas no cases of LTBI patients were observed in the inland shelters. Thus, staying in the coastal shelters was a risk factor for contracting tuberculosis (OR: 19.31, 95% CI: 1.11-334.80); indeed, twice as many evacuees visited each coastal shelter on April 1, 2011, compared to the inland region. We should prepare the shelters to avoid overcrowding, and long-term observation is required to detect the prevalence of tuberculosis infection.

  20. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yingying; Abler, Laurie; Pan, Suiming; Henderson, Gail E; Wang, Xin; Yao, Xingliang; Parish, William L

    2014-02-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported STI in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n = 398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n = 2,186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou.

  1. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities

    PubMed Central

    Yingying, Huang; Abler, Laurie; Suiming, Pan; Henderson, Gail E.; Xin, Wang; Xingliang, Yao; Parish, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, STI/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STI) in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n=398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n=2186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou. PMID:24174289

  2. A new species of Psammogammarus (Amphipoda: Melitidae) from Kuchinoerabu Island, Japan, with a note on its feeding habits.

    PubMed

    Tomikawa, Ko; Kakui, Keiichi; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    A new melitoid Amphipoda, Psammogammarus mawatarii, is described from Kuchinoerabu Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. This is the first record of the genus from Asia. The new species is morphologically similar to P. garthi, but differs from the latter in the following features: 1) lateral cephalic lobe of head not strongly produced; 2) head lacking antennal sinus; and 3) posteroventral corner of epimeral plate 3 rounded. Morphology of maxillae 1 and 2, and mandible, and gut contents (harpacticoid Copepoda) of P. mawatarii indicate that the feeding type of the species seems to be, at least facultatively, carnivorous.

  3. Current status of in-hospital donation coordinators in Japan: nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Konaka, S; Shimizu, S; Iizawa, M; Ohkawara, H; Kato, O; Ashikari, J; Fukushima, N

    2013-05-01

    When the Japanese Organ Transplantation Act was issued, the Japanese Organ Transplantation Network (JOT) was established in 1997. JOT lists recipients, assesses and manages organ donors, and educates publics and headquarters for organ donations. JOT procurement transplant coordinators (PTC) play roles in obtaining consent from relatives for organ donation, donor evaluation and management, organ recovery management, organ transport, and care of donor families during and after donation. Every prefecture has at least one PTC who is mainly working in public education and hospital development. They also help the JOT PTC at the time of organ procurement. Most prefectures commission hospital staff in the procurement hospital to be an in-hospital PTC (In-Hp PTC), who make their hospital staff aware of organ donation and support organ procurement. Although the Act was revised in 2010 with brain-dead organ donation increased from 13 to 44 cases yearly, the number was still extremely smaller than other developed countries. In these circumstances, In-Hp PTC may play greater roles to increase donation and smooth procurement procedures Our primary aim was to describe the current status of In-Hp PTC in Japan. Between December 15, 2011, and January 31, 2012, we invited 1889 In-Hp PTC to complete a letter survey using a self-designed questionnaire. In all, 56 In-Hp PTC (40%) completed and returned it. The occupation of the respondents was nurse (66%), physician (18%), or other (16%). Although 52% of respondents belonged to the hospital, which was designated for brain-death organ donation by the government, only 46% had any experience with a cadaveric donor. Only 2% were full-time In-Hp PTC. They mainly played a role in preparing their own manual for organ procurement (57%), providing in-hospital lectures (44%) or their own simulation exercise (29%), as well as coordinating donation cases. Although 77% had attended seminar about organ donation provided by JOT or the prefecture PTC

  4. Childhood cancer incidence and survival in Japan and England: A population-based study (1993-2010).

    PubMed

    Nakata, Kayo; Ito, Yuri; Magadi, Winnie; Bonaventure, Audrey; Stiller, Charles A; Katanoda, Kota; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Rachet, Bernard

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to compare cancer incidence and trends in survival for children diagnosed in Japan and England, using population-based cancer registry data. The analysis was based on 5192 children with cancer (age 0-14 years) from 6 prefectural cancer registries in Japan and 21 295 children diagnosed in England during 1993-2010. Differences in incidence rates between the 2 countries were measured with Poisson regression models. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Incidence rates for Hodgkin lymphoma, renal tumors and Ewing sarcomas in England were more than twice as high as those in Japan. Incidence of germ cell tumors, hepatic tumors, neuroblastoma and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was higher in Japan than in England. Incidence of all cancers combined decreased in Japan throughout the period 1993 to 2010, which was mainly explained by a decrease in registration of neuroblastoma in infants. For many cancers, 5-year survival improved in both countries. The improvement in survival in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was particularly dramatic in both countries. However, 5-year survival remained less than 80% in 2005-2008 in both countries for AML, brain tumors, soft tissue sarcomas, malignant bone tumors and neuroblastoma (age 1-14 years). There were significant differences in incidence of several cancers between countries, suggesting variation in genetic susceptibility and possibly environmental factors. The decrease in incidence for all cancers combined in Japan was related to the cessation of the national screening program for neuroblastoma. The large improvement in survival in CML coincided with the introduction of effective therapy (imatinib). © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  5. The Great East-Japan Earthquake and devastating tsunami: an update and lessons from the past Great Earthquakes in Japan since 1923.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Akemi; Higashi, Hikari; Sakamoto, Takako; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2013-04-01

    Japan has a long history of fighting against great earthquakes that cause structural damage/collapses, fires and/or tsunami. On March 11, 2011 at 14:46 (Friday), the Great East-Japan Earthquake (magnitude 9.0) attacked the Tohoku region (northeastern Japan), which includes Sendai City. The earthquake generated a devastating tsunami, leading to unprecedented disasters (~18,500 victims) in coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, despite the fact that people living in the Tohoku region are well trained for tsunami-evacuation procedures, with the mindset of "Tsunami, ten-den-ko." This code means that each person should evacuate individually upon an earthquake. Sharing this rule, children and parents can escape separately from schools, houses or workplaces, without worrying about each other. The concept of ten-den-ko (individual evacuation) is helpful for people living in coastal areas of earthquake-prone zones around the world. It is also important to construct safe evacuation centers, because the March 11(th) tsunami killed people who had evacuated to evacuation sites. We summarize the current conditions of people living in the disaster-stricken areas, including the consequences of the Fukushima nuclear accident. We also describe the disaster responses as the publisher of the Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (TJEM), located in Sendai, with online support from Tokyo. In 1923, the Great Kanto Earthquake (magnitude 7.9) evoked a massive fire that destroyed large areas of Tokyo (~105,000 victims), including the print company for TJEM, but the Wistar Institute printed three TJEM issues in 1923 in Philadelphia. Mutual aid relationships should be established between distant cities to survive future disasters.

  6. Epidemiology of Echinococcosis Among Schoolchildren in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huixia; Guan, Yayi; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Liying; Wang, Hu; Su, Guoming; Zhang, Xuefei; Han, Xiumin; Ma, Junying; Liu, Yu Fang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Jingxiao; Wang, Yongshun; Wang, Wei; Du, Rui; Lei, Wen; Wu, Weiping

    2017-03-01

    Echinococcosis is a serious zoonotic parasitic disease that is highly endemic in Qinghai Province. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of echinococcosis among schoolchildren in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture to improve early diagnosis and treatment of patients and to provide information for echinococcosis prevention and control. A total of 11,260 schoolchildren from five counties (Maqin, Gander, Dari, Jiuzhi, and Banma) in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, were screened for echinococcosis. Screening involved ultrasound imaging combined with serologic examination as an auxiliary diagnostic test. The prevalence of echinococcosis in the schoolchildren was 2.1% (235/11,260), with a rate of 0.8% for cystic echinococcosis (CE; 89/11,260) and 1.3% for alveolar echinococcosis (AE; 146/11,260). Additionally, one child had a mixed infection. The prevalence ranged between 1.1% and 4.1% among the five investigated counties, and was highest in Dari County (4.1%). The prevalence of echinococcosis was higher in girls than in boys and gradually increased with age. In addition, children with CE mainly had type 1 (CE1) and type 3 (CE3) lesions, and children with AE mainly had small-diameter calcified lesions, suggesting that they were in the early asymptomatic stage of echinococcosis. In conclusion, children of Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture appear to exhibit the highest recorded prevalence of CE and AE globally. Ultrasound is useful for screening populations in regions where both CE and AE are endemic.

  7. Epidemiology of Echinococcosis among Schoolchildren in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Huixia; Guan, Yayi; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Liying; Wang, Hu; Su, Guoming; Zhang, Xuefei; Han, Xiumin; Ma, Junying; Liu, Yu Fang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Jingxiao; Wang, Yongshun; Wang, Wei; Du, Rui; Lei, Wen; Wu, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a serious zoonotic parasitic disease that is highly endemic in Qinghai Province. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of echinococcosis among schoolchildren in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture to improve early diagnosis and treatment of patients and to provide information for echinococcosis prevention and control. A total of 11,260 schoolchildren from five counties (Maqin, Gander, Dari, Jiuzhi, and Banma) in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, were screened for echinococcosis. Screening involved ultrasound imaging combined with serologic examination as an auxiliary diagnostic test. The prevalence of echinococcosis in the schoolchildren was 2.1% (235/11,260), with a rate of 0.8% for cystic echinococcosis (CE; 89/11,260) and 1.3% for alveolar echinococcosis (AE; 146/11,260). Additionally, one child had a mixed infection. The prevalence ranged between 1.1% and 4.1% among the five investigated counties, and was highest in Dari County (4.1%). The prevalence of echinococcosis was higher in girls than in boys and gradually increased with age. In addition, children with CE mainly had type 1 (CE1) and type 3 (CE3) lesions, and children with AE mainly had small-diameter calcified lesions, suggesting that they were in the early asymptomatic stage of echinococcosis. In conclusion, children of Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture appear to exhibit the highest recorded prevalence of CE and AE globally. Ultrasound is useful for screening populations in regions where both CE and AE are endemic. PMID:28070013

  8. Epidemiology of fragility fractures in Sakaiminato, Japan: incidence, secular trends, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Tsukutani, Y; Hagino, H; Ito, Y; Nagashima, H

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the incidence of fragility fractures from 2010 to 2012 in Sakaiminato, Japan. The incidence rates of limb fractures in Sakaiminato were lower than in Caucasian populations but had increased relative to data obtained in Japan in the 1990s. Clinical vertebral fractures occurred at higher rates in Sakaiminato than in Caucasian populations. To elucidate the incidence and prognosis of fragility fractures in Sakaiminato, Japan. A survey of all hip, distal radius, proximal humerus, and clinical vertebral fractures was performed from 2010 to 2012 in patients aged 50 or older in Sakaiminato city, Tottori prefecture, Japan. The age- and gender-specific incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) were calculated based on the population of Sakaiminato city each year. The incidence rates of hip, distal radius, and proximal humerus fractures were compared with previous reports. We conducted a follow-up study assessing patients within 1 year following their initial treatment at two Sakaiminato hospitals. The age-adjusted incidence rates in population aged 50 years or older (per 100,000 person-years) of hip, distal radius, proximal humerus, and clinical vertebral fractures were, respectively, 217, 82, 26, and 412 in males and 567, 432, 96, and 1229 in females. Age-specific incidence rates of hip, distal radius, and proximal humerus fractures all increased since the 1990s. Our study also revealed that anti-osteoporotic pharmacotherapy was prescribed 1 year post-fracture at rates of 29, 20, 30, and 50 % for patients with hip, distal radius, proximal humerus, and clinical vertebral fractures, respectively. The incidence rates of limb fractures in Sakaiminato were substantially lower than Caucasian populations in northern Europe but had increased relative to data obtained in Japan in the 1990s. Unlike upper and lower limb fractures, clinical vertebral fractures occurred at higher rates in our study population than in other Asian and North European countries.

  9. The world first two cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome: An epidemiological study in Nagasaki, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Shintaro; Satoh, Akira; Yu, Fuxun; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Shimojima, Masayuki; Tashiro, Masato; Saijo, Tomomi; Takazono, Takahiro; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Miyazaki, Taiga; Tsukamoto, Misuzu; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Mukae, Hiroshi; Saijo, Masayuki; Morita, Kouichi; Kohno, Shigeru; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel phlebovirus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae, was reported in China for the first time in 2009. We observed two cases where the SFTSV was isolated for the first time in Nagasaki, Japan, in 2005. Two males in their 60s, a farmer and a hunter, respectively, living in Nagasaki developed SFTS during the same period. The patients developed similar clinical symptoms and signs, such as fever, loss of consciousness, and multiple organ dysfunction. The farmer died and the hunter survived. A retrospective diagnosis of SFTS was made in 2013, and genetic analysis revealed that the patients were infected with different SFTSV strains. Retrospective analysis of cytokine production in non-fatal case revealed interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and interferon-γ level of acute phase was low and could be potential prognostic factors. As there are no epidemiological studies of positive rate of SFTSV antibody in people living in endemic areas in Japan, a field study was performed. Volunteers at high risk for tick bites, such as hunters, farmers, and soldiers, were recruited in 6 regions, including the areas where the SFTS cases occurred. Three hundred and twenty six volunteers in Nagasaki prefecture were examined and none of these tested positive for the SFTSV antibody. Our data indicates that the risk for SFTSV infection is not high in Nagasaki prefecture. Further collection of blood samples from endemic areas is warranted for the prevention of SFTSV infection. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Association between evacuation condition and habitual physical activity in Great East Japan Earthquake evacuees: The Fukushima Health Management Survey].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masato; Ohira, Tetsuya; Yasumura, Seiji; Takahashi, Hideto; Yuki, Michiko; Nakano, Hironori; Wen, Zhang; Yabe, Hirooki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Maeda, Masaharu; Takase, Kanae

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prevalence of life-style disease has increased dramatically in evacuees due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. One reason may be that physical activity level decreased from life environment changes due to evacuation. However, associations between evacuation condition and habitual physical activity have not been studied. We examined this association in Fukushima residents who participated in the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods: In this study, 37,843 evacuees from 13 municipal evacuation zones from the nuclear-power accident caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake, born before April 1, 1995, were included in the analysis. Evacuation condition was defined by disaster living place (13 zones), evacuation place (inside or outside the prefecture), and current living status (evacuation shelter or temporary housing, rental housing/ apartment, and relative's home or own home). Habitual physical activity was defined from self-administered questionnaires as participants who responded "almost every day" and "2-4 times/week" of regular exercise. In the analysis, habitual physical activity prevalence was aggregated by gender and variables (living place in the disaster, evacuation place, and current living status). Prevalence was adjusted for age, disaster living place, evacuation place, and current living status by standard analysis of covariance methods. Results: Adjusted prevalences of habitual physical activity were: men, 27.9-46.5%; women, 27.0-43.7% in each disaster living place. The differences were 18.6% point in men and 16.7% point in women. For evacuation place, physical activity outside the prefecture for men (37.7%) and inside the prefecture for women (32.1%) were higher, but those differences were only 2.2% point and 1.8% point in men and women, respectively. For current living status, physical activity of those in rental housing/ apartment was the lowest; evacuation shelter or temporary housing was the highest in both genders (men: 38

  11. Measuring the economic effects of Japan's Mikawa Port: Pre- and-post disaster assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibusawa, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Yuzuru

    2017-10-01

    This study examines the economic effects of Japan's Mikawa Port on Aichi Prefecture before and after a natural disaster interrupts its operations for one year. Using a regional input-output model, backward and forward linkage impacts are calculated along the waterfront where the auto industry is concentrated. In addition, economic damage from natural disasters is estimated. We assess the economic implications on the hinterland of Mikawa Port. Density functions of the backward and forward linkage impacts are derived. A production stoppage along the waterfront of Mikawa Port generates large indirect negative effects on the regional economy. Results found that density functions of the total impacts are decreasing function of distance but that several sectors are characterized by non-decreasing functions.

  12. Blood Donor Deferral among Students in Northern Japan: Challenges Ahead

    PubMed Central

    Ngoma, Alain Mayindu; Goto, Aya; Nollet, Kenneth E.; Sawamura, Yoshihiro; Ohto, Hitoshi; Yasumura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background As Japan's aging society needs more blood, young students comprise a progressively smaller portion of the donor pool. To ensure a safe and sustainable blood supply, it is crucial to select suitable donors. This study aims to evaluate donor deferral rates, causes of deferral, and characteristics of deferred Japanese students. Methods Computerized records of blood centers in northern Japan (Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures) from March 2010 through March 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Among 231,361 individuals visiting during the 12-month period, 24,778 were students. Of these, 19,193 (77%) attempted donation, and 5,585 (23%) were deferred. Low hemoglobin, questionnaire-based interview decisions, and medication were the main reasons for temporary deferral. Age, sex, and blood center location were associated with low hemoglobin; donation history and blood center location were associated with medication-based deferral. The odds ratio among female students deferred for low hemoglobin was 35.48 with a 95% CI of 27.74–45.38. Conclusions These results suggest that continued efforts are needed to motivate deferred potential donors to return, to prevent low hemoglobin especially among females, and to review medical interview decisions, while paying close attention to regional differences. PMID:25254020

  13. Postgraduate education of traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine: a current survey on the training hospitals in Kanagawa prefecture.

    PubMed

    Arai, Makoto; Arai, Ayako; Izumi, Shun-ichiro

    2014-12-20

    There is no precise survey of postgraduate Kampo education in Japan. We aimed to survey the current status of postgraduate Kampo education and to identify major problems and suggest solutions to promote Kampo education during internship. The questionnaire, for the 58 training hospitals, including the 4 university hospitals, in Kanagawa prefecture, was mailed to the director of each hospital and the instructors responsible for clinical training. There were 49 responses (84%): 84% of the instructors recognized clinicians' need to prescribe Kampo medicine; 63% thought Kampo education should be introduced into the clinical training; 55% thought a standardized form of education was necessary; 14% had Kampo education programs; 69%, 13%, and 9% of instructors at hospitals without Kampo educational programs noted the lack of Kampo instructors, time, and need to teach Kampo medicine, respectively; 82% had no plans for Kampo education; 44%, 29%, 24%, and 5% of hospitals permitted future Kampo instruction through voluntary study, lectures sponsored by Kampo manufacturers, study sessions with other hospitals, and independent study, respectively. Kampo education should be introduced into large training hospitals, where qualified Kampo instructors are more easily found, and where many interns and residents work.

  14. Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis E virus among wild sika deer, Cervus nippon, in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Y; Suzuki, M; Yoshimatsu, K; Arikawa, J; Takashima, I; Yokoyama, M; Igota, H; Yamauchi, K; Ishida, S; Fukui, D; Bando, G; Kosuge, M; Tsunemitsu, H; Koshimoto, C; Sakae, K; Chikahira, M; Ogawa, S; Miyamura, T; Takeda, N; Li, T C

    2007-01-01

    We examined 976 sika deer serum samples, 159 liver tissue samples and 88 stool samples collected from 16 prefectures in Japan, and performed ELISA and RT-PCR assays to detect antibodies to HEV and HEV RNA, respectively. Although 25 (2.6%) of 976 samples were positive for anti-HEV IgG, the antibody titers were very low. The OD values ranged between 0.018 and 0.486, forming a single distribution rather than a bimodal distribution, suggesting that the antibody detected in this study was not induced by HEV infection, or that deer have low sensitivity to HEV. HEV RNA was not detected in these samples, also suggesting that deer may not play a role as an HEV reservoir.

  15. National strategy for suicide prevention in Japan: impact of a national fund on progress of developing systems for suicide prevention and implementing initiatives among local authorities.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Yamauchi, Takashi; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the Cabinet Office released the 'General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy' in 2007 and suggested nine initiatives. In 2009, a national fund was launched to help prefectures (the administrative divisions of Japan) and local authorities implement five categories of suicide-prevention programs. This paper examines the impact of the national fund on the establishment of the systems for suicide prevention and the implementation of these initiatives among local authorities. The present study included 1385 local authorities (79.5%) from all 47 prefectures that responded to the cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Improved suicide-prevention systems and the implementation of nine initiatives in April 2013 were observed among 265 local authorities (19.1%) that implemented 'Training of community service providers' and 'Public awareness campaigns'; 178 local authorities (12.9%) that implemented 'Face-to-face counseling', 'Training of community service providers' and 'Public awareness campaigns'; and 324 local authorities (23.4%) that implemented 'Trauma-informed policies and practices'. There was no significant difference in suicide-prevention systems and the implementation of nine initiatives between 203 local authorities (14.7%) that implemented only 'Public awareness campaigns' and 231 local authorities (16.7%) that did not implement any suicide-prevention programs. The results of our study suggest that the national fund promoted the establishment of community systems for suicide prevention and helped implement initiatives among local authorities. The national suicide-prevention strategy in Japan should explore a standard package of programs to guide community suicide-prevention efforts with a sustained workforce among local authorities. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  16. [Reform of Japan's NTP and its technical perspectives].

    PubMed

    Mori, Toru

    2004-10-01

    expansion of the DOTS Japan version. While the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs will be realized in the near future, Japan still has to overcome the issue of improper practice of treatment, as well as the government's slow process for approving new drugs to be used for multi-drug resistant TB and non-tuberculous mycobacterioses. 5. Prefectural TB Control Plan: In order to resolve the problems specific to the respective prefectures in terms of epidemiological parameters or available resources, the new Law requests every prefecture to develop its own TB control plan. In order for the new TB Control Law to be effective, strong government commitment supported by technological innovation is mandatory. It is for that reason that the Japanese Society of Tuberculosis should aggressively join the global movement to stop TB along with the general public of Japan.

  17. The γ-aminobutyric acid-producing ability under low pH conditions of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented foods of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, with a strong ability to produce ACE-inhibitory peptides.

    PubMed

    Barla, Florin; Koyanagi, Takashi; Tokuda, Naoko; Matsui, Hiroshi; Katayama, Takane; Kumagai, Hidehiko; Michihata, Toshihide; Sasaki, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Atsushi; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2016-06-01

    Many traditional fermented products are onsumed in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, such as kaburazushi , narezushi , konkazuke , and ishiru. Various kinds of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are associated with their fermentation, however, characterization of LAB has not yet been elucidated in detail. In this study, we evaluated 53 isolates of LAB from various traditional fermented foods by taxonomic classification at the species level by analyzing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences and carbohydrate assimilation abilities. We screened isolates that exhibited high angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities in skim milk or soy protein media and produced high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in culture supernatants when grown in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth in the presence of 1% (w/v) glutamic acid. The results revealed that 10 isolates, i.e., Lactobacillus buchneri (2 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (6 isolates), and Weissella hellenica (2 isolates) had a high GABA-producing ability of >500 mg/100 ml after 72 h of incubation at 35 °C. The ACE inhibitory activity of the whey cultured with milk protein by using L. brevis (3 isolates), L. buchneri (2 isolates), and W. hellenica (2 isolates) was stronger than that of all whey cultured with soy protein media, and these IC 50 were < 1 mg protein/ml. Three of 10 isolates had high GABA-producing activities at pH 3, suggesting that they could be powerful candidates for use in the fermentation of food materials having low pH.

  18. The pathology of methylmercury poisoning (Minamata disease): The 50th Anniversary of Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Eto, Komyo; Marumoto, Masumi; Takeya, Motohiro

    2010-10-01

    Methylmercury (Me-Hg) poisoning (Minamata disease: MD) is one of the most severe types of disease caused by humans to humans in Japan. The disease is a special class of food-borne methylmercury intoxication in humans as typified by the outbreak that began in 1953 in Minamata and its vicinity in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. There are 450 autopsy cases in Kumamoto and 30 autopsy cases in Niigata Prefecture related to MD in Japan. Two hundred and one cases in Kumamoto and 22 cases in Niigata showed pathological changes of MD. This report provides a brief research history and overview of the pathological changes of MD, and also presents representative cases of adult, infantile and fetal forms of MD among the 450 MD-related autopsy cases in Kumamoto Prefecture. © 2010 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  19. Facts about the Eastern Japan Great Earthquake of March 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 great earthquake was a magnitude 9.0 Mw undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred early morning UTC on Friday, 11 March 2011, with the epicenter approximately 70 kilometres east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tohoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 32 km. It was the most powerful known earthquake to have hit Japan, and one of the five most powerful earthquakes in the world overall since modern record keeping began in 1900. The earthquake triggered extremely destructive tsunami waves of up to 38.9 metres that struck Tohoku Japan, in some cases traveling up to 10 km inland. In addition to loss of life and destruction of infrastructure, the tsunami caused a number of nuclear accidents, primarily the ongoing level 7 meltdowns at three reactors in the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant complex, and the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents. The Japanese National Police Agency has confirmed 1,5457 deaths, 5,389 injured, and 7,676 people missing across eighteen prefectures, as well as over 125,000 buildings damaged or destroyed. JAXA carried out ALOS emergency observation just after the earthquake occured, and acquired more than 400 scenes over the disaster area. The coseismic interferogram by InSAR analysis cleary showing the epicenter of the earthquake and land surface deformation over Tohoku area. By comparison of before and after satellite images, the large scale damaged area by tunami are extracted. These images and data can access via JAXA website and also GEO Tohoku oki event supersite website.

  20. Educational Activity for the Radiation Emergency System in the Northern Part of Japan: Meeting Report on "The 3rd Educational Symposium on Radiation and Health (ESRAH) by Young Scientists in 2016".

    PubMed

    Matsuya, Yusuke; Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Kimura, Takaaki; Mori, Ryosuke; Yamada, Ryota; Saga, Ryo; Fujishima, Yohei; Date, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    In the northern part of Japan, close cooperation is essential in preparing for any possible emergency response to radiation accidents because several facilities, such as the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility, the MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant and the Vitrified Waste Storage Center, exist in Rokkasho Village (Aomori Prefecture). After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, special attention should be given to the relationship between radiation and human health, as well as establishing a system for managing with a radiation emergency. In the area of Hokkaido and Aomori prefectures in Japan, since 2008 an exchange meeting between Hokkaido University and Hirosaki University has been held every year to have opportunities to discuss radiation effects on human health and to collect the latest news on monitoring environmental radiation. This meeting was elevated to an international meeting in 2014 titled "Educational Symposium on Radiation and Health (ESRAH) by Young Scientists". The 3rd ESRAH meeting took place in 2016, with the theme "Investigating Radiation Impact on the Environmental and Health". Here we report the meeting findings on the continuing educational efforts after the Fukushima incident, what was accomplished in terms of building a community educational approaches, and future goals.

  1. Inverse correlation between coffee consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome: baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takami, Hidenobu; Nakamoto, Mariko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Katsuura, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Sawachika, Fusakazu; Juta, Tomoya; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of coffee and green tea is associated with metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study enrolled 554 adults who had participated in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. Consumption of coffee and green tea was assessed using a questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity (JASSO). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between consumption of coffee and green tea and prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components. After adjustment for sex, age, and other potential confounders, greater coffee consumption was associated with a significantly lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome, as defined by NCEP ATP III criteria (P for trend = 0.03). Participants who drank more coffee had a lower odds ratio (OR) for high serum triglycerides (P for trend = 0.02), but not for increased waist circumference or high blood pressure. Using JASSO criteria, moderate coffee consumption (1.5 to <3 cups/day) was associated with a significantly lower OR for high plasma glucose (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.93). Green tea consumption was not associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome or any of its components. Coffee consumption was inversely correlated with metabolic syndrome diagnosed using NCEP ATP III criteria, mainly because it was associated with lower serum triglyceride levels. This association highlights the need for further prospective studies of the causality of these relationships.

  2. Midwife and Public Health Nurse Tatsuyo Amari and a State-Endorsed Birth Control Campaign in 1950s Japan.

    PubMed

    Homei, Aya

    2016-01-01

    Mrs. Tatsuyo Amari, a qualified midwife and nurse, served Japan's state-endorsed birth control campaign as a "birth control field instructor" in rural Minamoto Village of Yamanashi Prefecture just west of Tokyo. Her work sheds light on the role of female health-care workers in health and population governance in 1950s Japan. Amari not only facilitated the "top-down" transfer of the state-sanctioned idea of birth control and contraceptives, as did other birth control field instructors, but also enabled the "bottom-up" flow of knowledge about people's reproductive lives through her participation in the policy-oriented birth control research called the "three model-village study." Contextualizing Amari's engagement with the study elucidates how the state relied on the established role of female health-care workers as intermediaries between the state and the people. Finally, Amari's contribution to the scientific aspect of the campaign may motivate historians to recognize the politics around the participation of female health-care workers in the science of birth control.

  3. Mines and mineral processing facilities in the vicinity of the March 11, 2011, earthquake in northern Honshu, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menzie, W. David; Baker, Michael S.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Kuo, Chin

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey data indicate that the area affected by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 9.0 earthquake and associated tsunami is home to nine cement plants, eight iodine plants, four iron and steel plants, four limestone mines, three copper refineries, two gold refineries, two lead refineries, two zinc refineries, one titanium dioxide plant, and one titanium sponge processing facility. These facilities have the capacity to produce the following percentages of the world's nonfuel mineral production: 25 percent of iodine, 10 percent of titanium sponge (metal), 3 percent of refined zinc, 2.5 percent of refined copper, and 1.4 percent of steel. In addition, the nine cement plants contribute about one-third of Japan's cement annual production. The iodine is a byproduct from production of natural gas at the Miniami Kanto gas field, east of Tokyo in Chiba Prefecture. Japan is the world's second leading (after Chile) producer of iodine, which is processed in seven nearby facilities.

  4. Differences in monthly variation, cause, and place of injury between femoral neck and trochanteric fractures: 6-year survey (2008–2013) in Kyoto prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Horii, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mikami, Yasuo; Ikeda, Takumi; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nagae, Masateru; Oka, Yoshinobu; Sawada, Koshiro; Kuriyama, Nagato; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The incidence of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures reportedly differ by age and regionality. We investigated differences in monthly variations of the occurrence of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures as well as place and cause of injury in the Kyoto prefecture over a 6-year period. Methods Fracture type (neck or trochanteric fracture), age, sex, place of injury, and cause of injury were surveyed among patients aged ≥ 65 years with hip fractures that occurred between 2008 and 2013 who were treated in 1 of 13 participating hospitals (5 in an urban area and 8 in a rural area). The proportion of sick beds in the participating hospitals was 24.7% (4,151/16,781). Monthly variations in the number of patients were investigated in urban and rural areas in addition to the entire Kyoto prefecture. Place of injury was classified as indoors or outdoors, and cause of injury was categorized as simple fall, accident, or uncertain. Results There were 2,826 patients with neck fractures (mean age, 82.1 years) and 3,305 patients with trochanteric fractures (mean age, 85.0 years). There were similarities in the monthly variation of the number of fractures in addition to the place and cause of injury between neck and trochanteric fractures. Indoors (approximately 74%) and simple falls (approximately 78%) were the primary place and cause of injury, respectively. The place of injury was not significantly different by fracture type with each age group. Significantly more patients with neck fracture had “uncertain” as the cause of injury than trochanteric fracture in all age groups. Conclusions Based on the results of the present study, the injury pattern might not have a great effect on the susceptibility difference between neck and trochanteric fractures. PMID:27252738

  5. Recent pregnancy trends among early adolescent girls in Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, Sachiko; Goto, Aya; Reich, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines recent time trends, explores potentially influential background factors and discusses prevention strategies of pregnancy among girls under 15 years of age in Japan. Using Japanese government data, we first analyzed time trends of early adolescence (<15 years of age) abortion, live birth and child sexual abuse from 2003 to 2010. Second, we analyzed ecological correlations of early adolescent pregnancy (abortion, live birth and stillbirth) with pregnancy in other age groups, child sexual abuse, and indicators of juvenile victimization and juvenile delinquency, using prefectural data. We found that rates of both abortion and live birth in early adolescents have increased since 2005 (annual percent change 5.3% and 2.3%, respectively), despite declining rates in older age groups. The abortion ratio in early adolescence remained the highest among all age groups in Japan. The early adolescent pregnancy rate showed significant correlation with the rates of juvenile victimization of welfare crimes (obscenity, alcohol drinking, smoking and drug use) (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient [rs] = 0.42, P = 0.00) and juvenile delinquency among junior high school students (12-14 years of age) (rs = 0.69, P = 0.00). The observed rise in rates of abortion, live birth and child sexual abuse among early adolescents along with strong ecological correlations of their pregnancy rate with juvenile victimization and delinquency indicators suggests that epidemiological investigation and public health programs at the individual and community levels are needed to address the complex social roots of these trends and to produce effective improvements in early adolescent reproductive health. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Epidemiological Study of Fusarium Species Causing Invasive and Superficial Fusariosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Muraosa, Yasunori; Oguchi, Misato; Yahiro, Maki; Watanabe, Akira; Yaguchi, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2017-01-01

    In Japan, Fusarium species are known etiological agents of human fungal infection; however, there has been no report of a large-scale epidemiological study on the etiological agents of fusariosis. A total of 73 Fusarium isolates from patients with invasive fusariosis (IF, n= 36) or superficial fusariosis (SF, n= 37), which were obtained at hospitals located in 28 prefectures in Japan between 1998 and 2015, were used for this study. Fusarium isolates were identified using Fusarium- and Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) -specific real-time PCR and partial DNA sequences of the elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) gene and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. FSSC was predominately isolated from both patients with IF and SF (IF, 77.8% and SF, 67.6%). Distribution of the phylogenetic species of FSSC isolates from patients with IF and SF exhibited different spectra; specifically, F. keratoplasticum (FSSC 2) (25.0%) was the most frequent isolate from patients with IF, whereas F. falciforme (FSSC 3+4) (32.4%) was the most frequent isolate from patients with SF. Fusarium sp. (FSSC 5) was the second most frequent isolate from both patients with IF and SF (IF, 22.2% and SF, 24.3%). Notably, F. petroliphilum (FSSC 1) was isolated only from patients with IF. Each species was isolated from a broad geographic area, and an epidemic was not observed. This is the first epidemiological study of Fusarium species causing IF and SF in Japan.

  7. Gender differences in spousal caregiving in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Keiko; Ito, Mikiko; Kutsumi, Masami; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Gender differences in spousal caregivers and their relationship to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers' depression were examined. A stratified random sample of 2,020 users of public long-term care insurance in a city of Osaka prefecture, Japan, participated in this study. Responses from 308 spouses (56.2% wives, 43.8% husbands) were analyzed. Variables relating to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers' depression were compared by conducting simultaneous analyses of multiple populations. Wives caring for husbands had higher depression scores than husbands caring for wives. Wives tended to adopt "emotional support seeking" and "willing commitment" as coping strategies for their caregiving experience. Husband caregivers used more home-care services; however, increased service use had no effect on husbands' depression. The availability of secondary caregivers reduced depression for caregivers, regardless of gender. The effects on depression differed related to the caregiver's gender. Husbands relied more on family or home-care services when caring for their wives, whereas wives provided higher levels of care, positively accepted their role, and did not seek to share caregiving, but sought emotional support.

  8. What factors are affecting physician payment by acute care hospitals in rural Japan?

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Kazushi; Funada, Takao; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Kazuo

    2007-03-01

    The regional discrepancies of physician supply have been a growing concern in Japan. To find out how hospitals are responding in terms of physician payment (by monthly salaries and additional benefits), we conducted a survey of acute care hospitals in Yamagata, Japan. We asked about the salary and additional benefits of full-time physicians and the structural and functional characteristics of health care service provision. From these data we set out to assemble a model that can explain effectively the variability of physician payment in acute care hospitals within the prefecture. We found that physician payment was associated with variables such as type of management, staff employed per bed, full time doctors employed per bed and average length of stay. Hospital location was found to have a significant effect on payment. Variables expressing workload, like number of in-patients per doctor and number of surgical operations per doctor were inversely related. Our results suggest that hospitals may have adapted to physician preferences of workplace in terms of physician payment. To further address the problems of unbalanced geographic distribution of physicians in rural areas, work-sharing and educational and technical support schemes may also help.

  9. Pain, quality of life and activity in aged evacuees living in temporary housing after the Great East Japan earthquake of 11 March 2011: a cross-sectional study in Minamisoma City, Fukushima prefecture.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Shoji; Ouchi, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi; Konno, Shin-ichi

    2015-09-10

    The aim of this study was to clarify pain, quality of life and activity in the aged evacuees living in temporary housing after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. The study was a cross-sectional study performed in Minamisoma City, Fukushima Prefecture 1 year and 6 months after the disaster. Inclusion criteria were the ability to walk independently and consent to answer questionnaires. Seventy-one evacuees who met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. There were 16 men and 55 women with a mean age of 75.9 years. Sixty evacuees were surveyed when they gathered at the assembly hall in the temporary housing (Assembled group) and 11 evacuees were surveyed through individual visits to their residences (Individual group). Evacuees in the Individual group agreed to participate in this study, but refused to visit the assembly hall to engage in exercise and recreation. Pain, quality of life (QOL) and level of activity were assessed with the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the MOS Short-Form 36 item Health Survey (SF-36) and a pedometer, respectively. Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. Forty-four (62.0 %) residents had chronic pain with a mean NRS of 2.74. Twenty-one (29.6 %) of these residents had relatively severe pain rated 5 or above on the NRS. QOL was significantly lower for the subscales of "physical functioning," "role physical", "general health", "social functioning", "role emotional" and "mental health", when compared with the national standard values. Values were also visibly lower for "physical component summary" in the summary score. On comparing the Assembled group and the Individual group, "physical function", "role physical", "social functioning" and "physical component summary" were found to be significantly lower in the Individual group. The mean daily number of steps was 1,892 in the Individual group and 4,579 in the Assembled group. The Individual group thus

  10. Paleo-tsunami history along the northern Japan Trench: evidence from Noda Village, northern Sanriku coast, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Taiga; Goto, Kazuhisa; Nishimura, Yuichi; Watanabe, Masashi; Iijima, Yasutaka; Sugawara, Daisuke

    2017-12-01

    Throughout history, large tsunamis have frequently affected the Sanriku area of the Pacific coast of the Tohoku region, Japan, which faces the Japan Trench. Although a few studies have examined paleo-tsunami deposits along the Sanriku coast, additional studies of paleo-earthquakes and tsunamis are needed to improve our knowledge of the timing, recurrence interval, and size of historical and pre-historic tsunamis. At Noda Village, in Iwate Prefecture on the northern Sanriku coast, we found at least four distinct gravelly sand layers based on correlation and chronological data. Sedimentary features such as grain size and thickness suggest that extreme waves from the sea formed these layers. Numerical modeling of storm waves further confirmed that even extremely large storm waves cannot account for the distribution of the gravelly sand layers, suggesting that these deposits are highly likely to have formed by tsunami waves. The numerical method of storm waves can be useful to identify sand layers as tsunami deposits if the deposits are observed far inland or at high elevations. The depositional age of the youngest tsunami deposit is consistent with the AD 869 Jogan earthquake tsunami, a possible predecessor of the AD 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. If this is the case, then the study site currently defines the possible northern extent of the AD 869 Jogan tsunami deposit, which is an important step in improving the tsunami source model of the AD 869 Jogan tsunami. Our results suggest that four large tsunamis struck the Noda site between 1100 and 2700 cal BP. The local tsunami sizes are comparable to the AD 2011 and AD 1896 Meiji Sanriku tsunamis, considering the landward extent of each tsunami deposit.

  11. Radiation-related anxiety among public health nurses in the Fukushima Prefecture after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Koji; Orita, Makiko; Goto, Aya; Kumagai, Atsushi; Yasui, Kiyotaka; Ohtsuru, Akira; Hayashida, Naomi; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-10-24

    In Japan, public health nurses (PHNs) play important roles in managing the health of local residents, especially after a disaster. In this study, we assessed radiation anxiety and the stress processing capacity of PHNs in the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan, after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). We conducted a questionnaire survey among the PHNs (n=430) in July of 2015 via postal mail. The questions included demographic factors (sex, age and employment position), knowledge about radiation, degree of anxiety about radiation at the time of the FDNPS accident (and at present), by asking them to answer questions about radiation and the Sense of Coherence-13 (SOC-13). We classified the low and high levels of anxiety by asking them to answer questions about radiation, and compared the anxiety-negative (-) group with the anxiety-positive (+) group. Of the PHNs, 269 (62.6%) were classified in the anxiety (-) group and 161 (37.4%) were in the anxiety (+) group. When the multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted, the PHNs at the time of the accident (OR: 2.37, p=0.007), current general anxieties about radiation (OR: 3.56, p<0.001), current possession of materials to obtain knowledge about radiation (OR: 2.11, p=0.006) and knowledge of the childhood thyroid cancer increase after the Chernobyl accident (OR: 1.69, p=0.035) were significantly associated with anxiety after the FDNPS accident. The mean SOC-13 was 43.0±7.7, with no significant difference between the anxiety (-) group and anxiety (+) group (p=0.47). Our study suggested that anxiety about radiation was associated with materials and knowledge about radiation in the PHNs in the Fukushima Prefecture 4 years after the FDNPS accident. It is important for PHNs to obtain knowledge and teaching materials about radiation, and radiation education programmes for PHNs must be established in areas that have nuclear facilities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  12. A new species of Dactylogyrus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on an endangered freshwater fish, Rhodeus atremius atremius, endemic to Japan.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Masato; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-10-01

    A new dactylogyrid monogenean Dactylogyrus bicorniculus sp. nov. is described from the gills of the kazetoge bitterling, Rhodeus atremius atremius (Jordan and Thompson, 1914), an endemic species in Japan, from Saga Prefecture, northern Kyūshū. D. bicorniculus sp. nov. resembles Dactylogyrus bicornis Malevitskaja, 1941 and Dactylogyrus lophogonus Zhang and Ji, 1980 because they have two common features, a large V-shaped ventral bar and well-developed second marginal hooks. However, the new species is distinguished from these congeners by a shorter penis and an accessory piece. A phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA shows that D. bicorniculus sp. nov. is a basal species with the T-shaped ventral bar in the genus. The new species has strict host-specificity to R. a. atremius, one of the endangered freshwater fishes in Japan, and may face the danger of co-extinction with its host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Contamination of River Water by Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Western Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Kazuo; Tsuji, Hidetaka; Rai, Shiba Kumar; Yamamoto, Akio; Masuda, Kuniyoshi; Endo, Takuro; Hotta, Hak; Kawamura, Takashi; Uga, Shoji

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, only a few rivers have been inspected for Cryptosporidium parvum contamination, and the methods used had low sensitivity. In 1998 and 1999, we used a method with higher sensitivity to examine all large rivers used as sources of water supply in one prefecture (which we divided into four areas) in western Japan for Cryptosporidium oocysts. One sample was collected at each of 156 sites along 18 rivers, and samples were tested for Cryptosporidium oocysts by immunomagnetic separation. Samples were classified as being obtained on an island with livestock and fishing industries, a densely populated urban area, a western region including farming villages, or a still more rural northern area with agriculture and fishing. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used for identification of the C. parvum found as the bovine or human type. C. parvum was detected in at least one sample from 13 of the 18 rivers and in 47% (74 of 156) of the samples. One-third to all of the samples from each area contained C. parvum oocysts. The number of C. parvum oocysts per 20 liters of river water varied in the same pattern as the number of cattle kept in the four kinds of areas (as determined by the Mantel extension test). Oocysts isolated were of the bovine type; the C. parvum detected in rivers probably came from cattle kept in that valley. As we had expected, when tested with a more sensitive method, river water in western Japan was found to be greatly contaminated with C. parvum oocysts, as reported in other countries. PMID:11525974

  14. An epidemiologic internet survey of fibromyalgia and chronic pain in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ikuro; Nishioka, Kenya; Usui, Chie; Osada, Kenichi; Ichibayashi, Hisao; Ishida, Mitsuhiro; Turk, Dennis C; Matsumoto, Yoshifuji; Nishioka, Kusuki

    2014-07-01

    To determine the epidemiologic features and symptom characteristics of fibromyalgia (FM) in Japan, and compare them with those for other chronic pain (CP) diagnoses. An internet survey was conducted in June and July 2011. The questionnaire consisted of 111 questions, including assessments of the Japanese version of the 2010 American College of Rheumatology preliminary diagnostic criteria for FM, the Japanese Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and additional questions regarding pain and lifestyle. The questionnaire was completed by 20,407 male and female respondents in all prefectures of Japan. Of the survey population, 2,524 respondents (12.4%) reported symptoms consistent with CP; of these, 425 (2.1%) reported symptoms consistent with FM. Among respondents with FM and CP, 61% and 53%, respectively, were women. Pain severity and Widespread Pain Index scores were significantly higher in respondents meeting the diagnostic criteria for FM than in those meeting the criteria for CP. In terms of symptom severity scores, the proportions of respondents reporting the 3 major symptoms as "highly applicable" and greater numbers of 41 somatic symptoms were higher among respondents with FM than among those with CP. The incidence of FM in the present survey was similar to that reported (1.7%) in a study of FM in Japan in 2003, despite the use of the newer, easier to use 2010 diagnostic criteria. Because FM usually presents with more severe and more widely distributed pain, as well as more nonpainful symptoms than CP, our results suggest that FM is a different clinical phenotype of CP. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  15. Behaviour of radiocaesium in coastal rivers of the Fukushima Prefecture (Japan) during conditions of low flow and low turbidity--Insight on the possible role of small particles and detrital organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Onda, Yuichi; De Vismes, Anne; Cagnat, Xavier; Boulet, Béatrice; Cossonnet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To investigate riverine transfers from contaminated soils of the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan to the marine environment, suspended sediments, filtered water, sediments and detrital organic macro debris deposited onto river beds were collected in November 2013 within small coastal rivers during conditions of low flow rates and low turbidity. River waters were directly filtered on the field and high efficiency well-type Ge detectors were used to analyse radiocaesium concentrations in very small quantities of suspended particles and filtered water (a few mg to a few g). For such base-flow conditions, our results show that the watersheds studied present similar hydro-sedimentary behaviours at their outlets and that the exports of dissolved and particulate radiocaesium are comparable. Moreover, the contribution of these rivers to the instantaneous export of radiocaesium to the ocean is similar to that of the Abukuma River. Our preliminary results indicate that, in the estuaries, radiocaesium concentrations in suspended sediments would be reduced by more than 80%, while radiocaesium concentration in filtered waters would be maintained. Significant correlations between radiocaesium concentrations and radiocaesium inventories in the soils of the catchments indicate that there was at that time little intra and inter-watershed variability in the transfer processes of radiocaesium from lands to rivers at this regional scale. The apparent liquid-solid partition coefficient (KD) values acquired for the lowest loads/finest particles complement the values acquired by using sediment traps and highlight the strong capacity of the smallest particles to transfer radiocaesium. Finally, but not least, our observations suggest that there could be a significant transfer of highly contaminated detrital biomass from forest litter to the downstream rivers in a rather conservative way. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High Dropout Rate among Elementary and Middle School Students in Changed Prefecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Weizhi; Chen, Benxiang

    1989-01-01

    Examines the high dropout rate among elementary and middle school students in Changed Prefecture. Lists and discusses four factors that contribute to this situation. Describes student attitudes toward school: studying is useless, excessive amounts of school work are given, misunderstandings concerning job placement exist, and tuition is high. (KO)

  17. Immediate effects of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on depressive symptoms among mothers with infants: a prefectural-wide cross-sectional study from the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Goto, Aya; Bromet, Evelyn J; Fujimori, Kenya

    2015-03-26

    Mothers of young children are at high-risk for developing adverse mental health effects following a nuclear accident. Using the Japanese pregnancy registration system, the prefecture of Fukushima launched a population-based survey of women who were pregnant at the time of the Fukushima nuclear accident in order to assess their and their newborns' health. In this paper, we focus on the results of a screen for depressive symptoms among new mothers and its association with geographical region and interruption of obstetrical care after the Fukushima nuclear accident, which occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. The survey targeted women who lived in Fukushima prefecture and who had registered their pregnancies between August 1, 2010 and July 31, 2011. Among the 16,001 women targeted, 9,321 returned the questionnaires (response proportion = 58.3%) and data from 8,196 women with singleton live births were analyzed. The main outcome measure was a standard two-item depression screen. Regional radiation levels were determined from the prefecture's periodical reports, and interruption in obstetrical care after the Fukushima nuclear accident was determined from mothers' individual responses to the questionnaire. Among the 8,196 women, 2,262 (28%) screened positive for depressive symptoms. After adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics, both mothers in Soso, the region in which the nuclear power plant is located, and mothers that had changed obstetrical care facilities were significantly more likely to screen positive for depression. In contrast, mothers in Iwaki and Aizu, regions with relatively low radiation levels, were significantly less likely to screen positive for depression. Our findings suggest that improving mental health support for mothers with infants should be a high priority in the acute phase of nuclear disaster response. We further recommend that in the strategic provisioning of parental support, close attention should

  18. Changes in the Factors Influencing Public Acceptance of Nuclear Power Generation in Japan Since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster.

    PubMed

    Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Tsuchida, Shoji; Shiotani, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    Public support for nuclear power generation has decreased in Japan since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. This study examines how the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power changed after this event. The influence factors examined are perceived benefit, perceived risk, trust in the managing bodies, and pro-environmental orientation (i.e., new ecological paradigm). This study is based on cross-sectional data collected from two online nationwide surveys: one conducted in November 2009, before the nuclear accident, and the other in October 2011, after the accident. This study's target respondents were residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures in the Tohoku region of Japan, as these areas were the epicenters of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the locations of nuclear power stations. After the accident, trust in the managing bodies was found to have a stronger influence on perceived risk, and pro-environmental orientation was found to have a stronger influence on trust in the managing bodies; however, perceived benefit had a weaker positive influence on public acceptance. We also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. A new Early Cretaceous eutherian mammal from the Sasayama Group, Hyogo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kusuhashi, Nao; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Saegusa, Haruo; Horie, Kenji; Ikeda, Tadahiro; Yokoyama, Kazumi; Shiraishi, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    We here describe a new Early Cretaceous (early Albian) eutherian mammal, Sasayamamylos kawaii gen. et sp. nov., from the ‘Lower Formation’ of the Sasayama Group, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Sasayamamylos kawaii is characterized by a robust dentary, a distinct angle on the ventral margin of the dentary at the posterior end of the mandibular symphysis, a lower dental formula of 3–4 : 1 : 4 : 3, a robust lower canine, a non-molariform lower ultimate premolar, and a secondarily reduced entoconid on the molars. To date, S. kawaii is the earliest known eutherian mammal possessing only four premolars, which demonstrates that the reduction in the premolar count in eutherians started in the late Early Cretaceous. The occurrence of S. kawaii implies that the relatively rapid diversification of eutherians in the mid-Cretaceous had already started by the early Albian. PMID:23536594

  20. A new Early Cretaceous eutherian mammal from the Sasayama Group, Hyogo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kusuhashi, Nao; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Saegusa, Haruo; Horie, Kenji; Ikeda, Tadahiro; Yokoyama, Kazumi; Shiraishi, Kazuyuki

    2013-05-22

    We here describe a new Early Cretaceous (early Albian) eutherian mammal, Sasayamamylos kawaii gen. et sp. nov., from the 'Lower Formation' of the Sasayama Group, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Sasayamamylos kawaii is characterized by a robust dentary, a distinct angle on the ventral margin of the dentary at the posterior end of the mandibular symphysis, a lower dental formula of 3-4 : 1 : 4 : 3, a robust lower canine, a non-molariform lower ultimate premolar, and a secondarily reduced entoconid on the molars. To date, S. kawaii is the earliest known eutherian mammal possessing only four premolars, which demonstrates that the reduction in the premolar count in eutherians started in the late Early Cretaceous. The occurrence of S. kawaii implies that the relatively rapid diversification of eutherians in the mid-Cretaceous had already started by the early Albian.

  1. Measuring the inequalities in radiotherapy health resources in Japan: comparison of the Hokkaido-Tohoku and Tokyo districts.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Hisateru; Narumi, Masakazu; Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Aoki, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure and compare the geographical inequalities in radiotherapy health resources between the Hokkaido-Tohoku and Tokyo districts of Japan. The numbers of radiotherapy facilities, radiologists, and radiological technologists were used to represent radiotherapy health resources. The target areas were 11 prefectures in the Hokkaido-Tohoku and Tokyo districts. The Gini coefficient (GC) was used to measure inequalities in health resources in relation to the population and area of each secondary medical care zone. Correlation analysis was performed to clarify the relation between the GC and the all-cancer mortality rate per 100,000 people. The mean population and area GCs of Yamagata Prefecture were the smallest, whereas the mean population GC of Tokyo and the mean area GC of Hokkaido were the largest. The mean GCs of radiotherapy facilities and radiological technologists were higher in the Tokyo district than in the Hokkaido-Tohoku district. No significant correlation was found between GC and cancer mortality. Geographical inequalities in radiotherapy health resources tended to be larger in the Tokyo district than in the Hokkaido-Tohoku district. It is expected that the radiotherapy system will be substantially improved by the Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control Programs.

  2. Vertical distributions of (99)Tc and the (99)Tc/(137)Cs activity ratio in the coastal water off Aomori, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takahiro; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2011-08-01

    Using a sector-field ICP-MS the vertical distributions of the (99)Tc concentration and (99)Tc/(137)Cs activity ratio were measured in the coastal waters off Aomori Prefecture, Japan, where a spent-nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant has begun test operation. The (99)Tc concentrations in surface water ranged from 1.8 to 2.4 mBq/m(3), no greater than the estimated background level. Relatively high (99)Tc/(137)Cs activity ratios (10-12 × 10(-4)) would be caused by the inflow of the high-(99)Tc/(137)Cs water mass from the Japan Sea. There is no observable contamination from the reprocessing plant in the investigated area. The (99)Tc concentration and the (99)Tc/(137)Cs activity ratio in water column showed gradual decreases with depth. Our results implied that (99)Tc behaves in a more conservative manner than (137)Cs in marine environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of Complement-Mediated Cell Lysis-like Gene (sicG) in Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Isolates From Japan (2014-2016).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Takashi; Fujita, Tomohiro; Shibayama, Akiyoshi; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Yoshida, Haruno

    2017-07-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE; a β-hemolytic streptococcus of human or animal origin) infections are emerging worldwide. We evaluated the clonal distribution of complement-mediated cell lysis-like gene (sicG) among SDSE isolates from three central prefectures of Japan. Group G/C β-hemolytic streptococci were collected from three institutions from April 2014 to March 2016. Fifty-five strains (52 from humans and three from animals) were identified as SDSE on the basis of 16S rRNA sequencing data.; they were obtained from 25 sterile (blood, joint fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid) and 30 non-sterile (skin-, respiratory tract-, and genitourinary tract-origin) samples. emm genotyping, multilocus sequence typing, sicG amplification/sequencing, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of sicG-positive strains were performed. sicG was detected in 30.9% of the isolates (16 human and one canine) and the genes from the 16 human samples (blood, 10; open pus, 3; sputum, 2; throat swab, 1) and one canine sample (open pus) showed the same sequence pattern. All sicG-harboring isolates belonged to clonal complex (CC) 17, and the most prevalent emm type was stG6792 (82.4%). There was a significant association between sicG presence and the development of skin/soft tissue infections. CC17 isolates with sicG could be divided into three subtypes by RAPD analysis. CC17 SDSE harboring sicG might have spread into three closely-related prefectures in central Japan during 2014-2016. Clonal analysis of isolates from other areas might be needed to monitor potentially virulent strains in humans and animals. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine

  4. Comparison of cardiovascular mortality in the Great East Japan and the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquakes - a large-scale data analysis of death certificates.

    PubMed

    Takegami, Misa; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Satoshi; Nakai, Michikazu; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Ogawa, Hisao; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Toh, Ryuji; Morino, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Naito, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Large earthquakes have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. In Japan, the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji (H-A) Earthquake was an urban-underground-type earthquake, whereas the 2011 Great East Japan (GEJ) Earthquake was an ocean-trench type. In the present study, we examined how these different earthquake types affected CVD mortality. We examined death certificate data from 2008 to 2012 for 131 municipalities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures (n=320,348) and from 1992 to 1996 for 220 municipalities in Hyogo, Osaka, and Kyoto prefectures (n=592,670). A Poisson regression model showed significant increases in the monthly numbers of acute myocardial infarction (AMI)-related deaths (incident rate ratio [IRR] GEJ=1.34, P=0.001; IRR of H-A=1.57, P<0.001) and stroke-related deaths (IRR of GEJ=1.42, P<0.001; IRR of H-A=1.33, P<0.001) after the earthquakes. Two months after the earthquakes, AMI deaths remained significant only for H-A (IRR=1.13, P=0.029). When analyzing the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) after the earthquakes using the Cochran-Armitage trend test, seismic intensity was significantly associated with AMI mortality for 2 weeks after both the GEJ (P for trend=0.089) and H-A earthquakes (P for trend=0.005). Following the GEJ and H-A earthquakes, there was a sharp increase in CVD mortality. The effect of the disaster was sustained for months after the H-A earthquake, but was diminished after the GEJ Earthquake.

  5. Molecular survey of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in pet cats across Japan by species-specific nested-PCR.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Kabeya, H; Negishi, A; Tsujimoto, H; Nishigaki, K; Endo, Y; Maruyama, S

    2017-10-01

    Cats are known to be the main reservoir for Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae, which are the agents of 'cat-scratch disease' in humans. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of the two Bartonella species on 1754 cat bloods collected from all prefectures in Japan during 2007-2008 by a nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region. Overall, Bartonella DNA was detected in 4·6% (80/1754) of the cats examined. The nested-PCR showed that 48·8% (39/80) of the positive cats were infected with B. henselae mono-infection, 33·8% (27/80) with B. clarridgeiae mono-infection and 17·5% (14/80) were infected with both species. The prevalence (5·9%; 65/1103) of Bartonella infection in the western part of Japan was significantly higher than that (2·3%; 15/651) of eastern Japan (P < 0·001). Statistical analysis of the cats examined suggested a significant association between Bartonella infection and FeLV infection (OR = 1·9; 95% CI = 1·1-3·4), but not with FIV infection (OR = 1·6; 95% CI = 1·0-2·6).

  6. Prevalence of Functional Constipation and Relationship with Dietary Habits in 3- to 8-Year-Old Children in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujitani, Asami; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Inui, Ayano; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and effect of dietary habits on functional constipation in preschool and early elementary school children in Japan. A total of 3595 children aged 3 to 8 years from 28 nursery schools and 22 elementary schools in Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, were evaluated. The subjects were divided into a functional constipation group and a nonfunctional constipation group according to the Rome III criteria. Dietary intake data were collected using a brief-type, self-administered, diet-history questionnaire validated for Japanese preschool-aged children. Of the 3595 subjects evaluated, 718 (20.0%) had functional constipation. The association between functional constipation and gender was not statistically significant ( p = 0.617). A decrease in bowel frequency was observed in 15.9% of those with functional constipation. There was no significant difference in the proportion of participants in the constipation group by age ( p = 0.112). Binomial logistic regression analysis indicated that only fat per 100 kcal positively correlated with functional constipation [odds ratio = 1.216, 95% confidence interval: 1.0476-1.412]. Functional constipation is common among children in preschool and early elementary school in urban areas of Japan. Parents should pay attention to constipation-related symptoms other than defecation frequency. A high-fat diet should be avoided to prevent functional constipation.

  7. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) genetic typing in Kakeroma Island, an island at the crossroads of the ryukyuans and Wajin in Japan, providing further insights into the origin of the virus in Japan.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Katsuyuki; Fujii, Hidefumi; Oshima, Kengo; Otani, Masashi; Matsuo, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Taro

    2009-08-01

    Peripheral blood samples were collected from 23 human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) carriers residing in Kakeroma Island, Japan (Kagoshima Prefecture, Oshima County, Setouchi Town), one of the most highly endemic areas in Japan. The samples were subjected to amplification by PCR and sequencing of the Long Terminal Repeat in order to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of HTLV-1 isolates. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of env region was also conducted for subgrouping of HTLV-1. Although one sample could not be amplified by PCR, and three more could not be sequenced due to the existence of conspicuous nonspecific bands or repeated sequences, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the remaining 19 isolates obtained from Kakeroma Island belonged to either the Transcontinental or the Japanese subgroups of the Cosmopolitan subtype, one of the three major subtypes. The RFLP data corresponded closely with the typing data throughout the sequencing. The proportion of the Transcontinental subgroup among the isolates was 26.3% (5 of 19) by sequence analysis and 27.3% (6 of 22) by RFLP. Unlike in Taiwan, China and Okinawa, the Japanese subgroup was dominant in Kakeroma Island. The analysis would also suggest that the Japanese subgroup seems not to have derived from the Transcontinental subgroup, but rather that the Transcontinental subgroup came to Japan first and was followed later by the Japanese one. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. The great East Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011, from the vantage point of blood banking and transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Nollet, Kenneth E; Ohto, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Hasegawa, Arifumi

    2013-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, and subsequent tsunami took nearly 20 000 lives in Tohoku, the northeastern part of Japan's main island. Most victims were either carried away by the tsunami or drowned. The ability to collect blood was disrupted on the Pacific coast of Tohoku. Inland areas were less affected, but allogeneic blood collected in Tohoku is tested at the Miyagi Red Cross Blood Center (Miyagi Center) in the coastal city of Sendai. Miyagi Center was damaged and could not test for 2 months. The aims of this study are as follows: (1) to assess transfusion practice at 8 disaster response hospitals in Tohoku's Fukushima Prefecture, for equal intervals before and after March 11, 2011; (2) to report activities related to blood collection and distribution in response to the disaster; and (3) to describe the Great East Japan Earthquake in the context of other disasters. Data were collected through a survey of transfusion services at 8 major disaster response hospitals, communication at transfusion conferences, and literature review. Transfused patients and units transfused were about 70% and 60% of normal in the surveyed hospitals because this was a disaster of mass casualty rather than mass injury, and patients requiring chronic care were evacuated out. A nationally coordinated effort allowed excess blood collected outside Tohoku to be transported in, despite infrastructure damage. Japan's national system of blood collection and distribution responded effectively to local needs after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Disasters such as Japan's 3.11 should guide discourse about emergency preparedness and centralization of services. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Influence of the great East Japan earthquake and tsunami 2011 on occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases in Iwate, Japan.

    PubMed

    Omama, Shinichi; Yoshida, Yuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ogawa, Akira; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Tanno, Kozo; Ohsawa, Masaki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Sakata, Kiyomi

    2013-06-01

    Little information is available regarding the occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases after tsunamis. This study was performed to determine the influence of the tsunami damage caused by the Great East Japan earthquake on occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases. Subjects from the coastline and inland areas of Iwate Prefecture who developed cerebrovascular diseases before and after the disaster were included in the analysis. Standardized incidence ratios of 2011 against the previous 3 years were calculated in two 4-week periods before and four 4-week periods after the disaster, according to stroke subtype, sex, age group, and flood damage. The standard incidence ratio for cerebrovascular diseases was 1.20 (1.00-1.40) in the first 4-week period after the disaster and was not significant in other periods. The standard incidence ratios in the first 4-week period for cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage were 1.22 (0.98-1.46), 1.15 (0.76-1.55), and 1.20 (0.52-1.88), respectively. These values were 1.51 (1.19-1.88) for men, 1.35 (1.06-1.64) for subjects aged ≥ 75 years, and 1.35 (1.06-1.64) for the high flooding areas. The standard incidence ratio of cerebral infarction in the first 4-week period for men aged ≥ 75 years in the high flooding areas was 2.34 (1.34-3.34). In the areas highly flooded by the tsunami caused by the Great East Japan earthquake, the occurrence of cerebral infarction among elderly men more than doubled in the first 4 weeks after the disaster.

  10. Analysis of 129I in the soils of Fukushima Prefecture: preliminary reconstruction of 131I deposition related to the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP).

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the most critical radionuclides to be monitored after release from reactor accidents due to the tendency for this nuclide to accumulate in the human thyroid gland. However, there are not enough data related to the reactor accident in Fukushima, Japan to provide regional information on the deposition of this short-lived nuclide (half-life = 8.02 d). In this study we have focused on the long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (half-life of 1.57 × 10(7) y), and analyzed it by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for surface soil samples collected at various locations in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to obtain information on the (131)I/(129)I ratio released from the accident, we have determined (129)I concentrations in 82 soil samples in which (131)I concentrations were previously determined. There was a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) between the two nuclides, suggesting that the (131)I levels in soil samples following the accident can be estimated through the analysis of (129)I. We have also examined the possible influence from (129m)Te on (129)I, and found no significant effect. In order to construct a deposition map of (131)I, we determined the (129)I concentrations (Bq/kg) in 388 soil samples collected from different locations in Fukushima Prefecture and the deposition densities (Bq/m(2)) of (131)I were reconstructed from the results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation of seismic velocity changes at different depths associated with the 2014 Northern Nagano Prefecture earthquake, Japan ( M W 6.2) by joint interferometric analysis of NIED Hi-net and KiK-net records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawazaki, Kaoru; Saito, Tatsuhiko; Ueno, Tomotake; Shiomi, Katsuhiko

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the seismic velocity changes at different depths associated with a large earthquake, we apply passive image interferometry to two types of seismograms: KiK-net vertical pairs of earthquake records and Hi-net continuous borehole data. We compute the surface/borehole deconvolution waveform (DCW) of seismograms recorded by a KiK-net station and the autocorrelation function (ACF) of ambient noise recorded by a collocated Hi-net station, 26 km from the epicenter of the 2014 Northern Nagano Prefecture earthquake, Japan ( M W 6.2). Because the deeper KiK-net sensor and the Hi-net sensor are collocated at 150 m depth, and another KiK-net sensor is located at the surface directly above the borehole sensors, we can measure shallow (<150 m depth) and deep (>150 m depth) velocity changes separately. The sensitivity of the ACF to the velocity changes in the deeper zone is evaluated by a numerical wave propagation simulation. We detect relative velocity changes of -3.1 and -1.4% in the shallow and deep zones, respectively, within 1 week of the mainshock. The relative velocity changes recover to -1.9 and -1.1%, respectively, during the period between 1 week and 4 months after the mainshock. The observed relative velocity reductions can be attributed to dynamic strain changes due to the strong ground motion, rather than static strain changes due to coseismic deformation by the mainshock. The speed of velocity recovery may be faster in the shallow zone than in the deep zone because the recovery speed is controlled by initial damage in the medium. This recovery feature is analogous to the behavior of slow dynamics observed in rock experiments.

  12. Characterization of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild and captive birds in the winter season of 2016-2017 in Northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Matsuno, Keita; Haga, Atsushi; Iwata, Ritsuko; Nguyen, Lam Thanh; Suzuki, Mizuho; Kikutani, Yuto; Kida, Hiroshi; Onuma, Manabu; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2017-09-01

    On 15 November 2016, a black swan that had died in a zoo in Akita prefecture, northern Japan, was strongly suspected to have highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI); an HPAI virus (HPAIV) belonging to the H5N6 subtype was isolated from specimens taken from the bird. After the initial report, 230 cases of HPAI caused by H5N6 viruses from wild birds, captive birds, and domestic poultry farms were reported throughout the country during the winter season. In the present study, 66 H5N6 HPAIVs isolated from northern Japan were further characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene showed that the H5N6 viruses isolated in northern Japan clustered into Group C of Clade 2.3.4.4 together with other isolates collected in Japan, Korea and Taiwan during the winter season of 2016-2017. The antigenicity of the Japanese H5N6 isolate differed slightly from that of HPAIVs isolated previously in Japan and China. The virus exhibited high pathogenicity and a high replication capacity in chickens, whereas virus growth was slightly lower in ducks compared with that of an H5N8 HPAIV isolate collected in Japan in 2014. Comprehensive analyses of Japanese isolates, including those from central, western, and southern Japan, as well as rapid publication of this information are essential for facilitating greater control of HPAIVs. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Satellite tracking of the migration of Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shimada, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hijikata, N.; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Flint, Paul L.; Tokita, Ken-ichi; Fujita, Go; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Sato, F.; Kurechi, Masayuki; Pearce, John M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We satellite-tracked Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in northern Japan to document their migration routes and timing, and to identify breeding areas. From 47 swans that we marked at Lake Izunuma-Uchinuma, Miyagi Prefecture, northeast Honshu, and at Lake Kussharo, east Hokkaido, we observed 57 spring and 33 autumn migrations from 2009-2012. In spring, swans migrated north along Sakhalin Island from eastern Hokkaido using stopovers in Sakhalin, at the mouth of the Amur River and in northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk. They ultimately reached molting/breedmg areas along the Indigirka River and the lower Kolyma River in northern Russia. In autumn, the swans basically reversed the spring migration routes. We identified northern Honshu, eastern Hokkaido, coastal areas in Sakhalin, the lower Amur River and northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk as the most frequent stopover sites, and the middle reaches of the Indigirka and the lower Kolyma River as presumed breeding sites. Our results are helpful in understanding the distribution of the breeding and stopover sites of Whooper Swans wintering in Japan and in identifying their major migration habitats. Our findings contribute to understanding the potential transmission process of avian influenza viruses potentially carried by swans, and provide information necessary to conserve Whooper Swans in East Asia.

  14. Absence of neonatal intensive care units in secondary medical care zones is an independent risk factor of high perinatal mortality in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoko; Nakai, Akihito; Nishijima, Yasuhiro; Kishita, Eisaku; Hakuno, Haruhiko; Sakoi, Masami; Kusuda, Satoshi; Unno, Nobuya; Tamura, Masanori; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2016-10-01

    National medical projects are carried out according to medical care plans directed by the Medical Care Act of Japan. In order to improve Japanese perinatal medical care, it is necessary to determine the factors that might influence perinatal outcome. Statistical data of births and perinatal deaths were obtained for all municipalities in Japan from 2008 to 2012 from the Portal Site of Official Statistics of Japan (e-Stat). The perinatal mortality of all 349 Japanese secondary medical care zones was calculated. The number of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), maternal-fetal intensive care units (MFICUs), pediatricians and obstetricians in 2011 were also obtained from e-Stat. Nine secondary medical care zones in two prefectures, Fukushima (7) and Miyagi (2) were excluded to eliminate the influence of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The 340 secondary medical care zones were divided into three groups according to population size and density: metropolis, provincial city, and depopulation. The number of secondary medical care zones in each group were 52, 168, and 120, respectively. The secondary medical care zones in the depopulation group had fewer pediatricians and significantly fewer NICUs and MFICUs than the metropolis group, but there was no significant difference in perinatal mortality. The only independent risk factor for high perinatal mortality, determined by multivariable analysis, was the absence of an NICU (P = 0.011). To consider directions in perinatal medical care, planned arrangement and appropriate access to NICUs is indispensable. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Gender Differences in Spousal Caregiving in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Mikiko; Kutsumi, Masami; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Background Gender differences in spousal caregivers and their relationship to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers’ depression were examined. Methods A stratified random sample of 2,020 users of public long-term care insurance in a city of Osaka prefecture, Japan, participated in this study. Responses from 308 spouses (56.2% wives, 43.8% husbands) were analyzed. Variables relating to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers’ depression were compared by conducting simultaneous analyses of multiple populations. Results Wives caring for husbands had higher depression scores than husbands caring for wives. Wives tended to adopt “emotional support seeking” and “willing commitment” as coping strategies for their caregiving experience. Husband caregivers used more home-care services; however, increased service use had no effect on husbands’ depression. The availability of secondary caregivers reduced depression for caregivers, regardless of gender. Conclusions The effects on depression differed related to the caregiver's gender. Husbands relied more on family or home-care services when caring for their wives, whereas wives provided higher levels of care, positively accepted their role, and did not seek to share caregiving, but sought emotional support. PMID:19176486

  16. Foreign Language Curricula in Japanese High Schools: A Case Study in Miyagi Prefecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the foreign language curricula in Japanese high schools for the purpose of gaining insight into alternative views of foreign language education. Teachers, administrators, and staff at two high schools in Miyagi Prefecture were interviewed. Teachers were asked about testing, placement procedures, standards,…

  17. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax genotype analysis in Okinawa, the southernmost and remotest islands of Japan: Different distributions compared with mainland Japan and the potential value for the prognosis of aggressive adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sakihama, Shugo; Saito, Mineki; Kuba-Miyara, Megumi; Tomoyose, Takeaki; Taira, Naoya; Miyagi, Takashi; Hayashi, Masaki; Kinjo, Shigeko; Nakachi, Sawako; Tedokon, Iori; Nishi, Yukiko; Tamaki, Keita; Morichika, Kazuho; Uchihara, Jun-Nosuke; Morishima, Satoko; Karube, Ken-Nosuke; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Fukushima, Takuya

    2017-10-01

    Okinawa, comprising remote islands off the mainland of Japan, is an endemic area of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1), the causative virus of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM). We investigated the tax genotype of HTLV-1 among 29 HTLV-1 carriers, 74 ATL patients, and 33 HAM patients in Okinawa. The genotype distribution-60 (44%) taxA cases and 76 (56%) taxB cases-differed from that of a previous report from Kagoshima Prefecture in mainland Japan (taxA, 10%; taxB, 90%). A comparison of the clinical outcomes of 45 patients (taxA, 14; taxB, 31) with aggressive ATL revealed that the overall response and 1-year overall survival rates for taxA (50% and 35%, respectively) were lower than those for taxB (71% and 49%, respectively). In a multivariate analysis of two prognostic indices for aggressive ATL, Japan Clinical Oncology Group-Prognostic Index and Prognostic Index for acute and lymphoma ATL, with respect to age, performance status, corrected calcium, soluble interleukin-2 receptor, and tax genotype, the estimated hazard ratio of taxA compared with taxB was 2.68 (95% confidence interval, 0.87-8.25; P=0.086). Our results suggest that the tax genotype has clinical value as a prognostic factor for aggressive ATL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Methylmercury exposure and mortality in southern Japan: a close look at causes of death.

    PubMed Central

    Tamashiro, H; Arakaki, M; Futatsuka, M; Lee, E S

    1986-01-01

    This study examines mortality patterns by cause of death to investigate the effect of exposure to methylmercury in a small area of Minamata City (Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan), which has the highest concentration of patients with Minamata disease. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) are computed by cause of death for the study area, using the age specific rates of the entire city as a standard. The SMRs for liver cancer and chronic liver disease in the study area are significantly higher than unity and are consistent with the mortality patterns of registered Minamata disease patients. While an excess mortality is observed for cerebral haemorrhage, mortality from cerebral infarction and other cerebrovascular diseases is considerably lower in the study area. The multiple risk factors of liver related diseases and a possible explanation for the cerebrovascular mortality patterns are discussed to suggest further investigation. PMID:3746182

  19. Epidemiological factors associated to spread of porcine epidemic diarrhea in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yosuke; Alvarez, Julio; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Sueyoshi, Masuo; Otake, Satoshi; Perez, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an emerging disease of pigs that has recently led to large numbers of piglet deaths in a number of countries of Eastern Asia and The Americas. The objective of the present study was to identify and compare risk factors associated with PED infection in locally and non-locally PED-exposed farms in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to a convenience selection of pig farms located throughout Japan. Questionnaires were administered between November 2013 (when the first case was reported in Japan) and August 2014. PED-positive farms (cases, n=124) were asked to provide information on their status (positive or negative) and select herd management practices for the two weeks prior to onset of PED clinical signs. Negative farms (controls, n=128) were given the same questionnaire and asked herd management practices for the two weeks prior to a given reference date. This date was assigned based on the date of PED occurrence in the town/prefecture in which the farm was located. Case and control farms were categorized as "locally exposed" if they were located within a 5km radius from a PED-infected farm and "non-locally exposed", otherwise. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with PED infection. Two separate regressions were done for locally exposed and non-locally exposed farms using PED status (positive/negative) as the dependent variable. PED in locally-exposed farms was associated (P<0.05) with increased farm size (in 100 pig increments), shorter distances to the closest PED-positive farm (less than1,001m), and a disinfectant contact time of less than 20min. In non-locally exposed farms, PED was associated (P<0.05) with increased feed truck visits to the farm, no visit of the veterinarian, and again a disinfectant contact time of less than 20min. These findings suggest that the mechanisms of PED spread in Japan were different for farms closer to case-farms compared to farms that were further away from

  20. Longitudinal changes in body mass index of children affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Zheng, W; Yokomichi, H; Matsubara, H; Ishikuro, M; Kikuya, M; Isojima, T; Yokoya, S; Tanaka, T; Kato, N; Chida, S; Ono, A; Hosoya, M; Tanaka, S; Kuriyama, S; Kure, S; Yamagata, Z

    2017-04-01

    The evacuation and disruption in housing caused by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and following nuclear radiation may have influenced child health in many respects. However, studies regarding longitudinal childhood growth are limited. Therefore, in this study we aimed to explore the influence of the earthquake on longitudinal changes in body mass index in preschool children. Participants were children from nursery schools who cooperated with the study in the Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures. The exposed group consisted of children who experienced the earthquake during their preschool-age period (4-5 years old). The historical control group included children who were born 2 years earlier than the exposed children in the same prefectures. Trajectories regarding body mass index and prevalence of overweight/obesity were compared between the two groups using multilevel analysis. Differences in the changes in BMI between before and after the earthquake, and proportion of overweight/obesity was compared between the two groups. We also conducted subgroup analysis by defining children with specific personal disaster experiences within the exposed group. A total of 9722 children were included in the study. Children in the exposed group had higher body mass indices and a higher proportion of overweight after the earthquake than the control group. These differences were more obvious when confined to exposed children with specific personal disaster experiences. Children's growth and development-related health issues such as increased BMI after natural disasters should evoke great attention.

  1. Specific needs for telestroke networks for thrombolytic therapy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takeshi; Sakurai, Kenzo; Hagiwara, Yuta; Mizukami, Heisuke; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The concept of telestroke networks has been proposed to overcome regional disparities in stroke treatment. Such networks do not yet operate in Japan. We aimed to determine the specific needs for telestroke networks and to estimate the effects on the number of thrombolytic therapies. Five of the 47 Japanese prefectures with various population densities to estimate the nationwide effect of telestroke networks were selected. The questionnaire survey was administered at hospitals in these prefectures that are authorized to admit patients with acute stroke. Low-volume hospitals that annually treated fewer than 12 patients with acute stroke had never used tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The number of days when telestroke support might have been needed varied depending on the size of the population aged 65 years or older within a 30-minute-driving-time area of a hospital and the annual number of patients treated within 3 hours of onset. The geographic information system analysis showed that .6%-8.3% of the population lived in areas where they could not reach a hospital for acute stroke treatment within 60 minutes. If 24/7 full telestroke support was introduced to the existing hospitals, 6.8-69.3 more patients could be treated by intravenous (IV) tPA annually. These numbers exceeded the estimated annual increases of .8-13.7 more patients if a drip-and-ship telestroke network was introduced into an underserved area outside the 60-minute-driving-time area. This study uncovered that many Japanese stroke hospitals, especially low-volume facilities located in rural areas, do not perform IV tPA therapy in 24/7 fashion and telestroke support to these hospitals may be highly effective compared with the drip-and-ship network in an underserved area. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Social cohesion and mortality: a survival analysis of older adults in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Sachiko; Yorifuji, Takashi; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-12-01

    We examined the association between social cohesion and mortality in a sample of older adults in Japan. Data were derived from a cohort study of elderly individuals (65-84 years) in Shizuoka Prefecture; 14 001 participants were enrolled at baseline (1999) and followed up in 2002, 2006, and 2009. Among the 11 092 participants for whom we had complete data, 1427 had died during follow-up. We examined the association between social cohesion (assessed at both the community and individual levels) and subsequent mortality after control for baseline and time-varying covariates. We used clustered proportional hazard regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs). After control for individual characteristics, individual perceptions of community cohesion were associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.73, 0.84) as well as mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.67, 0.84), pulmonary disease (HR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.58, 0.75), and all other causes (HR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.66, 0.89). However, no statistically significant relationship was found between community cohesion and mortality risk. Among the elderly in Japan, more positive individual perceptions of community cohesion are associated with reduced risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

  3. Social Cohesion and Mortality: A Survival Analysis of Older Adults in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between social cohesion and mortality in a sample of older adults in Japan. Methods. Data were derived from a cohort study of elderly individuals (65–84 years) in Shizuoka Prefecture; 14 001 participants were enrolled at baseline (1999) and followed up in 2002, 2006, and 2009. Among the 11 092 participants for whom we had complete data, 1427 had died during follow-up. We examined the association between social cohesion (assessed at both the community and individual levels) and subsequent mortality after control for baseline and time-varying covariates. We used clustered proportional hazard regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs). Results. After control for individual characteristics, individual perceptions of community cohesion were associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.73, 0.84) as well as mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.67, 0.84), pulmonary disease (HR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.58, 0.75), and all other causes (HR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.66, 0.89). However, no statistically significant relationship was found between community cohesion and mortality risk. Conclusions. Among the elderly in Japan, more positive individual perceptions of community cohesion are associated with reduced risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. PMID:24134379

  4. Child deaths with persistent neglected experiences from medico-legal documents in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Yui; Tamiya, Nanako; Fujiwara, Takeo; Yamasaki, Yukie; Matsuzawa, Akemi; Miyaishi, Satoru

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have examined the actual conditions of fatal neglect in Japan. The aims of this study were to investigate persistent neglect among child fatalities using medico-legal documents, and to describe the characteristics of the socio-familial background and biological data. The current study analyzed the documents of all postmortem external examinations and autopsies in children <2 years old carried out in one prefecture in Japan from 2006 to 2011. After examining 59 autopsy cases using modified the Maltreatment Classification System, we identified six children who experienced persistent neglect as study samples. Three children were found in unsanitary rooms and one was left alone inside a car. In two cases, age of mother at delivery was <21 years old. Three victims had 1 year older sibling. With regard to history of use of health services, three mothers missed some prenatal care visits, and two refused to receive neonatal home visits. With regard to biological data the average weight Z score of six children was -2.22 after being adjusted to average weight for age (in months) and sex. Three children had acute or chronic undernutrition. Three victims had thymic involution considered as being due to chronic child maltreatment. The present collaboration between public health and legal medicine has enabled investigation of the background and biological impact of experiences of persistent neglect. A multidisciplinary system of evaluating child death is needed to identify preventable factors in order to intervene in the case of neglected children in a timely manner. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatrics International published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Iodine intake by adult residents of a farming area in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, and the accuracy of estimated iodine intake calculated using the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Haruo; Chiba, Keiko; Watanabe, Takao; Sawatari, Hideyuki; Seki, Takako

    2016-11-01

    Iodine intake by adults in farming districts in Northeastern Japan was evaluated by two methods: (1) government-approved food composition tables based calculation and (2) instrumental measurement. The correlation between these two values and a regression model for the calibration of calculated values was presented. Iodine intake was calculated, using the values in the Japan Standard Tables of Food Composition (FCT), through the analysis of duplicate samples of complete 24-h food consumption for 90 adult subjects. In cases where the value for iodine content was not available in the FCT, it was assumed to be zero for that food item (calculated values). Iodine content was also measured by ICP-MS (measured values). Calculated and measured values rendered geometric means (GM) of 336 and 279 μg/day, respectively. There was no statistically significant (p > 0.05) difference between calculated and measured values. The correlation coefficient was 0.646 (p < 0.05). With this high correlation coefficient, a simple regression line can be applied to estimate measured value from calculated value. A survey of the literature suggests that the values in this study were similar to values that have been reported to date for Japan, and higher than those for other countries in Asia. Iodine intake of Japanese adults was 336 μg/day (GM, calculated) and 279 μg/day (GM, measured). Both values correlated so well, with a correlation coefficient of 0.646, that a regression model (Y = 130.8 + 1.9479X, where X and Y are measured and calculated values, respectively) could be used to calibrate calculated values.

  6. Assessing the Impact of a Wildlife Education Program on Japanese Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakurai, Ryo; Jacobson, Susan K.; Matsuda, Naoko; Maruyama, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts are common in agricultural communities and mountainous villages in Japan. Tochigi prefecture has one of the highest amounts of agricultural damage caused by wildlife in the country. To reduce conflicts, the Nature Preservation Division of Tochigi Prefecture launched a wildlife damage prevention program. We evaluated the…

  7. Postsecondary Educational Decision-Making among First-Generation College-Bound Students in Okinawa Prefecture, with Consideration of the Population Problem in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaki, Yuki

    2010-01-01

    In correspondence to an overall decline in the Japanese population, the number of young students in Japan has been dramatically decreasing to the extent that the Japanese government has predicted a situation in which as of 2009 admissions places in Japanese universities will be equal to the number of applicants. Currently, approximately fifty…

  8. Work engagement and attitudes toward caring for dying patients and families among home-visiting nurses in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mahiro, Sakai; Takashi, Naruse; Satoko, Nagata

    2014-07-01

    Nurses with higher levels of work engagement tend to be highly efficient in their work and more willing to keep working and to provide patient-centred care. However, whether more engaged nurses provide end-of-life care more proactively has not been examined in the home-care setting. This study aimed to examine work engagement among home-visiting nurses in Japan and its relationship with their attitudes toward caring for dying patients and their families. A total of 343 nurses working in 62 agencies across Chiba prefecture, eastern Japan, received an anonymous self-administered questionnaire from July to August 2012. The authors performed multiple regression analysis to explore the relationships between home-visiting nurses' work engagement and attitudes. Data from 184 nurses (53.6%) was analysed. Work engagement was significantly positively related to the nurses' attitudes toward caring for dying patients and their families. As more engaged nurses tend to have more positive attitudes toward caring for dying patients and their families, further research is needed to identify the factors that might help nursing managers to enhance their staff's engagement and perhaps thereby improve their attitudes, with the ultimate aim of achieving better outcomes for patients and families.

  9. Quality of basic life support education and automated external defibrillator setting in schools in Ishikawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Akiteru; Ito, Sayori; Maruyama, Kaori; Ryo, Yusuke; Saito, Manami; Fujimura, Shuhei; Ishiura, Yuna; Hori, Ariyuki

    2017-03-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AED) have been installed in schools in Japan since 2004, and the government strongly recommends teaching basic life support (BLS). We therefore examined the quality of BLS education and AED installation in schools. We conducted a prefecture-wide questionnaire survey of all primary and junior high schools in 2016, to assess BLS education and AED installation against the recommendations of the Japan Circulation Society. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-squared test. In total, 195 schools out of 315 (62%) responded, of which 38% have introduced BLS education for children. BLS training was held in a smaller proportion of primary schools (18%) than junior high schools (86%). More than 90% of primary school staff had undergone BLS training in the previous 2 years. The most common locations of AED were the gymnasium (32%) followed by entrance hall (28%), staffroom (25%), and infirmary (12%). The reasons given for location were that it was obvious (34%), convenient for staff (32%), could be used out of hours (17%), and the most likely location for a heart attack (15%). Approximately 18% of schools reported that it takes >5 min to reach the AED from the furthest point. BLS training, AED location, and understanding of both are not sufficient to save children's lives efficiently. Authorities should make recommendations about the correct number of AED, and their location, and provide more information to improve the quality of BLS training in schools. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Background and current status of postmortem imaging in Japan: short history of "Autopsy imaging (Ai)".

    PubMed

    Okuda, Takahisa; Shiotani, Seiji; Sakamoto, Namiko; Kobayashi, Tomoya

    2013-02-10

    There is a low autopsy rate and wide distribution of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners in Japan. Therefore, many Japanese hospitals, including 36% of the hospitals with in-patient facilities and 89% of large hospitals with ER facilities conduct postmortem imaging (PMI), use clinical scanners to screen for causes in unusual deaths as an alternative to an autopsy or to determine whether an autopsy is needed. The Japanese PMI examination procedure is generally referred to as "autopsy imaging" (Ai) and the term "Ai" is now commonly used by the Japanese government. Currently, 26 of 47 Japanese prefectures have at least one Ai Center with scanners that are dedicated for PMI. Here, we briefly review the history of Japanese PMI (Ai) from 1985 to the present. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Future Estimation of Convenience Living Facilities Withdrawal due to Population Decline all Over Japan from 2010 TO 2040 - Focus on Supermarkets, Convenience Stores and Drugstores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Yuka; Akiyama, Yuki; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-06-01

    Population explosion is considered to be one of the most crucial problems in the world. However, in Japan, the opposite problem: population decline has become serious now. Japanese population is estimated to decrease by twenty millions in 2040. This negative situation will cause to increase areas where many residents cannot make a daily living all over Japan because many convenience living facilities such as supermarkets, convenience stores and drugstores will be difficult to maintain their market area population due to future population decline. In our research, we used point data of convenience living facilities developed by address geocoding of digital telephone directory and point data of future population projection developed by distribution of Japanese official population projection data proportionally among the building volume of digital residential map, which can monitor building volumes all over Japan. In conclusion, we estimated that various convenience living facilities in Japan will shrink and close by population decline in near future. In particular, it is cleared that approximately 14.7% of supermarkets will be possible to withdraw all over Japan by 2040. In addition, it is cleared that over 40% of supermarkets in some countryside prefectures will be possible to withdraw by 2040. Thus, we estimated future distributions of convenience living facilities that cannot maintain their market area population due to future population decline. Moreover, we estimated the number of people that they will become inconvenience in buying fresh foods.

  12. Impact of the Japan earthquake disaster with massive Tsunami on emergency coronary intervention and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tomonori; Nakajima, Satoshi; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Nishiyama, Osamu; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Endo, Hiroshi; Sakai, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Morino, Yoshihiro

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate reperfusion rate, therapeutic time course and in-hospital mortality pre- and post-Japan earthquake disaster, comparing patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated in the inland area or the Tsunami-stricken area of Iwate prefecture. Subjects were 386 consecutive STEMI patients admitted to the four percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) centers in Iwate prefecture in 2010 and 2011. Patients were divided into two groups: those treated in the inland or Tsunami-stricken area. We compared clinical characteristics, time course and in-hospital mortality in both years in the two groups. PCI was performed in 310 patients (80.3%). Door-to-balloon (D2B) time in the Tsunami-stricken area in 2011 was significantly shorter than in 2010 in patients treated with PCI. However, the rate of PCI performed in the Tsunami-stricken area in March-April 2011 was significantly lower than that in March-April 2010 (41.2% vs 85.7%; p=0.03). In-hospital mortality increased three-fold from 7.1% in March-April 2010 to 23.5% in March-April 2011 in the Tsunami-stricken area. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in March-April 2011 in the Tsunami-stricken area was significantly higher than the control SMR (SMR 4.72: 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.77-12.6: p=0.007). The rate of PCI decreased and in-hospital mortality increased immediately after the Japan earthquake disaster in the Tsunami-stricken area. Disorder in hospitals and in the distribution systems after the disaster impacted the clinical care and outcome of STEMI patients. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  13. Isolation of aquatic yeasts with the ability to neutralize acidic media, from an extremely acidic river near Japan's Kusatsu-Shirane Volcano.

    PubMed

    Mitsuya, Daisuke; Hayashi, Takuya; Wang, Yu; Tanaka, Mami; Okai, Masahiko; Ishida, Masami; Urano, Naoto

    2017-07-01

    The Yukawa River is an extremely acidic river whose waters on the east foot of the Kusatu-Shirane Volcano (in Gunma Prefecture, Japan) contain sulfate ions. Here we isolated many acid-tolerant yeasts from the Yukawa River, and some of them neutralized an acidic R2A medium containing casamino acid. Candida fluviatilis strain CeA16 had the strongest acid tolerance and neutralizing activity against the acidic medium. To clarify these phenomena, we performed neutralization tests with strain CeA16 using casamino acid, a mixture of amino acids, and 17 single amino acid solutions adjusted to pH 3.0, respectively. Strain CeA16 neutralized not only acidic casamino acid and the mixture of amino acids but also some of the acidic single amino acid solutions. Seven amino acids were strongly decomposed by strain CeA16 and simultaneously released ammonium ions. These results suggest strain CeA16 is a potential yeast as a new tool to neutralize acidic environments. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evolutionary genetics of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated from whooper swans in northern Japan in 2008.

    PubMed

    Usui, Tatsufumi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Murase, Toshiyuki; Ito, Toshihiro

    2009-12-01

    In April and May 2008, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses subtype H5N1 were isolated from dead or moribund whooper swans in Aomori, Akita and Hokkaido prefectures in northern Japan. To trace the genetic lineage of the isolates, the nucleotide sequences of all eight genes were determined and phylogenetically analyzed. The Japanese strains were nearly identical to chicken viruses isolated in Russia in April 2008 and closely related to viruses isolated from dead wild birds in Hong Kong in 2007-2008. Their HA genes clustered in clade 2.3.2. On the other hand, NA and the other internal genes were closely related to those of clade 2.3.4 viruses (genotype V) whose NP genes originated from an HA clade 2.3.2 virus. In conclusion, the H5N1 viruses isolated in Japan, Russia and Hong Kong were derived from a common ancestor virus belonging to genotype V that was generated from genetic reassortment events between viruses of HA clades 2.3.2 and 2.3.4.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of mumps virus in Japan and proposal of two new genotypes.

    PubMed

    Inou, Yoko; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Naoko; Uejima, Hajime; Yuri, Kenji; Kamada, Makoto; Kumagai, Takuji; Sakiyama, Hiroshi; Miyata, Akiko; Ochiai, Hitoshi; Ihara, Toshiaki; Okafuji, Teruo; Okafuji, Takao; Nagai, Takao; Suzuki, Eitaro; Shimomura, Kunihisa; Ito, Yuhei; Miyazaki, Chiaki

    2004-05-01

    We isolated 872 strains of mumps virus from naso-pharyngeal secretions in seven different districts of Japan from January 2000 to July 2001. Among them, 57 strains were geno-typed by nucleotide sequencing in part of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and small hydrophobic (SH) protein regions. Four different genotypes (B, G, K, and L) of mumps virus were co-circulating in Japan and the distribution of genotypes varied in geographically different districts. Two new clusters designated as genotypes K and L had more than 7% nucleotide variation in the SH gene. Among the 57 strains, 11 were classified as B, 35 as G, three as K, and eight as L, which was mainly isolated in Tokyo. We also examined 104 stains isolated in a clinic in Mie prefecture from 1993 to 2003. Genotype B was the indigenous strain and genotype K was introduced in 1994. Genotypes B and K co-circulated in the 1990s and were replaced by genotype G in 2000. There was no significant change in neutralizing test antibody titers against genotypes B, G, K, and L using seven post-vaccination sera with Hoshino strain (genotype B) and these four genotypes had a different antigenicity from genotype A. We should continue to watch on mumps virus molecular epidemiology. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Regional outbreak of CTX-M-2 β-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryuichi; Nakano, Akiyo; Abe, Michiko; Inoue, Matsuhisa; Okamoto, Ryoichi

    2012-12-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infection. Wild-type P. mirabilis strains are usually susceptible to penicillins and cephalosporins, but occurrences of P. mirabilis producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been recently reported. Here, we surveyed the prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis strains at seven different hospitals in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, and investigated their molecular epidemiology to explain the mechanism of their spread. The prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis increased annually, from 10.1 % in 1998 to 23.1 % in 2003, and increased drastically in 2004, exceeding 40 %. We collected 105 consecutive and non-duplicate cefotaxime-resistant P. mirabilis isolates (MIC 16 to >256 µg ml(-1)) from these hospitals from June 2004 to May 2005 and characterized their profile. PCR and sequence analysis revealed that all resistant strains produced exclusively CTX-M-2 β-lactamase. PFGE analysis identified 47 banding patterns with 83 % or greater similarity. These results indicated that a regional outbreak of P. mirabilis producing CTX-M-2 β-lactamase has occurred in Japan and suggest that the epidemic spread occurred within and across hospitals and communities by extended clonal strains. Plasmid analysis revealed that 44.8 % of plasmids harboured by bla(CTX-M-2) isolates had common profiles, encoding ISEcp1, IS26 and Int1, and belonged to incompatibility group T. Spread of the resistant isolates in Japan resulted from dissemination of narrow-host-range plasmids of the IncT group encoding bla(CTX-M-2). These findings indicate the rapidly developing problem of treating the species to prevent dissemination of ESBL producers.

  17. Japan.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  18. [Distribution of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH)- and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH)-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in coastal Shimane Prefecture and TDH and TRH V parahaemolyticus contamination of retail shellfish].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Hiroshi

    2007-03-01

    We studied distribution of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH)- and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH)-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in coastal sea water, sediment, and shellfish and related retail shellfish contamination in Shimane Prefecture, Japan, between 2002 and 2004. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from > 80% of sea water, sediment, and shellfish. The detection of TDH gene (tdh) and TRH gene (trh)-positive V parahaemolyticus in sea water was 11%, in sediment 16%, and in shellfish 26%. The number of genes and gene-related in seawater was 23 MPN/L, in sediment 29 MPN/100 g, and in shellfish 460 MPN/10 g. TDH- and TRH-producing V. parahaemolyticus detected in seawater was 5%, in sediment 11% and in shellfish 14%. The continuous distribution of TDH-producing O2:K28, O4:K88, O4:K37, and O4:KUT organisms on the western coast and TRH2-producing O5:k30, O5:K43, O10:K19, O10:KUT, O11:K40, O11:KUT, and OUT:KUT organisms on the Oki Island coast suggested the settlement of these organisms in these coastal environments. From 7 (12%) of 59 retail short-necked clam samples, we isolated TDH-producing O 1:KUT, O3:K6 (2 strains from 2 samples imported from Korea), O4:K12, OUT:K8, and TRH2-producing OUT:K40 and OUT:K51 organisms. These findings suggested that TDH- and TRH-producing V. parahaemolyticus are widely distributed along the coast of this prefecture and are transported by contaminated retail shellfish from other areas.

  19. Lung cancer risk comparison among male smokers between the "six-prefecture cohort" in Japan and the British physicians' cohort.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, S; Akiba, S; Hirayama, T

    1989-12-01

    We estimated the effective duration of cigarette smoking using the data of lung cancer mortality among male smokers of a large-scale cohort study in Japan and evaluated its role in the lung cancer risk difference between male smokers of the Japanese cohort and the British physicians' cohort. By selecting male cohort members who answered that they had started smoking at ages 18-22 (average = 20.3), the subjects of our analysis, which numbered 49,013, were made relatively homogeneous in terms of age at which smoking was started. Assuming lung cancer mortality to be proportional to the 4.5th power of the effective duration of cigarette smoking, i.e., (age-theta)4.5, as was proposed on the basis of the British cohort study by Doll and Peto, the parameter theta was estimated to be 29.4 for male smokers aged 40-64 in 1966; therefore, the estimated duration of cigarette smoking was, on average, 9.1 years (95% confidence interval = 5.8-11.6) shorter than that calculated from the reported age at which smoking was started. Our findings suggested that the low lung cancer mortality relative to daily cigarette consumption in Japan resulted from the shorter duration of cigarette smoking in the Japanese cohort, possibly due to the severe shortage of cigarettes during and shortly after World War II. Once the effective duration of cigarette smoking was adjusted, lung cancer mortality in the range of 5-34 cigarettes per day was fairly comparable to that observed among the cohort of male British physicians.

  20. Detection and molecular characterization of Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon species in hard ticks collected from Kagoshima, the southern region in Japan.

    PubMed

    Masatani, Tatsunori; Hayashi, Kei; Andoh, Masako; Tateno, Morihiro; Endo, Yasuyuki; Asada, Masahito; Kusakisako, Kodai; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Gokuden, Mutsuyo; Hozumi, Nodoka; Nakadohzono, Fumiko; Matsuo, Tomohide

    2017-06-01

    To reveal the distribution of tick-borne parasites, we established a novel nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system to detect the most common agents of tick-borne parasitic diseases, namely Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon parasites. We collected host-seeking or animal-feeding ticks in Kagoshima Prefecture, the southernmost region of Kyusyu Island in southwestern Japan. Twenty of the total of 776 tick samples displayed a specific band of the appropriate size (approximately 1.4-1.6kbp) for the 18S rRNA genes in the novel nested PCR (20/776: 2.58%). These PCR products have individual sequences of Babesia spp. (from 8 ticks), Theileria spp. (from 9 ticks: one tick sample including at least two Theileria spp. sequences), and Hepatozoon spp. (from 3 ticks). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these sequences were close to those of undescribed Babesia spp. detected in feral raccoons in Japan (5 sequences; 3 sequences being identical), Babesia gibsoni-like parasites detected in pigs in China (3 sequences; all sequences being identical), Theileria spp. detected in sika deer in Japan and China (10 sequences; 2 sequences being identical), Hepatozoon canis (one sequence), and Hepatozoon spp. detected in Japanese martens in Japan (two sequences). In summary, we showed that various tick-borne parasites exist in Kagoshima, the southern region in Japan by using the novel nested PCR system. These including undescribed species such as Babesia gibsoni-like parasites previously detected in pigs in China. Importantly, our results revealed new combinations of ticks and protozoan parasites in southern Japan. The results of this study will aid in the recognition of potential parasitic animal diseases caused by tick-borne parasites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors affecting death at home in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sauvaget, C; Tsuji, I; Li, J H; Hosokawa, T; Fukao, A; Hisamichi, S

    1996-10-01

    Despite the wish of the Japanese people to spend their final moments at home, the percentage of deaths at home among elderly is decreasing. Moreover, large variations in this rate were observed over the country. The present ecological study analyzed the relationship between the percentage of deaths at home for decedents aged 70 and over, and demographic, medical and socioeconomic characteristics. The data published in 1990 by the Japanese National Government were analyzed by correlation, principal-component, and multiple linear regression analyses. The results showed that the percentage of deaths at home for decedents aged 70 and over was positively associated with the number of persons per household, and the area of floor space per house. The divorce rate, the national tax per capita, and the mean length of hospitalization for stroke showed a negative association with the percentage of deaths at home. In the prefectures where the crude death rates of stroke and senility were high, elderly were more likely to die at home. These results suggested the importance of the number of family caregivers, and the housing conditions for terminal care at home. This research may lead to improve home medical assistance which is still underdeveloped in Japan.

  2. Regionalization of municipal solid waste management in Japan: balancing the proximity principle with economic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Itaru; Thomson, Vivian E

    2007-07-01

    The proximity principle - disposing of waste close to its origin - has been a central value in municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Japan for the last 30 years and its widespread adoption has helped resolve numerous "Not in My Backyard" issues related to MSW management. However, MSW management costs have soared, in large part because of aggressive recycling efforts and because most MSW is incinerated in a country that has scarce landfill capacity. In addition, smaller, less sophisticated incinerators have been closed because of high dioxin emissions. Rising costs combined with the closure of smaller incinerators have shifted MSW management policy toward regionalization, which is the sharing of waste management facilities across municipalities. Despite the increased use of regionalized MSW facilities, the proximity principle remains the central value in Japanese MSW management. Municipal solid waste management has become increasingly regionalized in the United States, too, but different driving forces are at work in these two countries. The transition to regionalized MSW management in Japan results from strong governmental control at all levels, with the central government providing funds and policy direction and prefectures and municipalities being the primary implementing authorities. By contrast, market forces are a much stronger force with US MSW management, where local governments - with state government oversight - have primary responsibility for MSW management. We describe recent changes in Japan's MSW programs. We examine the connections between MSW facility regionalization, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the proximity principle, coordination among local governments, central government control, and financing mechanisms.

  3. Japan.

    PubMed

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship.

  4. Disparities in systems development for elder abuse prevention among municipalities in Japan: implications for strategies to help municipalities develop community systems.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Nakashima, Taeko; Honda, Tatsuo

    2010-07-01

    In April 2006, a national elder abuse prevention and caregiver support law was enacted in Japan, where elder abuse prevention is carried out by municipalities, and caregiver support and intervention are provided by a public long-term care insurance program. The aims of this study were (1) to examine factors at baseline affecting disparities in the progress of systems development for elder abuse prevention among municipalities, and (2) to determine what kind of support municipalities request from prefectural or national governments to help municipalities develop systems for elder abuse prevention. Written questionnaires were administered to the most knowledgeable person in the department responsible for reporting elder abuse in each municipal government between December 2006 and October 2008. The final sample for analysis consisted of 489 (26.6% of 1840) municipalities that provided complete information. Municipalities that achieved a high level of implementation originally had a higher rate of reports of abuse per 1000 elderly persons and greater involvement by police and advocacy groups at baseline. Since cities were the largest type of municipality, they had the greatest number of activities as of 2 years after implementation of the law. The results highlight that the prefectural or national government should offer different types of support according to the kind of municipality: sharing and using experts in an extended association for municipalities with limited resources and smaller size (towns and villages) and aggregating information on difficult cases for larger municipalities (cities). Further research should investigate specific strategies that the prefectural or national government can implement to help promote systems development for municipalities with low rates of reported cases of elder abuse, such as training programs to ensure that all care providers can recognize the signs and symptoms of elder abuse. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Nanocladius (Plecopteracoluthus) shigaensis sp. nov. (Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae) whose larvae are phoretic on nymphs of stoneflies (Plecoptera) from Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yasue; Komori, Chiharu; Kobayashi, Tadashi; Kondo, Natsuko; Ueno, Ryuhei; Takamura, Kenzi

    2015-03-16

    We identified a new species, Nanocladius (Plecopteracoluthus) shigaensis, from Shiga and Gifu Prefectures, Japan, whose larvae are phoretic on nymphs of Plecoptera. Although this new species is morphologically similar to Nanocladius (Plecopteracoluthus) asiaticus Hayashi (1998), which is phoretic on Megaloptera larvae, it differs from N. (P.) asiaticus: the color of the larval head capsule is light brown in N. (P.) shigaensis and dark brown in N. (P.) asiaticus and the larval capsule index of the former is significantly larger than that of the latter. Moreover, analyses based on DNA sequence of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) supported the hypothesis that N. (P.) shigaensis and N. (P.) asiaticus are two distinct species. This is the first record of a phoretic chironomid on a plecopteran nymph in the Palaearctic region.

  6. Helicopter-borne geophysical survey over the areas struck by the tsunami of March 11, 2011, in northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuma, S.; Ueda, T.; Mitsuhata, Y.; Uchida, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Geological Survey of Japan, AIST conducted a helicopter-borne EM and magnetic survey over tsunami invaded areas in northeast Japan 15 months after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The purpose of the survey is to map the electrical resistivity of the ground intruded by seawater during the tsunami on March 11, 2011 for its reutilization as farming lands and water assessment of the area. The survey was flown in June 2012 at an altitude of 60m above ground with a speed of 50km/h along survey and traverse lines spaced 100m and 1,000m apart, respectively. The airborne EM system (Fuguro Airborne Surveys' RESOLVE system) was installed in a bird and towed 30m below the helicopter. This is a frequency-domain system operated at five frequencies (340, 1,500, 6,900, 31,000, 140,000 Hz) in a horizontal coplanar configuration and at a frequency (3,300 Hz) in a coaxial configuration. The survey area is located at the border of Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures along the Pacific coast in the southern part of the Sendai Plain and is divided into two sub-areas: Watari-Yamamoto-Shinchi area (area A) and Matsukawa-ura Bay area (area B). The area A is known for its production of high-quality strawberries on beach ridges and much fresh groundwater has been used for irrigation of strawberries and warming of strawberry greenhouses by water curtain. However, the salinity of groundwater from shallow irrigation wells in this area increased dramatically after the tsunami (Mori et al., 2012). Since it still remains at high level, there is an urgent need to find new water resources. Whereas, the area B is characterized by a beautiful lagoon called the Matsukawa-ura which is preserved as one of prefectural parks of Fukushima Prefecture. Rice fields occupy the areas west of the Matsukawa-ura and most of them were covered by seawater during the attack of the tsunami. Desalinization of the rice fields is being conducted intensively to resume rice farming in these fields. The

  7. [Structure and characteristics of technical support that psychiatric social workers of prefectural governments provide for municipalities].

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The support to municipalities by prefectural governments has become necessary in the fields of mental health and welfare. Therefore, psychiatric social workers (PSW) ordered from the prefectural governor has been providing technical support (TS) that promote community activities of the municipality and improve staff support for persons with mental disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify empirical structure and characteristics of TS that PSW provide for municipality staff.Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven certified PSW randomly selected from the membership list of the National Psychiatric Social Worker Organization. Inclusion criteria required participants to have more than 10 years of experience at the prefectural government and experience providing TS in the last five years. Interviews focused on two situations: a casework and a project related to mental health. Interview data were analyzed using a qualitative content method, setting a framework for the consultation process.Results The analysis included five categories < > and 15 subcategories [ ], which consisted of 37 concepts. In category with municipalities consisted of [complementary relationship] and [partnership]. The category included two subcategories, [analyze/judgment from the conditions spread in front of] and [analyze/judgment be the accumulated skills and knowledge in person]. In category , six policies were considered as important, including [problem solving and promoting action], [fostering person centered care perspective], [promoting the understanding of residents], [provide psychological support to the staff], [clarify responsibility as the municipal officials], and [coordinate to improve the environment]. Category consisted of both [support indirectly] and [support cooperatively]. The last category

  8. Gross motor skill development of kindergarten children in Japan.

    PubMed

    Aye, Thanda; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Sato, Tamae; Sadakiyo, Kaori; Watanabe, Miyoko; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2018-05-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were to assess and explore the gender-based differences in gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children. [Subjects and Methods] This cross-sectional study recruited 60 healthy 5-year-old (third-year kindergarten, i.e., nencho ) children (34 boys, 26 girls) from one local private kindergarten school in Otawara city, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Gross motor skills, including six locomotor and six object control skills, were assessed using the test of gross motor development, second edition (TGMD-2). All subjects performed two trials of each gross motor skill, and the performances were video-recorded and scored. Assessment procedures were performed according to the standardized guidelines of the TGMD-2. [Results] The majority of subjects had an average level of overall gross motor skills. Girls had significantly better locomotor skills. Boys had significantly better object control skills. [Conclusion] The gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children involves gender-based differences in locomotor and object control skills. This study provided valuable information that can be used to establish normative references for the gross motor skills of 5-year-old Japanese children.

  9. Gross motor skill development of kindergarten children in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Aye, Thanda; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Sato, Tamae; Sadakiyo, Kaori; Watanabe, Miyoko; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were to assess and explore the gender-based differences in gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children. [Subjects and Methods] This cross-sectional study recruited 60 healthy 5-year-old (third-year kindergarten, i.e., nencho) children (34 boys, 26 girls) from one local private kindergarten school in Otawara city, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Gross motor skills, including six locomotor and six object control skills, were assessed using the test of gross motor development, second edition (TGMD-2). All subjects performed two trials of each gross motor skill, and the performances were video-recorded and scored. Assessment procedures were performed according to the standardized guidelines of the TGMD-2. [Results] The majority of subjects had an average level of overall gross motor skills. Girls had significantly better locomotor skills. Boys had significantly better object control skills. [Conclusion] The gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children involves gender-based differences in locomotor and object control skills. This study provided valuable information that can be used to establish normative references for the gross motor skills of 5-year-old Japanese children. PMID:29765187

  10. [Toxin profiles in fish implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in Amami and Kakeroma Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan].

    PubMed

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Matsuda, Seiko; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Matsuo, Toshiaki; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in Amami Islands, Kagoshima, Japan in 2008 were determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. Ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B), 54-deoxyCTX1B, and 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B were detected in Variola louti and Lutjanus monostigma. The toxin profile distinctly differed from that of a CFP-related fish from Miyazaki, which mainly contained ciguatoxin-3C type toxins. Toxin profiles were species-specific, as observed in fish from Okinawa. The LC-MS/MS and mouse bioassay (MBA) methods produced comparable data, though 54-deoxyCTX1B was not taken into consideration owing to the lack of toxicity data. To improve assessment, toxicity data for this compound are needed. A reef fish caught on the same occasion and judged nontoxic by MBA (<0.025 MU/g) was found to contain low levels of CTX, indicating a potential risk for CFP.

  11. Spatial heterogeneity in the carrying capacity of sika deer in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Hayato; Ueno, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Carrying capacity is 1 driver of wildlife population dynamics. Although in previous studies carrying capacity was considered to be a fixed entity, it may differ among locations due to environmental variation. The factors underlying variability in carrying capacity, however, have rarely been examined. Here, we investigated spatial heterogeneity in the carrying capacity of Japanese sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) from 2005 to 2014 in Yamanashi Prefecture, central Japan (mesh with grid cells of 5.5×4.6 km) by state-space modeling. Both carrying capacity and density dependence differed greatly among cells. Estimated carrying capacities ranged from 1.34 to 98.4 deer/km 2 . According to estimated population dynamics, grid cells with larger proportions of artificial grassland and deciduous forest were subject to lower density dependence and higher carrying capacity. We conclude that population dynamics of ungulates may vary spatially through spatial variation in carrying capacity and that the density level for controlling ungulate abundance should be based on the current density level relative to the carrying capacity for each area. PMID:29692470

  12. Spatial heterogeneity in the carrying capacity of sika deer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Hayato; Ueno, Mayumi

    2016-06-09

    Carrying capacity is 1 driver of wildlife population dynamics. Although in previous studies carrying capacity was considered to be a fixed entity, it may differ among locations due to environmental variation. The factors underlying variability in carrying capacity, however, have rarely been examined. Here, we investigated spatial heterogeneity in the carrying capacity of Japanese sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) from 2005 to 2014 in Yamanashi Prefecture, central Japan (mesh with grid cells of 5.5×4.6 km) by state-space modeling. Both carrying capacity and density dependence differed greatly among cells. Estimated carrying capacities ranged from 1.34 to 98.4 deer/km 2 . According to estimated population dynamics, grid cells with larger proportions of artificial grassland and deciduous forest were subject to lower density dependence and higher carrying capacity. We conclude that population dynamics of ungulates may vary spatially through spatial variation in carrying capacity and that the density level for controlling ungulate abundance should be based on the current density level relative to the carrying capacity for each area.

  13. Sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Ogata, Munetsugu

    2005-06-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei infestation was diagnosed in three freshly dead free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. The dogs presented with an alopecic pruritic skin disease, with signs of alopecia on the ears, muzzle, around the eyes, elbow, thigh and the neck, and hyperpigmented and crusted skin lesions, which had a severe malodour. Skin scrapings revealed the presence of the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Histopathology of lesions demonstrated marked acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and fungal elements, which were subsequently identified as Acremonium sp., Alternaria sp. and an unknown fungus. Mite segments were located mainly in the stratum corneum and also in the stratum granulosum. Tunnels could be observed in the hyperkeratotic stratum corneum. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the tortoise-like Sarcoptes scabiei with four long bristles, suckers and blade-like claws on legs 1 and 2, cuticular spines, prominent body striations and a terminal anus. SEM also revealed an adult female mite digging a tunnel with the head wedged into the very end of the closed burrow. Tunnels filled with eggshells, corneocyte debris and faecal pellets were also observed.

  14. Science education in Elementary school by using of "Geopark", Oki Islands, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oku, S.; Matsumoto, I.

    2012-12-01

    The Oki islands are located at Japan sea coast side of southwest Japan and belonging to Shimane Prefecture. And there is rich Nature which is consist of mainly alkaline volcanic rocks and metamorphic rocks. Aiming at authorization "Geopark" authorization of Oki Islands, Geologist, Biologist, and residents of Oki Islands are doing investigation and advertisement. Promotion of the science education which utilized the precious Nature, or environmental education is very important in the viewpoint of the science literacy which can protect a Nature and the earth. In this presentation, we mainly propose activity at an elementary school about how to advance the science education by using of this precious Nature. Children learn about the geology which constitutes the ground, and its petro-genesis in the Science of the sixth grade of elementary school. The viewpoint of having been formed by volcano, Earthquake, etc, in long global time is important for the precious and beautiful geology which constitutes the ground. It is at the same time important for a global change to teach also about often doing serious damage to human beings or a living thing with an Earthquake, a volcano, tsunami, etc. That is, we can push (teaching beautiful geology and a precious living thing using "Geopark"), and can learn about the blessing and disaster of a Nature. Moreover, teaching materials and teaching tools like a local textbook or a signboard with which a teacher and a resident can teach them to a child are required.

  15. Sociodemographic patterning of long-term diabetes mellitus control following Japan's 3.11 triple disaster: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Leppold, Claire; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Nomura, Shuhei; Shimada, Yuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the sociodemographic patterning of changes in glycaemic control of patients with diabetes affected by the 2011 triple disaster in Japan (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident). Methods A retrospective cohort study was undertaken with 404 patients with diabetes at a public hospital in Minamisoma City, Fukushima Prefecture. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured in 2010, 2011 and 2012 to capture changes in glycaemic control postdisaster. Age, sex, urban/rural residency, evacuation status and medication use were also assessed. Results There was an overall deterioration in glycaemic control after the disaster, with the mean HbA1c rising from 6.77% in 2010 to 6.90% in 2012 (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program, NGSP). Rural residency was associated with a lower likelihood of deteriorating control (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.84), compared with urban residency. Older age (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.98) was also slightly protective against increased HbA1c. Evacuation and sex were not significant predictors. Conclusions Patients with diabetes who were affected by Japan's triple disaster experienced a deterioration in their glycaemic control following the disasters. The extent of this deterioration was mediated by sociodemographic factors, with rural residence and older age protective against the effects of the disaster on glycaemic control. These results may be indicative of underlying social determinants of health in rural Japan. PMID:27388360

  16. Kumano Geopark Project: Community Regeneration by Interconnecting Tourism Study with Geoscience in Wakayama, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakakushi, T.; Hisatomi, K.; Takasu, H.; Konomatsu, M.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents our community-regeneration project in Wakayama, Japan. Wakayama Prefecture is the southwestern part of the Kii Peninsula. The Kumano region is the southern part of Wakayama. The Kii Peninsula has a UNESCO World Heritage (cultural heritage), registered in 2004 July as Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range. The Heritage has been widely utilized to attract tourists to the region. However, the Kii Peninsula has not only the cultural heritage but many geoscientifically important natural heritages such as the volcano-plutonic complex including well exposed ring dyke in the Kumano region. A Geopark can be described as a region which has a system to apply the Earth's heritages so that people can enjoy and scientifically understand Earth. Authorization by the Global Geoparks Network (GGN) enables a region to claim as Global Geopark. Similarly, Japan Geoparks Network enables it domestically in Japan. To be authorized, there are some important factors, for example; the importance and conservation of the Earth's heritage (geophysical, geological, etc.); devices to communicate mechanism, structure, origin, and history of Earth plainly and interestingly with visitors; sustainable and cooperative systems linking the administrative organizations, residents, researchers, tourism bureaus, and so on. Our goal is to be officially authorized the Kii Peninsula as Kumano Geopark by JGN (and furthermore, by GGN if possible). We also try to discuss this issue in the light of tourism management. The authorization by JGN (or GGN) may work as regional branding. By raising the value of the Kumano regional brand (or the ``brand equity'' of Kumano), we may contribute the community regeneration.

  17. Spatial distribution of F-net moment tensors for the 2005 West Off Fukuoka Prefecture Earthquake determined by the extended method of the NIED F-net routine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takumi; Ito, Yoshihiro; Matsubayashi, Hirotoshi; Sekiguchi, Shoji

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 West Off Fukuoka Prefecture Earthquake with a Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) magnitude (MJMA) of 7.0 occurred on March 20, 2005. We determined moment tensor solutions, using a surface wave with an extended method of the NIED F-net routine processing. The horizontal distance to the station is rounded to the nearest interval of 1 km, and the variance reduction approach is applied to a focal depth from 2 km with an interval of 1 km. We obtain the moment tensors of 101 events with (MJMA) exceeding 3.0 and spatial distribution of these moment tensors. The focal mechanism of aftershocks is mainly of the strike-slip type. The alignment of the epicenters in the rupture zone of the main-shock is oriented between N110°E and N130°E, which is close to the strike of the main-shock's moment tensor solutions (N122°E). These moment tensor solutions of intermediatesized aftershocks around the focal region represent basic and important information concerning earthquakes in investigating regional tectonic stress fields, source mechanisms and so on.

  18. S-net project: Construction of large scale seafloor observatory network for tsunamis and earthquakes in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, M.; Kanazawa, T.; Uehira, K.; Shimbo, T.; Shiomi, K.; Kunugi, T.; Aoi, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Sekiguchi, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Takahashi, N.; Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.

    2016-12-01

    National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience ( NIED ) has launched the project of constructing an observatory network for tsunamis and earthquakes on the seafloor. The observatory network was named "S-net, Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Japan Trench". The S-net consists of 150 seafloor observatories which are connected in line with submarine optical cables. The total length of submarine optical cable is about 5,700 km. The S-net system extends along Kuril and Japan trenches around Japan islands from north to south covering the area between southeast off island of Hokkaido and off the Boso Peninsula, Chiba Prefecture. The project has been financially supported by MEXT Japan. An observatory package is 34cm in diameter and 226cm long. Each observatory equips two units of a high sensitive water-depth sensor as a tsunami meter and four sets of three-component seismometers. The water-depth sensor has measurement resolution of sub-centimeter level. Combination of multiple seismometers secures wide dynamic range and robustness of the observation that are needed for early earthquake warning. The S-net is composed of six segment networks that consists of about 25 observatories and 800-1,600km length submarine optical cable. Five of six segment networks except the one covering the outer rise area of the Japan Trench has been already installed. The data from the observatories on those five segment networks are being transferred to the data center at NIED on a real-time basis, and then verification of data integrity are being carried out at the present moment. Installation of the last segment network of the S-net, that is, the outer rise one is scheduled to be finished within FY2016. Full-scale operation of the S-net will start at FY2017. We will report construction and operation of the S-net submarine cable system as well as the outline of the obtained data in this presentation.

  19. Barriers and motivators to blood donation among university students in Japan: development of a measurement tool.

    PubMed

    Ngoma, A M; Goto, A; Yamazaki, S; Machida, M; Kanno, T; Nollet, K E; Ohto, H; Yasumura, S

    2013-10-01

    Despite growing demand for transfusion, the number of voluntary young blood donors has steadily decreased over recent years in Japan. This study aimed to develop an easy-to-use survey tool to assess barriers and motivators to blood donation among Japanese university students. We conducted cross-sectional studies at two universities in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, in December 2011 (Stage 1) and February 2012 (Stage 2) using self-administered questionnaires. A short list of motivators and barriers to blood donation was developed from the open-ended questions asked of 50 students in Stage 1. In the Stage 2, we asked 105 students how important these items were when they decided whether or not to donate blood. Items showing a significant difference between donors and non-donors were kept in the final list. Overall, 56% of the 100 participants analysed in Stage 2 were men, and ages ranged from 19 to 24 with a median of 20 years. Comparison of motivators and barriers between donors and non-donors revealed that only barrier item 8 ('Frightened by blood donation') showed a significant difference (P = 0·0006) in an expected direction and with a consistency between two universities. This study identified fear as being the most significant barrier to blood donation among Japanese university students, which could be used as a single convenient indicator to assess their readiness to donate. More academic and clinical efforts are needed to understand and address students' fear towards blood donation in order to increase the donor pool in Japan. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  20. Modelling evolution of air dose rates in river basins in Fukushima Prefecture affected by sediment-sorbed radiocesium redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malins, A.; Sakuma, K.; Nakanishi, T.; Kurikami, H.; Machida, M.; Kitamura, A.; Yamada, S.

    2015-12-01

    The radioactive 134Cs and 137Cs isotopes deposited over Fukushima Prefecture by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster are the predominant radiological concern for the years following the accident. This is because the energetic gamma radiation they emit on decay constitutes the majority of the elevated air dose rates that now afflict the region. Therefore, we developed a tool for calculating air dose rates from arbitrary radiocesium spatial distributions across the land surface and depth profiles within the ground. As cesium is strongly absorbed by clay soils, its primary redistribution mechanism within Fukushima Prefecture is by soil erosion and water-borne sediment transport. Each year between 0.1~1% of the total radiocesium inventory in the river basins neighboring Fukushima Daiichi is eroded from the land surface and enters into water courses, predominantly during typhoon storms. Although this is a small amount in relative terms, in absolute terms it corresponds to terabecquerels of 134Cs and 137Cs redistribution each year and this can affect the air dose rate at locations of high erosion and sediment deposition. This study inputs the results of sediment redistribution simulations into the dose rate evaluation tool to calculate the locations and magnitude of air dose rate changes due to radiocesium redistribution. The dose rate calculations are supported by handheld survey instrument results taken within the Prefecture.

  1. SURFACE RUPTURE OF THE NORMAL SEISMIC FAULTS AND SLOPE FAILURES APPEARED IN APRIL 11th, 2011 FUKUSHIMA-PREFECTURE HAMADOORI EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmi, Zaheer Abbas; Konagai, Kazuo; Kyokawa, Hiroyuki; Tetik, Cigdem

    On April 11th, 2011, Iwaki region of Fukushima prefecture was jolted by Fukushima-Prefecture Hamadoori Earthquake. Surface ruptures were observed along causative Idosawa and Yunotake normal faults. In addition to numerous small slope failures, a coherent landslide and building structures of Tabito Junior High School, bisected by Idosawa Fault, were found along the causative faults. A precise digital elevation model of the coherent landslide was obtained through the ground and air-born LiDAR surveys. The measurements of perimeters of the gymnasium building and the swimming pool of Tabito Junior High School have shown that ground undergoes a slow and steady/continual deformation.

  2. [Unprotected sexual intercourse and its correlates within HIV serodiscordant couples in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan Province, China, in 2014].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y C; Cao, Y F; Yang, Y C; Tang, R H; Yang, S J; Li, L; Yao, S T; Ye, R H; Wang, J B; Duan, S; He, N

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To study the prevalence and correlates of unprotected sexual intercourse within HIV serodiscordant couples in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan Province, China, in 2014. Methods: This study was based on the follow-up investigation of "the AIDS cohort of seronegative spouses of HIV-infected individuals in Dehong prefecture" in 2014. The 1 520 participants were HIV seronegative spouses from all five counties/cities of Dehong prefecture who voluntarily participated in the cohort. Inclusion criteria included: having a HIV-positive spouse; ≥16 years of age; having had sexual intercourse with spouse in the past year; and being a resident of Dehong prefecture. Information on HIV-positive spouses were also collected through the local AIDS epidemic database. Chi square analysis was performed to compare differences in the rates of unprotected sexual intercourse between participants with different characteristics and lifestyle choices. Multivariable logistic regression model analysis was performed to determine correlates with unprotected sexual intercourse. Results: The 1 520 participants had a mean age of 38.7±9.4, compared with 39.7±8.9 for their HIV-positive spouses. Among the HIV-positive spouses, 77.8% (1 183/1 520) had been infected for more than 3 years, and 87.6% (1 332/1 520) had received antiretroviral therapy. The prevalence of unprotected sexual intercourse within serodiscordant couples over the past 12 months was 16.1% (244/1 520). The prevalence of unprotected sexual intercourse correlated with the level of education of HIV-negative spouses (illiterate vs . middle school and above, OR= 1.58, P= 0.044), the number of years since diagnosis of HIV-positive spouses (short vs . long, OR= 1.6, P= 0.006), antiretroviral therapy of HIV-positive spouses (no vs . yes, OR= 2.78, P <0.001), the frequency of sexual intercourse per month (high vs . low, OR= 1.66, P= 0.019), and whether the couple had children (no vs . yes, OR= 1.72, P= 0.007). Conclusion: The

  3. Estimation of 85Kr dispersion from the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan, using an atmospheric dispersion model.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Iyogi, T; Kawabata, H; Chiang, J H; Suwa, H; Hisamatsu, S

    2015-11-01

    The spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) located in Rokkasho, Japan, discharged small amounts of (85)Kr into the atmosphere during final tests of the plant with actual spent fuel from 31 March 2006 to October 2008. During this period, the gamma-ray dose rates due to discharged (85)Kr were higher than the background rates measured at the Institute for Environmental Sciences and at seven monitoring stations of the Aomori prefectural government and JNFL. The dispersion of (85)Kr was simulated by means of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model and the CG-MATHEW/ADPIC models (ver. 5.0) with a vertical terrain-following height coordinate. Although the simulated gamma-ray dose rates due to discharged (85)Kr agreed fairly well with measured rates, the agreement between the estimated monthly mean (85)Kr concentrations and the observed concentrations was poor. Improvement of the vertical flow of air may lead to better estimation of (85)Kr dispersion. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Long working hours and psychological distress among school teachers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Bannai, Akira; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Long working hours have the possibility to influence human health. In Japan, it is well known that teachers have long working hours, and the number of leaves of absence due to mental disorders among public school teachers increased from 2,687 in 2002 to 4,960 in 2012. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between long working hours and psychological distress among school teachers. This cross-sectional study was conducted from mid-July to September in 2013 in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,245 teachers in public junior high schools. Information about basic characteristics, including working hours, and responses to the General Health Questionnaire-28 were collected anonymously. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the association between long working hours and psychological distress by gender. Of the 1,245 teachers contacted, 558 (44.8%) responded. After excluding responses with missing data, the final sample included 522 teachers (337 males and 185 females). Psychological distress was identified in 47.8% of males and 57.8% of females. Our results showed a significantly increased risk only in males working >60 hours per week (adjusted OR=4.71 [95% CI 2.04-11.56]) compared with those working ≤40 hours per week. There were no significant associations between long working hours and psychological distress for females. There is a significant association between long working hours and psychological distress in male teachers. However, the causal relationship remains unclear. Further studies such as cohort studies with large sample sizes are needed.

  5. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-08-01

    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m 3 ) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine

  6. Minamata disease.

    PubMed

    Eto, K

    2000-09-01

    Minamata disease (methylmercury poisoning) was first discovered in 1956 around Minamata Bay, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. A second epidemic in Japan occurred in 1965 along the Agano River, Niigata Prefecture. This paper presents a brief review of Minamata disease with an emphasis on the cases found in Kumamoto Prefecture. At autopsy, the most conspicuous destructive lesion in the cerebrum was found in the anterior portions of the calcarine cortex. Less severe but similar lesions may be found in the post-central, pre-central and temporal transverse cortices. Secondary degeneration from primary lesions may be seen in cases with long survival. In the cerebellum, pathological changes occur deep in the hemisphere. The granule cell population was more affected, compared with Purkinje cells. Among peripheral nerves, sensory nerves were more affected than motor nerves. Our recent experimental studies that reveal knowledge of the pathogenesis of methylmercury poisoning will be discussed.

  7. Primary prevention of HTLV-I in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hino, S; Katamine, S; Miyata, H; Tsuji, Y; Yamabe, T; Miyamoto, T

    1996-01-01

    The ATL prevention program (AAP) in the Nagasaki Prefecture since 1987 consists of screening of pregnant women and asking the seropositives to refrain from breast-feeding. We screened approximately 90% of gravidas in the Prefecture and > 90% of the seropositive women agreed not to breast-feed. The maternal transmission rate dropped from approximately 20% to approximately 3%. PCR of cord bloods showed that 2.5% were PCR-positive. However, among formula-fed children, none of the cord-positives seroconverted, and none of the seropositives tested had been cord-positive. Breast-feeding for less than six months decreased the transmission rate significantly, but may have a higher transmission rate than the formula feeding.

  8. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on Hotel Industry in Pacific Tohoku Prefectures ---From Spatio-Temporal Dependence of Hotel Availability---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, A.

    This paper investigates the impact of the Great Japan Earthquake(and subsequent tsunami turmoil) on socio-economic activities by using data on hotel opportunities collected from an electronic hotel booking service. A method to estimate both primary and secondary regional effects of a natural disaster on human behavior is proposed. It is confirmed that temporal variation in the regional share of available hotels before and after a natural disaster may be an indicator to measure the socio-economic impact at each district.

  9. A cost-benefit analysis on the specialization in departments of obstetrics and gynecology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shen, Junyi; Fukui, On; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Takako; Kimura, Tadashi; Morishige, Kenichiro; Saijo, Tatsuyoshi

    2012-03-27

    In April 2008, the specialization in departments of obstetrics and gynecology was conducted in Sennan area of Osaka prefecture in Japan, which aims at solving the problems of regional provision of obstetrical service. Under this specialization, the departments of obstetrics and gynecology in two city hospitals were combined as one medical center, whilst one hospital is in charge of the department of gynecology and the other one operates the department of obstetrics. In this paper, we implement a cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the validity of this specialization. The benefit-cost ratio is estimated at 1.367 under a basic scenario, indicating that the specialization can generate a net benefit. In addition, with a consideration of different kinds of uncertainty in the future, a number of sensitivity analyses are conducted. The results of these sensitivity analyses suggest that the specialization is valid in the sense that all the estimated benefit-cost ratios are above 1.0 in any case.

  10. [Toxicity and toxin profiles of xanthid crabs collected around Nakanoshima in the Tokara Islands, Japan].

    PubMed

    Sagara, Takefumi; Taniyama, Shigeto; Takatani, Tomohiro; Nishibori, Naoyoshi; Nishio, Sachio; Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu

    2009-10-01

    A total of 36 specimens of 5 xanthid crab species, Zosimus aeneus (n=16), Xanthias lividus (n=4), Leptodius sanguineus (n=3), Daira perlata (n=10) and Eriphia sebana (n=3), were collected around Nakanoshima Island, which is located at the northeastern part of the Tokara Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan in May and July 2000, and their toxicity was determined by mouse bioassay. Nine of 16 Z. aeneus specimens and all of 4 X. lividus specimens showed lethal potency to mice (2.1-11 MU/g, 2.8-8.6 MU/g, respectively), whereas all the other species were non-toxic (less than 2.0 MU/g). LC/MS analyses indicated that the toxin of the Z. aeneus specimens was mainly composed of tetrodotoxin (41% of total toxicity), and 11-oxotetrodotoxin contributed to the remaining toxicity. The toxin of the X. lividus specimens, however, was apparently not tetrodotoxin. In HPLC-FLD analyses, no paralytic shellfish poison component was detected in either of the two toxic species.

  11. Population structure and antimicrobial susceptibility of Paenibacillus larvae isolates from American foulbrood cases in Apis mellifera in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yuichi; Yoshida, Emi; Misumi, Wakako; Watando, Eri; Suzuki, Kenta; Hirai, Yuko; Okura, Masatoshi; Osaki, Makoto; Katsuda, Ken; Takamatsu, Daisuke

    2018-04-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), the most destructive disease of the honey bee brood. In this study, we investigated the population structure and antimicrobial susceptibility of Japanese P. larvae using 100 isolates isolated between 1993 and 2017 in 17 prefectures. Using repetitive-element PCR and multilocus sequence typing, isolates from diverse origins were classified into six genotypes, including the novel genotype ERIC II-ST24. Among these genotypes, ERIC I-ST15 is the most common in Japan, while ERIC II-ST10 isolates were found to be increasing during the 2010s. Regardless of genotype or origin, all isolates were susceptible to the major antimicrobials used in the control of AFB, including mirosamicin and tylosin, which were approved for the prevention of AFB in Japan in 1999 and 2017 respectively. Despite nearly 20 years of use, mirosamicin is still effective against Japanese P. larvae in vitro; however, the development of AFB in honey bee colonies may not always be suppressed by this drug. The case information collected in this study provides insight into the conditions under which prophylactic medicine may not exert sufficient preventive effects in vivo. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Aeromedical Transport Operations Using Helicopters during the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake in Japan.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Tomokazu; Hirabayashi, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Hisashi; Yamauchi, Nobutaka; Nakamura, Mitsunobu; Machida, Hiroshi; Fujizuka, Kenji; Otsuka, Naomi; Satoh, Tomoko; Anan, Hideaki; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Koido, Yuichi

    2018-01-01

    More than 6,000 people died in the Great Hanshin (Kobe) Earthquake in 1995, and it was later reported that there were around 500 preventable trauma deaths. In response, the Japanese government developed the helicopter emergency medical service in 2001, known in Japan as the "Doctor-Heli" (DH), which had 46 DHs and 2 private medical helicopters as of April 2016. DHs transport physicians and nurses to provide pre-hospital medical care at the scene of medical emergencies. Following lessons learned in the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, a research group in the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare developed a command and control system for the DH fleet as well as the Disaster Relief Aircraft Management System Network (D-NET), which uses a satellite communications network to monitor the location of the fleet and weather in real-time during disasters. During the Kumamoto Earthquake disaster in April 2016, 75 patients were transported by 13 DHs and 1 private medical helicopter in the first 5 days. When medical demand for the DHs exceeded supply, 5 patients, 8 patients, and 1 patient were transported by Self-Defense Force, Fire Department, and Coast Guard helicopters, respectively. Of the 89 patients who were transported, 30 (34%) had trauma, 3 (3%) had pulmonary embolisms caused by sleeping in vehicles, and 17 (19%) were pregnant women or newborns. This was the first time that the command and control system for aeromedical transport and D-NET, established after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, were operated in an actual large-scale disaster. Aeromedical transport by DHs and helicopters belonging to several other organizations was accomplished smoothly because the commanders of the involved organizations could communicate directly with each other in person within the Aviation Coordination Section of the prefectural government office. However, ongoing challenges in the detailed operating methods for aeromedical transport were highlighted and include improving

  13. Outdoor physical activity and its relation with self-reported health in Japanese children: results from the Toyama birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Sekine, M; Tatsuse, T; Fujimura, Y; Hamanishi, S; Lu, F; Zheng, X

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have examined trends in engagement in outdoor physical activity as children grow and whether changes in physical activity at different ages affect children's health. This study determined the preference for and frequency of physical activity among Japanese children from ages 6 to 12 years and investigated the effect of physical activity and of change in physical activity on children's self-reported health. Data were from the prospective, longitudinal Toyama Birth Cohort Study, a total of 5238 children were followed at their age of 12 years. Preference for and frequency of outdoor physical activity were from the self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported health was from the Japanese version of Dartmouth Primary Care Co-operative project charts. Reporting liking and participating in outdoor physical activity at both ages 6 and 12 years were associated with higher likelihood of good self-reported health (Odds ratio 1.24 [95% CI: 1.03-1.50] for liking activity and OR = 1.27[1.08, 1.50] for participating in activity) compared with those who did not like or participate in this at only one or at neither age, after adjustment for lifestyle factors and body pain. The adjusted OR was 1.23 (95% CI: 0.97-1.56) for girls whose preference for liking outdoor physical activity was not changed at both ages compared with those whose preference changed. The OR was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.14-1.89) for boys who persisted in participating in the outdoor physical activity than those who did not persist. There is an association between a persistent expression of liking outdoor physical activity and self- reported health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Sociodemographic patterning of long-term diabetes mellitus control following Japan's 3.11 triple disaster: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Leppold, Claire; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Nomura, Shuhei; Shimada, Yuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Ochi, Sae; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Hill, Sarah

    2016-07-07

    To assess the sociodemographic patterning of changes in glycaemic control of patients with diabetes affected by the 2011 triple disaster in Japan (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident). A retrospective cohort study was undertaken with 404 patients with diabetes at a public hospital in Minamisoma City, Fukushima Prefecture. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured in 2010, 2011 and 2012 to capture changes in glycaemic control postdisaster. Age, sex, urban/rural residency, evacuation status and medication use were also assessed. There was an overall deterioration in glycaemic control after the disaster, with the mean HbA1c rising from 6.77% in 2010 to 6.90% in 2012 (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program, NGSP). Rural residency was associated with a lower likelihood of deteriorating control (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.84), compared with urban residency. Older age (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.98) was also slightly protective against increased HbA1c. Evacuation and sex were not significant predictors. Patients with diabetes who were affected by Japan's triple disaster experienced a deterioration in their glycaemic control following the disasters. The extent of this deterioration was mediated by sociodemographic factors, with rural residence and older age protective against the effects of the disaster on glycaemic control. These results may be indicative of underlying social determinants of health in rural Japan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Deep venous thrombosis among disaster shelter inhabitants following the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Shibata, M; Hanzawa, K; Ueda, S; Yambe, T

    2014-05-01

    A retrospective analysis of data collected during subject screening following Japan's March 2011 earthquake and tsunami was performed. We aimed to determine the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) among screened subjects and to identify risk factors associated with the development of DVT as independent variables. Calf ultrasonography was undertaken in 269 subjects living in 21 shelters in Miyagi prefecture during the one-month period immediately following the March 2011 disaster. Information regarding the health and risk factors of subjects was collected by questionnaire and assessment of physical signs. Of the 269 evacuees screened, 65 (24%) met the criteria for calf DVT. We found lower limb trauma, reduced frequency of urination and sleeping in a vehicle to be independent positive predictors of DVT. Evacuees had an increased risk of developing DVT, associated with tsunami-related lower limb injury, immobility and dehydration.

  16. Total Geomagnetic Survey on Suruga Bay, on the Pacific cost, Shizuoka, Japan, the second series report.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, S.; Baba, H.

    2015-12-01

    In 2009 to 2014, total geomagnetic and geological surveys by School of Marine Science & Technology, Tokai University, were conducted on Suruga Bay, located on the Pacific coast of Honshu in Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan, where a large thrust earthquake, often referred to as the Tokai earthquake, has been supposed to occur soon (Ishibashi, 1981). Suruga Bay area, where the Philippine Sea plate subducts beneath Japan, had some local magnetic anomalies on the overriding plate side. The past investigation of ship-borne survey conducted in Suruga Bay area is geomagnetic anomaly data of the Hydrographic Department of the Maritime Safety Agency in 1997. Detailed geomagnetic surveys carried out in the Suruga Bay area, is 50 km x 35km in S-N and W-E, respectively. Total geomagnetic anomaly values range from +100nT to +600nT. In this report, we carried out newly geomagnetic survey lines which costal region on Suruga Bay. The following results were found. (1) The costal region of Izu Peninsula in Northern part of Izu-Ogasawara arc is indicated high geomagnetic anomaly. This cause is regarded as something to come near to some volcanos. (2) And costal region of the Fujigawa fault system in the Sourath Fossa Magna region is indicated high geomagnetic anomaly. We present features of total geomagnetic anomalies on and around Suruga Bay with the results of inversion.

  17. Assessment of Grassland Health Based on Spatial Information Technology in Changji Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, M. J.; Zheng, J. H.; Mu, C.

    2018-04-01

    Based on the "pressure-state-response" (PSR) model, comprehensively applied GIS and RS techniques, 20 evaluation indicators were selected based on pressure, state and response, the entropy weight method was used to determine the weight of each index and build a grassland health evaluation system in Changji Prefecture, Xinjiang. Based on this, evaluation and dynamic analysis of grassland health in Changji Prefecture from 2000 to 2016, using GIS/RS technology, the trend of grassland health status in Changji is analyzed and studied. The results show that: 1) Grassland with low health leveld, lower health level, sub-health level, health level and high health level accounts for 1.46 %,27.67 %,38.35 %,29.21 % and 3.31 % of the total area of Changji. Qitai County, Hutubi County, and Manas County are lower health levels, Jimsar County, Changji City, and Mulei County are at a relatively high level, and Fukang City has a healthy level of health. 2) The level of grassland health in Changji County decreased slightly during the 17 years, accounting for 38.42 % of the total area. The area of 23,87 % showed a stable trend, and the improved area accounted for 37.31 % of the vertical surface area.

  18. Ehimeite, NaCa2Mg4CrSi6Al2O22(OH)2: The first Cr-dominant amphibole from the Akaishi Mine, Higashi-Akaishi Mountain, Ehime Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio-Hamane, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Masayuki; Minakawa, Tetsuo; Yamaura, Jun-Ichi; Saito, Shohei; Kadota, Ryo

    The first Cr-dominant amphibole, ehimeite, ideally NaCa2Mg4CrSi6Al2O22(OH)2, has been found in a chromitite deposit in the Akaishi Mine, Higashi-Akaishi Mountain, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. Ehimeite occurs as prismatic crystals of up to 1.5 cm in length and 0.5 cm in width and is found in association with chromite, kämmererite (Cr-rich clinochlore), Cr-poor clinochlore, phlogopite, and uvarovite. It is transparent, emerald green to pale green in color with pale green streaks, and has a vitreous luster. Optically, it is biaxial positive with α = 1.644(2), β = 1.647(2), γ = 1.659(2), and 2Vcalc. = 53°. It has a Mohs’ hardness of 6 and densities of 3.08(3) g/cm3 (measured using heavy liquids) and 3.121 g/cm3 (calculated from powder diffraction data and the empirical formula). The empirical formula is (Na0.88K0.07)Σ0.95(Ca1.89Na0.02Mg0.09)Σ2.00(Mg4.03Cr0.62Al0.19Fe3+0.07Fe2+0.07Ti0.03)Σ5.00(Si6.14Al1.86)Σ8.00O22(OH)2 on the basis of O = 22 and OH = 2, and ehimeite mainly forms a solid solution, NaCa2Mg4(Cr, Al)Si6Al2O22(OH)2, with pargasite. It has a monoclinic unit cell with a = 9.9176(14) Å, b = 18.0009(12) Å, c = 5.2850(7) Å, β = 105.400(7)°, V = 909.6 (17) Å3, and Z = 2, and it belongs to the space group C2/m, as refined from powder XRD data. The eight strongest lines in the powder XRD pattern [d (Å), I/I0, hkl] are (3.370, 58, 150), (2.932, 43, 221), (2.697, 81, 151), (2.585, 50, 061), (2.546, 100, 202), (2.346, 42, 351), (2.156, 35, 261), and (1.514, 55, 263). The crystal structure has been refined to R1 = 0.0488 using single-crystal XRD data. It has been concluded that ehimeite in the Akaishi Mine was formed by the reaction of chromitite and the metamorphic fluid in the retrograde stage of serpentinization during the Sanbagawa metamorphism.

  19. A foodborne outbreak of gastrointestinal illness caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli serotype O169:H41 in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tetsuya; Itoh, Kaoru; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Hirai, Yuji; Kanki, Masashi; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Seto, Kazuko; Taguchi, Masumi; Kumeda, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    We describe our laboratory investigation of a massive foodborne outbreak of gastrointestinal illness caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) serotype O169:H41 that occurred during a 2-day traditional festival held in September 2012 in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. Of 126 customers who patronized a particular Japanese restaurant during the event, 102 developed symptoms of gastrointestinal disease. We isolated strains of ETEC serotype O169:H41 from 1 food sample and from fecal samples collected from 19 of 34 patients and 2 of 4 food handlers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of these isolates suggested that the foodborne pathogen that caused the diarrheal outbreak was a specific clone of ETEC serotype O169:H41. Based on these findings and our interviews with the restaurant owner and employees, we concluded that a likely cause of the outbreak was an overwhelmed capacity of the restaurant kitchen in terms of preservation of sanitary procedures during the festival and the inability of the restaurant staff to handle the relatively large quantity of food to ensure a lack of contamination with ETEC. Thus, we reconfirm that ETEC strains of serotype O169:H41 remain important causes of domestic foodborne outbreaks in developed countries, including Japan.

  20. Early Diagenetic Changes of Sediment Pore Properties Beneath the Seafloor and Their Contributions to Gas Hydrate Concentration in the Eastern Margin of Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, T.; Horiuchi, S.; Kato, Y.; Matsumoto, R.

    2014-12-01

    Recently many of the chimney-shape gas hydrate concentrated beneath the seafloor have been confirmed off Shimane and off Akita as well as off Joetsu in the eastern margin of Japan Sea, which are quite different from the occurrences of pore space hydrate filling the intergranular pore system of sands recognized in Nankai Trough, Mallik and other sites. Sediment samples below the seafloor were retrieved in 2010 up to 40 m long at the Umitaka Spur, Joetsu Channel, Toyama Trough, Japan Basin, Nishi Tsugaru and Okushiri Ridge areas. Small amounts of sandy sediment have been retrieved as thin intercalations in Pleistocene and Holocene muddy layers transported approximately around 3 to 30 ka according to the tephra ages, where supplying sediments might have not been abundant due to sea level fluctuation during the Pleistocene ice age. It is important to clarify the relationship between burial depths and absolute porosities of the argillaceous sediments in relation to early diagenesis. Macroscopic observations and descriptions, measurements of porosity and permeability, SEM (scanning electron microscope) observations, and X-ray diffraction analyses have been performed. They consist of silt- to clay-grained particles, and they sometimes contain very fine- to medium-grained thin sandy layers. Average porosities of these fine-grained sediments are 50 % in all study areas, which quickly reduce from 60% to less than 50% within 10 meters and gradually decrease to the depth. However, mean pore sizes in the Nishi Tsugaru are around 1000 nm while 100 nm in the other areas, which tend to decrease with depth. It is suggested that repacking of the muddy particles gradually advances by mechanical compaction, which may crucially influence permeability. They usually contain much opal-A, quartz, feldspar, illite and smectite that do not change definitely with depth. By optical and microscopic observations, diatom tests, foraminifers and framboidal pyrites are commonly observed, and, in

  1. Molecular epidemiological characterization of poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, in Japan

    PubMed Central

    CHU, Thi Thanh Huong; MURANO, Takako; UNO, Yukiko; USUI, Tatsufumi; YAMAGUCHI, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite, is an obligatory blood-sucking ectoparasite. The genetic diversity of D. gallinae has been examined in some countries, but so far not in Asian countries. Here, we sequenced a part of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and16S rRNA genes and nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region in 239 mite samples collected from 40 prefectures throughout Japan. The COI and 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences were classified into 28 and 26 haplotypes, respectively. In phylogenetic trees, the haplotypes clustered into 2 haplogroups corresponding to haplogroups A and B, which were previously reported. Haplogroups A and B were further subdivided into sub-haplogroups AJ1 and AJ2, and BJ1 and BJ2, respectively. In both trees, the sequences of haplotypes in AJ1 and BJ2 were relatively distant from those reported in other countries, while some sequences in AJ2 and BJ1 were identical to those in Europe. In addition, the ITS sequences were classified into two sequences, and both sequences were closely related to the sequences found in European countries. These findings indicate a possibility of international oversea transmission of D. gallinae. PMID:26074251

  2. Molecular epidemiological characterization of poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chu, Thi Thanh Huong; Murano, Takako; Uno, Yukiko; Usui, Tatsufumi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2015-11-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite, is an obligatory blood-sucking ectoparasite. The genetic diversity of D. gallinae has been examined in some countries, but so far not in Asian countries. Here, we sequenced a part of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and16S rRNA genes and nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region in 239 mite samples collected from 40 prefectures throughout Japan. The COI and 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences were classified into 28 and 26 haplotypes, respectively. In phylogenetic trees, the haplotypes clustered into 2 haplogroups corresponding to haplogroups A and B, which were previously reported. Haplogroups A and B were further subdivided into sub-haplogroups AJ1 and AJ2, and BJ1 and BJ2, respectively. In both trees, the sequences of haplotypes in AJ1 and BJ2 were relatively distant from those reported in other countries, while some sequences in AJ2 and BJ1 were identical to those in Europe. In addition, the ITS sequences were classified into two sequences, and both sequences were closely related to the sequences found in European countries. These findings indicate a possibility of international oversea transmission of D. gallinae.

  3. Internal Radiation Exposure Dose in Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture after the Accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1–86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1–86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01–0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01–0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks. PMID:25478794

  4. Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01-0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01-0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks.

  5. Effects of reduced cost-sharing on children's health: Evidence from Japan.

    PubMed

    Takaku, Reo

    2016-02-01

    Although childhood health status is widely recognized as an important determinant for future achievement and health, there are few studies on the impact of patient cost-sharing on children's health. This paper investigates whether reduced cost-sharing leads to an improvement of health status among preschool and school-age children in Japan, exploiting regional disparities in expansions of municipality-level subsidy programs for out-of-pocket expenditure. With the eligibility for this subsidy program, known as the Medical Subsidy for Children and Infants (MSCI), the coinsurance rate generally decreases from 30% or 20% to zero for outpatient health care services and drug prescriptions. In order to uncover the impact of this program, I conducted an original survey of all municipalities in Japan to understand the time-series evolution of the eligible age for the MSCI in October 2013 (weighted response rate = 75%), and the probability of being eligible for the MSCI was then calculated by the age, prefecture of residence, and year. These probabilities were matched to children's health data from the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions from 1995 to 2010. The results show that eligibility for the MSCI improves subjective measures of health status among preschool children (n = 115,019). However, I find no such improvement among school-age children (n = 133,855). In addition, MSCI eligibility does not reduce hospitalization among either preschool or school-age children. Taken together, this study finds no discernible effects on health among school-age children, suggesting recent rapid expansions of the MSCI for this age group have not been associated with the improvement of health status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of School Environmental Programs Regarding the Objectives for the Environmentally Literate Students, of Heraklion, Greece Prefecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalathak, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This evaluation research concerns the aims and objectives for creating the future environmentally literate citizen through the environmental programs (PEEs) of Secondary Education of Heraklion prefecture, Crete, Greece. An evaluation tool applied on the application forms and the final reports of the programs, in order to asses how sustainable they…

  7. Effect of medical institution change on gestational duration after the Great East Japan Earthquake: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kohta; Goto, Aya; Fujimori, Keiya

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between medical institution change for perinatal care and gestational duration after the Great East Japan Earthquake using data from the Fukushima Health Management Survey. The data of pregnant women who experienced the earthquake in Fukushima prefecture and participated in the Pregnancy and Birth Survey as part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey were analyzed. The primary and secondary outcomes of this study were gestational duration and preterm birth, respectively. The main study factor was prenatal checkup institution (only one institution, changed institution due to self-referral, changed institution due to medical indication, and went to parents' home for childbirth). Self-referral was considered as indicative of relocation after the disaster. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of earthquake on each outcome. A total of 5593 (60.2%) participants experienced the earthquake between the 4th and 37th weeks of their gestational period. After controlling for variables, pregnant women who changed their perinatal checkup institution due to medical indication were significantly associated with shorter gestational duration (β = -10.6, P < 0.001) and preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio, 8.5; 95% confidence interval, 5.8-12.5) compared with women who visited only one institution. Self-referral, however, was not significantly associated with the outcomes. According to prenatal checkup status, our results suggest that the effect on gestational duration of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster was not significant. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of cognitive impairment in independent community-dwelling elderly residents of Ojiya city, Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Kitamura, Kaori; Watanabe, Yumi; Shinoda, Hiroko; Sato, Hisami; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to examine rural-urban differences in the prevalence of cognitive impairment in Japan. We targeted 592 residents aged 65 years and older who did not use long-term care insurance services in one rural and two urban areas in Ojiya City, Japan. Of these, 537 (90.7 %) participated in the study. The revised Hasegawa's dementia scale (HDS-R) was used to assess cognitive function, and cognitive impairment was defined as a HDS-R score ≤20. Lifestyle information was obtained through interviews. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was compared according to the levels of predictor variables by odds ratios (ORs) calculated by a logistic regression analysis. Mean age of participants was 75.7 years (SD 7.0). The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 20/239 (8.4 %) in the rural area and 6/298 (2.0 %) in the urban areas, for a total of 26/537 (4.8 %) overall. Men tended to have a higher prevalence of cognitive impairment (P = 0.0628), and age was associated with cognitive impairment (P for trend <0.0001). The rural area had a significantly higher prevalence of cognitive impairment (age- and sex-adjusted OR = 4.04, 95 % CI: 1.54-10.62) than urban areas. This difference was significant after adjusting for other lifestyle factors. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher in the rural area relative to urban areas in Ojiya city. This regional difference suggests the existence of potentially modifiable factors other than lifestyle in relation to cognitive impairment.

  9. [A 10-year community intervention for disability prevention and changes in physical, nutritional, psychological and social functions among community-dwelling older adults in Kusatsu, Gunma Prefecture, Japan].

    PubMed

    Seino, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Yu; Yoshida, Hiroto; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Amano, Hidenori; Fukaya, Taro; Nishi, Mariko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Nofuji, Yu; Matsuo, Eri; Hoshikawa, Natsumi; Tsuchiya, Yumiko; Shinkai, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    We reported previously that a 10-year community intervention for disability prevention successfully extended healthy life expectancy at 70 years and decreased the enrollment rate of the Long-Term Care Insurance in Kusatsu, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. In order to clarify functional factors that contributed to healthy aging, this study examined changes in physical, nutritional, psychological and social functions in older adults who participated in annual health checkups over the period. Data sources were participants in annual health checkups conducted from 2002 to 2012 and respondents to biannual monitoring surveys conducted from 2003 to 2011. The target population was all older adults aged 70 years and over living in Kusatsu. The average participation rate over the period was 34.7% for the annual health checkups and 95.0% for the monitoring surveys. First, we examined the representativeness of the participants in annual health checkups by comparing them with the responders to monitoring surveys in terms of their higher-level functional capacity, as measured by the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC) (Analysis 1). Second, we examined changes in the physical (4 measures), nutritional (3 measures), and psychological and social (4 measures) functions of participants in annual health checkups over the period. In this analysis, we standardized the data for each year on 11 measures to a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.0 using the 2002 data as the standard, and conducted statistical tests for the slopes of the linear approximate equation (intercept=0) (Analysis 2). In Analysis 1, the TMIG-IC scores for participants in the annual health checkups were significantly higher in both sexes than were those for responders to the monitoring surveys. However, there were no significant year×group interactions in the scores. The difference in scores between the two groups was small for participants in their seventies, but large for

  10. Long-term survival and conditional survival of cancer patients in Japan using population-based cancer registry data

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yuri; Miyashiro, Isao; Ito, Hidemi; Hosono, Satoyo; Chihara, Dai; Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Nakayama, Masashi; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Hattori, Masakazu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Oze, Isao; Tanaka, Rina; Nomura, Etsuko; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Ioka, Akiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Nakayama, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    Although we usually report 5-year cancer survival using population-based cancer registry data, nowadays many cancer patients survive longer and need to be followed-up for more than 5 years. Long-term cancer survival figures are scarce in Japan. Here we report 10-year cancer survival and conditional survival using an established statistical approach. We received data on 1 387 489 cancer cases from six prefectural population-based cancer registries in Japan, diagnosed between 1993 and 2009 and followed-up for at least 5 years. We estimated the 10-year relative survival of patients who were followed-up between 2002 and 2006 using period analysis. Using this 10-year survival, we also calculated the conditional 5-year survival for cancer survivors who lived for some years after diagnosis. We reported 10-year survival and conditional survival of 23 types of cancer for 15–99-year-old patients and four types of cancer for children (0–14 years old) and adolescent and young adults (15–29 years old) patients by sex. Variation in 10-year cancer survival by site was wide, from 5% for pancreatic cancer to 95% for female thyroid cancer. Approximately 70–80% of children and adolescent and young adult cancer patients survived for more than 10 years. Conditional 5-year survival for most cancer sites increased according to years, whereas those for liver cancer and multiple myeloma did not increase. We reported 10-year cancer survival and conditional survival using population-based cancer registries in Japan. It is important for patients and clinicians to report these relevant figures using population-based data. PMID:25183551

  11. Long-range transport of mutagens and other air pollutants from mainland East Asia to western Japan.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Minami, Hiroki; Abe, Maho; Hasei, Tomohiro; Oro, Tadashi; Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Watanabe, Masanari; Honda, Naoko; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2015-01-01

    Asian dust events, transport of dust particles from arid and semi-arid areas in China and Mongolia to the east by prevailing westerlies, are often observed in Japan in spring. In recent decades, consumption of fossil fuels has markedly increased in mainland East Asia with rapid economic growth, and severe air pollution has occurred. A part of air pollutants including mutagens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), generated in mainland East Asia are thought to be transported to Japan by the prevailing westerlies, like Asian dust, and winter monsoon. The objective of this study was to clarify the long-range transport of mutagens and other air pollutants in East Asia. Thus, we collected total suspended particles (TSP) at a rural town in western Japan, namely, Yurihama in Tottori Prefecture, for 1 year (June 2012-May 2013), and investigated their chemical constituents and mutagenicity. Many TSP collected from January to March showed high mutagenicity toward Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 with and without S9 mix, and high levels of lead (Pb) and sulfate ions (SO4 (2-)), which are indicators of transboundary air pollutions from mainland East Asia, were detected in those TSP. A large amount of iron, which is an indicator of sand, was found in highly mutagenic TSP collected in March, but not in TSP collected in January and February. High levels of PAHs were detected in highly mutagenic TSP collected from January to March. The ratios of the concentration of fluoranthene to those of fluoranthene and pyrene suggested that the main source of PAHs in TSP collected in winter and spring was coal and biomass combustion. Backward trajectories of air masses on days when high levels of mutagenicity were found indicated that these air masses had traveled from eastern or northern China to Yurihama. These results suggest that high levels of mutagens were transported from mainland East Asia to western Japan, and this transportation accompanied Asian dust in March, but not in

  12. Stress perception and social indicators for low back, shoulder and joint pains in Japan: national surveys in 1995 and 2001.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Takeaki; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Nishikitani, Mariko; Yano, Eiji

    2004-07-01

    This study aims to clarify the effects of stress perception and related social indicators on three major musculoskeletal symptoms: low back, shoulder, and joint pains in a Japanese population. Twenty health-related variables (stress perception and 19 social indicators) and the three symptoms were obtained from the following Japanese national surveys: the Comprehensive Survey of Living Condition of the People on Health and Welfare, the System of Social and Demographic Statistics of Japan, and the Statistical Report on Health Administration Services. The results were compared among 46 Japanese prefectures in 1995 and 2001. By factor analysis, the 19 indicators were classified into three factors of urbanization, aging and life-regularity, and individualization. The prevalence of stress perception was significantly correlated to the 8 indicators of urbanization factor. Although simple correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship of stress perception only to shoulder pain (in both years) and low back pain (in 2001), the results of multiple regression analysis showed that stress perception and some urbanization factors were significantly associated with all the three symptoms in both years exclusive of joint pain in 1995. Taking the effects of urbanization into consideration, stress perception seems to be closely related to the complaints of musculoskeletal symptoms in Japan.

  13. Retrospective survey of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in patients with suspected rickettsiosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Masaaki; Akashi, Shintaro; Ogawa, Motohiko; Wakeyama, Takatoshi; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Fukuma, Aiko; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Tani, Hideki; Kurosu, Takeshi; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Shimojima, Masayuki; Ando, Shuji; Saijo, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne infectious disease caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV). The aim of this study was to clarify whether SFTS is potentially mis-diagnosed as rickettsioses, including spotted fever, typhus fever, and scrub typhus, which are also tick-borne disease. A total of 464 serum samples collected from 222 patients with clinically suspected rickettsiosis between 1999 and 2012 were tested for antibodies against the SFTSV. Of the 464 serum samples, one was positive for antibodies against the virus in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay. The patient of SFTSV antibody-positive sample (15 days after disease onset) was positive for SFTSV genome in the acute phase sample (3 days after disease onset) as determined via reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This patient, who was a resident of the Yamaguchi prefecture in Western Japan, was in his 40s when he showed symptoms in 2011. As the result, 1 of 222 patients, who was clinically suspected of rickettsiosis, was retrospectively diagnosed with SFTS. In this case, both the C-reactive protein and white blood cell count levels were lower than the ranges of these parameters for patients diagnosed with rickettsiosis. Therefore, SFTS should be considered in the differential diagnosis for rickettsiosis in Japan. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The administrative project of Helicobacter pylori infection screening among junior high school students in an area of Japan with a high incidence of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Chika; Gotoda, Takuji; Ishikawa, Hideki; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko

    2017-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a common chronic infection that is closely associated with gastric cancer, known to be decreasing worldwide. We set up an administrative project of screening examination for H. pylori infection in junior high school students in Akita Prefecture to investigate the current prevalence of H. pylori infection in childhood in an area where the incidence of gastric cancer is particularly high. All students in their second or third year of junior high school (13 to 15 years old) in two cities in Akita Prefecture were recruited. First, a urine-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of H. pylori antibody was performed. Then, a 13 C-urea breath test ( 13 C-UBT) was carried out in students who tested positive on the urinary test. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants and their parents. A total of 1813 students were recruited in this study; 1765 (97.3%) students agreed to participate in this project and underwent a screening examination. Among 96 students (5.4%) testing positive for H. pylori on the initial screening examination, 90 (93.7%, 90/96) underwent a subsequent 13 C-UBT, and 85 (4.8%, 85/1765) were diagnosed as positive for H. pylori. The current prevalence of H. pylori infection among students was low even in an area of Japan with a high incidence of gastric cancer.

  15. A remarkable new species of Nemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu-Han; Xiao, Qian; Chen, Zhi-Teng; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2018-01-24

    A new species of the genus Nemoura, N. latilongispina sp. nov. from Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province, southwestern China is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by ventral sclerite of epiproct extended laterally, forming upcurved plates fringed with long spines along upper margin, and by the strongly sclerotized, fork-shaped cercus.

  16. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan’s history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Nijisseiki’ around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars ‘Niitaka’ and ‘Shinko’ were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including ‘Kosui’, ‘Hosui’, and ‘Akizuki’, which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, ‘Gold Nijisseiki’ has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, ‘Nansui’ from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  17. Do benefits in kind or refunds affect health service utilization and health outcomes? A natural experiment from Japan.

    PubMed

    Takaku, Reo; Bessho, S

    2017-05-01

    Although the payment systems of public health insurance vary greatly across countries, we still have limited knowledge of their effects. To quantify the changes from a benefits in kind system to a refund system, we exploit the largest physician strike in Japan since the Second World War. During the strike in 1971 led by the Japan Medical Association (JMA), JMA physicians resigned as health insurance doctors, but continued to provide medical care and even health insurance treatment in some areas. This study uses the regional differences in resignation rates as a natural experiment to examine the effect of the payment method of health insurance on medical service utilization and health outcomes. In the main analysis, aggregated monthly prefectural data are used (N=46). Our estimation results indicate that if the participation rate of the strike had increased by 1% point and proxy claims were refused completely, the number of cases of insurance benefits and the total amount of insurance benefits would have decreased by 0.78% and 0.58%, respectively compared with the same month in the previous year. Moreover, the average amount of insurance benefits per claim increased since patients with relatively less serious diseases might have sought health care less often. Finally, our results suggest that the mass of resignations did not affect death rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Excessively delayed maternal reaction after their perception of decreased fetal movements in stillbirths: Population-based study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Koshida, Shigeki; Ono, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Shunichiro; Murakami, Takashi; Arima, Hisatomi; Takahashi, Kentaro

    2017-12-01

    Fetal movement is the most common method to evaluate fetal well-being. Further