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Sample records for tracking mppt controller

  1. Implementation of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Solar Charge Controller using Arduino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelilah, B.; Mouna, A.; KouiderM’Sirdi, N.; El Hossain, A.

    2018-05-01

    the platform Arduino with a number of sensors standard can be used as components of an electronic system for acquiring measures and controls. This paper presents the design of a low-cost and effective solar charge controller. This system includes several elements such as the solar panel converter DC/DC, battery, circuit MPPT using Microcontroller, sensors, and the MPPT algorithm. The MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) algorithm has been implemented using an Arduino Nano with the preferred program. The voltage and current of the Panel are taken where the program implemented will work and using this algorithm that MPP will be reached. This paper provides details on the solar charge control device at the maximum power point. The results include the change of the duty cycle with the change in load and thus mean the variation of the buck converter output voltage and current controlled by the MPPT algorithm.

  2. Photovoltaic Cells Mppt Algorithm and Design of Controller Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X. Z.; Feng, H. B.

    2017-10-01

    This paper combined the advantages of each maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, put forward a kind of algorithm with higher speed and higher precision, based on this algorithm designed a maximum power point tracking controller with ARM. The controller, communication technology and PC software formed a control system. Results of the simulation and experiment showed that the process of maximum power tracking was effective, and the system was stable.

  3. Design of MPPT Controller Monitoring Software Based on QT Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X. Z.; Lu, P. G.

    2017-10-01

    The MPPT controller was a hardware device for tracking the maximum power point of solar photovoltaic array. Multiple controllers could be working as networking mode by specific communicating protocol. In this article, based on C++ GUI programming with Qt frame, we designed one sort of desktop application for monitoring and analyzing operational parameter of MPPT controller. The type of communicating protocol for building network was Modbus protocol which using Remote Terminal Unit mode and The desktop application of host computer was connected with all the controllers in the network through RS485 communication or ZigBee wireless communication. Using this application, user could monitor the parameter of controller wherever they were by internet.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Reduced-Rule Compressed Fuzzy Logic Control and Incremental Conductance MPPT Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandemir, Ekrem; Borekci, Selim; Cetin, Numan S.

    2018-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) power generation has been widely used in recent years, with techniques for increasing the power efficiency representing one of the most important issues. The available maximum power of a PV panel is dependent on environmental conditions such as solar irradiance and temperature. To extract the maximum available power from a PV panel, various maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) methods are used. In this work, two different MPPT methods were implemented for a 150-W PV panel. The first method, known as incremental conductance (Inc. Cond.) MPPT, determines the maximum power by measuring the derivative of the PV voltage and current. The other method is based on reduced-rule compressed fuzzy logic control (RR-FLC), using which it is relatively easier to determine the maximum power because a single input variable is used to reduce computing loads. In this study, a 150-W PV panel system model was realized using these MPPT methods in MATLAB and the results compared. According to the simulation results, the proposed RR-FLC-based MPPT could increase the response rate and tracking accuracy by 4.66% under standard test conditions.

  5. Issues regarding the usage of MPPT techniques in micro grid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeidert, I.; Filip, I.; Dragan, F.; Gal, A.

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of the control strategies applied at hybrid micro grid systems (wind/hydro/solar), that function based on maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques is to improve the conversion system’s efficiency and to preserve the quality of the generated electrical energy (voltage and power factor). One of the main goals of maximum power point tracking strategy is to achieve the harvesting of the maximal possible energy within a certain time period. In order to implement the control strategies for micro grid, there are typically required specific transducers (sensor for wind speed, optical rotational transducers, etc.). In the technical literature, several variants of the MPPT techniques are presented and particularized at some applications (wind energy conversion systems, solar systems, hydro plants, micro grid hybrid systems). The maximum power point tracking implementations are mainly based on two-level architecture. The lower level controls the main variable and the superior level represents the MPPT control structure. The paper presents micro grid structures developed at Politehnica University Timisoara (PUT) within the frame of a research grant. The paper is focused on the application of MPPT strategies on hybrid micro grid systems. There are presented several structures and control strategies and are highlighted their advantages and disadvantages, together with practical implementation guidelines.

  6. Design and simulation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system on solar module system using constant voltage (CV) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatara, Sevty Satria; Iskandar, Reza Fauzi; Kirom, M. Ramdlan

    2016-02-01

    Solar energy is one of renewable energy resource where needs a photovoltaic module to convert it into electrical energy. One of the problems on solar energy conversion is the process of battery charging. To improve efficiency of energy conversion, PV system needs another control method on battery charging called maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper report the study on charging optimation using constant voltage (CV) method. This method has a function of determining output voltage of the PV system on maximal condition, so PV system will always produce a maximal energy. A model represented a PV system with and without MPPT was developed using Simulink. PV system simulation showed a different outcome energy when different solar radiation and numbers of solar module were applied in the model. On the simulation of solar radiation 1000 W/m2, PV system with MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy and PV system without MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy. The larger the solar radiation, the greater the energy of PV modules was produced.

  7. Simulation and experiment of a fuzzy logic based MPPT controller for a small wind turbine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrila, Diana; Muntean, Nicolae

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a fuzzy logic based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) strategy for a variable speed wind turbine system (VSWT). For this scope, a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was described, simulated and tested on a real time "hardware in the loop" wind turbine emulator. Simulation and experimental results show that the controller is able to track the maximum power point for various wind conditions and validate the proposed control strategy.

  8. Solar Panel System for Street Light Using Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedjaja, A.; Harta, S.; Josses, L.; Winardi; Rinda, H.

    2014-03-01

    Solar energy is one form of the renewable energy which is very abundant in regions close to the equator. One application of solar energy is for street light. This research focuses on using the maximum power point tracking technique (MPPT), particularly the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm, to charge battery for street light system. The proposed charger circuit can achieve 20.73% higher power efficiency compared to that of non-MPPT charger. We also develop the LED driver circuit for the system which can achieve power efficiency up to 91.9% at a current of 1.06 A. The proposed street lightning system can be implemented with a relatively low cost for public areas.

  9. Fuzzy observer-based control for maximum power-point tracking of a photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouche, M.; Dahech, K.; Chaabane, M.; Mehdi, D.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a novel fuzzy control design method for maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) via a Takagi and Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model-based approach. A knowledge-dynamic model of the PV system is first developed leading to a TS representation by a simple convex polytopic transformation. Then, based on this exact fuzzy representation, a H∞ observer-based fuzzy controller is proposed to achieve MPPT even when we consider varying climatic conditions. A specified TS reference model is designed to generate the optimum trajectory which must be tracked to ensure maximum power operation. The controller and observer gains are obtained in a one-step procedure by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The proposed method has been compared with some classical MPPT techniques taking into account convergence speed and tracking accuracy. Finally, various simulation and experimental tests have been carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed TS fuzzy MPPT strategy.

  10. Smoothing PV System’s Output by Tuning MPPT Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ina, Nobuhiko; Yanagawa, Shigeyuki; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    A PV system’s output is not stable and fluctuates depending on a weather condition. Using a battery is one of the feasible ways to stabilize a PV system’s output, although it requires an additional cost and provides an additional waste of the used battery. In this paper, we propose tuning a characteristic of Maxiumum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control for smoothing a short term change of PV system’s output during a sharp insolation fluctuation, as an approach without additional equipments. In our proposed method, when an insolation increases rapidly, the operation point of MPPT control changes to the new point where the maximum power is not generated with present insolation, so that the speed of PV system’s output increase is limited to a certain value, i. e. 1%/min. In order to evaluate the effect of our proposed method in terms of reducing the additional operation task of the electric power system, we evaluated the additional LFC capacity for a large-scale installation of PV systems. As a result, it was revealed that the additional LFC capacity is not required even if a PV system is installed by 5% of utility system, when our proposed method is applied to all PV systems.

  11. Research of MPPT for photovoltaic generation based on two-dimensional cloud model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuping; Fan, Wei

    2013-03-01

    The cloud model is a mathematical representation to fuzziness and randomness in linguistic concepts. It represents a qualitative concept with expected value Ex, entropy En and hyper entropy He, and integrates the fuzziness and randomness of a linguistic concept in a unified way. This model is a new method for transformation between qualitative and quantitative in the knowledge. This paper is introduced MPPT (maximum power point tracking, MPPT) controller based two- dimensional cloud model through analysis of auto-optimization MPPT control of photovoltaic power system and combining theory of cloud model. Simulation result shows that the cloud controller is simple and easy, directly perceived through the senses, and has strong robustness, better control performance.

  12. Design of Solar Street Lamp Control System Based on MPPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Fengying

    This paper proposes a new solar street lamp control system which is composed of photovoltaic cell, controller, battery and load. In this system controller as the key part applies the microchip to achieve many functions. According to the nonlinear output characteristics of solar cell and the influence of environment, it uses the perturbation and observation (P&O) method to realize the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and promotes the efficiency. In order to prolong the battery life the pulse width modulation (PWM) charge mode is selected to control the battery capacity and provent the battery from the state of over-charge and over-discharge. Meanwhile the function of temperature compensation, charge and discharge protection are set to improve the running safety and stability.

  13. Optimal Design of MPPT Controllers for Grid Connected Photovoltaic Array System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahim, M. A.; AbdelHadi, H. A.; Mahmoud, H. M.; Saied, E. M.; Salama, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    Integrating photovoltaic (PV) plants into electric power system exhibits challenges to power system dynamic performance. These challenges stem primarily from the natural characteristics of PV plants, which differ in some respects from the conventional plants. The most significant challenge is how to extract and regulate the maximum power from the sun. This paper presents the optimal design for the most commonly used Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques based on Proportional Integral tuned by Particle Swarm Optimization (PI-PSO). These suggested techniques are, (1) the incremental conductance, (2) perturb and observe, (3) fractional short circuit current and (4) fractional open circuit voltage techniques. This research work provides a comprehensive comparative study with the energy availability ratio from photovoltaic panels. The simulation results proved that the proposed controllers have an impressive tracking response. The system dynamic performance improved greatly using the proposed controllers.

  14. Simulation and experimental design of a new advanced variable step size Incremental Conductance MPPT algorithm for PV systems.

    PubMed

    Loukriz, Abdelhamid; Haddadi, Mourad; Messalti, Sabir

    2016-05-01

    Improvement of the efficiency of photovoltaic system based on new maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms is the most promising solution due to its low cost and its easy implementation without equipment updating. Many MPPT methods with fixed step size have been developed. However, when atmospheric conditions change rapidly , the performance of conventional algorithms is reduced. In this paper, a new variable step size Incremental Conductance IC MPPT algorithm has been proposed. Modeling and simulation of different operational conditions of conventional Incremental Conductance IC and proposed methods are presented. The proposed method was developed and tested successfully on a photovoltaic system based on Flyback converter and control circuit using dsPIC30F4011. Both, simulation and experimental design are provided in several aspects. A comparative study between the proposed variable step size and fixed step size IC MPPT method under similar operating conditions is presented. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed MPPT algorithm in terms of speed in MPP tracking and accuracy. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Maximum Power Point Tracking Control Method of a Photovoltaic Power Generator with Consideration of Dynamic Characteristics of Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Yoshida, Toshiya; Ohniwa, Katsumi

    This paper discusses a new control strategy for photovoltaic power generation systems with consideration of dynamic characteristics of the photovoltaic cells. The controller estimates internal currents of an equivalent circuit for the cells. This estimated, or the virtual current and the actual voltage of the cells are fed to a conventional Maximum-Power-Point-Tracking (MPPT) controller. Consequently, this MPPT controller still tracks the optimum point even though it is so designed that the seeking speed of the operating point is extremely high. This system may suit for applications, which are installed in rapidly changeable insolation and temperature-conditions e.g. automobiles, trains, and airplanes. The proposed method is verified by experiment with a combination of this estimating function and the modified Boehringer's MPPT algorithm.

  16. Design of A Grid Integrated PV System with MPPT Control and Voltage Oriented Controller using MATLAB/PLECES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soreng, Bineeta; Behera, Pradyumna; Pradhan, Raseswari

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents model of a grid-integrated photovoltaic array with Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) and voltage oriented controller. The MPPT of the PV array is usually an essential part of PV system as MPPT helps the operating point of the solar array to align its maximum power point. In this model, the MPPT along with a DC-DC converter lets a PV generator to produce continuous power, despite of the measurement conditions. The neutral-point-clamped converter (NPC) with a boost converter raises the voltage from the panels to the DC-link. An LCL-filter smoothens the current ripple caused by the PWM modulation of the grid-side inverter. In addition to the MPPT, the system has two more two controllers, such as voltage controller and a current controller. The voltage control has a PI controller to regulate the PV voltage to optimal level by controlling the amount of current injected into the boost stage. Here, the grid-side converter transfers the power from the DC-link into the grid and maintains the DC-link voltage. Three-phase PV inverters are used for off-grid or designed to create utility frequency AC. The PV system can be connected in series or parallel to get the desired output power. To justify the working of this model, the grid-integrated PV system has been designed in MATLAB/PLECS. The simulation shows the P-V curve of implemented PV Array consisting 4 X 20 modules, reactive, real power, grid voltage and current.

  17. Realworld maximum power point tracking simulation of PV system based on Fuzzy Logic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Ahmed M.; El-arini, Mahdi M. M.; Ghitas, Ahmed; Fathy, Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, the solar energy becomes one of the most important alternative sources of electric energy, so it is important to improve the efficiency and reliability of the photovoltaic (PV) systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in photovoltaic power systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize their array efficiency. This paper presents a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) using Fuzzy Logic theory for a PV system. The work is focused on the well known Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm and is compared to a designed fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The simulation work dealing with MPPT controller; a DC/DC Ćuk converter feeding a load is achieved. The results showed that the proposed Fuzzy Logic MPPT in the PV system is valid.

  18. A Study of a Two Stage Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of a Photovoltaic System under Partially Shaded Insolation Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Takano, Ichiro; Sawada, Yoshio

    A photovoltaic array shows relatively low output power density, and has a greatly drooping Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristic. Therefore, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control is used to maximize the output power of the array. Many papers have been reported in relation to MPPT. However, the Current-Power (I-P) curve sometimes shows multi-local maximum points mode under non-uniform insolation conditions. The operating point of the PV system tends to converge to a local maximum output point which is not the real maximal output point on the I-P curve. Some papers have been also reported, trying to avoid this difficulty. However most of those control systems become rather complicated. Then, the two stage MPPT control method is proposed in this paper to realize a relatively simple control system which can track the real maximum power point even under non-uniform insolation conditions. The feasibility of this control concept is confirmed for steady insolation as well as for rapidly changing insolation by simulation study using software PSIM and LabVIEW. In addition, simulated experiment confirms fundament al operation of the two stage MPPT control.

  19. High Step-Up DC—DC Converter for AC Photovoltaic Module with MPPT Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Govindasamy; Karthick, Narashiman; Rama Reddy, Sasi

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the high gain step-up BOOST converter which is essential to step up the low output voltage from PV panel to the high voltage according to the requirement of the application. In this paper a high gain BOOST converter with coupled inductor technique is proposed with the MPPT control. Without extreme duty ratios and the numerous turns-ratios of a coupled inductor this converter achieves a high step-up voltage-conversion ratio and the leakage energy of the coupled inductor is efficiently recycled to the load. MPPT control used to extract the maximum power from PV panel by controlling the Duty ratio of the converter. The PV panel, BOOST converter and the MPPT are modeled using Sim Power System blocks in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The prototype model of the proposed converter has been implemented with the maximum measured efficiency is up to 95.4% and full-load efficiency is 93.1%.

  20. Microwatt power consumption maximum power point tracking circuit using an analogue differentiator for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Z. J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-12-01

    A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme by tracking the open-circuit voltage from a piezoelectric energy harvester using a differentiator is presented in this paper. The MPPT controller is implemented by using a low-power analogue differentiator and comparators without the need of a sensing circuitry and a power hungry controller. This proposed MPPT circuit is used to control a buck converter which serves as a power management module in conjunction with a full-wave bridge diode rectifier. Performance of this MPPT control scheme is verified by using the prototyped circuit to track the maximum power point of a macro-fiber composite (MFC) as the piezoelectric energy harvester. The MFC was bonded on a composite material and the whole specimen was subjected to various strain levels at frequency from 10 to 100 Hz. Experimental results showed that the implemented full analogue MPPT controller has a tracking efficiency between 81% and 98.66% independent of the load, and consumes an average power of 3.187 μW at 3 V during operation.

  1. Comparative study of adaptive controller using MIT rules and Lyapunov method for MPPT standalone PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariba, N.; Bouknadel, A.; Haddou, A.; Ikken, N.; Omari, Hafsa El; Omari, Hamid El

    2017-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Generator have a nonlinear characteristic function relating the intensity at the voltage I = f (U) and depend on the variation of solar irradiation and temperature, In addition, its point of operation depends directly on the load that it supplies. To fix this drawback, and to extract the maximum power available to the terminal of the generator, an adaptation stage is introduced between the generator and the load to couple the two elements as perfectly as possible. The adaptation stage is associated with a command called MPPT MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) whose is used to force the PVG to operate at the MPP (Maximum Power Point) under variation of climatic conditions and load variation. This paper presents a comparative study between the adaptive controller for PV Systems using MIT rules and Lyapunov method to regulate the PV voltage. The Incremental Conductance (IC) algorithm is used to extract the maximum power from the PVG by calculating the voltage Vref, and the adaptive controller is used to regulate and track quickly the PV voltage. The two methods of the adaptive controller will be compared to prove their performance by using the PSIM tools and experimental test, and the mathematical model of step-up with PVG model will be presented.

  2. An adaptive scale factor based MPPT algorithm for changing solar irradiation levels in outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Trevor Hocksun; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2017-03-01

    Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are popularly used for maximizing the output of solar panels by continuously tracking the maximum power point (MPP) of their P-V curves, which depend both on the panel temperature and the input insolation. Various MPPT algorithms have been studied in literature, including perturb and observe (P&O), hill climbing, incremental conductance, fuzzy logic control and neural networks. This paper presents an algorithm which improves the MPP tracking performance by adaptively scaling the DC-DC converter duty cycle. The principle of the proposed algorithm is to detect the oscillation by checking the sign (ie. direction) of the duty cycle perturbation between the current and previous time steps. If there is a difference in the signs then it is clear an oscillation is present and the DC-DC converter duty cycle perturbation is subsequently scaled down by a constant factor. By repeating this process, the steady state oscillations become negligibly small which subsequently allows for a smooth steady state MPP response. To verify the proposed MPPT algorithm, a simulation involving irradiances levels that are typically encountered in outer space is conducted. Simulation and experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm is fast and stable in comparison to not only the conventional fixed step counterparts, but also to previous variable step size algorithms.

  3. Performance analysis of ‘Perturb and Observe’ and ‘Incremental Conductance’ MPPT algorithms for PV system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodhi, Ehtisham; Lodhi, Zeeshan; Noman Shafqat, Rana; Chen, Fieda

    2017-07-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system usually employed The Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques for increasing its efficiency. The performance of the PV system perhaps boosts by controlling at its apex point of power, in this way maximal power can be given to load. The proficiency of a PV system usually depends upon irradiance, temperature and array architecture. PV array shows a non-linear style for V-I curve and maximal power point on V-P curve also varies with changing environmental conditions. MPPT methods grantees that a PV module is regulated at reference voltage and to produce entire usage of the maximal output power. This paper gives analysis between two widely employed Perturb and Observe (P&O) and Incremental Conductance (INC) MPPT techniques. Their performance is evaluated and compared through theoretical analysis and digital simulation on the basis of response time and efficiency under varying irradiance and temperature condition using Matlab/Simulink.

  4. Voltage oriented control of self-excited induction generator for wind energy system with MPPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amieur, Toufik; Taibi, Djamel; Amieur, Oualid

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the study and simulation of the self-excited induction generator in the wind power production in isolated sites. With this intention, a model of the wind turbine was established. Extremum-seeking control algorithm method by using Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is proposed control solution aims at driving the average position of the operating point near to optimality. The reference of turbine rotor speed is adjusted such that the turbine operates around maximum power for the current wind speed value. After a brief review of the concepts of converting wind energy into electrical energy. The proposed modeling tools were developed to study the performance of standalone induction generators connected to capacitor bank. The purpose of this technique is to maintain a constant voltage at the output of the rectifier whatever the loads and speeds. The system studied in this work is developed and tested in MATLAB/Simulink environment. Simulation results validate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed control methods.

  5. Solar Array Hysteresis and its Interaction with the MPPT System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, A.; Baur, C.; Gomez-Carpintero, F.

    2014-08-01

    It is well known that solar cells have a capacitance in parallel which value changes with the voltage. Depending on the section arrangement on the Solar Array, the power conversion unit connected to it will see a smaller or larger capacitance value and will have to cope with its adverse effects. In the case of converters with an MPPT, this capacitance gives place to an hysteresis effect that might shift the tracking point, reducing the power extracted from the Solar Array. This paper explores the different sides of this issue, from capacitance modelling to the effects on the MPPT. Additionally, this paper analyses a similar interaction between MPPTs and commercial SAS.

  6. A New MPPT Control for Photovoltaic Panels by Instantaneous Maximum Power Point Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokushima, Daiki; Uchida, Masato; Kanbei, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Naitoh, Haruo

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking control for photovoltaic (PV) panels. The control can be categorized into the Perturb and Observe (P & O) method. It utilizes instantaneous voltage ripples at PV panel output terminals caused by the switching of a chopper connected to the panel in order to identify the direction for the maximum power point (MPP). The tracking for the MPP is achieved by a feedback control of the average terminal voltage of the panel. Appropriate use of the instantaneous and the average values of the PV voltage for the separate purposes enables both the quick transient response and the good convergence with almost no ripples simultaneously. The tracking capability is verified experimentally with a 2.8 W PV panel under a controlled experimental setup. A numerical comparison with a conventional P & O confirms that the proposed control extracts much more power from the PV panel.

  7. A Power Conditioning Stage Based on Analog-Circuit MPPT Control and a Superbuck Converter for Thermoelectric Generators in Spacecraft Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai; Wu, Hongfei; Cai, Yan; Xing, Yan

    2014-06-01

    A thermoelectric generator (TEG) is a very important kind of power supply for spacecraft, especially for deep-space missions, due to its long lifetime and high reliability. To develop a practical TEG power supply for spacecraft, a power conditioning stage is indispensable, being employed to convert the varying output voltage of the TEG modules to a definite voltage for feeding batteries or loads. To enhance the system reliability, a power conditioning stage based on analog-circuit maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) control and a superbuck converter is proposed in this paper. The input of this power conditioning stage is connected to the output of the TEG modules, and the output of this stage is connected to the battery and loads. The superbuck converter is employed as the main circuit, featuring low input current ripples and high conversion efficiency. Since for spacecraft power systems reliable operation is the key target for control circuits, a reset-set flip-flop-based analog circuit is used as the basic control circuit to implement MPPT, being much simpler than digital control circuits and offering higher reliability. Experiments have verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed power conditioning stage. The results show the advantages of the proposed stage, such as maximum utilization of TEG power, small input ripples, and good stability.

  8. Control strategy of grid-connected photovoltaic generation system based on GMPPT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Xuyang; Hu, Bo; Liu, Jun; Li, Ligang; Gu, Yongqiang; Zhou, Bowen

    2018-02-01

    There are multiple local maximum power points when photovoltaic (PV) array runs under partial shading condition (PSC).However, the traditional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm might be easily trapped in local maximum power points (MPPs) and cannot find the global maximum power point (GMPP). To solve such problem, a global maximum power point tracking method (GMPPT) is improved, combined with traditional MPPT method and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Under different operating conditions of PV cells, different tracking algorithms are used. When the environment changes, the improved PSO algorithm is adopted to realize the global optimal search, and the variable step incremental conductance (INC) method is adopted to achieve MPPT in optimal local location. Based on the simulation model of the PV grid system built in Matlab/Simulink, comparative analysis of the tracking effect of MPPT by the proposed control algorithm and the traditional MPPT method under the uniform solar condition and PSC, validate the correctness, feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  9. Variable frequency iteration MPPT for resonant power converters

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Qian; Bataresh, Issa; Chen, Lin

    2015-06-30

    A method of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) uses an MPPT algorithm to determine a switching frequency for a resonant power converter, including initializing by setting an initial boundary frequency range that is divided into initial frequency sub-ranges bounded by initial frequencies including an initial center frequency and first and second initial bounding frequencies. A first iteration includes measuring initial powers at the initial frequencies to determine a maximum power initial frequency that is used to set a first reduced frequency search range centered or bounded by the maximum power initial frequency including at least a first additional bounding frequency. A second iteration includes calculating first and second center frequencies by averaging adjacent frequent values in the first reduced frequency search range and measuring second power values at the first and second center frequencies. The switching frequency is determined from measured power values including the second power values.

  10. Hardware Implementation of Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maganga, Othman; Phillip, Navneesh; Burnham, Keith J.; Montecucco, Andrea; Siviter, Jonathan; Knox, Andrew; Simpson, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    This work describes the practical implementation of two maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms, namely those of perturb and observe, and extremum seeking control. The proprietary dSPACE system is used to perform hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation whereby the two control algorithms are implemented using the MATLAB/Simulink (Mathworks, Natick, MA) software environment in order to control a synchronous buck-boost converter connected to two commercial thermoelectric modules. The process of performing HIL simulation using dSPACE is discussed, and a comparison between experimental and simulated results is highlighted. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the two MPPT algorithms, and in conclusion the benefits and limitations of real-time implementation of MPPT controllers using dSPACE are discussed.

  11. Comparison of four MPPT techniques for PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atik, L.; Petit, P.; Sawicki, J. P.; Ternifi, Z. T.; Bachir, G.; Aillerie, M.

    2016-07-01

    The working behavior of a module / PV array is non-linear and highly dependent on working conditions. As a given condition, there is only one point at which the level of available power at its output is maximum. This point varies with time, enlightenment and temperature. To ensure optimum operation, the use of MPPT control allows us to extract the maximum power. This paper presents a comparative study of four widely-adopted MPPT algorithms, such as Perturb and Observe, Incremental Conductance, Measurements of the variation of the open circuit voltage or of the short-circuit current. Their performance is evaluated using, for all these techniques. In particular, this study compares the behaviors of each technique in presence of solar irradiation variations and temperature fluctuations. These MPPT techniques will be compared using the Matlab / Simulink tool.

  12. Tracking the global maximum power point of PV arrays under partial shading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennich, Meryem

    This thesis presents the theoretical and simulation studies of the global maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic systems under partial shading. The main goal is to track the maximum power point of the photovoltaic module so that the maximum possible power can be extracted from the photovoltaic panels. When several panels are connected in series with some of them shaded partially either due to clouds or shadows from neighboring buildings, several local maxima appear in the power vs. voltage curve. A power increment based MPPT algorithm is effective in identifying the global maximum from the several local maxima. Several existing MPPT algorithms are explored and the state-of-the-art power increment method is simulated and tested for various partial shading conditions. The current-voltage and power-voltage characteristics of the PV model are studied under different partial shading conditions, along with five different cases demonstrating how the MPPT algorithm performs when shading switches from one state to another. Each case is supplemented with simulation results. The method of tracking the Global MPP is based on controlling the DC-DC converter connected to the output of the PV array. A complete system simulation including the PV array, the direct current to direct current (DC-DC) converter and the MPPT is presented and tested using MATLAB software. The simulation results show that the MPPT algorithm works very well with the buck converter, while the boost converter needs further changes and implementation.

  13. Comparison of four MPPT techniques for PV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Atik, L., E-mail: lotfi.atik@univ-usto.dz; Ternifi, Z. T.; Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz

    2016-07-25

    The working behavior of a module / PV array is non-linear and highly dependent on working conditions. As a given condition, there is only one point at which the level of available power at its output is maximum. This point varies with time, enlightenment and temperature. To ensure optimum operation, the use of MPPT control allows us to extract the maximum power. This paper presents a comparative study of four widely-adopted MPPT algorithms, such as Perturb and Observe, Incremental Conductance, Measurements of the variation of the open circuit voltage or of the short-circuit current. Their performance is evaluated using, formore » all these techniques. In particular, this study compares the behaviors of each technique in presence of solar irradiation variations and temperature fluctuations. These MPPT techniques will be compared using the Matlab / Simulink tool.« less

  14. Lightweight DC-DC Converter with Partial Power Processing and MPPT for a Solar Powered Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diab-Marzouk, Ahmad

    A lightweight dc-dc partial power processing converter is demonstrated for solar aerospace applications. A system-level model is conceived to determine conformity to payload and target distance objectives, with the Solarship aircraft used as an application example. The concept of partial power processing is utilized to realize a high efficiency lightweight converter that performs Max Peak Power Tracking (MPPT) to transfer power from the aircraft solar array to the high-voltage battery bus. The isolated Cuk is determined to be a suitable converter topology for the application. A small-signal model is derived for control design. The operation of a 400V, 2.7 kW prototype is verified at high frequency (200 kHz), high efficiency (> 98%), small mass (0.604 kg), and uses no electrolytic capacitors. MPPT operation is verified on a 376 V commercial solar installation at The University of Toronto. The prototype serves as an enabling technology for solar aerospace applications.

  15. Optimal tracking and second order sliding power control of the DFIG wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdeddaim, S.; Betka, A.; Charrouf, O.

    2017-02-01

    In the present paper, an optimal operation of a grid-connected variable speed wind turbine equipped with a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is presented. The proposed cascaded nonlinear controller is designed to perform two main objectives. In the outer loop, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm based on fuzzy logic theory is designed to permanently extract the optimal aerodynamic energy, whereas in the inner loop, a second order sliding mode control (2-SM) is applied to achieve smooth regulation of both stator active and reactive powers quantities. The obtained simulation results show a permanent track of the MPP point regardless of the turbine power-speed slope moreover the proposed sliding mode control strategy presents attractive features such as chattering-free, compared to the conventional first order sliding technique (1-SM).

  16. Optimized MPPT-based converter for TEG energy harvester to power wireless sensor and monitoring system in nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Shaoxu; Anakok, Isil; Zuo, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Accidents like Fukushima Disasters push people to improve the monitoring systems for the nuclear power plants. Thus, various types of energy harvesters are designed to power these systems and the Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) energy harvester is one of them. In order to enhance the amount of harvested power and the system efficiency, the power management stage needs to be carefully designed. In this paper, a power converter with optimized Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is proposed for the TEG Energy Harvester to power the wireless sensor network in nuclear power plant. The TEG Energy Harvester is installed on the coolant pipe of the nuclear plant and harvests energy from its heat energy while the power converter with optimized MPPT can make the TEG Energy Harvester output the maximum power, quickly response to the voltage change and provide sufficient energy for wireless sensor system to monitor the operation of the nuclear power plant. Due to the special characteristics of the Single-Ended Primary Inductor Converter (SEPIC) when it is working in the Discontinuous Inductor Current Mode (DICM) and Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM), the MPPT method presented in this paper would be able to control the converter to achieve the maximum output power in any working conditions of the TEG system with a simple circuit. The optimized MPPT algorithm will significantly reduce the cost and simplify the system as well as achieve a good performance. Experiment test results have shown that, comparing to a fixed- duty-cycle SEPIC which is specifically designed for the working on the secondary coolant loop in nuclear power plant, the optimized MPPT algorithm increased the output power by 55%.

  17. A comparative study of artificial intelligent-based maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain Mutlag, Ammar; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain

    2016-03-01

    Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is normally required to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper presents artificial intelligent-based maximum power point tracking (AI-MPPT) by considering three artificial intelligent techniques, namely, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven triangular fuzzy sets (7-tri), and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven gbell fuzzy sets. The AI-MPPT is designed for the 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV panels, with the capacity of 3 kW peak. A complete PV system is modelled using 300,000 data samples and simulated in the MATLAB/SIMULINK. The AI-MPPT has been tested under real environmental conditions for two days from 8 am to 18 pm. The results showed that the ANN based MPPT gives the most accurate performance and then followed by the 7-tri-based MPPT.

  18. Multi-Layer Artificial Neural Networks Based MPPT-Pitch Angle Control of a Tidal Stream Generator

    PubMed Central

    Bouallègue, Soufiene; Garrido, Aitor J.; Haggège, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Artificial intelligence technologies are widely investigated as a promising technique for tackling complex and ill-defined problems. In this context, artificial neural networks methodology has been considered as an effective tool to handle renewable energy systems. Thereby, the use of Tidal Stream Generator (TSG) systems aim to provide clean and reliable electrical power. However, the power captured from tidal currents is highly disturbed due to the swell effect and the periodicity of the tidal current phenomenon. In order to improve the quality of the generated power, this paper focuses on the power smoothing control. For this purpose, a novel Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is investigated and implemented to provide the proper rotational speed reference and the blade pitch angle. The ANN supervisor adequately switches the system in variable speed and power limitation modes. In order to recover the maximum power from the tides, a rotational speed control is applied to the rotor side converter following the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) generated from the ANN block. In case of strong tidal currents, a pitch angle control is set based on the ANN approach to keep the system operating within safe limits. Two study cases were performed to test the performance of the output power. Simulation results demonstrate that the implemented control strategies achieve a smoothed generated power in the case of swell disturbances. PMID:29695127

  19. Multi-Layer Artificial Neural Networks Based MPPT-Pitch Angle Control of a Tidal Stream Generator.

    PubMed

    Ghefiri, Khaoula; Bouallègue, Soufiene; Garrido, Izaskun; Garrido, Aitor J; Haggège, Joseph

    2018-04-24

    Artificial intelligence technologies are widely investigated as a promising technique for tackling complex and ill-defined problems. In this context, artificial neural networks methodology has been considered as an effective tool to handle renewable energy systems. Thereby, the use of Tidal Stream Generator (TSG) systems aim to provide clean and reliable electrical power. However, the power captured from tidal currents is highly disturbed due to the swell effect and the periodicity of the tidal current phenomenon. In order to improve the quality of the generated power, this paper focuses on the power smoothing control. For this purpose, a novel Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is investigated and implemented to provide the proper rotational speed reference and the blade pitch angle. The ANN supervisor adequately switches the system in variable speed and power limitation modes. In order to recover the maximum power from the tides, a rotational speed control is applied to the rotor side converter following the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) generated from the ANN block. In case of strong tidal currents, a pitch angle control is set based on the ANN approach to keep the system operating within safe limits. Two study cases were performed to test the performance of the output power. Simulation results demonstrate that the implemented control strategies achieve a smoothed generated power in the case of swell disturbances.

  20. Maximum Power Point Tracking with Dichotomy and Gradient Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, W.; Quan, S. H.; Xie, C. J.; Tang, X. F.; Wang, L. L.; Huang, L.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a direct-current/direct-current (DC/DC) converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is developed to down-convert the high voltage DC output from a thermoelectric generator to the lower voltage required to charge batteries. To improve the tracking accuracy and speed of the converter, a novel MPPT control scheme characterized by an aggregated dichotomy and gradient (ADG) method is proposed. In the first stage, the dichotomy algorithm is used as a fast search method to find the approximate region of the maximum power point. The gradient method is then applied for rapid and accurate tracking of the maximum power point. To validate the proposed MPPT method, a test bench composed of an automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator was constructed for harvesting the automotive exhaust heat energy. Steady-state and transient tracking experiments under five different load conditions were carried out using a DC/DC converter with the proposed ADG and with three traditional methods. The experimental results show that the ADG method can track the maximum power within 140 ms with a 1.1% error rate when the engine operates at 3300 rpm@71 NM, which is superior to the performance of the single dichotomy method, the single gradient method and the perturbation and observation method from the viewpoint of improved tracking accuracy and speed.

  1. Maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic applications by using two-level DC/DC boost converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moamaei, Parvin

    Recently, photovoltaic (PV) generation is becoming increasingly popular in industrial applications. As a renewable and alternative source of energy they feature superior characteristics such as being clean and silent along with less maintenance problems compared to other sources of the energy. In PV generation, employing a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method is essential to obtain the maximum available solar energy. Among several proposed MPPT techniques, the Perturbation and Observation (P&O;) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) methods are adopted in this work. The components of the MPPT control system which are P&O; and MPC algorithms, PV module and high gain DC-DC boost converter are simulated in MATLAB Simulink. They are evaluated theoretically under rapidly and slowly changing of solar irradiation and temperature and their performance is shown by the simulation results, finally a comprehensive comparison is presented.

  2. Maximum power point tracking techniques for wind energy systems using three levels boost converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Cuong Hung; Nollet, Frédéric; Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents modeling and simulation of three level Boost DC-DC converter in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). Three-level Boost converter has significant advantage compared to conventional Boost. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method for a variable speed wind turbine using permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is also presented. Simulation of three-level Boost converter topology with Perturb and Observe algorithm and Fuzzy Logic Control is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Results of this simulation show that the system with MPPT using fuzzy logic controller has better performance to the Perturb and Observe algorithm: fast response under changing conditions and small oscillation.

  3. Maximum Power Point tracking charge controllers for telecom applications -- Analysis and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, R.H.

    Simple charge controllers connect photovoltaic modules directly to the battery bank resulting in a significant power loss if the battery bank voltage differs greatly from the PV Maximum Power Point (MPP) voltage. Recent modeling work at AES has shown that dc-dc converter type MPP tracking charge controllers can deliver more than 30% more energy from PV modules to the battery when the PV modules are cool and the battery state of charge is low--this is typically both the worst case condition (i.e., winter) and also the design condition that determines the PV array size. Economic modeling, based on typical telecommore » system installed costs shows benefits of more than $3/Wp for MPPT over conventional charge controllers in this application--a value that greatly exceeds the additional cost of the dc-dc converter.« less

  4. MPPT implementation for the outdoor characterization of CPV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Daniel; Mora, Jaime; Calvo-Parra, Gustavo; Martínez, María

    2015-09-01

    One of the challenges during the characterization of CPV modules is to deal with the thermal behavior. During normal operation in the field the concentrator is connected to the inverter and a fraction of the energy coming from the sun is dissipated with the corresponding conversion into electricity. On the other hand, when making the characterization of CPV modules, they are usually kept in VOC between I-V sweeps, what means that none energy is converted into electricity resulting in a higher operation temperature. Current standards, like IEC-62108:2007 and IEC-62670-3 C01 draft, define that, during the outdoor characterization, the CPV module should be connected to an electrical load to maintain it near MPP between I-V sweeps, what simulates normal operating conditions. The easiest solution could be to use mini-inverters, but it is an expensive solution and not easily adaptable to the different technologies. ISFOC has designed and developed a low-cost MPPT equipment that can be easily implemented in an outdoor characterization laboratory. This equipment is compatible with most of the CPV technologies since it covers a wide range of voltage and current values (up to 150V and 10A) and it is able to distinguish between absolute and local MPP what permits working with modules in any phase of development or making shading effects measurements. Currently, the MPPT is implemented and in operation at ISFOC's outdoor laboratory to make the long term validation. But the results obtained up to now are very promising; the equipment is able to maintain the CPV module under test within a ±3% of the expected power in stable conditions and is able to keep tracking the MPP after any variation in the operating conditions, like cloudy periods, tracking incidence, shading, etc.

  5. A High Efficiency Boost Converter with MPPT Scheme for Low Voltage Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Mingjie; Wang, Kunpeng; Zhu, Qingyuan; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2016-11-01

    Using thermoelectric elements to harvest energy from heat has been of great interest during the last decade. This paper presents a direct current-direct current (DC-DC) boost converter with a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme for low input voltage thermoelectric energy harvesting applications. Zero current switch technique is applied in the proposed MPPT scheme. Theoretical analysis on the converter circuits is explored to derive the equations for parameters needed in the design of the boost converter. Simulations and experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical analysis and equations. A prototype of the designed converter is built using discrete components and a low-power microcontroller. The results show that the designed converter can achieve a high efficiency at low input voltage. The experimental efficiency of the designed converter is compared with a commercial converter solution. It is shown that the designed converter has a higher efficiency than the commercial solution in the considered voltage range.

  6. Modular Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel PV Inverter with Distributed MPPT for Grid-Connected Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Bailu; Hang, Lijun; Mei, Jun; ...

    2014-09-04

    This paper presents a modular cascaded H-bridge multilevel photovoltaic (PV) inverter for single- or three-phase grid-connected applications. The modular cascaded multilevel topology helps to improve the efficiency and flexibility of PV systems. To realize better utilization of PV modules and maximize the solar energy extraction, a distributed maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control scheme is applied to both single-phase and three-phase multilevel inverters, which allows the independent control of each dc-link voltage. For three-phase grid-connected applications, PV mismatches may introduce unbalanced supplied power, leading to unbalanced grid current. To solve this issue, a control scheme with modulation compensation is alsomore » proposed. An experimental three-phase 7-level cascaded H-bridge inverter has been built utilizing 9 H-bridge modules (3 modules per phase). Each H-bridge module is connected to a 185 W solar panel. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the feasibility of the proposed approach.« less

  7. A new maximum power tracking in PV system during partially shaded conditions based on shuffled frog leap algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, R.; Jeevananthan, S.; Dash, S. S.; Vishnuram, Pradeep

    2017-05-01

    Maximum Power Point Trackers (MPPTs) are power electronic conditioners used in photovoltaic (PV) system to ensure that PV structures feed maximum power for the given ambient temperature and sun's irradiation. When the PV panels are shaded by a fraction due to any environment hindrances then, conventional MPPT trackers may fail in tracking the appropriate peak power as there will be multi power peaks. In this work, a shuffled frog leap algorithm (SFLA) is proposed and it successfully identifies the global maximum power point among other local maxima. The SFLA MPPT is compared with a well-entrenched conventional perturb and observe (P&O) MPPT algorithm and a global search particle swarm optimisation (PSO) MPPT. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm is highly advantageous than P&O, as it tracks nearly 30% more power for a given shading pattern. The credible nature of the proposed SFLA is ensured when it outplays PSO MPPT in convergence. The whole system is realised in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  8. Adaptive smart simulator for characterization and MPPT construction of PV array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouada, Mehdi; Meridjet, Mohamed Salah; Dib, Djalel

    2016-07-01

    Partial shading conditions are among the most important problems in large photovoltaic array. Many works of literature are interested in modeling, control and optimization of photovoltaic conversion of solar energy under partial shading conditions, The aim of this study is to build a software simulator similar to hard simulator and to produce a shading pattern of the proposed photovoltaic array in order to use the delivered information to obtain an optimal configuration of the PV array and construct MPPT algorithm. Graphical user interfaces (Matlab GUI) are built using a developed script, this tool is easy to use, simple, and has a rapid of responsiveness, the simulator supports large array simulations that can be interfaced with MPPT and power electronic converters.

  9. Adaptive smart simulator for characterization and MPPT construction of PV array

    SciTech Connect

    Ouada, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi.ouada@univ-annaba.org; Meridjet, Mohamed Salah; Dib, Djalel

    2016-07-25

    Partial shading conditions are among the most important problems in large photovoltaic array. Many works of literature are interested in modeling, control and optimization of photovoltaic conversion of solar energy under partial shading conditions, The aim of this study is to build a software simulator similar to hard simulator and to produce a shading pattern of the proposed photovoltaic array in order to use the delivered information to obtain an optimal configuration of the PV array and construct MPPT algorithm. Graphical user interfaces (Matlab GUI) are built using a developed script, this tool is easy to use, simple, and hasmore » a rapid of responsiveness, the simulator supports large array simulations that can be interfaced with MPPT and power electronic converters.« less

  10. Sliding mode controller for a photovoltaic pumping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElOugli, A.; Miqoi, S.; Boutouba, M.; Tidhaf, B.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a sliding mode control scheme (SMC) for maximum power point tracking controller for a photovoltaic pumping system, is proposed. The main goal is to maximize the flow rate for a water pump, by forcing the photovoltaic system to operate in its MPP, to obtain the maximum power that a PV system can deliver.And this, through the intermediary of a sliding mode controller to track and control the MPP by overcoming the power oscillation around the operating point, which appears in most implemented MPPT techniques. The sliding mode control approach is recognized as one of the efficient and powerful tools for nonlinear systems under uncertainty conditions.The proposed controller with photovoltaic pumping system is designed and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. In addition, to evaluate its performances, a classical MPPT algorithm using perturb and observe (P&O) has been used for the same system to compare to our controller. Simulation results are shown.

  11. Accurate Simulation of MPPT Methods Performance When Applied to Commercial Photovoltaic Panels

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers' datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature) and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions. PMID:25874262

  12. Accurate simulation of MPPT methods performance when applied to commercial photovoltaic panels.

    PubMed

    Cubas, Javier; Pindado, Santiago; Sanz-Andrés, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers' datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature) and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions.

  13. Study of Simple MPPT Converter Topologies for Grid Integration of Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakis, Janis; Vinnikov, Dmitri

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study of two simple MPPT converter topologies for grid integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems. A general description and a steady state analysis of the discussed converters are presented. Main operating modes of the converters are explained. Calculations of main circuit element parameters are provided. Experimental setups of the MPPT converters with the power of 800 W were developed and verified by means of main operation waveforms. Also, experimental and theoretical boost properties of the studied topologies are compared. Finally, the integration possibilities of the presented MPPT converters with a grid side inverter are discussed and verified by simulations.

  14. Intelligent energy harvesting scheme for microbial fuel cells: Maximum power point tracking and voltage overshoot avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaraj, Muhannad; Radenkovic, Miloje; Park, Jae-Do

    2017-02-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are renewable and sustainable energy sources that can be used for various applications. The MFC output power depends on its biochemical conditions as well as the terminal operating points in terms of output voltage and current. There exists one operating point that gives the maximum possible power from the MFC, maximum power point (MPP), for a given operating condition. However, this MPP may vary and needs to be tracked in order to maintain the maximum power extraction from the MFC. Furthermore, MFC reactors often develop voltage overshoots that cause drastic drops in the terminal voltage, current, and the output power. When the voltage overshoot happens, an additional control measure is necessary as conventional MPPT algorithms will fail because of the change in the voltage-current relationship. In this paper, the extremum seeking (ES) algorithm was used to track the varying MPP and a voltage overshoot avoidance (VOA) algorithm is developed to manage the voltage overshoot conditions. The proposed ES-MPPT with VOA algorithm was able to extract 197.2 mJ during 10-min operation avoiding voltage overshoot, while the ES MPPT-only scheme stopped harvesting after only 18.75 mJ because of the voltage overshoot happened at 0.4 min.

  15. A Novel Technique for Maximum Power Point Tracking of a Photovoltaic Based on Sensing of Array Current Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Zoghby, Helmy M.; Bendary, Ahmed F.

    2016-10-01

    Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is now widely used method in increasing the photovoltaic (PV) efficiency. The conventional MPPT methods have many problems concerning the accuracy, flexibility and efficiency. The MPP depends on the PV temperature and solar irradiation that randomly varied. In this paper an artificial intelligence based controller is presented through implementing of an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) to obtain maximum power from PV. The ANFIS inputs are the temperature and cell current, and the output is optimal voltage at maximum power. During operation the trained ANFIS senses the PV current using suitable sensor and also senses the temperature to determine the optimal operating voltage that corresponds to the current at MPP. This voltage is used to control the boost converter duty cycle. The MATLAB simulation results shows the effectiveness of the ANFIS with sensing the PV current in obtaining the MPPT from the PV.

  16. MPPT Algorithm Development for Laser Powered Surveillance Camera Power Supply Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yungui; Dushantha Chaminda, P. R.; Zhao, Kun; Cheng, Lin; Jiang, Yi; Peng, Kai

    2018-03-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) cells, modules which are semiconducting materials, convert light energy into electricity. Operation of a PV cell requires 3 basic features. When the light is absorbed it generate pairs of electron holes or excitons. An external circuit carrier opposite types of electrons irrespective of the source (sunlight or LASER light). The PV arrays have photovoltaic effect and the PV cells are defined as a device which has electrical characteristics: such as current, voltage and resistance. It varies when exposed to light, that the power output is depend on direct Laser-light. In this paper Laser-light to electricity by direct conversion with the use of PV cells and its concept of Band gap Energy, Series Resistance, Conversion Efficiency and Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) methods [1].

  17. Random Forest-Based Approach for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Systems Operating under Actual Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Shareef, Hussain; Mutlag, Ammar Hussein; Mohamed, Azah

    2017-01-01

    Many maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms have been developed in recent years to maximize the produced PV energy. These algorithms are not sufficiently robust because of fast-changing environmental conditions, efficiency, accuracy at steady-state value, and dynamics of the tracking algorithm. Thus, this paper proposes a new random forest (RF) model to improve MPPT performance. The RF model has the ability to capture the nonlinear association of patterns between predictors, such as irradiance and temperature, to determine accurate maximum power point. A RF-based tracker is designed for 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV modules, with the capacity of 3 kW peak using two high-speed sensors. For this purpose, a complete PV system is modeled using 300,000 data samples and simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The proposed RF-based MPPT is then tested under actual environmental conditions for 24 days to validate the accuracy and dynamic response. The response of the RF-based MPPT model is also compared with that of the artificial neural network and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system algorithms for further validation. The results show that the proposed MPPT technique gives significant improvement compared with that of other techniques. In addition, the RF model passes the Bland-Altman test, with more than 95 percent acceptability.

  18. Optimized MPPT algorithm for boost converters taking into account the environmental variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Pierre; Sawicki, Jean-Paul; Saint-Eve, Frédéric; Maufay, Fabrice; Aillerie, Michel

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a study on the specific behavior of the Boost DC-DC converters generally used for powering conversion of PV panels connected to a HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) Bus. It follows some works pointing out that converter MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) is severely perturbed by output voltage variations due to physical dependency of parameters as the input voltage, the output voltage and the duty cycle of the PWM switching control of the MPPT. As a direct consequence many converters connected together on a same load perturb each other because of the output voltage variations induced by fluctuations on the HVDC bus essentially due to a not insignificant bus impedance. In this paper we show that it is possible to include an internal computed variable in charge to compensate local and external variations to take into account the environment variables.

  19. Random Forest-Based Approach for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Systems Operating under Actual Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah

    2017-01-01

    Many maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms have been developed in recent years to maximize the produced PV energy. These algorithms are not sufficiently robust because of fast-changing environmental conditions, efficiency, accuracy at steady-state value, and dynamics of the tracking algorithm. Thus, this paper proposes a new random forest (RF) model to improve MPPT performance. The RF model has the ability to capture the nonlinear association of patterns between predictors, such as irradiance and temperature, to determine accurate maximum power point. A RF-based tracker is designed for 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV modules, with the capacity of 3 kW peak using two high-speed sensors. For this purpose, a complete PV system is modeled using 300,000 data samples and simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The proposed RF-based MPPT is then tested under actual environmental conditions for 24 days to validate the accuracy and dynamic response. The response of the RF-based MPPT model is also compared with that of the artificial neural network and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system algorithms for further validation. The results show that the proposed MPPT technique gives significant improvement compared with that of other techniques. In addition, the RF model passes the Bland–Altman test, with more than 95 percent acceptability. PMID:28702051

  20. Performance optimization of a hybrid micro-grid based on double-loop MPPT and SVC-MERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yewen; Hou, Xilun; Zhang, Xiang; Xiong, Shengnan; Peng, Fei

    2018-02-01

    With ever-increasing concerns on environmental pollution and energy shortage, the development of renewable resource has attracted a lot of attention. This paper first reviews both the wind and photovoltaic (PV) generation techniques and approaches of micro-grid voltage control. Then, a novel islanded micro-grid, which consists of wind & PV generation and hybrid-energy storage device, is built for application to remote and isolated areas. For the PV power generation branch, a double- maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique is developed to trace the sunlight and regulate the tilt angle of PV panels. For wind-power generation branch, squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) is used as its simple structure, robustness and less cost. In order to stabilize the output voltage of SCIGs, a new Static Var Compensator named magnetic energy recovery switch (SVC-MERS) is applied. Finally, experimental results confirm that both of the proposed methods can improve the efficiency of PV power generation and voltage stability of the micro-grid, respectively.

  1. Dynamic Performance Comparison for MPPT-PV Systems using Hybrid Pspice/Matlab Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouchiche, N.; Becherif, M.; HadjArab, A.; Aitcheikh, M. S.; Ramadan, H. S.; Cheknane, A.

    2016-10-01

    The power generated by solar photovoltaic (PV) module depends on the surrounding irradiance and temperature. This paper presents a hybrid Matlab™/Pspice™ simulation model of PV system, combined with Cadence software SLPS. The hybridization is performed in order to gain the advantages of both simulation tools such as accuracy and efficiency in both Pspice electronic circuit and Matlab™ mathematical modelling respectively. For this purpose, the PV panel and the boost converter are developed using Pspice™ and hybridized with the mathematical Matlab™ model of maximum power point method controller (MPPT) through SLPS. The main objective is verify the significance of using the proposed hybrid simulation techniques in comparing the different MPPT algorithms such as the perturbation and observation (P&O), incremental of conductance (Inc-Cond) and counter reaction voltage using pilot cell (Pilot-Cell). Various simulations are performed under different atmospheric conditions in order to evaluate the dynamic behaviour for the system under study in terms of stability, efficiency and rapidity.

  2. A novel multi-model neuro-fuzzy-based MPPT for three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system

    SciTech Connect

    Chaouachi, Aymen; Kamel, Rashad M.; Nagasaka, Ken

    This paper presents a novel methodology for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of a grid-connected 20 kW photovoltaic (PV) system using neuro-fuzzy network. The proposed method predicts the reference PV voltage guarantying optimal power transfer between the PV generator and the main utility grid. The neuro-fuzzy network is composed of a fuzzy rule-based classifier and three multi-layered feed forwarded Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Inputs of the network (irradiance and temperature) are classified before they are fed into the appropriated ANN for either training or estimation process while the output is the reference voltage. The main advantage of the proposed methodology,more » comparing to a conventional single neural network-based approach, is the distinct generalization ability regarding to the nonlinear and dynamic behavior of a PV generator. In fact, the neuro-fuzzy network is a neural network based multi-model machine learning that defines a set of local models emulating the complex and nonlinear behavior of a PV generator under a wide range of operating conditions. Simulation results under several rapid irradiance variations proved that the proposed MPPT method fulfilled the highest efficiency comparing to a conventional single neural network and the Perturb and Observe (P and O) algorithm dispositive. (author)« less

  3. Dynamic performance of maximum power point tracking circuits using sinusoidal extremum seeking control for photovoltaic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyva, R.; Artillan, P.; Cabal, C.; Estibals, B.; Alonso, C.

    2011-04-01

    The article studies the dynamic performance of a family of maximum power point tracking circuits used for photovoltaic generation. It revisits the sinusoidal extremum seeking control (ESC) technique which can be considered as a particular subgroup of the Perturb and Observe algorithms. The sinusoidal ESC technique consists of adding a small sinusoidal disturbance to the input and processing the perturbed output to drive the operating point at its maximum. The output processing involves a synchronous multiplication and a filtering stage. The filter instance determines the dynamic performance of the MPPT based on sinusoidal ESC principle. The approach uses the well-known root-locus method to give insight about damping degree and settlement time of maximum-seeking waveforms. This article shows the transient waveforms in three different filter instances to illustrate the approach. Finally, an experimental prototype corroborates the dynamic analysis.

  4. PSO Based PI Controller Design for a Solar Charger System

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Her-Terng; Lin, Chih-Jer; Liang, Qin-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Due to global energy crisis and severe environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV) system has become one of the most important renewable energy sources. Many previous studies on solar charger integrated system only focus on load charge control or switching Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and charge control modes. This study used two-stage system, which allows the overall portable solar energy charging system to implement MPPT and optimal charge control of Li-ion battery simultaneously. First, this study designs a DC/DC boost converter of solar power generation, which uses variable step size incremental conductance method (VSINC) to enable the solar cell to track the maximum power point at any time. The voltage was exported from the DC/DC boost converter to the DC/DC buck converter, so that the voltage dropped to proper voltage for charging the battery. The charging system uses constant current/constant voltage (CC/CV) method to charge the lithium battery. In order to obtain the optimum PI charge controller parameters, this study used intelligent algorithm to determine the optimum parameters. According to the simulation and experimental results, the control parameters resulted from PSO have better performance than genetic algorithms (GAs). PMID:23766713

  5. PSO based PI controller design for a solar charger system.

    PubMed

    Yau, Her-Terng; Lin, Chih-Jer; Liang, Qin-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Due to global energy crisis and severe environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV) system has become one of the most important renewable energy sources. Many previous studies on solar charger integrated system only focus on load charge control or switching Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and charge control modes. This study used two-stage system, which allows the overall portable solar energy charging system to implement MPPT and optimal charge control of Li-ion battery simultaneously. First, this study designs a DC/DC boost converter of solar power generation, which uses variable step size incremental conductance method (VSINC) to enable the solar cell to track the maximum power point at any time. The voltage was exported from the DC/DC boost converter to the DC/DC buck converter, so that the voltage dropped to proper voltage for charging the battery. The charging system uses constant current/constant voltage (CC/CV) method to charge the lithium battery. In order to obtain the optimum PI charge controller parameters, this study used intelligent algorithm to determine the optimum parameters. According to the simulation and experimental results, the control parameters resulted from PSO have better performance than genetic algorithms (GAs).

  6. Maximum power point tracking algorithm based on sliding mode and fuzzy logic for photovoltaic sources under variable environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atik, L.; Petit, P.; Sawicki, J. P.; Ternifi, Z. T.; Bachir, G.; Della, M.; Aillerie, M.

    2017-02-01

    Solar panels have a nonlinear voltage-current characteristic, with a distinct maximum power point (MPP), which depends on the environmental factors, such as temperature and irradiation. In order to continuously harvest maximum power from the solar panels, they have to operate at their MPP despite the inevitable changes in the environment. Various methods for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) were developed and finally implemented in solar power electronic controllers to increase the efficiency in the electricity production originate from renewables. In this paper we compare using Matlab tools Simulink, two different MPP tracking methods, which are, fuzzy logic control (FL) and sliding mode control (SMC), considering their efficiency in solar energy production.

  7. Indirect adaptive soft computing based wavelet-embedded control paradigms for WT/PV/SOFC in a grid/charging station connected hybrid power system.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Sidra; Khan, Laiq; Ahmed, Saghir; Bader, Rabiah

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the indirect adaptive tracking control of renewable energy sources in a grid-connected hybrid power system. The renewable energy systems have low efficiency and intermittent nature due to unpredictable meteorological conditions. The domestic load and the conventional charging stations behave in an uncertain manner. To operate the renewable energy sources efficiently for harvesting maximum power, instantaneous nonlinear dynamics should be captured online. A Chebyshev-wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control paradigm is proposed for variable speed wind turbine-permanent synchronous generator (VSWT-PMSG). A Hermite-wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT control strategy for photovoltaic (PV) system to extract maximum power and indirect adaptive tracking control scheme for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is developed. A comprehensive simulation test-bed for a grid-connected hybrid power system is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness of the suggested indirect adaptive control paradigms are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system test-bed by comparison with conventional and intelligent control techniques. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigms.

  8. Indirect adaptive soft computing based wavelet-embedded control paradigms for WT/PV/SOFC in a grid/charging station connected hybrid power system

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Laiq; Ahmed, Saghir; Bader, Rabiah

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the indirect adaptive tracking control of renewable energy sources in a grid-connected hybrid power system. The renewable energy systems have low efficiency and intermittent nature due to unpredictable meteorological conditions. The domestic load and the conventional charging stations behave in an uncertain manner. To operate the renewable energy sources efficiently for harvesting maximum power, instantaneous nonlinear dynamics should be captured online. A Chebyshev-wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control paradigm is proposed for variable speed wind turbine-permanent synchronous generator (VSWT-PMSG). A Hermite-wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT control strategy for photovoltaic (PV) system to extract maximum power and indirect adaptive tracking control scheme for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is developed. A comprehensive simulation test-bed for a grid-connected hybrid power system is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness of the suggested indirect adaptive control paradigms are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system test-bed by comparison with conventional and intelligent control techniques. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigms. PMID:28877191

  9. Chaos Quantum-Behaved Cat Swarm Optimization Algorithm and Its Application in the PV MPPT

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO) algorithm was put forward in 2006. Despite a faster convergence speed compared with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, the application of CSO is greatly limited by the drawback of “premature convergence,” that is, the possibility of trapping in local optimum when dealing with nonlinear optimization problem with a large number of local extreme values. In order to surmount the shortcomings of CSO, Chaos Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (CQCSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (QCSO) algorithm improves the accuracy of the CSO algorithm, because it is easy to fall into the local optimum in the later stage. Chaos Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (CQCSO) algorithm is proposed by introducing tent map for jumping out of local optimum in this paper. Secondly, CQCSO has been applied in the simulation of five different test functions, showing higher accuracy and less time consumption than CSO and QCSO. Finally, photovoltaic MPPT model and experimental platform are established and global maximum power point tracking control strategy is achieved by CQCSO algorithm, the effectiveness and efficiency of which have been verified by both simulation and experiment. PMID:29181020

  10. Chaos Quantum-Behaved Cat Swarm Optimization Algorithm and Its Application in the PV MPPT.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiaohua; Wang, Wei; Nie, Haoyao

    2017-01-01

    Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO) algorithm was put forward in 2006. Despite a faster convergence speed compared with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, the application of CSO is greatly limited by the drawback of "premature convergence," that is, the possibility of trapping in local optimum when dealing with nonlinear optimization problem with a large number of local extreme values. In order to surmount the shortcomings of CSO, Chaos Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (CQCSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (QCSO) algorithm improves the accuracy of the CSO algorithm, because it is easy to fall into the local optimum in the later stage. Chaos Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (CQCSO) algorithm is proposed by introducing tent map for jumping out of local optimum in this paper. Secondly, CQCSO has been applied in the simulation of five different test functions, showing higher accuracy and less time consumption than CSO and QCSO. Finally, photovoltaic MPPT model and experimental platform are established and global maximum power point tracking control strategy is achieved by CQCSO algorithm, the effectiveness and efficiency of which have been verified by both simulation and experiment.

  11. An improved maximum power point tracking method for a photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouoba, David; Fakkar, Abderrahim; El Kouari, Youssef; Dkhichi, Fayrouz; Oukarfi, Benyounes

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an improved auto-scaling variable step-size Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method for photovoltaic (PV) system was proposed. To achieve simultaneously a fast dynamic response and stable steady-state power, a first improvement was made on the step-size scaling function of the duty cycle that controls the converter. An algorithm was secondly proposed to address wrong decision that may be made at an abrupt change of the irradiation. The proposed auto-scaling variable step-size approach was compared to some various other approaches from the literature such as: classical fixed step-size, variable step-size and a recent auto-scaling variable step-size maximum power point tracking approaches. The simulation results obtained by MATLAB/SIMULINK were given and discussed for validation.

  12. A proposed adaptive step size perturbation and observation maximum power point tracking algorithm based on photovoltaic system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu

    Solar energy becomes one of the major alternative renewable energy options for its huge abundance and accessibility. Due to the intermittent nature, the high demand of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques exists when a Photovoltaic (PV) system is used to extract energy from the sunlight. This thesis proposed an advanced Perturbation and Observation (P&O) algorithm aiming for relatively practical circumstances. Firstly, a practical PV system model is studied with determining the series and shunt resistances which are neglected in some research. Moreover, in this proposed algorithm, the duty ratio of a boost DC-DC converter is the object of the perturbation deploying input impedance conversion to achieve working voltage adjustment. Based on the control strategy, the adaptive duty ratio step size P&O algorithm is proposed with major modifications made for sharp insolation change as well as low insolation scenarios. Matlab/Simulink simulation for PV model, boost converter control strategy and various MPPT process is conducted step by step. The proposed adaptive P&O algorithm is validated by the simulation results and detail analysis of sharp insolation changes, low insolation condition and continuous insolation variation.

  13. Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly Changing Temperature Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant temperature with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input temperatures. However, for most TEG applications, the input temperature gradient changes, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed temperature variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input temperatures and a maximum temperature of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal temperature profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly changing conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different temperature gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG

  14. Highly efficient maximum power point tracking using DC-DC coupled inductor single-ended primary inductance converter for photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quamruzzaman, M.; Mohammad, Nur; Matin, M. A.; Alam, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PVs) have nonlinear voltage-current characteristics, with a distinct maximum power point (MPP) depending on factors such as solar irradiance and operating temperature. To extract maximum power from the PV array at any environmental condition, DC-DC converters are usually used as MPP trackers. This paper presents the performance analysis of a coupled inductor single-ended primary inductance converter for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in a PV system. A detailed model of the system has been designed and developed in MATLAB/Simulink. The performance evaluation has been conducted on the basis of stability, current ripple reduction and efficiency at different operating conditions. Simulation results show considerable ripple reduction in the input and output currents of the converter. Both the MPPT and converter efficiencies are significantly improved. The obtained simulation results validate the effectiveness and suitability of the converter model in MPPT and show reasonable agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  15. Dynamic Model and Control of a Photovoltaic Generation System using Energetic Macroscopic Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Javier; Duarte, José; Vargas, Erwin; Cabrera, Jhon; Jácome, Andrés; Botero, Mónica; Rey, Juan

    2016-10-01

    This paper addresses the Energetic Macroscopic Representation EMR, the modelling and the control of photovoltaic panel PVP generation systems for simulation purposes. The model of the PVP considers the variations on irradiance and temperature. A maximum power point tracking MPPT algorithm is considered to control the power converter. A novel EMR is proposed to consider the dynamic model of the PVP with variations in the irradiance and the temperature. The EMR is evaluated through simulations of a PVP generation system.

  16. Direct torque control method applied to the WECS based on the PMSG and controlled with backstepping approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errami, Youssef; Obbadi, Abdellatif; Sahnoun, Smail; Ouassaid, Mohammed; Maaroufi, Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes a Direct Torque Control (DTC) method for Wind Power System (WPS) based Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) and Backstepping approach. In this work, generator side and grid-side converter with filter are used as the interface between the wind turbine and grid. Backstepping approach demonstrates great performance in complicated nonlinear systems control such as WPS. So, the control method combines the DTC to achieve Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and Backstepping approach to sustain the DC-bus voltage and to regulate the grid-side power factor. In addition, control strategy is developed in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem for the WPS. Simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink validate the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

  17. Power Control and Optimization of Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Azad

    Power map and Maximum Power Point (MPP) of Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) highly depend on system dynamics and environmental parameters, e.g., solar irradiance, temperature, and wind speed. Power optimization algorithms for PV systems and WECS are collectively known as Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm. Gradient-based Extremum Seeking (ES), as a non-model-based MPPT algorithm, governs the system to its peak point on the steepest descent curve regardless of changes of the system dynamics and variations of the environmental parameters. Since the power map shape defines the gradient vector, then a close estimate of the power map shape is needed to create user assignable transients in the MPPT algorithm. The Hessian gives a precise estimate of the power map in a neighborhood around the MPP. The estimate of the inverse of the Hessian in combination with the estimate of the gradient vector are the key parts to implement the Newton-based ES algorithm. Hence, we generate an estimate of the Hessian using our proposed perturbation matrix. Also, we introduce a dynamic estimator to calculate the inverse of the Hessian which is an essential part of our algorithm. We present various simulations and experiments on the micro-converter PV systems to verify the validity of our proposed algorithm. The ES scheme can also be used in combination with other control algorithms to achieve desired closed-loop performance. The WECS dynamics is slow which causes even slower response time for the MPPT based on the ES. Hence, we present a control scheme, extended from Field-Oriented Control (FOC), in combination with feedback linearization to reduce the convergence time of the closed-loop system. Furthermore, the nonlinear control prevents magnetic saturation of the stator of the Induction Generator (IG). The proposed control algorithm in combination with the ES guarantees the closed-loop system robustness with respect to high level parameter uncertainty

  18. A Method of Maximum Power Control in Single-phase Utility Interactive Photovoltaic Generation System by using PWM Current Source Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neba, Yasuhiko

    This paper deals with a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of the photovoltaic generation with the single-phase utility interactive inverter. The photovoltaic arrays are connected by employing the PWM current source inverter to the utility. The use of the pulsating dc current and voltage allows the maximum power point to be searched. The inverter can regulate the array voltage and keep the arrays to the maximum power. This paper gives the control method and the experimental results.

  19. Increased Energy Delivery for Parallel Battery Packs with No Regulated Bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chung-Ti

    In this dissertation, a new approach to paralleling different battery types is presented. A method for controlling charging/discharging of different battery packs by using low-cost bi-directional switches instead of DC-DC converters is proposed. The proposed system architecture, algorithms, and control techniques allow batteries with different chemistry, voltage, and SOC to be properly charged and discharged in parallel without causing safety problems. The physical design and cost for the energy management system is substantially reduced. Additionally, specific types of failures in the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in a photovoltaic (PV) system when tracking only the load current of a DC-DC converter are analyzed. The periodic nonlinear load current will lead MPPT realized by the conventional perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm to be problematic. A modified MPPT algorithm is proposed and it still only requires typically measured signals, yet is suitable for both linear and periodic nonlinear loads. Moreover, for a modular DC-DC converter using several converters in parallel, the input power from PV panels is processed and distributed at the module level. Methods for properly implementing distributed MPPT are studied. A new approach to efficient MPPT under partial shading conditions is presented. The power stage architecture achieves fast input current change rate by combining a current-adjustable converter with a few converters operating at a constant current.

  20. Flow Control in Wells Turbines for Harnessing Maximum Wave Power.

    PubMed

    Lekube, Jon; Garrido, Aitor J; Garrido, Izaskun; Otaola, Erlantz; Maseda, Javier

    2018-02-10

    Oceans, and particularly waves, offer a huge potential for energy harnessing all over the world. Nevertheless, the performance of current energy converters does not yet allow us to use the wave energy efficiently. However, new control techniques can improve the efficiency of energy converters. In this sense, the plant sensors play a key role within the control scheme, as necessary tools for parameter measuring and monitoring that are then used as control input variables to the feedback loop. Therefore, the aim of this work is to manage the rotational speed control loop in order to optimize the output power. With the help of outward looking sensors, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is employed to maximize the system efficiency. Then, the control decisions are based on the pressure drop measured by pressure sensors located along the turbine. A complete wave-to-wire model is developed so as to validate the performance of the proposed control method. For this purpose, a novel sensor-based flow controller is implemented based on the different measured signals. Thus, the performance of the proposed controller has been analyzed and compared with a case of uncontrolled plant. The simulations demonstrate that the flow control-based MPPT strategy is able to increase the output power, and they confirm both the viability and goodness.

  1. Flow Control in Wells Turbines for Harnessing Maximum Wave Power

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Aitor J.; Garrido, Izaskun; Otaola, Erlantz; Maseda, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Oceans, and particularly waves, offer a huge potential for energy harnessing all over the world. Nevertheless, the performance of current energy converters does not yet allow us to use the wave energy efficiently. However, new control techniques can improve the efficiency of energy converters. In this sense, the plant sensors play a key role within the control scheme, as necessary tools for parameter measuring and monitoring that are then used as control input variables to the feedback loop. Therefore, the aim of this work is to manage the rotational speed control loop in order to optimize the output power. With the help of outward looking sensors, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is employed to maximize the system efficiency. Then, the control decisions are based on the pressure drop measured by pressure sensors located along the turbine. A complete wave-to-wire model is developed so as to validate the performance of the proposed control method. For this purpose, a novel sensor-based flow controller is implemented based on the different measured signals. Thus, the performance of the proposed controller has been analyzed and compared with a case of uncontrolled plant. The simulations demonstrate that the flow control-based MPPT strategy is able to increase the output power, and they confirm both the viability and goodness. PMID:29439408

  2. Controlled ion track etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, J.; Irkens, M.; Neumann, S.; Scherer, U. W.; Srivastava, A.; Sinha, D.; Fink, D.

    2006-03-01

    It is a common practice since long to follow the ion track-etching process in thin foils via conductometry, i.e . by measurement of the electrical current which passes through the etched track, once the track breakthrough condition has been achieved. The major disadvantage of this approach, namely the absence of any major detectable signal before breakthrough, can be avoided by examining the track-etching process capacitively. This method allows one to define precisely not only the breakthrough point before it is reached, but also the length of any non-transient track. Combining both capacitive and conductive etching allows one to control the etching process perfectly. Examples and possible applications are given.

  3. A state-of-the-art compact SiC photovoltaic inverter with maximum power point tracking function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Yuji; Oku, Takeo; Yasuda, Masashi; Ushijima, Kazufumi; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Murozono, Mikio

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a 150-W SiC-based photovoltaic (PV)-inverter with the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) function. The newly developed inverter achieved a state-of-the-art combination of the weight (0.79 kg) and the volume (790 mm3) as a 150-250 W class PV-inverter. As compared to the original version that we have previously reported, the weight and volume were decreased by 37% and 38%, respectively. This compactness originated from the optimized circuit structure and the increased density of a wiring circuit. Conversion efficiencies of the MPPT charge controller and the direct current (DC)-alternating current (AC) converter reached 96.4% and 87.6%, respectively. These efficiency values are comparable to those for the original version. We have developed a PV power generation system consisting of this inverter, a spherical Si solar cell module, and a 15-V Li-ion laminated battery. The total weight of the system was below 6 kg. The developed system exhibited stable output power characteristics, even when the weather conditions were fluctuated. These compactness, high efficiencies, and excellent stability clearly indicated the feasibility of SiC power devices even for sub-kW class PV power generation systems.

  4. Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of Hydrokinetic Turbine and Low-speed High-Thrust Permanent Magnet Generator Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Schematic of the generator and power converters built in PLECS ............. 26 Figure 3.12. Block diagram of the MPPT control built in Matlab/Simulink...validated by simulation results done in Matlab/Simulink R2010a and PLECS . Figure 3.9 shows the block diagram of the hydrokinetic system built in Matlab...rectifier, boost converter and battery model built in PLECS . The battery bank on the load side is simulated by a constant dc voltage source. 25

  5. A MPPT Algorithm Based PV System Connected to Single Phase Voltage Controlled Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekanth, G.; Narender Reddy, N.; Durga Prasad, A.; Nagendrababu, V.

    2012-10-01

    Future ancillary services provided by photovoltaic (PV) systems could facilitate their penetration in power systems. In addition, low-power PV systems can be designed to improve the power quality. This paper presents a single-phase PV systemthat provides grid voltage support and compensation of harmonic distortion at the point of common coupling thanks to a repetitive controller. The power provided by the PV panels is controlled by a Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm based on the incremental conductance method specifically modified to control the phase of the PV inverter voltage. Simulation and experimental results validate the presented solution.

  6. Quantization-Based Adaptive Actor-Critic Tracking Control With Tracking Error Constraints.

    PubMed

    Fan, Quan-Yong; Yang, Guang-Hong; Ye, Dan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the problem of adaptive actor-critic (AC) tracking control is investigated for a class of continuous-time nonlinear systems with unknown nonlinearities and quantized inputs. Different from the existing results based on reinforcement learning, the tracking error constraints are considered and new critic functions are constructed to improve the performance further. To ensure that the tracking errors keep within the predefined time-varying boundaries, a tracking error transformation technique is used to constitute an augmented error system. Specific critic functions, rather than the long-term cost function, are introduced to supervise the tracking performance and tune the weights of the AC neural networks (NNs). A novel adaptive controller with a special structure is designed to reduce the effect of the NN reconstruction errors, input quantization, and disturbances. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, the boundedness of the closed-loop signals and the desired tracking performance can be guaranteed. Finally, simulations on two connected inverted pendulums are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Airborne optical tracking control system design study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-09-01

    The Kestrel LOS Tracking Program involves the development of a computer and algorithms for use in passive tracking of airborne targets from a high altitude balloon platform. The computer receivers track error signals from a video tracker connected to one of the imaging sensors. In addition, an on-board IRU (gyro), accelerometers, a magnetometer, and a two-axis inclinometer provide inputs which are used for initial acquisitions and course and fine tracking. Signals received by the control processor from the video tracker, IRU, accelerometers, magnetometer, and inclinometer are utilized by the control processor to generate drive signals for the payload azimuth drive, the Gimballed Mirror System (GMS), and the Fast Steering Mirror (FSM). The hardware which will be procured under the LOS tracking activity is the Controls Processor (CP), the IRU, and the FSM. The performance specifications for the GMS and the payload canister azimuth driver are established by the LOS tracking design team in an effort to achieve a tracking jitter of less than 3 micro-rad, 1 sigma for one axis.

  8. Continuous fractional-order Zero Phase Error Tracking Control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Tian, Siyuan; Xue, Dingyu; Zhang, Tao; Chen, YangQuan

    2018-04-01

    A continuous time fractional-order feedforward control algorithm for tracking desired time varying input signals is proposed in this paper. The presented controller cancels the phase shift caused by the zeros and poles of controlled closed-loop fractional-order system, so it is called Fractional-Order Zero Phase Tracking Controller (FZPETC). The controlled systems are divided into two categories i.e. with and without non-cancellable (non-minimum-phase) zeros which stand in unstable region or on stability boundary. Each kinds of systems has a targeted FZPETC design control strategy. The improved tracking performance has been evaluated successfully by applying the proposed controller to three different kinds of fractional-order controlled systems. Besides, a modified quasi-perfect tracking scheme is presented for those systems which may not have available future tracking trajectory information or have problem in high frequency disturbance rejection if the perfect tracking algorithm is applied. A simulation comparison and a hardware-in-the-loop thermal peltier platform are shown to validate the practicality of the proposed quasi-perfect control algorithm. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Controllers for Battery Chargers and Battery Chargers Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmes, John (Inventor); Kersten, Rene (Inventor); Pepper, Michael (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A controller for a battery charger that includes a power converter has parametric sensors for providing a sensed Vin signal, a sensed Vout signal and a sensed Iout signal. A battery current regulator (BCR) is coupled to receive the sensed Iout signal and an Iout reference, and outputs a first duty cycle control signal. An input voltage regulator (IVR) receives the sensed Vin signal and a Vin reference. The IVR provides a second duty cycle control signal. A processor receives the sensed Iout signal and utilizes a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm, and provides the Vin reference to the IVR. A selection block forwards one of the first and second duty cycle control signals as a duty cycle control signal to the power converter. Dynamic switching between the first and second duty cycle control signals maximizes the power delivered to the battery.

  10. Noble-TLBO MPPT Technique and its Comparative Analysis with Conventional methods implemented on Solar Photo Voltaic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsariya, Ajay; Rai, Shiwani; Kumar, Yogendra, Dr.; Kirar, Mukesh, Dr.

    2017-08-01

    The energy crisis particularly with developing GDPs, has bring up to a new panorama of sustainable power source like solar energy, which has encountered huge development. Progressively high infiltration level of photovoltaic (PV) era emerges in keen matrix. Sunlight based power is irregular and variable, as the sun based source at the ground level is exceedingly subject to overcast cover inconstancy, environmental vaporized levels, and other climate parameters. The inalienable inconstancy of substantial scale sun based era acquaints huge difficulties with keen lattice vitality administration. Exact determining of sun powered power/irradiance is basic to secure financial operation of the shrewd framework. In this paper a noble TLBO-MPPT technique has been proposed to address the vitality of solar energy. A comparative analysis has been presented between conventional PO, IC and the proposed MPPT technique. The research has been done on Matlab Simulink software version 2013.

  11. Trajectory tracking control for underactuated stratospheric airship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zewei; Huo, Wei; Wu, Zhe

    2012-10-01

    Stratospheric airship is a new kind of aerospace system which has attracted worldwide developing interests for its broad application prospects. Based on the trajectory linearization control (TLC) theory, a novel trajectory tracking control method for an underactuated stratospheric airship is presented in this paper. Firstly, the TLC theory is described sketchily, and the dynamic model of the stratospheric airship is introduced with kinematics and dynamics equations. Then, the trajectory tracking control strategy is deduced in detail. The designed control system possesses a cascaded structure which consists of desired attitude calculation, position control loop and attitude control loop. Two sub-loops are designed for the position and attitude control loops, respectively, including the kinematics control loop and dynamics control loop. Stability analysis shows that the controlled closed-loop system is exponentially stable. Finally, simulation results for the stratospheric airship to track typical trajectories are illustrated to verify effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Model Predictive Control techniques with application to photovoltaic, DC Microgrid, and a multi-sourced hybrid energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadmand, Mohammad Bagher

    Renewable energy sources continue to gain popularity. However, two major limitations exist that prevent widespread adoption: availability and variability of the electricity generated and the cost of the equipment. The focus of this dissertation is Model Predictive Control (MPC) for optimal sized photovoltaic (PV), DC Microgrid, and multi-sourced hybrid energy systems. The main considered applications are: maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by MPC, droop predictive control of DC microgrid, MPC of grid-interaction inverter, MPC of a capacitor-less VAR compensator based on matrix converter (MC). This dissertation firstly investigates a multi-objective optimization technique for a hybrid distribution system. The variability of a high-penetration PV scenario is also studied when incorporated into the microgrid concept. Emerging (PV) technologies have enabled the creation of contoured and conformal PV surfaces; the effect of using non-planar PV modules on variability is also analyzed. The proposed predictive control to achieve maximum power point for isolated and grid-tied PV systems speeds up the control loop since it predicts error before the switching signal is applied to the converter. The low conversion efficiency of PV cells means we want to ensure always operating at maximum possible power point to make the system economical. Thus the proposed MPPT technique can capture more energy compared to the conventional MPPT techniques from same amount of installed solar panel. Because of the MPPT requirement, the output voltage of the converter may vary. Therefore a droop control is needed to feed multiple arrays of photovoltaic systems to a DC bus in microgrid community. Development of a droop control technique by means of predictive control is another application of this dissertation. Reactive power, denoted as Volt Ampere Reactive (VAR), has several undesirable consequences on AC power system network such as reduction in power transfer capability and increase in

  13. Evolution of the SOFIA tracking control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebig, Norbert; Jakob, Holger; Pfüller, Enrico; Röser, Hans-Peter; Wiedemann, Manuel; Wolf, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    The airborne observatory SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) is undergoing a modernization of its tracking system. This included new, highly sensitive tracking cameras, control computers, filter wheels and other equipment, as well as a major redesign of the control software. The experiences along the migration path from an aged 19" VMbus based control system to the application of modern industrial PCs, from VxWorks real-time operating system to embedded Linux and a state of the art software architecture are presented. Further, the concept is presented to operate the new camera also as a scientific instrument, in parallel to tracking.

  14. Stable Adaptive Inertial Control of a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Moses; Muljadi, Eduard; Hur, Kyeon

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a stable adaptive inertial control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator. The proposed power reference is defined in two sections: the deceleration period and the acceleration period. The power reference in the deceleration period consists of a constant and the reference for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) operation. The latter contributes to preventing a second frequency dip (SFD) in this period because its reduction rate is large at the early stage of an event but quickly decreases with time. To improve the frequency nadir (FN), the constant value is set to be proportional to the rotor speedmore » prior to an event. The reference ensures that the rotor speed converges to a stable operating region. To accelerate the rotor speed while causing a small SFD, when the rotor speed converges, the power reference is reduced by a small amount and maintained until it meets the MPPT reference. The results show that the scheme causes a small SFD while improving the FN and the rate of change of frequency in any wind conditions, even in a grid that has a high penetration of wind power.« less

  15. Observer-based state tracking control of uncertain stochastic systems via repetitive controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthivel, R.; Susana Ramya, L.; Selvaraj, P.

    2017-08-01

    This paper develops the repetitive control scheme for state tracking control of uncertain stochastic time-varying delay systems via equivalent-input-disturbance approach. The main purpose of this work is to design a repetitive controller to guarantee the tracking performance under the effects of unknown disturbances with bounded frequency and parameter variations. Specifically, a new set of linear matrix inequality (LMI)-based conditions is derived based on the suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional theory for designing a repetitive controller which guarantees stability and desired tracking performance. More precisely, an equivalent-input-disturbance estimator is incorporated into the control design to reduce the effect of the external disturbances. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the desired control system stability and their tracking performance. A practical stream water quality preserving system is also provided to show the effectiveness and advantage of the proposed approach.

  16. Solar Array Tracking Control

    SciTech Connect

    Maish, Alexander

    1995-06-22

    SolarTrak used in conjunction with various versions of 68HC11-based SolarTrack hardware boards provides control system for one or two axis solar tracking arrays. Sun position is computed from stored position data and time from an on-board clock/calendar chip. Position feedback can be by one or two offset motor turn counter square wave signals per axis, or by a position potentiometer. A limit of 256 counts resolution is imposed by the on-board analog to digital (A/D) convertor. Control is provided for one or two motors. Numerous options are provided to customize the controller for specific applications. Some options are imposed atmore » compile time, some are setable during operation. Software and hardware board designs are provided for Control Board and separate User Interface Board that accesses and displays variables from Control Board. Controller can be used with range of sensor options ranging from a single turn count sensor per motor to systems using dual turn-count sensors, limit sensors, and a zero reference sensor. Dual axis trackers oriented azimuth elevation, east west, north south, or polar declination can be controlled. Misalignments from these orientations can also be accommodated. The software performs a coordinate transformation using six parameters to compute sun position in misaligned coordinates of the tracker. Parameters account for tilt of tracker in two directions, rotation about each axis, and gear ration errors in each axis. The software can even measure and compute these prameters during an initial setup period if current from a sun position sensor or output from photovoltaic array is available as an anlog voltage to the control board''s A/D port. Wind or emergency stow to aj present position is available triggered by digital or analog signals. Night stow is also available. Tracking dead band is adjustable from narrow to wide. Numerous features of the hardware and software conserve energy for use with battery powered systems.« less

  17. Solar tracking control system Sun Chaser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1978-01-01

    The solar tracking control system, Sun Chaser, a method of tracking the Sun in all types of weather conditions is described. The Sun Chaser follows the Sun from east to west in clear or cloudy weather, and resets itself to the east position after sundown in readiness for the next sunrise.

  18. Robust tracking control of a magnetically suspended rigid body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Kyong B.; Cox, David E.

    1994-01-01

    This study is an application of H-infinity and micro-synthesis for designing robust tracking controllers for the Large Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Facility. The modeling, design, analysis, simulation, and testing of a control law that guarantees tracking performance under external disturbances and model uncertainties is investigated. The type of uncertainties considered and the tracking performance metric used is discussed. This study demonstrates the tradeoff between tracking performance at low frequencies and robustness at high frequencies. Two sets of controllers were designed and tested. The first set emphasized performance over robustness, while the second set traded off performance for robustness. Comparisons of simulation and test results are also included. Current simulation and experimental results indicate that reasonably good robust tracking performance can be attained for this system using multivariable robust control approach.

  19. An Empirical Human Controller Model for Preview Tracking Tasks.

    PubMed

    van der El, Kasper; Pool, Daan M; Damveld, Herman J; van Paassen, Marinus Rene M; Mulder, Max

    2016-11-01

    Real-life tracking tasks often show preview information to the human controller about the future track to follow. The effect of preview on manual control behavior is still relatively unknown. This paper proposes a generic operator model for preview tracking, empirically derived from experimental measurements. Conditions included pursuit tracking, i.e., without preview information, and tracking with 1 s of preview. Controlled element dynamics varied between gain, single integrator, and double integrator. The model is derived in the frequency domain, after application of a black-box system identification method based on Fourier coefficients. Parameter estimates are obtained to assess the validity of the model in both the time domain and frequency domain. Measured behavior in all evaluated conditions can be captured with the commonly used quasi-linear operator model for compensatory tracking, extended with two viewpoints of the previewed target. The derived model provides new insights into how human operators use preview information in tracking tasks.

  20. 49 CFR 236.201 - Track-circuit control of signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.201 Track-circuit control of signals. The control circuits for home... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Track-circuit control of signals. 236.201 Section...

  1. 49 CFR 236.201 - Track-circuit control of signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.201 Track-circuit control of signals. The control circuits for home... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track-circuit control of signals. 236.201 Section...

  2. Robot trajectory tracking with self-tuning predicted control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Xianzhong; Shin, Kang G.

    1988-01-01

    A controller that combines self-tuning prediction and control is proposed for robot trajectory tracking. The controller has two feedback loops: one is used to minimize the prediction error, and the other is designed to make the system output track the set point input. Because the velocity and position along the desired trajectory are given and the future output of the system is predictable, a feedforward loop can be designed for robot trajectory tracking with self-tuning predicted control (STPC). Parameters are estimated online to account for the model uncertainty and the time-varying property of the system. The authors describe the principle of STPC, analyze the system performance, and discuss the simplification of the robot dynamic equations. To demonstrate its utility and power, the controller is simulated for a Stanford arm.

  3. Design of a nonlinear backstepping control strategy of grid interconnected wind power system based PMSG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errami, Y.; Obbadi, A.; Sahnoun, S.; Benhmida, M.; Ouassaid, M.; Maaroufi, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents nonlinear backstepping control for Wind Power Generation System (WPGS) based Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) and connected to utility grid. The block diagram of the WPGS with PMSG and the grid side back-to-back converter is established with the dq frame of axes. This control scheme emphasises the regulation of the dc-link voltage and the control of the power factor at changing wind speed. Besides, in the proposed control strategy of WPGS, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique and pitch control are provided. The stability of the regulators is assured by employing Lyapunov analysis. The proposed control strategy for the system has been validated by MATLAB simulations under varying wind velocity and the grid fault condition. In addition, a comparison of simulation results based on the proposed Backstepping strategy and conventional Vector Control is provided.

  4. SOLARTRAK. Solar Array Tracking Control

    SciTech Connect

    Manish, A.B.; Dudley, J.

    1995-06-01

    SolarTrak used in conjunction with various versions of 68HC11-based SolarTrack hardware boards provides control system for one or two axis solar tracking arrays. Sun position is computed from stored position data and time from an on-board clock/calendar chip. Position feedback can be by one or two offset motor turn counter square wave signals per axis, or by a position potentiometer. A limit of 256 counts resolution is imposed by the on-board analog to digital (A/D) convertor. Control is provided for one or two motors. Numerous options are provided to customize the controller for specific applications. Some options are imposed atmore » compile time, some are setable during operation. Software and hardware board designs are provided for Control Board and separate User Interface Board that accesses and displays variables from Control Board. Controller can be used with range of sensor options ranging from a single turn count sensor per motor to systems using dual turn-count sensors, limit sensors, and a zero reference sensor. Dual axis trackers oriented azimuth elevation, east west, north south, or polar declination can be controlled. Misalignments from these orientations can also be accommodated. The software performs a coordinate transformation using six parameters to compute sun position in misaligned coordinates of the tracker. Parameters account for tilt of tracker in two directions, rotation about each axis, and gear ration errors in each axis. The software can even measure and compute these prameters during an initial setup period if current from a sun position sensor or output from photovoltaic array is available as an anlog voltage to the control board`s A/D port. Wind or emergency stow to aj present position is available triggered by digital or analog signals. Night stow is also available. Tracking dead band is adjustable from narrow to wide. Numerous features of the hardware and software conserve energy for use with battery powered systems.« less

  5. Fuzzy logic control for camera tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Fritz, R. H.; Giarratano, J.; Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    A concept utilizing fuzzy theory has been developed for a camera tracking system to provide support for proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic based reasoning are used in a control system which utilizes images from a camera and generates required pan and tilt commands to track and maintain a moving target in the camera's field of view. This control system can be implemented on a fuzzy chip to provide an intelligent sensor for autonomous operations. Capabilities of the control system can be expanded to include approach, handover to other sensors, caution and warning messages.

  6. Quadrotor trajectory tracking using PID cascade control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idres, M.; Mustapha, O.; Okasha, M.

    2017-12-01

    Quadrotors have been applied to collect information for traffic, weather monitoring, surveillance and aerial photography. In order to accomplish their mission, quadrotors have to follow specific trajectories. This paper presents proportional-integral-derivative (PID) cascade control of a quadrotor for path tracking problem when velocity and acceleration are small. It is based on near hover controller for small attitude angles. The integral of time-weighted absolute error (ITAE) criterion is used to determine the PID gains as a function of quadrotor modeling parameters. The controller is evaluated in three-dimensional environment in Simulink. Overall, the tracking performance is found to be excellent for small velocity condition.

  7. Feedforward Tracking Control of Flat Recurrent Fuzzy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gering, Stefan; Adamy, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    Flatness based feedforward control has proven to be a feasible solution for the problem of tracking control, which may be applied to a broad class of nonlinear systems. If a flat output of the system is known, the control is often based on a feedforward controller generating a nominal input in combination with a linear controller stabilizing the linearized error dynamics around the trajectory. We show in this paper that the very same idea may be incorporated for tracking control of MIMO recurrent fuzzy systems. Their dynamics is given by means of linguistic differential equations but may be converted into a hybrid system representation, which then serves as the basis for controller synthesis.

  8. Robust control of dielectric elastomer diaphragm actuator for human pulse signal tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhihang; Chen, Zheng; Asmatulu, Ramazan; Chan, Hoyin

    2017-08-01

    Human pulse signal tracking is an emerging technology that is needed in traditional Chinese medicine. However, soft actuation with multi-frequency tracking capability is needed for tracking human pulse signal. Dielectric elastomer (DE) is one type of soft actuating that has great potential in human pulse signal tracking. In this paper, a DE diaphragm actuator was designed and fabricated to track human pulse pressure signal. A physics-based and control-oriented model has been developed to capture the dynamic behavior of DE diaphragm actuator. Using the physical model, an H-infinity robust control was designed for the actuator to reject high-frequency sensing noises and disturbances. The robust control was then implemented in real-time to track a multi-frequency signal, which verified the tracking capability and robustness of the control system. In the human pulse signal tracking test, a human pulse signal was measured at the City University of Hong Kong and then was tracked using DE actuator at Wichita State University in the US. Experimental results have verified that the DE actuator with its robust control is capable of tracking human pulse signal.

  9. Different types of maximum power point tracking techniques for renewable energy systems: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Shukla, Praveen; Mustafa, Rashid; Chatterji, S.; Mathew, Lini

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for electricity is increasing while production of energy from fossil fuels is declining and therefore the obvious choice of the clean energy source that is abundant and could provide security for development future is energy from the sun. In this paper, the characteristic of the supply voltage of the photovoltaic generator is nonlinear and exhibits multiple peaks, including many local peaks and a global peak in non-uniform irradiance. To keep global peak, MPPT is the important component of photovoltaic systems. Although many review articles discussed conventional techniques such as P & O, incremental conductance, the correlation ripple control and very few attempts have been made with intelligent MPPT techniques. This document also discusses different algorithms based on fuzzy logic, Ant Colony Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, artificial neural networks, Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Firefly, Extremum seeking control method and hybrid methods applied to the monitoring of maximum value of power at point in systems of photovoltaic under changing conditions of irradiance.

  10. Near-Optimal Tracking Control of Mobile Robots Via Receding-Horizon Dual Heuristic Programming.

    PubMed

    Lian, Chuanqiang; Xu, Xin; Chen, Hong; He, Haibo

    2016-11-01

    Trajectory tracking control of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) has been an important research topic in control theory and robotics. Although various tracking control methods with stability have been developed for WMRs, it is still difficult to design optimal or near-optimal tracking controller under uncertainties and disturbances. In this paper, a near-optimal tracking control method is presented for WMRs based on receding-horizon dual heuristic programming (RHDHP). In the proposed method, a backstepping kinematic controller is designed to generate desired velocity profiles and the receding horizon strategy is used to decompose the infinite-horizon optimal control problem into a series of finite-horizon optimal control problems. In each horizon, a closed-loop tracking control policy is successively updated using a class of approximate dynamic programming algorithms called finite-horizon dual heuristic programming (DHP). The convergence property of the proposed method is analyzed and it is shown that the tracking control system based on RHDHP is asymptotically stable by using the Lyapunov approach. Simulation results on three tracking control problems demonstrate that the proposed method has improved control performance when compared with conventional model predictive control (MPC) and DHP. It is also illustrated that the proposed method has lower computational burden than conventional MPC, which is very beneficial for real-time tracking control.

  11. Mass casualty tracking with air traffic control methodologies.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Jason D; Graham, Ross F; Robinson, Duane R; Lutz, Clifford C; Folio, Les R

    2009-06-01

    An intrahospital casualty throughput system modeled after air traffic control (ATC) tracking procedures was tested in mass casualty exercises. ATC uses a simple tactile process involving informational progress strips representing each aircraft, which are held in bays representing each stage of flight to prioritize and manage aircraft. These strips can be reordered within the bays to indicate a change in priority of aircraft sequence. In this study, a similar system was designed for patient tracking. We compared the ATC model and traditional casualty tracking methods of paper and clipboard in 18 four-hour casualty scenarios, each with 5 to 30 mock casualties. The experimental and control groups were alternated to maximize exposure and minimize training effects. Results were analyzed with Mann-Whitney statistical analysis with p value < 0.05 (two-sided). The ATC method had significantly (p = 0.017) fewer errors in critical patient data (eg, name, social security number, diagnosis). Specifically, the ATC method better tracked the mechanism of injury, working diagnosis, and disposition of patients. The ATC method also performed considerably better with patient accountability during mass casualty scenarios. Data strips were comparable with the control method in terms of ease of use. In addition, participants preferred the ATC method to the control (p = 0.003) and preferred using the ATC method (p = 0.003) to traditional methods in the future. The ATC model more effectively tracked patient data with fewer errors when compared with the clipboard method. Application of these principles can enhance trauma management and can have application in civilian and military trauma centers and emergency rooms.

  12. Robust H(infinity) tracking control of boiler-turbine systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Nguang, S K; Shen, J; Liu, G; Li, Y G

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the problem of designing a fuzzy H(infinity) state feedback tracking control of a boiler-turbine is solved. First, the Takagi and Sugeno fuzzy model is used to model a boiler-turbine system. Next, based on the Takagi and Sugeno fuzzy model, sufficient conditions for the existence of a fuzzy H(infinity) nonlinear state feedback tracking control are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. The advantage of the proposed tracking control design is that it does not involve feedback linearization technique and complicated adaptive scheme. An industrial boiler-turbine system is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design as compared with a linearized approach. 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Robust adaptive tracking control for nonholonomic mobile manipulator with uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jinzhu; Yu, Jie; Wang, Jie

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, mobile manipulator is divided into two subsystems, that is, nonholonomic mobile platform subsystem and holonomic manipulator subsystem. First, the kinematic controller of the mobile platform is derived to obtain a desired velocity. Second, regarding the coupling between the two subsystems as disturbances, Lyapunov functions of the two subsystems are designed respectively. Third, a robust adaptive tracking controller is proposed to deal with the unknown upper bounds of parameter uncertainties and disturbances. According to the Lyapunov stability theory, the derived robust adaptive controller guarantees global stability of the closed-loop system, and the tracking errors and adaptive coefficient errors are all bounded. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed robust adaptive tracking controller for nonholonomic mobile manipulator is effective and has good tracking capacity. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tracking Control and System Development for Laser-Driven Micro-Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Itsuro; Hoshino, Kentaro; Hara, Shinji; Shiokata, Daisuke; Yabe, Takashi

    The purpose of this paper is to design a control system for an integrated laser propulsion/tracking system to achieve continuous motion and control of laser-driven micro-vehicles. Laser propulsion is significant in achieving miniature and light micro-vehicles. A laser-driven micro-airplane has been studied using a paper airplane and YAG laser, resulting in successful gliding of the airplane. High-performance laser tracking control is required to achieve continuous flight. This paper presents a control design strategy based on the generalized Kalman-Yakubovic-Popov lemma to achieve this requirement. Experiments have been carried out to evaluate the performance of the integrated laser propulsion/tracking system.

  15. A control strategy for PV stand-alone applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slouma, S.; Baccar, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system study in domestic applications. Because of the decrease in power of photovoltaic module as a consequence of changes in solar radiation and temperature which affect the photovoltaic module performance, the design and control of DC-DC buck converter was proposed for providing power to the load from a photovoltaic source.In fact, the control of this converter is carried out with integrated MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm which ensures a maximum energy generated by the PV arrays. Moreover, the output stage is composed by a battery energy storage system, dc-ac inverter, LCL filter which enables higher efficiency, low distortion ac waveforms and low leakage currents. The control strategy adopted is cascade control composed by two regulation loops.Simulations performed with PSIM software were able to validate the control system.The realization and testing of the photovoltaic system were achieved in the Photovoltaic laboratory of the Centre for Research and Energy Technologies at the Technopark Borj Cedria. Experimental results verify the effeciency of the proposed system.

  16. Fuzzy Logic Controlled Solar Module for Driving Three- Phase Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiqah Zainal, Nurul; Sooi Tat, Chan; Ajisman

    2016-02-01

    Renewable energy produced by solar module gives advantages for generated three- phase induction motor in remote area. But, solar module's ou tput is uncertain and complex. Fuzzy logic controller is one of controllers that can handle non-linear system and maximum power of solar module. Fuzzy logic controller used for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique to control Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) for switching power electronics circuit. DC-DC boost converter used to boost up photovoltaic voltage to desired output and supply voltage source inverter which controlled by three-phase PWM generated by microcontroller. IGBT switched Voltage source inverter (VSI) produced alternating current (AC) voltage from direct current (DC) source to control speed of three-phase induction motor from boost converter output. Results showed that, the output power of solar module is optimized and controlled by using fuzzy logic controller. Besides that, the three-phase induction motor can be drive and control using VSI switching by the PWM signal generated by the fuzzy logic controller. This concluded that the non-linear system can be controlled and used in driving three-phase induction motor.

  17. Dithering Digital Ripple Correlation Control for Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, C; Pilawa-Podgurski, RCN

    This study demonstrates a new method for rapid and precise maximum power point tracking in photovoltaic (PV) applications using dithered PWM control. Constraints imposed by efficiency, cost, and component size limit the available PWM resolution of a power converter, and may in turn limit the MPP tracking efficiency of the PV system. In these scenarios, PWM dithering can be used to improve average PWM resolution. In this study, we present a control technique that uses ripple correlation control (RCC) on the dithering ripple, thereby achieving simultaneous fast tracking speed and high tracking accuracy. Moreover, the proposed method solves some ofmore » the practical challenges that have to date limited the effectiveness of RCC in solar PV applications. We present a theoretical derivation of the principles behind dithering digital ripple correlation control, as well as experimental results that show excellent tracking speed and accuracy with basic hardware requirements.« less

  18. Tracked robot controllers for climbing obstacles autonomously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Isabelle

    2009-05-01

    Research in mobile robot navigation has demonstrated some success in navigating flat indoor environments while avoiding obstacles. However, the challenge of analyzing complex environments to climb obstacles autonomously has had very little success due to the complexity of the task. Unmanned ground vehicles currently exhibit simple autonomous behaviours compared to the human ability to move in the world. This paper presents the control algorithms designed for a tracked mobile robot to autonomously climb obstacles by varying its tracks configuration. Two control algorithms are proposed to solve the autonomous locomotion problem for climbing obstacles. First, a reactive controller evaluates the appropriate geometric configuration based on terrain and vehicle geometric considerations. Then, a reinforcement learning algorithm finds alternative solutions when the reactive controller gets stuck while climbing an obstacle. The methodology combines reactivity to learning. The controllers have been demonstrated in box and stair climbing simulations. The experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for crossing obstacles.

  19. Stabilization and tracking control of X-Z inverted pendulum with sliding-mode control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Jun

    2012-11-01

    X-Z inverted pendulum is a new kind of inverted pendulum which can move with the combination of the vertical and horizontal forces. Through a new transformation, the X-Z inverted pendulum is decomposed into three simple models. Based on the simple models, sliding-mode control is applied to stabilization and tracking control of the inverted pendulum. The performance of the sliding mode control is compared with that of the PID control. Simulation results show that the design scheme of sliding-mode control is effective for the stabilization and tracking control of the X-Z inverted pendulum. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relative tracking control of constellation satellites considering inter-satellite link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakoor, M.; Amozegary, F.; Bakhtiari, M.; Daneshjou, K.

    2017-11-01

    In this article, two main issues related to the large-scale relative motion of satellites in the constellation are investigated to establish the Inter Satellite Link (ISL) which means the dynamic and control problems. In the section related to dynamic problems, a detailed and effective analytical solution is initially provided for the problem of satellite relative motion considering perturbations. The direct geometric method utilizing spherical coordinates is employed to achieve this solution. The evaluation of simulation shows that the solution obtained from the geometric method calculates the relative motion of the satellite with high accuracy. Thus, the proposed analytical solution will be applicable and effective. In the section related to control problems, the relative tracking control system between two satellites will be designed in order to establish a communication link between the satellites utilizing analytical solution for relative motion of satellites with respect to the reference trajectory. Sliding mode control approach is employed to develop the relative tracking control system for body to body and payload to payload tracking control. Efficiency of sliding mode control approach is compared with PID and LQR controllers. Two types of payload to payload tracking control considering with and without payload degree of freedom are designed and suitable one for practical ISL applications is introduced. Also, Fuzzy controller is utilized to eliminate the control input in the sliding mode controller.

  1. Three dimensional tracking with misalignment between display and control axes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Tyler, Mitchell; Kim, Won S.; Stark, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    Human operators confronted with misaligned display and control frames of reference performed three dimensional, pursuit tracking in virtual environment and virtual space simulations. Analysis of the components of the tracking errors in the perspective displays presenting virtual space showed that components of the error due to visual motor misalignment may be linearly separated from those associated with the mismatch between display and control coordinate systems. Tracking performance improved with several hours practice despite previous reports that such improvement did not take place.

  2. Robust adaptive uniform exact tracking control for uncertain Euler-Lagrange system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yana; Hua, Changchun; Li, Junpeng; Guan, Xinping

    2017-12-01

    This paper offers a solution to the robust adaptive uniform exact tracking control for uncertain nonlinear Euler-Lagrange (EL) system. An adaptive finite-time tracking control algorithm is designed by proposing a novel nonsingular integral terminal sliding-mode surface. Moreover, a new adaptive parameter tuning law is also developed by making good use of the system tracking errors and the adaptive parameter estimation errors. Thus, both the trajectory tracking and the parameter estimation can be achieved in a guaranteed time adjusted arbitrarily based on practical demands, simultaneously. Additionally, the control result for the EL system proposed in this paper can be extended to high-order nonlinear systems easily. Finally, a test-bed 2-DOF robot arm is set-up to demonstrate the performance of the new control algorithm.

  3. Comparison of Photovoltaic Energy Systems for the Solar Village

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    power -point-trackIng ( MPPT ) for the array. It also Includes AC and DC contactors, an isolation transformer, and a control system that fully automates...the day when the array is producing power , the battery controller uses excess array power , not needed for household use , to recharge the batteries. As...alone design) The battery controller used Is the Balance of System Specialists, Inc. Power Control Series model *8104820 rated at 48 volt, 20 amp. This

  4. Speed tracking and synchronization of multiple motors using ring coupling control and adaptive sliding mode control.

    PubMed

    Li, Le-Bao; Sun, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Sheng-Zhou; Yang, Qing-Quan

    2015-09-01

    A new control approach for speed tracking and synchronization of multiple motors is developed, by incorporating an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) technique into a ring coupling synchronization control structure. This control approach can stabilize speed tracking of each motor and synchronize its motion with other motors' motion so that speed tracking errors and synchronization errors converge to zero. Moreover, an adaptive law is exploited to estimate the unknown bound of uncertainty, which is obtained in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem to minimize the control effort and attenuate chattering. Performance comparisons with parallel control, relative coupling control and conventional PI control are investigated on a four-motor synchronization control system. Extensive simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Terminal Sliding Mode Tracking Controller Design for Automatic Guided Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    Based on sliding mode variable structure control theory, the path tracking problem of automatic guided vehicle is studied, proposed a controller design method based on the terminal sliding mode. First of all, through analyzing the characteristics of the automatic guided vehicle movement, the kinematics model is presented. Then to improve the traditional expression of terminal sliding mode, design a nonlinear sliding mode which the convergence speed is faster than the former, verified by theoretical analysis, the design of sliding mode is steady and fast convergence in the limited time. Finally combining Lyapunov method to design the tracking control law of automatic guided vehicle, the controller can make the automatic guided vehicle track the desired trajectory in the global sense as well as in finite time. The simulation results verify the correctness and effectiveness of the control law.

  6. Model-Free Optimal Tracking Control via Critic-Only Q-Learning.

    PubMed

    Luo, Biao; Liu, Derong; Huang, Tingwen; Wang, Ding

    2016-10-01

    Model-free control is an important and promising topic in control fields, which has attracted extensive attention in the past few years. In this paper, we aim to solve the model-free optimal tracking control problem of nonaffine nonlinear discrete-time systems. A critic-only Q-learning (CoQL) method is developed, which learns the optimal tracking control from real system data, and thus avoids solving the tracking Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. First, the Q-learning algorithm is proposed based on the augmented system, and its convergence is established. Using only one neural network for approximating the Q-function, the CoQL method is developed to implement the Q-learning algorithm. Furthermore, the convergence of the CoQL method is proved with the consideration of neural network approximation error. With the convergent Q-function obtained from the CoQL method, the adaptive optimal tracking control is designed based on the gradient descent scheme. Finally, the effectiveness of the developed CoQL method is demonstrated through simulation studies. The developed CoQL method learns with off-policy data and implements with a critic-only structure, thus it is easy to realize and overcome the inadequate exploration problem.

  7. Semi-active control of tracked vehicle suspension incorporating magnetorheological dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ata, W. G.; Salem, A. M.

    2017-05-01

    In past years, the application of magnetorheological (MR) and electrorheological dampers in vehicle suspension has been widely studied, mainly for the purpose of vibration control. This paper presents theoretical study to identify an appropriate semi-active control method for MR-tracked vehicle suspension. Three representative control algorithms are simulated including the skyhook, hybrid and fuzzy-hybrid controllers. A seven degrees-of-freedom tracked vehicle suspension model incorporating MR dampers has been adopted for comparison between the performance of the three controllers. The model differential equations are derived based on Newton's second law of motion and the proposed control methods are developed. The performance of each control method under bump and sinusoidal road profiles for different vehicle speeds is simulated and compared with the performance of the conventional suspension system in time and frequency domains. The results show that the performance of tracked vehicle suspension with MR dampers is substantially improved. Moreover, the fuzzy-hybrid controller offers an excellent integrated performance in reducing the body accelerations as well as wheel bounce responses compared with the classical skyhook and hybrid controllers.

  8. Tracking Control of Hysteretic Piezoelectric Actuator using Adaptive Rate-Dependent Controller.

    PubMed

    Tan, U-Xuan; Latt, Win Tun; Widjaja, Ferdinan; Shee, Cheng Yap; Riviere, Cameron N; Ang, Wei Tech

    2009-03-16

    With the increasing popularity of actuators involving smart materials like piezoelectric, control of such materials becomes important. The existence of the inherent hysteretic behavior hinders the tracking accuracy of the actuators. To make matters worse, the hysteretic behavior changes with rate. One of the suggested ways is to have a feedforward controller to linearize the relationship between the input and output. Thus, the hysteretic behavior of the actuator must first be modeled by sensing the relationship between the input voltage and output displacement. Unfortunately, the hysteretic behavior is dependent on individual actuator and also environmental conditions like temperature. It is troublesome and costly to model the hysteresis regularly. In addition, the hysteretic behavior of the actuators also changes with age. Most literature model the actuator using a cascade of rate-independent hysteresis operators and a dynamical system. However, the inertial dynamics of the structure is not the only contributing factor. A complete model will be complex. Thus, based on the studies done on the phenomenological hysteretic behavior with rate, this paper proposes an adaptive rate-dependent feedforward controller with Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) hysteresis operators for piezoelectric actuators. This adaptive controller is achieved by adapting the coefficients to manipulate the weights of the play operators. Actual experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the adaptive controller. The main contribution of this paper is its ability to perform tracking control of non-periodic motion and is illustrated with the tracking control ability of a couple of different non-periodic waveforms which were created by passing random numbers through a low pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 20Hz.

  9. Ultra-precise tracking control of piezoelectric actuators via a fuzzy hysteresis model.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengzhi; Yan, Feng; Ge, Chuan; Zhang, Mingchao

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, a novel Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy system based model is proposed for hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators. The antecedent and consequent structures of the fuzzy hysteresis model (FHM) can be, respectively, identified on-line through uniform partition approach and recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. With respect to controller design, the inverse of FHM is used to develop a feedforward controller to cancel out the hysteresis effect. Then a hybrid controller is designed for high-performance tracking. It combines the feedforward controller with a proportional integral differential (PID) controller favourable for stabilization and disturbance compensation. To achieve nanometer-scale tracking precision, the enhanced adaptive hybrid controller is further developed. It uses real-time input and output data to update FHM, thus changing the feedforward controller to suit the on-site hysteresis character of the piezoelectric actuator. Finally, as to 3 cases of 50 Hz sinusoidal, multiple frequency sinusoidal and 50 Hz triangular trajectories tracking, experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed controllers. Especially, being only 0.35% of the maximum desired displacement, the maximum error of 50 Hz sinusoidal tracking is greatly reduced to 5.8 nm, which clearly shows the ultra-precise nanometer-scale tracking performance of the developed adaptive hybrid controller.

  10. Decoupled direct tracking control system based on use of a virtual track for multilayer disk with a separate guide layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yukinobu; Ogata, Takeshi; Imagawa, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    We developed a decoupled direct tracking control system for multilayer optical disk that uses a separate guide layer. Data marks are recorded on a recording layer immediately above the guide layer by using two spatially separated spots with different wavelengths. Accurate data mark recording requires that the relative positions of the corresponding spots on the recording layer and guide layer are maintained. However, a disk tilt can shift their relative positions and cause previously recorded data marks to be overwritten. Additionally, a two-input/two-output control system is susceptible to mutual interference phenomenon between the two outputs, which can destabilize tracking control. A tracking control system based on use of data marks previously recorded as a virtual track has been developed that prevents spot shifting and mutual interference even if the disk tilt reaches 0.7°, thereby preventing overwriting.

  11. Trajectory tracking control for a nonholonomic mobile robot under ROS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhdar Besseghieur, Khadir; Trębiński, Radosław; Kaczmarek, Wojciech; Panasiuk, Jarosław

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the implementation of the trajectory tracking control strategy on a ROS-based mobile robot is considered. Our test-bench is the nonholonomic mobile robot ‘TURTLEBOT’. ROS facilitates considerably setting-up a suitable environment to test the designed controller. Our aim is to develop a framework using ROS concepts so that a trajectory tracking controller can be implemented on any ROS-enabled mobile robot. Practical experiments with ‘TURTLEBOT’ are conducted to assess the framework reliability.

  12. Near-optimal, asymptotic tracking in control problems involving state-variable inequality constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markopoulos, N.; Calise, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    The class of all piecewise time-continuous controllers tracking a given hypersurface in the state space of a dynamical system can be split by the present transformation technique into two disjoint classes; while the first of these contains all controllers which track the hypersurface in finite time, the second contains all controllers that track the hypersurface asymptotically. On this basis, a reformulation is presented for optimal control problems involving state-variable inequality constraints. If the state constraint is regarded as 'soft', there may exist controllers which are asymptotic, two-sided, and able to yield the optimal value of the performance index.

  13. Development of feedforward control in a dynamic manual tracking task.

    PubMed

    van Roon, Dominique; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Swinnen, Stephan P; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2008-01-01

    To examine the development of feedforward control during manual tracking, 117 participants in 5 age groups (6 to 7, 8 to 9, 10 to 11, 12 to 14, and 15 to 17 years) tracked an accelerating dot presented on a monitor by moving an electronic pen on a digitizer. To remain successful at higher target velocities, they had to create a predictive model of the target's motion. The ability to track the target at higher velocities increased, and the application of a feedback-based step-and-hold strategy decreased with age, as shown by increases in maximum target velocity and decreases in number of stops between ages 6-7 and 8-9 and between ages 8-9 and 10-11. The ability to exploit feedforward control in a dynamic tracking task improves significantly with age.

  14. Robust leader-follower formation tracking control of multiple underactuated surface vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhou-hua; Wang, Dan; Lan, Wei-yao; Sun, Gang

    2012-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the formation control problem of multiple underactuated surface vessels moving in a leader-follower formation. The formation is achieved by the follower to track a virtual target defined relative to the leader. A robust adaptive target tracking law is proposed by using neural network and backstepping techniques. The advantage of the proposed control scheme is that the uncertain nonlinear dynamics caused by Coriolis/centripetal forces, nonlinear damping, unmodeled hydrodynamics and disturbances from the environment can be compensated by on line learning. Based on Lyapunov analysis, the proposed controller guarantees the tracking errors converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategy.

  15. The Tracking Study: Description of a randomized controlled trial of variations on weight tracking frequency in a behavioral weight loss program

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Crow, Scott J.; Brelje, Kerrin L.; Pacanowski, Carly R.; Gavin, Kara L.; Smolenski, Derek J.

    2014-01-01

    Observational evidence from behavioral weight control trials and community studies suggests that greater frequency of weighing oneself, or tracking weight, is associated with better weight outcomes. Conversely, it has also been suggested that frequent weight tracking may have a negative impact on mental health and outcomes during weight loss, but there are minimal experimental data that address this concern in the context of an active weight loss program. To achieve the long-term goal of strengthening behavioral weight loss programs, the purpose of this randomized controlled trial (the Tracking Study) is to test variations on frequency of self-weighing during a behavioral weight loss program, and to examine psychosocial and mental health correlates of weight tracking and weight loss outcomes. Three hundred thirty-nine overweight and obese adults were recruited and randomized to one of three variations on weight tracking frequency during a 12-month weight loss program with a 12-month follow-up: daily weight tracking, weekly weight tracking, or no weight tracking. The primary outcome is weight in kilograms at 24 months. The weight loss program integrates each weight tracking instruction with standard behavioral weight loss techniques (goal setting, self-monitoring, stimulus control, dietary and physical activity enhancements, lifestyle modifications); participants in weight tracking conditions were provided with wireless Internet technology (Wi-Fi-enabled digital scales and touchscreen personal devices) to facilitate weight tracking during the study. This paper describes the study design, intervention features, recruitment, and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the Tracking Study. PMID:25533727

  16. Real-time tracking control of electro-hydraulic force servo systems using offline feedback control and adaptive control.

    PubMed

    Shen, Gang; Zhu, Zhencai; Zhao, Jinsong; Zhu, Weidong; Tang, Yu; Li, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    This paper focuses on an application of an electro-hydraulic force tracking controller combined with an offline designed feedback controller (ODFC) and an online adaptive compensator in order to improve force tracking performance of an electro-hydraulic force servo system (EHFS). A proportional-integral controller has been employed and a parameter-based force closed-loop transfer function of the EHFS is identified by a continuous system identification algorithm. By taking the identified system model as a nominal plant model, an H ∞ offline design method is employed to establish an optimized feedback controller with consideration of the performance, control efforts, and robustness of the EHFS. In order to overcome the disadvantage of the offline designed controller and cope with the varying dynamics of the EHFS, an online adaptive compensator with a normalized least-mean-square algorithm is cascaded to the force closed-loop system of the EHFS compensated by the ODFC. Some comparative experiments are carried out on a real-time EHFS using an xPC rapid prototype technology, and the proposed controller yields a better force tracking performance improvement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Neural network robust tracking control with adaptive critic framework for uncertain nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ding; Liu, Derong; Zhang, Yun; Li, Hongyi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to tackle the neural robust tracking control problem for a class of nonlinear systems using the adaptive critic technique. The main contribution is that a neural-network-based robust tracking control scheme is established for nonlinear systems involving matched uncertainties. The augmented system considering the tracking error and the reference trajectory is formulated and then addressed under adaptive critic optimal control formulation, where the initial stabilizing controller is not needed. The approximate control law is derived via solving the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation related to the nominal augmented system, followed by closed-loop stability analysis. The robust tracking control performance is guaranteed theoretically via Lyapunov approach and also verified through simulation illustration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Processing Control Information in a Nominal Control Construction: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In an eye-tracking experiment, we examined the processing of the nominal control construction. Participants' eye-movements were monitored while they read sentences that included either giver control nominals (e.g. "promise" in "Luke's promise to Sophia to photograph himself") or recipient control nominals (e.g. "plea"…

  19. Attitude tracking control of flexible spacecraft with large amplitude slosh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Mingle; Yue, Baozeng

    2017-12-01

    This paper is focused on attitude tracking control of a spacecraft that is equipped with flexible appendage and partially filled liquid propellant tank. The large amplitude liquid slosh is included by using a moving pulsating ball model that is further improved to estimate the settling location of liquid in microgravity or a zero-g environment. The flexible appendage is modelled as a three-dimensional Bernoulli-Euler beam, and the assumed modal method is employed. A hybrid controller that combines sliding mode control with an adaptive algorithm is designed for spacecraft to perform attitude tracking. The proposed controller has proved to be asymptotically stable. A nonlinear model for the overall coupled system including spacecraft attitude dynamics, liquid slosh, structural vibration and control action is established. Numerical simulation results are presented to show the dynamic behaviors of the coupled system and to verify the effectiveness of the control approach when the spacecraft undergoes the disturbance produced by large amplitude slosh and appendage vibration. Lastly, the designed adaptive algorithm is found to be effective to improve the precision of attitude tracking.

  20. Non-Static error tracking control for near space airship loading platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ming; Tao, Fei; Yang, Jiandong

    2018-01-01

    A control scheme based on internal model with non-static error is presented against the uncertainty of the near space airship loading platform system. The uncertainty in the tracking table is represented as interval variations in stability and control derivatives. By formulating the tracking problem of the uncertainty system as a robust state feedback stabilization problem of an augmented system, sufficient condition for the existence of robust tracking controller is derived in the form of linear matrix inequality (LMI). Finally, simulation results show that the new method not only has better anti-jamming performance, but also improves the dynamic performance of the high-order systems.

  1. Modified Perfect Harmonics Cancellation Control of a Grid Interfaced SPV Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B.; Shahani, D. T.; Verma, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    This paper deals with a grid interfaced solar photo voltaic (SPV) power generating system with modified perfect harmonic cancellation (MPHC) control for power quality improvement in terms of mitigation of the current harmonics, power factor correction, control of point of common coupling (PCC) voltage with reactive power compensation and load balancing in a three phase distribution system. The proposed grid interfaced SPV system consists of a SPV array, a dc-dc boost converter and a voltage source converter (VSC) used for the compensation of other connected linear and nonlinear loads at PCC. The reference grid currents are estimated using MPHC method and control signals are derived by using pulse width modulation (PWM) current controller of VSC. The SPV power is fed to the common dc bus of VSC and dc-dc boost converter using maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The dc link voltage of VSC is regulated by using dc voltage proportional integral (PI) controller. The analysis of the proposed SPV power generating system is carried out under dc/ac short circuit and severe SPV-SX and SPV-TX intrusion.

  2. Enhancement of tracking performance in electro-optical system based on servo control algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, WooJin; Kim, SungSu; Jung, DaeYoon; Seo, HyoungKyu

    2017-10-01

    Modern electro-optical surveillance and reconnaissance systems require tracking capability to get exact images of target or to accurately direct the line of sight to target which is moving or still. This leads to the tracking system composed of image based tracking algorithm and servo control algorithm. In this study, we focus on the servo control function to minimize the overshoot in the tracking motion and do not miss the target. The scheme is to limit acceleration and velocity parameters in the tracking controller, depending on the target state information in the image. We implement the proposed techniques by creating a system model of DIRCM and simulate the same environment, validate the performance on the actual equipment.

  3. Terminal sliding mode tracking control for a class of SISO uncertain nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mou; Wu, Qing-Xian; Cui, Rong-Xin

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the terminal sliding mode tracking control is proposed for the uncertain single-input and single-output (SISO) nonlinear system with unknown external disturbance. For the unmeasured disturbance of nonlinear systems, terminal sliding mode disturbance observer is presented. The developed disturbance observer can guarantee the disturbance approximation error to converge to zero in the finite time. Based on the output of designed disturbance observer, the terminal sliding mode tracking control is presented for uncertain SISO nonlinear systems. Subsequently, terminal sliding mode tracking control is developed using disturbance observer technique for the uncertain SISO nonlinear system with control singularity and unknown non-symmetric input saturation. The effects of the control singularity and unknown input saturation are combined with the external disturbance which is approximated using the disturbance observer. Under the proposed terminal sliding mode tracking control techniques, the finite time convergence of all closed-loop signals are guaranteed via Lyapunov analysis. Numerical simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed terminal sliding mode tracking control. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Approximate optimal tracking control for near-surface AUVs with wave disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qing; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-10-01

    This paper considers the optimal trajectory tracking control problem for near-surface autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) in the presence of wave disturbances. An approximate optimal tracking control (AOTC) approach is proposed. Firstly, a six-degrees-of-freedom (six-DOF) AUV model with its body-fixed coordinate system is decoupled and simplified and then a nonlinear control model of AUVs in the vertical plane is given. Also, an exosystem model of wave disturbances is constructed based on Hirom approximation formula. Secondly, the time-parameterized desired trajectory which is tracked by the AUV's system is represented by the exosystem. Then, the coupled two-point boundary value (TPBV) problem of optimal tracking control for AUVs is derived from the theory of quadratic optimal control. By using a recently developed successive approximation approach to construct sequences, the coupled TPBV problem is transformed into a problem of solving two decoupled linear differential sequences of state vectors and adjoint vectors. By iteratively solving the two equation sequences, the AOTC law is obtained, which consists of a nonlinear optimal feedback item, an expected output tracking item, a feedforward disturbances rejection item, and a nonlinear compensatory term. Furthermore, a wave disturbances observer model is designed in order to solve the physically realizable problem. Simulation is carried out by using the Remote Environmental Unit (REMUS) AUV model to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Feedback tracking control for dynamic morphing of piezocomposite actuated flexible wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Wenya; Wu, Zhigang

    2018-03-01

    Aerodynamic properties of flexible wings can be improved via shape morphing using piezocomposite materials. Dynamic shape control of flexible wings is investigated in this study by considering the interactions between structural dynamics, unsteady aerodynamics and piezo-actuations. A novel antisymmetric angle-ply bimorph configuration of piezocomposite actuators is presented to realize coupled bending-torsional shape control. The active aeroelastic model is derived using finite element method and Theodorsen unsteady aerodynamic loads. A time-varying linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) tracking control system is designed to enhance aerodynamic lift with pre-defined trajectories. Proof-of-concept simulations of static and dynamic shape control are presented for a scaled high-aspect-ratio wing model. Vibrations of the wing and fluctuations in aerodynamic forces are caused by using the static voltages directly in dynamic shape control. The lift response has tracked the trajectories well with favorable dynamic morphing performance via feedback tracking control.

  6. Robust fractional order sliding mode control of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimkhani, Sadegh

    2016-07-01

    Wind power plants have nonlinear dynamics and contain many uncertainties such as unknown nonlinear disturbances and parameter uncertainties. Thus, it is a difficult task to design a robust reliable controller for this system. This paper proposes a novel robust fractional-order sliding mode (FOSM) controller for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind energy conversion system. In order to enhance the robustness of the control system, uncertainties and disturbances are estimated using a fractional order uncertainty estimator. In the proposed method a continuous control strategy is developed to achieve the chattering free fractional order sliding-mode control, and also no knowledge of the uncertainties and disturbances or their bound is assumed. The boundedness and convergence properties of the closed-loop signals are proven using Lyapunov׳s stability theory. Simulation results in the presence of various uncertainties were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control scheme. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Master-slave control with trajectory planning and Bouc-Wen model for tracking control of piezo-driven stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaojun; Liu, Changli; Chen, Lei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a redundant Piezo-driven stage having 3RRR compliant mechanism is introduced, we propose the master-slave control with trajectory planning (MSCTP) strategy and Bouc-Wen model to improve its micro-motion tracking performance. The advantage of the proposed controller lies in that its implementation only requires a simple control strategy without the complexity of modeling to avoid the master PEA's tracking error. The dynamic model of slave PEA system with Bouc-Wen hysteresis is established and identified via particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach. The Piezo-driven stage with operating period T=1s and 2s is implemented to track a prescribed circle. The simulation results show that MSCTP with Bouc-Wen model reduces the trajectory tracking errors to the range of the accuracy of our available measurement.

  8. Fuzzy logic control of stand-alone photovoltaic system with battery storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalouni, S.; Rekioua, D.; Rekioua, T.; Matagne, E.

    Photovoltaic energy has nowadays an increased importance in electrical power applications, since it is considered as an essentially inexhaustible and broadly available energy resource. However, the output power provided via the photovoltaic conversion process depends on solar irradiation and temperature. Therefore, to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic energy system, it is necessary to track the maximum power point of the PV array. The present paper proposes a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) method, based on fuzzy logic controller (FLC), applied to a stand-alone photovoltaic system. It uses a sampling measure of the PV array power and voltage then determines an optimal increment required to have the optimal operating voltage which permits maximum power tracking. This method carries high accuracy around the optimum point when compared to the conventional one. The stand-alone photovoltaic system used in this paper includes two bi-directional DC/DC converters and a lead-acid battery bank to overcome the scare periods. One converter works as an MPP tracker, while the other regulates the batteries state of charge and compensates the power deficit to provide a continuous delivery of energy to the load. The Obtained simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy logic controller.

  9. Flow-rate control for managing communications in tracking and surveillance networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Scott A.; Chong, Edwin K. P.

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a primal-dual distributed algorithm for managing communications in a bandwidth-limited sensor network for tracking and surveillance. The algorithm possesses some scale-invariance properties and adaptive gains that make it more practical for applications such as tracking where the conditions change over time. A simulation study comparing this algorithm with a priority-queue-based approach in a network tracking scenario shows significant improvement in the resulting track quality when using flow control to manage communications.

  10. Robust tracking and distributed synchronization control of a multi-motor servomechanism with H-infinity performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minlin; Ren, Xuemei; Chen, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The multi-motor servomechanism (MMS) is a multi-variable, high coupling and nonlinear system, which makes the controller design challenging. In this paper, an adaptive robust H-infinity control scheme is proposed to achieve both the load tracking and multi-motor synchronization of MMS. This control scheme consists of two parts: a robust tracking controller and a distributed synchronization controller. The robust tracking controller is constructed by incorporating a neural network (NN) K-filter observer into the dynamic surface control, while the distributed synchronization controller is designed by combining the mean deviation coupling control strategy with the distributed technique. The proposed control scheme has several merits: 1) by using the mean deviation coupling synchronization control strategy, the tracking controller and the synchronization controller can be designed individually without any coupling problem; 2) the immeasurable states and unknown nonlinearities are handled by a NN K-filter observer, where the number of NN weights is largely reduced by using the minimal learning parameter technique; 3) the H-infinity performances of tracking error and synchronization error are guaranteed by introducing a robust term into the tracking controller and the synchronization controller, respectively. The stabilities of the tracking and synchronization control systems are analyzed by the Lyapunov theory. Simulation and experimental results based on a four-motor servomechanism are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Track and mode controller (TMC): a software executive for a high-altitude pointing and tracking experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michnovicz, Michael R.

    1997-06-01

    A real-time executive has been implemented to control a high altitude pointing and tracking experiment. The track and mode controller (TMC) implements a table driven design, in which the track mode logic for a tracking mission is defined within a state transition diagram (STD). THe STD is implemented as a state transition table in the TMC software. Status Events trigger the state transitions in the STD. Each state, as it is entered, causes a number of processes to be activated within the system. As these processes propagate through the system, the status of key processes are monitored by the TMC, allowing further transitions within the STD. This architecture is implemented in real-time, using the vxWorks operating system. VxWorks message queues allow communication of status events from the Event Monitor task to the STD task. Process commands are propagated to the rest of the system processors by means of the SCRAMNet shared memory network. The system mode logic contained in the STD will autonomously sequence in acquisition, tracking and pointing system through an entire engagement sequence, starting with target detection and ending with aimpoint maintenance. Simulation results and lab test results will be presented to verify the mode controller. In addition to implementing the system mode logic with the STD, the TMC can process prerecorded time sequences of commands required during startup operations. It can also process single commands from the system operator. In this paper, the author presents (1) an overview, in which he describes the TMC architecture, the relationship of an end-to-end simulation to the flight software and the laboratory testing environment, (2) implementation details, including information on the vxWorks message queues and the SCRAMNet shared memory network, (3) simulation results and lab test results which verify the mode controller, and (4) plans for the future, specifically as to how this executive will expedite transition to a fully

  12. Construction of a WMR for trajectory tracking control: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Silva-Ortigoza, R; Márquez-Sánchez, C; Marcelino-Aranda, M; Marciano-Melchor, M; Silva-Ortigoza, G; Bautista-Quintero, R; Ramos-Silvestre, E R; Rivera-Díaz, J C; Muñoz-Carrillo, D

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a solution for trajectory tracking control of a differential drive wheeled mobile robot (WMR) based on a hierarchical approach. The general design and construction of the WMR are described. The hierarchical controller proposed has two components: a high-level control and a low-level control. The high-level control law is based on an input-output linearization scheme for the robot kinematic model, which provides the desired angular velocity profiles that the WMR has to track in order to achieve the desired position (x∗, y∗) and orientation (φ∗). Then, a low-level control law, based on a proportional integral (PI) approach, is designed to control the velocity of the WMR wheels to ensure those tracking features. Regarding the trajectories, this paper provides the solution or the following cases: (1) time-varying parametric trajectories such as straight lines and parabolas and (2) smooth curves fitted by cubic splines which are generated by the desired data points {(x₁∗, y₁∗),..., (x(n)∗, y(n)∗)}. A straightforward algorithm is developed for constructing the cubic splines. Finally, this paper includes an experimental validation of the proposed technique by employing a DS1104 dSPACE electronic board along with MATLAB/Simulink software.

  13. Construction of a WMR for Trajectory Tracking Control: Experimental Results

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Ortigoza, R.; Márquez-Sánchez, C.; Marcelino-Aranda, M.; Marciano-Melchor, M.; Silva-Ortigoza, G.; Bautista-Quintero, R.; Ramos-Silvestre, E. R.; Rivera-Díaz, J. C.; Muñoz-Carrillo, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a solution for trajectory tracking control of a differential drive wheeled mobile robot (WMR) based on a hierarchical approach. The general design and construction of the WMR are described. The hierarchical controller proposed has two components: a high-level control and a low-level control. The high-level control law is based on an input-output linearization scheme for the robot kinematic model, which provides the desired angular velocity profiles that the WMR has to track in order to achieve the desired position (x∗, y∗) and orientation (φ∗). Then, a low-level control law, based on a proportional integral (PI) approach, is designed to control the velocity of the WMR wheels to ensure those tracking features. Regarding the trajectories, this paper provides the solution or the following cases: (1) time-varying parametric trajectories such as straight lines and parabolas and (2) smooth curves fitted by cubic splines which are generated by the desired data points {(x1∗, y1∗),..., (xn∗, yn∗)}. A straightforward algorithm is developed for constructing the cubic splines. Finally, this paper includes an experimental validation of the proposed technique by employing a DS1104 dSPACE electronic board along with MATLAB/Simulink software. PMID:23997679

  14. Constrained tracking control for nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Khani, Fatemeh; Haeri, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a tracking control strategy for nonlinear systems without needing a prior knowledge of the reference trajectory. The proposed method consists of a set of local controllers with appropriate overlaps in their stability regions and an on-line switching strategy which implements these controllers and uses some augmented intermediate controllers to ensure steering the system states to the desired set points without needing to redesign the controller for each value of set point changes. The proposed approach provides smooth transient responses despite switching among the local controllers. It should be mentioned that the stability regions of the proposed controllers could be estimated off-line for a range of set-point changes. The efficiencies of the proposed algorithm are illustrated via two example simulations. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Velocity-free attitude coordinated tracking control for spacecraft formation flying.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinglei; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Youmin

    2018-02-01

    This article investigates the velocity-free attitude coordinated tracking control scheme for a group of spacecraft with the assumption that the angular velocities of the formation members are not available in control feedback. Initially, an angular velocity observer is constructed based on each individual's attitude quarternion. Then, the distributed attitude coordinated control law is designed by using the observed states, in which adaptive control method is adopted to handle the external disturbances. Stability of the overall closed-loop system is analyzed theoretically, which shows the system trajectory converges to a small set around origin with fast convergence rate. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate fast convergence and improved tracking performance of the proposed control strategy. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel maximum power point tracking system employing phase comparison techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avaritsiotis, J. N.; Tsitomeneas, S.; Caroubalos, C.

    A new MPPT design is presented that is based on the comparison of the phase of a perturbing signal with that of the signal which is the result of the perturbation. More specifically, a voltage ripple is induced on the power loop of the P/V system and its phase is compared to the phase of the resulting ripple on the electric power P = I x V, where I and V are the current and voltage respectively of the P/V generator. A prototype MPPT based on the previous principle has been designed, constructed, and its performance has been studied.

  17. High precision tracking control of a servo gantry with dynamic friction compensation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yangming; Yan, Peng; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the tracking control problem of a voice coil motor (VCM) actuated servo gantry system. By utilizing an adaptive control technique combined with a sliding mode approach, an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) law with friction compensation scheme is proposed in presence of both frictions and external disturbances. Based on the LuGre dynamic friction model, a dual-observer structure is used to estimate the unmeasurable friction state, and an adaptive control law is synthesized to effectively handle the unknown friction model parameters as well as the bound of the disturbances. Moreover, the proposed control law is also implemented on a VCM servo gantry system for motion tracking. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate good tracking performance, which outperform traditional control approaches. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Research on regional intrusion prevention and control system based on target tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanfei; Wang, Jieling; Jiang, Ke; He, Yanhui; Wu, Zhilin

    2017-08-01

    In view of the fact that China’s border is very long and the border prevention and control measures are single, we designed a regional intrusion prevention and control system which based on target-tracking. The system consists of four parts: solar panel, radar, electro-optical equipment, unmanned aerial vehicle and intelligent tracking platform. The solar panel provides independent power for the entire system. The radar detects the target in real time and realizes the high precision positioning of suspicious targets, then through the linkage of electro-optical equipment, it can achieve full-time automatic precise tracking of targets. When the target appears within the range of detection, the drone will be launched to continue the tracking. The system is mainly to realize the full time, full coverage, whole process integration and active realtime control of the border area.

  19. Adaptive Filter Techniques for Optical Beam Jitter Control and Target Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    OPTICAL BEAM JITTER CONTROL AND TARGET TRACKING Michael J. Beerer Civilian, United States Air Force B.S., University of California Irvine, 2006...TECHNIQUES FOR OPTICAL BEAM JITTER CONTROL AND TARGET TRACKING by Michael J. Beerer December 2008 Thesis Advisor: Brij N. Agrawal Co...DATE December 2008 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adaptive Filter Techniques for Optical Beam Jitter

  20. Tracking control of time-varying knee exoskeleton disturbed by interaction torque.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhan; Ma, Wenhao; Yin, Ziguang; Guo, Hongliang

    2017-11-01

    Knee exoskeletons have been increasingly applied as assistive devices to help lower-extremity impaired people to make their knee joints move through providing external movement compensation. Tracking control of knee exoskeletons guided by human intentions often encounters time-varying (time-dependent) issues and the disturbance interaction torque, which may dramatically put an influence up on their dynamic behaviors. Inertial and viscous parameters of knee exoskeletons can be estimated to be time-varying due to unexpected mechanical vibrations and contact interactions. Moreover, the interaction torque produced from knee joint of wearers has an evident disturbance effect on regular motions of knee exoskeleton. All of these points can increase difficultly of accurate control of knee exoskeletons to follow desired joint angle trajectories. This paper proposes a novel control strategy for controlling knee exoskeleton with time-varying inertial and viscous coefficients disturbed by interaction torque. Such designed controller is able to make the tracking error of joint angle of knee exoskeletons exponentially converge to zero. Meanwhile, the proposed approach is robust to guarantee the tracking error bounded when the interaction torque exists. Illustrative simulation and experiment results are presented to show efficiency of the proposed controller. Additionally, comparisons with gradient dynamic (GD) approach and other methods are also presented to demonstrate efficiency and superiority of the proposed control strategy for tracking joint angle of knee exoskeleton. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural dynamic interaction with solar tracking control for evolutionary Space Station concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Tae W.; Cooper, Paul A.; Ayers, J. Kirk

    1992-01-01

    The sun tracking control system design of the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) and the interaction of the control system with the flexible structure of Space Station Freedom (SSF) evolutionary concepts are addressed. The significant components of the space station pertaining to the SARJ control are described and the tracking control system design is presented. Finite element models representing two evolutionary concepts, enhanced operations capability (EOC) and extended operations capability (XOC), are employed to evaluate the influence of low frequency flexible structure on the control system design and performance. The design variables of the control system are synthesized using a constrained optimization technique to meet design requirements, to provide a given level of control system stability margin, and to achieve the most responsive tracking performance. The resulting SARJ control system design and performance of the EOC and XOC configurations are presented and compared to those of the SSF configuration. Performance limitations caused by the low frequency of the dominant flexible mode are discussed.

  2. Real-time seam tracking control system based on line laser visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yanbiao; Wang, Yanbo; Zhou, Weilin; Chen, Xiangzhi

    2018-07-01

    A set of six-degree-of-freedom robotic welding automatic tracking platform was designed in this study to realize the real-time tracking of weld seams. Moreover, the feature point tracking method and the adaptive fuzzy control algorithm in the welding process were studied and analyzed. A laser vision sensor and its measuring principle were designed and studied, respectively. Before welding, the initial coordinate values of the feature points were obtained using morphological methods. After welding, the target tracking method based on Gaussian kernel was used to extract the real-time feature points of the weld. An adaptive fuzzy controller was designed to input the deviation value of the feature points and the change rate of the deviation into the controller. The quantization factors, scale factor, and weight function were adjusted in real time. The input and output domains, fuzzy rules, and membership functions were constantly updated to generate a series of smooth bias robot voltage. Three groups of experiments were conducted on different types of curve welds in a strong arc and splash noise environment using the welding current of 120 A short-circuit Metal Active Gas (MAG) Arc Welding. The tracking error was less than 0.32 mm and the sensor's metrical frequency can be up to 20 Hz. The end of the torch run smooth during welding. Weld trajectory can be tracked accurately, thereby satisfying the requirements of welding applications.

  3. Fuzzy logic, PSO based fuzzy logic algorithm and current controls comparative for grid-connected hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borni, A.; Abdelkrim, T.; Zaghba, L.; Bouchakour, A.; Lakhdari, A.; Zarour, L.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper the model of a grid connected hybrid system is presented. The hybrid system includes a variable speed wind turbine controlled by aFuzzy MPPT control, and a photovoltaic generator controlled with PSO Fuzzy MPPT control to compensate the power fluctuations caused by the wind in a short and long term, the inverter currents injected to the grid is controlled by a decoupled PI current control. In the first phase, we start by modeling of the conversion system components; the wind system is consisted of a turbine coupled to a gearless permanent magnet generator (PMG), the AC/DC and DC-DC (Boost) converter are responsible to feed the electric energy produced by the PMG to the DC-link. The solar system consists of a photovoltaic generator (GPV) connected to a DC/DC boost converter controlled by a PSO fuzzy MPPT control to extract at any moment the maximum available power at the GPV terminals, the system is based on maximum utilization of both of sources because of their complementary. At the end. The active power reached to the DC-link is injected to the grid through a DC/AC inverter, this function is achieved by controlling the DC bus voltage to keep it constant and close to its reference value, The simulation studies have been performed using Matlab/Simulink. It can be concluded that a good control system performance can be achieved.

  4. Model-independent position domain sliding mode control for contour tracking of robotic manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, W. H.; Pano, V.; Ouyang, P. R.; Hu, Y. Q.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new position domain feedback type sliding mode control (PDC-SMC) law is proposed for contour tracking control of multi-DOF (degree of freedom) nonlinear robotic manipulators focusing on the improvement of contour tracking performances. One feature of the proposed control law is its model-independent control scheme that can avoid calculation of the feedforward part in a standard SMC. The new control law takes the advantages of the high contour tracking performance of PD type feedback position domain control (PDC) and the robustness of SMC. Stability analysis is performed using the Lyapunov stability theory, and simulation studies are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the developed PDC-SMC control system. In addition, the effects of control parameters of the SMC on system performances are studied.

  5. A novel power converter for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvarajan, S.; Yu, Dachuan; Xu, Shanguang

    A simple and economical power conditioner to convert the power available from solar panels into 60 Hz ac voltage is described. The raw dc voltage from the solar panels is converted to a regulated dc voltage using a boost converter and a large capacitor and the dc output is then converted to 60 Hz ac using a bridge inverter. The ratio between the load current and the short-circuit current of a PV panel at maximum power point is nearly constant for different insolation (light) levels and this property is utilized in designing a simple maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller. The controller includes a novel arrangement for sensing the short-circuit current without disturbing the operation of the PV panel and implementing MPPT. The switching losses in the inverter are reduced by using snubbers. The results obtained on an experimental converter are presented.

  6. Relative position finite-time coordinated tracking control of spacecraft formation without velocity measurements.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinglei; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates finite-time relative position coordinated tracking problem by output feedback for spacecraft formation flying without velocity measurement. By employing homogeneous system theory, a finite-time relative position coordinated tracking controller by state feedback is firstly developed, where the desired time-varying trajectory given in advance can be tracked by the formation. Then, to address the problem of lack of velocity measurements, a finite-time output feedback controller is proposed by involving a novel filter to recover unknown velocity information in a finite time. Rigorous proof shows that the proposed control law ensures global stability and guarantees the position of spacecraft formation to track a time-varying reference in finite time. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed controller. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intelligent Tracking Control for a Class of Uncertain High-Order Nonlinear Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xudong; Shi, Peng; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-09-01

    This brief is concerned with the problem of intelligent tracking control for a class of high-order nonlinear systems with completely unknown nonlinearities. An intelligent adaptive control algorithm is presented by combining the adaptive backstepping technique with the neural networks' approximation ability. It is shown that the practical output tracking performance of the system is achieved using the proposed state-feedback controller under two mild assumptions. In particular, by introducing a parameter in the derivations, the tracking error between the time-varying target signal and the output can be reduced via tuning the controller design parameters. Moreover, in order to solve the problem of overparameterization, which is a common issue in adaptive control design, a controller with one adaptive law is also designed. Finally, simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the theoretical approaches and the potential of the proposed new design techniques.

  8. Lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lukun; Zhao, Xiaoying; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road. A novel arcs trajectory is planned for the desired lane changing trajectory. A kinematic controller and a dynamics controller are designed to implement the trajectory tracking control. Firstly, the kinematic model and dynamics model of intelligent vehicle with non-holonomic constraint are established. Secondly, two constraints of lane changing on curved road in practice (LCCP) are proposed. Thirdly, two arcs with same curvature are constructed for the desired lane changing trajectory. According to the geometrical characteristics of arcs trajectory, equations of desired state can be calculated. Finally, the backstepping method is employed to design a kinematic trajectory tracking controller. Then the sliding-mode dynamics controller is designed to ensure that the motion of the intelligent vehicle can follow the desired velocity generated by kinematic controller. The stability of control system is proved by Lyapunov theory. Computer simulation demonstrates that the desired arcs trajectory and state curves with B-spline optimization can meet the requirements of LCCP constraints and the proposed control schemes can make tracking errors to converge uniformly.

  9. Direct adaptive robust tracking control for 6 DOF industrial robot with enhanced accuracy.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiuxing; Pan, Li

    2018-01-01

    A direct adaptive robust tracking control is proposed for trajectory tracking of 6 DOF industrial robot in the presence of parametric uncertainties, external disturbances and uncertain nonlinearities. The controller is designed based on the dynamic characteristics in the working space of the end-effector of the 6 DOF robot. The controller includes robust control term and model compensation term that is developed directly based on the input reference or desired motion trajectory. A projection-type parametric adaptation law is also designed to compensate for parametric estimation errors for the adaptive robust control. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed direct adaptive robust control law and the associated projection-type parametric adaptation law have been comparatively evaluated based on two 6 DOF industrial robots. The test results demonstrate that the proposed control can be employed to better maintain the desired trajectory tracking even in the presence of large parametric uncertainties and external disturbances as compared with PD controller and nonlinear controller. The parametric estimates also eventually converge to the real values along with the convergence of tracking errors, which further validate the effectiveness of the proposed parametric adaption law. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Telemetry, Tracking, and Control Working Group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Richard; Rogers, L. Joseph

    1986-01-01

    After assessing the design implications and the criteria to be used in technology selection, the technical problems that face the telemetry, tracking, and control (TTC) area were defined. For each of the problems identified, recommendations were made for needed technology developments. These recommendations are listed and ranked according to priority.

  11. Tracking control of a marine surface vessel with full-state constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhao; He, Wei; Yang, Chenguang

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a trajectory tracking control law is proposed for a class of marine surface vessels in the presence of full-state constraints and dynamics uncertainties. A barrier Lyapunov function (BLF) based control is employed to prevent states from violating the constraints. Neural networks are used to approximate the system uncertainties in the control design, and the control law is designed by using the Moore-Penrose inverse. The proposed control is able to compensate for the effects of full-state constraints. Meanwhile, the signals in the closed-loop system are guaranteed to be semiglobally uniformly bounded, with the asymptotic tracking being achieved. Finally, the performance of the proposed control has been tested and verified by simulation studies.

  12. Nonlinear Tracking Control of a Conductive Supercoiled Polymer Actuator.

    PubMed

    Luong, Tuan Anh; Cho, Kyeong Ho; Song, Min Geun; Koo, Ja Choon; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Moon, Hyungpil

    2018-04-01

    Artificial muscle actuators made from commercial nylon fishing lines have been recently introduced and shown as a new type of actuator with high performance. However, the actuators also exhibit significant nonlinearities, which make them difficult to control, especially in precise trajectory-tracking applications. In this article, we present a nonlinear mathematical model of a conductive supercoiled polymer (SCP) actuator driven by Joule heating for model-based feedback controls. Our efforts include modeling of the hysteresis behavior of the actuator. Based on nonlinear modeling, we design a sliding mode controller for SCP actuator-driven manipulators. The system with proposed control law is proven to be asymptotically stable using the Lyapunov theory. The control performance of the proposed method is evaluated experimentally and compared with that of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller through one-degree-of-freedom SCP actuator-driven manipulators. Experimental results show that the proposed controller's performance is superior to that of a PID controller, such as the tracking errors are nearly 10 times smaller compared with those of a PID controller, and it is more robust to external disturbances such as sensor noise and actuator modeling error.

  13. Eye Tracking Outcomes in Tobacco Control Regulation and Communication: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Meernik, Clare; Jarman, Kristen; Wright, Sarah Towner; Klein, Elizabeth G; Goldstein, Adam O; Ranney, Leah

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we synthesize the evidence from eye tracking research in tobacco control to inform tobacco regulatory strategies and tobacco communication campaigns. We systematically searched 11 databases for studies that reported eye tracking outcomes in regards to tobacco regulation and communication. Two coders independently reviewed studies for inclusion and abstracted study characteristics and findings. Eighteen studies met full criteria for inclusion. Eye tracking studies on health warnings consistently showed these warnings often were ignored, though eye tracking demonstrated that novel warnings, graphic warnings, and plain packaging can increase attention toward warnings. Eye tracking also revealed that greater visual attention to warnings on advertisements and packages consistently was associated with cognitive processing as measured by warning recall. Eye tracking is a valid indicator of attention, cognitive processing, and memory. The use of this technology in tobacco control research complements existing methods in tobacco regulatory and communication science; it also can be used to examine the effects of health warnings and other tobacco product communications on consumer behavior in experimental settings prior to the implementation of novel health communication policies. However, the utility of eye tracking will be enhanced by the standardization of methodology and reporting metrics.

  14. The Lateral Tracking Control for the Intelligent Vehicle Based on Adaptive PID Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Han, Gaining; Fu, Weiping; Wang, Wen; Wu, Zongsheng

    2017-05-30

    The intelligent vehicle is a complicated nonlinear system, and the design of a path tracking controller is one of the key technologies in intelligent vehicle research. This paper mainly designs a lateral control dynamic model of the intelligent vehicle, which is used for lateral tracking control. Firstly, the vehicle dynamics model (i.e., transfer function) is established according to the vehicle parameters. Secondly, according to the vehicle steering control system and the CARMA (Controlled Auto-Regression and Moving-Average) model, a second-order control system model is built. Using forgetting factor recursive least square estimation (FFRLS), the system parameters are identified. Finally, a neural network PID (Proportion Integral Derivative) controller is established for lateral path tracking control based on the vehicle model and the steering system model. Experimental simulation results show that the proposed model and algorithm have the high real-time and robustness in path tracing control. This provides a certain theoretical basis for intelligent vehicle autonomous navigation tracking control, and lays the foundation for the vertical and lateral coupling control.

  15. The Lateral Tracking Control for the Intelligent Vehicle Based on Adaptive PID Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gaining; Fu, Weiping; Wang, Wen; Wu, Zongsheng

    2017-01-01

    The intelligent vehicle is a complicated nonlinear system, and the design of a path tracking controller is one of the key technologies in intelligent vehicle research. This paper mainly designs a lateral control dynamic model of the intelligent vehicle, which is used for lateral tracking control. Firstly, the vehicle dynamics model (i.e., transfer function) is established according to the vehicle parameters. Secondly, according to the vehicle steering control system and the CARMA (Controlled Auto-Regression and Moving-Average) model, a second-order control system model is built. Using forgetting factor recursive least square estimation (FFRLS), the system parameters are identified. Finally, a neural network PID (Proportion Integral Derivative) controller is established for lateral path tracking control based on the vehicle model and the steering system model. Experimental simulation results show that the proposed model and algorithm have the high real-time and robustness in path tracing control. This provides a certain theoretical basis for intelligent vehicle autonomous navigation tracking control, and lays the foundation for the vertical and lateral coupling control. PMID:28556817

  16. Biomimetic photo-actuation: sensing, control and actuation in sun-tracking plants.

    PubMed

    Dicker, M P M; Rossiter, J M; Bond, I P; Weaver, P M

    2014-09-01

    Although the actuation mechanisms that drive plant movement have been investigated from a biomimetic perspective, few studies have looked at the wider sensing and control systems that regulate this motion. This paper examines photo-actuation-actuation induced by, and controlled with light-through a review of the sun-tracking functions of the Cornish Mallow. The sun-tracking movement of the Cornish Mallow leaf results from an extraordinarily complex-yet extremely elegant-process of signal perception, generation, filtering and control. Inspired by this process, a concept for a simplified biomimetic analogue of this leaf is proposed: a multifunctional structure employing chemical sensing, signal transmission, and control of composite hydrogel actuators. We present this multifunctional structure, and show that the success of the concept will require improved selection of materials and structural design. This device has application in the solar-tracking of photovoltaic panels for increased energy yield. More broadly it is envisaged that the concept of chemical sensing and control can be expanded beyond photo-actuation to many other stimuli, resulting in new classes of robust solid-state devices.

  17. Rate control and quality assurance during rhythmic force tracking.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Su, Jyong-Huei; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2014-02-01

    Movement characteristics can be coded in the single neurons or in the summed activity of neural populations. However, whether neural oscillations are conditional to the frequency demand and task quality of rhythmic force regulation is still unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate EEG dynamics and behavior correlates during force-tracking at different target rates. Fourteen healthy volunteers conducted load-varying isometric abduction of the index finger by coupling the force output to sinusoidal targets at 0.5 Hz, 1.0 Hz, and 2.0 Hz. Our results showed that frequency demand significantly affected EEG delta oscillation (1-4 Hz) in the C3, CP3, CPz, and CP4 electrodes, with the greatest delta power and lowest delta peak around 1.5 Hz for slower tracking at 0.5 Hz. Those who had superior tracking congruency also manifested enhanced alpha oscillation (8-12 Hz). Alpha rhythms of the skilled performers during slow tracking spread through the whole target cycle, except for the phase of direction changes. However, the alpha rhythms centered at the mid phase of a target cycle with increasing target rate. In conclusion, our findings clearly suggest two advanced roles of cortical oscillation in rhythmic force regulation. Rate-dependent delta oscillation involves a paradigm shift in force control under different time scales. Phasic organization of alpha rhythms during rhythmic force tracking is related to behavioral success underlying the selective use of bimodal controls (feedback and feedforward processes) and the timing of attentional focus on the target's peak velocity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Position and attitude tracking control for a quadrotor UAV.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jing-Jing; Zheng, En-Hui

    2014-05-01

    A synthesis control method is proposed to perform the position and attitude tracking control of the dynamical model of a small quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), where the dynamical model is underactuated, highly-coupled and nonlinear. Firstly, the dynamical model is divided into a fully actuated subsystem and an underactuated subsystem. Secondly, a controller of the fully actuated subsystem is designed through a novel robust terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) algorithm, which is utilized to guarantee all state variables converge to their desired values in short time, the convergence time is so small that the state variables are acted as time invariants in the underactuated subsystem, and, a controller of the underactuated subsystem is designed via sliding mode control (SMC), in addition, the stabilities of the subsystems are demonstrated by Lyapunov theory, respectively. Lastly, in order to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control method, the aerodynamic forces and moments and air drag taken as external disturbances are taken into account, the obtained simulation results show that the synthesis control method has good performance in terms of position and attitude tracking when faced with external disturbances. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. External Resistances Applied to MFC Affect Core Microbiome and Swine Manure Treatment Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Bañeras, Lluis; Puig, Sebastià; Molognoni, Daniele; Vilà-Rovira, Albert; Hernández-del Amo, Elena; Balaguer, Maria D.; Colprim, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be designed to combine water treatment with concomitant electricity production. Animal manure treatment has been poorly explored using MFCs, and its implementation at full-scale primarily relies on the bacterial distribution and activity within the treatment cell. This study reports the bacterial community changes at four positions within the anode of two almost identically operated MFCs fed swine manure. Changes in the microbiome structure are described according to the MFC fluid dynamics and the application of a maximum power point tracking system (MPPT) compared to a fixed resistance system (Ref-MFC). Both external resistance and cell hydrodynamics are thought to heavily influence MFC performance. The microbiome was characterised both quantitatively (qPCR) and qualitatively (454-pyrosequencing) by targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The diversity of the microbial community in the MFC biofilm was reduced and differed from the influent swine manure. The adopted electric condition (MPPT vs fixed resistance) was more relevant than the fluid dynamics in shaping the MFC microbiome. MPPT control positively affected bacterial abundance and promoted the selection of putatively exoelectrogenic bacteria in the MFC core microbiome (Sedimentibacter sp. and gammaproteobacteria). These differences in the microbiome may be responsible for the two-fold increase in power production achieved by the MPPT-MFC compared to the Ref-MFC. PMID:27701451

  20. Modal-space reference-model-tracking fuzzy control of earthquake excited structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwan-Soon; Ok, Seung-Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptive modal-space reference-model-tracking fuzzy control technique for the vibration control of earthquake-excited structures. In the proposed approach, the fuzzy logic is introduced to update optimal control force so that the controlled structural response can track the desired response of a reference model. For easy and practical implementation, the reference model is constructed by assigning the target damping ratios to the first few dominant modes in modal space. The numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach successfully achieves not only the adaptive fault-tolerant control system against partial actuator failures but also the robust performance against the variations of the uncertain system properties by redistributing the feedback control forces to the available actuators.

  1. OpenControl: a free opensource software for video tracking and automated control of behavioral mazes.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Paulo; Mendonça, Luís; Galhardo, Vasco

    2007-10-15

    Operant animal behavioral tests require the interaction of the subject with sensors and actuators distributed in the experimental environment of the arena. In order to provide user independent reliable results and versatile control of these devices it is vital to use an automated control system. Commercial systems for control of animal mazes are usually based in software implementations that restrict their application to the proprietary hardware of the vendor. In this paper we present OpenControl: an opensource Visual Basic software that permits a Windows-based computer to function as a system to run fully automated behavioral experiments. OpenControl integrates video-tracking of the animal, definition of zones from the video signal for real-time assignment of animal position in the maze, control of the maze actuators from either hardware sensors or from the online video tracking, and recording of experimental data. Bidirectional communication with the maze hardware is achieved through the parallel-port interface, without the need for expensive AD-DA cards, while video tracking is attained using an inexpensive Firewire digital camera. OpenControl Visual Basic code is structurally general and versatile allowing it to be easily modified or extended to fulfill specific experimental protocols and custom hardware configurations. The Visual Basic environment was chosen in order to allow experimenters to easily adapt the code and expand it at their own needs.

  2. UDE-based control of variable-speed wind turbine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Beibei; Wang, Yeqin; Zhong, Qing-Chang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the control of a PMSG (permanent magnet synchronous generator)-based variable-speed wind turbine system with a back-to-back converter is considered. The uncertainty and disturbance estimator (UDE)-based control approach is applied to the regulation of the DC-link voltage and the control of the RSC (rotor-side converter) and the GSC (grid-side converter). For the rotor-side controller, the UDE-based vector control is developed for the RSC with PMSG control to facilitate the application of the MPPT (maximum power point tracking) algorithm for the maximum wind energy capture. For the grid-side controller, the UDE-based vector control is developed to control the GSC with the power reference generated by a UDE-based DC-link voltage controller. Compared with the conventional vector control, the UDE-based vector control can achieve reliable current decoupling control with fast response. Moreover, the UDE-based DC-link voltage regulation can achieve stable DC-link voltage under model uncertainties and external disturbances, e.g. wind speed variations. The effectiveness of the proposed UDE-based control approach is demonstrated through extensive simulation studies in the presence of coupled dynamics, model uncertainties and external disturbances under varying wind speeds. The UDE-based control is able to generate more energy, e.g. by 5% for the wind profile tested.

  3. Experimental investigation of control/display augmentation effects in a compensatory tracking task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Schmidt, David K.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of control/display augmentation on human performance and workload have been investigated for closed-loop, continuous-tracking tasks by a real-time, man-in-the-loop simulation study. The experimental results obtained indicate that only limited improvement in actual tracking performance is obtainable through display augmentation alone; with a very high level of display augmentation, tracking error will actually deteriorate. Tracking performance improves when status information is furnished for reasonable levels of display quickening; again, very high quickening levels lead to tracking error deterioration due to the incompatibility between the status information and the quickened signal.

  4. Human supervision and microprocessor control of an optical tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigley, W. J.; Vandenberg, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Gunners using small calibre anti-aircraft systems have not been able to track high-speed air targets effectively. Substantial improvement in the accuracy of surface fire against attacking aircraft has been realized through the design of a director-type weapon control system. This system concept frees the gunner to exercise a supervisory/monitoring role while the computer takes over continuous target tracking. This change capitalizes on a key consideration of human factors engineering while increasing system accuracy. The advanced system design, which uses distributed microprocessor control, is discussed at the block diagram level and is contrasted with the previous implementation.

  5. H∞ output tracking control of discrete-time nonlinear systems via standard neural network models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meiqin; Zhang, Senlin; Chen, Haiyang; Sheng, Weihua

    2014-10-01

    This brief proposes an output tracking control for a class of discrete-time nonlinear systems with disturbances. A standard neural network model is used to represent discrete-time nonlinear systems whose nonlinearity satisfies the sector conditions. H∞ control performance for the closed-loop system including the standard neural network model, the reference model, and state feedback controller is analyzed using Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theorem and linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. The H∞ controller, of which the parameters are obtained by solving LMIs, guarantees that the output of the closed-loop system closely tracks the output of a given reference model well, and reduces the influence of disturbances on the tracking error. Three numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed H∞ output tracking design approach.

  6. Eye Tracking Outcomes in Tobacco Control Regulation and Communication: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Meernik, Clare; Jarman, Kristen; Wright, Sarah Towner; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Goldstein, Adam O.; Ranney, Leah

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this paper we synthesize the evidence from eye tracking research in tobacco control to inform tobacco regulatory strategies and tobacco communication campaigns. Methods We systematically searched 11 databases for studies that reported eye tracking outcomes in regards to tobacco regulation and communication. Two coders independently reviewed studies for inclusion and abstracted study characteristics and findings. Results Eighteen studies met full criteria for inclusion. Eye tracking studies on health warnings consistently showed these warnings often were ignored, though eye tracking demonstrated that novel warnings, graphic warnings, and plain packaging can increase attention toward warnings. Eye tracking also revealed that greater visual attention to warnings on advertisements and packages consistently was associated with cognitive processing as measured by warning recall. Conclusions Eye tracking is a valid indicator of attention, cognitive processing, and memory. The use of this technology in tobacco control research complements existing methods in tobacco regulatory and communication science; it also can be used to examine the effects of health warnings and other tobacco product communications on consumer behavior in experimental settings prior to the implementation of novel health communication policies. However, the utility of eye tracking will be enhanced by the standardization of methodology and reporting metrics. PMID:27668270

  7. Model reference tracking control of an aircraft: a robust adaptive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanyer, Ilker; Tatlicioglu, Enver; Zergeroglu, Erkan

    2017-05-01

    This work presents the design and the corresponding analysis of a nonlinear robust adaptive controller for model reference tracking of an aircraft that has parametric uncertainties in its system matrices and additive state- and/or time-dependent nonlinear disturbance-like terms in its dynamics. Specifically, robust integral of the sign of the error feedback term and an adaptive term is fused with a proportional integral controller. Lyapunov-based stability analysis techniques are utilised to prove global asymptotic convergence of the output tracking error. Extensive numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed robust adaptive controller.

  8. Application of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Photovoltaic Cells to Extend the Endurance and Capabilities of the Raven RQ-11B Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    POWER POINT TRACKER A more suitable component used in photovoltaic appli- cations is the Maximum Power Point Tracker ( MPPT ). An MPPT ... MPPT / power converter (Solar Charge Controller ) weighed 6.5-Oz, but without the casing it weighed only 3.6-Oz. We preferred to use it without the...for this test was the GV-4 Low Power Charge Controller from GENASUN used in previous the- sis work [5]. This MPPT was programmed to charge up

  9. Development of Feedforward Control in a Dynamic Manual Tracking Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roon, Dominique; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the development of feedforward control during manual tracking, 117 participants in 5 age groups (6 to 7, 8 to 9, 10 to 11, 12 to 14, and 15 to 17 years) tracked an accelerating dot presented on a monitor by moving an electronic pen on a digitizer. To remain successful at higher target velocities, they had to create a predictive model of…

  10. On-Line Tracking Controller for Brushless DC Motor Drives Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubaai, Ahmed

    1996-01-01

    A real-time control architecture is developed for time-varying nonlinear brushless dc motors operating in a high performance drives environment. The developed control architecture possesses the capabilities of simultaneous on-line identification and control. The dynamics of the motor are modeled on-line and controlled using an artificial neural network, as the system runs. The control architecture combines the experience and dependability of adaptive tracking systems with potential and promise of the neural computing technology. The sensitivity of real-time controller to parametric changes that occur during training is investigated. Such changes are usually manifested by rapid changes in the load of the brushless motor drives. This sudden change in the external load is simulated for the sigmoidal and sinusoidal reference tracks. The ability of the neuro-controller to maintain reasonable tracking accuracy in the presence of external noise is also verified for a number of desired reference trajectories.

  11. 49 CFR 236.311 - Signal control circuits, selection through track relays or devices functioning as track relays...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... automatic interlocking. (a) The control circuits for aspects with indications more favorable than “proceed... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal control circuits, selection through track... automatic interlocking. 236.311 Section 236.311 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  12. A composite controller for trajectory tracking applied to the Furuta pendulum.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Avelar, Carlos; Moreno-Valenzuela, Javier

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a new composite scheme is proposed, where the total control action is composed of the sum of a feedback-linearization-based controller and an energy-based compensation. This new proposition is applied to the rotary inverted pendulum or Furuta pendulum. The Furuta pendulum is a well-known underactuated mechanical system with two degrees of freedom. The control objective in this case is the tracking of a desired periodic trajectory in the actuated joint, while the unactuated link is regulated at the upward position. The closed-loop system is analyzed showing uniformly ultimately boundedness of the error trajectories. The design procedure is shown in a constructive form, such that it may be applied to other underactuated mechanical systems, with the proper definitions of the output function and the energy function. Numerical simulations and real-time experiments show the practical viability of the controller. Finally, the proposed algorithm is compared with a tracking controller previously reported in the literature. The new algorithm shows better performance in both arm trajectory tracking and pendulum regulation. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptive tracking control of a wheeled mobile robot via an uncalibrated camera system.

    PubMed

    Dixon, W E; Dawson, D M; Zergeroglu, E; Behal, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of position/orientation tracking control of wheeled mobile robots via visual servoing in the presence of parametric uncertainty associated with the mechanical dynamics and the camera system. Specifically, we design an adaptive controller that compensates for uncertain camera and mechanical parameters and ensures global asymptotic position/orientation tracking. Simulation and experimental results are included to illustrate the performance of the control law.

  14. Robust output tracking control of a laboratory helicopter for automatic landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Lu, Geng; Zhong, Yisheng

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, robust output tracking control problem of a laboratory helicopter for automatic landing in high seas is investigated. The motion of the helicopter is required to synchronise with that of an oscillating platform, e.g. the deck of a vessel subject to wave-induced motions. A robust linear time-invariant output feedback controller consisting of a nominal controller and a robust compensator is designed. The robust compensator is introduced to restrain the influences of parametric uncertainties, nonlinearities and external disturbances. It is shown that robust stability and robust tracking property can be achieved simultaneously. Experimental results on the laboratory helicopter for automatic landing demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed control approach.

  15. Keyboard before Head Tracking Depresses User Success in Remote Camera Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dingyun; Gedeon, Tom; Taylor, Ken

    In remote mining, operators of complex machinery have more tasks or devices to control than they have hands. For example, operating a rock breaker requires two handed joystick control to position and fire the jackhammer, leaving the camera control to either automatic control or require the operator to switch between controls. We modelled such a teleoperated setting by performing experiments using a simple physical game analogue, being a half size table soccer game with two handles. The complex camera angles of the mining application were modelled by obscuring the direct view of the play area and the use of a Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) camera. The camera control was via either a keyboard or via head tracking using two different sets of head gestures called “head motion” and “head flicking” for turning camera motion on/off. Our results show that the head motion control was able to provide a comparable performance to using a keyboard, while head flicking was significantly worse. In addition, the sequence of use of the three control methods is highly significant. It appears that use of the keyboard first depresses successful use of the head tracking methods, with significantly better results when one of the head tracking methods was used first. Analysis of the qualitative survey data collected supports that the worst (by performance) method was disliked by participants. Surprisingly, use of that worst method as the first control method significantly enhanced performance using the other two control methods.

  16. On the Impact of Localization and Density Control Algorithms in Target Tracking Applications for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Andre N.; Souza, Efren L.; Nakamura, Fabiola G.; Nakamura, Eduardo F.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Target tracking is an important application of wireless sensor networks. The networks' ability to locate and track an object is directed linked to the nodes' ability to locate themselves. Consequently, localization systems are essential for target tracking applications. In addition, sensor networks are often deployed in remote or hostile environments. Therefore, density control algorithms are used to increase network lifetime while maintaining its sensing capabilities. In this work, we analyze the impact of localization algorithms (RPE and DPE) and density control algorithms (GAF, A3 and OGDC) on target tracking applications. We adapt the density control algorithms to address the k-coverage problem. In addition, we analyze the impact of network density, residual integration with density control, and k-coverage on both target tracking accuracy and network lifetime. Our results show that DPE is a better choice for target tracking applications than RPE. Moreover, among the evaluated density control algorithms, OGDC is the best option among the three. Although the choice of the density control algorithm has little impact on the tracking precision, OGDC outperforms GAF and A3 in terms of tracking time. PMID:22969329

  17. Hybrid supervisory control using recurrent fuzzy neural network for tracking periodic inputs.

    PubMed

    Lin, F J; Wai, R J; Hong, C M

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid supervisory control system using a recurrent fuzzy neural network (RFNN) is proposed to control the mover of a permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM) servo drive for the tracking of periodic reference inputs. First, the field-oriented mechanism is applied to formulate the dynamic equation of the PMLSM. Then, a hybrid supervisory control system, which combines a supervisory control system and an intelligent control system, is proposed to control the mover of the PMLSM for periodic motion. The supervisory control law is designed based on the uncertainty bounds of the controlled system to stabilize the system states around a predefined bound region. Since the supervisory control law will induce excessive and chattering control effort, the intelligent control system is introduced to smooth and reduce the control effort when the system states are inside the predefined bound region. In the intelligent control system, the RFNN control is the main tracking controller which is used to mimic a idea control law and a compensated control is proposed to compensate the difference between the idea control law and the RFNN control. The RFNN has the merits of fuzzy inference, dynamic mapping and fast convergence speed, In addition, an online parameter training methodology, which is derived using the Lyapunov stability theorem and the gradient descent method, is proposed to increase the learning capability of the RFNN. The proposed hybrid supervisory control system using RFNN can track various periodic reference inputs effectively with robust control performance.

  18. High-speed tracking control of piezoelectric actuators using an ellipse-based hysteresis model.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guoying; Zhu, Limin

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, an ellipse-based mathematic model is developed to characterize the rate-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators. Based on the proposed model, an expanded input space is constructed to describe the multivalued hysteresis function H[u](t) by a multiple input single output (MISO) mapping Gamma:R(2)-->R. Subsequently, the inverse MISO mapping Gamma(-1)(H[u](t),H[u](t);u(t)) is proposed for real-time hysteresis compensation. In controller design, a hybrid control strategy combining a model-based feedforward controller and a proportional integral differential (PID) feedback loop is used for high-accuracy and high-speed tracking control of piezoelectric actuators. The real-time feedforward controller is developed to cancel the rate-dependent hysteresis based on the inverse hysteresis model, while the PID controller is used to compensate for the creep, modeling errors, and parameter uncertainties. Finally, experiments with and without hysteresis compensation are conducted and the experimental results are compared. The experimental results show that the hysteresis compensation in the feedforward path can reduce the hysteresis-caused error by up to 88% and the tracking performance of the hybrid controller is greatly improved in high-speed tracking control applications, e.g., the root-mean-square tracking error is reduced to only 0.34% of the displacement range under the input frequency of 100 Hz.

  19. Intelligent robust tracking control for a class of uncertain strict-feedback nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yeong-Chan

    2009-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of designing robust tracking controls for a large class of strict-feedback nonlinear systems involving plant uncertainties and external disturbances. The input and virtual input weighting matrices are perturbed by bounded time-varying uncertainties. An adaptive fuzzy-based (or neural-network-based) dynamic feedback tracking controller will be developed such that all the states and signals of the closed-loop system are bounded and the trajectory tracking error should be as small as possible. First, the adaptive approximators with linearly parameterized models are designed, and a partitioned procedure with respect to the developed adaptive approximators is proposed such that the implementation of the fuzzy (or neural network) basis functions depends only on the state variables but does not depend on the tuning approximation parameters. Furthermore, we extend to design the nonlinearly parameterized adaptive approximators. Consequently, the intelligent robust tracking control schemes developed in this paper possess the properties of computational simplicity and easy implementation. Finally, simulation examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.

  20. Error tracking control for underactuated overhead cranes against arbitrary initial payload swing angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Menghua; Ma, Xin; Rong, Xuewen; Tian, Xincheng; Li, Yibin

    2017-02-01

    This paper exploits an error tracking control method for overhead crane systems for which the error trajectories for the trolley and the payload swing can be pre-specified. The proposed method does not require that the initial payload swing angle remains zero, whereas this requirement is usually assumed in conventional methods. The significant feature of the proposed method is its superior control performance as well as its strong robustness over different or uncertain rope lengths, payload masses, desired positions, initial payload swing angles, and external disturbances. Owing to the same attenuation behavior, the desired error trajectory for the trolley for each traveling distance is not needed to be reset, which is easy to implement in practical applications. By converting the error tracking overhead crane dynamics to the objective system, we obtain the error tracking control law for arbitrary initial payload swing angles. Lyapunov techniques and LaSalle's invariance theorem are utilized to prove the convergence and stability of the closed-loop system. Simulation and experimental results are illustrated to validate the superior performance of the proposed error tracking control method.

  1. Consensus seeking, formation keeping, and trajectory tracking in multiple vehicle cooperative control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wei

    Cooperative control problems for multiple vehicle systems can be categorized as either formation control problems with applications to mobile robots, unmanned air vehicles, autonomous underwater vehicles, satellites, aircraft, spacecraft, and automated highway systems, or non-formation control problems such as task assignment, cooperative transport, cooperative role assignment, air traffic control, cooperative timing, and cooperative search. The cooperative control of multiple vehicle systems poses significant theoretical and practical challenges. For cooperative control strategies to be successful, numerous issues must be addressed. We consider three important and correlated issues: consensus seeking, formation keeping, and trajectory tracking. For consensus seeking, we investigate algorithms and protocols so that a team of vehicles can reach consensus on the values of the coordination data in the presence of imperfect sensors, communication dropout, sparse communication topologies, and noisy and unreliable communication links. The main contribution of this dissertation in this area is that we show necessary and/or sufficient conditions for consensus seeking with limited, unidirectional, and unreliable information exchange under fixed and switching interaction topologies (through either communication or sensing). For formation keeping, we apply a so-called "virtual structure" approach to spacecraft formation flying and multi-vehicle formation maneuvers. As a result, single vehicle path planning and trajectory generation techniques can be employed for the virtual structure while trajectory tracking strategies can be employed for each vehicle. The main contribution of this dissertation in this area is that we propose a decentralized architecture for multiple spacecraft formation flying in deep space with formation feedback introduced. This architecture ensures the necessary precision in the presence of actuator saturation, internal and external disturbances, and

  2. A Robust Inner and Outer Loop Control Method for Trajectory Tracking of a Quadrotor

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Dunzhu; Cheng, Limei; Yao, Yanhong

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve the complicated trajectory tracking of quadrotor, a geometric inner and outer loop control scheme is presented. The outer loop generates the desired rotation matrix for the inner loop. To improve the response speed and robustness, a geometric SMC controller is designed for the inner loop. The outer loop is also designed via sliding mode control (SMC). By Lyapunov theory and cascade theory, the closed-loop system stability is guaranteed. Next, the tracking performance is validated by tracking three representative trajectories. Then, the robustness of the proposed control method is illustrated by trajectory tracking in presence of model uncertainty and disturbances. Subsequently, experiments are carried out to verify the method. In the experiment, ultra wideband (UWB) is used for indoor positioning. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used for fusing inertial measurement unit (IMU) and UWB measurements. The experimental results show the feasibility of the designed controller in practice. The comparative experiments with PD and PD loop demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control method. PMID:28925984

  3. Microprocessor-controlled step-down maximum-power-point tracker for photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazmuder, R. K.; Haidar, S.

    1992-12-01

    An efficient maximum power point tracker (MPPT) has been developed and can be used with a photovoltaic (PV) array and a load which requires lower voltage than the PV array voltage to be operated. The MPPT makes the PV array to operate at maximum power point (MPP) under all insolation and temperature, which ensures the maximum amount of available PV power to be delivered to the load. The performance of the MPPT has been studied under different insolation levels.

  4. Robust guaranteed cost tracking control of quadrotor UAV with uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiwei; Nian, Xiaohong; Wang, Haibo; Chen, Yinsheng

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a robust guaranteed cost controller (RGCC) is proposed for quadrotor UAV system with uncertainties to address set-point tracking problem. A sufficient condition of the existence for RGCC is derived by Lyapunov stability theorem. The designed RGCC not only guarantees the whole closed-loop system asymptotically stable but also makes the quadratic performance level built for the closed-loop system have an upper bound irrespective to all admissible parameter uncertainties. Then, an optimal robust guaranteed cost controller is developed to minimize the upper bound of performance level. Simulation results verify the presented control algorithms possess small overshoot and short setting time, with which the quadrotor has ability to perform set-point tracking task well. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicle Tracking Control Based on Adaptive Dynamic Programming.

    PubMed

    Mu, Chaoxu; Ni, Zhen; Sun, Changyin; He, Haibo

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a data-driven supplementary control approach with adaptive learning capability for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle tracking control based on action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming (ADHDP). The control action is generated by the combination of sliding mode control (SMC) and the ADHDP controller to track the desired velocity and the desired altitude. In particular, the ADHDP controller observes the differences between the actual velocity/altitude and the desired velocity/altitude, and then provides a supplementary control action accordingly. The ADHDP controller does not rely on the accurate mathematical model function and is data driven. Meanwhile, it is capable to adjust its parameters online over time under various working conditions, which is very suitable for hypersonic vehicle system with parameter uncertainties and disturbances. We verify the adaptive supplementary control approach versus the traditional SMC in the cruising flight, and provide three simulation studies to illustrate the improved performance with the proposed approach.

  6. Improved design of constrained model predictive tracking control for batch processes against unknown uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng; Jin, Qibing; Zhang, Ridong; Zhang, Junfeng; Gao, Furong

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, an improved constrained tracking control design is proposed for batch processes under uncertainties. A new process model that facilitates process state and tracking error augmentation with further additional tuning is first proposed. Then a subsequent controller design is formulated using robust stable constrained MPC optimization. Unlike conventional robust model predictive control (MPC), the proposed method enables the controller design to bear more degrees of tuning so that improved tracking control can be acquired, which is very important since uncertainties exist inevitably in practice and cause model/plant mismatches. An injection molding process is introduced to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed MPC approach in comparison with conventional robust MPC. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adaptive fixed-time trajectory tracking control of a stratospheric airship.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zewei; Feroskhan, Mir; Sun, Liang

    2018-05-01

    This paper addresses the fixed-time trajectory tracking control problem of a stratospheric airship. By extending the method of adding a power integrator to a novel adaptive fixed-time control method, the convergence of a stratospheric airship to its reference trajectory is guaranteed to be achieved within a fixed time. The control algorithm is firstly formulated without the consideration of external disturbances to establish the stability of the closed-loop system in fixed-time and demonstrate that the convergence time of the airship is essentially independent of its initial conditions. Subsequently, a smooth adaptive law is incorporated into the proposed fixed-time control framework to provide the system with robustness to external disturbances. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that under the adaptive fixed-time controller, the tracking errors will converge towards a residual set in fixed-time. The results of a comparative simulation study with other recent methods illustrate the remarkable performance and superiority of the proposed control method. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcidiacono, V.; Corsi, S.; Lambri, L.

    The paper describes two different closed-loop control criteria for the maximum power point tracking of the voltage-current characteristic of a photovoltaic generator. The two criteria are discussed and compared, inter alia, with regard to the setting-up problems that they pose. Although a detailed analysis is not embarked upon, the paper also provides some quantitative information on the energy advantages obtained by using electronic maximum power point tracking systems, as compared with the situation in which the point of operation of the photovoltaic generator is not controlled at all. Lastly, the paper presents two high-efficiency MPPT converters for experimental photovoltaic plants of the stand-alone and the grid-interconnected type.

  9. Pulse width modulation-based temperature tracking for feedback control of a shape memory alloy actuator.

    PubMed

    Ayvali, Elif; Desai, Jaydev P

    2014-04-01

    This work presents a temperature-feedback approach to control the radius of curvature of an arc-shaped shape memory alloy (SMA) wire. The nonlinear properties of the SMA such as phase transformation and its dependence on temperature and stress make SMA actuators difficult to control. Tracking a desired trajectory is more challenging than controlling just the position of the SMA actuator since the desired path is continuously changing. Consequently, tracking the desired strain directly or tracking the parameters such as temperature and electrical resistance that are related to strain with a model is a challenging task. Temperature-feedback is an attractive approach when direct measurement of strain is not practical. Pulse width modulation (PWM) is an effective method for SMA actuation and it can be used along with a compensator to control the temperature of the SMA. Using the constitutive model of the SMA, the desired temperature profile can be obtained for a given strain trajectory. A PWM-based nonlinear PID controller with a feed-forward heat transfer model is proposed to use temperature-feedback for tracking a desired temperature trajectory. The proposed controller is used during the heating phase of the SMA actuator. The controller proves to be effective in tracking step-wise and continuous trajectories.

  10. Disturbance observer-based fuzzy control for flexible spacecraft combined attitude & sun tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chak, Yew-Chung; Varatharajoo, Renuganth; Razoumny, Yury

    2017-04-01

    This paper investigates the combined attitude and sun-tracking control problem in the presence of external disturbances and internal disturbances, caused by flexible appendages. A new method based on Pythagorean trigonometric identity is proposed to drive the solar arrays. Using the control input and attitude output, a disturbance observer is developed to estimate the lumped disturbances consisting of the external and internal disturbances, and then compensated by the disturbance observer-based controller via a feed-forward control. The stability analysis demonstrates that the desired attitude trajectories are followed even in the presence of external disturbance and internal flexible modes. The main features of the proposed control scheme are that it can be designed separately and incorporated into the baseline controller to form the observer-based control system, and the combined attitude and sun-tracking control is achieved without the conventional attitude actuators. The attitude and sun-tracking performance using the proposed strategy is evaluated and validated through numerical simulations. The proposed control solution can serve as a fail-safe measure in case of failure of the conventional attitude actuator, which triggered by automatic reconfiguration of the attitude control components.

  11. Research on Precision Tracking on Fast Steering Mirror and Control Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Lin; Yi-ming, Wu; Fan, Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Fast steering mirror is a device used for controlling the beam direction precisely. Due to the short travel of the push-pull FSM, a compound fast steering mirror system driven by both limited-angle voice coil motor and push-pull FSM together is proposed. In the compound FSM system, limited-angle voice coil motor quickly swings at wide angle, while the push-pull FSM do high frequency movement in a small range, which provides the system with the high bandwidth and long travel. In the control strategy, the method of combining feed-forward control in Kalman filtering with auto-disturbance rejection control is used to improve trajectory tracking accuracy. The simulation result shows that tracking accuracy measured by the compound method can be improved by more than 5 times than that of the conventional PID.

  12. Flatness-Based Tracking Control and Nonlinear Observer for a Micro Aerial Quadcopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, G.; Sawodny, O.

    2010-09-01

    This paper deals with the design of a nonlinear observer and a differential flat based path tracking controller for a mini aerial quadcopter. Taking into account that only the inertial coordinates and the yaw angle are available for measurements, it is shown, that the system is differentially flat, allowing a systematic design of a nonlinear tracking control in open and closed loop. A nonlinear observer is carried out to estimate the roll and pitch angle as well as all the linear and angular velocities. Finally the performance of the feedback controller and observer are illustrated in a computer simulation.

  13. Maneuver Planning for Conjunction Risk Mitigation with Ground-track Control Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinley, David

    2008-01-01

    The planning of conjunction Risk Mitigation Maneuvers (RMM) in the presence of ground-track control requirements is analyzed. Past RMM planning efforts on the Aqua, Aura, and Terra spacecraft have demonstrated that only small maneuvers are available when ground-track control requirements are maintained. Assuming small maneuvers, analytical expressions for the effect of a given maneuver on conjunction geometry are derived. The analytical expressions are used to generate a large trade space for initial RMM design. This trade space represents a significant improvement in initial maneuver planning over existing methods that employ high fidelity maneuver models and propagation.

  14. Adaptive control for solar energy based DC microgrid system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qinhao

    During the upgrading of current electric power grid, it is expected to develop smarter, more robust and more reliable power systems integrated with distributed generations. To realize these objectives, traditional control techniques are no longer effective in either stabilizing systems or delivering optimal and robust performances. Therefore, development of advanced control methods has received increasing attention in power engineering. This work addresses two specific problems in the control of solar panel based microgrid systems. First, a new control scheme is proposed for the microgrid systems to achieve optimal energy conversion ratio in the solar panels. The control system can optimize the efficiency of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm by implementing two layers of adaptive control. Such a hierarchical control architecture has greatly improved the system performance, which is validated through both mathematical analysis and computer simulation. Second, in the development of the microgrid transmission system, the issues related to the tele-communication delay and constant power load (CPL)'s negative incremental impedance are investigated. A reference model based method is proposed for pole and zero placements that address the challenges of the time delay and CPL in closed-loop control. The effectiveness of the proposed modeling and control design methods are demonstrated in a simulation testbed. Practical aspects of the proposed methods for general microgrid systems are also discussed.

  15. Hybrid tracking and control system for computer-aided retinal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, R. D.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Rylander, Henry G., III; Welch, Ashley J.; Barrett, Steven F.

    1996-05-01

    We describe initial experimental results of a new hybrid digital and analog design for retinal tracking and laser beam control. Initial results demonstrate tracking rates which exceed the equivalent of 50 degrees per second in the eye, with automatic lesion pattern creation and robust loss of lock detection. Robotically assisted laser surgery to treat conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, and retinal tears can now be realized under clinical conditions with requisite safety using standard video hardware and inexpensive optical components.

  16. Perceptual control models of pursuit manual tracking demonstrate individual specificity and parameter consistency.

    PubMed

    Parker, Maximilian G; Tyson, Sarah F; Weightman, Andrew P; Abbott, Bruce; Emsley, Richard; Mansell, Warren

    2017-11-01

    Computational models that simulate individuals' movements in pursuit-tracking tasks have been used to elucidate mechanisms of human motor control. Whilst there is evidence that individuals demonstrate idiosyncratic control-tracking strategies, it remains unclear whether models can be sensitive to these idiosyncrasies. Perceptual control theory (PCT) provides a unique model architecture with an internally set reference value parameter, and can be optimized to fit an individual's tracking behavior. The current study investigated whether PCT models could show temporal stability and individual specificity over time. Twenty adults completed three blocks of 15 1-min, pursuit-tracking trials. Two blocks (training and post-training) were completed in one session and the third was completed after 1 week (follow-up). The target moved in a one-dimensional, pseudorandom pattern. PCT models were optimized to the training data using a least-mean-squares algorithm, and validated with data from post-training and follow-up. We found significant inter-individual variability (partial η 2 : .464-.697) and intra-individual consistency (Cronbach's α: .880-.976) in parameter estimates. Polynomial regression revealed that all model parameters, including the reference value parameter, contribute to simulation accuracy. Participants' tracking performances were significantly more accurately simulated by models developed from their own tracking data than by models developed from other participants' data. We conclude that PCT models can be optimized to simulate the performance of an individual and that the test-retest reliability of individual models is a necessary criterion for evaluating computational models of human performance.

  17. Robust Task Space Trajectory Tracking Control of Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galicki, M.

    2016-08-01

    This work deals with the problem of the accurate task space trajectory tracking subject to finite-time convergence. Kinematic and dynamic equations of a redundant manipulator are assumed to be uncertain. Moreover, globally unbounded disturbances are allowed to act on the manipulator when tracking the trajectory by the end-effector. Furthermore, the movement is to be accomplished in such a way as to reduce both the manipulator torques and their oscillations thus eliminating the potential robot vibrations. Based on suitably defined task space non-singular terminal sliding vector variable and the Lyapunov stability theory, we propose a class of chattering-free robust controllers, based on the estimation of transpose Jacobian, which seem to be effective in counteracting both uncertain kinematics and dynamics, unbounded disturbances and (possible) kinematic and/or algorithmic singularities met on the robot trajectory. The numerical simulations carried out for a redundant manipulator of a SCARA type consisting of the three revolute kinematic pairs and operating in a two-dimensional task space, illustrate performance of the proposed controllers as well as comparisons with other well known control schemes.

  18. A model predictive speed tracking control approach for autonomous ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Chen, Huiyan; Xiong, Guangming

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a novel speed tracking control approach based on a model predictive control (MPC) framework for autonomous ground vehicles. A switching algorithm without calibration is proposed to determine the drive or brake control. Combined with a simple inverse longitudinal vehicle model and adaptive regulation of MPC, this algorithm can make use of the engine brake torque for various driving conditions and avoid high frequency oscillations automatically. A simplified quadratic program (QP) solving algorithm is used to reduce the computational time, and the approach has been applied in a 16-bit microcontroller. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated via simulations and vehicle tests, which were carried out in a range of speed-profile tracking tasks. With a well-designed system structure, high-precision speed control is achieved. The system can robustly model uncertainty and external disturbances, and yields a faster response with less overshoot than a PI controller.

  19. Sliding mode output feedback control based on tracking error observer with disturbance estimator.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lingfei; Zhu, Yue

    2014-07-01

    For a class of systems who suffers from disturbances, an original output feedback sliding mode control method is presented based on a novel tracking error observer with disturbance estimator. The mathematical models of the systems are not required to be with high accuracy, and the disturbances can be vanishing or nonvanishing, while the bounds of disturbances are unknown. By constructing a differential sliding surface and employing reaching law approach, a sliding mode controller is obtained. On the basis of an extended disturbance estimator, a creative tracking error observer is produced. By using the observation of tracking error and the estimation of disturbance, the sliding mode controller is implementable. It is proved that the disturbance estimation error and tracking observation error are bounded, the sliding surface is reachable and the closed-loop system is robustly stable. The simulations on a servomotor positioning system and a five-degree-of-freedom active magnetic bearings system verify the effect of the proposed method. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System

    PubMed Central

    El-Helw, Hadi M.; Al-Hasheem, Mohamed; Marei, Mostafa I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter for Photovoltaic (PV) arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system. PMID:27560138

  1. Adaptive robust motion trajectory tracking control of pneumatic cylinders with LuGre model-based friction compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Deyuan; Tao, Guoliang; Liu, Hao; Zhu, Xiaocong

    2014-07-01

    Friction compensation is particularly important for motion trajectory tracking control of pneumatic cylinders at low speed movement. However, most of the existing model-based friction compensation schemes use simple classical models, which are not enough to address applications with high-accuracy position requirements. Furthermore, the friction force in the cylinder is time-varying, and there exist rather severe unmodelled dynamics and unknown disturbances in the pneumatic system. To deal with these problems effectively, an adaptive robust controller with LuGre model-based dynamic friction compensation is constructed. The proposed controller employs on-line recursive least squares estimation (RLSE) to reduce the extent of parametric uncertainties, and utilizes the sliding mode control method to attenuate the effects of parameter estimation errors, unmodelled dynamics and disturbances. In addition, in order to realize LuGre model-based friction compensation, the modified dual-observer structure for estimating immeasurable friction internal state is developed. Therefore, a prescribed motion tracking transient performance and final tracking accuracy can be guaranteed. Since the system model uncertainties are unmatched, the recursive backstepping design technology is applied. In order to solve the conflicts between the sliding mode control design and the adaptive control design, the projection mapping is used to condition the RLSE algorithm so that the parameter estimates are kept within a known bounded convex set. Finally, the proposed controller is tested for tracking sinusoidal trajectories and smooth square trajectory under different loads and sudden disturbance. The testing results demonstrate that the achievable performance of the proposed controller is excellent and is much better than most other studies in literature. Especially when a 0.5 Hz sinusoidal trajectory is tracked, the maximum tracking error is 0.96 mm and the average tracking error is 0.45 mm. This

  2. Trifocal Tensor-Based Adaptive Visual Trajectory Tracking Control of Mobile Robots.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Jia, Bingxi; Zhang, Kaixiang

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a trifocal tensor-based approach is proposed for the visual trajectory tracking task of a nonholonomic mobile robot equipped with a roughly installed monocular camera. The desired trajectory is expressed by a set of prerecorded images, and the robot is regulated to track the desired trajectory using visual feedback. Trifocal tensor is exploited to obtain the orientation and scaled position information used in the control system, and it works for general scenes owing to the generality of trifocal tensor. In the previous works, the start, current, and final images are required to share enough visual information to estimate the trifocal tensor. However, this requirement can be easily violated for perspective cameras with limited field of view. In this paper, key frame strategy is proposed to loosen this requirement, extending the workspace of the visual servo system. Considering the unknown depth and extrinsic parameters (installing position of the camera), an adaptive controller is developed based on Lyapunov methods. The proposed control strategy works for almost all practical circumstances, including both trajectory tracking and pose regulation tasks. Simulations are made based on the virtual experimentation platform (V-REP) to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  3. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Distributed Generation Systems - Control and Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zhehan

    This dissertation proposes a comprehensive control, power management, and fault detection strategy for solar photovoltaic (PV) distribution generations. Battery storages are typically employed in PV systems to mitigate the power fluctuation caused by unstable solar irradiance. With AC and DC loads, a PV-battery system can be treated as a hybrid microgrid which contains both DC and AC power resources and buses. In this thesis, a control power and management system (CAPMS) for PV-battery hybrid microgrid is proposed, which provides 1) the DC and AC bus voltage and AC frequency regulating scheme and controllers designed to track set points; 2) a power flow management strategy in the hybrid microgrid to achieve system generation and demand balance in both grid-connected and islanded modes; 3) smooth transition control during grid reconnection by frequency and phase synchronization control between the main grid and microgrid. Due to the increasing demands for PV power, scales of PV systems are getting larger and fault detection in PV arrays becomes challenging. High-impedance faults, low-mismatch faults, and faults occurred in low irradiance conditions tend to be hidden due to low fault currents, particularly, when a PV maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is in-service. If remain undetected, these faults can considerably lower the output energy of solar systems, damage the panels, and potentially cause fire hazards. In this dissertation, fault detection challenges in PV arrays are analyzed in depth, considering the crossing relations among the characteristics of PV, interactions with MPPT algorithms, and the nature of solar irradiance. Two fault detection schemes are then designed as attempts to address these technical issues, which detect faults inside PV arrays accurately even under challenging circumstances, e.g., faults in low irradiance conditions or high-impedance faults. Taking advantage of multi-resolution signal decomposition (MSD), a powerful signal

  4. Positioning and tracking control system analysis for mobile free space optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yushan; Refai, Hazem; Sluss, , James J., Jr.; Verma, Pramode; LoPresti, Peter

    2005-08-01

    Free Space Optical (FSO) communication has evolved to be applied to the mobile network, because it can provide up to 2.5Gbps or higher data rate wireless communication. One of the key challenges with FSO systems is to maintain the Line of Sight (LOS) between transmitter and receiver. In this paper, the feasibility and performance of applying the FSO technology to the mobile network is explored, and the design plan of the attitude positioning and tracking control system of the FSO transceiver is investigated. First, the system architecture is introduced, the requirements for the control system are analyzed, the involved reference frames and frame transformation are presented. Second, the control system bandwidth is used to evaluate the system performance in controlling a positioning system consisting of a gimbal and a steering mirror, some definitions to describe the positioning accuracy and tracking capacity are given. The attitude control of a FSO transceiver is split into 2 similar channels: pitch and yaw. Using an equivalent linear control system model, the simulations are carried out, with and without the presence of uncertainties that includes GPS data errors and sensor measurement errors. Finally, based on the simulation results in the pitch channel, the quantitative evaluation on the performance of the control system is given, including positioning accuracy, tracking capability and uncertainty tolerance.

  5. Control logic to track the outputs of a command generator or randomly forced target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trankle, T. L.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A procedure is presented for synthesizing time-invariant control logic to cause the outputs of a linear plant to track the outputs of an unforced (or randomly forced) linear dynamic system. The control logic uses feed-forward of the reference system state variables and feedback of the plant state variables. The feed-forward gains are obtained from the solution of a linear algebraic matrix equation of the Liapunov type. The feedback gains are the usual regulator gains, determined to stabilize (or augment the stability of) the plant, possibly including integral control. The method is applied here to the design of control logic for a second-order servomechanism to follow a linearly increasing (ramp) signal, an unstable third-order system with two controls to track two separate ramp signals, and a sixth-order system with two controls to track a constant signal and an exponentially decreasing signal (aircraft landing-flare or glide-slope-capture with constant velocity).

  6. Development of a feed-forward controller for a tracking telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John S.; Stufflebeam, Joseph L.; Feller, Dan

    2004-07-01

    This paper develops a State Space model of a feed-forward control system in the frequency domain, and time domain. The results of the mathematical model are implemented and the responses of the Elevation and Azimuth servo controller in a tracking telescope called a Cine-Sextant developed for the Utah Test and Training Range.

  7. Lidar-based wake tracking for closed-loop wind farm control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Cheng, Po Wen

    2016-09-01

    This work presents two advancements towards closed-loop wake redirecting of a wind turbine. First, a model-based estimation approach is presented which uses a nacelle-based lidar system facing downwind to obtain information about the wake. A reduced order wake model is described which is then used in the estimation to track the wake. The tracking is demonstrated with lidar measurement data from an offshore campaign and with simulated lidar data from a SOWFA simulation. Second, a controller for closed-loop wake steering is presented. It uses the wake tracking information to set the yaw actuator of the wind turbine to redirect the wake to a desired position. Altogether, this paper aims to present the concept of closed-loop wake redirecting and gives a possible solution to it.

  8. State-dependent differential Riccati equation to track control of time-varying systems with state and control nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Korayem, M H; Nekoo, S R

    2015-07-01

    This work studies an optimal control problem using the state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) in differential form to track for time-varying systems with state and control nonlinearities. The trajectory tracking structure provides two nonlinear differential equations: the state-dependent differential Riccati equation (SDDRE) and the feed-forward differential equation. The independence of the governing equations and stability of the controller are proven along the trajectory using the Lyapunov approach. Backward integration (BI) is capable of solving the equations as a numerical solution; however, the forward solution methods require the closed-form solution to fulfill the task. A closed-form solution is introduced for SDDRE, but the feed-forward differential equation has not yet been obtained. Different ways of solving the problem are expressed and analyzed. These include BI, closed-form solution with corrective assumption, approximate solution, and forward integration. Application of the tracking problem is investigated to control robotic manipulators possessing rigid or flexible joints. The intention is to release a general program for automatic implementation of an SDDRE controller for any manipulator that obeys the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) principle when only D-H parameters are received as input data. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. One-power IC with MPPT design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shengzhi; Chu, Ian; Zhao, Gengshen; Wang, Qingzhang

    2008-03-01

    When proceed photovoltaic power system design, engineer needs prepared model of PV cells to evaluate system response, capability performance, and stability, the DC model is not enough, but an accuracy AC model plays a big role. This paper talks first about the AC model of PV cells, and DC model is also introduced in simple. There is a PV controller example explaining the steps to do system simulation in this paper. Two equivalent circuit models are implemented with mixed-signal language verilog-a, one hardware language easy to use and having good speed and high accuracy. Both of two models include solar cell arrays, one buck switched mode DC-DC converter, and the maximum power point tracking algorithm. The difference between them is that Solar cell in one of two models is with ac small signal parameter, another is without. The simulation result is given in comparison. This paper's work shows that ac parameter plays large role in switch-mode PV power system, especially when the switch frequency is higher than 100kHz.

  10. Adaptive Jacobian Fuzzy Attitude Control for Flexible Spacecraft Combined Attitude and Sun Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chak, Yew-Chung; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2016-07-01

    Many spacecraft attitude control systems today use reaction wheels to deliver precise torques to achieve three-axis attitude stabilization. However, irrecoverable mechanical failure of reaction wheels could potentially lead to mission interruption or total loss. The electrically-powered Solar Array Drive Assemblies (SADA) are usually installed in the pitch axis which rotate the solar arrays to track the Sun, can produce torques to compensate for the pitch-axis wheel failure. In addition, the attitude control of a flexible spacecraft poses a difficult problem. These difficulties include the strong nonlinear coupled dynamics between the rigid hub and flexible solar arrays, and the imprecisely known system parameters, such as inertia matrix, damping ratios, and flexible mode frequencies. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the adaptive Jacobian tracking fuzzy control is proposed for the combined attitude and sun-tracking control problem of a flexible spacecraft during attitude maneuvers in this work. For the adaptation of kinematic and dynamic uncertainties, the proposed scheme uses an adaptive sliding vector based on estimated attitude velocity via approximate Jacobian matrix. The unknown nonlinearities are approximated by deriving the fuzzy models with a set of linguistic If-Then rules using the idea of sector nonlinearity and local approximation in fuzzy partition spaces. The uncertain parameters of the estimated nonlinearities and the Jacobian matrix are being adjusted online by an adaptive law to realize feedback control. The attitude of the spacecraft can be directly controlled with the Jacobian feedback control when the attitude pointing trajectory is designed with respect to the spacecraft coordinate frame itself. A significant feature of this work is that the proposed adaptive Jacobian tracking scheme will result in not only the convergence of angular position and angular velocity tracking errors, but also the convergence of estimated angular velocity to

  11. Optimal Control Method of Robot End Position and Orientation Based on Dynamic Tracking Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dalong; Xu, Lijuan

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of robot pose positioning and control, this paper proposed a dynamic tracking measurement robot pose optimization control method based on the actual measurement of D-H parameters of the robot, the parameters is taken with feedback compensation of the robot, according to the geometrical parameters obtained by robot pose tracking measurement, improved multi sensor information fusion the extended Kalan filter method, with continuous self-optimal regression, using the geometric relationship between joint axes for kinematic parameters in the model, link model parameters obtained can timely feedback to the robot, the implementation of parameter correction and compensation, finally we can get the optimal attitude angle, realize the robot pose optimization control experiments were performed. 6R dynamic tracking control of robot joint robot with independent research and development is taken as experimental subject, the simulation results show that the control method improves robot positioning accuracy, and it has the advantages of versatility, simplicity, ease of operation and so on.

  12. Internal Model-Based Robust Tracking Control Design for the MEMS Electromagnetic Micromirror.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiazheng; Sun, Weijie; Yeow, John T W

    2017-05-26

    The micromirror based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology is widely employed in different areas, such as scanning, imaging and optical switching. This paper studies the MEMS electromagnetic micromirror for scanning or imaging application. In these application scenarios, the micromirror is required to track the command sinusoidal signal, which can be converted to an output regulation problem theoretically. In this paper, based on the internal model principle, the output regulation problem is solved by designing a robust controller that is able to force the micromirror to track the command signal accurately. The proposed controller relies little on the accuracy of the model. Further, the proposed controller is implemented, and its effectiveness is examined by experiments. The experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed controller is satisfying.

  13. Internal Model-Based Robust Tracking Control Design for the MEMS Electromagnetic Micromirror

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jiazheng; Sun, Weijie; Yeow, John T. W.

    2017-01-01

    The micromirror based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology is widely employed in different areas, such as scanning, imaging and optical switching. This paper studies the MEMS electromagnetic micromirror for scanning or imaging application. In these application scenarios, the micromirror is required to track the command sinusoidal signal, which can be converted to an output regulation problem theoretically. In this paper, based on the internal model principle, the output regulation problem is solved by designing a robust controller that is able to force the micromirror to track the command signal accurately. The proposed controller relies little on the accuracy of the model. Further, the proposed controller is implemented, and its effectiveness is examined by experiments. The experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed controller is satisfying. PMID:28587105

  14. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert; Rice, Brandon Charles; Bower, Gordon Ross

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  15. Adaptive Neural Tracking Control for Switched High-Order Stochastic Nonlinear Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xudong; Wang, Xinyong; Zong, Guangdeng; Zheng, Xiaolong

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with adaptive neural tracking control design for a class of switched high-order stochastic nonlinear systems with unknown uncertainties and arbitrary deterministic switching. The considered issues are: 1) completely unknown uncertainties; 2) stochastic disturbances; and 3) high-order nonstrict-feedback system structure. The considered mathematical models can represent many practical systems in the actual engineering. By adopting the approximation ability of neural networks, common stochastic Lyapunov function method together with adding an improved power integrator technique, an adaptive state feedback controller with multiple adaptive laws is systematically designed for the systems. Subsequently, a controller with only two adaptive laws is proposed to solve the problem of over parameterization. Under the designed controllers, all the signals in the closed-loop system are bounded-input bounded-output stable in probability, and the system output can almost surely track the target trajectory within a specified bounded error. Finally, simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  16. Tracking control of a spool displacement in a direct piezoactuator-driven servo valve system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chulhee; Hwang, Yong-Hoon; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents tracking control performances of a piezostack direct drive valve (PDDV) operated at various temperatures. As afirst step, a spool valve and valve system are designed operated by the piezoactuator. After briefly describing about operating principle, an experimental apparatus to investigate the effect of temperaturs on the performances is set up. Subsequently, the PDDV is installed in a large-size heat chamber equipped with electric circuits and sensors. A classical proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is designed and applied to control the spool displacement. In addition, a fuzzt algorithm is integrated with the PID controller to enhace performance of the proposed valve system. The tracking performance of a spool displacement is tested by increasing the teperature and exciting frequency up to 150°C and 200 Hz, respectively. It is shown that the tracking performance heavily depends on both the operating temperature and the excitation frequency.

  17. Design of New Power Management Circuit for Light Energy Harvesting System

    PubMed Central

    Jafer, Issa; Stack, Paul; MacNamee, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, it can be observed that Wireless Sensors Networks (WSN) are taking increasingly vital roles in many applications, such as building energy monitoring and control, which is the focus of the work in this paper. However, the main challenging issue with adopting WSN technology is the use of power sources such as batteries, which have a limited lifetime. A smart solution that could tackle this problem is using Energy Harvesting technology. The work in this paper will be focused on proposing a new power management design through harvesting indoor light intensity. The new approach is inspired by the use of the Fractional Open Circuit Voltage based Maximum Power Point tracking (MPPT) concept for sub mw Photo Voltaic (PV) cells. The new design adopts two main features: First, it minimizes the power consumed by the power management section; and second, it maximizes the MPPT-converted output voltage and consequently improves the efficiency of the power conversion in the sub mw power level. The new experimentally-tested design showed an improvement of 81% in the efficiency of MPPT conversion using 0.5 mW input power in comparison with the other presented solutions that showed less efficiency with higher input power. PMID:26907300

  18. Adaptive beam tracking and steering via electrowetting-controlled liquid prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jiangtao; Chen, Chung-Lung

    2011-11-01

    We report an electrowetting-controlled optofluidic system for adaptive beam tracking and agile steering. With two immiscible fluids in a transparent cell, we can actively control the contact angle along the fluid-fluid-solid tri-junction line and hence the orientation of the fluid-fluid interface via electrowetting. The naturally formed meniscus between the two liquids can function as an optical prism. We have fabricated a liquid prism module with an aperture size of 10 mm × 10mm. With 1 wt. % KCl and 1 wt. % Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate added into deionized water, the orientation of the water-silicone oil interface has been modulated between -26° and 26° that can deflect and steer beam within the incidence angle of 0°-15°. The wide-range beam tracking and steering enables the liquid prism work as an electrowetting solar cell.

  19. Adaptive tracking control for a class of stochastic switched systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Xia, Yuanqing

    2018-02-01

    The problem of adaptive tracking is considered for a class of stochastic switched systems, in this paper. As preliminaries, the criterion of global asymptotical practical stability in probability is first presented by the aid of common Lyapunov function method. Based on the Lyapunov stability criterion, adaptive backstepping controllers are designed to guarantee that the closed-loop system has a unique global solution, which is globally asymptotically practically stable in probability, and the tracking error in the fourth moment converges to an arbitrarily small neighbourhood of zero. Simulation examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed schemes.

  20. Controlling alpha tracks registration in Makrofol DE 1-1 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, N. M.; Hanafy, M. S.; Naguib, A.; El-Saftawy, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Makrofol DE 1-1 is a recent type of solid state nuclear track detectors could be used to measure radon concentration in the environment throughout the detection of α-particles emitted from radon decay. Thus, studying the physical parameters that control the formation of alpha tracks is vital for environmental radiation protection. Makrofol DE 1-1 polycarbonate detector was irradiated by α-particles of energies varied from 2 to 5 MeV emitted from the 241Am source of α-particle energy of 5.5 MeV. Then, the detector was etched in an optimum etching solution of mixed ethyl alcohol in KOH aqueous solution of (85% (Vol.) of 6 M KOH + 15% (Vol.) C2H5OH) at 50 °C for 3 h. Afterward, the bulk etch rate, etching sensitivity, and the registration efficiency of the detector, which control the tracks registration, were measured. The bulk etch rate of Makrofol detector was found to be 3.71 ± 0.71 μm h-1. The etching sensitivity and the detector registration efficiency were decreased exponentially with α-particles' energies following Bragg curve. A precise registration of α-particle was presented in this study. Therefore, Makrofol DE 1-1 can be applied as a radiation dosimeter as well as radon and thoron monitors.

  1. Tracking control of WMRs on loose soil based on mixed H2/H∞ control with longitudinal slip ratio estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haibo; Chen, Chao; Ding, Liang; Li, Weihua; Yu, Haitao; Xia, Kerui; Liu, Zhen

    2017-11-01

    Wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) often suffer from the longitudinal slipping when moving on the loose soil of the surface of the moon during exploration. Longitudinal slip is the main cause of WMRs' delay in trajectory tracking. In this paper, a nonlinear extended state observer (NESO) is introduced to estimate the longitudinal velocity in order to estimate the slip ratio and the derivative of the loss of velocity which are used in modelled disturbance compensation. Owing to the uncertainty and disturbance caused by estimation errors, a multi-objective controller using the mixed H2/H∞ method is employed to ensure the robust stability and performance of the WMR system. The final inputs of the trajectory tracking consist of the feedforward compensation, compensation for the modelled disturbances and designed multi-objective control inputs. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the controller, which exhibits a satisfactory tracking performance.

  2. Optimal modified tracking performance for MIMO networked control systems with communication constraints.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Zhan, Xi-Sheng; Yan, Huai-Cheng; Ge, Ming-Feng

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the optimal modified tracking performance of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) networked control systems (NCSs) with packet dropouts and bandwidth constraints. Some explicit expressions are obtained by using co-prime factorization and the spectral decomposition technique. The obtained results show that the optimal modified tracking performance is related to the intrinsic properties of a given plant such as non-minimum phase (NMP) zeros, unstable poles, and their directions. Furthermore, the modified factor, packet dropouts probability and bandwidth also impact the optimal modified tracking performance of the NCSs. The optimal modified tracking performance with channel input power constraint is obtained by searching through all stabilizing two-parameter compensator. Finally, some typical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of a Simulation Tool to Determine Achievable Control Dynamics and Control Power Requirements with Perfect Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a study of two methods for use in a generic nonlinear simulation tool that could be used to determine achievable control dynamics and control power requirements while performing perfect tracking maneuvers over the entire flight envelope. The two methods are NDI (nonlinear dynamic inversion) and the SOFFT(Stochastic Optimal Feedforward and Feedback Technology) feedforward control structure. Equivalent discrete and continuous SOFFT feedforward controllers have been developed. These equivalent forms clearly show that the closed-loop plant model loop is a plant inversion and is the same as the NDI formulation. The main difference is that the NDI formulation has a closed-loop controller structure whereas SOFFT uses an open-loop command model. Continuous, discrete, and hybrid controller structures have been developed and integrated into the formulation. Linear simulation results show that seven different configurations all give essentially the same response, with the NDI hybrid being slightly different. The SOFFT controller gave better tracking performance compared to the NDI controller when a nonlinear saturation element was added. Future plans include evaluation using a nonlinear simulation.

  4. A Hierarchical Model Predictive Tracking Control for Independent Four-Wheel Driving/Steering Vehicles with Coaxial Steering Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Masato; Hagimori, Yuki; Nonaka, Kenichiro; Sekiguchi, Kazuma

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we apply a hierarchical model predictive control to omni-directional mobile vehicle, and improve the tracking performance. We deal with an independent four-wheel driving/steering vehicle (IFWDS) equipped with four coaxial steering mechanisms (CSM). The coaxial steering mechanism is a special one composed of two steering joints on the same axis. In our previous study with respect to IFWDS with ideal steering, we proposed a model predictive tracking control. However, this method did not consider constraints of the coaxial steering mechanism which causes delay of steering. We also proposed a model predictive steering control considering constraints of this mechanism. In this study, we propose a hierarchical system combining above two control methods for IFWDS. An upper controller, which deals with vehicle kinematics, runs a model predictive tracking control, and a lower controller, which considers constraints of coaxial steering mechanism, runs a model predictive steering control which tracks the predicted steering angle optimized an upper controller. We verify the superiority of this method by comparing this method with the previous method.

  5. Adaptive Tracking Control for Robots With an Interneural Computing Scheme.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Feng-Sheng; Hsu, Sheng-Yi; Shih, Mau-Hsiang

    2018-04-01

    Adaptive tracking control of mobile robots requires the ability to follow a trajectory generated by a moving target. The conventional analysis of adaptive tracking uses energy minimization to study the convergence and robustness of the tracking error when the mobile robot follows a desired trajectory. However, in the case that the moving target generates trajectories with uncertainties, a common Lyapunov-like function for energy minimization may be extremely difficult to determine. Here, to solve the adaptive tracking problem with uncertainties, we wish to implement an interneural computing scheme in the design of a mobile robot for behavior-based navigation. The behavior-based navigation adopts an adaptive plan of behavior patterns learning from the uncertainties of the environment. The characteristic feature of the interneural computing scheme is the use of neural path pruning with rewards and punishment interacting with the environment. On this basis, the mobile robot can be exploited to change its coupling weights in paths of neural connections systematically, which can then inhibit or enhance the effect of flow elimination in the dynamics of the evolutionary neural network. Such dynamical flow translation ultimately leads to robust sensory-to-motor transformations adapting to the uncertainties of the environment. A simulation result shows that the mobile robot with the interneural computing scheme can perform fault-tolerant behavior of tracking by maintaining suitable behavior patterns at high frequency levels.

  6. Model-Free Primitive-Based Iterative Learning Control Approach to Trajectory Tracking of MIMO Systems With Experimental Validation.

    PubMed

    Radac, Mircea-Bogdan; Precup, Radu-Emil; Petriu, Emil M

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel model-free trajectory tracking of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems by the combination of iterative learning control (ILC) and primitives. The optimal trajectory tracking solution is obtained in terms of previously learned solutions to simple tasks called primitives. The library of primitives that are stored in memory consists of pairs of reference input/controlled output signals. The reference input primitives are optimized in a model-free ILC framework without using knowledge of the controlled process. The guaranteed convergence of the learning scheme is built upon a model-free virtual reference feedback tuning design of the feedback decoupling controller. Each new complex trajectory to be tracked is decomposed into the output primitives regarded as basis functions. The optimal reference input for the control system to track the desired trajectory is next recomposed from the reference input primitives. This is advantageous because the optimal reference input is computed straightforward without the need to learn from repeated executions of the tracking task. In addition, the optimization problem specific to trajectory tracking of square MIMO systems is decomposed in a set of optimization problems assigned to each separate single-input single-output control channel that ensures a convenient model-free decoupling. The new model-free primitive-based ILC approach is capable of planning, reasoning, and learning. A case study dealing with the model-free control tuning for a nonlinear aerodynamic system is included to validate the new approach. The experimental results are given.

  7. Optimal Variable-Structure Control Tracking of Spacecraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crassidis, John L.; Vadali, Srinivas R.; Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    An optimal control approach using variable-structure (sliding-mode) tracking for large angle spacecraft maneuvers is presented. The approach expands upon a previously derived regulation result using a quaternion parameterization for the kinematic equations of motion. This parameterization is used since it is free of singularities. The main contribution of this paper is the utilization of a simple term in the control law that produces a maneuver to the reference attitude trajectory in the shortest distance. Also, a multiplicative error quaternion between the desired and actual attitude is used to derive the control law. Sliding-mode switching surfaces are derived using an optimal-control analysis. Control laws are given using either external torque commands or reaction wheel commands. Global asymptotic stability is shown for both cases using a Lyapunov analysis. Simulation results are shown which use the new control strategy to stabilize the motion of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe spacecraft.

  8. Subjective evaluation with FAA criteria: A multidimensional scaling approach. [ground track control management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Parkin, L.; Wempe, T. E.; Huff, E. F.

    1975-01-01

    Perceived orderliness in the ground tracks of five A/C during their simulated flights was studied. Dynamically developing ground tracks for five A/C from 21 separate runs were reproduced from computer storage and displayed on CRTS to professional pilots and controllers for their evaluations and preferences under several criteria. The ground tracks were developed in 20 seconds as opposed to the 5 minutes of simulated flight using speedup techniques for display. Metric and nonmetric multidimensional scaling techniques are being used to analyze the subjective responses in an effort to: (1) determine the meaningfulness of basing decisions on such complex subjective criteria; (2) compare pilot/controller perceptual spaces; (3) determine the dimensionality of the subjects' perceptual spaces; and thereby (4) determine objective measures suitable for comparing alternative traffic management simulations.

  9. Graph theoretic framework based cooperative control and estimation of multiple UAVs for target tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mousumi

    Designing the control technique for nonlinear dynamic systems is a significant challenge. Approaches to designing a nonlinear controller are studied and an extensive study on backstepping based technique is performed in this research with the purpose of tracking a moving target autonomously. Our main motivation is to explore the controller for cooperative and coordinating unmanned vehicles in a target tracking application. To start with, a general theoretical framework for target tracking is studied and a controller in three dimensional environment for a single UAV is designed. This research is primarily focused on finding a generalized method which can be applied to track almost any reference trajectory. The backstepping technique is employed to derive the controller for a simplified UAV kinematic model. This controller can compute three autopilot modes i.e. velocity, ground heading (or course angle), and flight path angle for tracking the unmanned vehicle. Numerical implementation is performed in MATLAB with the assumption of having perfect and full state information of the target to investigate the accuracy of the proposed controller. This controller is then frozen for the multi-vehicle problem. Distributed or decentralized cooperative control is discussed in the context of multi-agent systems. A consensus based cooperative control is studied; such consensus based control problem can be viewed from the algebraic graph theory concepts. The communication structure between the UAVs is represented by the dynamic graph where UAVs are represented by the nodes and the communication links are represented by the edges. The previously designed controller is augmented to account for the group to obtain consensus based on their communication. A theoretical development of the controller for the cooperative group of UAVs is presented and the simulation results for different communication topologies are shown. This research also investigates the cases where the communication

  10. Controlling High-Resolution LROC NAC Polar Mosaics to LOLA Track Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archinal, B.; Lee, E.; Weller, L.; Richie, J.; Edmundson, K.; Laura, J.; Robinson, M.; Speyerer, E.; Boyd, A.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Wagner, R.; Nefian, A.

    2016-11-01

    We describe our progress on completing 1 m resolution geodetically controlled LROC NAC illumination mosaics of both lunar poles out to 85 degrees latitude, constrained using matching to LOLA track data.

  11. Approximation-Based Discrete-Time Adaptive Position Tracking Control for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinpeng; Shi, Peng; Yu, Haisheng; Chen, Bing; Lin, Chong

    2015-07-01

    This paper considers the problem of discrete-time adaptive position tracking control for a interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) based on fuzzy-approximation. Fuzzy logic systems are used to approximate the nonlinearities of the discrete-time IPMSM drive system which is derived by direct discretization using Euler method, and a discrete-time fuzzy position tracking controller is designed via backstepping approach. In contrast to existing results, the advantage of the scheme is that the number of the adjustable parameters is reduced to two only and the problem of coupling nonlinearity can be overcome. It is shown that the proposed discrete-time fuzzy controller can guarantee the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin and all the signals are bounded. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness and the potentials of the theoretic results obtained.

  12. Tracking instrument and control for solar concentrators. Final technical report, October 1979-January 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J; Kuhlman, J

    1981-01-31

    The tracker uses a single photo sensor, and a rotating aperature to obtain tracking accuracies better than 1.5 mrads (0.1 degs). Peak signal detection is used to eliminate tracking of false sources, i.e., clouds, etc. A prism is employed to obtain an extended field of view (150 degs axially - 360 degs radially). The tracker digitally measures the Suns displacement angle relative to the concentrator axis, and repositions it incrementally. This arrangement permits the use of low cost non-servo motors. The local controller contains microprocessor based electronics, incorporating digital signal processing. A single controller may be time shared by amore » maximum of sixteen trackers, providing a high performance, cost effective solar tracking system, suitable for both line and point focus concentrators. An installation may have the local controller programmed as a standalone unit or slaved to a central controller. When used with a central controller, dynamic data monitoring and logging is available, together with the ability to change system modes and parameters, as desired.« less

  13. A comparison of kinesthetic-tactual and visual displays via a critical tracking task. [for aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagacinski, R. J.; Miller, D. P.; Gilson, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using the critical tracking task to evaluate kinesthetic-tactual displays was examined. The test subjects were asked to control a first-order unstable system with a continuously decreasing time constant by using either visual or tactual unidimensional displays. The results indicate that the critical tracking task is both a feasible and a reliable methodology for assessing tactual tracking. Further, that the critical tracking methodology is as sensitive and valid a measure of tactual tracking as visual tracking is demonstrated by the approximately equal effects of quickening for the tactual and visual displays.

  14. Global finite-time attitude consensus tracking control for a group of rigid spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Penghua

    2017-10-01

    The problem of finite-time attitude consensus for multiple rigid spacecraft with a leader-follower architecture is investigated in this paper. To achieve the finite-time attitude consensus, at the first step, a distributed finite-time convergent observer is proposed for each follower to estimate the leader's attitude in a finite time. Then based on the terminal sliding mode control method, a new finite-time attitude tracking controller is designed such that the leader's attitude can be tracked in a finite time. Finally, a finite-time observer-based distributed control strategy is proposed. It is shown that the attitude consensus can be achieved in a finite time under the proposed controller. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Active disturbance rejection controller of fine tracking system for free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ning; Liu, Yang; Chen, Xinglin; Wang, Yan

    2013-08-01

    Free space optical communication is one of the best approaches in future communications. Laser beam's acquisition, pointing and tracking are crucial technologies of free space optical communication. Fine tracking system is important component of APT (acquisition, pointing and tracking) system. It cooperates with the coarse pointing system in executing the APT mission. Satellite platform vibration and disturbance, which reduce received optical power, increase bit error rate and affect seriously the natural performance of laser communication. For the characteristic of satellite platform, an active disturbance rejection controller was designed to reduce the vibration and disturbance. There are three major contributions in the paper. Firstly, the effects of vibration on the inter satellite optical communications were analyzed, and the reasons and characters of vibration of the satellite platform were summarized. The amplitude-frequency response of a filter was designed according to the power spectral density of platform vibration of SILEX (Semiconductor Inter-satellite Laser Experiment), and then the signals of platform vibration were generated by filtering white Gaussian noise using the filter. Secondly, the fast steering mirror is a key component of the fine tracking system for optical communication. The mechanical design and model analysis was made to the tip/tilt mirror driven by the piezoelectric actuator and transmitted by the flexure hinge. The transfer function of the fast steering mirror, camera, D/A data acquisition card was established, and the theory model of transfer function of this system was further obtained. Finally, an active disturbance rejection control method is developed, multiple parallel extended state observers were designed for estimation of unknown dynamics and external disturbance, and the estimated states were used for nonlinear feedback control and compensation to improve system performance. The simulation results show that the designed

  16. Robust adaptive fuzzy tracking control for pure-feedback stochastic nonlinear systems with input constraints.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huanqing; Chen, Bing; Liu, Xiaoping; Liu, Kefu; Lin, Chong

    2013-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of adaptive fuzzy tracking control for a class of pure-feedback stochastic nonlinear systems with input saturation. To overcome the design difficulty from nondifferential saturation nonlinearity, a smooth nonlinear function of the control input signal is first introduced to approximate the saturation function; then, an adaptive fuzzy tracking controller based on the mean-value theorem is constructed by using backstepping technique. The proposed adaptive fuzzy controller guarantees that all signals in the closed-loop system are bounded in probability and the system output eventually converges to a small neighborhood of the desired reference signal in the sense of mean quartic value. Simulation results further illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  17. Sinusoidal visuomotor tracking: intermittent servo-control or coupled oscillations?

    PubMed

    Russell, D M; Sternad, D

    2001-12-01

    In visuomotor tasks that involve accuracy demands, small directional changes in the trajectories have been taken as evidence of feedback-based error corrections. In the present study variability, or intermittency, in visuomanual tracking of sinusoidal targets was investigated. Two lines of analyses were pursued: First, the hypothesis that humans fundamentally act as intermittent servo-controllers was re-examined, probing the question of whether discontinuities in the movement trajectory directly imply intermittent control. Second, an alternative hypothesis was evaluated: that rhythmic tracking movements are generated by entrainment between the oscillations of the target and the actor, such that intermittency expresses the degree of stability. In 2 experiments, participants (N = 6 in each experiment) swung 1 of 2 different hand-held pendulums, tracking a rhythmic target that oscillated at different frequencies with a constant amplitude. In 1 line of analyses, the authors tested the intermittency hypothesis by using the typical kinematic error measures and spectral analysis. In a 2nd line, they examined relative phase and its variability, following analyses of rhythmic interlimb coordination. The results showed that visually guided corrective processes play a role, especially for slow movements. Intermittency, assessed as frequency and power components of the movement trajectory, was found to change as a function of both target frequency and the manipulandum's inertia. Support for entrainment was found in conditions in which task frequency was identical to or higher than the effector's eigenfrequency. The results suggest that it is the symmetry between task and effector that determines which behavioral regime is dominant.

  18. Lithospheric controls on magma composition along Earth's longest continental hotspot track.

    PubMed

    Davies, D R; Rawlinson, N; Iaffaldano, G; Campbell, I H

    2015-09-24

    Hotspots are anomalous regions of volcanism at Earth's surface that show no obvious association with tectonic plate boundaries. Classic examples include the Hawaiian-Emperor chain and the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain province. The majority are believed to form as Earth's tectonic plates move over long-lived mantle plumes: buoyant upwellings that bring hot material from Earth's deep mantle to its surface. It has long been recognized that lithospheric thickness limits the rise height of plumes and, thereby, their minimum melting pressure. It should, therefore, have a controlling influence on the geochemistry of plume-related magmas, although unambiguous evidence of this has, so far, been lacking. Here we integrate observational constraints from surface geology, geochronology, plate-motion reconstructions, geochemistry and seismology to ascertain plume melting depths beneath Earth's longest continental hotspot track, a 2,000-kilometre-long track in eastern Australia that displays a record of volcanic activity between 33 and 9 million years ago, which we call the Cosgrove track. Our analyses highlight a strong correlation between lithospheric thickness and magma composition along this track, with: (1) standard basaltic compositions in regions where lithospheric thickness is less than 110 kilometres; (2) volcanic gaps in regions where lithospheric thickness exceeds 150 kilometres; and (3) low-volume, leucitite-bearing volcanism in regions of intermediate lithospheric thickness. Trace-element concentrations from samples along this track support the notion that these compositional variations result from different degrees of partial melting, which is controlled by the thickness of overlying lithosphere. Our results place the first observational constraints on the sub-continental melting depth of mantle plumes and provide direct evidence that lithospheric thickness has a dominant influence on the volume and chemical composition of plume-derived magmas.

  19. Adaptive beam tracking and steering via electrowetting-controlled liquid prism

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, JT; Chen, CL

    2011-11-07

    We report an electrowetting-controlled optofluidic system for adaptive beam tracking and agile steering. With two immiscible fluids in a transparent cell, we can actively control the contact angle along the fluid-fluid-solid tri-junction line and hence the orientation of the fluid-fluid interface via electrowetting. The naturally formed meniscus between the two liquids can function as an optical prism. We have fabricated a liquid prism module with an aperture size of 10 mm -10mm. With 1 wt.% KCl and 1 wt.% Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate added into deionized water, the orientation of the water-silicone oil interface has been modulated between -26 degrees andmore » 26 degrees that can deflect and steer beam within the incidence angle of 0 degrees-15 degrees. The wide-range beam tracking and steering enables the liquid prism work as an electrowetting solar cell. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3660578]« less

  20. A dual-loop model of the human controller in single-axis tracking tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A dual loop model of the human controller in single axis compensatory tracking tasks is introduced. This model possesses an inner-loop closure which involves feeding back that portion of the controlled element output rate which is due to control activity. The sensory inputs to the human controller are assumed to be system error and control force. The former is assumed to be sensed via visual, aural, or tactile displays while the latter is assumed to be sensed in kinesthetic fashion. A nonlinear form of the model is briefly discussed. This model is then linearized and parameterized. A set of general adaptive characteristics for the parameterized model is hypothesized. These characteristics describe the manner in which the parameters in the linearized model will vary with such things as display quality. It is demonstrated that the parameterized model can produce controller describing functions which closely approximate those measured in laboratory tracking tasks for a wide variety of controlled elements.

  1. Terminal Sliding Mode-Based Consensus Tracking Control for Networked Uncertain Mechanical Systems on Digraphs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Song, Yongduan; Guan, Yanfeng

    2018-03-01

    This brief investigates the finite-time consensus tracking control problem for networked uncertain mechanical systems on digraphs. A new terminal sliding-mode-based cooperative control scheme is developed to guarantee that the tracking errors converge to an arbitrarily small bound around zero in finite time. All the networked systems can have different dynamics and all the dynamics are unknown. A neural network is used at each node to approximate the local unknown dynamics. The control schemes are implemented in a fully distributed manner. The proposed control method eliminates some limitations in the existing terminal sliding-mode-based consensus control methods and extends the existing analysis methods to the case of directed graphs. Simulation results on networked robot manipulators are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.

  2. Adaptive control paradigm for photovoltaic and solid oxide fuel cell in a grid-integrated hybrid renewable energy system.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Sidra; Khan, Laiq

    2017-01-01

    The hybrid power system (HPS) is an emerging power generation scheme due to the plentiful availability of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are characterized as highly intermittent in nature due to meteorological conditions, while the domestic load also behaves in a quite uncertain manner. In this scenario, to maintain the balance between generation and load, the development of an intelligent and adaptive control algorithm has preoccupied power engineers and researchers. This paper proposes a Hermite wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control of photovoltaic (PV) systems to extract maximum power and a Hermite wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to obtain a swift response in a grid-connected hybrid power system. A comprehensive simulation testbed for a grid-connected hybrid power system (wind turbine, PV cells, SOFC, electrolyzer, battery storage system, supercapacitor (SC), micro-turbine (MT) and domestic load) is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness and superiority of the proposed indirect adaptive control paradigm are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system testbed by comparison with a conventional PI (proportional and integral) control system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigm.

  3. Adaptive control paradigm for photovoltaic and solid oxide fuel cell in a grid-integrated hybrid renewable energy system

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Laiq

    2017-01-01

    The hybrid power system (HPS) is an emerging power generation scheme due to the plentiful availability of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are characterized as highly intermittent in nature due to meteorological conditions, while the domestic load also behaves in a quite uncertain manner. In this scenario, to maintain the balance between generation and load, the development of an intelligent and adaptive control algorithm has preoccupied power engineers and researchers. This paper proposes a Hermite wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control of photovoltaic (PV) systems to extract maximum power and a Hermite wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to obtain a swift response in a grid-connected hybrid power system. A comprehensive simulation testbed for a grid-connected hybrid power system (wind turbine, PV cells, SOFC, electrolyzer, battery storage system, supercapacitor (SC), micro-turbine (MT) and domestic load) is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness and superiority of the proposed indirect adaptive control paradigm are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system testbed by comparison with a conventional PI (proportional and integral) control system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigm. PMID:28329015

  4. Steering Angle Control of Car for Dubins Path-tracking Using Model Predictive Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuma Rahma Putri, Dian; Subchan; Asfihani, Tahiyatul

    2018-03-01

    Car as one of transportation is inseparable from technological developments. About ten years, there are a lot of research and development on lane keeping system(LKS) which is a system that automaticaly controls the steering to keep the vehicle especially car always on track. This system can be developed for unmanned cars. Unmanned system car requires navigation, guidance and control which is able to direct the vehicle to move toward the desired path. The guidance system is represented by using Dubins-Path that will be controlled by using Model Predictive Control. The control objective is to keep the car’s movement that represented by dinamic lateral motion model so car can move according to the path appropriately. The simulation control on the four types of trajectories that generate the value for steering angle and steering angle changes are at the specified interval.

  5. Adaptive integral backstepping sliding mode control for opto-electronic tracking system based on modified LuGre friction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Fengfa; Li, Xingfei; Chen, Cheng; Tan, Wenbin

    2017-12-01

    In order to improve the control accuracy and stability of opto-electronic tracking system fixed on reef or airport under friction and external disturbance conditions, adaptive integral backstepping sliding mode control approach with friction compensation is developed to achieve accurate and stable tracking for fast moving target. The nonlinear observer and slide mode controller based on modified LuGre model with friction compensation can effectively reduce the influence of nonlinear friction and disturbance of this servo system. The stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed by Lyapunov theory. The steady-state error of the system is eliminated by integral action. The adaptive integral backstepping sliding mode controller and its performance are validated by a nonlinear modified LuGre dynamic model of the opto-electronic tracking system in simulation and practical experiments. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed controller can effectively realise the accuracy and stability control of opto-electronic tracking system.

  6. Design and control of the precise tracking bed based on complex electromechanical design theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Changzhi; Liu, Zhao; Wu, Liao; Chen, Ken

    2010-05-01

    The precise tracking technology is wide used in astronomical instruments, satellite tracking and aeronautic test bed. However, the precise ultra low speed tracking drive system is one high integrated electromechanical system, which one complexly electromechanical design method is adopted to improve the efficiency, reliability and quality of the system during the design and manufacture circle. The precise Tracking Bed is one ultra-exact, ultra-low speed, high precision and huge inertial instrument, which some kind of mechanism and environment of the ultra low speed is different from general technology. This paper explores the design process based on complex electromechanical optimizing design theory, one non-PID with a CMAC forward feedback control method is used in the servo system of the precise tracking bed and some simulation results are discussed.

  7. An adaptive vibration control method to suppress the vibration of the maglev train caused by track irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Danfeng; Yu, Peichang; Wang, Lianchun; Li, Jie

    2017-11-01

    The levitation gap of the urban maglev train is around 8 mm, which puts a rather high requirement on the smoothness of the track. In practice, it is found that the track irregularity may cause stability problems when the maglev train is traveling. In this paper, the dynamic response of the levitation module, which is the basic levitation structure of the urban maglev train, is investigated in the presence of track irregularities. Analyses show that due to the structural configuration of the levitation module, the vibration of the levitation gap may be amplified and "resonances" may be observed under some specified track wavelengths and train speeds; besides, it is found that the gap vibration of the rear levitation unit in a levitation module is more significant than that of the front levitation unit, which agrees well with practice. To suppress the vibration of the rear levitation gap, an adaptive vibration control method is proposed, which utilizes the information of the front levitation unit as a reference. A pair of mirror FIR (finite impulse response) filters are designed and tuned by an adaptive mechanism, and they produce a compensation signal for the rear levitation controller to cancel the disturbance brought by the track irregularity. Simulations under some typical track conditions, including the sinusoidal track profile, random track irregularity, as well as track steps, indicate that the adaptive vibration control scheme can significantly reduce the amplitude of the rear gap vibration, which provides a method to improve the stability and ride comfort of the maglev train.

  8. Eccentricity and argument of perigee control for orbits with repeat ground tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    In order to gain an understanding into the problem of eccentricity (e) and argument of perigee (omega) control for TOPEX/Poseidon, the two cases where the highest latitude crossing time and one of the equator crossings are held constant are investigated. Variations in e and omega cause a significant effect on the satellite's ground-track repeatability. Maintaining e and omega near their frozen values will minimize this variation. Analytical expressions are found to express this relationship while keeping an arbitrary point of the ground track fixed. The initial offset of the ground track from its nominal path determines the subsequent evolution of e and omega about their frozen values. This long-term behavior is numerically determined using an earth gravitational field including the first 17 zonal harmonics. The numerical results are plotted together with the analytical constraints to see if the later values of e and omega cause unacceptable deviation in the ground track.

  9. On position/force tracking control problem of cooperative robot manipulators using adaptive fuzzy backstepping approach.

    PubMed

    Baigzadehnoe, Barmak; Rahmani, Zahra; Khosravi, Alireza; Rezaie, Behrooz

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the position and force tracking control problem of cooperative robot manipulator system handling a common rigid object with unknown dynamical models and unknown external disturbances is investigated. The universal approximation properties of fuzzy logic systems are employed to estimate the unknown system dynamics. On the other hand, by defining new state variables based on the integral and differential of position and orientation errors of the grasped object, the error system of coordinated robot manipulators is constructed. Subsequently by defining the appropriate change of coordinates and using the backstepping design strategy, an adaptive fuzzy backstepping position tracking control scheme is proposed for multi-robot manipulator systems. By utilizing the properties of internal forces, extra terms are also added to the control signals to consider the force tracking problem. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed adaptive fuzzy backstepping position/force control approach ensures all the signals of the closed loop system uniformly ultimately bounded and tracking errors of both positions and forces can converge to small desired values by proper selection of the design parameters. Finally, the theoretic achievements are tested on the two three-link planar robot manipulators cooperatively handling a common object to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Global Output-Feedback Control for Simultaneous Tracking and Stabilization of Wheeled Mobile Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J.; Zhang, L. J.; Xue, D.

    A time-varying global output-feedback controller is presented that solves both tracking and stabilization for wheeled mobile robots simultaneously at the torque level. The controller synthesis is based on a coordinate transformation, Lyapunov direct method and backstepping technique. The performance of the proposed controller is demonstrated by simulation.

  11. Trajectory tracking in quadrotor platform by using PD controller and LQR control approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Maidul; Okasha, Mohamed; Idres, Moumen Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the paper is to discuss a comparative evaluation of performance of two different controllers i.e. Proportional-Derivative Controller (PD) and Linear Quadratic Regulation (LQR) in Quadrotor dynamic system that is under-actuated with high nonlinearity. As only four states can be controlled at the same time in the Quadrotor, the trajectories are designed on the basis of the four states whereas three dimensional position and rotation along an axis, known as yaw movement are considered. In this work, both the PD controller and LQR control approach are used for Quadrotor nonlinear model to track the trajectories. LQR control approach for nonlinear model is designed on the basis of a linear model of the Quadrotor because the performance of linear model and nonlinear model around certain nominal point is almost similar. Simulink and MATLAB software is used to design the controllers and to evaluate the performance of both the controllers.

  12. A multiyear quality control study of alpha-track radon monitors.

    PubMed

    Pearson, M D; Martz, D E; George, J L; Langner, G H

    1992-01-01

    Quality control exposures of commercial alpha-track radon monitors have been conducted approximately weekly at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office since early 1987 in support of DOE remedial action programs. The results of these exposures provide a historical record of the comparative performances of these radon monitors.

  13. Neural network disturbance observer-based distributed finite-time formation tracking control for multiple unmanned helicopters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dandan; Zong, Qun; Tian, Bailing; Shao, Shikai; Zhang, Xiuyun; Zhao, Xinyi

    2018-02-01

    The distributed finite-time formation tracking control problem for multiple unmanned helicopters is investigated in this paper. The control object is to maintain the positions of follower helicopters in formation with external interferences. The helicopter model is divided into a second order outer-loop subsystem and a second order inner-loop subsystem based on multiple-time scale features. Using radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) technique, we first propose a novel finite-time multivariable neural network disturbance observer (FMNNDO) to estimate the external disturbance and model uncertainty, where the neural network (NN) approximation errors can be dynamically compensated by adaptive law. Next, based on FMNNDO, a distributed finite-time formation tracking controller and a finite-time attitude tracking controller are designed using the nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode (NFTSM) method. In order to estimate the second derivative of the virtual desired attitude signal, a novel finite-time sliding mode integral filter is designed. Finally, Lyapunov analysis and multiple-time scale principle ensure the realization of control goal in finite-time. The effectiveness of the proposed FMNNDO and controllers are then verified by numerical simulations. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Learning-Based Adaptive Optimal Tracking Control of Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Systems.

    PubMed

    Gao, Weinan; Jiang, Zhong-Ping; Weinan Gao; Zhong-Ping Jiang; Gao, Weinan; Jiang, Zhong-Ping

    2018-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel data-driven control approach to address the problem of adaptive optimal tracking for a class of nonlinear systems taking the strict-feedback form. Adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) and nonlinear output regulation theories are integrated for the first time to compute an adaptive near-optimal tracker without any a priori knowledge of the system dynamics. Fundamentally different from adaptive optimal stabilization problems, the solution to a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation, not necessarily a positive definite function, cannot be approximated through the existing iterative methods. This paper proposes a novel policy iteration technique for solving positive semidefinite HJB equations with rigorous convergence analysis. A two-phase data-driven learning method is developed and implemented online by ADP. The efficacy of the proposed adaptive optimal tracking control methodology is demonstrated via a Van der Pol oscillator with time-varying exogenous signals.

  15. Switching sliding mode force tracking control of piezoelectric-hydraulic pump-based friction element actuation systems for automotive transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K. W.

    2009-08-01

    In this study, a nonlinear sliding-mode controller is designed for force tracking of a piezoelectric-hydraulic pump (PHP)-based actuation system, which is developed to replace the current electro-hydraulic actuation systems for automatic transmission (AT) friction elements, such as band brakes or clutches. By utilizing the PHP, one can eliminate the various hydraulic components (oil pump, regulating valve and control valve) in current ATs and achieve a simpler configuration with more efficient operation. With the derived governing equation of motion of the PHP-based actuation system integrated with the friction element (band brake), a switching control law is synthesized based on the sliding-mode theory. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed control law, its force tracking performance for the engagement of a friction element during an AT 1\\to 2 up-shift is examined experimentally. It is shown that one can successfully track the desired force trajectory for AT shift control with small tracking error. This study demonstrates the potential of the PHP as a new controllable actuation system for AT friction elements.

  16. Modeling, control, and simulation of grid connected intelligent hybrid battery/photovoltaic system using new hybrid fuzzy-neural method.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Alireza; Khalili, Abbas; Mazareie, Alireza; Gandomkar, Majid

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic (PV) generation is growing increasingly fast as a renewable energy source. Nevertheless, the drawback of the PV system is its dependence on weather conditions. Therefore, battery energy storage (BES) can be considered to assist for a stable and reliable output from PV generation system for loads and improve the dynamic performance of the whole generation system in grid connected mode. In this paper, a novel topology of intelligent hybrid generation systems with PV and BES in a DC-coupled structure is presented. Each photovoltaic cell has a specific point named maximum power point on its operational curve (i.e. current-voltage or power-voltage curve) in which it can generate maximum power. Irradiance and temperature changes affect these operational curves. Therefore, the nonlinear characteristic of maximum power point to environment has caused to development of different maximum power point tracking techniques. In order to capture the maximum power point (MPP), a hybrid fuzzy-neural maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is applied in the PV system. Obtained results represent the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method, and the average tracking efficiency of the hybrid fuzzy-neural is incremented by approximately two percentage points in comparison to the conventional methods. It has the advantages of robustness, fast response and good performance. A detailed mathematical model and a control approach of a three-phase grid-connected intelligent hybrid system have been proposed using Matlab/Simulink. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel non-uniform control vector parameterization approach with time grid refinement for flight level tracking optimal control problems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Li, Guodong; Liu, Xinggao; Xiao, Long; Wang, Yalin; Yang, Chunhua; Gui, Weihua

    2018-02-01

    High quality control method is essential for the implementation of aircraft autopilot system. An optimal control problem model considering the safe aerodynamic envelop is therefore established to improve the control quality of aircraft flight level tracking. A novel non-uniform control vector parameterization (CVP) method with time grid refinement is then proposed for solving the optimal control problem. By introducing the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) analysis, an efficient time grid refinement approach is presented and an adaptive time grid is automatically obtained. With this refinement, the proposed method needs fewer optimization parameters to achieve better control quality when compared with uniform refinement CVP method, whereas the computational cost is lower. Two well-known flight level altitude tracking problems and one minimum time cost problem are tested as illustrations and the uniform refinement control vector parameterization method is adopted as the comparative base. Numerical results show that the proposed method achieves better performances in terms of optimization accuracy and computation cost; meanwhile, the control quality is efficiently improved. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Finite-time tracking control for multiple non-holonomic mobile robots based on visual servoing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Meiying; Li, Shihua; Wang, Chaoli

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates finite-time tracking control problem of multiple non-holonomic mobile robots via visual servoing. It is assumed that the pinhole camera is fixed to the ceiling, and camera parameters are unknown. The desired reference trajectory is represented by a virtual leader whose states are available to only a subset of the followers, and the followers have only interaction. First, the camera-objective visual kinematic model is introduced by utilising the pinhole camera model for each mobile robot. Second, a unified tracking error system between camera-objective visual servoing model and desired reference trajectory is introduced. Third, based on the neighbour rule and by using finite-time control method, continuous distributed cooperative finite-time tracking control laws are designed for each mobile robot with unknown camera parameters, where the communication topology among the multiple mobile robots is assumed to be a directed graph. Rigorous proof shows that the group of mobile robots converges to the desired reference trajectory in finite time. Simulation example illustrates the effectiveness of our method.

  19. Tracking of Cells with a Compact Microscope Imaging System with Intelligent Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) with intelligent controls is disclosed that provides techniques for scanning, identifying, detecting and tracking microscopic changes in selected characteristics or features of various surfaces including, but not limited to, cells, spheres, and manufactured products subject to difficult-to-see imperfections. The practice of the present invention provides applications that include colloidal hard spheres experiments, biological cell detection for patch clamping, cell movement and tracking, as well as defect identification in products, such as semiconductor devices, where surface damage can be significant, but difficult to detect. The CMIS system is a machine vision system, which combines intelligent image processing with remote control capabilities and provides the ability to autofocus on a microscope sample, automatically scan an image, and perform machine vision analysis on multiple samples simultaneously

  20. Tracking of cells with a compact microscope imaging system with intelligent controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) with intelligent controls is disclosed that provides techniques for scanning, identifying, detecting and tracking microscopic changes in selected characteristics or features of various surfaces including, but not limited to, cells, spheres, and manufactured products subject to difficult-to-see imperfections. The practice of the present invention provides applications that include colloidal hard spheres experiments, biological cell detection for patch clamping, cell movement and tracking, as well as defect identification in products, such as semiconductor devices, where surface damage can be significant, but difficult to detect. The CMIS system is a machine vision system, which combines intelligent image processing with remote control capabilities and provides the ability to auto-focus on a microscope sample, automatically scan an image, and perform machine vision analysis on multiple samples simultaneously.

  1. [Haptic tracking control for minimally invasive robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaohong; Song, Chengli; Wu, Wenwu

    2012-06-01

    Haptic feedback plays a significant role in minimally invasive robotic surgery (MIRS). A major deficiency of the current MIRS is the lack of haptic perception for the surgeon, including the commercially available robot da Vinci surgical system. In this paper, a dynamics model of a haptic robot is established based on Newton-Euler method. Because it took some period of time in exact dynamics solution, we used a digital PID arithmetic dependent on robot dynamics to ensure real-time bilateral control, and it could improve tracking precision and real-time control efficiency. To prove the proposed method, an experimental system in which two Novint Falcon haptic devices acting as master-slave system has been developed. Simulations and experiments showed proposed methods could give instrument force feedbacks to operator, and bilateral control strategy is an effective method to master-slave MIRS. The proposed methods could be used to tele-robotic system.

  2. Tracking Control of a Magnetic Shape Memory Actuator Using an Inverse Preisach Model with Modified Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jhih-Hong; Chiang, Mao-Hsiung

    2016-08-25

    Magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys are a new class of smart materials with extraordinary strains up to 12% and frequencies in the range of 1 to 2 kHz. The MSM actuator is a potential device which can achieve high performance electromagnetic actuation by using the properties of MSM alloys. However, significant non-linear hysteresis behavior is a significant barrier to control the MSM actuator. In this paper, the Preisach model was used, by capturing experiments from different input signals and output responses, to model the hysteresis of MSM actuator, and the inverse Preisach model, as a feedforward control, provided compensational signals to the MSM actuator to linearize the hysteresis non-linearity. The control strategy for path tracking combined the hysteresis compensator and the modified fuzzy sliding mode control (MFSMC) which served as a path controller. Based on the experimental results, it was verified that a tracking error in the order of micrometers was achieved.

  3. Tracking Control of a Magnetic Shape Memory Actuator Using an Inverse Preisach Model with Modified Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jhih-Hong; Chiang, Mao-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys are a new class of smart materials with extraordinary strains up to 12% and frequencies in the range of 1 to 2 kHz. The MSM actuator is a potential device which can achieve high performance electromagnetic actuation by using the properties of MSM alloys. However, significant non-linear hysteresis behavior is a significant barrier to control the MSM actuator. In this paper, the Preisach model was used, by capturing experiments from different input signals and output responses, to model the hysteresis of MSM actuator, and the inverse Preisach model, as a feedforward control, provided compensational signals to the MSM actuator to linearize the hysteresis non-linearity. The control strategy for path tracking combined the hysteresis compensator and the modified fuzzy sliding mode control (MFSMC) which served as a path controller. Based on the experimental results, it was verified that a tracking error in the order of micrometers was achieved. PMID:27571081

  4. Comparison of P&O and INC Methods in Maximum Power Point Tracker for PV Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hesheng; Cui, Yuanhui; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Zhisen

    2018-03-01

    In the context of renewable energy, the maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is often used to increase the solar power efficiency, taking into account the randomness and volatility of solar energy due to changes in temperature and photovoltaic. In all MPPT techniques, perturb & observe and incremental conductance are widely used in MPPT controllers, because of their simplicity and ease of operation. According to the internal structure of the photovoltaic cell and the output volt-ampere characteristic, this paper established the circuit model and establishes the dynamic simulation model in Matlab/Simulink with the preparation of the s function. The perturb & observe MPPT method and the incremental conductance MPPT method were analyzed and compared by the theoretical analysis and digital simulation. The simulation results have shown that the system with INC MPPT method has better dynamic performance and improves the output power of photovoltaic power generation.

  5. Processing Control Information in a Nominal Control Construction: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    In an eye-tracking experiment, we examined the processing of the nominal control construction. Participants' eye-movements were monitored while they read sentences that included either giver control nominals (e.g. promise in Luke's promise to Sophia to photograph himself) or recipient control nominals (e.g. plea in Luke's plea to Sophia to photograph herself). In order to examine both the initial access of control information, and its later use in on-line processing, we combined a manipulation of nominal control with a gender match/mismatch paradigm. Results showed that there was evidence of processing difficulty for giver control sentences (relative to recipient control sentences) at the point where the control dependency was initially created, suggesting that control information was accessed during the early parsing stages. This effect is attributed to a recency preference in the formation of control dependencies; the parser prefers to assign a recent antecedent to PRO. In addition, readers slowed down after reading a reflexive pronoun that mismatched with the gender of the antecedent indicated by the control nominal (e.g. Luke's promise to Sophia to photograph herself). The mismatch cost suggests that control information of the nominal control construction was used to constrain dependency formation involving a controller, PRO and a reflexive, confirming the use of control information in on-line interpretation.

  6. Adaptive Backstepping-Based Neural Tracking Control for MIMO Nonlinear Switched Systems Subject to Input Delays.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ben; Li, Lu

    2018-06-01

    This brief proposes a new neural-network (NN)-based adaptive output tracking control scheme for a class of disturbed multiple-input multiple-output uncertain nonlinear switched systems with input delays. By combining the universal approximation ability of radial basis function NNs and adaptive backstepping recursive design with an improved multiple Lyapunov function (MLF) scheme, a novel adaptive neural output tracking controller design method is presented for the switched system. The feature of the developed design is that different coordinate transformations are adopted to overcome the conservativeness caused by adopting a common coordinate transformation for all subsystems. It is shown that all the variables of the resulting closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded under a class of switching signals in the presence of MLF and that the system output can follow the desired reference signal. To demonstrate the practicability of the obtained result, an adaptive neural output tracking controller is designed for a mass-spring-damper system.

  7. Robust fault-tolerant tracking control design for spacecraft under control input saturation.

    PubMed

    Bustan, Danyal; Pariz, Naser; Sani, Seyyed Kamal Hosseini

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a continuous globally stable tracking control algorithm is proposed for a spacecraft in the presence of unknown actuator failure, control input saturation, uncertainty in inertial matrix and external disturbances. The design method is based on variable structure control and has the following properties: (1) fast and accurate response in the presence of bounded disturbances; (2) robust to the partial loss of actuator effectiveness; (3) explicit consideration of control input saturation; and (4) robust to uncertainty in inertial matrix. In contrast to traditional fault-tolerant control methods, the proposed controller does not require knowledge of the actuator faults and is implemented without explicit fault detection and isolation processes. In the proposed controller a single parameter is adjusted dynamically in such a way that it is possible to prove that both attitude and angular velocity errors will tend to zero asymptotically. The stability proof is based on a Lyapunov analysis and the properties of the singularity free quaternion representation of spacecraft dynamics. Results of numerical simulations state that the proposed controller is successful in achieving high attitude performance in the presence of external disturbances, actuator failures, and control input saturation. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving NGDC Track-line Data Quality Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, M. T.; Wessel, P.

    2004-12-01

    Ship-board gravity, magnetic and bathymetry data archived at the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) represent decades of seagoing research, containing over 4,500 cruises. Cruise data remain relevent despite the prominence of satellite altimetry-derived global grids because many geologic processes remain resolvable by oceanographic research alone. Due to the tremendous investment put forth by scientists and taxpayers to compile this vast archive and the significant errors found within it, additional quality assessment and corrections are warranted. These can best be accomplished by adding to existing quality control measures at NGDC. We are currently developing open source software to provide additional quality control. Along with NGDC's current sanity checking, new data at NGDC will also be subjected to an along-track ``sniffer'' which will detect and flag suspicious data for later graphical inspection using a visual editor. If new data pass these tests, they will undergo further scrutinization using a crossover error (COE) calculator which will compare new data values to existing values at points of intersection within the archive. Data passing these tests will be deemed ``quality data`` and suitable for permanent addition to the archive, while data that fail will be returned to the source institution for correction. Crossover errors will be stored and an online COE database will be available. The COE database will allow users to apply corrections to the NGDC track-line database to produce corrected data files. At no time will the archived data itself be modified. An attempt will also be made to reduce navigational errors for pre-GPS navigated cruises. Upon completion these programs will be used to explore and model systematic errors within the archive, generate correction tables for all cruises, and to quantify the error budget in marine geophysical observations. Software will be released and these procedures will be implemented in cooperation with NGDC

  9. High-bandwidth and flexible tracking control for precision motion with application to a piezo nanopositioner.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhao; Ling, Jie; Ming, Min; Xiao, Xiao-Hui

    2017-08-01

    For precision motion, high-bandwidth and flexible tracking are the two important issues for significant performance improvement. Iterative learning control (ILC) is an effective feedforward control method only for systems that operate strictly repetitively. Although projection ILC can track varying references, the performance is still limited by the fixed-bandwidth Q-filter, especially for triangular waves tracking commonly used in a piezo nanopositioner. In this paper, a wavelet transform-based linear time-varying (LTV) Q-filter design for projection ILC is proposed to compensate high-frequency errors and improve the ability to tracking varying references simultaneously. The LVT Q-filter is designed based on the modulus maximum of wavelet detail coefficients calculated by wavelet transform to determine the high-frequency locations of each iteration with the advantages of avoiding cross-terms and segmenting manually. The proposed approach was verified on a piezo nanopositioner. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can locate the high-frequency regions accurately and achieve the best performance under varying references compared with traditional frequency-domain and projection ILC with a fixed-bandwidth Q-filter, which validates that through implementing the LTV filter on projection ILC, high-bandwidth and flexible tracking can be achieved simultaneously by the proposed approach.

  10. Assessing delay and lag in sagittal trunk control using a tracking task.

    PubMed

    Reeves, N Peter; Luis, Abraham; Chan, Elizabeth C; Sal Y Rosas, Victor G; Tanaka, Martin L

    2018-05-17

    Slower trunk muscle responses are linked to back pain and injury. Unfortunately, clinical assessments of spine function do not objectively evaluate this important attribute, which reflects speed of trunk control. Speed of trunk control can be parsed into two components: (1) delay, the time it takes to initiate a movement, and (2) lag, the time it takes to execute a movement once initiated. The goal of this study is to demonstrate a new approach to assess delay and lag in trunk control using a simple tracking task. Ten healthy subjects performed four blocks of six trials of trunk tracking in the sagittal plane. Delay and lag were estimated by modeling trunk control for predictable and unpredictable (control mode) trunk movements in flexion and extension (control direction) at movement amplitudes of 2°, 4°, and 6° (control amplitude). The main effect of control mode, direction, and amplitude of movement were compared between trial blocks to assess secondary influencers (e.g., fatigue). Only control mode was consistent across trial blocks with predictable movements being faster than unpredictable for both delay and lag. Control direction and amplitude effects on delay and lag were consistent across the first two trial blocks and less consistent in later blocks. Given the heterogeneity in the presentation of back pain, clinical assessment of trunk control should include different control modes, directions, and amplitudes. To reduce testing time and the influence of fatigue, we recommend six trials to assess trunk control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Power Smoothing of a Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Generator in Association With the Rotor-Speed-Dependent Gain

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yeonhee; Kang, Moses; Muljadi, Eduard

    This paper proposes a power-smoothing scheme for a variable-speed wind turbine generator (WTG) that can smooth out the WTG's fluctuating power caused by varying wind speeds, and thereby keep the system frequency within a narrow range. The proposed scheme employs an additional loop based on the system frequency deviation that operates in conjunction with the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control loop. Unlike the conventional, fixed-gain scheme, its control gain is modified with the rotor speed. In the proposed scheme, the control gain is determined by considering the ratio of the output of the additional loop to that of themore » MPPT loop. To improve the contribution of the scheme toward maintaining the frequency while ensuring the stable operation of WTGs, in the low rotor speed region, the ratio is set to be proportional to the rotor speed; in the high rotor speed region, the ratio remains constant. The performance of the proposed scheme is investigated under varying wind conditions for the IEEE 14-bus system. The simulation results demonstrate that the scheme successfully operates regardless of the output power fluctuation of a WTG by adjusting the gain with the rotor speed, and thereby improves the frequency-regulating capability of a WTG.« less

  12. Observed-Based Adaptive Fuzzy Tracking Control for Switched Nonlinear Systems With Dead-Zone.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shaocheng; Sui, Shuai; Li, Yongming

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the problem of adaptive fuzzy output-feedback control is investigated for a class of uncertain switched nonlinear systems in strict-feedback form. The considered switched systems contain unknown nonlinearities, dead-zone, and immeasurable states. Fuzzy logic systems are utilized to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, a switched fuzzy state observer is designed and thus the immeasurable states are obtained by it. By applying the adaptive backstepping design principle and the average dwell time method, an adaptive fuzzy output-feedback tracking control approach is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all the variables in the closed-loop system are bounded under a class of switching signals with average dwell time, and also that the system output can track a given reference signal as closely as possible. The simulation results are given to check the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. Energy-Efficient Underwater Surveillance by Means of Hybrid Aquacopters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    life-cycle analysis, photovoltaic device maximum power point tracking (MPPT), and surface treatments for antifouling of the solar cells can be...108 3. Power Conversion and Storage...15 Figure 10. Shallow Water Analysis and Forecast System product, displaying regional ocean current vectors overlaying a sea surface

  14. Robust tracking control of an IPMC actuator using nonsingular terminal sliding mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khawwaf, Jasim; Zheng, Jinchuan; Lu, Renquan; Al-Ghanimi, Ali; Kazem, Bahaa I.; Man, Zhihong

    2017-09-01

    Ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) is a highly innovative material that has recently gained attention in many fields such as medical, biomimetic, and micro/nano underwater applications. The main characteristic of IPMC lies in its ability to achieve a large deflection under a fairly low driving voltage. Moreover, its agile, light weight, noiseless and flexible features render it well suited for certain specific applications. Like other smart materials, such as piezoelectric ceramics, IPMC could be used in actuators or sensors. In this paper, we study the application of IPMC as an actuator for underwater use. The goal is to develop a robust feedback controller for the IPMC actuator to track a desired reference whilst dealing with the uncertainties due to the inherent actuator nonlinearity, external disturbance or the variations of working environment. To this end, we first present a nominal model of the IPMC actuator through experimental identification. Next, a nonsingular terminal sliding mode controller is proposed. Lastly, experimental studies are conducted to verify the tracking accuracy and robustness of the designed controller.

  15. H∞ output tracking control of uncertain and disturbed nonlinear systems based on neural network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengcheng; Li, Yuefeng; Wang, Guanglin

    2017-07-01

    The work presented in this paper seeks to address the tracking problem for uncertain continuous nonlinear systems with external disturbances. The objective is to obtain a model that uses a reference-based output feedback tracking control law. The control scheme is based on neural networks and a linear difference inclusion (LDI) model, and a PDC structure and H∞ performance criterion are used to attenuate external disturbances. The stability of the whole closed-loop model is investigated using the well-known quadratic Lyapunov function. The key principles of the proposed approach are as follows: neural networks are first used to approximate nonlinearities, to enable a nonlinear system to then be represented as a linearised LDI model. An LMI (linear matrix inequality) formula is obtained for uncertain and disturbed linear systems. This formula enables a solution to be obtained through an interior point optimisation method for some nonlinear output tracking control problems. Finally, simulations and comparisons are provided on two practical examples to illustrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  17. Open solutions to distributed control in ground tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heuser, William Randy

    1994-01-01

    The advent of high speed local area networks has made it possible to interconnect small, powerful computers to function together as a single large computer. Today, distributed computer systems are the new paradigm for large scale computing systems. However, the communications provided by the local area network is only one part of the solution. The services and protocols used by the application programs to communicate across the network are as indispensable as the local area network. And the selection of services and protocols that do not match the system requirements will limit the capabilities, performance, and expansion of the system. Proprietary solutions are available but are usually limited to a select set of equipment. However, there are two solutions based on 'open' standards. The question that must be answered is 'which one is the best one for my job?' This paper examines a model for tracking stations and their requirements for interprocessor communications in the next century. The model and requirements are matched with the model and services provided by the five different software architectures and supporting protocol solutions. Several key services are examined in detail to determine which services and protocols most closely match the requirements for the tracking station environment. The study reveals that the protocols are tailored to the problem domains for which they were originally designed. Further, the study reveals that the process control model is the closest match to the tracking station model.

  18. Sliding Mode Tracking Control of a Wire-Driven Upper-Limb Rehabilitation Robot with Nonlinear Disturbance Observer.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jie; Yang, Qianqian; Wang, Xiaoyun; Song, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Robot-aided rehabilitation has become an important technology to restore and reinforce motor functions of patients with extremity impairment, whereas it can be extremely challenging to achieve satisfactory tracking performance due to uncertainties and disturbances during rehabilitation training. In this paper, a wire-driven rehabilitation robot that can work over a three-dimensional space is designed for upper-limb rehabilitation, and sliding mode control with nonlinear disturbance observer is designed for the robot to deal with the problem of unpredictable disturbances during robot-assisted training. Then, simulation and experiments of trajectory tracking are carried out to evaluate the performance of the system, the position errors, and the output forces of the designed control scheme are compared with those of the traditional sliding mode control (SMC) scheme. The results show that the designed control scheme can effectively reduce the tracking errors and chattering of the output forces as compared with the traditional SMC scheme, which indicates that the nonlinear disturbance observer can reduce the effect of unpredictable disturbances. The designed control scheme for the wire-driven rehabilitation robot has potential to assist patients with stroke in performing repetitive rehabilitation training.

  19. Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) Mission and Tracking, Telemetry and Control Subsystem Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Paul; Bell, Joseph L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama will launch the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space experiment in the Fall of 2002. The GP-B spacecraft was developed to prove Einstein's theory of General Relativity. This paper will provide an overview of the GPB mission and will discuss the design, and test of the spacecraft Tracking, Telemetry and Control (TT&C) subsystem which incorporates NASA's latest generation standard transponder for use with the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS).

  20. Kinect technology for hand tracking control of surgical robots: technical and surgical skill comparison to current robotic masters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonjae; Leonard, Simon; Shademan, Azad; Krieger, Axel; Kim, Peter C W

    2014-06-01

    Current surgical robots are controlled by a mechanical master located away from the patient, tracking surgeon's hands by wire and pulleys or mechanical linkage. Contactless hand tracking for surgical robot control is an attractive alternative, because it can be executed with minimal footprint at the patient's bedside without impairing sterility, while eliminating current disassociation between surgeon and patient. We compared technical and technologic feasibility of contactless hand tracking to the current clinical standard master controllers. A hand-tracking system (Kinect™-based 3Gear), a wire-based mechanical master (Mantis Duo), and a clinical mechanical linkage master (da Vinci) were evaluated for technical parameters with strong clinical relevance: system latency, static noise, robot slave tremor, and controller range. Five experienced surgeons performed a skill comparison study, evaluating the three different master controllers for efficiency and accuracy in peg transfer and pointing tasks. da Vinci had the lowest latency of 89 ms, followed by Mantis with 374 ms and 3Gear with 576 ms. Mantis and da Vinci produced zero static error. 3Gear produced average static error of 0.49 mm. The tremor of the robot used by the 3Gear and Mantis system had a radius of 1.7 mm compared with 0.5 mm for da Vinci. The three master controllers all had similar range. The surgeons took 1.98 times longer to complete the peg transfer task with the 3Gear system compared with Mantis, and 2.72 times longer with Mantis compared with da Vinci (p value 2.1e-9). For the pointer task, surgeons were most accurate with da Vinci with average error of 0.72 mm compared with Mantis's 1.61 mm and 3Gear's 2.41 mm (p value 0.00078). Contactless hand-tracking technology as a surgical master can execute simple surgical tasks. Whereas traditional master controllers outperformed, given that contactless hand-tracking is a first-generation technology, clinical potential is promising and could

  1. Data-driven robust approximate optimal tracking control for unknown general nonlinear systems using adaptive dynamic programming method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaguang; Cui, Lili; Zhang, Xin; Luo, Yanhong

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a novel data-driven robust approximate optimal tracking control scheme is proposed for unknown general nonlinear systems by using the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) method. In the design of the controller, only available input-output data is required instead of known system dynamics. A data-driven model is established by a recurrent neural network (NN) to reconstruct the unknown system dynamics using available input-output data. By adding a novel adjustable term related to the modeling error, the resultant modeling error is first guaranteed to converge to zero. Then, based on the obtained data-driven model, the ADP method is utilized to design the approximate optimal tracking controller, which consists of the steady-state controller and the optimal feedback controller. Further, a robustifying term is developed to compensate for the NN approximation errors introduced by implementing the ADP method. Based on Lyapunov approach, stability analysis of the closed-loop system is performed to show that the proposed controller guarantees the system state asymptotically tracking the desired trajectory. Additionally, the obtained control input is proven to be close to the optimal control input within a small bound. Finally, two numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  2. EPA's Review of DOE's Inventory Tracking for TRU Wastes at Waste Control Specialists

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On April 9, 2014, EPA's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste characterization team visited Waste Control Specialists (WCS) to determine whether DOE was meeting EPA's waste inventory tracking requirements at 40 CFR 194.24(c)(4).

  3. Time-domain prefilter design for enhanced tracking and vibration suppression in machine motion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Matthew O. T.; Shinonawanik, Praween; Wongratanaphisan, Theeraphong

    2018-05-01

    Structural flexibility can impact negatively on machine motion control systems by causing unmeasured positioning errors and vibration at locations where accurate motion is important for task execution. To compensate for these effects, command signal prefiltering may be applied. In this paper, a new FIR prefilter design method is described that combines finite-time vibration cancellation with dynamic compensation properties. The time-domain formulation exploits the relation between tracking error and the moment values of the prefilter impulse response function. Optimal design solutions for filters having minimum H2 norm are derived and evaluated. The control approach does not require additional actuation or sensing and can be effective even without complete and accurate models of the machine dynamics. Results from implementation and testing on an experimental high-speed manipulator having a Delta robot architecture with directionally compliant end-effector are presented. The results show the importance of prefilter moment values for tracking performance and confirm that the proposed method can achieve significant reductions in both peak and RMS tracking error, as well as settling time, for complex motion patterns.

  4. A ground track control algorithm for the Topographic Mapping Laser Altimeter (TMLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, V.; Mcintosh, R.; Roszman, L.; Cooley, J.

    1993-01-01

    The results of an analysis of an algorithm that will provide autonomous onboard orbit control using orbits determined with Global Positioning System (GPS) data. The algorithm uses the GPS data to (1) compute the ground track error relative to a fixed longitude grid, and (2) determine the altitude adjustment required to correct the longitude error. A program was written on a personal computer (PC) to test the concept for numerous altitudes and values of solar flux using a simplified orbit model including only the J sub 2 zonal harmonic and simple orbit decay computations. The algorithm was then implemented in a precision orbit propagation program having a full range of perturbations. The analysis showed that, even with all perturbations (including actual time histories of solar flux variation), the algorithm could effectively control the spacecraft ground track and yield more than 99 percent Earth coverage in the time required to complete one coverage cycle on the fixed grid (220 to 230 days depending on altitude and overlap allowance).

  5. Periodic reference tracking control approach for smart material actuators with complex hysteretic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiyong; Hao, Lina; Song, Bo; Yang, Ruiguo; Cao, Ruimin; Cheng, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Micro/nano positioning technologies have been attractive for decades for their various applications in both industrial and scientific fields. The actuators employed in these technologies are typically smart material actuators, which possess inherent hysteresis that may cause systems behave unexpectedly. Periodic reference tracking capability is fundamental for apparatuses such as scanning probe microscope, which employs smart material actuators to generate periodic scanning motion. However, traditional controller such as PID method cannot guarantee accurate fast periodic scanning motion. To tackle this problem and to conduct practical implementation in digital devices, this paper proposes a novel control method named discrete extended unparallel Prandtl-Ishlinskii model based internal model (d-EUPI-IM) control approach. To tackle modeling uncertainties, the robust d-EUPI-IM control approach is investigated, and the associated sufficient stabilizing conditions are derived. The advantages of the proposed controller are: it is designed and represented in discrete form, thus practical for digital devices implementation; the extended unparallel Prandtl-Ishlinskii model can precisely represent forward/inverse complex hysteretic characteristics, thus can reduce modeling uncertainties and benefits controllers design; in addition, the internal model principle based control module can be utilized as a natural oscillator for tackling periodic references tracking problem. The proposed controller was verified through comparative experiments on a piezoelectric actuator platform, and convincing results have been achieved.

  6. Active feedforward noise control and signal tracking of headsets: Electroacoustic analysis and system implementation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mingsian R; Pan, Weichi; Chen, Hungyu

    2018-03-01

    Active noise control (ANC) of headsets is revisited in this paper. An in-depth electroacoustic analysis of the combined loudspeaker-cavity headset system is conducted on the basis of electro-mechano-acoustical analogous circuits. Model matching of the primary path and the secondary path leads to a feedforward control architecture. The ideal controller sheds some light on the key parameters that affect the noise reduction performance. Filtered-X least-mean-squares algorithm is employed to implement the feedforward controller on a digital signal processor. Since the relative delay of the primary path and the secondary path is crucial to the noise reduction performance, multirate signal processing with polyphase implementation is utilized to minimize the effective analog-digital conversion delay in the secondary path. Ad hoc decimation and interpolation filters are designed in order not to introduce excessive phase delays at the cutoff. Real-time experiments are undertaken to validate the implemented ANC system. Listening tests are also conducted to compare the fixed controller and the adaptive controller in terms of noise reduction and signal tracking performance for three noise types. The results have demonstrated that the fixed feedforward controller achieved satisfactory noise reduction performance and signal tracking quality.

  7. Design of a feedback-feedforward steering controller for accurate path tracking and stability at the limits of handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapania, Nitin R.; Gerdes, J. Christian

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a feedback-feedforward steering controller that simultaneously maintains vehicle stability at the limits of handling while minimising lateral path tracking deviation. The design begins by considering the performance of a baseline controller with a lookahead feedback scheme and a feedforward algorithm based on a nonlinear vehicle handling diagram. While this initial design exhibits desirable stability properties at the limits of handling, the steady-state path deviation increases significantly at highway speeds. Results from both linear and nonlinear analyses indicate that lateral path tracking deviations are minimised when vehicle sideslip is held tangent to the desired path at all times. Analytical results show that directly incorporating this sideslip tangency condition into the steering feedback dramatically improves lateral path tracking, but at the expense of poor closed-loop stability margins. However, incorporating the desired sideslip behaviour into the feedforward loop creates a robust steering controller capable of accurate path tracking and oversteer correction at the physical limits of tyre friction. Experimental data collected from an Audi TTS test vehicle driving at the handling limits on a full length race circuit demonstrates the improved performance of the final controller design.

  8. Cooperative global optimal preview tracking control of linear multi-agent systems: an internal model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanrong; Liao, Fucheng; Deng, Jiamei; Liu, Huiyang

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the cooperative global optimal preview tracking problem of linear multi-agent systems under the assumption that the output of a leader is a previewable periodic signal and the topology graph contains a directed spanning tree. First, a type of distributed internal model is introduced, and the cooperative preview tracking problem is converted to a global optimal regulation problem of an augmented system. Second, an optimal controller, which can guarantee the asymptotic stability of the augmented system, is obtained by means of the standard linear quadratic optimal preview control theory. Third, on the basis of proving the existence conditions of the controller, sufficient conditions are given for the original problem to be solvable, meanwhile a cooperative global optimal controller with error integral and preview compensation is derived. Finally, the validity of theoretical results is demonstrated by a numerical simulation.

  9. An Error-Entropy Minimization Algorithm for Tracking Control of Nonlinear Stochastic Systems with Non-Gaussian Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yunlong; Wang, Aiping; Guo, Lei

    This paper presents an error-entropy minimization tracking control algorithm for a class of dynamic stochastic system. The system is represented by a set of time-varying discrete nonlinear equations with non-Gaussian stochastic input, where the statistical properties of stochastic input are unknown. By using Parzen windowing with Gaussian kernel to estimate the probability densities of errors, recursive algorithms are then proposed to design the controller such that the tracking error can be minimized. The performance of the error-entropy minimization criterion is compared with the mean-square-error minimization in the simulation results.

  10. Evaluation of the Tobii EyeX Eye tracking controller and Matlab toolkit for research.

    PubMed

    Gibaldi, Agostino; Vanegas, Mauricio; Bex, Peter J; Maiello, Guido

    2017-06-01

    The Tobii Eyex Controller is a new low-cost binocular eye tracker marketed for integration in gaming and consumer applications. The manufacturers claim that the system was conceived for natural eye gaze interaction, does not require continuous recalibration, and allows moderate head movements. The Controller is provided with a SDK to foster the development of new eye tracking applications. We review the characteristics of the device for its possible use in scientific research. We develop and evaluate an open source Matlab Toolkit that can be employed to interface with the EyeX device for gaze recording in behavioral experiments. The Toolkit provides calibration procedures tailored to both binocular and monocular experiments, as well as procedures to evaluate other eye tracking devices. The observed performance of the EyeX (i.e. accuracy < 0.6°, precision < 0.25°, latency < 50 ms and sampling frequency ≈55 Hz), is sufficient for some classes of research application. The device can be successfully employed to measure fixation parameters, saccadic, smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements. However, the relatively low sampling rate and moderate precision limit the suitability of the EyeX for monitoring micro-saccadic eye movements or for real-time gaze-contingent stimulus control. For these applications, research grade, high-cost eye tracking technology may still be necessary. Therefore, despite its limitations with respect to high-end devices, the EyeX has the potential to further the dissemination of eye tracking technology to a broad audience, and could be a valuable asset in consumer and gaming applications as well as a subset of basic and clinical research settings.

  11. A photodiode based on PbS nanocrystallites for FYTRONIX solar panel automatic tracking controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wageh, S.; Farooq, W. A.; Tataroğlu, A.; Dere, A.; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2017-12-01

    The structural, optical and photoelectrical properties of the fabricated Al/PbS/p-Si/Al photodiode based on PbS nanocrystallites were investigated. The PbS nanocrystallites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS-NIR, Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The XRD diffraction peaks show that the prepared PbS nanostructure is in high crystalline state. Various electrical parameters of the prepared photodiode were analyzed from the electrical characteristics based on I-V and C-V-G. The photodiode has a high rectification ratio of 5.85×104 at dark and ±4 V. Moreover, The photocurrent results indicate a strong photovoltaic behavior. The frequency dependence of capacitance and conductance characteristics was attributed to depletion region behavior of the photodiode. The diode was used to control solar panel power automatic tracking controller in dual axis. The fabricated photodiode works as a photosensor to control Solar tracking systems.

  12. Techniques for Tracking, Evaluating, and Reporting the Implementation of Nonpoint Source Control Measures - Forestry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance is intended to assist state, regional, and local environmental professionals in tracking the implementation of best management practices (BMPs) used to control nonpoint source pollution generated by forestry practices.

  13. Grid-connected wind and photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devabakthuni, Sindhuja

    The objective of this thesis is to design a grid connected wind and photovoltaic system. A new model of converter control was designed which maintains the voltage of the bus to grid as constant when combined system of solar and wind is connected to AC bus. The model is designed to track maximum power at each point irrespective of changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed which affects the power supplied to grid. Solar power from the sun is not constant as it is affected by changes in irradiances and temperature. Even the wind power is affected by wind speed. A MPPT controller was designed for both systems. A boost converter is designed which uses the pulses from MPPT controller to boost the output. Wind system consists of wind turbine block from the MATLAB with a pitch angle controller to maintain optimum pitch angle. The output from wind turbine is connected to a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The unregulated DC output from the photovoltaic system is directly given to boost converter. The AC output from the wind system is given to an uncontrolled rectifier to get a unregulated DC output. The unregulated DC output goes to the boost converter. A voltage source inverter was designed which converts the rectified DC output from the boost converter to AC power. The inverter is designed to maintain constant AC bus voltage irrespective of the disturbances in the power supply. Photovoltaic and wind systems are individually designed for 5KW each in MATLAB-Simulink environment. In this thesis, the models were subjected to changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed and the results were interpreted. The model was successful in tracking maximum at every instant and the AC bus voltage was maintained constant throughout the simulation.

  14. Adaptive quaternion tracking with nonlinear extended state observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yu-liang; Wang, Xiao-gang; Xu, Jiang-tao; Cui, Nai-gang

    2017-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of attitude tracking for spacecraft in the presence of uncertainties in moments of inertia and environmental disturbances. An adaptive quaternion tracking control is combined with a nonlinear extended state observer and the disturbances compensated for in each sampling period. The tracking controller is proved to asymptotically track a prescribed motion in the presence of these uncertainties. Simulations of a nano-spacecraft demonstrate a significant improvement in pointing accuracy and tracking error when compared to a conventional attitude controller. The proposed tracking control is completely deterministic, simple to implement, does not require knowledge of the uncertainties and does not suffer from chattering.

  15. Mark Tracking: Position/orientation measurements using 4-circle mark and its tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanda, Shinji; Okabayashi, Keijyu; Maruyama, Tsugito; Uchiyama, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    Future space robots require position and orientation tracking with visual feedback control to track and capture floating objects and satellites. We developed a four-circle mark that is useful for this purpose. With this mark, four geometric center positions as feature points can be extracted from the mark by simple image processing. We also developed a position and orientation measurement method that uses the four feature points in our mark. The mark gave good enough image measurement accuracy to let space robots approach and contact objects. A visual feedback control system using this mark enabled a robot arm to track a target object accurately. The control system was able to tolerate a time delay of 2 seconds.

  16. An Application of Fuzzy Logic Control to a Classical Military Tracking Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-19

    34, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, vol.4., 1980, pp.13-30. Berenji , Hamid R . and Pratap Khedkar. "Learning and Tuning Fuzzy Logic Controllers Through...A TRIDENT SCHOLAR PROJECT REPORT" NO. 222 "An Application of Fuzzy Logic Control to a Classical Military Tracking Problem" DTIC •S r F UNITED STATES...Zq qAvail andlor ____________________I__________ Dist SpecialDate USNA- 1531-2 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE r •,,,op APmw OMB no. 0704.0188 ¢iQiiati~m.f

  17. Integrated direct/indirect adaptive robust motion trajectory tracking control of pneumatic cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Deyuan; Tao, Guoliang; Zhu, Xiaocong

    2013-09-01

    This paper studies the precision motion trajectory tracking control of a pneumatic cylinder driven by a proportional-directional control valve. An integrated direct/indirect adaptive robust controller is proposed. The controller employs a physical model based indirect-type parameter estimation to obtain reliable estimates of unknown model parameters, and utilises a robust control method with dynamic compensation type fast adaptation to attenuate the effects of parameter estimation errors, unmodelled dynamics and disturbances. Due to the use of projection mapping, the robust control law and the parameter adaption algorithm can be designed separately. Since the system model uncertainties are unmatched, the recursive backstepping technology is adopted to design the robust control law. Extensive comparative experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller and its performance robustness to parameter variations and sudden disturbances.

  18. The IBM HeadTracking Pointer: improvements in vision-based pointer control.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, Rick

    2008-07-01

    Vision-based head trackers have been around for some years and are even beginning to be commercialized, but problems remain with respect to usability. Users without the ability to use traditional pointing devices--the intended audience of such systems--have no alternative if the automatic bootstrapping process fails. There is room for improvement in face tracking, and the pointer movement dynamics do not support accurate and efficient pointing. This paper describes the IBM HeadTracking Pointer, a system which attempts to directly address some of these issues. Head gestures are used to provide the end user a greater level of autonomous control over the system. A novel face-tracking algorithm reduces drift under variable lighting conditions, allowing the use of absolute, rather than relative, pointer positioning. Most importantly, the pointer dynamics have been designed to take into account the constraints of head-based pointing, with a non-linear gain which allows stability in fine pointer movement, high speed on long transitions and adjustability to support users with different movement dynamics. User studies have identified some difficulties with training the system and some characteristics of the pointer motion that take time to get used to, but also good user feedback and very promising performance results.

  19. Laser tracking for vertical control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Peter; Torrence, Mark; Pavlis, Erricos; Kolenkiewicz, Ron; Smith, David

    1993-01-01

    The Global Laser Tracking Network has provided LAGEOS ranging data of high accuracy since the first MERIT campaign in late 1983 and we can now resolve centimeter-level three dimensional positions of participating observatories at monthly intervals. In this analysis, the station height estimates have been considered separately from the horizontal components, and can be determined by the strongest stations with a formal standard error of 2 mm using eight years of continuous observations. The rate of change in the vertical can be resolved to a few mm/year, which is at the expected level of several geophysical effects. In comparing the behavior of the stations to that predicted by recent models of post-glacial rebound, we find no correlation in this very small effect. Particular attention must be applied to data and survey quality control when measuring the vertical component, and the survey observations are critical components of the geodynamic results. Seasonal patterns are observed in the heights of most stations, and the possibility of secular motion at the level of several millimeters per year cannot be excluded. Any such motion must be considered in the interpretation of horizontal inter-site measurements, and can help to identify mechanisms which can cause variations which occur linearly with time, seasonally, or abruptly.

  20. Does controlling for biological maturity improve physical activity tracking?

    PubMed

    Erlandson, Marta C; Sherar, Lauren B; Mosewich, Amber D; Kowalski, Kent C; Bailey, Donald A; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G

    2011-05-01

    Tracking of physical activity through childhood and adolescence tends to be low. Variation in the timing of biological maturation within youth of the same chronological age (CA) might affect participation in physical activity and may partially explain the low tracking. To examine the stability of physical activity over time from childhood to late adolescence when aligned on CA and biological age (BA). A total of 91 males and 96 females aged 8-15 yr from the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (PBMAS) were assessed annually for 8 yr. BA was calculated as years from age at peak height velocity. Physical activity was assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children/Adolescents. Tracking was analyzed using intraclass correlations for both CA and BA (2-yr groupings). To be included in the analysis, an individual required a measure at both time points within an interval; however, not all individuals were present at all tracking intervals. Physical activity tracking by CA 2-yr intervals were, in general, moderate in males (r=0.42-0.59) and females (r=0.43-0.44). However, the 9- to 11-yr CA interval was low and nonsignificant (r=0.23-0.30). Likewise, tracking of physical activity by BA 2-yr intervals was moderate to high in males (r=0.44-0.60) and females (r=0.39-0.62). Accounting for differences in the timing of biological maturity had little effect on tracking physical activity. However, point estimates for tracking are higher in early adolescence in males and to a greater extent in females when aligned by BA versus CA. This suggests that maturity may be more important in physical activity participation in females than males. © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine

  1. Sliding mode control of magnetic suspensions for precision pointing and tracking applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misovec, Kathleen M.; Flynn, Frederick J.; Johnson, Bruce G.; Hedrick, J. Karl

    1991-01-01

    A recently developed nonlinear control method, sliding mode control, is examined as a means of advancing the achievable performance of space-based precision pointing and tracking systems that use nonlinear magnetic actuators. Analytic results indicate that sliding mode control improves performance compared to linear control approaches. In order to realize these performance improvements, precise knowledge of the plant is required. Additionally, the interaction of an estimating scheme and the sliding mode controller has not been fully examined in the literature. Estimation schemes were designed for use with this sliding mode controller that do not seriously degrade system performance. The authors designed and built a laboratory testbed to determine the feasibility of utilizing sliding mode control in these types of applications. Using this testbed, experimental verification of the authors' analyses is ongoing.

  2. Child attention to pain and pain tolerance are dependent upon anxiety and attention control: An eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, L C; Lau, J Y F; Mueller, S C; Eccleston, C; Fox, E; Bosmans, M; Vervoort, T

    2017-02-01

    Pain is common and can be debilitating in childhood. Theoretical models propose that attention to pain plays a key role in pain outcomes, however, very little research has investigated this in youth. This study examined how anxiety-related variables and attention control interacted to predict children's attention to pain cues using eye-tracking methodology, and their pain tolerance on the cold pressor test (CPT). Children aged 8-17 years had their eye-gaze tracked whilst they viewed photographs of other children displaying painful facial expressions during the CPT, before completing the CPT themselves. Children also completed self-report measures of anxiety and attention control. Findings indicated that anxiety and attention control did not impact children's initial fixations on pain or neutral faces, but did impact how long they dwelled on pain versus neutral faces. For children reporting low levels of attention control, higher anxiety was associated with less dwell time on pain faces as opposed to neutral faces, and the opposite pattern was observed for children with high attention control. Anxiety and attention control also interacted to predict pain outcomes. For children with low attention control, increasing anxiety was associated with anticipating more pain and tolerating pain for less time. This is the first study to examine children's attention to pain cues using eye-tracking technology in the context of a salient painful experience. Data suggest that attention control is an important moderator of anxiety on multiple outcomes relevant to young people's pain experiences. This study uses eye tracking to study attention to pain cues in children. Attention control is an important moderator of anxiety on attention bias to pain and tolerance of cold pressor pain in youth. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  3. Operational space trajectory tracking control of robot manipulators endowed with a primary controller of synthetic joint velocity.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Valenzuela, Javier; González-Hernández, Luis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new control algorithm for operational space trajectory tracking control of robot arms is introduced. The new algorithm does not require velocity measurement and is based on (1) a primary controller which incorporates an algorithm to obtain synthesized velocity from joint position measurements and (2) a secondary controller which computes the desired joint acceleration and velocity required to achieve operational space motion control. The theory of singularly perturbed systems is crucial for the analysis of the closed-loop system trajectories. In addition, the practical viability of the proposed algorithm is explored through real-time experiments in a two degrees-of-freedom horizontal planar direct-drive arm. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Robotic vehicle with multiple tracked mobility platforms

    DOEpatents

    Salton, Jonathan R [Albuquerque, NM; Buttz, James H [Albuquerque, NM; Garretson, Justin [Albuquerque, NM; Hayward, David R [Wetmore, CO; Hobart, Clinton G [Albuquerque, NM; Deuel, Jr., Jamieson K.

    2012-07-24

    A robotic vehicle having two or more tracked mobility platforms that are mechanically linked together with a two-dimensional coupling, thereby forming a composite vehicle of increased mobility. The robotic vehicle is operative in hazardous environments and can be capable of semi-submersible operation. The robotic vehicle is capable of remote controlled operation via radio frequency and/or fiber optic communication link to a remote operator control unit. The tracks have a plurality of track-edge scallop cut-outs that allow the tracks to easily grab onto and roll across railroad tracks, especially when crossing the railroad tracks at an oblique angle.

  5. An adaptive recurrent neural-network controller using a stabilization matrix and predictive inputs to solve a tracking problem under disturbances.

    PubMed

    Fairbank, Michael; Li, Shuhui; Fu, Xingang; Alonso, Eduardo; Wunsch, Donald

    2014-01-01

    We present a recurrent neural-network (RNN) controller designed to solve the tracking problem for control systems. We demonstrate that a major difficulty in training any RNN is the problem of exploding gradients, and we propose a solution to this in the case of tracking problems, by introducing a stabilization matrix and by using carefully constrained context units. This solution allows us to achieve consistently lower training errors, and hence allows us to more easily introduce adaptive capabilities. The resulting RNN is one that has been trained off-line to be rapidly adaptive to changing plant conditions and changing tracking targets. The case study we use is a renewable-energy generator application; that of producing an efficient controller for a three-phase grid-connected converter. The controller we produce can cope with the random variation of system parameters and fluctuating grid voltages. It produces tracking control with almost instantaneous response to changing reference states, and virtually zero oscillation. This compares very favorably to the classical proportional integrator (PI) controllers, which we show produce a much slower response and settling time. In addition, the RNN we propose exhibits better learning stability and convergence properties, and can exhibit faster adaptation, than has been achieved with adaptive critic designs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distributed finite-time trajectory tracking control for multiple nonholonomic mobile robots with uncertainties and external disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Meiying; Sun, Haibin; Gu, Shengwei; Zhang, Yangyi

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the distributed finite-time trajectory tracking control for a group of nonholonomic mobile robots with time-varying unknown parameters and external disturbances. At first, the tracking error system is derived for each mobile robot with the aid of a global invertible transformation, which consists of two subsystems, one is a first-order subsystem and another is a second-order subsystem. Then, the two subsystems are studied respectively, and finite-time disturbance observers are proposed for each robot to estimate the external disturbances. Meanwhile, distributed finite-time tracking controllers are developed for each mobile robot such that all states of each robot can reach the desired value in finite time, where the desired reference value is assumed to be the trajectory of a virtual leader whose information is available to only a subset of the followers, and the followers are assumed to have only local interaction. The effectiveness of the theoretical results is finally illustrated by numerical simulations.

  7. Towards free 3D end-point control for robotic-assisted human reaching using binocular eye tracking.

    PubMed

    Maimon-Dror, Roni O; Fernandez-Quesada, Jorge; Zito, Giuseppe A; Konnaris, Charalambos; Dziemian, Sabine; Faisal, A Aldo

    2017-07-01

    Eye-movements are the only directly observable behavioural signals that are highly correlated with actions at the task level, and proactive of body movements and thus reflect action intentions. Moreover, eye movements are preserved in many movement disorders leading to paralysis (or amputees) from stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy among others. Despite this benefit, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for robotic interfaces in movement impaired patients due to poor human-robot interfaces. We demonstrate here how combining 3D gaze tracking using our GT3D binocular eye tracker with custom designed 3D head tracking system and calibration method enables continuous 3D end-point control of a robotic arm support system. The users can move their own hand to any location of the workspace by simple looking at the target and winking once. This purely eye tracking based system enables the end-user to retain free head movement and yet achieves high spatial end point accuracy in the order of 6 cm RMSE error in each dimension and standard deviation of 4 cm. 3D calibration is achieved by moving the robot along a 3 dimensional space filling Peano curve while the user is tracking it with their eyes. This results in a fully automated calibration procedure that yields several thousand calibration points versus standard approaches using a dozen points, resulting in beyond state-of-the-art 3D accuracy and precision.

  8. Power Smoothing and MPPT for Grid-connected Wind Power Generation with Doubly Fed Induction Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yuji; Kaneda, Hirotoshi; Kobayashi, Daichi; Tanaka, Akio

    Recently, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and synchronous generator are mostly applied for wind power generation, and variable speed control and power factor control are executed for high efficiently for wind energy capture and high quality for power system voltage. In variable speed control, a wind speed or a generator speed is used for maximum power point tracking. However, performances of a wind generation power fluctuation due to wind speed variation have not yet investigated for those controls. The authors discuss power smoothing by those controls for the DFIG inter-connected to 6.6kV distribution line. The performances are verified using power system simulation software PSCAD/EMTDC for actual wind speed data and are examined from an approximate equation of wind generation power fluctuation for wind speed variation.

  9. The use of a micropore particle technology in the treatment of acute wounds.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E

    2017-07-02

    A clinical audit was performed to evaluate whether Acapsil micropore particle technology (MPPT) powder could improve the management of acute wounds to heal by secondary intention. Wounds, which could be characterised as sloughy, wet and probably infected, normally managed by debridement followed by negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), were included in the evaluation. The MPPT powder was applied topically to the wound surface either once daily or on alternate days, with each wound receiving a total of two to five applications. Most patients had NPWT after the MPPT powder treatment had finished to assist healing. The study included nine patients with dehisced surgical wounds and one with a category IV pressure ulcer (PU). The wounds were generally covered in slough, exudate and showing signs of local infection. The topical MPPT powder rapidly desloughed the wounds, controlled exudate levels, promoted granulation and was well tolerated. All wounds proceeded towards closure. Comparison of the present data with MPPT powder to standard treatment suggests that the speed of healing using MPPT was improved. Further examination is required to determine if this reduces dressing changes, nursing time, and financial cost.

  10. PV based converter with integrated charger for DC micro-grid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salve, Rima

    This thesis presents a converter topology for photovoltaic panels. This topology minimizes the number of switching devices used thereby reducing power losses that arise from high frequency switching operations. The control strategy is implemented using a simple microcontroller that implements the proportional plus integral control. All the control loops are closed feedback loops hence minimizing error instantaneously and adjusting efficiently to system variations. The energy management between three components, namely, the photovoltaic panel, a battery and a DC link for a microgrid is shown distributed over three modes. These modes are dependent on the irradiance from the sunlight. All three modes are simulated. The maximum power point tracking of the system plays a crutial role in this configuration as it is one of the main challenge tackled by the control system. Various methods of MPPT are discussed and the Perturb and Observe method is employed and is described in detail. Experimental results are shown for the maximum power point tracking of this system with a scaled down version of the panel's actual capability.

  11. Scheduled power tracking control of the wind-storage hybrid system based on the reinforcement learning theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ze

    2017-09-01

    In allusion to the intermittency and uncertainty of the wind electricity, energy storage and wind generator are combined into a hybrid system to improve the controllability of the output power. A scheduled power tracking control method is proposed based on the reinforcement learning theory and Q-learning algorithm. In this method, the state space of the environment is formed with two key factors, i.e. the state of charge of the energy storage and the difference value between the actual wind power and scheduled power, the feasible action is the output power of the energy storage, and the corresponding immediate rewarding function is designed to reflect the rationality of the control action. By interacting with the environment and learning from the immediate reward, the optimal control strategy is gradually formed. After that, it could be applied to the scheduled power tracking control of the hybrid system. Finally, the rationality and validity of the method are verified through simulation examples.

  12. Can we track holes?

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Todd S.; Kuzmova, Yoana

    2011-01-01

    The evidence is mixed as to whether the visual system treats objects and holes differently. We used a multiple object tracking task to test the hypothesis that figural objects are easier to track than holes. Observers tracked four of eight items (holes or objects). We used an adaptive algorithm to estimate the speed allowing 75% tracking accuracy. In Experiments 1–5, the distinction between holes and figures was accomplished by pictorial cues, while red-cyan anaglyphs were used to provide the illusion of depth in Experiment 6. We variously used Gaussian pixel noise, photographic scenes, or synthetic textures as backgrounds. Tracking was more difficult when a complex background was visible, as opposed to a blank background. Tracking was easier when disks carried fixed, unique markings. When these factors were controlled for, tracking holes was no more difficult than tracking figures, suggesting that they are equivalent stimuli for tracking purposes. PMID:21334361

  13. Electromagnetic bone segment tracking to control femoral derotation osteotomy-A saw bone study.

    PubMed

    Geisbüsch, Andreas; Auer, Christoph; Dickhaus, Hartmut; Niklasch, Mirjam; Dreher, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Correction of rotational gait abnormalities is common practice in pediatric orthopaedics such as in children with cerebral palsy. Femoral derotation osteotomy is established as a standard treatment, however, different authors reported substantial variability in outcomes following surgery with patients showing over- or under-correction. Only 60% of the applied correction is observed postoperatively, which strongly suggests intraoperative measurement error or loss of correction during surgery. This study was conducted to verify the impact of error sources in the derotation procedure and assess the utility of a newly developed, instrumented measurement system based on electromagnetic tracking aiming to improve the accuracy of rotational correction. A supracondylar derotation osteotomy was performed in 21 artificial femur sawbones and the amount of derotation was quantified during the procedure by the tracking system and by nine raters using a conventional goniometer. Accuracy of both measurement devices was determined by repeated computer tomography scans. Average derotation measured by the tracking system differed by 0.1° ± 1.6° from the defined reference measurement . In contrast, a high inter-rater variability was found in goniometric measurements (range: 10.8° ± 6.9°, mean interquartile distance: 6.6°). During fixation of the osteosynthesis, the tracking system reliably detected unintentional manipulation of the correction angle with a mean absolute change of 4.0° ± 3.2°. Our findings show that conventional control of femoral derotation is subject to relevant observer bias whereas instrumental tracking yields accuracy better than ±2°. The tracking system is a step towards more reliable and safe implementation of femoral correction, promising substantial improvements of patient safety in the future. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1106-1112, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society

  14. Tracking a Non-Cooperative Target Using Real-Time Stereovision-Based Control: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Shtark, Tomer; Gurfil, Pini

    2017-03-31

    Tracking a non-cooperative target is a challenge, because in unfamiliar environments most targets are unknown and unspecified. Stereovision is suited to deal with this issue, because it allows to passively scan large areas and estimate the relative position, velocity and shape of objects. This research is an experimental effort aimed at developing, implementing and evaluating a real-time non-cooperative target tracking methods using stereovision measurements only. A computer-vision feature detection and matching algorithm was developed in order to identify and locate the target in the captured images. Three different filters were designed for estimating the relative position and velocity, and their performance was compared. A line-of-sight control algorithm was used for the purpose of keeping the target within the field-of-view. Extensive analytical and numerical investigations were conducted on the multi-view stereo projection equations and their solutions, which were used to initialize the different filters. This research shows, using an experimental and numerical evaluation, the benefits of using the unscented Kalman filter and the total least squares technique in the stereovision-based tracking problem. These findings offer a general and more accurate method for solving the static and dynamic stereovision triangulation problems and the concomitant line-of-sight control.

  15. Tracking a Non-Cooperative Target Using Real-Time Stereovision-Based Control: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Shtark, Tomer; Gurfil, Pini

    2017-01-01

    Tracking a non-cooperative target is a challenge, because in unfamiliar environments most targets are unknown and unspecified. Stereovision is suited to deal with this issue, because it allows to passively scan large areas and estimate the relative position, velocity and shape of objects. This research is an experimental effort aimed at developing, implementing and evaluating a real-time non-cooperative target tracking methods using stereovision measurements only. A computer-vision feature detection and matching algorithm was developed in order to identify and locate the target in the captured images. Three different filters were designed for estimating the relative position and velocity, and their performance was compared. A line-of-sight control algorithm was used for the purpose of keeping the target within the field-of-view. Extensive analytical and numerical investigations were conducted on the multi-view stereo projection equations and their solutions, which were used to initialize the different filters. This research shows, using an experimental and numerical evaluation, the benefits of using the unscented Kalman filter and the total least squares technique in the stereovision-based tracking problem. These findings offer a general and more accurate method for solving the static and dynamic stereovision triangulation problems and the concomitant line-of-sight control. PMID:28362338

  16. Adaptive Failure Compensation for Aircraft Tracking Control Using Engine Differential Based Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yu; Tang, Xidong; Tao, Gang; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft model that incorporates independently adjustable engine throttles and ailerons is employed to develop an adaptive control scheme in the presence of actuator failures. This model captures the key features of aircraft flight dynamics when in the engine differential mode. Based on this model an adaptive feedback control scheme for asymptotic state tracking is developed and applied to a transport aircraft model in the presence of two types of failures during operation, rudder failure and aileron failure. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the adaptive failure compensation scheme.

  17. Stability control for high speed tracked unmanned vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, Olivier; Morillon, Joel G.; Houbloup, Philippe; Leveque, Stephane; Fialaire, Cecile; Gauthier, Thierry; Ropars, Patrice

    2005-05-01

    The French Military Robotic Study Program (introduced in Aerosense 2003), sponsored by the French Defense Procurement Agency and managed by Thales as the prime contractor, focuses on about 15 robotic themes which can provide an immediate "operational add-on value". The paper details the "automatic speed adjustment" behavior (named SYR4), developed by Giat Industries Company, which main goal is to secure the teleoperated mobility of high speed tracked vehicles on rough grounds; more precisely, the validated low level behavior continuously adjusts the vehicle speed taking into account the teleperator wish AND the maximum speed that the vehicle can manage safely according to the commanded radius of curvature. The algorithm is based on a realistic physical model of the ground-tracks relation, taking into account many vehicle and ground parameters (such as ground adherence and dynamic specificities of tracked vehicles). It also deals with the teleoperator-machine interface, providing a balanced strategy between both extreme behaviors: a) maximum speed reduction before initiating the commanded curve; b) executing the minimum possible radius without decreasing the commanded speed. The paper presents the results got from the military acceptance tests performed on tracked SYRANO vehicle (French Operational Demonstrator).

  18. Tracking control of air-breathing hypersonic vehicles with non-affine dynamics via improved neural back-stepping design.

    PubMed

    Bu, Xiangwei; He, Guangjun; Wang, Ke

    2018-04-01

    This study considers the design of a new back-stepping control approach for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV) non-affine models via neural approximation. The AHV's non-affine dynamics is decomposed into velocity subsystem and altitude subsystem to be controlled separately, and robust adaptive tracking control laws are developed using improved back-stepping designs. Neural networks are applied to estimate the unknown non-affine dynamics, which guarantees the addressed controllers with satisfactory robustness against uncertainties. In comparison with the existing control methodologies, the special contributions are that the non-affine issue is handled by constructing two low-pass filters based on model transformations, and virtual controllers are treated as intermediate variables such that they aren't needed for back-stepping designs any more. Lyapunov techniques are employed to show the uniformly ultimately boundedness of all closed-loop signals. Finally, simulation results are presented to verify the tracking performance and superiorities of the investigated control strategy. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Proportional plus integral MIMO controller for regulation and tracking with anti-wind-up features

    SciTech Connect

    Puleston, P.F.; Mantz, R.J.

    1993-11-01

    A proportional plus integral matrix control structure for MIMO systems is proposed. Based on a standard optimal control structure with integral action, it permits a greater degree of independence of the design and tuning of the regulating and tracking features, without considerably increasing the controller complexity. Fast recovery from load disturbances is achieved, while large overshoots associated with set-point changes and reset wind-up problems can be reduced. A simple effective procedure for practical tuning is introduced.

  20. Design and Experimental Evaluation on an Advanced Multisource Energy Harvesting System for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Gaofei; Ma, Rui; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    An effective multisource energy harvesting system is presented as power supply for wireless sensor nodes (WSNs). The advanced system contains not only an expandable power management module including control of the charging and discharging process of the lithium polymer battery but also an energy harvesting system using the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit with analog driving scheme for the collection of both solar and vibration energy sources. Since the MPPT and the power management module are utilized, the system is able to effectively achieve a low power consumption. Furthermore, a super capacitor is integrated in the system so that current fluctuations of the lithium polymer battery during the charging and discharging processes can be properly reduced. In addition, through a simple analog switch circuit with low power consumption, the proposed system can successfully switch the power supply path according to the ambient energy sources and load power automatically. A practical WSNs platform shows that efficiency of the energy harvesting system can reach about 75–85% through the 24-hour environmental test, which confirms that the proposed system can be used as a long-term continuous power supply for WSNs. PMID:25032233

  1. Design and experimental evaluation on an advanced multisource energy harvesting system for wireless sensor nodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Gaofei; Ma, Rui; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    An effective multisource energy harvesting system is presented as power supply for wireless sensor nodes (WSNs). The advanced system contains not only an expandable power management module including control of the charging and discharging process of the lithium polymer battery but also an energy harvesting system using the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit with analog driving scheme for the collection of both solar and vibration energy sources. Since the MPPT and the power management module are utilized, the system is able to effectively achieve a low power consumption. Furthermore, a super capacitor is integrated in the system so that current fluctuations of the lithium polymer battery during the charging and discharging processes can be properly reduced. In addition, through a simple analog switch circuit with low power consumption, the proposed system can successfully switch the power supply path according to the ambient energy sources and load power automatically. A practical WSNs platform shows that efficiency of the energy harvesting system can reach about 75-85% through the 24-hour environmental test, which confirms that the proposed system can be used as a long-term continuous power supply for WSNs.

  2. Attitude guidance and tracking for spacecraft with two reaction wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, James D.; Bai, Yuliang; Henninger, Helen

    2018-04-01

    This paper addresses the guidance and tracking problem for a rigid-spacecraft using two reaction wheels (RWs). The guidance problem is formulated as an optimal control problem on the special orthogonal group SO(3). The optimal motion is solved analytically as a function of time and is used to reduce the original guidance problem to one of computing the minimum of a nonlinear function. A tracking control using two RWs is developed that extends previous singular quaternion stabilisation controls to tracking controls on the rotation group. The controller is proved to locally asymptotically track the generated reference motions using Lyapunov's direct method. Simulations of a 3U CubeSat demonstrate that this tracking control is robust to initial rotation errors and angular velocity errors in the controlled axis. For initial angular velocity errors in the uncontrolled axis and under significant disturbances the control fails to track. However, the singular tracking control is combined with a nano-magnetic torquer which simply damps the angular velocity in the uncontrolled axis and is shown to provide a practical control method for tracking in the presence of disturbances and initial condition errors.

  3. Computer Simulation of a Multiaxis Air-to-Air Tracking Task Using the Optimal Pilot Control Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    v ABSTRACT ........ ............................. .. vi CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION ....... ..................... 1 1.1 Motivation... Introduction ......... . 4 2.2 Optimal Pilot Control Model and Control Synthesis 4 2.3 Pitch Tracking Task ...... ................... 6 2.4 Multiaxis...CHAPTER 3 - SIMULATION SYSTEM ...... .................. 33 3.1 Introduction ........ ....................... 33 3.2 System Hardware

  4. Modeling and analysis of solar distributed generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Rivera, Eduardo Ivan

    Recent changes in the global economy are creating a big impact in our daily life. The price of oil is increasing and the number of reserves are less every day. Also, dramatic demographic changes are impacting the viability of the electric infrastructure and ultimately the economic future of the industry. These are some of the reasons that many countries are looking for alternative energy to produce electric energy. The most common form of green energy in our daily life is solar energy. To convert solar energy into electrical energy is required solar panels, dc-dc converters, power control, sensors, and inverters. In this work, a photovoltaic module, PVM, model using the electrical characteristics provided by the manufacturer data sheet is presented for power system applications. Experimental results from testing are showed, verifying the proposed PVM model. Also in this work, three maximum power point tracker, MPPT, algorithms would be presented to obtain the maximum power from a PVM. The first MPPT algorithm is a method based on the Rolle's and Lagrange's Theorems and can provide at least an approximate answer to a family of transcendental functions that cannot be solved using differential calculus. The second MPPT algorithm is based on the approximation of the proposed PVM model using fractional polynomials where the shape, boundary conditions and performance of the proposed PVM model are satisfied. The third MPPT algorithm is based in the determination of the optimal duty cycle for a dc-dc converter and the previous knowledge of the load or load matching conditions. Also, four algorithms to calculate the effective irradiance level and temperature over a photovoltaic module are presented in this work. The main reasons to develop these algorithms are for monitoring climate conditions, the elimination of temperature and solar irradiance sensors, reductions in cost for a photovoltaic inverter system, and development of new algorithms to be integrated with maximum

  5. Output Tracking for Systems with Non-Hyperbolic and Near Non-Hyperbolic Internal Dynamics: Helicopter Hover Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devasia, Santosh

    1996-01-01

    A technique to achieve output tracking for nonminimum phase linear systems with non-hyperbolic and near non-hyperbolic internal dynamics is presented. This approach integrates stable inversion techniques, that achieve exact-tracking, with approximation techniques, that modify the internal dynamics to achieve desirable performance. Such modification of the internal dynamics is used (1) to remove non-hyperbolicity which an obstruction to applying stable inversion techniques and (2) to reduce large pre-actuation time needed to apply stable inversion for near non-hyperbolic cases. The method is applied to an example helicopter hover control problem with near non-hyperbolic internal dynamic for illustrating the trade-off between exact tracking and reduction of pre-actuation time.

  6. Front tracking based modeling of the solid grain growth on the adaptive control volume grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredyński, Mirosław; Łapka, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the micro-scale model of unconstrained solidification of the grain immersed in under-cooled liquid, based on the front tracking approach. For this length scale, the interface tracked through the domain is meant as the solid-liquid boundary. To prevent generation of huge meshes the energy transport equation is discretized on the adaptive control volume (c.v.) mesh. The coupling of dynamically changing mesh and moving front position is addressed. Preliminary results of simulation of a test case, the growth of single grain, are presented and discussed.

  7. Relay tracking control for second-order multi-agent systems with damaged agents.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lijing; Li, Jing; Liu, Qin

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates a situation where smart agents capable of sensory and mobility are deployed to monitor a designated area. A preset number of agents start tracking when a target intrudes this area. Some of the tracking agents are possible to be out of order over the tracking course. Thus, we propose a cooperative relay tracking strategy to ensure the successful tracking with existence of damaged agents. Relay means that, when a tracking agent quits tracking due to malfunction, one of the near deployed agents replaces it to continue the tracking task. This results in jump of tracking errors and dynamic switching of topology of the multi-agent system. Switched system technique is employed to solve this specific problem. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed tracking strategy and validity of the theoretical results are verified by conducting a numerical simulation. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fast spacecraft adaptive attitude tracking control through immersion and invariance design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Haowei; Yue, Xiaokui; Li, Peng; Yuan, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a novel non-certainty-equivalence adaptive control method for the attitude tracking control problem of spacecraft with inertia uncertainties. The proposed immersion and invariance (I&I) based adaptation law provides a more direct and flexible approach to circumvent the limitations of the basic I&I method without employing any filter signal. By virtue of the adaptation high-gain equivalence property derived from the proposed adaptive method, the closed-loop adaptive system with a low adaptation gain could recover the high adaptation gain performance of the filter-based I&I method, and the resulting control torque demands during the initial transient has been significantly reduced. A special feature of this method is that the convergence of the parameter estimation error has been observably improved by utilizing an adaptation gain matrix instead of a single adaptation gain value. Numerical simulations are presented to highlight the various benefits of the proposed method compared with the certainty-equivalence-based control method and filter-based I&I control schemes.

  9. Resisting Temptation: Tracking How Self-Control Conflicts Are Successfully Resolved in Real Time.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Paul E; Medvedev, Danila; Ferguson, Melissa J

    2017-09-01

    Across four studies, we used mouse tracking to identify the dynamic, on-line cognitive processes that underlie successful self-control decisions. First, we showed that individuals display real-time conflict when choosing options consistent with their long-term goal over short-term temptations. Second, we found that individuals who are more successful at self-control-whether measured or manipulated-show significantly less real-time conflict in only self-control-relevant choices. Third, we demonstrated that successful individuals who choose a long-term goal over a short-term temptation display movements that are smooth rather than abrupt, which suggests dynamic rather than stage-based resolution of self-control conflicts. These findings have important implications for contemporary theories of self-control.

  10. Robust back-stepping output feedback trajectory tracking for quadrotors via extended state observer and sigmoid tracking differentiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xingling; Liu, Jun; Wang, Honglun

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a robust back-stepping output feedback trajectory tracking controller is proposed for quadrotors subject to parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. Based on the hierarchical control principle, the quadrotor dynamics is decomposed into translational and rotational subsystems to facilitate the back-stepping control design. With given model information incorporated into observer design, a high-order extended state observer (ESO) that relies only on position measurements is developed to estimate the remaining unmeasurable states and the lumped disturbances in rotational subsystem simultaneously. To overcome the problem of "explosion of complexity" in the back-stepping design, the sigmoid tracking differentiator (STD) is introduced to compute the derivative of virtual control laws. The advantage is that the proposed controller via output-feedback scheme not only can ensure good tracking performance using very limited information of quadrotors, but also has the ability of handling the undesired uncertainties. The stability analysis is established using the Lyapunov theory. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme in achieving a guaranteed tracking performance with respect to an 8-shaped reference trajectory.

  11. The myokinetic control interface: tracking implanted magnets as a means for prosthetic control.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, S; Clemente, F; Barone, D; Controzzi, M; Cipriani, C

    2017-12-07

    Upper limb amputation deprives individuals of their innate ability to manipulate objects. Such disability can be restored with a robotic prosthesis linked to the brain by a human-machine interface (HMI) capable of decoding voluntary intentions, and sending motor commands to the prosthesis. Clinical or research HMIs rely on the interpretation of electrophysiological signals recorded from the muscles. However, the quest for an HMI that allows for arbitrary and physiologically appropriate control of dexterous prostheses, is far from being completed. Here we propose a new HMI that aims to track the muscles contractions with implanted permanent magnets, by means of magnetic field sensors. We called this a myokinetic control interface. We present the concept, the features and a demonstration of a prototype which exploits six 3-axis sensors to localize four magnets implanted in a forearm mockup, for the control of a dexterous hand prosthesis. The system proved highly linear (R 2  = 0.99) and precise (1% repeatability), yet exhibiting short computation delay (45 ms) and limited cross talk errors (10% the mean stroke of the magnets). Our results open up promising possibilities for amputees, demonstrating the viability of the myokinetic approach in implementing direct and simultaneous control over multiple digits of an artificial hand.

  12. Visuo‐manual tracking: does intermittent control with aperiodic sampling explain linear power and non‐linear remnant without sensorimotor noise?

    PubMed Central

    Gawthrop, Peter J.; Lakie, Martin; Loram, Ian D.

    2017-01-01

    Key points A human controlling an external system is described most easily and conventionally as linearly and continuously translating sensory input to motor output, with the inevitable output remnant, non‐linearly related to the input, attributed to sensorimotor noise.Recent experiments show sustained manual tracking involves repeated refractoriness (insensitivity to sensory information for a certain duration), with the temporary 200–500 ms periods of irresponsiveness to sensory input making the control process intrinsically non‐linear.This evidence calls for re‐examination of the extent to which random sensorimotor noise is required to explain the non‐linear remnant.This investigation of manual tracking shows how the full motor output (linear component and remnant) can be explained mechanistically by aperiodic sampling triggered by prediction error thresholds.Whereas broadband physiological noise is general to all processes, aperiodic sampling is associated with sensorimotor decision making within specific frontal, striatal and parietal networks; we conclude that manual tracking utilises such slow serial decision making pathways up to several times per second. Abstract The human operator is described adequately by linear translation of sensory input to motor output. Motor output also always includes a non‐linear remnant resulting from random sensorimotor noise from multiple sources, and non‐linear input transformations, for example thresholds or refractory periods. Recent evidence showed that manual tracking incurs substantial, serial, refractoriness (insensitivity to sensory information of 350 and 550 ms for 1st and 2nd order systems respectively). Our two questions are: (i) What are the comparative merits of explaining the non‐linear remnant using noise or non‐linear transformations? (ii) Can non‐linear transformations represent serial motor decision making within the sensorimotor feedback loop intrinsic to tracking? Twelve participants

  13. Visuo-manual tracking: does intermittent control with aperiodic sampling explain linear power and non-linear remnant without sensorimotor noise?

    PubMed

    Gollee, Henrik; Gawthrop, Peter J; Lakie, Martin; Loram, Ian D

    2017-11-01

    A human controlling an external system is described most easily and conventionally as linearly and continuously translating sensory input to motor output, with the inevitable output remnant, non-linearly related to the input, attributed to sensorimotor noise. Recent experiments show sustained manual tracking involves repeated refractoriness (insensitivity to sensory information for a certain duration), with the temporary 200-500 ms periods of irresponsiveness to sensory input making the control process intrinsically non-linear. This evidence calls for re-examination of the extent to which random sensorimotor noise is required to explain the non-linear remnant. This investigation of manual tracking shows how the full motor output (linear component and remnant) can be explained mechanistically by aperiodic sampling triggered by prediction error thresholds. Whereas broadband physiological noise is general to all processes, aperiodic sampling is associated with sensorimotor decision making within specific frontal, striatal and parietal networks; we conclude that manual tracking utilises such slow serial decision making pathways up to several times per second. The human operator is described adequately by linear translation of sensory input to motor output. Motor output also always includes a non-linear remnant resulting from random sensorimotor noise from multiple sources, and non-linear input transformations, for example thresholds or refractory periods. Recent evidence showed that manual tracking incurs substantial, serial, refractoriness (insensitivity to sensory information of 350 and 550 ms for 1st and 2nd order systems respectively). Our two questions are: (i) What are the comparative merits of explaining the non-linear remnant using noise or non-linear transformations? (ii) Can non-linear transformations represent serial motor decision making within the sensorimotor feedback loop intrinsic to tracking? Twelve participants (instructed to act in three prescribed

  14. Research on Experiment of Islanding Protection Device of Grid-connected Photovoltaic System Based on RTDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ning; Yang, Jia; Cheng, Zheng; Chen, Bo; Su, Yong Chun; Shu, Zhan; Zou, Jin

    2017-06-01

    Solar photovoltaic power generation is the power generation using solar cell module converting sunlight into DC electric energy. In the paper an equivalent model of solar photovoltaic power generation system is built in RTDS. The main circuit structure of the two-stage PV grid-connected system consists of the DC-DC, DC-AC circuit. The MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) control of the PV array is controlled by adjusting the duty ratio of the DC-DC circuit. The proposed control strategy of constant voltage/constant reactive power (V/Q) control is successfully implemented grid-connected control of the inverter when grid-connected operation. The closed-loop experiment of islanding protection device of photovoltaic power plant on RTDS, verifies the correctness of the simulation model, and the experimental verification can be applied to this type of device.

  15. Finite-Time Attitude Tracking Control for Spacecraft Using Terminal Sliding Mode and Chebyshev Neural Network.

    PubMed

    An-Min Zou; Kumar, K D; Zeng-Guang Hou; Xi Liu

    2011-08-01

    A finite-time attitude tracking control scheme is proposed for spacecraft using terminal sliding mode and Chebyshev neural network (NN) (CNN). The four-parameter representations (quaternion) are used to describe the spacecraft attitude for global representation without singularities. The attitude state (i.e., attitude and velocity) error dynamics is transformed to a double integrator dynamics with a constraint on the spacecraft attitude. With consideration of this constraint, a novel terminal sliding manifold is proposed for the spacecraft. In order to guarantee that the output of the NN used in the controller is bounded by the corresponding bound of the approximated unknown function, a switch function is applied to generate a switching between the adaptive NN control and the robust controller. Meanwhile, a CNN, whose basis functions are implemented using only desired signals, is introduced to approximate the desired nonlinear function and bounded external disturbances online, and the robust term based on the hyperbolic tangent function is applied to counteract NN approximation errors in the adaptive neural control scheme. Most importantly, the finite-time stability in both the reaching phase and the sliding phase can be guaranteed by a Lyapunov-based approach. Finally, numerical simulations on the attitude tracking control of spacecraft in the presence of an unknown mass moment of inertia matrix, bounded external disturbances, and control input constraints are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed controller.

  16. The Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller-Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm and the Quadratic Boost Converter for Pv System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altin, Necmi

    2018-05-01

    An interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller-based maximum power point tracking algorithm and direct current-direct current (DC-DC) converter topology are proposed for photovoltaic (PV) systems. The proposed maximum power point tracking algorithm is designed based on an interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller that has an ability to handle uncertainties. The change in PV power and the change in PV voltage are determined as inputs of the proposed controller, while the change in duty cycle is determined as the output of the controller. Seven interval type-2 fuzzy sets are determined and used as membership functions for input and output variables. The quadratic boost converter provides high voltage step-up ability without any reduction in performance and stability of the system. The performance of the proposed system is validated through MATLAB/Simulink simulations. It is seen that the proposed system provides high maximum power point tracking speed and accuracy even for fast changing atmospheric conditions and high voltage step-up requirements.

  17. Adaptive Neural Network Control for the Trajectory Tracking of the Furuta Pendulum.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Valenzuela, Javier; Aguilar-Avelar, Carlos; Puga-Guzman, Sergio A; Santibanez, Victor

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a novel adaptive neural network-based control scheme for the Furuta pendulum, which is a two degree-of-freedom underactuated system. Adaptation laws for the input and output weights are also provided. The proposed controller is able to guarantee tracking of a reference signal for the arm while the pendulum remains in the upright position. The key aspect of the derivation of the controller is the definition of an output function that depends on the position and velocity errors. The internal and external dynamics are rigorously analyzed, thereby proving the uniform ultimate boundedness of the error trajectories. By using real-time experiments, the new scheme is compared with other control methodologies, therein demonstrating the improved performance of the proposed adaptive algorithm.

  18. Color image processing and object tracking workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Paulick, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    A system is described for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape which was developed to meet the needs of the microgravity combustion and fluid science experiments at NASA Lewis. The system consists of individual hardware parts working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware parts include 16 mm film projector, a lens system, a video camera, an S-VHS tapedeck, a frame grabber, and some storage and output devices. Both the projector and tapedeck have a computer interface enabling remote control. Tracking software was developed to control the overall operation. In the automatic mode, the main tracking program controls the projector or the tapedeck frame incrementation, grabs a frame, processes it, locates the edge of the objects being tracked, and stores the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Three representative applications are described. These applications represent typical uses and include tracking the propagation of a flame front, tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility, and characterizing a diffusion flame according to color and shape.

  19. 21 CFR 872.2060 - Jaw tracking device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.2060 Jaw tracking device. (a) Jaw tracking device... Controls Guidance Document: Dental Sonography and Jaw Tracking Devices.” [68 FR 67367, Dec. 2, 2003] ...

  20. Mechatronic track guidance on disturbed track: the trade-off between actuator performance and wheel wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzeck, Bernhard; Heckmann, Andreas; Wesseler, Christoph; Rapp, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Future high-speed trains are the main focus of the DLR research project Next Generation Train. One central point of the research activities is the development of mechatronic track guidance for the two-axle intermediate wagons with steerable, individually powered, independently rotating wheels. The traction motors hereby fulfil two functions; they concurrently are traction drives and steering actuators. In this paper, the influence of the track properties - line layout and track irregularities - on the performance requirements for the guidance actuator is investigated using multi-body models in SIMPACK®. In order to compromise on the design conflict between low wheel wear and low steering torque, the control parameters of the mechatronic track guidance are optimised using the DLR in-house software MOPS. Besides the track irregularities especially the increasing inclination at transition curves defines high actuator requirements due to gyroscopic effects at high speed. After introducing a limiter for the actuating variables into the control system, a good performance is achieved.

  1. Development of a new integrated local trajectory planning and tracking control framework for autonomous ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohui; Sun, Zhenping; Cao, Dongpu; Liu, Daxue; He, Hangen

    2017-03-01

    This study proposes a novel integrated local trajectory planning and tracking control (ILTPTC) framework for autonomous vehicles driving along a reference path with obstacles avoidance. For this ILTPTC framework, an efficient state-space sampling-based trajectory planning scheme is employed to smoothly follow the reference path. A model-based predictive path generation algorithm is applied to produce a set of smooth and kinematically-feasible paths connecting the initial state with the sampling terminal states. A velocity control law is then designed to assign a speed value at each of the points along the generated paths. An objective function considering both safety and comfort performance is carefully formulated for assessing the generated trajectories and selecting the optimal one. For accurately tracking the optimal trajectory while overcoming external disturbances and model uncertainties, a combined feedforward and feedback controller is developed. Both simulation analyses and vehicle testing are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed ILTPTC framework, and future research is also briefly discussed.

  2. Amplitude control of the track-induced self-excited vibration for a maglev system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Danfeng; Li, Jie; Zhang, Kun

    2014-09-01

    The Electromagnet Suspension (EMS) maglev train uses controlled electromagnetic forces to achieve suspension, and self-excited vibration may occur due to the flexibility of the track. In this article, the harmonic balance method is applied to investigate the amplitude of the self-excited vibration, and it is found that the amplitude of the vibration depends on the voltage of the power supplier. Based on this observation, a vibration amplitude control method, which controls the amplitude of the vibration by adjusting the voltage of the power supplier, is proposed to attenuate the vibration. A PI controller is designed to control the amplitude of the vibration at a given level. The effectiveness of this method shows a good prospect for its application to commercial maglev systems. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Loop shaping design for tracking performance in machine axes.

    PubMed

    Schinstock, Dale E; Wei, Zhouhong; Yang, Tao

    2006-01-01

    A modern interpretation of classical loop shaping control design methods is presented in the context of tracking control for linear motor stages. Target applications include noncontacting machines such as laser cutters and markers, water jet cutters, and adhesive applicators. The methods are directly applicable to the common PID controller and are pertinent to many electromechanical servo actuators other than linear motors. In addition to explicit design techniques a PID tuning algorithm stressing the importance of tracking is described. While the theory behind these techniques is not new, the analysis of their application to modern systems is unique in the research literature. The techniques and results should be important to control practitioners optimizing PID controller designs for tracking and in comparing results from classical designs to modern techniques. The methods stress high-gain controller design and interpret what this means for PID. Nothing in the methods presented precludes the addition of feedforward control methods for added improvements in tracking. Laboratory results from a linear motor stage demonstrate that with large open-loop gain very good tracking performance can be achieved. The resultant tracking errors compare very favorably to results from similar motions on similar systems that utilize much more complicated controllers.

  4. Experimental Tracking of Limit-Point Bifurcations and Backbone Curves Using Control-Based Continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renson, Ludovic; Barton, David A. W.; Neild, Simon A.

    Control-based continuation (CBC) is a means of applying numerical continuation directly to a physical experiment for bifurcation analysis without the use of a mathematical model. CBC enables the detection and tracking of bifurcations directly, without the need for a post-processing stage as is often the case for more traditional experimental approaches. In this paper, we use CBC to directly locate limit-point bifurcations of a periodically forced oscillator and track them as forcing parameters are varied. Backbone curves, which capture the overall frequency-amplitude dependence of the system’s forced response, are also traced out directly. The proposed method is demonstrated on a single-degree-of-freedom mechanical system with a nonlinear stiffness characteristic. Results are presented for two configurations of the nonlinearity — one where it exhibits a hardening stiffness characteristic and one where it exhibits softening-hardening.

  5. Validation of the Spanish version of the Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids (TRACK) in a population of Hispanic preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Nino, Gustavo; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    There is a critical need for validation studies of questionnaires designed to assess the level of control of asthma in children younger than 5 years old. To validate the Spanish version of the Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids (TRACK) questionnaire in children younger than age 5 years with symptoms consistent with asthma. In a prospective cohort validation study, parents and/or caregivers of children younger than age 5 years and with symptoms consistent with asthma, during a baseline and a follow-up visit 2 to 6 weeks later, completed the information required to assess the content validity, criterion validity, construct validity, test-retest reliability, sensitivity to change, internal consistency reliability, and usability of the TRACK questionnaire. Median (interquartile range) of the TRACK scores were significantly different between patients with well-controlled asthma, patients with not well-controlled asthma, and patients with very poorly controlled asthma (90.0 [75.0-95.0], 75.0 [55.0-85.0], and 35.0 [25.0-55.0], respectively, P < .001). TRACK scores were significantly different between patients classified as currently symptomatic and symptomatic in the recent past (42.5 [25.0-55.0] vs 85.0 [75.0-90.0]; P < .001). The intraclass correlation coefficient of the measurements was 0.755 (95% CI, 0.503-1.00). All patients whose clinical status changed showed an increase of 10 or more points in TRACK score between baseline and follow-up visits. The Cronbach α was 0.77 for the questionnaire as a whole. The Spanish version of the TRACK questionnaire has excellent sensitivity to change and usability; adequate criterion validity, construct validity, and test-retest reliability; and an acceptable internal consistency, when used in children younger than age 5 years with symptoms consistent with asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Speed tracking control of pneumatic motor servo systems using observation-based adaptive dynamic sliding-mode control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Syuan-Yi; Gong, Sheng-Sian

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to develop an adaptive high-precision control system for controlling the speed of a vane-type air motor (VAM) pneumatic servo system. In practice, the rotor speed of a VAM depends on the input mass air flow, which can be controlled by the effective orifice area (EOA) of an electronic throttle valve (ETV). As the control variable of a second-order pneumatic system is the integral of the EOA, an observation-based adaptive dynamic sliding-mode control (ADSMC) system is proposed to derive the differential of the control variable, namely, the EOA control signal. In the ADSMC system, a proportional-integral-derivative fuzzy neural network (PIDFNN) observer is used to achieve an ideal dynamic sliding-mode control (DSMC), and a supervisor compensator is designed to eliminate the approximation error. As a result, the ADSMC incorporates the robustness of a DSMC and the online learning ability of a PIDFNN. To ensure the convergence of the tracking error, a Lyapunov-based analytical method is employed to obtain the adaptive algorithms required to tune the control parameters of the online ADSMC system. Finally, our experimental results demonstrate the precision and robustness of the ADSMC system for highly nonlinear and time-varying VAM pneumatic servo systems.

  7. Observer-Based Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Tracking Control of Nonlinear Nonstrict-Feedback Systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengwei; Liu, Jianxing; Xiong, Yongyang; Wu, Ligang

    2017-06-28

    This paper studies an output-based adaptive fault-tolerant control problem for nonlinear systems with nonstrict-feedback form. Neural networks are utilized to identify the unknown nonlinear characteristics in the system. An observer and a general fault model are constructed to estimate the unavailable states and describe the fault, respectively. Adaptive parameters are constructed to overcome the difficulties in the design process for nonstrict-feedback systems. Meanwhile, dynamic surface control technique is introduced to avoid the problem of ''explosion of complexity''. Furthermore, based on adaptive backstepping control method, an output-based adaptive neural tracking control strategy is developed for the considered system against actuator fault, which can ensure that all the signals in the resulting closed-loop system are bounded, and the system output signal can be regulated to follow the response of the given reference signal with a small error. Finally, the simulation results are provided to validate the effectiveness of the control strategy proposed in this paper.

  8. Speckle tracking echocardiography in patients with septic shock: a case control study (SPECKSS).

    PubMed

    Ng, Pauline Yeung; Sin, Wai Ching; Ng, Andrew Kei-Yan; Chan, Wai Ming

    2016-05-14

    Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction is a well-recognized condition and confers worse outcomes in septic patients. Echocardiographic assessment by conventional parameters such as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is often affected by ongoing changes in preload and afterload conditions. Novel echocardiographic technologies such as speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) have evolved for direct assessment of the myocardial function. We investigate the measurement of myocardial strain by speckle tracking echocardiography for the diagnosis of sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction. This is a case-control study at a university-affiliated medical intensive care unit. Consecutive adult medical patients admitted with a diagnosis of septic shock were included. Patients with other causes of myocardial dysfunction were excluded. They were compared to age-matched, gender-matched, and cardiovascular risk-factor-matched controls, who were admitted to hospital for sepsis but did not develop septic shock. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed on all patients within 24 hours of diagnosis, and a reassessment echocardiogram was performed in the study group of patients upon recovery. Patients with septic shock (n = 33) (study group) and 29 matched patients with sepsis but no septic shock (control group) were recruited. The mean sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score for the study and control groups were 10.2 and 1.6, respectively (P < 0.001). In patients with septic shock, the mean arterial pressure was lower (76 mmHg vs 82 mmHg, P = 0.032), and the heart rate was higher (99 bpm vs 86 bpm, P = 0.008). The cardiac output (5.9 L/min vs 5.5 L/min, P = 0.401) and systemic vascular resistance (1090 dynes•sec/cm(5) vs 1194 dynes•sec/cm(5), P = 0.303) were similar. The study group had a greater degree of myocardial dysfunction measured by global longitudinal strain (GLS) (-14.5 % vs -18.3 %, P <0.001), and the myocardial strain differed upon diagnosis and

  9. Minimal-Approximation-Based Distributed Consensus Tracking of a Class of Uncertain Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Unknown Control Directions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun Ho; Yoo, Sung Jin

    2017-03-28

    A minimal-approximation-based distributed adaptive consensus tracking approach is presented for strict-feedback multiagent systems with unknown heterogeneous nonlinearities and control directions under a directed network. Existing approximation-based consensus results for uncertain nonlinear multiagent systems in lower-triangular form have used multiple function approximators in each local controller to approximate unmatched nonlinearities of each follower. Thus, as the follower's order increases, the number of the approximators used in its local controller increases. However, the proposed approach employs only one function approximator to construct the local controller of each follower regardless of the order of the follower. The recursive design methodology using a new error transformation is derived for the proposed minimal-approximation-based design. Furthermore, a bounding lemma on parameters of Nussbaum functions is presented to handle the unknown control direction problem in the minimal-approximation-based distributed consensus tracking framework and the stability of the overall closed-loop system is rigorously analyzed in the Lyapunov sense.

  10. Research of PV Power Generation MPPT based on GABP Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu; Lin, Xianfu

    2018-05-01

    Photovoltaic power generation has become the main research direction of new energy power generation. But high investment and low efficiency of photovoltaic industry arouse concern in some extent. So maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic power generation has been a popular study point. Due to slow response, oscillation at maximum power point and low precision, the algorithm based on genetic algorithm combined with BP neural network are designed detailedly in this paper. And the modeling and simulation are completed by use of MATLAB/SIMULINK. The results show that the algorithm is effective and the maximum power point can be tracked accurately and quickly.

  11. An adaptive optimal control for smart structures based on the subspace tracking identification technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripamonti, Francesco; Resta, Ferruccio; Borroni, Massimo; Cazzulani, Gabriele

    2014-04-01

    A new method for the real-time identification of mechanical system modal parameters is used in order to design different adaptive control logics aiming to reduce the vibrations in a carbon fiber plate smart structure. It is instrumented with three piezoelectric actuators, three accelerometers and three strain gauges. The real-time identification is based on a recursive subspace tracking algorithm whose outputs are elaborated by an ARMA model. A statistical approach is finally applied to choose the modal parameter correct values. These are given in input to model-based control logics such as a gain scheduling and an adaptive LQR control.

  12. Fault-tolerant optimised tracking control for unknown discrete-time linear systems using a combined reinforcement learning and residual compensation methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ke-Zhen; Feng, Jian; Cui, Xiaohong

    2017-10-01

    This paper considers the fault-tolerant optimised tracking control (FTOTC) problem for unknown discrete-time linear system. A research scheme is proposed on the basis of data-based parity space identification, reinforcement learning and residual compensation techniques. The main characteristic of this research scheme lies in the parity-space-identification-based simultaneous tracking control and residual compensation. The specific technical line consists of four main contents: apply subspace aided method to design observer-based residual generator; use reinforcement Q-learning approach to solve optimised tracking control policy; rely on robust H∞ theory to achieve noise attenuation; adopt fault estimation triggered by residual generator to perform fault compensation. To clarify the design and implementation procedures, an integrated algorithm is further constructed to link up these four functional units. The detailed analysis and proof are subsequently given to explain the guaranteed FTOTC performance of the proposed conclusions. Finally, a case simulation is provided to verify its effectiveness.

  13. Tracking control of concentration profiles in a fed-batch bioreactor using a linear algebra methodology.

    PubMed

    Rómoli, Santiago; Serrano, Mario Emanuel; Ortiz, Oscar Alberto; Vega, Jorge Rubén; Eduardo Scaglia, Gustavo Juan

    2015-07-01

    Based on a linear algebra approach, this paper aims at developing a novel control law able to track reference profiles that were previously-determined in the literature. A main advantage of the proposed strategy is that the control actions are obtained by solving a system of linear equations. The optimal controller parameters are selected through Monte Carlo Randomized Algorithm in order to minimize a proposed cost index. The controller performance is evaluated through several tests, and compared with other controller reported in the literature. Finally, a Monte Carlo Randomized Algorithm is conducted to assess the performance of the proposed controller. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Design of an embedded inverse-feedforward biomolecular tracking controller for enzymatic reaction processes.

    PubMed

    Foo, Mathias; Kim, Jongrae; Sawlekar, Rucha; Bates, Declan G

    2017-04-06

    Feedback control is widely used in chemical engineering to improve the performance and robustness of chemical processes. Feedback controllers require a 'subtractor' that is able to compute the error between the process output and the reference signal. In the case of embedded biomolecular control circuits, subtractors designed using standard chemical reaction network theory can only realise one-sided subtraction, rendering standard controller design approaches inadequate. Here, we show how a biomolecular controller that allows tracking of required changes in the outputs of enzymatic reaction processes can be designed and implemented within the framework of chemical reaction network theory. The controller architecture employs an inversion-based feedforward controller that compensates for the limitations of the one-sided subtractor that generates the error signals for a feedback controller. The proposed approach requires significantly fewer chemical reactions to implement than alternative designs, and should have wide applicability throughout the fields of synthetic biology and biological engineering.

  15. An adaptive trajectory tracking control of four rotor hover vehicle using extended normalized radial basis function network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ul Amin, Rooh; Aijun, Li; Khan, Muhammad Umer; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Kamsin, Amirrudin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive trajectory tracking controller based on extended normalized radial basis function network (ENRBFN) is proposed for 3-degree-of-freedom four rotor hover vehicle subjected to external disturbance i.e. wind turbulence. Mathematical model of four rotor hover system is developed using equations of motions and a new computational intelligence based technique ENRBFN is introduced to approximate the unmodeled dynamics of the hover vehicle. The adaptive controller based on the Lyapunov stability approach is designed to achieve tracking of the desired attitude angles of four rotor hover vehicle in the presence of wind turbulence. The adaptive weight update based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used to avoid weight drift in case the system is exposed to external disturbances. The closed-loop system stability is also analyzed using Lyapunov stability theory. Simulations and experimental results are included to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  16. Real-time edge tracking using a tactile sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Alan D.; Volpe, Richard; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1989-01-01

    Object recognition through the use of input from multiple sensors is an important aspect of an autonomous manipulation system. In tactile object recognition, it is necessary to determine the location and orientation of object edges and surfaces. A controller is proposed that utilizes a tactile sensor in the feedback loop of a manipulator to track along edges. In the control system, the data from the tactile sensor is first processed to find edges. The parameters of these edges are then used to generate a control signal to a hybrid controller. Theory is presented for tactile edge detection and an edge tracking controller. In addition, experimental verification of the edge tracking controller is presented.

  17. System and method for tracking a signal source. [employing feedback control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogavero, L. N.; Johnson, E. G.; Evans, J. M., Jr.; Albus, J. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A system for tracking moving signal sources is disclosed which is particularly adaptable for use in tracking stage performers. A miniature transmitter is attached to the person or object to be tracked and emits a detectable signal of a predetermined frequency. A plurality of detectors positioned in a preset pattern sense the signal and supply output information to a phase detector which applies signals representing the angular orientation of the transmitter to a computer. The computer provides command signals to a servo network which drives a device such as a motor driven mirror reflecting the beam of a spotlight, to track the moving transmitter.

  18. Solar micro-power system for self-powered wireless sensor nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongtai; Li, Yangqiu; Liu, Lihui; Wang, Lei

    2008-10-01

    In self-powered wireless sensor nodes, the efficiency for environmental energy harvesting, storage and management determines the lifetime and environmental adaptability of the sensor nodes. However, the method of improving output efficiency for traditional photovoltaic power generation is not suitable for a solar micro-power system due to the special requirements for its application. This paper presents a solar micro-power system designed for a solar self-powered wireless sensor node. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of solar cells and energy storage are realized by the hybrid energy storage structure and "window" control. Meanwhile, the mathematical model of energy harvesting, storing and management is formulated. In the novel system, the output conversion efficiency of solar cells is 12%.

  19. Photometer Tracks The Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, Tak; Mina, Cesar; Russell, Philip; Van Ark, William

    1988-01-01

    Airborne Sun-tracking photometer enables observations of Sun during much greater portion of flights than previously possible, without special maneuvers of airplane. Instrument occupies dome atop airplane. Fiberglass dome protects photometer and rotates to aim photometer in azimuth and elevation to track Sun. Provides controlled environment for instrument, including mechanical and electronic parts. Instrument calibrated without removing it from airplane.

  20. Adaptive NN tracking control of uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems with nonaffine dead-zone input.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Jun; Tong, Shaocheng

    2015-03-01

    In the paper, an adaptive tracking control design is studied for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems with dead-zone input. The considered systems are of the nonaffine pure-feedback form and the dead-zone input appears nonlinearly in the systems. The contributions of the paper are that: 1) it is for the first time to investigate the control problem for this class of discrete-time systems with dead-zone; 2) there are major difficulties for stabilizing such systems and in order to overcome the difficulties, the systems are transformed into an n-step-ahead predictor but nonaffine function is still existent; and 3) an adaptive compensative term is constructed to compensate for the parameters of the dead-zone. The neural networks are used to approximate the unknown functions in the transformed systems. Based on the Lyapunov theory, it is proven that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of zero. Two simulation examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the control approach in the paper.

  1. Eye Tracking Based Control System for Natural Human-Computer Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-Fan

    2017-01-01

    Eye movement can be regarded as a pivotal real-time input medium for human-computer communication, which is especially important for people with physical disability. In order to improve the reliability, mobility, and usability of eye tracking technique in user-computer dialogue, a novel eye control system with integrating both mouse and keyboard functions is proposed in this paper. The proposed system focuses on providing a simple and convenient interactive mode by only using user's eye. The usage flow of the proposed system is designed to perfectly follow human natural habits. Additionally, a magnifier module is proposed to allow the accurate operation. In the experiment, two interactive tasks with different difficulty (searching article and browsing multimedia web) were done to compare the proposed eye control tool with an existing system. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) measures are used to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of our system. It is demonstrated that the proposed system is very effective with regard to usability and interface design. PMID:29403528

  2. Eye Tracking Based Control System for Natural Human-Computer Interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuebai; Liu, Xiaolong; Yuan, Shyan-Ming; Lin, Shu-Fan

    2017-01-01

    Eye movement can be regarded as a pivotal real-time input medium for human-computer communication, which is especially important for people with physical disability. In order to improve the reliability, mobility, and usability of eye tracking technique in user-computer dialogue, a novel eye control system with integrating both mouse and keyboard functions is proposed in this paper. The proposed system focuses on providing a simple and convenient interactive mode by only using user's eye. The usage flow of the proposed system is designed to perfectly follow human natural habits. Additionally, a magnifier module is proposed to allow the accurate operation. In the experiment, two interactive tasks with different difficulty (searching article and browsing multimedia web) were done to compare the proposed eye control tool with an existing system. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) measures are used to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of our system. It is demonstrated that the proposed system is very effective with regard to usability and interface design.

  3. Tracking sentence planning and production.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Susan; Bontempo, Daniel; McKedy, Whitney; Schmalzried, RaLynn; Tagliaferri, Bruno; Kieweg, Doug

    2011-03-01

    To assess age differences in the costs of language planning and production. A controlled sentence production task was combined with digital pursuit rotor tracking. Participants were asked to track a moving target while formulating a sentence using specified nouns and verbs and to continue to track the moving target while producing their response. The length of the critical noun phrase (NP) as well as the type of verb provided were manipulated. The analysis indicated that sentence planning was more costly than sentence production, and sentence planning costs increased when participants had to incorporate a long NP into their sentence. The long NPs also tended to be shifted to the end of the sentence, whereas short NPs tended to be positioned after the verb. Planning or producing responses with long NPs was especially difficult for older adults, although verb type and NP shift had similar costs for young and older adults. Pursuit rotor tracking during controlled sentence production reveals the effects of aging on sentence planning and production.

  4. Adaptive tracking control for active suspension systems with non-ideal actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Huihui; Sun, Weichao; Jing, Xingjian; Gao, Huijun; Yao, Jianyong

    2017-07-01

    As a critical component of transportation vehicles, active suspension systems are instrumental in the improvement of ride comfort and maneuverability. However, practical active suspensions commonly suffer from parameter uncertainties (e.g., the variations of payload mass and suspension component parameters), external disturbances and especially the unknown non-ideal actuators (i.e., dead-zone and hysteresis nonlinearities), which always significantly deteriorate the control performance in practice. To overcome these issues, this paper synthesizes an adaptive tracking control strategy for vehicle suspension systems to achieve suspension performance improvements. The proposed control algorithm is formulated by developing a unified framework of non-ideal actuators rather than a separate way, which is a simple yet effective approach to remove the unexpected nonlinear effects. From the perspective of practical implementation, the advantages of the presented controller for active suspensions include that the assumptions on the measurable actuator outputs, the prior knowledge of nonlinear actuator parameters and the uncertain parameters within a known compact set are not required. Furthermore, the stability of the closed-loop suspension system is theoretically guaranteed by rigorous mathematical analysis. Finally, the effectiveness of the presented adaptive control scheme is confirmed using comparative numerical simulation validations.

  5. Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.

  6. APPLICATION OF EYE TRACKING FOR MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN HUMAN FACTORS STUDIES IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kovesdi, C.; Spielman, Z.; LeBlanc, K.

    An important element of human factors engineering (HFE) pertains to measurement and evaluation (M&E). The role of HFE-M&E should be integrated throughout the entire control room modernization (CRM) process and be used for human-system performance evaluation and diagnostic purposes with resolving potential human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) and other human machine interface (HMI) design issues. NUREG-0711 describes how HFE in CRM should employ a hierarchical set of measures, particularly during integrated system validation (ISV), including plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, and anthropometric/ physiological factors. Historically, subjective measures have been primarily used since they are easier to collectmore » and do not require specialized equipment. However, there are pitfalls with relying solely on subjective measures in M&E such that negatively impact reliability, sensitivity, and objectivity. As part of comprehensively capturing a diverse set of measures that strengthen findings and inferences made of the benefits from emerging technologies like advanced displays, this paper discusses the value of using eye tracking as an objective method that can be used in M&E. A brief description of eye tracking technology and relevant eye tracking measures is provided. Additionally, technical considerations and the unique challenges with using eye tracking in full-scaled simulations are addressed. Finally, this paper shares preliminary findings regarding the use of a wearable eye tracking system in a full-scale simulator study. These findings should help guide future full-scale simulator studies using eye tracking as a methodology to evaluate human-system performance.« less

  7. Sub-μrad laser beam tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buske, Ivo; Riede, Wolfgang

    2006-09-01

    We compare active optical elements based on different technologies to accomplish the requirements of a 2-dim. fine tracking control system. A cascaded optically and electrically addressable spatial light modulator (OASLM) based on liquid crystals (LC) is used for refractive beam steering. Spatial light modulators provide a controllable phase wedge to generate a beam deflection. Additionally, a tip/tilt mirror approach operating with piezo-electric actuators is investigated. A digital PID controller is implemented for closed-loop control. Beam tracking with a root-mean-squared accuracy of Δα=30 nrad has been laboratory-confirmed.

  8. Investigation on the Maximum Power Point in Solar Panel Characteristics Due to Irradiance Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, M. A.; Fauziah Toha, Siti; Ahmad, Salmiah

    2017-03-01

    One of the disadvantages of the photovoltaic module as compared to other renewable resources is the dynamic characteristics of solar irradiance due to inconsistency weather condition and surrounding temperature. Commonly, a photovoltaic power generation systems consist of an embedded control system to maximize the power generation due to the inconsistency in irradiance. In order to improve the simplicity of the power optimization control, this paper present the characteristic of Maximum Power Point with various irradiance levels for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT). The technique requires a set of data from photovoltaic simulation model to be extrapolated as a standard relationship between irradiance and maximum power. The result shows that the relationship between irradiance and maximum power can be represented by a simplified quadratic equation. The first section in your paper

  9. Approximation-based adaptive tracking control of pure-feedback nonlinear systems with multiple unknown time-varying delays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents adaptive neural tracking control for a class of non-affine pure-feedback systems with multiple unknown state time-varying delays. To overcome the design difficulty from non-affine structure of pure-feedback system, mean value theorem is exploited to deduce affine appearance of state variables x(i) as virtual controls α(i), and of the actual control u. The separation technique is introduced to decompose unknown functions of all time-varying delayed states into a series of continuous functions of each delayed state. The novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals are employed to compensate for the unknown functions of current delayed state, which is effectively free from any restriction on unknown time-delay functions and overcomes the circular construction of controller caused by the neural approximation of a function of u and [Formula: see text] . Novel continuous functions are introduced to overcome the design difficulty deduced from the use of one adaptive parameter. To achieve uniformly ultimate boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system and tracking performance, control gains are effectively modified as a dynamic form with a class of even function, which makes stability analysis be carried out at the present of multiple time-varying delays. Simulation studies are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  10. Tracking 3-D body motion for docking and robot control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donath, M.; Sorensen, B.; Yang, G. B.; Starr, R.

    1987-01-01

    An advanced method of tracking three-dimensional motion of bodies has been developed. This system has the potential to dynamically characterize machine and other structural motion, even in the presence of structural flexibility, thus facilitating closed loop structural motion control. The system's operation is based on the concept that the intersection of three planes defines a point. Three rotating planes of laser light, fixed and moving photovoltaic diode targets, and a pipe-lined architecture of analog and digital electronics are used to locate multiple targets whose number is only limited by available computer memory. Data collection rates are a function of the laser scan rotation speed and are currently selectable up to 480 Hz. The tested performance on a preliminary prototype designed for 0.1 in accuracy (for tracking human motion) at a 480 Hz data rate includes a worst case resolution of 0.8 mm (0.03 inches), a repeatability of plus or minus 0.635 mm (plus or minus 0.025 inches), and an absolute accuracy of plus or minus 2.0 mm (plus or minus 0.08 inches) within an eight cubic meter volume with all results applicable at the 95 percent level of confidence along each coordinate region. The full six degrees of freedom of a body can be computed by attaching three or more target detectors to the body of interest.

  11. Sign Tracking, but Not Goal Tracking, is Resistant to Outcome Devaluation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Sara E.; Bamkole, Michael A.; Nicola, Saleem M.

    2015-01-01

    During Pavlovian conditioning, a conditioned stimulus (CS) may act as a predictor of a reward to be delivered in another location. Individuals vary widely in their propensity to engage with the CS (sign tracking) or with the site of eventual reward (goal tracking). It is often assumed that sign tracking involves the association of the CS with the motivational value of the reward, resulting in the CS acquiring incentive value independent of the outcome. However, experimental evidence for this assumption is lacking. In order to test the hypothesis that sign tracking behavior does not rely on a neural representation of the outcome, we employed a reward devaluation procedure. We trained rats on a classic Pavlovian paradigm in which a lever CS was paired with a sucrose reward, then devalued the reward by pairing sucrose with illness in the absence of the CS. We found that sign tracking behavior was enhanced, rather than diminished, following reward devaluation; thus, sign tracking is clearly independent of a representation of the outcome. In contrast, goal tracking behavior was decreased by reward devaluation. Furthermore, when we divided rats into those with high propensity to engage with the lever (sign trackers) and low propensity to engage with the lever (goal trackers), we found that nearly all of the effects of devaluation could be attributed to the goal trackers. These results show that sign tracking and goal tracking behavior may be the output of different associative structures in the brain, providing insight into the mechanisms by which reward-associated stimuli—such as drug cues—come to exert control over behavior in some individuals. PMID:26733783

  12. Attentional bias scores in patients with depression and effects of age: a controlled, eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shengfu; Xu, Jiying; Li, Mi; Xue, Jia; Lu, Xiaofeng; Feng, Lei; Fu, Bingbing; Wang, Gang; Zhong, Ning; Hu, Bin

    2017-10-01

    Objective To compare the attentional bias of depressed patients and non-depressed control subjects and examine the effects of age using eye-tracking technology in a free-viewing set of tasks. Methods Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and non-depressed control subjects completed an eye-tracking task to assess attention of processing negative, positive and neutral facial expressions. In this cross-sectional study, the tasks were separated in two types (neutral versus happy faces and neutral versus sad faces) and assessed in two age groups ('young' [18-30 years] and 'middle-aged' [31-55 years]). Results Compared with non-depressed control subjects ( n = 75), patients with MDD ( n = 90) had a significant reduced positive attentional bias and enhanced negative attentional bias irrespective of age. The positive attentional bias in 'middle-aged' patients with MDD was significantly lower than in 'young' patients, although there was no difference between the two age groups in negative attentional bias. Conclusions These results confirm that there are emotional attentional biases in patients with MDD and that positive attentional biases are influenced by age.

  13. Distributed cooperative H∞ optimal tracking control of MIMO nonlinear multi-agent systems in strict-feedback form via adaptive dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luy, N. T.

    2018-04-01

    The design of distributed cooperative H∞ optimal controllers for multi-agent systems is a major challenge when the agents' models are uncertain multi-input and multi-output nonlinear systems in strict-feedback form in the presence of external disturbances. In this paper, first, the distributed cooperative H∞ optimal tracking problem is transformed into controlling the cooperative tracking error dynamics in affine form. Second, control schemes and online algorithms are proposed via adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) and the theory of zero-sum differential graphical games. The schemes use only one neural network (NN) for each agent instead of three from ADP to reduce computational complexity as well as avoid choosing initial NN weights for stabilising controllers. It is shown that despite not using knowledge of cooperative internal dynamics, the proposed algorithms not only approximate values to Nash equilibrium but also guarantee all signals, such as the NN weight approximation errors and the cooperative tracking errors in the closed-loop system, to be uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by simulation results of an application to wheeled mobile multi-robot systems.

  14. Accommodating Sensor Bias in MRAC for State Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patre, Parag; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of accommodating unknown sensor bias is considered in a direct model reference adaptive control (MRAC) setting for state tracking using state feedback. Sensor faults can occur during operation, and if the biased state measurements are directly used with a standard MRAC control law, neither closed-loop signal boundedness, nor asymptotic tracking can be guaranteed and the resulting tracking errors may be unbounded or unacceptably large. A modified MRAC law is proposed, which combines a bias estimator with control gain adaptation, and it is shown that signal boundedness can be accomplished, although the tracking error may not go to zero. Further, for the case wherein an asymptotically stable sensor bias estimator is available, an MRAC control law is proposed to accomplish asymptotic tracking and signal boundedness. Such a sensor bias estimator can be designed if additional sensor measurements are available, as illustrated for the case wherein bias is present in the rate gyro and airspeed measurements. Numerical example results are presented to illustrate each of the schemes.

  15. A single dynamic observer-based module for design of simultaneous fault detection, isolation and tracking control scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoodi, M.; Meskin, N.; Khorasani, K.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of simultaneous fault detection, isolation and tracking (SFDIT) control design for linear systems subject to both bounded energy and bounded peak disturbances is considered in this work. A dynamic observer is proposed and implemented by using the H∞/H-/L1 formulation of the SFDIT problem. A single dynamic observer module is designed that generates the residuals as well as the control signals. The objective of the SFDIT module is to ensure that simultaneously the effects of disturbances and control signals on the residual signals are minimised (in order to accomplish the fault detection goal) subject to the constraint that the transfer matrix from the faults to the residuals is equal to a pre-assigned diagonal transfer matrix (in order to accomplish the fault isolation goal), while the effects of disturbances, reference inputs and faults on the specified control outputs are minimised (in order to accomplish the fault-tolerant and tracking control goals). A set of linear matrix inequality (LMI) feasibility conditions are derived to ensure solvability of the problem. In order to illustrate and demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed design methodology, the developed and proposed schemes are applied to an autonomous unmanned underwater vehicle (AUV).

  16. SHI induced nano track polymer filters and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay, Y. K.

    2009-07-01

    Swift heavy ion irradiation produces damage in polymers in the form of latent tracks. Latent tracks can be enlarged by etching it in a suitable etchant and thus nuclear track etch membrane can be formed for gas permeation / purification in particular for hydrogen where the molecular size is very small. By applying suitable and controlled etching conditions well defined tracks can be formed for specific applications of the membranes. After etching gas permeation method is used for characterizing the tracks. In the present work polycarbonate (PC) of various thickness were irradiated with energetic ion beam at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi. Nuclear tracks were modified by etching the PC in 6N NaOH at 60 (±1) °C from both sides for different times to produce track etch membranes. At critical etch time the etched pits from both the sides meet a rapid increase in gas permeation was observed. Permeability of hydrogen and carbon dioxide has been measured in samples etched for different times. The latent tracks produced by SHI irradiation in the track etch membranes show enhancement of free volume of the polymer. Nano filters are separation devices for the mixture of gases, different ions in the solution and isotopes and isobars separations. The polymer thin films with controlled porosity finding it self as best choice. However, the permeability and selectivity of these polymer based membrane filters are very important at the nano scale separation. The Swift Heavy Ion (SHI) induced nuclear track etched polymeric films with controlled etching have been attempted and characterized as nano scale filters.

  17. Robust feedback zoom tracking for digital video surveillance.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tengyue; Tang, Xiaoqi; Song, Bao; Wang, Jin; Chen, Jihong

    2012-01-01

    Zoom tracking is an important function in video surveillance, particularly in traffic management and security monitoring. It involves keeping an object of interest in focus during the zoom operation. Zoom tracking is typically achieved by moving the zoom and focus motors in lenses following the so-called "trace curve", which shows the in-focus motor positions versus the zoom motor positions for a specific object distance. The main task of a zoom tracking approach is to accurately estimate the trace curve for the specified object. Because a proportional integral derivative (PID) controller has historically been considered to be the best controller in the absence of knowledge of the underlying process and its high-quality performance in motor control, in this paper, we propose a novel feedback zoom tracking (FZT) approach based on the geometric trace curve estimation and PID feedback controller. The performance of this approach is compared with existing zoom tracking methods in digital video surveillance. The real-time implementation results obtained on an actual digital video platform indicate that the developed FZT approach not only solves the traditional one-to-many mapping problem without pre-training but also improves the robustness for tracking moving or switching objects which is the key challenge in video surveillance.

  18. Robust Feedback Zoom Tracking for Digital Video Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Tengyue; Tang, Xiaoqi; Song, Bao; Wang, Jin; Chen, Jihong

    2012-01-01

    Zoom tracking is an important function in video surveillance, particularly in traffic management and security monitoring. It involves keeping an object of interest in focus during the zoom operation. Zoom tracking is typically achieved by moving the zoom and focus motors in lenses following the so-called “trace curve”, which shows the in-focus motor positions versus the zoom motor positions for a specific object distance. The main task of a zoom tracking approach is to accurately estimate the trace curve for the specified object. Because a proportional integral derivative (PID) controller has historically been considered to be the best controller in the absence of knowledge of the underlying process and its high-quality performance in motor control, in this paper, we propose a novel feedback zoom tracking (FZT) approach based on the geometric trace curve estimation and PID feedback controller. The performance of this approach is compared with existing zoom tracking methods in digital video surveillance. The real-time implementation results obtained on an actual digital video platform indicate that the developed FZT approach not only solves the traditional one-to-many mapping problem without pre-training but also improves the robustness for tracking moving or switching objects which is the key challenge in video surveillance. PMID:22969388

  19. Synthesis of an optoelectronic system for tracking (OEST) the information track of the optical record carrier based on the acceleration control principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalogin, Stanislav M.; Zalogin, M. S.

    1997-02-01

    The problem for construction of control algorithm in OEST the information track of the optical record carrier the realization of which is based on the use of accelerations is considered. Such control algorithms render the designed system the properties of adaptability, feeble sensitivity to the system parameter change and the action of disturbing forces what gives known advantages to information carriers with such system under operation in hard climate conditions as well as at maladjustment, workpieces wear and change of friction in the system. In the paper are investigated dynamic characteristics of a closed OEST, it is shown, that the designed stable system with given quality indices is a high-precision one. The validated recommendations as to design of control algorithms parameters are confirmed by results of mathematical simulation of controlled processes. The proposed methods for OEST synthesis on the basis of the control acceleration principle can be recommended for the use at industrial production of optical information record carriers.

  20. Extended state observer based robust adaptive control on SE(3) for coupled spacecraft tracking maneuver with actuator saturation and misalignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianqiao; Ye, Dong; Sun, Zhaowei; Liu, Chuang

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a robust adaptive controller integrated with an extended state observer (ESO) to solve coupled spacecraft tracking maneuver in the presence of model uncertainties, external disturbances, actuator uncertainties including magnitude deviation and misalignment, and even actuator saturation. More specifically, employing the exponential coordinates on the Lie group SE(3) to describe configuration tracking errors, the coupled six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) dynamics are developed for spacecraft relative motion, in which a generic fully actuated thruster distribution is considered and the lumped disturbances are reconstructed by using anti-windup technique. Then, a novel ESO, developed via second order sliding mode (SOSM) technique and adding linear correction terms to improve the performance, is designed firstly to estimate the disturbances in finite time. Based on the estimated information, an adaptive fast terminal sliding mode (AFTSM) controller is developed to guarantee the almost global asymptotic stability of the resulting closed-loop system such that the trajectory can be tracked with all the aforementioned drawbacks addressed simultaneously. Finally, the effectiveness of the controller is illustrated through numerical examples.

  1. Tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Magill, John C.; White, Michael A.; Elsner, Ann E.; Webb, Robert H.

    2003-07-01

    The effectiveness of image stabilization with a retinal tracker in a multi-function, compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO) was demonstrated in initial human subject tests. The retinal tracking system uses a confocal reflectometer with a closed loop optical servo system to lock onto features in the fundus. The system is modular to allow configuration for many research and clinical applications, including hyperspectral imaging, multifocal electroretinography (MFERG), perimetry, quantification of macular and photo-pigmentation, imaging of neovascularization and other subretinal structures (drusen, hyper-, and hypo-pigmentation), and endogenous fluorescence imaging. Optical hardware features include dual wavelength imaging and detection, integrated monochromator, higher-order motion control, and a stimulus source. The system software consists of a real-time feedback control algorithm and a user interface. Software enhancements include automatic bias correction, asymmetric feature tracking, image averaging, automatic track re-lock, and acquisition and logging of uncompressed images and video files. Normal adult subjects were tested without mydriasis to optimize the tracking instrumentation and to characterize imaging performance. The retinal tracking system achieves a bandwidth of greater than 1 kHz, which permits tracking at rates that greatly exceed the maximum rate of motion of the human eye. The TSLO stabilized images in all test subjects during ordinary saccades up to 500 deg/sec with an inter-frame accuracy better than 0.05 deg. Feature lock was maintained for minutes despite subject eye blinking. Successful frame averaging allowed image acquisition with decreased noise in low-light applications. The retinal tracking system significantly enhances the imaging capabilities of the scanning laser ophthalmoscope.

  2. Graph-based geometric-iconic guide-wire tracking.

    PubMed

    Honnorat, Nicolas; Vaillant, Régis; Paragios, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel hybrid graph-based approach for Guide-wire tracking. The image support is captured by steerable filters and improved through tensor voting. Then, a graphical model is considered that represents guide-wire extraction/tracking through a B-spline control-point model. Points with strong geometric interest (landmarks) are automatically determined and anchored to such a representation. Tracking is then performed through discrete MRFs that optimize the spatio-temporal positions of the control points while establishing landmark temporal correspondences. Promising results demonstrate the potentials of our method.

  3. Cardiac surgery fast-track treatment in a postanesthetic care unit: six-month results of the Leipzig fast-track concept.

    PubMed

    Ender, Joerg; Borger, Michael Andrew; Scholz, Markus; Funkat, Anne-Kathrin; Anwar, Nadeem; Sommer, Marcus; Mohr, Friedrich Wilhelm; Fassl, Jens

    2008-07-01

    The authors compared the safety and efficacy of a newly developed fast-track concept at their center, including implementation of a direct admission postanesthetic care unit, to standard perioperative management. All fast-track patients treated within the first 6 months of implementation of our direct admission postanesthetic care unit were matched via propensity scores and compared with a historical control group of patients who underwent cardiac surgery prior to fast-track implementation. A total of 421 fast-track patients were matched successfully to 421 control patients. The two groups of patients had a similar age (64 +/- 13 vs. 64 +/- 12 yr for fast-track vs. control, P = 0.45) and European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation-predicted risk of mortality (4.8 +/- 6.1% vs. 4.6 +/- 5.1%, P = 0.97). Fast-track patients had significantly shorter times to extubation (75 min [45-110] vs. 900 min [600-1140]), as well as shorter lengths of stay in the postanesthetic or intensive care unit (4 h [3.0-5] vs. 20 h [16-25]), intermediate care unit (21 h [17-39] vs. 26 h [19-49]), and hospital (10 days [8-12] vs. 11 days [9-14]) (expressed as median and interquartile range, all P < 0.01). Fast-track patients also had a lower risk of postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (0.5% vs. 2.9%, P < 0.05) and mortality (0.5% vs. 3.3%, P < 0.01). The Leipzig fast-track protocol is a safe and effective method to manage cardiac surgery patients after a variety of operations.

  4. Tracking planets and moons: mechanisms of object tracking revealed with a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Tombu, Michael; Seiffert, Adriane E

    2011-04-01

    People can attend to and track multiple moving objects over time. Cognitive theories of this ability emphasize location information and differ on the importance of motion information. Results from several experiments have shown that increasing object speed impairs performance, although speed was confounded with other properties such as proximity of objects to one another. Here, we introduce a new paradigm to study multiple object tracking in which object speed and object proximity were manipulated independently. Like the motion of a planet and moon, each target-distractor pair rotated about both a common local point as well as the center of the screen. Tracking performance was strongly affected by object speed even when proximity was controlled. Additional results suggest that two different mechanisms are used in object tracking--one sensitive to speed and proximity and the other sensitive to the number of distractors. These observations support models of object tracking that include information about object motion and reject models that use location alone.

  5. Dynamic modelling and adaptive robust tracking control of a space robot with two-link flexible manipulators under unknown disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinxin; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; He, Wei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, both the closed-form dynamics and adaptive robust tracking control of a space robot with two-link flexible manipulators under unknown disturbances are developed. The dynamic model of the system is described with assumed modes approach and Lagrangian method. The flexible manipulators are represented as Euler-Bernoulli beams. Based on singular perturbation technique, the displacements/joint angles and flexible modes are modelled as slow and fast variables, respectively. A sliding mode control is designed for trajectories tracking of the slow subsystem under unknown but bounded disturbances, and an adaptive sliding mode control is derived for slow subsystem under unknown slowly time-varying disturbances. An optimal linear quadratic regulator method is proposed for the fast subsystem to damp out the vibrations of the flexible manipulators. Theoretical analysis validates the stability of the proposed composite controller. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the performance of the closed-loop flexible space robot system.

  6. Tracking performance under time sharing conditions with a digit processing task: A feedback control theory analysis. [attention sharing effect on operator performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopher, D.; Wickens, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    A one dimensional compensatory tracking task and a digit processing reaction time task were combined in a three phase experiment designed to investigate tracking performance in time sharing. Adaptive techniques, elaborate feedback devices, and on line standardization procedures were used to adjust task difficulty to the ability of each individual subject and manipulate time sharing demands. Feedback control analysis techniques were employed in the description of tracking performance. The experimental results show that when the dynamics of a system are constrained, in such a manner that man machine system stability is no longer a major concern of the operator, he tends to adopt a first order control describing function, even with tracking systems of higher order. Attention diversion to a concurrent task leads to an increase in remnant level, or nonlinear power. This decrease in linearity is reflected both in the output magnitude spectra of the subjects, and in the linear fit of the amplitude ratio functions.

  7. A Space Based Internet Protocol System for Sub-Orbital Tracking and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Grant, Charles; Morgan, Dwayne; Streich, Ron; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Personnel from the Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility (GSFC/WFF) in Virginia are responsible for the overall management of the NASA Sounding Rocket Program. Payloads are generally in support of NASA's Space Science Enterprise's missions and return a variety of scientific data as well as providing a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft. The fifteen types of sounding rockets used by NASA can carry payloads of various weights to altitudes from 50 km to more than 1,300 km. Launch activities are conducted not only from established missile ranges, but also from remote locations worldwide requiring mobile tracking and command equipment to be transported and set up at considerable expense. The advent of low earth orbit (LEO) commercial communications satellites provides an opportunity to dramatically reduce tracking and control costs of launch vehicles and Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) by reducing or eliminating this ground infrastructure. Additionally, since data transmission is by packetized Internet Protocol (IP), data can be received and commands initiated from practically any location. A low cost Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) system is currently under development for sounding rockets which also has application to UAVs and scientific balloons. Due to relatively low data rate (9600 baud) currently available, the system will first be used to provide GPS data for tracking and vehicle recovery. Range safety requirements for launch vehicles usually stipulate at least two independent tracking sources. Most sounding rockets flown by NASA now carry GPS receivers that output position data via the payload telemetry system to the ground station. The Flight Modem can be configured as a completely separate link thereby eliminating requirement for tracking radar. The system architecture which integrates antennas, GPS receiver, commercial satellite packet data modem, and a

  8. Energy optimization for a wind DFIG with flywheel energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hamzaoui, Ihssen, E-mail: hamzaoui-ihssen2000@yahoo.fr; Laboratory of Instrumentation, Faculty of Electronics and Computer, University of Khemis Miliana, Ain Defla; Bouchafaa, Farid, E-mail: fbouchafa@gmail.com

    2016-07-25

    The type of distributed generation unit that is the subject of this paper relates to renewable energy sources, especially wind power. The wind generator used is based on a double fed induction Generator (DFIG). The stator of the DFIG is connected directly to the network and the rotor is connected to the network through the power converter with three levels. The objective of this work is to study the association a Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) in wind generator. This system is used to improve the quality of electricity provided by wind generator. It is composed of a flywheel; anmore » induction machine (IM) and a power electronic converter. A maximum power tracking technique « Maximum Power Point Tracking » (MPPT) and a strategy for controlling the pitch angle is presented. The model of the complete system is developed in Matlab/Simulink environment / to analyze the results from simulation the integration of wind chain to networks.« less

  9. Autonomous antenna tracking system for mobile symphonie ground stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernsberger, K.; Lorch, G.; Waffenschmidt, E.

    1982-01-01

    The implementation of a satellite tracking and antenna control system is described. Due to the loss of inclination control for the symphonie satellites, it became necessary to equip the parabolic antennas of the mobile Symphonie ground station with tracking facilities. For the relatively low required tracking accuracy of 0.5 dB, a low cost, step track system was selected. The step track system developed for this purpose and tested over a long period of time in 7 ground stations is based on a search step method with subsequent parabola interpolation. As compared with the real search step method, the system has the advantage of a higher pointing angle resolution, and thus a higher tracking accuracy. When the pilot signal has been switched off for a long period of time, as for instance after the eclipse, the antenna is repointed towards the satellite by an automatically initiated spiral search scan. The function and design of the tracking system are detailed, while easy handling and tracking results.

  10. Development of an optimal automatic control law and filter algorithm for steep glideslope capture and glideslope tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, N.

    1976-01-01

    A digital automatic control law to capture a steep glideslope and track the glideslope to a specified altitude is developed for the longitudinal/vertical dynamics of a CTOL aircraft using modern estimation and control techniques. The control law uses a constant gain Kalman filter to process guidance information from the microwave landing system, and acceleration from body mounted accelerometer data. The filter outputs navigation data and wind velocity estimates which are used in controlling the aircraft. Results from a digital simulation of the aircraft dynamics and the control law are presented for various wind conditions.

  11. Automatic detection, tracking and sensor integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trunk, G. V.

    1988-06-01

    This report surveys the state of the art of automatic detection, tracking, and sensor integration. In the area of detection, various noncoherent integrators such as the moving window integrator, feedback integrator, two-pole filter, binary integrator, and batch processor are discussed. Next, the three techniques for controlling false alarms, adapting thresholds, nonparametric detectors, and clutter maps are presented. In the area of tracking, a general outline is given of a track-while-scan system, and then a discussion is presented of the file system, contact-entry logic, coordinate systems, tracking filters, maneuver-following logic, tracking initiating, track-drop logic, and correlation procedures. Finally, in the area of multisensor integration the problems of colocated-radar integration, multisite-radar integration, radar-IFF integration, and radar-DF bearing strobe integration are treated.

  12. Adaptive Disturbance Tracking Theory with State Estimation and State Feedback for Region II Control of Large Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, Mark J.; Thapa Magar, Kaman S.; Frost, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    A theory called Adaptive Disturbance Tracking Control (ADTC) is introduced and used to track the Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) of 5 MW Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT). Since ADTC theory requires wind speed information, a wind disturbance generator model is combined with lower order plant model to estimate the wind speed as well as partial states of the wind turbine. In this paper, we present a proof of stability and convergence of ADTC theory with lower order estimator and show that the state feedback can be adaptive.

  13. Spacecraft Attitude Tracking and Maneuver Using Combined Magnetic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes attitude-control algorithms using the combination of magnetic actuators with reaction wheel assemblies (RWAs) or other types of actuators such as thrusters. The combination of magnetic actuators with one or two RWAs aligned with different body axis expands the two-dimensional control torque to three-dimensional. The algorithms can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded attitude precisely. A design example is presented for nadir-pointing, pitch, and yaw maneuvers. The results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached and the attitude- control accuracy is comparable with RWA-based attitude control. When there are only one or two workable RWAs due to RWA failures, the attitude-control system can switch to the control algorithms for the combined magnetic actuators with the RWAs without going to the safe mode, and the control accuracy can be maintained. The attitude-control algorithms of the combined actuators are derived, which can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded values precisely. Results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached, and the attitude-control accuracy is comparable with 3-axis wheel control.

  14. Optimality based repetitive controller design for track-following servo system of optical disk drives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wentao; Zhang, Weidong

    2009-10-01

    In an optical disk drive servo system, to attenuate the external periodic disturbances induced by inevitable disk eccentricity, repetitive control has been used successfully. The performance of a repetitive controller greatly depends on the bandwidth of the low-pass filter included in the repetitive controller. However, owing to the plant uncertainty and system stability, it is difficult to maximize the bandwidth of the low-pass filter. In this paper, we propose an optimality based repetitive controller design method for the track-following servo system with norm-bounded uncertainties. By embedding a lead compensator in the repetitive controller, both the system gain at periodic signal's harmonics and the bandwidth of the low-pass filter are greatly increased. The optimal values of the repetitive controller's parameters are obtained by solving two optimization problems. Simulation and experimental results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Passivity/Lyapunov based controller design for trajectory tracking of flexible joint manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sicard, Pierre; Wen, John T.; Lanari, Leonardo

    1992-01-01

    A passivity and Lyapunov based approach for the control design for the trajectory tracking problem of flexible joint robots is presented. The basic structure of the proposed controller is the sum of a model-based feedforward and a model-independent feedback. Feedforward selection and solution is analyzed for a general model for flexible joints, and for more specific and practical model structures. Passivity theory is used to design a motor state-based controller in order to input-output stabilize the error system formed by the feedforward. Observability conditions for asymptotic stability are stated and verified. In order to accommodate for modeling uncertainties and to allow for the implementation of a simplified feedforward compensation, the stability of the system is analyzed in presence of approximations in the feedforward by using a Lyapunov based robustness analysis. It is shown that under certain conditions, e.g., the desired trajectory is varying slowly enough, stability is maintained for various approximations of a canonical feedforward.

  16. SOFIA tracking image simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Charles R.; Gross, Michael A. K.

    2016-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) tracking camera simulator is a component of the Telescope Assembly Simulator (TASim). TASim is a software simulation of the telescope optics, mounting, and control software. Currently in its fifth major version, TASim is relied upon for telescope operator training, mission planning and rehearsal, and mission control and science instrument software development and testing. TASim has recently been extended for hardware-in-the-loop operation in support of telescope and camera hardware development and control and tracking software improvements. All three SOFIA optical tracking cameras are simulated, including the Focal Plane Imager (FPI), which has recently been upgraded to the status of a science instrument that can be used on its own or in parallel with one of the seven infrared science instruments. The simulation includes tracking camera image simulation of starfields based on the UCAC4 catalog at real-time rates of 4-20 frames per second. For its role in training and planning, it is important for the tracker image simulation to provide images with a realistic appearance and response to changes in operating parameters. For its role in tracker software improvements, it is vital to have realistic signal and noise levels and precise star positions. The design of the software simulation for precise subpixel starfield rendering (including radial distortion), realistic point-spread function as a function of focus, tilt, and collimation, and streaking due to telescope motion will be described. The calibration of the simulation for light sensitivity, dark and bias signal, and noise will also be presented

  17. Differential Flatness and Cooperative Tracking in the Lorenz System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the control of the Lorenz system for both stabilization and tracking problems is studied via feedback linearization and differential flatness. By using the Rayleigh number as the control, only variable physically tunable, a barrier in the controllability of the system is incidentally imposed. This is reflected in the appearance of a singularity in the state transformation. Composite controllers that overcome this difficulty are designed and evaluated. The transition through the manifold defined by such a singularity is achieved by inducing a chaotic response within a boundary layer that contains it. Outside this region, a conventional feedback nonlinear control is applied. In this fashion, the authority of the control is enlarged to the whole. state space and the need for high control efforts is mitigated. In addition, the differential parametrization of the problem is used to track nonlinear functions of one state variable (single tracking) as well as several state variables (cooperative tracking). Control tasks that lead to integrable and non-integrable differential equations for the nominal flat output in steady-state are considered. In particular, a novel numerical strategy to deal with the non-integrable case is proposed. Numerical results validate very well the control design.

  18. An RFID-based luggage and passenger tracking system for airport security control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastianos, George E.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Kountouriotis, Vassilios I.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2014-06-01

    Market analysis studies of recent years have shown a steady and significant increase in the usage of RFID technology. Key factors for this growth were the decreased costs of passive RFIDs and their improved performance compared to the other identification technologies. Besides the benefits of RFID technologies into the supply chains, warehousing, traditional inventory and asset management applications, RFID has proven itself worth exploiting on experimental, as well as on commercial level in other sectors, such as healthcare, transport and security. In security sector, airport security is one of the biggest challenges. Airports are extremely busy public places and thus prime targets for terrorism, with aircraft, passengers, crew and airport infrastructure all subject to terrorist attacks. Inside this labyrinth of security challenges, the long range detection capability of the UHF passive RFID technology can be turned into a very important tracking tool that may outperform all the limitations of the barcode tracking inside the current airport security control chain. The Integrated Systems Lab of NCSR Demokritos has developed an RFID based Luggage and Passenger tracking system within the TASS (FP7-SEC-2010-241905) EU research project. This paper describes application scenarios of the system categorized according to the structured nature of the environment, the system architecture and presents evaluation results extracted from measurements with a group of different massive production GEN2 UHF RFID tags that are widely available in the world market.

  19. A new learning strategy for the two-time-scale neural controller with its application to the tracking control of rigid arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, W.; Wen, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    A novel fast learning rule with fast weight identification is proposed for the two-time-scale neural controller, and a two-stage learning strategy is developed for the proposed neural controller. The results of the stability analysis show that both the tracking error and the fast weight error will be uniformly bounded and converge to a bounded region which depends only on the accuracy of the slow learning if the system is sufficiently excited. The efficiency of the two-stage learning is also demonstrated by a simulation of a two-link arm.

  20. 25 CFR 543.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming promotions and player tracking systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming promotions and player tracking systems? 543.12 Section 543.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.12 What are the minimum internal contro...

  1. 25 CFR 543.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming promotions and player tracking systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming promotions and player tracking systems? 543.12 Section 543.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.12 What are the minimum internal contro...

  2. Neural-Network-Based Robust Optimal Tracking Control for MIMO Discrete-Time Systems With Unknown Uncertainty Using Adaptive Critic Design.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Zhanshan; Zhang, Huaguang

    2018-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the robust optimal tracking control strategy for a class of nonlinear multi-input multi-output discrete-time systems with unknown uncertainty via adaptive critic design (ACD) scheme. The main purpose is to establish an adaptive actor-critic control method, so that the cost function in the procedure of dealing with uncertainty is minimum and the closed-loop system is stable. Based on the neural network approximator, an action network is applied to generate the optimal control signal and a critic network is used to approximate the cost function, respectively. In contrast to the previous methods, the main features of this paper are: 1) the ACD scheme is integrated into the controllers to cope with the uncertainty and 2) a novel cost function, which is not in quadric form, is proposed so that the total cost in the design procedure is reduced. It is proved that the optimal control signals and the tracking errors are uniformly ultimately bounded even when the uncertainty exists. Finally, a numerical simulation is developed to show the effectiveness of the present approach.

  3. Optimal Dynamic Strategies for Index Tracking and Algorithmic Trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Brian

    In this thesis we study dynamic strategies for index tracking and algorithmic trading. Tracking problems have become ever more important in Financial Engineering as investors seek to precisely control their portfolio risks and exposures over different time horizons. This thesis analyzes various tracking problems and elucidates the tracking errors and strategies one can employ to minimize those errors and maximize profit. In Chapters 2 and 3, we study the empirical tracking properties of exchange traded funds (ETFs), leveraged ETFs (LETFs), and futures products related to spot gold and the Chicago Board Option Exchange (CBOE) Volatility Index (VIX), respectively. These two markets provide interesting and differing examples for understanding index tracking. We find that static strategies work well in the nonleveraged case for gold, but fail to track well in the corresponding leveraged case. For VIX, tracking via neither ETFs, nor futures\\ portfolios succeeds, even in the nonleveraged case. This motivates the need for dynamic strategies, some of which we construct in these two chapters and further expand on in Chapter 4. There, we analyze a framework for index tracking and risk exposure control through financial derivatives. We derive a tracking condition that restricts our exposure choices and also define a slippage process that characterizes the deviations from the index over longer horizons. The framework is applied to a number of models, for example, Black Scholes model and Heston model for equity index tracking, as well as the Square Root (SQR) model and the Concatenated Square Root (CSQR) model for VIX tracking. By specifying how each of these models fall into our framework, we are able to understand the tracking errors in each of these models. Finally, Chapter 5 analyzes a tracking problem of a different kind that arises in algorithmic trading: schedule following for optimal execution. We formulate and solve a stochastic control problem to obtain the optimal

  4. The effects of control order, feedback, practice, and input device on tracking performance and perceived workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, P. A.; Robinson, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    The present experiment examined the influence of several task-related factors on tracking performance and concomitant workload. The manipulated factors included tracking order, the presence or absence of knowledge of performance, and the control device. Summed root mean square error (rmse) and perceived workload were measured at the termination of each trial. Perceived workload was measured using the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) and the Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT). Results indicated a large and expected effect for track order on both performance and the perception of load. In general, trackball input was more accurate and judged for lower load than input using a mouse. The presence or absence of knowledge of performance had little effect on either performance or workload. There were a number of interactions between factors shown in performance that were mirrored by perceived workload scores. Results from each workload scale were equivalent in terms of sensitivity to task manipulations. The pattern of results affirm the utility of these workload measures in assessing the imposed load of multiple task-related variables.

  5. Insect-controlled Robot: A Mobile Robot Platform to Evaluate the Odor-tracking Capability of an Insect.

    PubMed

    Ando, Noriyasu; Emoto, Shuhei; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-12-19

    Robotic odor source localization has been a challenging area and one to which biological knowledge has been expected to contribute, as finding odor sources is an essential task for organism survival. Insects are well-studied organisms with regard to odor tracking, and their behavioral strategies have been applied to mobile robots for evaluation. This "bottom-up" approach is a fundamental way to develop biomimetic robots; however, the biological analyses and the modeling of behavioral mechanisms are still ongoing. Therefore, it is still unknown how such a biological system actually works as the controller of a robotic platform. To answer this question, we have developed an insect-controlled robot in which a male adult silkmoth (Bombyx mori) drives a robot car in response to odor stimuli; this can be regarded as a prototype of a future insect-mimetic robot. In the cockpit of the robot, a tethered silkmoth walked on an air-supported ball and an optical sensor measured the ball rotations. These rotations were translated into the movement of the two-wheeled robot. The advantage of this "hybrid" approach is that experimenters can manipulate any parameter of the robot, which enables the evaluation of the odor-tracking capability of insects and provides useful suggestions for robotic odor-tracking. Furthermore, these manipulations are non-invasive ways to alter the sensory-motor relationship of a pilot insect and will be a useful technique for understanding adaptive behaviors.

  6. High-performance object tracking and fixation with an online neural estimator.

    PubMed

    Kumarawadu, Sisil; Watanabe, Keigo; Lee, Tsu-Tian

    2007-02-01

    Vision-based target tracking and fixation to keep objects that move in three dimensions in view is important for many tasks in several fields including intelligent transportation systems and robotics. Much of the visual control literature has focused on the kinematics of visual control and ignored a number of significant dynamic control issues that limit performance. In line with this, this paper presents a neural network (NN)-based binocular tracking scheme for high-performance target tracking and fixation with minimum sensory information. The procedure allows the designer to take into account the physical (Lagrangian dynamics) properties of the vision system in the control law. The design objective is to synthesize a binocular tracking controller that explicitly takes the systems dynamics into account, yet needs no knowledge of dynamic nonlinearities and joint velocity sensory information. The combined neurocontroller-observer scheme can guarantee the uniform ultimate bounds of the tracking, observer, and NN weight estimation errors under fairly general conditions on the controller-observer gains. The controller is tested and verified via simulation tests in the presence of severe target motion changes.

  7. A Space Based Internet Protocol System for Launch Vehicle Tracking and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Grant, Charles; Morgan, Dwayne; Streich, Ron; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Personnel from the Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility (GSFC/WFF) in Virginia are responsible for the overall management of the NASA Sounding Rocket and Scientific Balloon Programs. Payloads are generally in support of NASA's Space Science Enterprise's missions and return a variety of scientific data as well as providing a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft. Sounding rockets used by NASA can carry payloads of various weights to altitudes from 50 km to more than 1,300 km. Scientific balloons can carry a payload weighing as much as 3,630 Kg to an altitude of 42 km. Launch activities for both are conducted not only from established ranges, but also from remote locations worldwide requiring mobile tracking and command equipment to be transported and set up at considerable expense. The advent of low earth orbit (LEO) commercial communications satellites provides an opportunity to dramatically reduce tracking and control costs of these launch vehicles and Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) by reducing or eliminating this ground infrastructure. Additionally, since data transmission is by packetized Internet Protocol (IP), data can be received and commands initiated from practically any location. A low cost Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) system is currently under development for sounding rockets that also has application to UAVs and scientific balloons. Due to relatively low data rate (9600 baud) currently available, the system will first be used to provide GPS data for tracking and vehicle recovery. Range safety requirements for launch vehicles usually stipulate at least two independent tracking sources. Most sounding rockets flown by NASA now carry GP receivers that output position data via the payload telemetry system to the ground station. The Flight Modem can be configured as a completely separate link thereby eliminating the requirement for tracking radar. The

  8. The control net of Mars - May 1977. [from Viking lander spacecraft radio tracking data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    The development of planet-wide control nets of Mars is reviewed, and the May 1977 update is described. This updated control net was computed by means of a large single-block analytical triangulation incorporating the new direction of the spin axis and the new rotation rate of Mars, as determined from radio tracking data provided by the Viking lander spacecraft. The analytical triangulation adjusts for planimetric control only (areocentric latitude and longitude) and for the camera orientation angles. Most of the areocentric radii at the control points were interpolated from radio occultation measurements, but a few were determined photogrammetically, and a substantial number were derived from elevation contours on the 1976 USGS topographic series of Mars maps. A value of V, measured from Mars' vernal equinox along the equator to the prime meridian (Airy-0) is presented.

  9. Effects of controlled element dynamics on human feedforward behavior in ramp-tracking tasks.

    PubMed

    Laurense, Vincent A; Pool, Daan M; Damveld, Herman J; van Paassen, Marinus René M; Mulder, Max

    2015-02-01

    In real-life manual control tasks, human controllers are often required to follow a visible and predictable reference signal, enabling them to use feedforward control actions in conjunction with feedback actions that compensate for errors. Little is known about human control behavior in these situations. This paper investigates how humans adapt their feedforward control dynamics to the controlled element dynamics in a combined ramp-tracking and disturbance-rejection task. A human-in-the-loop experiment is performed with a pursuit display and vehicle-like controlled elements, ranging from a single integrator through second-order systems with a break frequency at either 3, 2, or 1 rad/s, to a double integrator. Because the potential benefits of feedforward control increase with steeper ramp segments in the target signal, three steepness levels are tested to investigate their possible effect on feedforward control with the various controlled elements. Analyses with four novel models of the operator, fitted to time-domain data, reveal feedforward control for all tested controlled elements and both (nonzero) tested levels of ramp steepness. For the range of controlled element dynamics investigated, it is found that humans adapt to these dynamics in their feedforward response, with a close to perfect inversion of the controlled element dynamics. No significant effects of ramp steepness on the feedforward model parameters are found.

  10. The tracking performance of distributed recoverable flight control systems subject to high intensity radiated fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui

    It is known that high intensity radiated fields (HIRF) can produce upsets in digital electronics, and thereby degrade the performance of digital flight control systems. Such upsets, either from natural or man-made sources, can change data values on digital buses and memory and affect CPU instruction execution. HIRF environments are also known to trigger common-mode faults, affecting nearly-simultaneously multiple fault containment regions, and hence reducing the benefits of n-modular redundancy and other fault-tolerant computing techniques. Thus, it is important to develop models which describe the integration of the embedded digital system, where the control law is implemented, as well as the dynamics of the closed-loop system. In this dissertation, theoretical tools are presented to analyze the relationship between the design choices for a class of distributed recoverable computing platforms and the tracking performance degradation of a digital flight control system implemented on such a platform while operating in a HIRF environment. Specifically, a tractable hybrid performance model is developed for a digital flight control system implemented on a computing platform inspired largely by the NASA family of fault-tolerant, reconfigurable computer architectures known as SPIDER (scalable processor-independent design for enhanced reliability). The focus will be on the SPIDER implementation, which uses the computer communication system known as ROBUS-2 (reliable optical bus). A physical HIRF experiment was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in order to validate the theoretical tracking performance degradation predictions for a distributed Boeing 747 flight control system subject to a HIRF environment. An extrapolation of these results for scenarios that could not be physically tested is also presented.

  11. 3. NORTH FRONT, BULLET GLASS OBSERVATION WINDOWS FACE SLED TRACK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH FRONT, BULLET GLASS OBSERVATION WINDOWS FACE SLED TRACK. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Instrumentation & Control Building, South of Sled Track, Station "50" area, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Tracking planets and moons: mechanisms of object tracking revealed with a new paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Tombu, Michael

    2014-01-01

    People can attend to and track multiple moving objects over time. Cognitive theories of this ability emphasize location information and differ on the importance of motion information. Results from several experiments have shown that increasing object speed impairs performance, although speed was confounded with other properties such as proximity of objects to one another. Here, we introduce a new paradigm to study multiple object tracking in which object speed and object proximity were manipulated independently. Like the motion of a planet and moon, each target–distractor pair rotated about both a common local point as well as the center of the screen. Tracking performance was strongly affected by object speed even when proximity was controlled. Additional results suggest that two different mechanisms are used in object tracking—one sensitive to speed and proximity and the other sensitive to the number of distractors. These observations support models of object tracking that include information about object motion and reject models that use location alone. PMID:21264704

  13. An automatic tracking system for phase-noise measurement.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Chung Ming; Tsang, Kim Fung

    2005-05-01

    A low cost, automatic tracking system for phase noise measurement has been implemented successfully. The tracking system is accomplished by applying a charge pump phase-locked loop as an external reference source to a digital spectrum analyzer. Measurement of a 2.5 GHz, free-running, voltage-controlled oscillator demonstrated the tracking accuracy, thus verifying the feasibility of the system.

  14. Investigation Results on Solar Array Thermal & Electrical Imbalance Phenomenon on Power Systems Equipped with MPPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, F.; Samaniego, B.; Soriano, T.; Beaufils, G.; Fernandez Lisbona, E.; Dettlaff, K.; Jensen, H.

    2014-08-01

    The thermal / electrical imbalance phenomenon on the satellite solar arrays is a common issue inherent to the negative thermal voltage coefficient of the triple junction cells, which is usually already taken into account with basic precautions on the solar panel layout.In the frame of the ESA TRP study "Investigation on Solar Array thermal and electrical imbalance phenomenon on power systems equipped with Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT)" performed by Airbus Defence & Space (former Astrium Toulouse and Ottobrunn) and TERMA, in-depth analyses were conducted for the first time to better understand and characterize the secondary maximum power point phenomenon for various representative mission cases, whether in Earth vicinity or not. With the help of a newly developed detailed thermo-electrical coupled solver and a wide range of solar cell characterizations in flux and temperature, multiple sets of simulations were run to simulate realistic solar panel characteristics.The study showed that no secondary false maximum power point can be created on the solar panel characteristic IV curve for missions around Earth vicinity, at the sole exception of critical shadowing cases. Furthermore, the same conclusions apply for missions up to Mars orbit. The only potential threats come from the missions further than Mars (typically Jupiter missions) where various very high heterogeneities could lead to multiple maxima. This is deeply linked to the LILT (low illumination low temperature) conditions applied to the current solar cell triple junction characteristics and shape. Moreover, thermo-electrical imbalances that do not create secondary power point can still seriously grieve the solar array power output performances. This power loss can however be accurately assessed by the newly developed solver in support of in-development missions like Juice.

  15. A Novel Energy-Efficient Multi-Sensor Fusion Wake-Up Control Strategy Based on a Biomimetic Infectious-Immune Mechanism for Target Tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Liang, Yan; Shen, Qiang; Feng, Xiaoxue; Pan, Quan

    2018-04-18

    A biomimetic distributed infection-immunity model (BDIIM), inspired by the immune mechanism of an infected organism, is proposed in order to achieve a high-efficiency wake-up control strategy based on multi-sensor fusion for target tracking. The resultant BDIIM consists of six sub-processes reflecting the infection-immunity mechanism: occurrence probabilities of direct-infection (DI) and cross-infection (CI), immunity/immune-deficiency of DI and CI, pathogen amount of DI and CI, immune cell production, immune memory, and pathogen accumulation under immunity state. Furthermore, a corresponding relationship between the BDIIM and sensor wake-up control is established to form the collaborative wake-up method. Finally, joint surveillance and target tracking are formulated in the simulation, in which we show that the energy cost and position tracking error are reduced to 50.8% and 78.9%, respectively. Effectiveness of the proposed BDIIM algorithm is shown, and this model is expected to have a significant role in guiding the performance improvement of multi-sensor networks.

  16. Adaptive tracking for complex systems using reduced-order models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnigan, Craig R.

    1990-01-01

    Reduced-order models are considered in the context of parameter adaptive controllers for tracking workspace trajectories. A dual-arm manipulation task is used to illustrate the methodology and provide simulation results. A parameter adaptive controller is designed to track a payload trajectory using a four-parameter model instead of the full-order, nine-parameter model. Several simulations with different payload-to-arm mass ratios are used to illustrate the capabilities of the reduced-order model in tracking the desired trajectory.

  17. A Miniaturized 0.78-mW/cm2 Autonomous Thermoelectric Energy-Harvesting Platform for Biomedical Sensors.

    PubMed

    Rozgic, Dejan; Markovic, Dejan

    2017-08-01

    In order to use thermoelectric energy harvesters (TEHs) as a truly autonomous energy source for size-limited sensing applications, it is essential to improve the power conversion efficiency and energy density. This study presents a thin-film, array-based TEH with a surface area of 0.83 cm 2 . The TEH autonomously supplies a power management IC fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS technology. The IC utilizes a single-inductor topology with integrated analog maximum power point tracking (MPPT), resulting in a 68% peak end-to-end efficiency (92% converter efficiency) and less than 20-ms MPPT. In an in-vivo test, a 645-μW regulated output power (effective 3.5 K of temperature gradient) was harvested from a rat implanted with our TEH, demonstrating true energy independence in a real environment while showing a 7.9 × improvement in regulated power density compared to the state-of-the-art. The system showed autonomous operation down to 65-mV TEH input.

  18. Approximation-Based Adaptive Neural Tracking Control of Nonlinear MIMO Unknown Time-Varying Delay Systems With Full State Constraints.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Peng; Li, Dong-Juan; Liu, Yan-Jun; Tong, Shaocheng; Chen, C L Philip

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the tracking control problem for a class of nonlinear multiple input multiple output unknown time-varying delay systems with full state constraints. To overcome the challenges which cause by the appearances of the unknown time-varying delays and full-state constraints simultaneously in the systems, an adaptive control method is presented for such systems for the first time. The appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functions and a separation technique are employed to eliminate the effect of unknown time-varying delays. The barrier Lyapunov functions are employed to prevent the violation of the full state constraints. The singular problems are dealt with by introducing the signal function. Finally, it is proven that the proposed method can both guarantee the good tracking performance of the systems output, all states are remained in the constrained interval and all the closed-loop signals are bounded in the design process based on choosing appropriate design parameters. The practicability of the proposed control technique is demonstrated by a simulation study in this paper.

  19. Ground-based telescope pointing and tracking optimization using a neural controller.

    PubMed

    Mancini, D; Brescia, M; Schipani, P

    2003-01-01

    Neural network models (NN) have emerged as important components for applications of adaptive control theories. Their basic generalization capability, based on acquired knowledge, together with execution rapidity and correlation ability between input stimula, are basic attributes to consider NN as an extremely powerful tool for on-line control of complex systems. By a control system point of view, not only accuracy and speed, but also, in some cases, a high level of adaptation capability is required in order to match all working phases of the whole system during its lifetime. This is particularly remarkable for a new generation ground-based telescope control system. Infact, strong changes in terms of system speed and instantaneous position error tolerance are necessary, especially in case of trajectory disturb induced by wind shake. The classical control scheme adopted in such a system is based on the proportional integral (PI) filter, already applied and implemented on a large amount of new generation telescopes, considered as a standard in this technological environment. In this paper we introduce the concept of a new approach, the neural variable structure proportional integral, (NVSPI), related to the implementation of a standard multi layer perceptron network in new generation ground-based Alt-Az telescope control systems. Its main purpose is to improve adaptive capability of the Variable structure proportional integral model, an already innovative control scheme recently introduced by authors [Proc SPIE (1997)], based on a modified version of classical PI control model, in terms of flexibility and accuracy of the dynamic response range also in presence of wind noise effects. The realization of a powerful well tested and validated telescope model simulation system allowed the possibility to directly compare performances of the two control schemes on simulated tracking trajectories, revealing extremely encouraging results in terms of NVSPI control robustness and

  20. A time domain inverse dynamic method for the end point tracking control of a flexible manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo; Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    The inverse dynamic equation of a flexible manipulator was solved in the time domain. By dividing the inverse system equation into the causal part and the anticausal part, we calculated the torque and the trajectories of all state variables for a given end point trajectory. The interpretation of this method in the frequency domain was explained in detail using the two-sided Laplace transform and the convolution integral. The open loop control of the inverse dynamic method shows an excellent result in simulation. For real applications, a practical control strategy is proposed by adding a feedback tracking control loop to the inverse dynamic feedforward control, and its good experimental performance is presented.

  1. Are signalized intersections with cycle tracks safer? A case-control study based on automated surrogate safety analysis using video data.

    PubMed

    Zangenehpour, Sohail; Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Saunier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Cities in North America have been building bicycle infrastructure, in particular cycle tracks, with the intention of promoting urban cycling and improving cyclist safety. These facilities have been built and expanded but very little research has been done to investigate the safety impacts of cycle tracks, in particular at intersections, where cyclists interact with turning motor-vehicles. Some safety research has looked at injury data and most have reached the conclusion that cycle tracks have positive effects of cyclist safety. The objective of this work is to investigate the safety effects of cycle tracks at signalized intersections using a case-control study. For this purpose, a video-based method is proposed for analyzing the post-encroachment time as a surrogate measure of the severity of the interactions between cyclists and turning vehicles travelling in the same direction. Using the city of Montreal as the case study, a sample of intersections with and without cycle tracks on the right and left sides of the road were carefully selected accounting for intersection geometry and traffic volumes. More than 90h of video were collected from 23 intersections and processed to obtain cyclist and motor-vehicle trajectories and interactions. After cyclist and motor-vehicle interactions were defined, ordered logit models with random effects were developed to evaluate the safety effects of cycle tracks at intersections. Based on the extracted data from the recorded videos, it was found that intersection approaches with cycle tracks on the right are safer than intersection approaches with no cycle track. However, intersections with cycle tracks on the left compared to no cycle tracks seem to be significantly safer. Results also identify that the likelihood of a cyclist being involved in a dangerous interaction increases with increasing turning vehicle flow and decreases as the size of the cyclist group arriving at the intersection increases. The results highlight the

  2. Radar Performance Improvement. Angle Tracking Modification to Fire Control Radar System for Space Shuttle Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    The AN/APQ-153 fire control radar modified to provide angle tracking was evaluated for improved performance. The frequency agile modifications are discussed along with the range-rate improvement modifications, and the radar to computer interface. A parametric design and comparison of noncoherent and coherent radar systems are presented. It is shown that the shuttle rendezvous range and range-rate requirements can be made by a Ku-Band noncoherent pulse radar.

  3. Track and track-side video survey technology development.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-05-01

    Researchers at HiDef/Createc have completed prototype development and testing of a novel track video surveying technology : called Track and Track-Side Video Survey (TTVS). TTVS is designed to capture clear video images of the track and track side : ...

  4. Safe-trajectory optimization and tracking control in ultra-close proximity to a failed satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingrui; Chu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yao; Hu, Quan; Zhai, Guang; Li, Yanyan

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a trajectory-optimization method for a chaser spacecraft operating in ultra-close proximity to a failed satellite. Based on the combination of active and passive trajectory protection, the constraints in the optimization framework are formulated for collision avoidance and successful docking in the presence of any thruster failure. The constraints are then handled by an adaptive Gauss pseudospectral method, in which the dynamic residuals are used as the metric to determine the distribution of collocation points. A finite-time feedback control is further employed in tracking the optimized trajectory. In particular, the stability and convergence of the controller are proved. Numerical results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  5. Adaptive tracking for complex systems using reduced-order models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carignan, Craig R.

    1990-01-01

    Reduced-order models are considered in the context of parameter adaptive controllers for tracking workspace trajectories. A dual-arm manipulation task is used to illustrate the methodology and provide simulation results. A parameter adaptive controller is designed to track the desired position trajectory of a payload using a four-parameter model instead of a full-order, nine-parameter model. Several simulations with different payload-to-arm mass ratios are used to illustrate the capabilities of the reduced-order model in tracking the desired trajectory.

  6. GeoTrack: bio-inspired global video tracking by networks of unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barooah, Prabir; Collins, Gaemus E.; Hespanha, João P.

    2009-05-01

    Research from the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies (ICB) at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) has identified swarming algorithms used by flocks of birds and schools of fish that enable these animals to move in tight formation and cooperatively track prey with minimal estimation errors, while relying solely on local communication between the animals. This paper describes ongoing work by UCSB, the University of Florida (UF), and the Toyon Research Corporation on the utilization of these algorithms to dramatically improve the capabilities of small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) to cooperatively locate and track ground targets. Our goal is to construct an electronic system, called GeoTrack, through which a network of hand-launched UAS use dedicated on-board processors to perform multi-sensor data fusion. The nominal sensors employed by the system will EO/IR video cameras on the UAS. When GMTI or other wide-area sensors are available, as in a layered sensing architecture, data from the standoff sensors will also be fused into the GeoTrack system. The output of the system will be position and orientation information on stationary or mobile targets in a global geo-stationary coordinate system. The design of the GeoTrack system requires significant advances beyond the current state-of-the-art in distributed control for a swarm of UAS to accomplish autonomous coordinated tracking; target geo-location using distributed sensor fusion by a network of UAS, communicating over an unreliable channel; and unsupervised real-time image-plane video tracking in low-powered computing platforms.

  7. Virtual decoupling flight control via real-time trajectory synthesis and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuefu

    The production of the General Aviation industry has declined in the past 25 years. Ironically, however, the increasing demand for air travel as a fast, safe, and high-quality mode of transportation has been far from satisfied. Addressing this demand shortfall with personal air transportation necessitates advanced systems for navigation, guidance, control, flight management, and flight traffic control. Among them, an effective decoupling flight control system will not only improve flight quality, safety, and simplicity, and increase air space usage, but also reduce expenses on pilot initial and current training, and thus expand the current market and explore new markets. Because of the formidable difficulties encountered in the actual decoupling of non-linear, time-variant, and highly coupled flight control systems through traditional approaches, a new approach, which essentially converts the decoupling problem into a real-time trajectory synthesis and tracking problem, is employed. Then, the converted problem is solved and a virtual decoupling effect is achieved. In this approach, a trajectory in inertial space can be predefined and dynamically modified based on the flight mission and the pilot's commands. A feedforward-feedback control architecture is constructed to guide the airplane along the trajectory as precisely as possible. Through this approach, the pilot has much simpler, virtually decoupled control of the airplane in terms of speed, flight path angle and horizontal radius of curvature. To verify and evaluate this approach, extensive computer simulation is performed. A great deal of test cases are designed for the flight control under different flight conditions. The simulation results show that our decoupling strategy is satisfactory and promising, and therefore the research can serve as a consolidated foundation for future practical applications.

  8. Second sound tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  9. Tracking and data relay satellite fault isolation and correction using PACES: Power and attitude control expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erikson, Carol-Lee; Hooker, Peggy

    1989-01-01

    The Power and Attitude Control Expert System (PACES) is an object oriented and rule based expert system which provides spacecraft engineers with assistance in isolating and correcting problems within the Power and Attitude Control Subsystems of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). PACES is designed to act in a consultant role. It will not interface to telemetry data, thus preserving full operator control over spacecraft operations. The spacecraft engineer will input requested information. This information will include telemetry data, action being performed, problem characteristics, spectral characteristics, and judgments of spacecraft functioning. Questions are answered either by clicking on appropriate responses (for text), or entering numeric values. A context sensitive help facility allows access to additional information when the user has difficulty understanding a question or deciding on an answer. The major functionality of PACES is to act as a knowledge rich system which includes block diagrams, text, and graphics, linked using hypermedia techniques. This allows easy movement among pieces of the knowledge. Considerable documentation of the spacecraft Power and Attitude Control Subsystems is embedded within PACES. The development phase of TDRSS expert system technology is intended to provide NASA with the necessary expertise and capability to define requirements, evaluate proposals, and monitor the development progress of a highly competent expert system for NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite Program.

  10. Power conversion and control methods for renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dachuan

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of renewable energy due to the growing concern over the pollution caused by fossil-fuel-based energy. Renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell, can be used to enhance the safety, reliability, sustainability, and transmission efficiency of a power system. This dissertation focuses on the power conversion and control for two major renewable-energy sources: PV and fuel cell. Firstly, a current-based, maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is proposed for PV energy. An economical converter system using the above scheme for converting the output from PV panels into 60 Hz AC voltage is developed and built. Secondly, a novel circuit model for the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stack that is useful in the design and analysis of fuel-cell-based power systems is proposed. This Pspice-based model uses elements available in the Pspice library with some modifications to represent both the static and dynamic responses of a PEM fuel-cell module. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing the simulation and experimental results. Thirdly, a DSP-controlled three-phase induction-motor drive using constant voltage over frequency is built and can be used in a fuel-cell automobile. A hydrogen sensor is used in the drive to both sound an alarm and shut down the inverter trigger pulses through the DSP. Finally, a hybrid power system consisting of PV panels and fuel cell is proposed and built. In the proposed system, PV panels can supply most of the power when the sunlight is available, and the excess power required by the load is supplied by a fuel cell. Load sharing between a fuel cell (FC) and the PV panel is investigated by both simulation and experiments.

  11. Microcomputer aided tracking (MCAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, A. B.; Cross, D. C.; Walters, J. L.

    1983-07-01

    The goal of the MCAT project was to investigate the effectiveness of operator initiated tracks followed by automatic tracking. Adding this capability to a display was intended to relieve operator overload and fatigue which results when the operator is limited to grease pencil tracking. MCAT combines several microprocessors and a microcomputer-driven PPI(Plan Position Indications) with graphics capability. The operator is required to make the initial detection and MCAT then performs automatic detection and tracking in a limited area centered around the detection. This approach was chosen because it is far less costly than a full-up auto detect and track approach. MCAT is intended for use in a non-NTDS (Naval Tactical Data System) environment where operator aids are minimal at best. There are approximately 200 non-NTDS ships in today's Navy. Each of these ships has a combat information center (CIC) which includes numerous PPIs typically SPA-25s, SPA-66s, SPA-50s) and various manual means (e.g., air summary plotboards, NC-2 plotters) of producing summary plots and performing calculations (e.g., maneuvering board paper) pertinent to tracks in progress. The operator's duties are time-consuming and there are many things that could be done via computer control and graphics displays that the non-NTDS operate must now do manually. Because there is much manual information handling, accumulation of data is slow and there is a large probability of error.

  12. A grid-connected single-phase photovoltaic micro inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, X. Y.; Lin, P. J.; Chen, Z. C.; Wu, L. J.; Cheng, S. Y.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the topology of a single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverter is proposed. The PV micro-inverter consists of DC-DC stage with high voltage gain boost and DC-AC conversion stage. In the first stage, we apply the active clamp circuit and two voltage multipliers to achieve soft switching technology and high voltage gain. In addition, the flower pollination algorithm (FPA) is employed for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV module in this stage. The second stage cascades a H-bridge inverter and LCL filter. To feed high quality sinusoidal power into the grid, the software phase lock, outer voltage loop and inner current loop control method are adopted as the control strategy. The performance of the proposed topology is tested by Matlab/Simulink. A PV module with maximum power 300W and maximum power point voltage 40V is applied as the input source. The simulation results indicate that the proposed topology and the control strategy are feasible.

  13. Sensitivity to Speaker Control in the Online Comprehension of Conditional Tips and Promises: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Andrew J.; Haigh, Matthew; Ferguson, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Statements of the form if… then… can be used to communicate conditional speech acts such as tips and promises. Conditional promises require the speaker to have perceived control over the outcome event, whereas conditional tips do not. In an eye-tracking study, we examined whether readers are sensitive to information about perceived speaker control…

  14. Actor-critic-based optimal tracking for partially unknown nonlinear discrete-time systems.

    PubMed

    Kiumarsi, Bahare; Lewis, Frank L

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a partially model-free adaptive optimal control solution to the deterministic nonlinear discrete-time (DT) tracking control problem in the presence of input constraints. The tracking error dynamics and reference trajectory dynamics are first combined to form an augmented system. Then, a new discounted performance function based on the augmented system is presented for the optimal nonlinear tracking problem. In contrast to the standard solution, which finds the feedforward and feedback terms of the control input separately, the minimization of the proposed discounted performance function gives both feedback and feedforward parts of the control input simultaneously. This enables us to encode the input constraints into the optimization problem using a nonquadratic performance function. The DT tracking Bellman equation and tracking Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) are derived. An actor-critic-based reinforcement learning algorithm is used to learn the solution to the tracking HJB equation online without requiring knowledge of the system drift dynamics. That is, two neural networks (NNs), namely, actor NN and critic NN, are tuned online and simultaneously to generate the optimal bounded control policy. A simulation example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Region stability analysis and tracking control of memristive recurrent neural network.

    PubMed

    Bao, Gang; Zeng, Zhigang; Shen, Yanjun

    2018-02-01

    Memristor is firstly postulated by Leon Chua and realized by Hewlett-Packard (HP) laboratory. Research results show that memristor can be used to simulate the synapses of neurons. This paper presents a class of recurrent neural network with HP memristors. Firstly, it shows that memristive recurrent neural network has more compound dynamics than the traditional recurrent neural network by simulations. Then it derives that n dimensional memristive recurrent neural network is composed of [Formula: see text] sub neural networks which do not have a common equilibrium point. By designing the tracking controller, it can make memristive neural network being convergent to the desired sub neural network. At last, two numerical examples are given to verify the validity of our result. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptive Fuzzy Tracking Control for a Class of MIMO Nonlinear Systems in Nonstrict-Feedback Form.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Lin, Chong; Liu, Xiaoping; Liu, Kefu

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on the problem of fuzzy adaptive control for a class of multiinput and multioutput (MIMO) nonlinear systems in nonstrict-feedback form, which contains the strict-feedback form as a special case. By the condition of variable partition, a new fuzzy adaptive backstepping is proposed for such a class of nonlinear MIMO systems. The suggested fuzzy adaptive controller guarantees that the proposed control scheme can guarantee that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded and the tracking errors eventually converge to a small neighborhood around the origin. The main advantage of this paper is that a control approach is systematically derived for nonlinear systems with strong interconnected terms which are the functions of all states of the whole system. Simulation results further illustrate the effectiveness of the suggested approach.

  17. Chemical Tracking Systems: Not Your Usual Global Positioning System!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The haphazard storing and tracking of chemicals in the laboratory is a serious safety issue facing science teachers. To get control of your chemicals, try implementing a "chemical tracking system". A chemical tracking system (CTS) is a database of chemicals used in the laboratory. If implemented correctly, a CTS will reduce purchasing costs,…

  18. A Modular Multilevel Converter with Power Mismatch Control for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Duman, Turgay; Marti, Shilpa; Moonem, M. A.; ...

    2017-05-17

    A modular multilevel power converter configuration for grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems is proposed. The converter configuration replaces the conventional bulky line frequency transformer with several high frequency transformers, potentially reducing the balance of systems cost of PV systems. The front-end converter for each port is a neutral-point diode clamped (NPC) multi-level dc-dc dual-active bridge (ML-DAB) which allows maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The integrated high frequency transformer provides the galvanic isolation between the PV and grid side and also steps up the low dc voltage from PV source. Following the ML-DAB stage, in each port, is a NPC inverter.more » N number of NPC inverters’ outputs are cascaded to attain the per-phase line-to-neutral voltage to connect directly to the distribution grid (i.e., 13.8 kV). The cascaded NPC (CNPC) inverters have the inherent advantage of using lower rated devices, smaller filters and low total harmonic distortion required for PV grid interconnection. The proposed converter system is modular, scalable, and serviceable with zero downtime with lower foot print and lower overall cost. A novel voltage balance control at each module based on power mismatch among N-ports, have been presented and verified in simulation. Analysis and simulation results are presented for the N-port converter. The converter performance has also been verified on a hardware prototype.« less

  19. A Modular Multilevel Converter with Power Mismatch Control for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duman, Turgay; Marti, Shilpa; Moonem, M. A.

    A modular multilevel power converter configuration for grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems is proposed. The converter configuration replaces the conventional bulky line frequency transformer with several high frequency transformers, potentially reducing the balance of systems cost of PV systems. The front-end converter for each port is a neutral-point diode clamped (NPC) multi-level dc-dc dual-active bridge (ML-DAB) which allows maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The integrated high frequency transformer provides the galvanic isolation between the PV and grid side and also steps up the low dc voltage from PV source. Following the ML-DAB stage, in each port, is a NPC inverter.more » N number of NPC inverters’ outputs are cascaded to attain the per-phase line-to-neutral voltage to connect directly to the distribution grid (i.e., 13.8 kV). The cascaded NPC (CNPC) inverters have the inherent advantage of using lower rated devices, smaller filters and low total harmonic distortion required for PV grid interconnection. The proposed converter system is modular, scalable, and serviceable with zero downtime with lower foot print and lower overall cost. A novel voltage balance control at each module based on power mismatch among N-ports, have been presented and verified in simulation. Analysis and simulation results are presented for the N-port converter. The converter performance has also been verified on a hardware prototype.« less

  20. The attribution of incentive salience to Pavlovian alcohol cues: a shift from goal-tracking to sign-tracking.

    PubMed

    Srey, Chandra S; Maddux, Jean-Marie N; Chaudhri, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stimuli that are reliably paired with alcohol may acquire incentive salience, a property that can operate in the use and abuse of alcohol. Here we investigated the incentive salience of Pavlovian alcohol cues using a preclinical animal model. Male, Long-Evans rats (Harlan) with unrestricted access to food and water were acclimated to drinking 15% ethanol (v/v) in their home-cages. Rats then received Pavlovian autoshaping training in which the 10 s presentation of a retractable lever served as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and 15% ethanol served as the unconditioned stimulus (US) (0.2 ml/CS; 12 CS presentations/session; 27 sessions). Next, in an operant test of conditioned reinforcement, nose pokes into an active aperture delivered presentations of the lever-CS, whereas nose pokes into an inactive aperture had no consequences. Across initial autoshaping sessions, goal-tracking behavior, as measured by entries into the fluid port where ethanol was delivered, developed rapidly. However, with extended training goal-tracking diminished, and sign-tracking responses, as measured by lever-CS activations, emerged. Control rats that received explicitly unpaired CS and US presentations did not show goal-tracking or sign-tracking responses. In the test for conditioned reinforcement, rats with CS-US pairings during autoshaping training made more active relative to inactive nose pokes, whereas rats in the unpaired control group did not. Moreover, active nose pokes were positively correlated with sign-tracking behavior during autoshaping. Extended training may produce a shift in the learned properties of Pavlovian alcohol cues, such that after initially predicting alcohol availability they acquire robust incentive salience.

  1. Automatic tracking of laparoscopic instruments for autonomous control of a cameraman robot.

    PubMed

    Khoiy, Keyvan Amini; Mirbagheri, Alireza; Farahmand, Farzam

    2016-01-01

    An automated instrument tracking procedure was designed and developed for autonomous control of a cameraman robot during laparoscopic surgery. The procedure was based on an innovative marker-free segmentation algorithm for detecting the tip of the surgical instruments in laparoscopic images. A compound measure of Saturation and Value components of HSV color space was incorporated that was enhanced further using the Hue component and some essential characteristics of the instrument segment, e.g., crossing the image boundaries. The procedure was then integrated into the controlling system of the RoboLens cameraman robot, within a triple-thread parallel processing scheme, such that the tip is always kept at the center of the image. Assessment of the performance of the system on prerecorded real surgery movies revealed an accuracy rate of 97% for high quality images and about 80% for those suffering from poor lighting and/or blood, water and smoke noises. A reasonably satisfying performance was also observed when employing the system for autonomous control of the robot in a laparoscopic surgery phantom, with a mean time delay of 200ms. It was concluded that with further developments, the proposed procedure can provide a practical solution for autonomous control of cameraman robots during laparoscopic surgery operations.

  2. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of the PeTrack motion tracking system for respiratory gating in cardiac PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manwell, Spencer; Chamberland, Marc J. P.; Klein, Ran; Xu, Tong; deKemp, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory gating is a common technique used to compensate for patient breathing motion and decrease the prevalence of image artifacts that can impact diagnoses. In this study a new data-driven respiratory gating method (PeTrack) was compared with a conventional optical tracking system. The performance of respiratory gating of the two systems was evaluated by comparing the number of respiratory triggers, patient breathing intervals and gross heart motion as measured in the respiratory-gated image reconstructions of rubidium-82 cardiac PET scans in test and control groups consisting of 15 and 8 scans, respectively. We found evidence suggesting that PeTrack is a robust patient motion tracking system that can be used to retrospectively assess patient motion in the event of failure of the conventional optical tracking system.

  3. Interactive Multiple Object Tracking (iMOT)

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Ian M.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Rynning, Aksel; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new task for exploring the relationship between action and attention. In this interactive multiple object tracking (iMOT) task, implemented as an iPad app, participants were presented with a display of multiple, visually identical disks which moved independently. The task was to prevent any collisions during a fixed duration. Participants could perturb object trajectories via the touchscreen. In Experiment 1, we used a staircase procedure to measure the ability to control moving objects. Object speed was set to 1°/s. On average participants could control 8.4 items without collision. Individual control strategies were quite variable, but did not predict overall performance. In Experiment 2, we compared iMOT with standard MOT performance using identical displays. Object speed was set to 2°/s. Participants could reliably control more objects (M = 6.6) than they could track (M = 4.0), but performance in the two tasks was positively correlated. In Experiment 3, we used a dual-task design. Compared to single-task baseline, iMOT performance decreased and MOT performance increased when the two tasks had to be completed together. Overall, these findings suggest: 1) There is a clear limit to the number of items that can be simultaneously controlled, for a given speed and display density; 2) participants can control more items than they can track; 3) task-relevant action appears not to disrupt MOT performance in the current experimental context. PMID:24498288

  4. Color Image Processing and Object Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Ted W.; Sielken, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a personal computer based system for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape, developed to meet the needs of the Microgravity Combustion and Fluids Science Research Programs at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The system consists of individual hardware components working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware components include 16-mm and 35-mm film transports, a high resolution digital camera mounted on a x-y-z micro-positioning stage, an S-VHS tapedeck, an Hi8 tapedeck, video laserdisk, and a framegrabber. All of the image input devices are remotely controlled by a computer. Software was developed to integrate the overall operation of the system including device frame incrementation, grabbing of image frames, image processing of the object's neighborhood, locating the position of the object being tracked, and storing the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Several different tracking methods are supported. To illustrate the process, two representative applications of the system are described. These applications represent typical uses of the system and include tracking the propagation of a flame front and tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility.

  5. Vision-Based Leader Vehicle Trajectory Tracking for Multiple Agricultural Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linhuan; Ahamed, Tofael; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Pengbo; Takigawa, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design a navigation system composed of a human-controlled leader vehicle and a follower vehicle. The follower vehicle automatically tracks the leader vehicle. With such a system, a human driver can control two vehicles efficiently in agricultural operations. The tracking system was developed for the leader and the follower vehicle, and control of the follower was performed using a camera vision system. A stable and accurate monocular vision-based sensing system was designed, consisting of a camera and rectangular markers. Noise in the data acquisition was reduced by using the least-squares method. A feedback control algorithm was used to allow the follower vehicle to track the trajectory of the leader vehicle. A proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller was introduced to maintain the required distance between the leader and the follower vehicle. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the sensing and tracking performances of the leader-follower system while the leader vehicle was driven at an average speed of 0.3 m/s. In the case of linear trajectory tracking, the RMS errors were 6.5 cm, 8.9 cm and 16.4 cm for straight, turning and zigzag paths, respectively. Again, for parallel trajectory tracking, the root mean square (RMS) errors were found to be 7.1 cm, 14.6 cm and 14.0 cm for straight, turning and zigzag paths, respectively. The navigation performances indicated that the autonomous follower vehicle was able to follow the leader vehicle, and the tracking accuracy was found to be satisfactory. Therefore, the developed leader-follower system can be implemented for the harvesting of grains, using a combine as the leader and an unloader as the autonomous follower vehicle. PMID:27110793

  6. Vision-Based Leader Vehicle Trajectory Tracking for Multiple Agricultural Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linhuan; Ahamed, Tofael; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Pengbo; Takigawa, Tomohiro

    2016-04-22

    The aim of this study was to design a navigation system composed of a human-controlled leader vehicle and a follower vehicle. The follower vehicle automatically tracks the leader vehicle. With such a system, a human driver can control two vehicles efficiently in agricultural operations. The tracking system was developed for the leader and the follower vehicle, and control of the follower was performed using a camera vision system. A stable and accurate monocular vision-based sensing system was designed, consisting of a camera and rectangular markers. Noise in the data acquisition was reduced by using the least-squares method. A feedback control algorithm was used to allow the follower vehicle to track the trajectory of the leader vehicle. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was introduced to maintain the required distance between the leader and the follower vehicle. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the sensing and tracking performances of the leader-follower system while the leader vehicle was driven at an average speed of 0.3 m/s. In the case of linear trajectory tracking, the RMS errors were 6.5 cm, 8.9 cm and 16.4 cm for straight, turning and zigzag paths, respectively. Again, for parallel trajectory tracking, the root mean square (RMS) errors were found to be 7.1 cm, 14.6 cm and 14.0 cm for straight, turning and zigzag paths, respectively. The navigation performances indicated that the autonomous follower vehicle was able to follow the leader vehicle, and the tracking accuracy was found to be satisfactory. Therefore, the developed leader-follower system can be implemented for the harvesting of grains, using a combine as the leader and an unloader as the autonomous follower vehicle.

  7. A real-time sub-μrad laser beam tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buske, Ivo; Schragner, Ralph; Riede, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    We present a rugged and reliable real-time laser beam tracking system operating with a high speed, high resolution piezo-electric tip/tilt mirror. Characteristics of the piezo mirror and position sensor are investigated. An industrial programmable automation controller is used to develop a real-time digital PID controller. The controller provides a one million field programmable gate array (FPGA) to realize a high closed-loop frequency of 50 kHz. Beam tracking with a root-mean-squared accuracy better than 0.15 μrad has been laboratory confirmed. The system is intended as an add-on module for established mechanical mrad tracking systems.

  8. A Track Initiation Method for the Underwater Target Tracking Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-dong; Lin, Yang; Zhang, Yao

    2018-04-01

    A novel efficient track initiation method is proposed for the harsh underwater target tracking environment (heavy clutter and large measurement errors): track splitting, evaluating, pruning and merging method (TSEPM). Track initiation demands that the method should determine the existence and initial state of a target quickly and correctly. Heavy clutter and large measurement errors certainly pose additional difficulties and challenges, which deteriorate and complicate the track initiation in the harsh underwater target tracking environment. There are three primary shortcomings for the current track initiation methods to initialize a target: (a) they cannot eliminate the turbulences of clutter effectively; (b) there may be a high false alarm probability and low detection probability of a track; (c) they cannot estimate the initial state for a new confirmed track correctly. Based on the multiple hypotheses tracking principle and modified logic-based track initiation method, in order to increase the detection probability of a track, track splitting creates a large number of tracks which include the true track originated from the target. And in order to decrease the false alarm probability, based on the evaluation mechanism, track pruning and track merging are proposed to reduce the false tracks. TSEPM method can deal with the track initiation problems derived from heavy clutter and large measurement errors, determine the target's existence and estimate its initial state with the least squares method. What's more, our method is fully automatic and does not require any kind manual input for initializing and tuning any parameter. Simulation results indicate that our new method improves significantly the performance of the track initiation in the harsh underwater target tracking environment.

  9. 76 FR 18073 - Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... metrics would be undesirable and restrict certain fastener assembly designs and capabilities to control... Track Safety Standards Working Group IV. FRA's Approach to Concrete Crossties A. Rail Cant B. Automated... and non-compliant track geometry can cause high- concentrated non-uniform dynamic loading, usually...

  10. Power Maximization Control of Variable Speed Wind Generation System Using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Shigeo; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Takeda, Yoji

    This paper proposes the sensorless output power maximization control of the wind generation system. A permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is used as a variable speed generator in the proposed system. The generator torque is suitably controlled according to the generator speed and thus the power from a wind turbine settles down on the maximum power point by the proposed MPPT control method, where the information of wind velocity is not required. Moreover, the maximum available generated power is obtained by the optimum current vector control. The current vector of PMSG is optimally controlled according to the generator speed and the required torque in order to minimize the losses of PMSG considering the voltage and current constraints. The proposed wind power generation system can be achieved without mechanical sensors such as a wind velocity detector and a position sensor. Several experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  11. Effect of cross-correlation on track-to-track fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Rajat K.

    1994-07-01

    Since the advent of target tracking systems employing a diverse mixture of sensors, there has been increasing recognition by air defense system planners and other military system analysts of the need to integrate these tracks so that a clear air picture can be obtained in a command center. A popular methodology to achieve this goal is to perform track-to-track fusion, which performs track-to-track association as well as kinematic state vector fusion. This paper seeks to answer analytically the extent of improvement achievable by means of kinetic state vector fusion when the tracks are obtained from dissimilar sensors (e.g., Radar/ESM/IRST/IFF). It is well known that evaluation of the performance of state vector fusion algorithms at steady state must take into account the effects of cross-correlation between eligible tracks introduced by the input noise which, unfortunately, is often neglected because of added computational complexity. In this paper, an expression for the steady-state cross-covariance matrix for a 2D state vector track-to-track fusion is obtained. This matrix is shown to be a function of the parameters of the Kalman filters associated with the candidate tracks being fused. Conditions for positive definiteness of the cross-covariance matrix have been derived and the effect of positive definiteness on performance of track-to-track fusion is also discussed.

  12. NucliTrack: an integrated nuclei tracking application.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Sam; Barr, Alexis R; Glen, Robert; Bakal, Chris

    2017-10-15

    Live imaging studies give unparalleled insight into dynamic single cell behaviours and fate decisions. However, the challenge of reliably tracking single cells over long periods of time limits both the throughput and ease with which such studies can be performed. Here, we present NucliTrack, a cross platform solution for automatically segmenting, tracking and extracting features from fluorescently labelled nuclei. NucliTrack performs similarly to other state-of-the-art cell tracking algorithms, but NucliTrack's interactive, graphical interface makes it significantly more user friendly. NucliTrack is available as a free, cross platform application and open source Python package. Installation details and documentation are at: http://nuclitrack.readthedocs.io/en/latest/ A video guide can be viewed online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J6e0D9F-qSU Source code is available through Github: https://github.com/samocooper/nuclitrack. A Matlab toolbox is also available at: https://uk.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/61479-samocooper-nuclitrack-matlab. sam@socooper.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. The attribution of incentive salience to Pavlovian alcohol cues: a shift from goal-tracking to sign-tracking

    PubMed Central

    Srey, Chandra S.; Maddux, Jean-Marie N.; Chaudhri, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stimuli that are reliably paired with alcohol may acquire incentive salience, a property that can operate in the use and abuse of alcohol. Here we investigated the incentive salience of Pavlovian alcohol cues using a preclinical animal model. Male, Long-Evans rats (Harlan) with unrestricted access to food and water were acclimated to drinking 15% ethanol (v/v) in their home-cages. Rats then received Pavlovian autoshaping training in which the 10 s presentation of a retractable lever served as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and 15% ethanol served as the unconditioned stimulus (US) (0.2 ml/CS; 12 CS presentations/session; 27 sessions). Next, in an operant test of conditioned reinforcement, nose pokes into an active aperture delivered presentations of the lever-CS, whereas nose pokes into an inactive aperture had no consequences. Across initial autoshaping sessions, goal-tracking behavior, as measured by entries into the fluid port where ethanol was delivered, developed rapidly. However, with extended training goal-tracking diminished, and sign-tracking responses, as measured by lever-CS activations, emerged. Control rats that received explicitly unpaired CS and US presentations did not show goal-tracking or sign-tracking responses. In the test for conditioned reinforcement, rats with CS-US pairings during autoshaping training made more active relative to inactive nose pokes, whereas rats in the unpaired control group did not. Moreover, active nose pokes were positively correlated with sign-tracking behavior during autoshaping. Extended training may produce a shift in the learned properties of Pavlovian alcohol cues, such that after initially predicting alcohol availability they acquire robust incentive salience. PMID:25784867

  14. Fast track multi-discipline treatment (FTMDT trial) versus conventional treatment in colorectal cancer--the design of a prospective randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Laparoscopy-assisted surgery, fast-track perioperative treatment are both increasingly used in colorectal cancer treatment, for their short-time benefits of enhanced recovery and short hospital stays. However, the benefits of the integration of the Laparoscopy-assisted surgery, fast-track perioperative treatment, and even with the Xelox chemotherapy, are still unknown. In this study, the three treatments integration is defined as "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment Model" for colorectal cancer and this model extends the benefits to the whole treatment process of colorectal cancer. The main purpose of the study is to explore the feasibility of "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" model in treatment of colorectal cancer. Methods The trial is a prospective randomized controlled study with 2 × 2 balanced factorial design. Patients eligible for the study will be randomized to 4 groups: (I) Laparoscopic surgery with fast track perioperative treatment and Xelox chemotherapy; (II) Open surgery with fast track perioperative treatment and Xelox chemotherapy; (III) Laparoscopic surgery with conventional perioperative treatment and mFolfox6 chemotherapy; (IV) Open surgery with conventional perioperative treatment and mFolfox6 chemotherapy. The primary endpoint of this study is the hospital stays. The secondary endpoints are the quality of life, chemotherapy related adverse events, surgical complications and hospitalization costs. Totally, 340 patients will be enrolled with 85 patients in each group. Conclusions The study initiates a new treatment model "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" for colorectal cancer, and will provide feasibility evidence on the new model "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" for patients with colorectal cancer. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01080547 PMID:22111914

  15. Trajectory Tracking of a Planer Parallel Manipulator by Using Computed Force Control Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayram, Atilla

    2017-03-01

    Despite small workspace, parallel manipulators have some advantages over their serial counterparts in terms of higher speed, acceleration, rigidity, accuracy, manufacturing cost and payload. Accordingly, this type of manipulators can be used in many applications such as in high-speed machine tools, tuning machine for feeding, sensitive cutting, assembly and packaging. This paper presents a special type of planar parallel manipulator with three degrees of freedom. It is constructed as a variable geometry truss generally known planar Stewart platform. The reachable and orientation workspaces are obtained for this manipulator. The inverse kinematic analysis is solved for the trajectory tracking according to the redundancy and joint limit avoidance. Then, the dynamics model of the manipulator is established by using Virtual Work method. The simulations are performed to follow the given planar trajectories by using the dynamic equations of the variable geometry truss manipulator and computed force control method. In computed force control method, the feedback gain matrices for PD control are tuned with fixed matrices by trail end error and variable ones by means of optimization with genetic algorithm.

  16. Tracking and disturbance rejection of MIMO nonlinear systems with PI controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desoer, C. A.; Lin, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The tracking and disturbance rejection of a class of MIMO nonlinear systems with a linear proportional plus integral (PI) compensator is studied. Roughly speaking, it is shown that if the given nonlinear plant is exponentially stable and has a strictly increasing dc steady-state I/O map, then a simple PI compensator can be used to yield a stable unity-feedback closed-loop system which asymptotically tracks reference inputs that tend to constant vectors and asymptotically rejects disturbances that tend to constant vectors.

  17. Tracking and disturbance rejection of MIMO nonlinear systems with PI controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desoer, C. A.; Lin, C.-A.

    1985-01-01

    The tracking and disturbance rejection of a class of MIMO nonlinear systems with linear proportional plus integral (PI) compensator is studied. Roughly speaking, it is shown that if the given nonlinear plant is exponentially stable and has a strictly increasing dc steady-state I/O map, then a simple PI compensator can be used to yield a stable unity-feedback closed-loop system which asymptotically tracks reference inputs that tend to constant vectors and asymptotically rejects disturbances that tend to constant vectors.

  18. Study on robot motion control for intelligent welding processes based on the laser tracking sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Qian; Tang, Chen; Wang, Ju

    2017-06-01

    A robot motion control method is presented for intelligent welding processes of complex spatial free-form curve seams based on the laser tracking sensor. First, calculate the tip position of the welding torch according to the velocity of the torch and the seam trajectory detected by the sensor. Then, search the optimal pose of the torch under constraints using genetic algorithms. As a result, the intersection point of the weld seam and the laser plane of the sensor is within the detectable range of the sensor. Meanwhile, the angle between the axis of the welding torch and the tangent of the weld seam meets the requirements. The feasibility of the control method is proved by simulation.

  19. Water-Column Stratification Observed along an AUV-Tracked Isotherm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Messié, M.; Ryan, J. P.; Kieft, B.; Stanway, M. J.; Hobson, B.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Raanan, B. Y.; Smith, J. M.; Chavez, F.

    2016-02-01

    Studies of marine physical, chemical and microbiological processes benefit from observing in a Lagrangian frame of reference, i.e. drifting with ambient water. Because these processes can be organized relative to specific density or temperature ranges, maintaining observing platforms within targeted environmental ranges is an important observing strategy. We have developed a novel method to enable a Tethys-class long-range autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) (which has a propeller and a buoyancy engine) to track a target isotherm in buoyancy-controlled drift mode. In this mode, the vehicle shuts off its propeller and autonomously detects the isotherm and stays with it by actively controlling the vehicle's buoyancy. In the June 2015 CANON (Controlled, Agile, and Novel Observing Network) Experiment in Monterey Bay, California, AUV Makai tracked a target isotherm for 13 hours to study the coastal upwelling system. The tracked isotherm started from 33 m depth, shoaled to 10 m, and then deepened to 29 m. The thickness of the tracked isotherm layer (within 0.3°C error from the target temperature) increased over this duration, reflecting weakened stratification around the isotherm. During Makai's isotherm tracking, another long-range AUV, Daphne, acoustically tracked Makai on a circular yo-yo trajectory, measuring water-column profiles in Makai's vicinity. A wave glider also acoustically tracked Makai, providing sea surface measurements on the track. The presented method is a new approach for studying water-column stratification, but requires careful analysis of the temporal and spatial variations mingled in the vehicles' measurements. We will present a synthesis of the water column's stratification in relation to the upwelling conditions, based on the in situ measurements by the mobile platforms, as well as remote sensing and mooring data.

  20. Tracking control of a closed-chain five-bar robot with two degrees of freedom by integration of an approximation-based approach and mechanical design.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Long; Hou, Zeng-Guang; Tan, Min; Zhang, W J

    2012-10-01

    The trajectory tracking problem of a closed-chain five-bar robot is studied in this paper. Based on an error transformation function and the backstepping technique, an approximation-based tracking algorithm is proposed, which can guarantee the control performance of the robotic system in both the stable and transient phases. In particular, the overshoot, settling time, and final tracking error of the robotic system can be all adjusted by properly setting the parameters in the error transformation function. The radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is used to compensate the complicated nonlinear terms in the closed-loop dynamics of the robotic system. The approximation error of the RBFNN is only required to be bounded, which simplifies the initial "trail-and-error" configuration of the neural network. Illustrative examples are given to verify the theoretical analysis and illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Finally, it is also shown that the proposed approximation-based controller can be simplified by a smart mechanical design of the closed-chain robot, which demonstrates the promise of the integrated design and control philosophy.

  1. Active Multimodal Sensor System for Target Recognition and Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guirong; Zou, Zhaofan; Liu, Ziyue; Mao, Jiansen

    2017-01-01

    High accuracy target recognition and tracking systems using a single sensor or a passive multisensor set are susceptible to external interferences and exhibit environmental dependencies. These difficulties stem mainly from limitations to the available imaging frequency bands, and a general lack of coherent diversity of the available target-related data. This paper proposes an active multimodal sensor system for target recognition and tracking, consisting of a visible, an infrared, and a hyperspectral sensor. The system makes full use of its multisensor information collection abilities; furthermore, it can actively control different sensors to collect additional data, according to the needs of the real-time target recognition and tracking processes. This level of integration between hardware collection control and data processing is experimentally shown to effectively improve the accuracy and robustness of the target recognition and tracking system. PMID:28657609

  2. Dynamic optimization approach for integrated supplier selection and tracking control of single product inventory system with product discount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutrisno; Widowati; Heru Tjahjana, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a mathematical model in the form of dynamic/multi-stage optimization to solve an integrated supplier selection problem and tracking control problem of single product inventory system with product discount. The product discount will be stated as a piece-wise linear function. We use dynamic programming to solve this proposed optimization to determine the optimal supplier and the optimal product volume that will be purchased from the optimal supplier for each time period so that the inventory level tracks a reference trajectory given by decision maker with minimal total cost. We give a numerical experiment to evaluate the proposed model. From the result, the optimal supplier was determined for each time period and the inventory level follows the given reference well.

  3. Human performance evaluation in dual-axis critical task tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, M. L.; Nataraj, N. S.

    1975-01-01

    A dual axis tracking using a multiloop critical task was set up to evaluate human performance. The effects of control stick variation and display formats are evaluated. A secondary loading was used to measure the degradation in tracking performance.

  4. Global tracking for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown sign-switching control direction by output feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux Oliveira, Tiago; Jacoud Peixoto, Alessandro; Hsu, Liu

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the design of a sliding mode controller for a class of high-order uncertain nonlinear plants with unmatched state-dependent nonlinearities and unknown sign of the high frequency gain, i.e., the control direction is assumed unknown. Differently from most previous studies, the control direction is allowed to switch its sign. We show that it is possible to obtain global exact tracking using only output-feedback by coupling a relay periodic switching function with a norm state observer. One significant advantage of the new scheme is its robustness and improved transient response under arbitrary changes of the control direction which have been theoretically demonstrated for jump variations and successfully tested by simulations. The proposed controller is also evaluated with a DC motor control experiment.

  5. Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking.

    PubMed

    Lamoureux, Aaron; Lee, Kyusang; Shlian, Matthew; Forrest, Stephen R; Shtein, Max

    2015-09-08

    Optical tracking is often combined with conventional flat panel solar cells to maximize electrical power generation over the course of a day. However, conventional trackers are complex and often require costly and cumbersome structural components to support system weight. Here we use kirigami (the art of paper cutting) to realize novel solar cells where tracking is integral to the structure at the substrate level. Specifically, an elegant cut pattern is made in thin-film gallium arsenide solar cells, which are then stretched to produce an array of tilted surface elements which can be controlled to within ±1°. We analyze the combined optical and mechanical properties of the tracking system, and demonstrate a mechanically robust system with optical tracking efficiencies matching conventional trackers. This design suggests a pathway towards enabling new applications for solar tracking, as well as inspiring a broader range of optoelectronic and mechanical devices.

  6. Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking

    PubMed Central

    Lamoureux, Aaron; Lee, Kyusang; Shlian, Matthew; Forrest, Stephen R.; Shtein, Max

    2015-01-01

    Optical tracking is often combined with conventional flat panel solar cells to maximize electrical power generation over the course of a day. However, conventional trackers are complex and often require costly and cumbersome structural components to support system weight. Here we use kirigami (the art of paper cutting) to realize novel solar cells where tracking is integral to the structure at the substrate level. Specifically, an elegant cut pattern is made in thin-film gallium arsenide solar cells, which are then stretched to produce an array of tilted surface elements which can be controlled to within ±1°. We analyze the combined optical and mechanical properties of the tracking system, and demonstrate a mechanically robust system with optical tracking efficiencies matching conventional trackers. This design suggests a pathway towards enabling new applications for solar tracking, as well as inspiring a broader range of optoelectronic and mechanical devices. PMID:26348820

  7. 76 FR 41556 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Cannon at MP-PT 118.9 near Duncannon, PA to CP Solomon at MP-PT 352.5 near Pittsburgh, PA, with the... between CP Bloom at MP-PT 351.6 near Pittsburg, PA and CP Solomon. Operations on the Fort Wayne Line...

  8. Visuomotor Tracking Abilities of Speakers With Apraxia of Speech or Conduction Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Donald A.; Jacks, Adam; Hageman, Carlin; Clark, Heather C.; Woodworth, George

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examined the visuomotor tracking abilities of persons with apraxia of speech (AOS) or conduction aphasia (CA). In addition, tracking performance was correlated with perceptual judgments of speech accuracy. Five individuals with AOS and four with CA served as participants, as well as an equal number of healthy controls matched by age and gender. Participants tracked predictable (sinusoidal) and unpredictable signals using jaw and lip movements transduced with strain gauges. Tracking performance in participants with AOS was poorest for predictable signals, with decreased kinematic measures of cross-correlation and gain ratio and increased target-tracker difference. In contrast, tracking of the unpredictable signal by participants with AOS was performed as well as for other groups (e.g. participants with CA, healthy controls). Performance of the subjects with AOS on the predictable tracking task was found to strongly correlate with perceptual judgments of speech. These findings suggest that motor control capabilities are impaired in AOS, but not in CA. Results suggest that AOS has its basis in motor programming deficits, not impaired motor execution. PMID:18558428

  9. Nanoscale measurements of proton tracks using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    PubMed Central

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.; Ferreira, Felisberto A.; McFadden, Conor H.; Hallacy, Timothy M.; Granville, Dal A.; Sahoo, Narayan; Akselrod, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe a method in which fluorescence nuclear track detectors (FNTDs), novel track detectors with nanoscale spatial resolution, are used to determine the linear energy transfer (LET) of individual proton tracks from proton therapy beams by allowing visualization and 3D reconstruction of such tracks. Methods: FNTDs were exposed to proton therapy beams with nominal energies ranging from 100 to 250 MeV. Proton track images were then recorded by confocal microscopy of the FNTDs. Proton tracks in the FNTD images were fit by using a Gaussian function to extract fluorescence amplitudes. Histograms of fluorescence amplitudes were then compared with LET spectra. Results: The authors successfully used FNTDs to register individual proton tracks from high-energy proton therapy beams, allowing reconstruction of 3D images of proton tracks along with delta rays. The track amplitudes from FNTDs could be used to parameterize LET spectra, allowing the LET of individual proton tracks from therapeutic proton beams to be determined. Conclusions: FNTDs can be used to directly visualize proton tracks and their delta rays at the nanoscale level. Because the track intensities in the FNTDs correlate with LET, they could be used further to measure LET of individual proton tracks. This method may be useful for measuring nanoscale radiation quantities and for measuring the LET of individual proton tracks in radiation biology experiments. PMID:27147359

  10. Nanoscale measurements of proton tracks using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel O., E-mail: gsawakuchi@mdanderson.org; Sahoo, Narayan; Ferreira, Felisberto A.

    Purpose: The authors describe a method in which fluorescence nuclear track detectors (FNTDs), novel track detectors with nanoscale spatial resolution, are used to determine the linear energy transfer (LET) of individual proton tracks from proton therapy beams by allowing visualization and 3D reconstruction of such tracks. Methods: FNTDs were exposed to proton therapy beams with nominal energies ranging from 100 to 250 MeV. Proton track images were then recorded by confocal microscopy of the FNTDs. Proton tracks in the FNTD images were fit by using a Gaussian function to extract fluorescence amplitudes. Histograms of fluorescence amplitudes were then compared withmore » LET spectra. Results: The authors successfully used FNTDs to register individual proton tracks from high-energy proton therapy beams, allowing reconstruction of 3D images of proton tracks along with delta rays. The track amplitudes from FNTDs could be used to parameterize LET spectra, allowing the LET of individual proton tracks from therapeutic proton beams to be determined. Conclusions: FNTDs can be used to directly visualize proton tracks and their delta rays at the nanoscale level. Because the track intensities in the FNTDs correlate with LET, they could be used further to measure LET of individual proton tracks. This method may be useful for measuring nanoscale radiation quantities and for measuring the LET of individual proton tracks in radiation biology experiments.« less

  11. Chapter 6: CPV Tracking and Trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Luque-Heredia, Ignacio; Magalhaes, Pedro; Muller, Matthew

    2016-04-15

    This chapter explains the functional requirements of a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) sun tracker. It derives the design specifications of a CPV tracker. The chapter presents taxonomy of trackers describing the most common tracking architectures, based on the number of axes, their relative position, and the foundation and placing of tracking drives. It deals with the structural issues related to tracker design, mainly related to structural flexure and its impact on the system's acceptance angle. The chapter analyzes the auto-calibrated sun tracking control, by describing the state of the art and its development background. It explores the sun tracking accuracy measurementmore » with a practical example. The chapter discusses tracker manufacturing and tracker field works. It reviews survey of different types of tracker designs obtained from different manufacturers. Finally, the chapter deals with IEC62817, the technical standard developed for CPV sun trackers.« less

  12. Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale (Sheehan-STS)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Accurate and prospective assessments of treatment-emergent suicidal thoughts and behaviors are essential to both clinical care and randomized clinical trials. The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale is a prospective, patient self-report or clinician-administered rating scale that tracks both treatment-emergent suicidal ideation and behaviors. The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale was incorporated into a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and active comparator study examining the efficacy of an experimental corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist (BMS-562086) for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Method: The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale was administered to subjects at baseline, Week 2, Week 4, and Week 8 or early termination. Subjects completed theSheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale by self report. The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale was designated as an exploratory outcome measure in the study protocol, and post-hoc analyses were performed to examine the performance of the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale. Results: A total of 82 subjects completed the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale during the course of the study. Altogether, these subjects provided 297 completed Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale ratings across the study time points. Sixty-one subjects (n=25 placebo, n=24 BMS-562086, and n=12 escitalopram) had a baseline and at least one post-baseline Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale measurement. The mean change from baseline at Week 8 in the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale total score was -0.10, -0.02, and -0.06 for escitalopram, placebo, and BMS-562086 groups, respectively. The sensitivity of the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale and HAM-D Item #3 (suicide) for identifying subjects with suicidal thoughts or behaviors was 100 percent and 63 percent, respectively. Conclusions: The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale may be a sensitive psychometric tool to prospectively assess for treatment

  13. DSP-based adaptive backstepping using the tracking errors for high-performance sensorless speed control of induction motor drive.

    PubMed

    Zaafouri, Abderrahmen; Regaya, Chiheb Ben; Azza, Hechmi Ben; Châari, Abdelkader

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a modified structure of the backstepping nonlinear control of the induction motor (IM) fitted with an adaptive backstepping speed observer. The control design is based on the backstepping technique complemented by the introduction of integral tracking errors action to improve its robustness. Unlike other research performed on backstepping control with integral action, the control law developed in this paper does not propose the increase of the number of system state so as not increase the complexity of differential equations resolution. The digital simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control compared to the conventional PI control. The results analysis shows the characteristic robustness of the adaptive control to disturbances of the load, the speed variation and low speed. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Real time eye tracking using Kalman extended spatio-temporal context learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munir, Farzeen; Minhas, Fayyaz ul Amir Asfar; Jalil, Abdul; Jeon, Moongu

    2017-06-01

    Real time eye tracking has numerous applications in human computer interaction such as a mouse cursor control in a computer system. It is useful for persons with muscular or motion impairments. However, tracking the movement of the eye is complicated by occlusion due to blinking, head movement, screen glare, rapid eye movements, etc. In this work, we present the algorithmic and construction details of a real time eye tracking system. Our proposed system is an extension of Spatio-Temporal context learning through Kalman Filtering. Spatio-Temporal Context Learning offers state of the art accuracy in general object tracking but its performance suffers due to object occlusion. Addition of the Kalman filter allows the proposed method to model the dynamics of the motion of the eye and provide robust eye tracking in cases of occlusion. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this tracking technique by controlling the computer cursor in real time by eye movements.

  15. Tracking Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morinelli, Patrick J.; Socoby, Joseph; Hendry, Steve; Campion, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper details the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) tracking data certification effort of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Space Communications Network (SCN) complement of tracking stations consisting of the NASA White Sands 1 antenna (WS1), and the commercial provider Universal Space Network (USN) antennas at South Point, Hawaii; Dongara Australia; Weilheim, Germany; and Kiruna, Sweden. Certification assessment required the cooperation and coordination of parties not under the control of either the LRO project or ground stations as uplinks on cooperating spacecraft were necessary. The LRO range-tracking requirement of 10m 1 sigma could be satisfactorily demonstrated using any typical spacecraft capable of range tracking. Though typical Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) or Geosynchronous Earth Orbiting (GEO) spacecraft may be adequate for range certification, their measurement dynamics and noise would be unacceptable for proper Doppler certification of 1-3mm/sec 1 sigma. As LRO will orbit the Moon, it was imperative that a suitable target spacecraft be utilized which can closely mimic the expected lunar orbital Doppler dynamics of +/-1.6km/sec and +/-1.5m/sq sec to +/-0.15m/sq sec, is in view of the ground stations, supports coherent S-Band Doppler tracking measurements, and can be modeled by the FDF. In order to meet the LRO metric tracking data specifications, the SCN ground stations employed previously uncertified numerically controlled tracking receivers. Initial certification testing revealed certain characteristics of the units that required resolution before being granted certification.

  16. Adaptive tracking control of leader-following linear multi-agent systems with external disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hanquan; Wei, Qinglai; Liu, Derong; Ma, Hongwen

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the consensus problem for leader-following linear multi-agent systems with external disturbances is investigated. Brownian motions are used to describe exogenous disturbances. A distributed tracking controller based on Riccati inequalities with an adaptive law for adjusting coupling weights between neighbouring agents is designed for leader-following multi-agent systems under fixed and switching topologies. In traditional distributed static controllers, the coupling weights depend on the communication graph. However, coupling weights associated with the feedback gain matrix in our method are updated by state errors between neighbouring agents. We further present the stability analysis of leader-following multi-agent systems with stochastic disturbances under switching topology. Most traditional literature requires the graph to be connected all the time, while the communication graph is only assumed to be jointly connected in this paper. The design technique is based on Riccati inequalities and algebraic graph theory. Finally, simulations are given to show the validity of our method.

  17. Development of Laser Propulsion and Tracking System for Laser-Driven Micro-Airplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Kajiwara, Itsuro; Hoshino, Kentaro; Yabe, Takashi; Uchida, Shigeaki; Shimane, Yoshichika

    2004-03-01

    The purposes of this paper are to improve the control performance of the developed laser tracking system and to develop an integrated laser propulsion/tracking system for realizing a continuous flight and control of the micro-airplane. The laser propulsion is significantly effective to achieve the miniaturization and lightening of the micro-airplane. The laser-driven micro-airplane has been studied with a paper-craft airplane and YAG laser, resulting in a successful glide of the airplane. In the next stage of the laser-driven micro-airplane development, the laser tracking is expected as key technologies to achieve continuous propulsion. Furthermore, the laser propulsion system should be combined with the laser tracking system to supply continuous propulsion. Experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the developed laser tracking system and integrated laser propulsion/tracking system.

  18. NucliTrack: an integrated nuclei tracking application

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Sam; Barr, Alexis R.; Glen, Robert; Bakal, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Summary Live imaging studies give unparalleled insight into dynamic single cell behaviours and fate decisions. However, the challenge of reliably tracking single cells over long periods of time limits both the throughput and ease with which such studies can be performed. Here, we present NucliTrack, a cross platform solution for automatically segmenting, tracking and extracting features from fluorescently labelled nuclei. NucliTrack performs similarly to other state-of-the-art cell tracking algorithms, but NucliTrack’s interactive, graphical interface makes it significantly more user friendly. Availability and implementation NucliTrack is available as a free, cross platform application and open source Python package. Installation details and documentation are at: http://nuclitrack.readthedocs.io/en/latest/ A video guide can be viewed online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J6e0D9F-qSU Source code is available through Github: https://github.com/samocooper/nuclitrack. A Matlab toolbox is also available at: https://uk.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/61479-samocooper-nuclitrack-matlab. Contact sam@socooper.com Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:28637183

  19. Apparatus and method for tracking a molecule or particle in three dimensions

    DOEpatents

    Werner, James H [Los Alamos, NM; Goodwin, Peter M [Los Alamos, NM; Lessard, Guillaume [Santa Fe, NM

    2009-03-03

    An apparatus and method were used to track the movement of fluorescent particles in three dimensions. Control software was used with the apparatus to implement a tracking algorithm for tracking the motion of the individual particles in glycerol/water mixtures. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the tracking algorithms in combination with the apparatus may be used for tracking the motion of single fluorescent or fluorescently labeled biomolecules in three dimensions.

  20. On the internal target model in a tracking task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Baron, S.

    1981-01-01

    An optimal control model for predicting operator's dynamic responses and errors in target tracking ability is summarized. The model, which predicts asymmetry in the tracking data, is dependent on target maneuvers and trajectories. Gunners perception, decision making, control, and estimate of target positions and velocity related to crossover intervals are discussed. The model provides estimates for means, standard deviations, and variances for variables investigated and for operator estimates of future target positions and velocities.