Cheng, Chung-Wah; Wu, Tai-Xiang; Shang, Hong-Cai; Li, You-Ping; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David; Bian, Zhao-Xiang
Editors' Note: This article is the traditional Chinese version of the CONSORT Extension for Chinese Herbal Medicine Formulas 2017: Recommendations, Explanation, and Elaboration. (Cheng C, Wu T, Shang H, Li, Y, Altman D, Moher D; CONSORT-CHM Formulas 2017 Group. CONSORT Extension for Chinese Herbal Medicine Formulas 2017: Recommendations, Explanation, and Elaboration. Ann Intern Med. 2017;167:112-21. [Epub 27 June 2017]. doi:10.7326/M16-2977).
Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie
Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research. PMID:23552514
Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie
Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research.
Cui, Meng; Li, Jinghua; Li, Haiyan; Song, Chunxin
Because herbal compatibility is one of the most important reasons why Traditional Chinese Medcine (TCM) formulas are effective for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), our study aimed to determine the compatibility of herbs based on published AIDS clinical research in Chinese periodicals. To achieve this aim, we designed a new data-mining algorithm according to TCM data characteristics. We found 25 clinical AIDS studies, all using Chinese herbs for treatment, in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database System, and information on diagnosis and treatment was extracted. To find out herbal compatibility, especially the formulae for herbal combinations, we proposed an improved association rule algorithm based on the frequency of combinations. In this algorithm, all the compatibility relationships were displayed in a tree structure, by which the relationship between formulas and their derivation could be clearly inferred. Data analysis showed that approximately 100 herbs have been used for treating AIDS. Based on the whole herb compatibility tree, we calculated a basic formula for AIDS: Huang Qi combined with Ren Shen, Fu Ling, Bai Zhu, Bai Zhu, Dang Gui, and Bai Shao. This formula, deriving from most of clinical prescriptions, and was chosed by most of clinicians for AIDS treatment. From data mining we found that Qi replenishment and detoxification were the main treatment principles, which coincided with the AIDS pathological mechanism in which immune function is destroyed by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our data-mining results suggest that the core TCM treatment of AIDS is replenishing Qi and detoxification, by which AIDS patients' immune system may be enhanced. Compatibility of Huang Qi with some frequently-used herbs have shown real efficacy in clinical practice, which warrants pharmacological research in the future.
Sun, Sen; Chen, Qingshan; Ge, Jiyun; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Xinxia; Zhan, Qi; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Guoqing
1. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic interaction of the three ingredients in a traditional Chinese herbal formulation, Sini Decoction, and provide evidence for its compatibility mechanism. 2. First, the effect of liquiritin and 6-gingerol on the pharmacokinetic parameters of aconitine was investigated in rats by using a sensitive and reliable LC-MS/MS method. Then the Caco-2 cell monolayer model and Rhodamine-123 uptake assay were used to investigate the effect of liquiritin and 6-gingerol on the absorption of aconitine and the activity of P-gp. 3. The C max of aconitine increased significantly (p < 0.05) from 10.34 ± 1.99 to 17.68 ± 2.65 ng/mL with the pretreatment of liquiritin (20 mg/kg), and to 17.43 ± 0.96 ng/mL with 6-gingerol (20 mg/kg). When aconitine was co-administered with liquiritin and 6-gingerol, the C max and AUC (0 -t ) of aconitine increased approximately twofold, and while t 1/2 only increased 1.2-fold. The Caco-2 cell monolayer model and Rhodamine-123 uptake assay indicated that both liquiritin and 6-gingerol could increase the absorption of aconitine by inhibiting the activity of P-gp. 4. These results indicated that both liquiritin and 6-gingerol could promote the absorption of aconitine and increase its drug concentration in blood by inhibiting the activity of P-gp, and it could also provide evidence for compatibility mechanism of the traditional Chinese herbal formula, Sini Decoction.
Feng, Dan-dan; Tang, Tao; Lin, Xiang-ping; Yang, Zhao-yu; Yang, Shu; Xia, Zi-an; Wang, Yun; Zheng, Piao; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Chun-hu
Depression is a major mental disorder, and is currently recognized as the second-leading cause of disability worldwide. However, the therapeutic effect of antidepressants remains unsatisfactory. For centuries, Chinese herbal formulas (CHFs) have been widely used in the treatment of depression, achieving better therapeutic effects than placebo and having fewer side effects than conventional antidepressants. Here, we review the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology studies of nine common CHFs: “banxia houpo” decoction, “chaihu shugansan”, “ganmaidazao” decoction, “kaixinsan”, “shuganjieyu” capsules, “sinisan”, “wuling” capsules, “xiaoyaosan”, and “yueju”. Eight clinical trials and seven meta-analyses have supported the theory that CHFs are effective treatments for depression, decreasing Hamilton Depression Scale scores and showing few adverse effects. Evidence from 75 preclinical studies has also elucidated the multitarget and multipathway mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effect of the nine CHFs. Decoctions, capsules, and pills all showed antidepressant effects, ranked in descending order of efficacy. According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, these CHFs have flexible compatibility and mainly act by soothing the liver and relieving depression. This review highlights the effective treatment choices and candidate compounds for patients, practitioners, and researchers in the field of traditional Chinese medicine. In summary, the current evidence supports the efficacy of CHFs in the treatment of depression, but additional large-scale randomized controlled clinical trials and sophisticated pharmacology studies should be performed. PMID:27703356
Zha, Lin-Hua; He, Li-Sha; Lian, Feng-Mei; Zhen, Zhong; Ji, Hang-Yu; Xu, Li-Peng; Tong, Xiao-Lin
The clinical therapeutics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutes a complicated process which involves theory, diagnosis, and formula prescription with specific herbal dosage. Zhang Zhong-Jing's classic work, Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases, has been influencing TCM practice for almost 2000 years. However, during this extended period of time in Chinese history, the Chinese weight measurement system experienced noticeable changes. This change in the weight measurement system inevitably, and perhaps even negatively, affected TCM herbal dosage determination and treatment outcome. Thus, in modern society, a full understanding of the accuracy of herbal dose selection has a critical importance in the TCM daily practice of delivering the best treatment to the patients suffering from different illnesses. In the 973 Project of the Chinese National Basic Research Program, expert consensus on classic TCM formula dose conversion has been reached based on extensive literature review and discussion on the dose-effect relationship of classic TCM formulas. One "liang" in classic TCM formulas is equivalent to 13.8 g. However, based on many TCM basic and clinical studies of variable herbal formula prescriptions and herbal drug preparations, the rule of one liang equals 13.8 g should be adjusted according to different disease conditions. Recommended by the committee on TCM formula dose-effect relationship of the China Association of Chinese Medicine and the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies, the following expert consensus has been reached: (i) One liang converts to 6-9 g for the severely and critically ill patients. (ii) One liang converts to 3-6 g for the patients suffering from chronic diseases. (iii) One liang converts to 1-3 g in preventive medicine. The above conversions should be used as a future TCM practice guideline. Using this recommended guideline should enhance the effectiveness of daily TCM practice.
Chen, Chang; Cheng, Jin-Tang; Liu, An
As an outstanding representative of traditional Chinese medicine prescription, classical herbal formulae are the essence of traditional Chinese medicine great treasure. To support the development of classical herbal formulae, the state and relevant administrative departments have successively promulgated the relevant encouraged policies.But some key issues of classic herbal formulae in the development process have not reached a unified consensus and standard, and these problems were discussed in depth here.The authors discussed the registration requirements of classical herbal formulae, proposed the screening specific indicators of classical herbal formulae, determination basis of prescription and dosage,screening method of production process, and the basic principle of clinical localization, in order to bring out valuable opinions and provide a reference for classical herbal formulae development and policy formulation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Zhu, Lili; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Sun, Guibo; Meng, Xiangbao; Wang, Min; Cui, Hanming; Wang, Jialong; Zhai, Yadong; Yang, Ke; Tang, Yang; Sun, Xiaobo; Liu, Ximing
Intricate health problems, such as insulin resistance (IR) and its associated diseases, call for multi-targeted therapies with few side effects. Based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Dai-Zong-Fang (DZF) is an herbal formula mainly composed of Rhizoma Coptidis (Huanglian) and Fructus Aurantii Immaturus (Zhishi), of which berberine and naringin are the main constituents. Though DZF has been clinically used for treatment of IR and metabolic syndrome for decades, its mechanism in vivo remains unknown. In the present study, we observed that both DZF and metformin, the first-line drug for type 2 diabetes, ameliorated insulin resistance with significant improvement of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) level in diabetic C57BL/Ksj-Lepr db -/- ( db/db ) mice. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and fatty acids (FAs) also decreased in the blood. Higher dose of DZF (1 g·kg -1 ), but not metformin (0.25 g·kg -1 ), alleviated hepatic steatosis with reduced liver weight and hepatic lipid accumulation and provided protection from hepatic injury with lower alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and increased hepatic superoxide dismutase activity in db/db mice. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed a decrease in FA synthase gene ( Fasn ) and an increase in FA oxidation gene Ppara expression. Western blot demonstrated that both DZF and metformin activated 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) but inhibited Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Hairy/enhancer-of-split 1 (Hes1) of Notch signaling pathway in the liver. DZF also dramatically improved the ultrastructure of skeletal muscles, AMPK phosphorylation, and GLUT4 translocation. DZF also promoted FA transport and oxidation with Cd36 and Cpt1b up-regulation in the skeletal muscle. In conclusion, DZF improves insulin sensitivity by reducing hepatic lipids through AMPK activation and Notch signal pathway
Cha, Ji Young; Jung, Ji Yun; Jung, Jae Yup; Lee, Jong Rok; Cho, Il Je; Ku, Sae Kwang; Byun, Sung Hui; Ahn, Yong-Tae; Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Sang Chan; An, Won G.
Pyungwi-san (PWS) is a traditional basic herbal formula. We investigated the effects of PWS on induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) as well as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) induced Raw 264.7 cells and on paw edema in rats. Treatment with PWS (0.5, 0.75, and 1 mg/mL) resulted in inhibited levels of expression of LPS-induced COX-2, iNOS, NF-κB, and MAPKs as well as production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, and TNF-α induced by LPS. Our results demonstrate that PWS possesses anti-inflammatory activities via decreasing production of pro-inflammatory mediators through suppression of the signaling pathways of NF-κB and MAPKs in LPS-induced macrophage cells. More importantly, results of the carrageenan-(CA-) induced paw edema demonstrate an anti-edema effect of PWS. In addition, it is considered that PWS also inhibits the acute edematous inflammations through suppression of mast cell degranulations and inflammatory mediators, including COX-2, iNOS and TNF-α. Thus, our findings may provide scientific evidence to explain the anti-inflammatory properties of PWS in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23533508
Yeh, Lan Lan Liang; Liu, Jah-Yao; Lin, Kao-Si; Liu, Yu-Shen; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Liang, Kung-Yee; Tsai, Te-Feng; Wang, Li-Hsiang; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Huang, Ching-Yi
Most traditional Chinese herbal formulas consist of at least four herbs. Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) is a documented eight hundred year old formula containing four herbs and has been widely used to relieve menstrual discomfort in Taiwan. However, no specific effect had been systematically evaluated. We applied Western methodology to assess its effectiveness and safety for primary dysmenorrhoea and to evaluate the compliance and feasibility for a future trial. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot clinical trial was conducted in an ad hoc clinic setting at a teaching hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. Seventy-eight primary dysmenorrheic young women were enrolled after 326 women with self-reported menstrual discomfort in the Taipei metropolitan area of Taiwan were screened by a questionnaire and subsequently diagnosed by two gynaecologists concurrently with pelvic ultrasonography. A dosage of 15 odorless capsules daily for five days starting from the onset of bleeding or pain was administered. Participants were followed with two to four cycles for an initial washout interval, one to two baseline cycles, three to four treatment cycles, and three follow-up cycles. Study outcome was pain intensity measured by using unmarked horizontal visual analog pain scale in an online daily diary submitted directly by the participants for 5 days starting from the onset of bleeding or pain of each menstrual cycle. Overall-pain was the average pain intensity among days in pain and peak-pain was the maximal single-day pain intensity. At the end of treatment, both the overall-pain and peak-pain decreased in the Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) group and increased in the placebo group; however, the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. The trends persisted to follow-up phase. Statistically significant differences in both peak-pain and overall-pain appeared in the first follow-up cycle, at which the reduced peak-pain in the Four
Zou, Wenjun; Qu, Liping; Ye, Zuguang; Ji, Jianxin; Li, Bogang
This article discusses the characteristics of cmmunity herbal monographs for traditional herbal medicinal products and its establishment procedure. It also reviews the new development of cmmunity traditional herbal monographs. The purpose is to clarify the relationship between cmmunity herbal monographs and simplified registration for traditional herbal medicinal product in European Union and provide reference to the registration of taditional Chinese mdicinal products in Europe.
Chong, Y K; Ching, C K; Ng, S W; Tse, M L; Mak, Tony W L
Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe.
Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon
Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123
Park, Eunsook; Lee, Mee-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Jeon, Woo-Young; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called benign enlargement of the prostate, is a progressive disease that is observed in most elderly men. Yongdamsagan-tang, a traditional herbal formula, is used commonly for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases. Although the therapeutic efficacy of Yongdamsagan-tang against BPH in vivo was reported previously, its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Yongdamsagan-tang water extract (YSTE) and its mechanism on the growth of human BPH epithelial BPH-1 cells. YSTE was extracted from 11 herbaceous plants and its chemical composition was analyzed by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). YSTE was treated in the epithelial BPH-1 cell line and then cell lysates or supernant were used to evaluate cell viability, cell cycle, proliferation and cytokine production. HPLC revealed that Baicalin and gentiopicroside were involved as the major compounds of YSTE. YSTE treatment in BPH-1 cells repressed cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Regarding the inhibitory mechanisms of YSTE on cell growth, YSTE inhibited cell proliferation via a decrease in endogenous cyclin D1 protein levels and arrest at the S phase during cell-cycle progression. Furthermore, YSTE treatment in BPH-1 cells suppressed prostaglandin E 2 production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels. The secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-8 and interleukin-6, was also reduced by YSTE treatment. YSTE in BPH-1 cells showed antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities via cell-cycle arrest and downregulation of COX-2 expression, respectively. Taken together, the results of the present study will enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effect of YSTE in BPH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Han, Gajin; Ko, Seok-Jae; Kim, Juyeon; Oh, Ja-Young; Park, Jae-Woo; Kim, Jinsung
Yukmijihwang-tang (YMJ) is a typical herbal formula to treat Yin-deficiency (YD) syndrome by enriching the fluid-humor of the body. YMJ has been used to treat dry mouth symptoms for hundreds of years in traditional East Asian medicine. Xerostomia, a subjective oral dryness, is common in the elderly and results in impaired quality of life. Many conventional treatments for xerostomia provide only temporary symptom relief, and have side effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of YMJ for the treatment of xerostomia in the elderly. This study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, two center trial. Ninety-six subjects aged 60-80 years who had experienced xerostomia for at least 3 months and presented with score>40 on the visual analog scale (VAS) for subjective oral dryness were recruited and randomly allocated to YMJ and placebo groups. YMJ or placebo was administered to each group for 8 weeks (3g of YMJ or placebo, three times per day). The primary outcome was change of VAS for xerostomia from 0 to 8 weeks. VAS for xerostomia was decreased by 22.04±22.76 in the YMJ group and 23.58±23.04 in the placebo group. YMJ had no effect on xerostomia. However, participants with BMIs lower than 29.37kg/m(2) showed improvement of xerostomia after 8 weeks of treatment with YMJ compared to placebo. In addition, YMJ improved oral moisture, which is associated with subjective oral dryness in the YMJ group, and the relationship between VAS for xerostomia and YD was significant. A trend was observed in which YMJ improved oral moisture status and subjective oral dryness in elderly subjects with lower BMI and greater tendency toward YD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Yang, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Wei; Duan, Lian; Wang, Peng-Qian; You, Hu; Li, Xiao-Ke; Wang, Shihan
Background: The traditional Chinese medicine classic herbal formula Longdanxiegan decoction (LDXGD) is widely used for hypertensive patients in China. Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of LDXGD for hypertension. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database were searched up to February 7, 2017 for randomized control trials in treating hypertension. Results: Nine trials were identified. Compared with antihypertensive drugs, Longdanxiegan decoction plus antihypertensive drugs (LPAD) significantly improved systolic blood pressure (BP) ( n = 138; MD = -4.82 mmHg; 95% CI: -7.89 to -1.76; P = 0.002), diastolic BP ( n = 138; MD = -2.42 mmHg; 95% CI: -3.22 to -1.62; P < 0.00001), categorical BP ( n = 509; RR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.36; P < 0.00001), hypertension related symptoms ( n = 509; RR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.49; P < 0.0001), and heart rate ( n = 138; MD = -2.40 bpm; 95% CI: -4.23 to -0.56; P = 0.01). Beneficial effects but no statistically significant reduction in total cholesterol ( n = 138; MD = -0.11 mmol/l; 95% CI: -0.65 to 0.44; P = 0.71), or triglyceride ( n = 138; MD = -0.20 mmol/l; 95% CI: -0.46 to 0.07; P = 0.14) was observed in LPAD. Compared with antihypertensive drugs, LDXGD used alone significantly improved systolic BP, diastolic BP, and hypertension related symptoms. But there was no difference between LDXGD and antihypertensive drugs on categorical BP ( n = 120; RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.96 to 1.23; P = 0.18). The safety of LDXGD were still unclear. Conclusions: Due to poor methodological quality of the included trials, as well as potential reporting bias, our review found no conclusive evidence for the effectiveness of LDXGD in treating hypertension. The potential beneficial effects and safety of LDXGD should be assessed in
Jin, Seong Eun; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Ha, Hyekyung
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of traditional herbal formulas, including Bangpungtongseong-san (BPTSS; Fangfengtongsheng-san, Bofu-tsusho-san), Ojeok-san (OJS; Wuji-san, Goshaku-san), and Oyaksungi-san (OYSGS; Wuyaoshungi-san, Uyakujyunki-san), on the activities of the human cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), which are drug-metabolizing enzymes. Materials and Methods: The activities of the major human CYP450 isozymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1) and UGTs (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, and UGT2B7) were investigated using in vitro fluorescence-based and luminescence-based enzyme assays, respectively. The inhibitory effects of the herbal formulas were characterized, and their IC50 values were determined. Results: BPTSS inhibited the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and UGT1A1 while it exerted relatively weak inhibition on CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. BPTSS also negligibly inhibited the activities of UGT1A4 and UGT2B7, with IC50 values in the excess of 1000 μg/mL. OJS and OYSGS inhibited the activity of CYP2D6, whereas they exhibited no inhibition of the UGT1A4 activity at doses <1000 μg/mL. In addition, OJS inhibited the CYP1A2 activity but exerted a relatively weak inhibition on the activities of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4. Conversely, OJS negligibly inhibited the activities of CYP2B6, UGT1A1, and UGT2B7 with IC50 values in excess of 1000 μg/mL. OYSGS weakly inhibited the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and UGT1A1, with a negligible inhibition on the activities of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and UGT2B7, with IC50 values in excess of 1000 μg/mL. Conclusions: These results provide information regarding the safety and effectiveness of BPTSS, OJS, and OYSGS when combined with conventional drugs. SUMMARY Bangpungtongseong-san inhibited the activities of human microsomal CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and UGT1A1, with a negligibly inhibition on the activities of CYP2B6
Schwabl, Herbert; Vennos, Cécile
The increasing prevalence of complex multi-factorial chronic diseases and multimorbidity reveals the need for an enlargement of the therapeutic options. Potent multicompound herbal formulations from traditional medicine systems such as Tibetan Medicine might meet the requirements. With its practice over the centuries Tibetan Medicine is one of the important medical heritages of the world. In the 20th century Tibetan formulas came to Switzerland, where the formula Gabur-25 was then registered as medicine in 1977 (Padma 28, Swissmedic No 35872). The new European directive 2004/24/EC opened the avenue for traditional herbal medicinal products and registrations followed in Austria (HERB-00037) and the UK (39568/0001). The aim of this review was to analyse not only the critical points and hazards but also chances that occur in the endeavour of bringing a ethnopharmacological based preparation to the market within a modern Western medical and regulatory framework and to discuss the necessary transformation steps from a traditional herbal formula towards a modern pharmaceutical product with the example of the Tibetan formula Gabur-25. The historic transformation process from the 19th to the 21st century is analysed, using the registration documents and other material from the library of Padma AG, Hinwil, Switzerland. The transformation of a traditional formula into a modern traditional herbal medicinal product according to the present EU regulations is a multi faceted process. The modern indication represents only a small part of the possible traditional indications. Quality and product labelling has to be adopted to modern standards. The formula, once registered, is a fixed combination of herbal and mineral ingredients. Contrary to this the concept of Asian medical tradition allows a certain flexibility in the composition of an herbal formula. The ingredients are constantly adapted to local conditions, availability of raw material and therapeutic situation. The example
Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar
Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106
Kou, Shuang; Zheng, Qi; Wang, Yizhou; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Qiuxia; Li, Ming; Qi, Fang; Fang, Ling; Liu, Lei; Ouyang, Junyao; Zhao, Haiyu; Wang, Lei
Zuo-Gui pills (ZGPs) and You-Gui pills (YGPs) are 2 traditional Chinese herbal formulas used for treating multiple sclerosis (MS) in the clinical setting and have been shown to have neuroprotective effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective functions of ZGPs and YGPs. Female Lewis rats were randomly divided into normal control, EAE model, 2g/kg ZGP-treated EAE, 3g/kg YGP-treated EAE, and prednisone acetate-treated groups. EAE model was induced by subcutaneous injection of MBP68-86 antigen. The neurological function scores were estimated. Histological structures of the brains and spinal cords were observed, and myelinated and axons imaged. NogoA, Nogo receptor (NgR), and RhoA transcript and protein levels were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting on postimmunization (PI) days 14 (acute stage) and 28 (remission stage). ZGPs and YGPs significantly reduced neurological functions scores and abrogated inflammatory infiltrates, demyelination, and axonal damage. Furthermore, treatment with ZGPs and YGPs inhibited NogoA, NgR, and RhoA mRNA and protein expression in rats at both the acute and remission stages. ZGPs exhibited stronger effects on NogoA and RhoA expressions, as well as neurological function, during the acute stage of EAE, while YGPs caused greater reductions in NogoA expression during the remission stage. Our findings suggested that ZGPs and YGPs exerted neuroprotective effects by downregulation of NogoA, NgR, and RhoA pathways, with differences in response times and targets observed between ZGPs and YGPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Fu-Shuang; Weng, Jing-Ke
Plants have long been recognized for their therapeutic properties. For centuries, indigenous cultures around the world have used traditional herbal medicine to treat a myriad of maladies. By contrast, the rise of the modern pharmaceutical industry in the past century has been based on exploiting individual active compounds with precise modes of action. This surge has yielded highly effective drugs that are widely used in the clinic, including many plant natural products and analogues derived from these products, but has fallen short of delivering effective cures for complex human diseases with complicated causes, such as cancer, diabetes, autoimmune disorders and degenerative diseases. While the plant kingdom continues to serve as an important source for chemical entities supporting drug discovery, the rich traditions of herbal medicine developed by trial and error on human subjects over thousands of years contain invaluable biomedical information just waiting to be uncovered using modern scientific approaches. Here we provide an evolutionary and historical perspective on why plants are of particular significance as medicines for humans. We highlight several plant natural products that are either in the clinic or currently under active research and clinical development, with particular emphasis on their mechanisms of action. Recent efforts in developing modern multi-herb prescriptions through rigorous molecular-level investigations and standardized clinical trials are also discussed. Emerging technologies, such as genomics and synthetic biology, are enabling new ways for discovering and utilizing the medicinal properties of plants. We are entering an exciting era where the ancient wisdom distilled into the world's traditional herbal medicines can be reinterpreted and exploited through the lens of modern science.
Liao, Hui-Fen; Lu, Min-Chi; Chang, Hon-Chou; Wei, Cheng-Chung; Kao, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Zong-Huei; Huang, Chin-Chin; Li, Ching
The Chinese medicinal herbs Radix Isatidis and Viola yedoensis Makino have been suggested to possess antiviral activity. This study tests whether these and other Chinese and Western herbal medicinal formulas can modulate the immune functions involving virus-suppression in BALB/c mouse. We first confirmed the extract from Viola yedoensis Makino, but not from Radix Isatidis, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Chui-Uren-Chien (CUC), or a Western homeopathic medicinal drink Método Canova, could inhibit the replications of herpes simplex virus-1 and enterovirus 71 in the human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cell line. Subsequently, the same herbal extracts and drink underwent toxicity and immunomodulatory tests on mice of 5-7 weeks old. After 8 weeks of feeding different herbal medicinal formulas, no hepatic or renal toxicity was noted in any tested animal; whereas among the immune function evaluations, only the mice treated with CUC extract were found to be associated with significant increases (p < 0.05) in both the level of plasma IgG and the percentage of monocyte in blood mononuclear cells as well as the activation of macrophage Raw264.7 cells for nitric oxide production, suggesting its role in modulating the non-specific immune response. Analyses using protein arrays showed CUC was the most potent herbal medicinal formula eliciting fluctuations in plasma cytokine and chemokine concentrations. Taking all experimental data together, we conclude Chui-Uren-Chien possesses immunomodulatory capability in mouse, but none of the herbal medicinal formulas tested here are involved in strengthening antiviral immunity.
Yan, Su-rong; Zheng, Hu-zhan; Miao, Su-fen; Wang, Yun
Based on databases for herbal properties of formulas and foods recorded in "Treatise on Febrile Diseases", a case study was conducted for the food matching method according to herbal properties of formulas in "Treatise on Febrile Diseases". The result show that the method was technically feasible once the herbal properties of foods were determined. Moreover, according to herbal properties of target formulas, the compositions of foods were effectively defined. In this study, researchers determined the similarity between the food matching scheme and the target formulas in function and efficacy, provided a quantitative method for food formulation and promote the development of application technology of the herbal property theory and the compatibility theory.
Structural Alteration of Gut Microbiota during the Amelioration of Human Type 2 Diabetes with Hyperlipidemia by Metformin and a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula: a Multicenter, Randomized, Open Label Clinical Trial.
Tong, Xiaolin; Xu, Jia; Lian, Fengmei; Yu, Xiaotong; Zhao, Yufeng; Xu, Lipeng; Zhang, Menghui; Zhao, Xiyan; Shen, Jian; Wu, Shengping; Pang, Xiaoyan; Tian, Jiaxing; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhou, Qiang; Wang, Linhua; Pang, Bing; Chen, Feng; Peng, Zhiping; Wang, Jing; Zhen, Zhong; Fang, Chao; Li, Min; Chen, Limei; Zhao, Liping
Accumulating evidence implicates gut microbiota as promising targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). With a randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that alteration of gut microbiota may be involved in the alleviation of T2DM with hyperlipidemia by metformin and a specifically designed herbal formula (AMC). Four hundred fifty patients with T2DM and hyperlipidemia were randomly assigned to either the metformin- or AMC-treated group. After 12 weeks of treatment, 100 patients were randomly selected from each group and assessed for clinical improvement. The effects of the two drugs on the intestinal microbiota were evaluated by analyzing the V3 and V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene by Illumina sequencing and multivariate statistical methods. Both metformin and AMC significantly alleviated hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and shifted gut microbiota structure in diabetic patients. They significantly increased a coabundant group represented by Blautia spp., which significantly correlated with the improvements in glucose and lipid homeostasis. However, AMC showed better efficacies in improving homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and plasma triglyceride and also exerted a larger effect on gut microbiota. Furthermore, only AMC increased the coabundant group represented by Faecalibacterium spp., which was previously reported to be associated with the alleviation of T2DM in a randomized clinical trial. Metformin and the Chinese herbal formula may ameliorate type 2 diabetes with hyperlipidemia via enriching beneficial bacteria, such as Blautia and Faecalibacterium spp. IMPORTANCE Metabolic diseases such as T2DM and obesity have become a worldwide public health threat. Accumulating evidence indicates that gut microbiota can causatively arouse metabolic diseases, and thus the gut microbiota serves as a promising target for disease control. In this study, we evaluated the role of gut microbiota during improvements in
Structural Alteration of Gut Microbiota during the Amelioration of Human Type 2 Diabetes with Hyperlipidemia by Metformin and a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula: a Multicenter, Randomized, Open Label Clinical Trial
ABSTRACT Accumulating evidence implicates gut microbiota as promising targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). With a randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that alteration of gut microbiota may be involved in the alleviation of T2DM with hyperlipidemia by metformin and a specifically designed herbal formula (AMC). Four hundred fifty patients with T2DM and hyperlipidemia were randomly assigned to either the metformin- or AMC-treated group. After 12 weeks of treatment, 100 patients were randomly selected from each group and assessed for clinical improvement. The effects of the two drugs on the intestinal microbiota were evaluated by analyzing the V3 and V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene by Illumina sequencing and multivariate statistical methods. Both metformin and AMC significantly alleviated hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and shifted gut microbiota structure in diabetic patients. They significantly increased a coabundant group represented by Blautia spp., which significantly correlated with the improvements in glucose and lipid homeostasis. However, AMC showed better efficacies in improving homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and plasma triglyceride and also exerted a larger effect on gut microbiota. Furthermore, only AMC increased the coabundant group represented by Faecalibacterium spp., which was previously reported to be associated with the alleviation of T2DM in a randomized clinical trial. Metformin and the Chinese herbal formula may ameliorate type 2 diabetes with hyperlipidemia via enriching beneficial bacteria, such as Blautia and Faecalibacterium spp. PMID:29789365
Zhang, Bo; Wang, Xu; Li, Shao
The scientific understanding of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been hindered by the lack of methods that can explore the complex nature and combinatorial rules of herbal formulae. On the assumption that herbal ingredients mainly target a molecular network to adjust the imbalance of human body, here we present a-self-developed TCM network pharmacology platform for discovering herbal formulae in a systematic manner. This platform integrates a set of network-based methods that we established previously to catch the network regulation mechanism and to identify active ingredients as well as synergistic combinations for a given herbal formula. We then provided a case study on an antirheumatoid arthritis (RA) formula, Qing-Luo-Yin (QLY), to demonstrate the usability of the platform. We revealed the target network of QLY against RA-related key processes including angiogenesis, inflammatory response, and immune response, based on which we not only predicted active and synergistic ingredients from QLY but also interpreted the combinatorial rule of this formula. These findings are either verified by the literature evidence or have the potential to guide further experiments. Therefore, such a network pharmacology strategy and platform is expected to make the systematical study of herbal formulae achievable and to make the TCM drug discovery predictable. PMID:23653662
Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Tingmo; Greef, JanVander; Wang, Mei
The European Directive 2004/24/EC introducing a simplified registration procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products, plays an important role in harmonising the current legislation framework for all herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Although substantial achievements have been made under the new scheme, only a limited number of herbal medicinal products from non-European traditions commonly used in Europe have been registered. Therefore, identification of the obstacles, and determination of appropriate means to overcome the major challenges in the registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products are of critical importance for the EU herbal medicinal product market. The primary aims of this study were to understand the key issues and obstacles to registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products within the EU. The findings may identify the need for more attention on the Community herbal monographs elaborated by the Herbal Medicinal Products Committee (HMPC), as well as further evidence based scientific research on non-European herbal substances/preparations by the scientific community. A systematic evaluation of the herbal substances and preparations included in Community herbal monographs and public statements has been carried out. The focus was herbal substances and preparations derived from non-European traditions. Of the 109 adopted Community herbal monographs, 10 are herbal substances used in Chinese traditional medicine. Where the HMPC issued a public statement because it was unable to elaborate a monograph more than half-involved herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions. The main reasons herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions were not accepted for inclusion in the Community herbal monographs have been identified as due to unfulfilled requirements of Directive 2004/24/EC. The most common reasons were the lack of evidence to demonstrate a 15-year minimum
Zheng, Luyu; Zhang, Weiyi; Jiang, Miao; Zhang, Huarong; Xiong, Fei; Yu, Yang; Chen, Meijuan; Zhou, Jing; Dai, Xiaoming; Jiang, Ming; Wang, Mingyan; Cheng, Ge; Duan, Jinao; Yu, Wei; Lin, Biaoyang; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Xu
Many traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae have been used in cancer therapy. The JIN formula is an ancient herbal formula recorded in the classic TCM book Jin Kui Yao Lue (Golden Chamber). The JIN formula significantly delayed the growth of subcutaneous human H460 xenografted tumors in vivo compared with the growth of mock controls. Gene array analysis of signal transduction in cancer showed that the JIN formula acted on multiple targets such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase, hedgehog, and Wnt signaling pathways. The coformula treatment of JIN and diamminedichloroplatinum (DDP) affected the stress/heat shock pathway. Proteomic analysis showed 36 and 84 differentially expressed proteins between the mock and DDP groups and between the mock and JIN groups, respectively. GoMiner analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins between the JIN and mock groups were enriched during cellular metabolic processes, and so forth. The ones between the DDP and mock groups were enriched during protein-DNA complex assembly, and so forth. Most downregulated proteins in the JIN group were heat shock proteins (HSPs) such as HSP90AA1 and HSPA1B, which could be used as markers to monitor responses to the JIN formula therapy. The mechanism of action of the JIN formula on HSP proteins warrants further investigation. PMID:24066008
Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…
Liu, Lu; Wang, Lin-Peng; He, Shan; Ma, Yan
Allergic asthma is thought to arise from an imbalance of immune regulation, which is characterized by the production of large quantities of IgE antibodies by B cells and a decrease of the interferon-γ/interleukin-4 (Th1/Th2) ratio. Certain immunomodulatory components and Chinese herbal formulae have been used in traditional herbal medicine for thousands of years. However, there are few studies performing evidence-based Chinese medicine (CM) research on the mechanisms and effificacy of these drugs in allergic asthma. This review aims to explore the roles of Chinese herbal formulae and herb-derived compounds in experimental research models of allergic asthma. We screened published modern CM research results on the experimental effects of Chinese herbal formulae and herb-derived bioactive compounds for allergic asthma and their possible underlying mechanisms in English language articles from the PubMed and the Google Scholar databases with the keywords allergic asthma, experimental model and Chinese herbal medicine. We found 22 Chinese herb species and 31 herb-derived anti-asthmatic compounds as well as 12 Chinese herbal formulae which showed a reduction of airway hyperresponsiveness, allergen-specifific immunoglobulin E, inflflammatory cell infifiltration and a regulation of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo, respectively. Chinese herbal formulae and herbderived bioactive compounds exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-inflflammatory and anti-asthma activities in different experimental models and their various mechanisms of action are being investigated in modern CM research with genomics, proteomics and metabolomics technologies, which will lead to a new era in the development of new drug discovery for allergic asthma in CM.
Ding, Fan; Zhang, Qianru; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Wang, Yitao; Han, Yifan; Hu, Yuanjia; Qi, Jin
As a complex system, the complicated interactions between chemical ingredients, as well as the potential rules of interactive associations among chemical ingredients of traditional Chinese herbal formulae are not yet fully understood by modern science. On the other hand, network analysis is emerging as a powerful approach focusing on processing complex interactive data. By employing network approach in selected Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD), this article aims to construct and analyze chemical ingredients network of herbal formulae, and provide candidate herbs, chemical constituents, and ingredient groups for further investigation. As a result, chemical ingredients network composed of 1588 ingredients from 36 herbs used in 8 core formulae for the treatment of CHD was produced based on combination associations in herbal formulae. In this network, 9 communities with relative dense internal connections are significantly associated with 14 kinds of chemical structures with P<0.001. Moreover, chemical structural fingerprints of network communities were detected, while specific centralities of chemical ingredients indicating different levels of importance in the network were also measured. Finally, several distinct herbs, chemical ingredients, and ingredient groups with essential position in the network or high centrality value are recommended for further pharmacology study in the context of new drug development. PMID:25658855
Cheng, Chung-Wah; Wu, Tai-Xiang; Shang, Hong-Cai; Li, You-Ping; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David; Bian, Zhao-Xiang
Editors' Note: This article is the simplified Chinese version of the CONSORT Extension for Chinese Herbal Medicine Formulas 2017: Recommendations, Explanation, and Elaboration. (Cheng C, Wu T, Shang H, Li, Y, Altman D, Moher D; CONSORT-CHM Formulas 2017 Group. CONSORT Extension for Chinese Herbal Medicine Formulas 2017: Recommendations, Explanation, and Elaboration. Ann Intern Med. 2017;167:112-21. [Epub 27 June 2017]. doi:10.7326/M16-2977).
In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...
In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...
Background This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the herbal formula PM012 on an Alzheimer's disease model, human presenilin 2 mutant transgenic mice (hPS2m), and also to evaluate the toxicity of PM012 in Sprague-Dawely rats after 4 or 26 weeks treatment with repeated oral administration. Methods Spatial learning and memory capacities of hPS2m transgenic mice were evaluated using the Morris Water Maze. Simultaneously, PM012 was repeatedly administered orally to male and female SD rats (15/sex/group) at doses of 0 (vehicle control), 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg/day for 4 or 26 weeks. To evaluate the recovery potential, 5 animals of each sex were assigned to vehicle control and 2,000 mg/kg/day groups during the 4-week recovery period. Results The results showed that PM012-treated hPS2m transgenic mice showed significantly reduced escape latency when compared with the hPS2m transgenic mice. The repeated oral administration of PM012 over 26 weeks in male and female rats induced an increase and increasing trend in thymus weight in the female treatment groups (main and recovery groups), but the change was judged to be toxicologically insignificant. In addition, the oral administration of the herbal medicine PM012 did not cause adverse effects as assessed by clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, blood clotting time, organ weights and histopathology. The No Observed Adverse Effects Levels of PM012 was determined to be 2,000 mg/kg/day for both sexes, and the target organ was not identified. Conclusion These results suggest that PM012 has potential for use in the treatment of the Alzheimer's disease without serious adverse effects. PMID:22458507
Wang, Julie; Jones, Stacie M; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Song, Ying; Yang, Nan; Sicherer, Scott H; Makhija, Melanie M; Robison, Rachel G; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Sampson, Hugh A; Li, Xiu-Min
Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) is a 9-herb formula based on traditional Chinese medicine that blocks peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model. In phase I studies FAHF-2 was found to be safe and well tolerated. We sought to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of FAHF-2 as a treatment for food allergy. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study 68 subjects aged 12 to 45 years with allergies to peanut, tree nut, sesame, fish, and/or shellfish, which were confirmed by baseline double-blind, placebo-controlled oral food challenges (DBPCFCs), received FAHF-2 (n = 46) or placebo (n = 22). After 6 months of therapy, subjects underwent DBPCFCs. For those who demonstrated increases in the eliciting dose, a repeat DBPCFC was performed 3 months after stopping therapy. Treatment was well tolerated, with no serious adverse events. By using intent-to-treat analysis, the placebo group had a higher eliciting dose and cumulative dose (P = .05) at the end-of-treatment DBPCFC. There was no difference in the requirement for epinephrine to treat reactions (P = .55). There were no significant differences in allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 levels, cytokine production by PBMCs, or basophil activation between the active and placebo groups. In vitro immunologic studies performed on subjects' baseline PBMCs incubated with FAHF-2 and food allergen produced significantly less IL-5, greater IL-10 levels, and increased numbers of regulatory T cells than untreated cells. Notably, 44% of subjects had poor drug adherence for at least one third of the study period. FAHF-2 is a safe herbal medication for subjects with food allergy and shows favorable in vitro immunomodulatory effects; however, efficacy for improving tolerance to food allergens is not demonstrated at the dose and duration used. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Guijuan; Ma, Yi; Fan, Hongxia
Ruyan Neixiao Cream (RYNXC) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula for treating mammary precancerous disease. This study was carried out to investigate in vivo anticancer effect of RYNXC and multiple constituents. 32 virginal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into blank control group (BC), mammary precancer models group (MODEL), tamoxifen group (TAM), and Ruyan Neixiao Cream group (RYNXC). TAM was intervened by tamoxifen; RYNXC was intervened by Ruyan Neixiao Cream. The chromatographic separation was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). RYNXC showed significant improvement in erythrocyte aggregation index (EAI), hematocrit (HCT), fibrinogen (FIB), spleen coefficient, and uterus coefficient compared with MODEL. In RYNXC and TAM groups, atypical hyperplasia was observed in pathological mammary tissues; meanwhile in MODEL group, ductal carcinoma was observed in situ. Moreover, fifteen compounds were characterized according to HPLC-MS data, including organic acids, tannin, alkaloid, volatile oil, anthraquinones, and flavonoids. The study suggests that RYNXC was an effective Chinese herbal formula for mammary precancerous lesions and provides a scientific basis for the quality standard and the pharmacology of RYNXC. It will be beneficial to the future clinical application of RYNXC. PMID:28811827
Liu, Ju-Han; Cheng, Yung-Yi; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Tsai, Tung-Hu
Commercial pharmaceutical herbal products have enabled people to take traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in a convenient and accessible form. However, the quantity and quality should be additionally inspected. To address the issue, a combination of chemical and physical inspection methods were developed to evaluate the amount of an herbal formula, Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang (XSLJZT), in clinical TCM practice. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method with electrospray ionization was developed to measure the herbal biomarkers of guanosine, atractylenolide III, glycyrrhizic acid, dehydrocostus lactone, hesperidin, and oleanolic acid from XSLJZT. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photographs and light microscopy photographs with Congo red and iodine-KI staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers and starch content. Furthermore, solubility analysis, swelling power test, and crude fiber analysis were contributed to measure the starch additive in pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrated large variations in the chemical components of different pharmaceutical brands. The SEM photographs revealed that the starch was oval, smooth, and granular, and that the raw herbal powder appears stripy, stretched, and filiform. The stained light microscopy photographs of all of the pharmaceutical products showed added starch and raw herbal powder as extenders. The developed chemical and physical methods provide a standard operating procedure for the quantity control of the herbal pharmaceutical products of XSLJZT.
Huang, Li; Yuan, Jiamin; Yang, Zhimin; Xu, Fuping; Huang, Chunhua
Background. In this study, we use association rules to explore the latent rules and patterns of prescribing and adjusting the ingredients of herbal decoctions based on empirical herbal formula of Chinese Medicine (CM). Materials and Methods. The consideration and development of CM prescriptions based on the knowledge of CM doctors are analyzed. The study contained three stages. The first stage is to identify the chief symptoms to a specific empirical herbal formula, which can serve as the key indication for herb addition and cancellation. The second stage is to conduct a case study on the empirical CM herbal formula for insomnia. Doctors will add extra ingredients or cancel some of them by CM syndrome diagnosis. The last stage of the study is to divide the observed cases into the effective group and ineffective group based on the assessed clinical effect by doctors. The patterns during the diagnosis and treatment are selected by the applied algorithm and the relations between clinical symptoms or indications and herb choosing principles will be selected by the association rules algorithm. Results. Totally 40 patients were observed in this study: 28 patients were considered effective after treatment and the remaining 12 were ineffective. 206 patterns related to clinical indications of Chinese Medicine were checked and screened with each observed case. In the analysis of the effective group, we used the algorithm of association rules to select combinations between 28 herbal adjustment strategies of the empirical herbal formula and the 190 patterns of individual clinical manifestations. During this stage, 11 common patterns were eliminated and 5 major symptoms for insomnia remained. 12 association rules were identified which included 5 herbal adjustment strategies. Conclusion. The association rules method is an effective algorithm to explore the latent relations between clinical indications and herbal adjustment strategies for the study on empirical herbal formulas
Li, Bing; Han, Fei; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Yong-Yan
Clinical value evaluation is the key issue to solve the problems such as high repetition rate, fuzzy clinical positioning, broad indications and unclear clinical values in Chinese herbal formula(Chinese patent medicine). By analyzing the challenges and opportunities of Chinese herbal formula in clinical value evaluation, this paper introduced a strategy of multi-omic network analysis. Through comparative analysis of three stroke treatment formulas, we suggested their different characteristic advantages for variant symptoms or phenotypes of stroke, which may provide reference for rational clinical choice. Such multi-omic network analysis strategy may open a unique angle of view for clinical evaluation and comparison of Chinese herbal formula. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Matsumoto-Miyazaki, Jun; Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Miyata, Shusaku; Miyazaki, Nagisa; Nawa, Takahide; Okada, Hideshi; Ojio, Shinsuke; Ogura, Shinji; Minatoguchi, Shinya
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and traditional herbal medicine (Kampo medicine) for reducing the incidence rate of delirium in patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease in ICUs. Twenty-nine patients who had been urgently admitted to the ICU in the control period were treated with conventional intensive care. Thirty patients in the treatment period received conventional therapy plus a combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and herbal medicine. Acupuncture treatment was performed once a day, and the herbal formula was administered orally three times a day during the first week of the ICU stay. The standard acupuncture points were GV20, Ex-HN3, HT7, LI4, Liv3, and KI3, and the main herbal preparation was Kamikihito. The incident rates of delirium, assessed using the confusion assessment method for ICU, in the treatment and control period were compared. The incidence rate of delirium was significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group (6.6% vs. 37.9%, [Formula: see text]). Moreover, sedative drugs and non-pharmacological approaches against aggressive behavior of patients who were delirious were used less in the treatment group than in the control group. No serious adverse events were observed in the treatment group. Combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and herbal medicine was found to be effective in lowering the incidence of delirium in patients with CV disease in ICUs. Further studies with a large sample size and parallel randomized controlled design would be required to establish the effects of this therapy.
Niemeyer, Kathryn; Bell, Iris R.; Koithan, Mary
Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM. PMID:24058898
Niemeyer, Kathryn; Bell, Iris R; Koithan, Mary
Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM.
He, Ping; Deng, Ke; Liu, Zhihai; Liu, Delin; Liu, Jun S; Geng, Zhi
For the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a prescription for a patient often contains several herbs. Some herbs are often used together in prescriptions, and these herbs can be considered as a functional group. In this paper, we propose an approach for discovering herbal functional groups from a large set of prescriptions recorded in TCM books. These functional groups are allowed to overlap with each other. Our approach is validated with a simulation study and applied to a data set containing thousands of TCM prescriptions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased over the past 2–3 decades in Westernized countries. Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, control of severe asthma is still difficult. Asthma is also associated with high prevalence of anxiety in particular adolescents. There is no effective treatment for food allergy. Food allergy is often associated with severe and recalcitrant eczema. Novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma, food allergy and comorbid conditions and explores their possible mechanisms of action. Since 2005, several controlled clinical studies of “anti-asthma” herbal remedies have been published. Among the herbal medicines, anti-asthma herbal medicine intervention (ASHMI) is the only anti-asthma TCM product that is a US FDA investigational new drug (IND) that has entered clinical trials. Research into ASHMI’s effects and mechanisms of actions in animal models is actively being pursued. Research on TCM herbal medicines for treating food allergy is rare. The herbal intervention, Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) is the only US FDA botanical IND under investigation as a multiple food allergy therapy. Published articles and abstracts, as well as new data generated in preclinical and clinical studies of ASHMI and FAHF-2 are the bases for this review. The effect of TCM therapy on food allergy associated recalcitrant eczema, based on case review, is also included. Laboratory and clinical studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of ASHMI treatment on asthma. The possible mechanisms underlying the efficacy are multiple. Preclinical studies demonstrated the efficacy and
Singh, Amrinder; Zhao, Kaicun
Insomnia is a condition with sleep problems and many people suffered from it. Chronic insomnia can last for long time and it will severely affect people's health and the quality of life. In conventional medicine, the most commonly used the medicine is benzodiazepine. It is effective but also has significant side effects. Patients try to use some kinds of alternative medicines. Chinese medicinal herbs and formulas have been used in the treatment of insomnia for more than 2000 years in China. In recent decades, Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in the Western countries. Many clinical studies including randomized controlled clinical trials and research on pharmacological action mechanisms of the herbs for treatment of insomnia have been conducted. It is very important and very helpful to review the published research papers to gather the available information for a critical analysis. This chapter evaluated the data from both of clinical studies and pharmacological researches on the therapeutic formulas and on some key herbs used in the treatment of insomnia. Clinical studies showed a very wide spectrum of herbs that were used in clinical treatment of insomnia. This was due to different syndrome patterns happened with insomnia. This brought complexity and difficulties to identify which are the essential key herbs or formulas. It was found Suanzaoren decoction (Ziziphus spinose decoction ) is the most frequently used formula for the treatment of insomnia. Based on the clinical data, several herbs were identified as most frequently used sedative and hypnotic herbs in Chinese herbal medicine including Suanzaoren (Ziziphus spinose ), Fuling (Poria cocos ), and Gancao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis ). The underlying pharmacological action mechanisms discovered in the studies on some key herbs used in the treatment of insomnia were evaluated. The major pharmacological action mechanisms shared by most of the sedative herbs are to act through the neurotransmitter gamma
Su, Jin; Tang, Shi-Huan; Guo, Fei-Fei; Li, De-Feng; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Hai-Yu; Yang, Hong-Jun
By using the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system (TCMISS) in this study, the prescription rules of Baizhi formulae were analyzed and the core herbal pair "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" was obtained. Through the systemic analysis of prescription rules of "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" and combined with the pharmacology thinking of "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" in treating headache, the paper was aimed to find out the combination rules containing Baizhi andits molecular mechanisms for treating headaches, and provide the theory basis for further research and reference of Baizhi and its formula. Totally 3 887 prescriptions were included in this study, involving 2 534 Chinese herbs. With a support degree of 20% in analysis, 16 most commonly used drug combinations were screened, which were mainly used to treat 15 types of diseases. Baizhi was often used to treat headache, and the core combination "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" was also often used to treat, consistent with ancient record. A chemical database was established; then the headache and migraine disease targets were retrieved and added in the database to build up the "compounds-targets-pathways "core network of "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" by the internet-based computation platform for IP of TCM (TCM-IP). TCM-IP was then applied to study the molecular mechanism of "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" treatment of headache. The results suggested that37 chemical compounds in the core combination "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" were closely related with headache treatment by adjusting serotonin levels or applying to inflammation-related targets and energy metabolism pathways such as purine metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, fatty acid degradation, carbon metabolism and gluconeogenesis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu
This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351 ± 0.017, 0.136 ± 0.010, 0.140 ± 0.005, and 2.281 ± 0.406 mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802
Lu, Chia-Ming; Hou, Mei-Ling; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu
This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351 ± 0.017, 0.136 ± 0.010, 0.140 ± 0.005, and 2.281 ± 0.406 mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products.
Huang, Yipeng; Wu, Zhenwei; Su, Rihui; Ruan, Guihua; Du, Fuyou; Li, Gongke
Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) are promising approach for the treatment of various diseases which have attracted increasing attention all over the world. Chemometrics in quality control of TCHMs are great useful tools that harnessing mathematics, statistics and other methods to acquire information maximally from the data obtained from various analytical approaches. This feature article focuses on the recent studies which evaluating the pharmacological efficacy and quality of TCHMs by determining, identifying and discriminating the bioactive or marker components in different samples with the help of chemometric techniques. In this work, the application of chemometric techniques in the classification of TCHMs based on their efficacy and usage was introduced. The recent advances of chemometrics applied in the chemical analysis of TCHMs were reviewed in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Rural Rakai, Uganda Brandon J. Auerbach1,2*, Steven J. Reynolds3,4, Mohammed...Background: Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa and some herbs are known to be hepatotoxic. However little is known...about the effect of herbal medicines on liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: 500 HIV-infected participants in a rural HIV care program in Rakai
Booranasubkajorn, Suksalin; Huabprasert, Sukit; Wattanarangsan, Jantanee; Chotitham, Pruksa; Jutasompakorn, Pinpilai; Laohapand, Tawee; Akarasereenont, Pravit; Tripatara, Pinpat
The herbal formula (Sahatsatara, STF), the Thai traditional poly-herbal recipe, has been used for treatment of muscle pain, anti-flatulence and numbness on hands and feet, with the caution when used in hypertensive patients. However, there is no scientific evidence to prove its effects on cardiovascular system. Piperine is the proposed major active compound in STF. It is shown to have antihypertensive effect in the L-NAME-induced endothelial dysfunction rats. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, as well as the hemodynamic and vasoactive effect and toxicity of STF and piperine using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normal Wistar rats (NWR). The amount of piperine in STF was measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). SHR and NWR were gavaged with piperine (50mg/kg/day) or STF (100, 300, or 1000mg/kg/day) alone or together with L-NAME (in drinking water) for 28 days. Hemodynamic effects were monitored by noninvasive tail cuff every 7 days. Vasorelaxation effect on the thoracic aorta in organ chamber was observed through force transducer at the end of the experiment. Biochemical parameters for kidney and liver toxicity were measured. In addition, pharmacokinetic study was performed using non-compartment analysis. The amount of piperine in STF was 1.29%w/w. Both STF and piperine did not affect blood pressure and heart rate in both SHR and NWR. Interestingly, STF and piperine increased acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation of isolated thoracic aorta and have vascoluprotective effect in nitric oxide (NO) impaired rats. No liver or kidney toxicity was found in this study. Non-compartment pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the time to reach maximum concentration (T max ) of plasma piperine after administration of piperine and STF were 3.9 and 1.7h, respectively. This result suggested that piperine in the recipe had better absorption than the pure standard piperine. STF had no effect on blood pressure in both SHR and
Silano, Marco; De Vincenzi, Massimo; De Vincenzi, Alessandro; Silano, Vittorio
Under the Italian Presidency of the Council of the European Union (July 2003-December 2003) an agreement has been reached by the European Parliament and the Council on the approval of the proposal of Directive of the European Parliament and the Council amending the Directive 2001/83/EC as regards traditional herbal medicinal products. Once implemented in the E.U. Member States, this new Directive will remove the constraints that have made it difficult granting marketing authorisations of herbal substances and preparations as traditional medicinal products under the pre-existing Community legislation. The main features (i.e. traditional herbal medicine definition, simplified registration procedure, provisions for Community herbal monographs and Community list of herbal substances and preparations and establishment of the Committee for Herbal Medicinal Products) of this new Community legislation are analysed and discussed in the present paper together with some expected positive public health impacts.
Xiao, Yong-Qing; Li, Li; Liu, Ying; Ma, Yin-Lian; Yu, Ding-Rong
To elucidate the key issues in the development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry Chinese herbal pieces industry. According to the author's accumulated experience over years and demand of the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, the key issues in the development and innovation on the Chinese herbal pieces industry were summarized. According to the author, the traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline shall focus on a application basis research. The development of this discipline should be closely related to the development of Chinese herbal pieces. The traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline can be improved and its results can be transformed only if this discipline were correlated with the Chinese herbal pieces industry, matched with the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, and solved the problems in the development on the Chinese herbal pieces industry. The development of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and the Chinese herbal pieces industry also requires scientific researchers to make constant innovations, realize the specialty of the researches, and innovate based on inheritance. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Ng, Ka-Yan; Yu, Yee-Man; Ng, Bacon Fung-Leung; Ziea, Eric Tat-Chi
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments are often prescribed based on individuals' pattern diagnoses. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials in Chinese and English literatures on TCM pattern-based treatment for depression has therefore been conducted. A total of 61 studies, 2504 subjects, and 27 TCM patterns were included. Due to the large variation of TCM pattern among participants, we only analyzed the top four commonly studied TCM patterns: liver qi depression, liver depression and spleen deficiency, dual deficiency of the heart, and spleen and liver depression and qi stagnation. We found that Xiaoyao decoction was the most frequently used herbal formula for the treatment of liver qi depression and liver depression with spleen deficiency, while Chaihu Shugan decoction was often used for liver depression and qi stagnation. Bai Shao (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) and Chai Hu (Bupleurum chinense DC.) were commonly used across different TCM patterns regardless of the prescribed Chinese herbal formulas. The rationale underlying herb selection was seldom provided. Due to the limited number of studies on TCM pattern-based treatment of depression and their low methodological quality, we are unable to draw any conclusion regarding which herbal formulas have higher efficacy and which TCM patterns respond better to CHM. PMID:26180532
Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman
Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies. PMID:26734483
Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient's personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies.
Kroes, Burt H
In the European Union a complex regulatory framework is in place for the regulation of (traditional) herbal medicinal products. It is based on the principle that a marketing authorisation granted by the competent authorities is required for placing medicinal products on the market. The requirements and procedures for acquiring such a marketing authorisation are laid down in regulations, directives and scientific guidelines. This paper gives an overview of the quality requirements for (traditional) herbal medicinal products that are contained in European pharmaceutical legislation. Pharmaceutical quality of medicinal product is the basis for ensuring safe and effective medicines. The basic principles governing the assurance of the quality of medicinal products in the European Union are primarily defined in the amended Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2003/63/EC. Quality requirements of herbal medicinal products are also laid down in scientific guidelines. Scientific guidelines provide a basis for practical harmonisation of how the competent authorities of EU Member States interpret and apply the detailed requirements for the demonstration of quality laid down in regulations and directives. Detailed quality requirements for herbal medicinal products on the European market are contained in European Union (EU) pharmaceutical legislation. They include a system of manufacturing authorisations which ensures that all herbal medicinal products on the European market are manufactured/imported only by authorised manufacturers, whose activities are regularly inspected by the competent authorities. Additionally, as starting materials only active substances are allowed which have been manufactured in accordance with the GMP for starting materials as adopted by the Community. The European regulatory framework encompasses specific requirements for herbal medicinal products. These requirements are independent from the legal status. Thus, the same quality standards equally apply
Lau, Kit-Man; Lai, Kwok-Kin; Liu, Cheuk-Lun; Tam, Jacqueline Chor-Wing; To, Ming-Ho; Kwok, Hin-Fai; Lau, Ching-Po; Ko, Chun-Hay; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Poon, Simon Kar-Sing; Lau, Clara Bik-San
Astragali Radix (AR) and Rehmanniae Radix (RR) are two traditional Chinese medicines widely used in China for treating diabetes mellitus and its complications, such as diabetic foot ulcer. In our previous study, a herbal formula NF3 comprising AR and RR in the ratio of 2:1 was found effective in enhancing diabetic wound healing in rats through the actions of tissue regeneration, angiogenesis promotion and inflammation inhibition. The aims of the present study were to investigate the herb-herb interaction (or the possible synergistic effect) between AR and RR in NF3 to promote diabetic wound healing and to identify the principal herb in the formula by evaluating the potencies of individual AR and RR in different mechanistic studies. A chemically induced diabetic foot ulcer rat model was used to examine the wound healing effect of NF3 and its individual herbs AR and RR. For mechanistic studies, murine macrophage cell (RAW 264.7) inflammation, human fibroblast (Hs27) proliferation and human endothelial cell (HMEC-1) migration assays were adopted to investigate the anti-inflammatory, granulation formation and angiogenesis-promoting activities of the herbal extracts, respectively. In the foot ulcer animal model, neither AR nor RR at clinical relevant dose (0.98g/kg) promoted diabetic wound healing. However, when they were used in combination as NF3, synergistic interaction was demonstrated, of which NF3 could significantly reduce the wound area of rats when compared to water group (p<0.01). For anti-inflammation and granulation formation, AR was more effective than RR in inhibiting lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production from RAW 264.7 cells and promoting Hs27 fibroblast proliferation. In the aspect of angiogenesis promotion, only NF3 promoted cell migration of HMEC-1 cells. AR plays a preeminent role in the anti-inflammatory and fibroblast-proliferating activities of NF3. The inclusion of RR, however, is crucial for NF3 to exert its overall wound
Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Jin-Ci; Yu, Jiang-Yong; Cai, Bao-Chang; Mao, Chun-Qin; Yin, Fang-Zhou
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) reference standards plays an important role in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces. This paper overviewed the development of TCM reference standards. By analyzing the 2010 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the application of TCM reference standards in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces was summarized, and the problems exiting in the system were put forward. In the process of improving the quality control level of Chinese herbal pieces, various kinds of advanced methods and technology should be used to research the characteristic reference standards of Chinese herbal pieces, more and more reasonable reference standards should be introduced in the quality control system of Chinese herbal pieces. This article discussed the solutions in the aspect of TCM reference standards, and future development of quality control on Chinese herbal pieces is prospected.
Qu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Qun; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Yi-Tao; Zou, Wen-Jun
Registration of Chinese patent medicine in European Union (EU) is of great significance to the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine as EU market acts as an important position in the global botanical market. In retrospect, the domestic studies on EU regulations of traditional herbal medicinal products have been conducted for more than 10 years, but there is still some cognitive bias and lack of research. In this paper, a review of the relevant research progress and the main misunderstanding problems about Directive 2004/24/EC, like the centralized and decentralized supervision system of traditional herbal medicinal products in the EU, marketing authorization procedures for traditional herbal medicinal products, Community Herbal Monograph and List Entries, would be systematically analyzed, so as to provide reference for the registration of Chinese patent medicine in EU. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Wang, Jingli; Zhou, Chaofan
The adverse reactions caused by Chinese herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine are reported increased in recent years, among which the acute liver injury caused by Chinese herbal medicine accounts for 21.5% of total liver injuries. Despite the misuse of traditional Chinese medicine not in accordance with differentiation of symptoms and signs, the adverse reaction of Chinese herbal medicine itself can't be little to these adverse events. The paper summarizes the most common categories of traditional Chinese medicine resulting in liver injury, the mechanism, pathological characteristics, clinical symptom of liver injury, the reasons of the reaction and how to prevent. The research aims to enhance the clinical physician recognition of liver injury caused by Chinese herbal medicine, in order to ensure the safe and rational usage of traditional Chinese medicine.
Fu, Yao; Yang, Jin-Chao; Cunningham, Anthony B; Towns, Alexandra Maria; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Hua-Ying; Li, Jian-Wen; Yang, Xue-Fei
Herbal teas have long been consumed by Chinese people for preventive and/or therapeutic healthcare. Although herbal teas are widely consumed by many cultural groups in different regions of China, no thorough review has been undertaken to assess the diversity of the country's herbal tea usage. This literature review, complemented by a quantitative survey in an important tea market in Kunming, begins to fill this knowledge gap. The study aims to summarize the current knowledge of plant species used as herbal teas by different cultural groups in different regions of China, with a focus on the teas' perceived traditional healthcare functions, related phytochemical/pharmaceutical research, and safety issues. The study involved a comprehensive literature review and a market survey. The literature review was based on published ethnobotanical studies of herbal teas in China. We searched the Web of Science™, ELSEVIER, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and the China Science and Technology Journal Database to locate relevant studies (including journal articles, Masters/PhD dissertations and books) that were published before March 2017. A species list was compiled based on the review and supplemented with information retrieved from the Scifinder database (https://scifinder.cas.org) and the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010). A Use Value Index was employed for ranking the most cited species. Based on the 29 most cited species, we discussed the current research status in relation to healthcare benefits and safety concerns of herbal teas in China. To better understand the current status of the herbal tea market in China, we also surveyed 136 tea vendors at the Xiongda Tea Market in Kunming. Information gathered from the survey included the species sold, the sale prices and the form of the herbal tea product. The literature identified 759 plant species used as herbal tea in China and the market survey identified an additional 23 species. Most of the species used were
Hou, Mei-Ling; Chang, Li-Wen; Lin, Chi-Hung; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu
Rhein (4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxoanthracene-2-carboxylic acid, cassic acid) is a pharmacological active component found in Rheum palmatum L. the major herb of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a medicinal herbal product used as a remedy for constipation. Here we have determined multiple bioactive components in SHXXT and investigated the comparative pharmacokinetics of rhein in rats. A sensitive and specific method combining liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated to simultaneously quantify six active compounds in the pharmaceutical herbal product SHXXT to further study their pharmacokinetics in rats. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was employed for quantification with switching electrospray ion source polarity between positive and negative modes in a single run. There were no significant matrix effects in the quantitative analysis and the mean recovery for rhein in rat plasma was 91.6%±3.4%. The pharmacokinetic data of rhein demonstrate that the herbal formulae or the single herbal extract provide significantly higher absorption rate than the pure compound. This phenomenon suggests that the other herbal ingredients of SHXXT and rhubarb extract significantly enhance the absorption of rhein in rats. In conclusion, the herbal formulae (SHXXT) are more efficient than the single herb (rhubarb) or the pure compound (rhein) in rhein absorption.
Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con
Background: The Ayurvedic medicinal system employs a holistic approach to health, utilising the synergistic properties of organic resources. Research into the Ayurvedic herb Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (B.monnieri) has reported improvements in cognitive outcomes in child and adult populations. The aim of current review is to systematically assess and critically summarize clinical trials investigating B.monnieri-dominant poly-herbal formulas and their effects on the cognition, memory, learning, and behaviour in children and adolescents. Methods: Key word searches were performed using PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, DHARA, and CINAHL for publications meeting inclusion criteria up to November 2017. There were no restrictions in study design. Effect sizes were calculated for all significant findings to allow for direct comparisons, and each study was evaluated on design quality. Cognitive and behavioural outcomes were grouped into validated constructs for cross-study comparison. Results: Nine trials met inclusion criteria. Five studies reported sufficient data for effect size analysis with most improvements reported in behavioural outcomes. True cognitive abilities and behavioural constructs were reviewed in six studies, with visual perception, impulsivity, and attention demonstrating the greatest improvements. The veracity of the evidence for the formulations reviewed is weakened by inconsistent statistical design and under-reporting of safety and tolerability data (44%). Conclusions: The current review extends research supporting B.monnieri as a cognitive enhancer and provides modest evidence for the use of B.monnieri in poly-herbal preparations for improving cognitive and behavioural outcomes in child and adolescent populations. Greater emphasis on statistical vigour and the reporting of tolerability data are essential for future trials to adequately document poly-herbal treatment efficacy. PMID:29165401
Hsu, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Ching-Lung; Wang, Sheue-Er; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Wu, Chung-Hsin
The present study aims to elucidate the roles of nitric oxide synthase activity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in penile toxicity of aging mice associated with excess manganese (Mn) treatment and to investigate the effect of oral treatment with the herbal formula B401 in this respect. ICR strain mice were divided into two groups: the vehicle (sham group) and the B401 (50 mg/kg) group. The mice were orally treated for 5 days; then a high single dose of MnCl2 (100 mg/kg) was given by intraperitoneal injection to the mice. One day after MnCl2 treatment, corpora cavernosal tissues of both Mn-treated mice and their controls were simultaneously sampled to examine their immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis. Nitric oxide (NO) production, levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), expression levels of factors governing angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor), oxidative stress (catalase, superoxide dismutase 2,4-hydroxynonenal), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha), apoptosis (B-cell lymphoma 2 [Bcl-2], Bcl-2-associated X protein [Bax], cleaved poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase [c-PARP], cytochrome C, caspase-12, and caspase-3) were evaluated in penile corpus cavernosum of the mice. We found that penile toxicity in the mice was enhanced under excess Mn treatment through reduction of NOS activity and increase in oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the penile cavernous tissue. Furthermore, the penile toxicity in mice with manganism was alleviated by oral B401 treatment through enhancement of both nitric oxide synthesis and angiogenesis, with simultaneous reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in penile corpus cavernosum. We suggest that the herbal formula B401 may serve as a potential dietotherapeutic supplement for penile toxicity or dysfunction in aging males.
Sun, Jian-Ning; Sun, Wen-Yan; Dong, Shi-Fen
The Chinese herbal compound formula preparation was made based on theory of Chinese medicine, which was confirmed by long period clinical application, and with multi-compound and multi-target characteristics. During the exploitation process of innovation medicine of Chinese herbal compound formula, selecting and speeding up the research development of drugs with clinical value shall be paid more attention, and as request of rules involved in new drug research and development, the whole process management should be carried out, including project evaluation, manufacturing process determination, establishment of quality control standards, evaluation for pharmacological and toxic effect, as well as new drug application process. This reviews was aimed to give some proposals for pharmacodynamics research methods involved in exploration of Chinese herbal compound formula preparation, including： ①the endpoint criteria should meet the clinical attribution of new drugs; ②the pre-clinical pharmacodynamics evaluation should be carried on appropriate animal models according to the characteristics of diagnosis and therapy of Chinese medicine and observation indexes; ③during the innovation of drug for infants and children, information on drug action conforming to physiological characteristics of infants and children should be supplied, and the pharmacodynamics and toxicology research shall be conducted in immature rats according to the body weight of children. In a summary, the clinical application characteristics are the important criteria for evaluation of pharmacological effect of innovation medicine of Chinese herbal compound formula. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel
Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality.
Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel
Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality. PMID:25954198
Kim, Ki Mo; Heo, Deok Rim; Lee, Joo Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Chung, Sun-Ku
Sagunja-Tang (SGT-4) is a traditional herbal formula in Korean medicine that is used to treat anti-metabolic syndrome, and has antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effects of SGT-4 on the formation efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) by four reprogramming transcription factors: Oct4, Sox2, KIf4, and c-Myc (OSKM). SGT-4 contained four different herbal medicines that are composed of Ginseng Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba, and Poria Sclerotium. The composition of SGT-4 was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HFFs were transfected with episomal vectors contained by four OSKM. Western blotting, RT-PCR, immunofluroescence, and in vitro differentiation were used to assess the pluripotency of the iPSC cells. SGT-4 exhibited antioxidant activity against the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as promoted the activation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase, gluthathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), and glutathione (GSH). Moreover, the ATP level was not significantly fluctuated depending on the concentration of SGT-4 in the hiPSCs. Our results indicate that the SGT-4, herbal formula significantly increases the efficiency of human iPSC generation via the transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, KIf4, and c-Myc).
Jodeungsan (JDS) is a traditional herbal formula that comprises seven medicinal herbs and is broadly utilized to treat hypertension, dementia, and headache. However, the effects of JDS and its herbal components on neurodegenerative diseases have not been reported. We examined the inhibitory effects of JDS and its seven components on neuronal cell death and inflammation using HT22 hippocampal cells and BV-2 microglia, respectively. Among its seven herbal components, Uncaria sinensis (US), Chrysanthemum morifolium (CM), Zingiber officinale (ZO), Pinellia ternata (PT), Citrus unshiu (CU), and Poria cocos (PC) exhibited significant neuroprotective effects in HT22 cells. In BV-2 cells, JDS significantly suppressed the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), indicating the antineuroinflammatory activity of JDS. In addition, the herbal extracts from ZO, Panax ginseng (PG), PT, CU, and PC exhibited inhibitory effects on the inflammatory response in microglia. These data imply that the JDS effect on neurodegeneration occurs via coordination among its seven components. To establish a quality control for JDS, a simultaneous analysis using five standard compounds identified hesperidin (37.892 ± 1.228 mg/g) as the most abundant phytochemical of JDS. Further investigation of the combinatorial activities of two or more standard compounds will be necessary to verify their antineurodegenerative regulatory mechanisms. PMID:29391873
Li, Dong-Lin; Zheng, Xi-Long; Duan, Lei; Deng, Shuang-Wen; Ye, Wen; Wang, Ai-Hua; Xing, Fu-Wu
Herbal tea, which refers to "cooling tea", "cool beverage", or "liáng chá" in China, includes a range of drinks with heat-clearing and detoxification qualities. Herbal tea plants are great contributive to the health and prosperity of Chaoshan people. The aim of the study was to document herbal tea plant species used and commercialized as "liáng chá" in Chaoshan area, to facilitate the use and development of herbal tea enterprises, and to promote the further development of national herbal tea. Information and data were obtained from all 83 stall holders in 12 traditional markets, semi-structured informant interviews were carried out individually with the stall holders, 10 questions were asked. In this study, 186 species of herbal tea plants belonging to 65 families and 156 genera were indicated by 83 stall holders, with Asteraceae being the most prevalent family with 22 species. Herbs are main sources of herbal tea plants in Chaoshan area, with whole plants (97 species) being the most used parts. Herbal drinks are mostly consumed for heat-clearing and detoxification, and a large number of plant species were reported to treat coughs, colds, dysentery, dampness and sore throats. The most cited species were Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. (47 times mentioned), Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (46), Plantago asiatica L. (43), Houttuynia cordata Thunb (42), Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (36), Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr. (35) and Morus alba L. (31), and 5 protected species were recorded in the list of the nationally protected species of China: Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, Dendrobium nobile Lindl., Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata, Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (J. E. Smith) Lindl. and Pholidota chinensis Lindl. The selling price of most fresh herbal tea plants in the market varied from￥10-16/kg, with the profit margin of sales ranging from 12.5% to 20%. The consumption of herbal tea for one family costs about ￥3-5/day. Chaoshan herbal teas, prepared by diverse
Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khan, Muhammad Pukhtoon Zada; Mukhtar, Anam; Zafar, Muhammad; Sultana, Shazia; Jahan, Sarwat
There is very limited information regarding medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Pakistan, for treating wide-ranging diseases. Current study provides significant ethnopharmacological information, both qualitative and quantitative on medical plants in Pakistan and the pharmacological importance of herbal drinks, especially in the discovery of new drugs. The current ethnomedicinal field study was conducted from various traditional communities of Pakistan to document usage of medicinal plants as herbal drinks. Data was collected through field interviews from local people and using semi-structured questionnaires. Data was analyzed using quantitative indices such as UV (use value), RFC (Relative frequency of citation), and FL (Fidelity level). The present study recorded 217 plant species belonging to 174 genera and 69 families used in herbal drinks preparations. Major herbal preparations include decoctions, infusions and juice. According to use reports, significant species were Aloe vera, Artemisia fragrans, Allium cepa, Senegalia catechu, Alternanthera sessilis, Malva ludwigii, Arnebia benthamii, Cichorium intybus, Coccinia grandis, Dalbergia sissoo. Major ailment treated with herbal drinks include heartburn, fever, diarrhea, hypertension, and others. Use value (UV) varies from 0.23 to 0.02, with Mentha arvensis (0.23) having the highest value of UV followed by Mentha longifolia (0.22), Plantago lanceolate (0.19), Achillea millefolium (0.18), Coriandrum sativum (0.18), Justicia adhatoda and Malva sylvestris (0.17). Values of RFC varies from 0.28 to 0.09 while Fidelity level (FL) among plants varies from 37.5 to 100. Alternanthera sessilis, Oxytropis lapponica, Millettia pinnata and Salvia bucharica had the highest FL value (100). The use of medicinal plants is prevalent in traditional communities of Pakistan. Different herbal preparations are in common practice including various herbal drinks a common tradition and much favoured herbal preparation in terms
Teschke, R; Wolff, A; Frenzel, C; Schulze, J
Although evidence for their therapeutic efficacy is limited, herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations increasingly gain popularity. In contrast to other herbal products, adverse effects by herbal TCM including liver toxicity were rarely reported. In recent years, more cases were published, providing new clinical challenges. To summarise comprehensively the literature on herbal TCM hepatotoxicity since 2011. PubMed was searched using key words related to TCM, the results were restricted to full English-language publications and abstracts published since 2011. In addition, the database of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and LiverTox was accessed under the topic 'Drug record: Chinese and other Asian herbal medicines'. Since 2011, new case reports and case series provided evidence for herbal hepatotoxicity by TCM, focusing on nine TCM herbal mixtures and four individual TCM herbs with potential health hazards. These were the TCM products Ban Tu Wan, Chai Hu, Du Huo, Huang Qin, Jia Wei Xia Yao San, Jiguja, Kamishoyosan, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Polygonum multiflorum products, Shan Chi, 'White flood' containing the herbal TCM Wu Zhu Yu and Qian Ceng Ta, and Xiao Chai Hu Tang. Other developments include the establishment of a new and early diagnostic serum marker for hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, assessed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and new regulatory details to improve herbal TCM product quality and safety. Stringent evaluation of the risk/benefit ratio is essential to protect traditional Chinese medicines users from health hazards including liver injury. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wang, Xuezong; Liu, Ting; Gao, Ningyang; Ding, Daofang; Duan, Tieli; Cao, Yuelong; Zheng, Yuxin
Objective. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the evidence whether traditional Chinese herbal patches (TCHPs) for osteoarthritis (OA) are effective and safe and analyze their medication patterns. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using all the possible Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords from January 1979 to July 2013. Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included. Estimated effects were analyzed using mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and meta-analysis. Results. 86 kinds of TCHPs were identified. RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) which were mostly of low quality favored TCHPs for local pain and dysfunction relief. TCHPs, compared with diclofenac ointment, had significant effects on global effectiveness rate (RR = 0.50; 95% CI (0.29, 0.87)). Components of formulae were mainly based on the compounds “Xiao Huo Luo Dan” (Minor collateral-freeing pill) and “Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang” (Angelicae Pubescentis and Loranthi decoction). Ten kinds of adverse events (AEs), mainly consisting of itching and/or local skin rashes, were identified after 3-4 weeks of follow-up. Conclusions. TCHPs have certain evidence in improving global effectiveness rate for OA; however, more rigorous studies are warranted to support their use. PMID:24527043
Kim, Joo Wan; Seol, Du Jin; Choung, Jai Jun
Aim Kuseonwangdogo is a traditional Korean immunomodulatory polyherbal prescription. However, there are no systemic findings on its complex immunomodulatory effects on in vivo models. In this study, we observed the immunomodulatory effects of Kuseonwangdogo-based mixed herbal formula aqueous extracts (MHFe) on cyclophosphamide- (CPA-) induced immunosuppression mouse model. Methods In total, 60 male 6-week-old ICR mice (10 mice/group) were selected based on body weight 24 h after the second CPA treatment and used in this experiment. Twelve hours after the end of the last (fourth) oral administration of MHFe, the animals were sacrificed. Results Following CPA treatment, a noticeable decrease in the body, thymus, spleen, and submandibular lymph node (LN) weights; white blood cell, red blood cell, platelet number, hemoglobin, and hematocrit concentrations; serum interferon-γ levels; splenic tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, and IL-10 content; and peritoneal and splenic natural killer cell activities was observed. Depletion of lymphoid cells in the thymic cortex, splenic white pulp, and submandibular LN-related atrophic changes were also observed. However, these CPA-induced myelosuppressive signs were markedly and dose-dependently inhibited by the oral administration of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg MHFe. Conclusion MHFe can be a promising, potent immunomodulatory therapeutic agent for various immune disorders. PMID:29849713
Sujarwo, Wawan; Keim, Ary Prihardhyanto; Savo, Valentina; Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Caneva, Giulia
Loloh are herbal drinks produced and consumed exclusively in Bali (Indonesia) to prevent and treat different ailments. This is the first study to document plants species used as Loloh, reporting the phytochemical components and pharmacological properties of the most cited plants. Documenting the plants used in herbal drinks in Bali by local communities to treat various ailments (providing some information on phytochemistry and pharmacology of the most interesting plants). Ethnobotanical data were obtained through semi-structured interviews (individual and group discussions) and questionnaires. Plant specimens were collected, identified and made into herbarium vouchers. A total of 51 plants species (belonging to 32 families) have been documented for their use in the various preparation of Loloh. Different plants and plant parts are used to prepare Loloh to treat heartburn, fever, diarrhea, hypertension, aphthous stomatitis (canker sores), and other minor health problems. These plants are mainly prepared as decoctions, are juiced or simply added to the preparation. The most cited plants (>30 informants) are Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC., Cinnamomum burmanni Nees ex Bl., and Piper betle L. These plants are well studied with multiple demonstrated pharmacological activities (e.g., antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic). The Balinese communities still preserve a rich ethnobotanical knowledge. Several species are well known for their pharmacological properties, but some [such as Pneumatopteris callosa (Blume) Nakai and Dendrocnide stimulans (L. f.) Chew] are understudied and could be promising candidates for further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes
Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the
Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes
Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the gap
Li, Yan-Zhou; Min, Shun-Geng; Liu, Xia
Analysis of traditional Chinese herbal medicine is of great importance to its quality control Conventional analysis methods can not meet the requirement of rapid and on-line analysis because of complex process more experiences or needed. In recent years, near-infrared spectroscopy technique has been used for rapid determination of active components, on-line quality control, identification of counterfeit and discrimination of geographical origins of herbal medicines and so on, due to its advantages of simple pretreatment, high efficiency, convenience to use solid diffuse reflection spectroscopy and fiber. In the present paper, the principles and methods of near-infrared spectroscopy technique are introduced concisely. Especially, the applications of this technique in quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis of traditional Chinese herbal medicine are reviewed.
da Silva, G; Serrano, R; Silva, O
Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine.
da Silva, G.; Serrano, R.; Silva, O.
Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine. PMID:22470236
Karar, Mohamed Gamaleldin Elsadig; Kuhnert, Nikolai
Sudan folklore medicine is characterized by a unique combination of Islamic, Arabic, and African cultures. In poor communities, traditional medicine has remained as the most reasonable source of treatment of several diseases and microbial infections. Although the traditional medicine is accepted in Sudan, to date there is no updated review available, which focuses on most effective and frequently used Sudanese medicinal plants. Thus, this review aims to summarize the published information on the ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants from Sudan, preparation methods, phytochemistry, and ethnopharmacology. The collected data demonstrate that Sudanese medicinal plants have been reported to possess a wide range of traditional medicinal uses including different microbial infections, gastrointestinal disorders, malaria, diabetes, rheumatic pain, respiratory system disorders, jaundice, urinary system inflammations, wounds, cancer, and different microbial infections. In most cases, the pharmacological studies were in agreement with traditional uses. Moreover, several bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, tannins, fatty acids, and essential oils have been identified as active constituents. Although this review demonstrates the importance of ethnomedicine medicines in the treatment of several diseases in Sudan, further researches to validate the therapeutic uses and safety of these plants through phytochemical screening, different biological activity assays, and toxicological studies are still needed. PMID:28989244
Haile, Kaleab Taye; Ayele, Asnakew Achaw; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Demeke, Chilot Abiyu; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Erku, Daniel Asfaw
People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are increasingly using herbal remedies due to the chronic nature of the disease, the complexities of treatment modalities and the difficulty in adhering to the therapeutic regimens. Yet, research on herbal medicine use in this patient population is scarce in Ethiopia. The present study aimed at investigating the prevalence and factors associated with the use of traditional herbal medicine among PLWHA in Gondar, Ethiopia. A cross sectional survey was conducted on 360 PLWHA attending the outpatient clinic of University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital from September 1 to 30, 2016. A questionnaire about the socio-demographic, disease characteristics as well as traditional herbal medicine use was filled by the respondents. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use. Out of 360 respondents, 255 (70.8%) used traditional herbal medicine. The most common herbal preparations used by PLWHA were Ginger (Zingiber officinale) (47%), Garlic (Allium sativum L.) (40.8%) and Moringa (Moringa stenopetala) (31.4%). Majority of herbal medicine users rarely disclose their use of herbal medicines to their health care providers (61.2%). Only lower educational status was found to be strong predictors of herbal medicine use in the multivariate logistic regression. The use of herbal medicine among PLWHA is a routine practice and associated with a lower educational status. Patients also rarely disclose their use of herbal medicines to their health care providers. From the stand point of high prevalence and low disclosure rate, health care providers should often consult patients regarding herbal medicine use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings
Huang, Yan-Mei; Xu, Jia-Hua; Ling, Wei; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Dai, Zhi-Kai; Sui, Yi; Zhao, Hai-Lu
) creatinine, with a WMD of -68.81 μmol/L (95% CI: -132.63 to -4.98). No statistical significance was documented in creatinine clearance between the 2 treatments with a WMD of 15.47 mL/min (95% CI: -7.71 to 38.64). The overall efficacy rate was 91.4% for WDD and 66.9% for the control treatments (OR: 5.33; 95% CI: 4.06 to 6.99). Adverse events were rare and minor. The consistent improvements found in metabolic profiles by use of the single herbal formula may indirectly imply a common pathogenesis in MS.
Mai, Lan-Yin; Li, Yi-Xuan; Chen, Yong; Xie, Zhen; Li, Jie; Zhong, Ming-Yu
The compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) formulae containing enormous information, is a complex component system. Applications of mathematical statistics methods on the compatibility researches of traditional Chinese medicines formulae have great significance for promoting the modernization of traditional Chinese medicines and improving clinical efficacies and optimizations of formulae. As a tool for quantitative analysis, data inference and exploring inherent rules of substances, the mathematical statistics method can be used to reveal the working mechanisms of the compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines formulae in qualitatively and quantitatively. By reviewing studies based on the applications of mathematical statistics methods, this paper were summarized from perspective of dosages optimization, efficacies and changes of chemical components as well as the rules of incompatibility and contraindication of formulae, will provide the references for further studying and revealing the working mechanisms and the connotations of traditional Chinese medicines.
Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming
In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833
Pan, Si-Yuan; Litscher, Gerhard; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming
In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal "renaissance" occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs.
Chio, Pit Hoi; Zaroff, Charles M
Somatic presentations of distress are common cross-culturally, although perhaps more so in Asian cultures. Somatic presentations of distress may be associated with alexithymia, a difficulty in experiencing and expressing emotions. Although the constructs of somatization and alexithymia have been examined in depth both within and across cultures, there is minimal information on culture-specific behaviors utilized to cope with stress in individuals who tend to somaticize distress or are alexithymic. The current report investigates the association between somatization and alexithymia, and a culture-specific behavior of traditional Chinese medicinal herbal tea consumption, in a nonclinical, young adult sample. A sample of 222 undergraduate university students of Chinese ethnicity completed self-report measures of somatization and the related construct of somatosensory amplification, alexithymia, and attitude toward the consumption of herbal tea possessing traditional Chinese medicinal value. After controlling for gender, alexithymia was significantly correlated with somatization (r = 0.29, P < 0.05) and somatosensory amplification (r = 0.19, P < 0.05). Attitudes toward herbal tea consumption were significantly correlated with somatosensory amplification (r = 0.16, P < 0.05). The connection between alexithymia and somatization was confirmed in the current report in a nonclinical sample. A culture-specific behavior (consumption of traditional Chinese medicinal herbal tea) was significantly associated with somatosensory amplification. Potential etiologies and implications of the current findings are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Lee, Jong Suk; Park, Su-Young; Thapa, Dinesh; Kim, Ah Ra; Shin, Heung-Mook; Kim, Jung-Ae
Vascular inflammation has been implicated in the progression of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. In the present study, we found that HMC05, an extract from eight different herbal mixtures, dose-dependently inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells. Such inhibitory effect of HMC05 correlated with suppressed expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, CC chemokine receptor 2, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. In addition, HMC05 significantly inhibited production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation by TNF-α. Those inhibitory effects of HMC05 (1–10 μg mL−1) on the TNF-α-induced inflammatory event was similar to those of berberine (1–10 μM), which is a major component of HMC05 and one of herbal compounds known to have vasorelaxing and lipid-lowering activities. However, berberine significantly reduced the viability of HUVECs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, HMC05 (1–10 μg ml−1) did not affect the cell viability for up to 48 h treatment. In conclusion, we propose that HMC05 may be a safe and potent herbal formula against vascular inflammation, and its action may be attributable to the inhibition of ROS- and NF-κB-dependent expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines. PMID:19736220
Liang, Shu; Zhang, Yupei; Deng, Yuanjun; He, Yifang; Liang, Yinji; Liang, Zien; Chen, Yanning; Tang, Kairui; Chen, Runsen
The present study investigates the potential therapeutic mechanism underlying the effects of the Chinese herbal formula Hongqijiangzhi Fang (HJF) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 8): control group was fed a normal diet, three other groups were fed high-fat diets (HFD), and the two treatment groups were intragastrically given a compound probiotic or HJF during the molding time. After 16 w, related indices were detected. The results showed that HJF significantly reduced abdominal aorta serum cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), IL-1β, and IL-18, portal venous serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and liver TC and TG levels in HFD-fed rats. HJF ameliorated hepatic steatosis in the liver and improved the intestinal barrier in HFD-fed rats. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was reduced by HJF in HFD-fed rats. Additionally, the abundances of A. muciniphila (Verrucomicrobiaceae), F. rappini (Helicobacteraceae), and Enterobacteriaceae bacteria significantly decreased in HJF-treated HFD-fed rats. In conclusion, these result suggested that the Chinese herbal formula HJF reduced hepatic steatosis maybe through decreasing certain gut bacteria (such as Enterobacteriaceae bacteria and F. rappini), alleviating intestinal endotoxemia and reducing NLRP3 inflammasome activation. PMID:29675053
Fu, Ting-ting; Wu, Jian-yuan; Wang, Li; Ma, Yao; Wang, Ying; Liu, Ying; Ding, Hong
To study on the various proportions of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Cortex Phellodendri, Fructus Cnidii and pericarp of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim in the formulas, whose antimicrobial effects on E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans under different pH values were compared in vitro. According to Chinese ancient proved recipe, the K-B method and plate diluting method were adopted to measure antimicrobial activity, and orthogonal design to ascertain the herbal formula in vitro. Finally, murine models were established to test the antimicrobial activity in vivo through vaginal membrane irritancy experiment, negative rate of pathogeny and pathological grade of vaginal membrane. The results suggested that formulas with different proportions of the herbs had diverse antimicrobial activities, and the effect was shown to be most obvious when one milliliter drug contains 100 microl Fructus Cnidii-pericarp of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (2:1) co-extracted volatile oil and 50 microl Radix Sophorae Flavescentis and Cortex Phenodendri ethanol extraction respectively under pH6. The antimicrobial effect of the formula, which hardly had any membrane irritancy, was better than Jie Eryin in vitro and vivo. The fromula has few components and better effect, and adaptation to the pH value of vaginitis. It is a promising alternative for gynecological diseases.
Cheng, Dan; Murtaza, Ghualm; Ma, Suya; Li, Lingling; Li, Xinjie; Tian, Fangze; Zheng, Junchao; Lu, Yi
Purpose : Depression is a sickening psychiatric condition that is prevalent worldwide. To manage depression, the underlying modes of antidepressant effect of herbals are important to be explored for the development of natural drugs. Tiansi Liquid is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that is prescribed for the management of depression, however its underlying mechanism of action is still uncertain. The purpose of this study was to systematically investigate the pharmacological mode of action of a herbal formula used in TCM for the treatment of depression. Methods : Based on literature search, an ingredients-targets database was developed for Tiansi Liquid, followed by the identification of targets related to depression. The interaction between these targets was evaluated on the basis of protein-protein interaction network constructed by STITCH and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis using ClueGO plugin. Results : As a result of literature search, 57 components in Tiansi Liquid formula and 106 potential targets of these ingredients were retrieved. A careful screening of these targets led to the identification of 42 potential targets associated with depression. Ultimately, 327 GO terms were found by analysis of gene functional annotation clusters and abundance value of these targets. Most of these terms were found to be closely related to depression. A significant number of protein targets such as IL10, MAPK1, PTGS2, AKT1, APOE, PPARA, MAPK1, MIF, NOS3 and TNF-α were found to be involved in the functioning of Tiansi Liquid against depression. Conclusions : The findings elaborate that Tiansi Liquid can be utilized to manage depression, however, multiple molecular mechanisms of action could be proposed for this effect. The observed core mechanisms could be the sensory perception of pain, regulation of lipid transport and lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway.
Li, Rui; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Tian, Wei-Lan; Hou, Ji-Ru; Jin, Shi-Yuan; Wang, Yong-Yan
In this study, the origin and causes of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder were reviewed, and a comprehensive analysis was made for the time background of modern traditional Chinese medicine formula granules and the future development trend, in order to provide reference for application and promotion of traditional Chinese medicine formula granules. By reference to ancient medical books of previous dynasties, a system review was conducted for infancy, formation, maturity and transition of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder, and a comprehensive analysis was made for the six factors of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder's maturity in the Song Dynasty. Efforts were made to collect domestic and foreign research literatures of modern formula granules, understand the detailed development, and conduct an objective analysis of the current clinical application of modern formula granules. According to the comparative analysis for the application characteristics of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder and modern formula granules, ①the popularity of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder in the Song Dynasty has six factors: soaring numbers of medical students and medical practitioners, high medical expenses due to huge army, rapid population growth, frequent epidemics and increasing diseases, and insufficient finances of central and local governments. ②On the basis of clinical application characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine formula granules, traditional Chinese medicine formula granules contain extracted and concentrated effective components, which guarantee the curative effect, meet modern people's demands for "quick, simple and convenience" traditional Chinese medicine decoctions, show a relatively high cost performance; however, formula granules are restricted by their varieties and lack unified quality control standards, and single-extract formula granules have not synergy and attenuation effects of combined traditional
Yang, Nan; Srivastava, Kamal; Song, Ying; Liu, Changda; Cho, Sool; Chen, Yujuan; Li, Xiu-Min
Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) provided protection against peanut anaphylaxis in a murine model and induced beneficial immune-modulation in humans. Butanol-refined FAHF-2, B-FAHF-2, retained safety and efficacy in the peanut allergic murine model at only 1/5 of FAHF-2 dosage. One compound, berberine, was isolated and identified in vitro as a bioactive component present in FAHF-2 and B-FAHF-2. The aim of this study was to investigate berberine as a chemical and pharmacokinetic marker of B-FAHF-2. The consistency of constituents between B-FAHF-2 and FAHF-2 was tested. Peanut allergic C3H/HeJ mice were orally administered with 1mg of berberine or B-FAHF-2 containing an equivalent amount of berberine, and the ability to protect against peanut anaphylaxis and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) were cultured with berberine with or without the nine individual herbal constituents in B-FAHF-2, and the absorbed berberine levels were determined. Berberine is one of the major components in B-FAHF-2 and FAHF-2 formula. In a peanut allergic mouse model, B-FAHF-2, but not berberine, protected mice from anaphylaxis reactions. Pharmacokinetic profiles showed that the C max of B-FAHF-2 fed mice was 289.30±185.40ng/mL; whereas berberine alone showed very low bioavailability with C max value of 35.13±47.90ng/mL. Caco-2 cells influx assay showed that 7 of 9 herbal constituents in B-FAHF-2 increased berberine absorption at rates ranging from 18 to 205%. B-FAHF-2 remarkably increased the bioavailability of berberine. Berberine can be used as chemical and pharmacokinetic marker of B-FAHF-2. Other herbal components in B-FAHF-2 may facilitate the absorption of berberine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ningthoujam, Sanjoy Singh; Das Talukdar, Anupam; Potsangbam, Kumar Singh; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta
Vapour-based medicines are an aspect of traditional medicine in North East India. However, no collective studies on this therapy in the region have been attempted. With the changing perception of traditional knowledge, documenting these herbal preparations and the subsequent development of baseline data for applications in further ethnopharmacological research are needed. To survey and document the plant species associated with vapour therapy in Manipur, North East India, and to evaluate these traditional practices. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the Meitei community in the Imphal valley and the Jiribam area in Manipur. Traditional disease concepts were studied along with their corresponding medical terminologies. Plant samples collected from fields, healers' private collections and home gardens were identified. Evaluation of the ethnobotanical data was performed with a modified fidelity level index. In the study, 41 traditional disease complexes were treated by 13 different routes of administration using 48 mono-ingredient and 17 multi-ingredient compositions. Preparation methods included boiling in water (28%), burning the materials (48%), crushing the materials to release the aroma (21%) and slight heating of the materials (3%). Some of the mono-ingredient recipes reported in the study were observed to have similar uses in other parts of the world, whereas polyherbal remedies were found to be unique without any similar report. Many compositions mentioned in the paper are still used by the Meitei community. Traditional healers follow their own criteria for selecting medicinal plants. Plants recorded in this ethnobotanical study can suggest methods for selecting and identifying potentially effective plants for future drug candidates. Scientific characterisation of the herbal remedies can contribute to the endorsement of traditional vapour-based therapies in the modern health care systems. Findings from these "new usage
Sun, Guang-dong; Li, Chao-yuan; Cui, Wen-peng; Guo, Qiao-yan; Dong, Chang-qing; Zou, Hong-bin; Liu, Shu-jun; Dong, Wen-peng; Miao, Li-ning
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20–40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN. PMID:26649322
Sun, Guang-dong; Li, Chao-yuan; Cui, Wen-peng; Guo, Qiao-yan; Dong, Chang-qing; Zou, Hong-bin; Liu, Shu-jun; Dong, Wen-peng; Miao, Li-ning
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20-40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN.
Wang, Dali; Calabrese, Edward J; Lian, Baoling; Lin, Zhifen; Calabrese, Vittorio
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been long practiced and is becoming ever more widely recognized as providing curative and/or healing treatments for a number of diseases and physiological conditions. This paper posits that herbal medicines used in TCM treatments may act through hormetic dose-response mechanisms. It is proposed that the stimulatory (i.e., low dose) and inhibitory (i.e., high dose) components of the hormetic dose response correspond to respective "regulating" and "curing" aspects of TCM herbal treatments. Specifically, the "regulating" functions promote adaptive or preventive responses, while "curing" treatments alleviate the clinical symptoms. Patterns of hormetic responses are described, and the applicability of these processes to herbal medicines of TCM are explicated. It is noted that a research agenda aimed at elucidating these mechanisms and patterns would be expansive and complex. However, we argue its value, in that hormesis may afford something akin to a Rosetta Stone with which to interpret, translate, and explain TCM herbology in ways that are aligned with biomedical perspectives that could enable a more integrative approach to medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Melchart, Dieter; Hager, Stefan; Albrecht, Sabine; Dai, Jingzhang; Weidenhammer, Wolfgang; Teschke, Rolf
AIM To analyze liver tests before and following treatment with herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in order to evaluate the frequency of newly detected liver injury. METHODS Patients with normal values of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as a diagnostic marker for ruling out pre-existing liver disease were enrolled in a prospective study of a safety program carried out at the First German Hospital of TCM from 1994 to 2015. All patients received herbal products, and their ALT values were reassessed 1-3 d prior to discharge. To verify or exclude causality for suspected TCM herbs, the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) was used. RESULTS This report presents for the first time liver injury data derived from a prospective, hospital-based and large-scale study of 21470 patients who had no liver disease prior to treatment with herbal TCM. Among these, ALT ranged from 1 × to < 5 × upper limit normal (ULN) in 844 patients (3.93%) and suggested mild or moderate liver adaptive abnormalities. However, 26 patients (0.12%) experienced higher ALT values of ≥ 5 × ULN (300.0 ± 172.9 U/L, mean ± SD). Causality for TCM herbs was RUCAM-based probable in 8/26 patients, possible in 16/26, and excluded in 2/26 cases. Bupleuri radix and Scutellariae radix were the two TCM herbs most commonly implicated. CONCLUSION In 26 (0.12%) of 21470 patients treated with herbal TCM, liver injury with ALT values of ≥ 5 × ULN was found, which normalized shortly following treatment cessation, also substantiating causality. PMID:29085558
Kogure, Toshiaki; Tatsumi, Takeshi; Oku, Yuko
Traditional herbal (Kampo) medicines have been used since ancient times to treat patients with mental disorders. In the present report, we describe four patients with dysthymia successfully treated with Kampo medicines: Kamiuntanto (KUT). These four patients fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for dysthymic disorder with easy fatigability and sleeplessness, but did not fulfill the criteria for major depressive disorder. Treatment with KUT relieved depressive status, fatigue and sleeplessness in these patients. As a result, their QOL (quality of life) was considerably improved. KUT may be useful as an additional or alternative treatment for dysthymia, especially in the field of primary health care.
Kogure, Toshiaki; Tatsumi, Takeshi; Oku, Yuko
Traditional herbal (Kampo) medicines have been used since ancient times to treat patients with mental disorders. In the present report, we describe four patients with dysthymia successfully treated with Kampo medicines: Kamiuntanto (KUT). These four patients fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for dysthymic disorder with easy fatigability and sleeplessness, but did not fulfill the criteria for major depressive disorder. Treatment with KUT relieved depressive status, fatigue and sleeplessness in these patients. As a result, their QOL (quality of life) was considerably improved. KUT may be useful as an additional or alternative treatment for dysthymia, especially in the field of primary health care. PMID:21614161
Auerbach, Brandon J.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Lamorde, Mohammed; Merry, Concepta; Kukunda-Byobona, Collins; Ocama, Ponsiano; Semeere, Aggrey S.; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Boaz, Iga; Kiggundu, Valerian; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ron H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Thomas, David L.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Stabinski, Lara
Background Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa and some herbs are known to be hepatotoxic. However little is known about the effect of herbal medicines on liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods 500 HIV-infected participants in a rural HIV care program in Rakai, Uganda, were frequency matched to 500 HIV-uninfected participants. Participants were asked about traditional herbal medicine use and assessed for other potential risk factors for liver disease. All participants underwent transient elastography (FibroScan®) to quantify liver fibrosis. The association between herb use and significant liver fibrosis was measured with adjusted prevalence risk ratios (adjPRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using modified Poisson multivariable logistic regression. Results 19 unique herbs from 13 plant families were used by 42/1000 of all participants, including 9/500 HIV-infected participants. The three most-used plant families were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. Among all participants, use of any herb (adjPRR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.5, p = 0.002), herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR = 5.0, 95% CI 2.9–8.7, p<0.001), and herbs from the Lamiaceae family (adjPRR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2–9.2, p = 0.017) were associated with significant liver fibrosis. Among HIV infected participants, use of any herb (adjPRR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.0, p = 0.044) and use of herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR = 5.0, 95% CI 1.7–14.7, p = 0.004) were associated with increased liver fibrosis. Conclusions Traditional herbal medicine use was independently associated with a substantial increase in significant liver fibrosis in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected study participants. Pharmacokinetic and prospective clinical studies are needed to inform herb safety recommendations in sub-Saharan Africa. Counseling about herb use should be part of routine health counseling and counseling of HIV-infected persons in Uganda
Ung, C Y; Li, H; Kong, C Y; Wang, J F; Chen, Y Z
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely practiced and is considered as an attractive to conventional medicine. Multi-herb recipes have been routinely used in TCM. These have been formulated by using TCM-defined herbal properties (TCM-HPs), the scientific basis of which is unclear. The usefulness of TCM-HPs was evaluated by analyzing the distribution pattern of TCM-HPs of the constituent herbs in 1161 classical TCM prescriptions, which shows patterns of multi-herb correlation. Two artificial intelligence (AI) methods were used to examine whether TCM-HPs are capable of distinguishing TCM prescriptions from non-TCM recipes. Two AI systems were trained and tested by using 1161 TCM prescriptions, 11,202 non-TCM recipes, and two separate evaluation methods. These systems correctly classified 83.1-97.3% of the TCM prescriptions, 90.8-92.3% of the non-TCM recipes. These results suggest that TCM-HPs are capable of separating TCM prescriptions from non-TCM recipes, which are useful for formulating TCM prescriptions and consistent with the expected correlation between TCM-HPs and the physicochemical properties of herbal ingredients responsible for producing the collective pharmacological and other effects of specific TCM prescriptions.
Yu, In-Sil; Lee, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Sung-Dan; Kim, Yun-Hee; Park, Hae-Won; Ryu, Hoe-Jin; Lee, Jib-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Jung, Kweon; Na, Cheol; Joung, Jin-Yong; Son, Chang-Gue
Asian traditional herbal preparations are frequently considered for the contamination with undeclared toxic or hazardous substances. The aim of this study was to determine the toxic heavy metals, pesticides and sulfur dioxide in decoctions that is a common form of final utilization in Korea. A total of 155 decoctions composed of multi-ingredient traditional herbs were randomly sampled from Seoul in Korea between 2013 and 2014. For each decoction, the concentrations of four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury), 33 pesticides and sulfur dioxide were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mercury analyzer, gas chromatography/nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC/NPD), gas chromatography/micro electron capture detector (GC/μECD), and Monier-Williams method respectively. One hundred fifty-two of One hundred fifty-five decoctions (98.1%) contained one of three heavy metals (96.1% for As, 97.4% for Cd, and 90.3% for Pb, 0.0% for Hg). Their average concentrations (77.0 ± 79.7 ug/kg for As, 20.4 ± 23.7 ug/kg for Cd, and 68.8 ± 76.5 ug/kg for Pb) were approximately 20% of the maximum allowable limits of vegetable or ginseng beverage described in the Korean Food Standard Codex while their 95th percentile concentrations were below than the guideline for them. None of 33 pesticides was detected in 155 decoction samples, and only one sample showed over limit of detection for residual sulfites. This study support that the contained status of toxic heavy metals, pesticides and sulfur dioxide in herbal decoctions are currently within safe level in Korea, and provide a reference data for the further studies focused on the safety herbal preparations.
Teschke, Rolf; Larrey, Dominique; Melchart, Dieter; Danan, Gaby
Background : Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use is popular and appreciated worldwide with increased tendency, although its therapeutic efficacy is poorly established for most herbal TCM products. Treatment was perceived as fairly safe but discussions emerged more recently as to whether herb induced liver injury (HILI) from herbal TCM is a major issue; Methods : To analyze clinical and case characteristics of HILI caused by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database with the search items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, alone and combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury; Results : HILI caused by herbal TCM is rare and similarly to drugs can be caused by an unpredictable idiosyncratic or a predictable intrinsic reaction. Clinical features of liver injury from herbal TCM products are variable, and specific diagnostic biomarkers such as microsomal epoxide hydrolase, pyrrole-protein adducts, metabolomics, and microRNAs are available for only a few TCM herbs. The diagnosis is ascertained if alternative causes are validly excluded and causality levels of probable or highly probable are achieved applying the liver specific RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) as the most commonly used diagnostic tool worldwide. Case evaluation may be confounded by inappropriate or lacking causality assessment, poor herbal product quality, insufficiently documented cases, and failing to exclude alternative causes such as infections by hepatotropic viruses including hepatitis E virus infections; Conclusion : Suspected cases of liver injury from herbal TCM represent major challenges that deserve special clinical and regulatory attention to improve the quality of case evaluations and ascertain patients' safety and benefit.
Teschke, Rolf; Larrey, Dominique; Melchart, Dieter; Danan, Gaby
Background: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use is popular and appreciated worldwide with increased tendency, although its therapeutic efficacy is poorly established for most herbal TCM products. Treatment was perceived as fairly safe but discussions emerged more recently as to whether herb induced liver injury (HILI) from herbal TCM is a major issue; Methods: To analyze clinical and case characteristics of HILI caused by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database with the search items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, alone and combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury; Results: HILI caused by herbal TCM is rare and similarly to drugs can be caused by an unpredictable idiosyncratic or a predictable intrinsic reaction. Clinical features of liver injury from herbal TCM products are variable, and specific diagnostic biomarkers such as microsomal epoxide hydrolase, pyrrole-protein adducts, metabolomics, and microRNAs are available for only a few TCM herbs. The diagnosis is ascertained if alternative causes are validly excluded and causality levels of probable or highly probable are achieved applying the liver specific RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) as the most commonly used diagnostic tool worldwide. Case evaluation may be confounded by inappropriate or lacking causality assessment, poor herbal product quality, insufficiently documented cases, and failing to exclude alternative causes such as infections by hepatotropic viruses including hepatitis E virus infections; Conclusion: Suspected cases of liver injury from herbal TCM represent major challenges that deserve special clinical and regulatory attention to improve the quality of case evaluations and ascertain patients’ safety and benefit. PMID:28930128
Kim, Dong-Gun; Lee, Mi-Ra; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Park, Kwang-Il; Ma, Jin-Yeul
Colitis is a well-known subtype of inflammatory bowel disease and is caused by diverse factors. Previous research has shown that KIOM-MA elicits anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects on various diseases. KIOM-MA-128, our novel herbal formula, was generated from KIOM-MA using probiotics to improve the therapeutic efficacy. We investigated whether KIOM-MA-128 has protective activity in a mouse model of acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Colitis was induced by DSS administered to ICR mice in drinking water. KIOM-MA-128 (125 or 250 mg/kg) was orally administered once per day. The body weights of the mice were measured daily, and colonic endoscopies were performed at 5 and 8 days. Colon length as well as histological and cytokine changes were observed at the end of drug administration. KIOM-MA-128 has pharmacological activity in an acute colitis model. KIOM-MA-128 reduced the loss of body weight and disease activity index (DAI) and inhibited the abnormally short colon lengths and the colonic damage in this mouse model of acute colitis. Moreover, KIOM-MA-128 suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and maintained the integrity of the tight junctions during DSS-induced colitis. The results indicated that KIOM-MA-128 protects against DSS-induced colitis in mice and suggested that this formula might be a candidate treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Hsueh, Tun-Pin; Lin, Wan-Ling; Tsai, Tung-Hu
Chronic liver disease is a serious global health problem, and an increasing number of patients are seeking alternative medicines or complementary treatment. Herbal medicines account for 16.8% of patients with chronic liver disease who use complementary and alternative therapies. A survey of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan reported that Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang, Jia-Wei-Xia-Yao-San, and Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (Sho-saiko-to) were the most frequent formula prescriptions for chronic hepatitis used by traditional Chinese medicine physicians. Bioanalytical methods of herbal medicines for the treatment of chronic hepatitis were developed to investigate pharmacokinetics properties, but multicomponent herbal formulas have been seldom discussed. The pharmacokinetics of herbal formulas is closely related to efficacy, efficiency, and patient safety of traditional herbal medicines. Potential herbal formula-drug interactions are another essential issue during herbal formula administration in chronic hepatitis patients. In a survey with the PubMed database, this review article evaluates the existing evidence-based data associated with the documented pharmacokinetics profiles and potential herbal-drug interactions of herbal formulas for the treatment of chronic hepatitis. In addition, the existing pharmacokinetic profiles were further linked with clinical practice to provide insight for the safety and specific use of traditional herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su
This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt.
Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su
This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669
Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng
As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin. However, hindered by its culture and founding principles, CHM faces the questions of the research paradigm posed by the convention of science. To address these questions, we discussed two essential questions concerning the relationship of CHM and science, and then upheld the paradigm of methodological reductionism in scientific research. Finally, the contemporary narrative of CHM in the 21st century was discussed in the hope to preserve this medical tradition in tandem with scientific research. PMID:28670279
Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng
As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin. However, hindered by its culture and founding principles, CHM faces the questions of the research paradigm posed by the convention of science. To address these questions, we discussed two essential questions concerning the relationship of CHM and science, and then upheld the paradigm of methodological reductionism in scientific research. Finally, the contemporary narrative of CHM in the 21st century was discussed in the hope to preserve this medical tradition in tandem with scientific research.
Cheng, Brian Chi-Yan; Ma, Xiao-Qing; Kwan, Hiu-Yee; Tse, Kai-Wing; Cao, Hui-Hui; Su, Tao; Shu, Xin; Wu, Zheng-zhi; Yu, Zhi-ling
A herbal formula (RL) consisting of Rosae Multiflorae Fructus (Yingshi) and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Jinyinhua) has been traditionally used to treat inflammatory disorders. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory mode and mechanism of action of the ethanol extract of RL so as to provide a pharmacological basis for the use of RL in treating inflammatory diseases. RL consisting of Yingshi and Jinyinhua (in 5:3 ratio) was extracted using absolute ethanol. We investigated its effects on nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) in mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RL could decrease the secretion of NO, IL-6 and TNF-α into the culture medium and the cellular protein levels of iNOS and COX-2, which were associated with the reduction of the phosphorylation/activation of JNK and p38, and the inhibition of the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. The present study demonstrated an inhibitory effect of RL on the inflammatory mediators regulated by the NF-κB and MAPK signalling pathways in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, providing a pharmacological basis for RL in the control of inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ben-Arye, Eran; Samuels, Noah; Goldstein, Lee Hilary; Mutafoglu, Kamer; Omran, Suha; Schiff, Elad; Charalambous, Haris; Dweikat, Tahani; Ghrayeb, Ibtisam; Bar-Sela, Gil; Turker, Ibrahim; Hassan, Azza; Hassan, Esmat; Saad, Bashar; Nimri, Omar; Kebudi, Rejin; Silbermann, Michael
The authors assessed the use of herbal medicine by Middle Eastern patients with cancer, as reported by their oncology health care professionals (HCPs). Herbal products identified by the study HCPs were evaluated for potential negative effects. Oncology HCPs from 16 Middle Eastern countries received a 17-item questionnaire asking them to list 5 herbal products in use by their patients with cancer. A literature search (PubMed, Micromedex, AltMedDex, and the Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database) was conducted to identify safety-related concerns associated with the products listed. A total of 339 HCPs completed the study questionnaire (response rate of 80.3%), identifying 44 herbal and 3 nonherbal nutritional supplements. Safety-related concerns were associated with 29 products, including herb-drug interactions with altered pharmacodynamics (15 herbs), direct toxic effects (18 herbs), and increased in vitro response of cancer cells to chemotherapy (7 herbs). Herbal medicine use, which is prevalent in Middle Eastern countries, has several potentially negative effects that include direct toxic effects, negative interactions with anticancer drugs, and increased chemosensitivity of cancer cells, requiring a reduction in dose-density. Oncology HCPs working in countries in which herbal medicine use is prevalent need to better understand the implications of this practice. The presence of integrative physicians with training in complementary and traditional medicine can help patients and their HCPs reach an informed decision regarding the safety and effective use of these products. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
Zhang, Hong Ping; Wang, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Xian Rong; Zhou, Xian Mei; Liu, Gang; He, Lv Yuan; Wang, Jun; Hsu, Alan; Li, Wei Min; Wang, Gang
Despite advances in asthma management, exacerbations constitute a significant health economic burden. To observe the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine formula entitled PingchuanYiqi (PCYQ) granule, on acute asthma and to explore its possible mechanism. This proof-of-concept study consisted of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with acute asthma (n = 300). Participants with acute mild-to-moderate asthma recruited from seven centers in China were randomly assigned to receive PCYQ or placebo. The primary outcomes were PEF (L/min) and total asthma symptom scores. Furthermore, a panel of cytokines including serum IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-17A, IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, CRP, CCL-5, IP-10, and PGD 2 levels was detected using ELISA. The PCYQ (n = 139) significantly improved the morning PEF on day 4 (349.73 ± 93.92 vs. 313.56 ± 92.91 L/min, P = 0.004) and day 7 (360.42 ± 94.39 vs. 329.52 ± 95.97 L/min, P = 0.023), and the evening PEF on day 4 (352.65 ± 95.47 vs. 320.58 ± 95.30 L/min, P = 0.012) and day 7 (360.42 ± 94.39 vs. 336.86 ± 95.59 L/min, P = 0.029) in comparison with the placebo (n = 143). The PCYQ also improved the clinical symptoms scores and reduced the puffs of short-acting β 2 -agonist (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, the PCYQ statistically reduced IL-5, IL-8, IL-1β and PGD 2 in serum. The PCYQ as the Chinese herbal medicine formula significantly improves lung function and symptoms of acute asthma, and reduces SABA dosage possibly via decrease of inflammatory biomarkers such as IL-5, IL-8, IL-1β and PGD 2 . ISRCTN61674768 (http://www.isrctn.com/). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Zhong, Yifei; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John Cijiang
Traditional Chinese herbal medications (TCHM) are frequently used in conjunction with western pharmacotherapy for treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in China and many other Asian countries. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine is guided by cumulative empiric experience. Recent in vitro and animal studies have confirmed the biological activity and therapeutic effects of several TCHM in CKD. However, the level of evidence supporting TCHM is limited to small, non-randomized trials. Due to variations in the prescription pattern of TCHM and the need for frequent dosage adjustment, which are inherent to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been challenging to design and implement large randomized clinical trials of TCHM. Several TCHM are associated with significant adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity. However, reporting of adverse effects associated with TCHM has been inadequate. To fully realize the therapeutic use of TCHM in CKD we need molecular studies to identify active ingredients of TCHM and their mechanism of action, rigorous pharmacologic studies to determine the safety and meet regulatory standards required for clinical therapeutic agents, and well-designed clinical trials to provide evidence-based support of their safety and efficacy. PMID:23868014
Kim, Ho-Jun; Gallagher, Dympna; Song, Mi-Yeon
Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), a device that analyzes the current conduction differences between the fat and water components is widely used for reasons that include convenience of use, non-invasiveness, safety, and low cost. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) allows for the assessment of total body and regional lean and fat tissues and bone mineral content (BMC). The objective of this study was to compare body composition assessments by BIA and DXA before and after a 6-week herbal diet intervention program in 50 pre-menopausal women [mean +/- SD: age 30.58 +/- 6.15, body mass index (BMI) 31.72 +/- 3.78]. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was measured by BIA and anthropometry. Lean body mass (LBM), body fat (BF), BMC and percent body fat (%BF) were measured by BIA and DXA. Highly significant correlations were observed between BIA and DXA measurements for LBM, BF, BMC and %BF (r = 0.73, 0.93, 0.53, 0.79, respectively) before the intervention. Differences between BIA and DXA measurements were observed in LBM, BF, %BF and BMC before intervention (p < 0.01) where WHR by BIA was significantly higher compared to anthropometry before (p < 0.01) and after the intervention (p < 0.01). BIA underestimated LBM by 1.85 kg and overestimated BF by 2.54 kg compared to DXA before the intervention. Although BIA and DXA showed highly significant correlations for LBM, BF, BMC and %BF before the intervention, they did not produce statistically comparable results in pre-menopausal Korean women and therefore should not be used interchangeably when measuring body composition.
Zhang, Baixia; Li, Yanwen; Zhang, Yanling; Li, Zhiyong; Bi, Tian; He, Yusu; Song, Kuokui; Wang, Yun
Identification of bioactive components is an important area of research in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula. The reported identification methods only consider the interaction between the components and the target proteins, which is not sufficient to explain the influence of TCM on the gene expression. Here, we propose the Initial Transcription Process-based Identification (ITPI) method for the discovery of bioactive components that influence transcription factors (TFs). In this method, genome-wide chip detection technology was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The TFs of DEGs were derived from GeneCards. The components influencing the TFs were derived from STITCH. The bioactive components in the formula were identified by evaluating the molecular similarity between the components in formula and the components that influence the TF of DEGs. Using the formula of Tian-Zhu-San (TZS) as an example, the reliability and limitation of ITPI were examined and 16 bioactive components that influence TFs were identified. PMID:27034696
Background Allergic rhinitis is a chronic illness, affecting 10 to 40% of the worldwide population. Chinese herbal medicines, the treatment of allergic rhinitis, adopted thousands of years in ancient China, has recently raised much attention among researchers globally. This study evaluates the effects of two Chinese herbal formulae [Cure-allergic-rhinitis Syrup (CS) and Yu-ping-feng San (YS)] in treating undergraduate nursing students with allergic rhinitis over a 3-month follow-up, when compared to a placebo control group. Methods A double-blind, randomised controlled trial with repeated-measures, three-parallel-groups design was conducted in a random sample of 249 participants recruited from one university in Hong Kong. After baseline measurements, participants were randomly assigned to CS, YS, or placebo groups (n = 83 per group). The main outcomes, including symptom severity, quality of life, and body constitution, were measured with self-administered questionnaires at baseline and immediately, 1 and 3 months after the 4-week interventions. Results 240 participants completed the trial, with 9 (3.6%) drop-outs. The results of Generalised Estimating Equations test followed by pairwise contrasts tests indicated that the participants who received CS showed significantly greater reduction of symptoms (mean difference of CS vs. placebo = 26.13–34.55, P <0.0005) and improvements in quality of life (mean difference of CS vs. placebo = 12.81–16.76, P <0.001), and body constitution in ‘Qi-deficiency’, ‘Yang-deficiency’, and ‘Inherited Special’ (mean difference of CS vs. placebo = 7.05–8.12, 7.56–8.92, and 4.48–8.10, P = 0.01– < 0.0005, 0.001–0.004, and 0.01– < 0.0005, accordingly, at three post-tests). The participants who received YS also indicated significant greater improvements in symptom severity, quality of life, and a few patterns of body constitution when compared to the placebo group. However, its effects
Kim, Won-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Hye-Won; Lee, Jin-Seok; Im, Hwi-Jin; Kim, Hyo-Seon; Lee, Sung-Bae; Son, Chang-Gue
We evaluated the anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) effect of Atofreellage (AF), a herbal formula composed of 10 medicinal plants. AD was induced on the dorsal skin areas of NC/Nga mice (male, seven weeks old) by daily application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) for five weeks. After three weeks of DNCB application, 200 μL of AF (0, 25, 50 or 100 mg/mL) was applied to the skin lesions. Histological findings, blood cell populations, serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory signaling in the skin tissue, and T-helper cell type 2 (Th₂)-related cytokines in splenocytes were analyzed. Histopathological findings showed AF treatment notably attenuated the thickness of dorsal skin, and eosinophil infiltration. AF treatment (especially 100 mg/mL) also demonstrably ameliorated the blood cell population abnormalities, as the notable elevation of serum concentrations of IgE, histamine, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were remarkably normalized by AF treatment. Western blot analysis evidenced the apparent normalization of inflammatory signals (ERK, p38 MAP kinase, JNK, and NF-κB) in the skin tissue. Additionally, AF treatment notably attenuated the activation of Th₂-dominant cytokines (IL-13, IL-4, and IL-5) in Con A-treated splenocytes in an ex vivo assay. In conclusion, this study provides experimental evidence for the clinical relevance of Atofreellage.
Vannabhum, Manmas; Wongwananuruk, Thanyarat; Suwannatrai, Ueamphon; Dangrat, Chongdee; Apichartvorakit, Angkana; Booranasubkajorn, Suksalin; Laohapand, Tawee; Akaraserenont, Pravit
This study aims to compare the efficacy of pain relief between a specific Thai herbal Prasaplai formula (PPF) and placebo in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. Forty women with primary dysmenorrhea symptoms were randomized into two groups. The experimental group received PPF capsules 1000 mg orally three times per day before meals for three days starting from the first day of menstruation. The placebo group received placebo as the same dose and time. Average pain intensity from the first day to the third day of cycle significantly decreased in both groups (p < 0.001), but with no statistically significant difference between groups. Using a pre- and posttreatment difference in NRS of at least 2, a greater proportion of patients in PPF group experienced pain relief compared to placebo during the first and second day of period. A greater proportion of PPF group also experienced no pain compared to the placebo group on day 1 and day 3 by using multidimensional scoring. The PPF demonstrates pain relief activity when used during menstruation in primary dysmenorrhea patients, with no adverse effects. However, further studies are needed in order to assess the value of PPF as a long-term prophylaxis for primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:27829860
Ng, Anthony C-F; Cheng, K-F; Leung, P-C
BYSH, a herbal formula, was evaluated for efficacy and safety in a pilot study for patients with advanced hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). The pilot study was designed as a single-center open-label trial. Patients with HRPC were treated with BYSH for 24 weeks. The primary end point was the changes in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Safety parameters such as liver and renal functions were monitored during the study period. Ten patients were eligible for the study. Most of them had stable PSA levels while taking BYSH. However, at the end of the BYSH treatment, the level of PSA increased. The median survival from diagnosis of HRPC was 16.4 months. Liver and renal functions remained normal. BYSH was well tolerated and no patient reported adverse events during the study period. Although it is inappropriate to make a conclusion based on the pilot study results, the trend of improvement is obvious. Further investigations should be conducted to demonstrate its clinical benefits. We have also briefly reviewed some plant products which are patented and also available in market.
Zaid, Hilal; Silbermann, Michael; Ben-Arye, Eran; Saad, Bashar
The incidence of cancer is increasing in the developed countries and even more so in developing countries parallel to the increase in life expectancy. In recent years, clinicians and researchers advocate the need to include supportive and palliative care since the establishment of the diagnosis and throughout the duration of treatment, with the goal of improving patients' quality of life. This patient-centered approach in supportive care is also shared by various traditional and complementary medicine approaches. Traditional Arab-Islamic medicine offers a variety of therapeutic modalities that include herbal, nutritional, and spiritual approaches. Physicians and scholars, such as Avicenna (980–1037), Rhazes (965–915), Al Zahrawi (936–1013), and Ibn al Nafis (1218–1288) referred to cancer etiology in various medicinal texts and suggested both preventive and therapeutic remedies to alleviate suffering. This review presents research data related to the anticancer activities of herbs used in Arab-Islamic medicine and allude to their potential role in improving the quality of life of cancer patients. PMID:22203868
Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Karou, Simplice D; Batawila, Komlan; Agban, Amegninou; Ouro-Bang'na, Kawiwou; Anani, Kokou T; Gbeassor, Mensavi; de Souza, Comlan
In Africa, up to 80% of the population relies on herbal concoctions for their primarily health care. In Togo, western Africa, Tem tribe is a population with old knowledge of medicinal plants, however, still very little is known about their medical practices. The present study was conducted to access for the apprehension of adverse effects of traditional remedies by Tem traditional healers (TH). Enquiry was performed by interviews with healers from August to October 2007 in Tchaoudjo prefecture (Togo). The study allowed us to interview 54 TH including 41(75.93%) males and 13(24.07%) females, who cited 102 recipes assumed to have adverse effects. The recipes were used alone to cure several diseases including haemorrhoids (22.55%), female sexual disorders and infertility (21.57%), gastrointestinal disorders (18.63%), and malaria (6.86%). A total of 34 plants belonging to 21 families were cited to be components of the recipes. Euphorbiaceae and Mimosaceae families were the most represented, however, Nauclea latifolia, Khaya senegalensis, Pseudocedrela kotschyi and Xeroderris stuhlmannii were the main components of recipes linked to adverse effects. A total of 20 adverse effects were linked to the administration of theses drugs, and among them; diarrhoea, abdominal pains, polyuria, general weakness and vomiting were the most frequently encountered. These findings were in accordance with several reports of the literature concerning medicinal plants, although they were based on empirical observations. Laboratory screenings are needed to access for the effectiveness as well as the possible toxic effects of the recipes.
Tappayuthpijarn, Pimolvan; Itharat, Arunporn; Makchuchit, Sunita
The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing every year in accordance with the increasing of elderly population and could pose significant health problems in the future. The use of medicinal plants as an alternative prevention or even for a possible treatment of the AD is, therefore, becoming an interesting research issue. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are well-known drugs commonly used in the treatment of AD. The aim of the present study was to screen for AChE inhibitory activity of the Thai traditional nootropic recipe and its herbal ingredients. The results showed that ethanolic extracts of four out of twenty-five herbs i.e. Stephania pierrei Diels. Kaempfera parviflora Wall. ex Baker, Stephania venosa (Blume) Spreng, Piper nigrum L at 0.1 mg/mL showed % AChE inhibition of 89, 64, 59, 50; the IC50 were 6, 21, 29, 30 microg/mL respectively. The other herbs as well as combination of the whole recipe had no synergistic inhibitory effect on AChE activity. However some plants revealed antioxidant activity. More research should have be performed on this local wisdom remedy to verify the uses in scientific term.
Chusri, S.; Sompetch, K.; Mukdee, S.; Jansrisewangwong, S.; Srichai, T.; Maneenoon, K.; Limsuwan, S.; Voravuthikunchai, S. P.
Development of biofilm is a key mechanism involved in Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence during device-associated infections. We aimed to investigate antibiofilm formation and mature biofilm eradication ability of ethanol and water extracts of Thai traditional herbal recipes including THR-SK004, THR-SK010, and THR-SK011 against S. epidermidis. A biofilm forming reference strain, S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 was employed as a model for searching anti-biofilm agents by MTT reduction assay. The results revealed that the ethanol extract of THR-SK004 (THR-SK004E) could inhibit the formation of S. epidermidis biofilm on polystyrene surfaces. Furthermore, treatments with the extract efficiently inhibit the biofilm formation of the pathogen on glass surfaces determined by scanning electron microscopy and crystal violet staining. In addition, THR-SK010 ethanol extract (THR-SK010E; 0.63–5 μg/mL) could decrease 30 to 40% of the biofilm development. Almost 90% of a 7-day-old staphylococcal biofilm was destroyed after treatment with THR-SK004E (250 and 500 μg/mL) and THR-SK010E (10 and 20 μg/mL) for 24 h. Therefore, our results clearly demonstrated THR-SK004E could prevent the staphylococcal biofilm development, whereas both THR-SK004E and THR-SK010E possessed remarkable eradication ability on the mature staphylococcal biofilm. PMID:22919409
Chusri, S; Sompetch, K; Mukdee, S; Jansrisewangwong, S; Srichai, T; Maneenoon, K; Limsuwan, S; Voravuthikunchai, S P
Development of biofilm is a key mechanism involved in Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence during device-associated infections. We aimed to investigate antibiofilm formation and mature biofilm eradication ability of ethanol and water extracts of Thai traditional herbal recipes including THR-SK004, THR-SK010, and THR-SK011 against S. epidermidis. A biofilm forming reference strain, S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 was employed as a model for searching anti-biofilm agents by MTT reduction assay. The results revealed that the ethanol extract of THR-SK004 (THR-SK004E) could inhibit the formation of S. epidermidis biofilm on polystyrene surfaces. Furthermore, treatments with the extract efficiently inhibit the biofilm formation of the pathogen on glass surfaces determined by scanning electron microscopy and crystal violet staining. In addition, THR-SK010 ethanol extract (THR-SK010E; 0.63-5 μg/mL) could decrease 30 to 40% of the biofilm development. Almost 90% of a 7-day-old staphylococcal biofilm was destroyed after treatment with THR-SK004E (250 and 500 μg/mL) and THR-SK010E (10 and 20 μg/mL) for 24 h. Therefore, our results clearly demonstrated THR-SK004E could prevent the staphylococcal biofilm development, whereas both THR-SK004E and THR-SK010E possessed remarkable eradication ability on the mature staphylococcal biofilm.
Hughes, Gail D; Aboyade, Oluwaseyi M; Clark, Bobby L; Puoane, Thandi R
In South Africa, over 6 million people are hypertensive and the burden of disease shows that cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death among adults. Although treatments exist, few people comply or adhere to recommended treatment due to side effects or costs of the drugs, hence the reliance on alternative forms of treatment. Traditional herbal medicines (THM) are used for the management of hypertension but the prevalence of its use among hypertensive patients living in South African communities is not sufficiently known. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study to determine the prevalence of THM use for hypertension, among 135 purposefully selected South African participants of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, who are THM users. Data on THM use were collected by way of face to face interviews using structured questionnaires administered by trained field workers. Standard descriptive measures were used to characterize the study sample and responses to the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used when making comparisons between groups. There were 135 THM users, 21% of whom used THM to treat hypertension. Majority (82.1%) of the hypertensive THM users were females, only 29% were married or co-habitating, virtually all (96%) were unemployed and 86% were Christians. More than half (56%) of the respondents were aged between 55 and 64 years. THM was occasionally used (51.9%) as a combination of tea and other mixtures (63%) and prescribed by family/ friends/self-administered. There was a significant difference in the age, marital and employment status, as well as the form and frequency of THM use of hypertensive THM users compared to other THM users. The study gives an insight into the prevalence of THM use by hypertensive patients in selected South African communities. The practice of self-medication was also observed which raises concern regarding the safety of medications taken by the participants. Health care providers
Mahima; Rahal, Anu; Deb, Rajib; Latheef, Shyma K; Abdul Samad, Hari; Tiwari, Ruchi; Verma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Dhama, K
Herbs/Botanical plants are considered as God's gift to human beings in the form of natural medicines, like the one well known "Sanjeevani booti" described in Hindu Mythology. The traditional and ethno-veterinary practices have been in use for centuries, transferring the knowledge from generation to generation and they are accessible, easy to prepare and administer, with little or no cost at all. Even though the modern developments in therapeutic field brought about a rapid decline in traditional medicine, the plant-based remedies are still having a crucial role as potential source of therapeutic aids in health systems all over the world for both humans and animals. Among the 21,000 medicinal plants listed by the World Health Organization (WHO), 2500 species are native to India, which stands first in the production of medicinal herbs. This innumerable treasure of medicinal herbs brings India the distinction of 'the botanical garden of the world'. Nowadays immune-based therapies are gaining more importance than monovalent approaches which are having limited benefits. Apart from the actions like treating diseases, control of ecto- and endo-parasites, fertility enhancement, bone setting and poor mothering management, an array of herbal medicines have been reported which are having immunomodulatory effects like modulation of cytokine secretion, histamine release, immunoglobulin secretion, class switching, cellular co-receptor expression, lymphocyte expression, phagocytosis and so on. The present article describes in brief few of these important ones viz., ashwagandha, amla, tulsi, arjuna, aloe vera, garlic, turmeric, ginger, shatavari, neem, guduchi, kiwifruit, tut, kamala, palashlata, kokilaksha etc. being used for human and animal health benefits.
Pavela, Roman; Maggi, Filippo; Mbuntcha, Hélène; Woguem, Verlaine; Fogang, Hervet Paulin Dongmo; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack; Barboni, Luciano; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni
In Cameroon, many dietary spices are used by traditional healers to cure several diseases such as cancer and microbial infections. Aframomum daniellii, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus are Cameroonian spices widely used as flavourings and as food additives. Moreover, they are traditionally herbal remedies employed to treat several diseases, as well as to control populations of insect pests. In this research, we analysed the chemical composition of A. daniellii, D. cinerea and E. giganteus essential oils and we evaluated their larvicidal potential against larvae of the filariasis and West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The essential oils were obtained from different plant parts by hydrodistillation and their composition was analysed by GC-MS. The three spices exhibited different volatile chemical profiles, being characterized by 1,8-cineole, sabinene and β-pinene (A. daniellii), geraniol and terpinen-4-ol (D. cinerea), and silphiperfol-6-ene and presilphiperfolan-8-ol (E. giganteus). Results showed that the highest larvicidal toxicity on Cx. quinquefasciatus was exerted by D. cinerea essential oil (LC 50 = 39.1 μL L -1 ), followed by A. daniellii (pericarp essential oil: LC 50 = 65.5 μL L -1 ; leaves: LC 50 = 65.5μL L -1 ; seeds: LC 50 = 106.5μL L -1 ) and E. giganteus (LC 50 = 227.4 μL L -1 ). Overall, the chance to use the D. cinerea essential oil against Cx. quinquefasciatus young instars seems promising, since it is effective at moderate doses and could be an advantageous alternative to build newer mosquito control tools.
Liu, Hong; Zheng, Yan-fang; Li, Chu-yuan; Zheng, Yu-ying; Wang, De-qin; Wu, Zhong; Huang, Lin; Wang, Yong-gang; Li, Pei-bo; Peng, Wei; Su, Wei-wei
Kouyanqing Granule (KYQG) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula composed of Flos lonicerae (FL), Radix scrophulariae (RS), Radix ophiopogonis (RO), Radix asparagi (RA), and Radix et rhizoma glycyrrhizae (RG). In contrast with the typical method of separating and then biologicalily testing the components individually, this study was designed to establish an approach in order to define the core bioactive ingredients of the anti-inflammatory effects of KYQG based on the relevance analysis between chemical characters and biological effects. Eleven KYQG samples with different ingredients were prepared by changing the ratios of the 5 herbs. Thirty-eight ingredients in KYQG were identified using Ultra-fast liquid chromatography-Diode array detector-Quadrupole-Time-of-flight-Tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) technology. Human oral keratinocytes (HOK) were cultured for 24 hours with 5% of Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to induce inflammation stress. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated after treatment with the eleven KYQG samples. Grey relational analysis(GRA), Pearson’s correlations (PCC), and partial least-squares (PLS) were utilized to evaluate the contribution of each ingredient. The results indicated that KYQG significantly reduced interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and tumour necrosis factor-α levels, in which lysine, γ-aminobutyric acid, chelidonic acid, tyrosine, harpagide, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, luteolin-7-o-glucoside, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, angoroside C, harpagoside, cinnamic acid, and ruscogenin play a vital role. PMID:26657159
Liu, Hong; Zheng, Yan-fang; Li, Chu-yuan; Zheng, Yu-ying; Wang, De-qin; Wu, Zhong; Huang, Lin; Wang, Yong-gang; Li, Pei-bo; Peng, Wei; Su, Wei-wei
Kouyanqing Granule (KYQG) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula composed of Flos lonicerae (FL), Radix scrophulariae (RS), Radix ophiopogonis (RO), Radix asparagi (RA), and Radix et rhizoma glycyrrhizae (RG). In contrast with the typical method of separating and then biologicalily testing the components individually, this study was designed to establish an approach in order to define the core bioactive ingredients of the anti-inflammatory effects of KYQG based on the relevance analysis between chemical characters and biological effects. Eleven KYQG samples with different ingredients were prepared by changing the ratios of the 5 herbs. Thirty-eight ingredients in KYQG were identified using Ultra-fast liquid chromatography-Diode array detector-Quadrupole-Time-of-flight-Tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) technology. Human oral keratinocytes (HOK) were cultured for 24 hours with 5% of Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to induce inflammation stress. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated after treatment with the eleven KYQG samples. Grey relational analysis(GRA), Pearson's correlations (PCC), and partial least-squares (PLS) were utilized to evaluate the contribution of each ingredient. The results indicated that KYQG significantly reduced interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and tumour necrosis factor-α levels, in which lysine, γ-aminobutyric acid, chelidonic acid, tyrosine, harpagide, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, luteolin-7-o-glucoside, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, angoroside C, harpagoside, cinnamic acid, and ruscogenin play a vital role.
Keshet, Yael; Popper-Giveon, Ariela
This article contributes to contemporary critical debate in medical anthropology concerning medical pluralism and integrative medicine by highlighting the issue of exclusion of traditional medicine (TM) and presenting attempts at border crossing. Although complementary medicine (CM) modalities are integrated into most Israeli mainstream health care organizations, local indigenous TM modalities are not. Ethnographic fieldwork focused on a group of Israeli dual-trained integrative physicians that has recently begun to integrate traditional herbal medicine preferred by the Arab minority, using it as a boundary object to bridge professional gaps between biomedicine, CM, and TM. This article highlights the relevance of political tensions, ethnicity, and medical inequality to the field of integrative health care. It shows that using herbal medicine as a boundary object can overcome barriers and provide opportunities for dialog and reciprocal learning. © 2013 by the American Anthropological Association.
Chik, Wai-I; Zhu, Lin; Fan, Lan-Lan; Yi, Tao; Zhu, Guo-Yuan; Gou, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Yi-Na; Xu, Jun; Yeung, Wing-Ping; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hu-Biao
Saussurea involucrata Matsum. & Koidz. is an endangered species of the Asteraceae family, growing in the high mountains of central Asia. It has been, and is, widely used in traditional Uyghur, Mongolian and Kazakhstan medicine as well as in Traditional Chinese Medicine as Tianshan Snow Lotus (Chinese: ). In traditional medical theory, S. involucrata can promote blood circulation, thereby alleviating all symptoms associated with poor circulation. It also reputedly eliminates cold and dampness from the body, diminishes inflammation, invigorates, and strengthens Yin and Yang. It has long been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, cough with cold, stomach ache, dysmenorrhea, and altitude sickness in Uyghur and Chinese medicine. To comprehensively summarize the miscellaneous research that has been done regarding the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activity, and toxicology of S. involucrata. An extensive review of the literature was carried out. Apart from different electronic databases including SciFinder, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), ScienceDirect that were sourced for information, abstracts, full-text articles and books written in English and Chinese, including those traditional records tracing back to the Qing Dynasty. Pharmacopoeia of China and other local herbal records in Uighur, Mongolian and Kazakhstan ethnomedicines were investigated and compared for pertinent information. The phytochemistry of S. involucrata has been comprehensively investigated. More than 70 compounds have been isolated and identified; they include phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, sesquiterpenes, steroids, ceramides, polysaccharides. Scientific studies on the biological activity of S. involucrata are equally numerous. The herb has been shown to have anti-neoplastic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-oxidative, anti-fatigue, anti-aging, anti-hypoxic, neuroprotective and immunomodulating effects. Many have shown correlations to the
Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a complex healthcare system that uses traditional plant-based medicines in patient care. Typical preparations are individualized polyherbal formulae that, unlike herbal pills, retain the odor and taste of whole herbs. Qualitative studies in WHM show patient-practitioner relationships to be collaborative. Health narratives are co-constructed, leading to assessments, and treatments with personal significance for participants. It is hypothesized that the distinct characteristics of traditional herbal preparations and patient-herbalist interactions, in conjunction with the WHM physical healthcare environment, evoke context (placebo) effects that are fundamental to the overall effectiveness of herbal treatment. These context effects may need to be minimized to demonstrate pharmacological efficacy of herbal formulae in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, optimized to demonstrate effectiveness of WHM in pragmatic trials, and consciously harnessed to enhance outcomes in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Cong; Liao, Jia-Zhi; Li, Pei-Yuan
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver diseases around the world due to the modern sedentary and food-abundant lifestyle, which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver related with causes other than alcohol abuse. It is widely acknowledged that insulin resistance, dysfunctional lipid metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis/necrosis may all contribute to NAFLD. Autophagy is a protective self-digestion of intracellular organelles, including lipid droplets (lipophagy), in response to stress to maintain homeostasis. Lipophagy is another pathway for lipid degradation besides lipolysis. It is reported that impaired autophagy also contributes to NAFLD. Some studies have suggested that the histological characteristics of NAFLD (steatosis, lobular inflammation, and peri-sinusoid fibrosis) might be improved by treatment with traditional Chinese herbal extracts, while autophagy may be induced. This review will provide insights into the characteristics of autophagy in NAFLD and the related role/mechanisms of autophagy induced by traditional Chinese herbal extracts such as resveratrol, Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, dioscin, bergamot polyphenol fraction, capsaicin, and garlic-derived S-allylmercaptocysteine, which may inhibit the progression of NAFLD. Regulation of autophagy/lipophagy with traditional Chinese herbal extracts may be a novel approach for treating NAFLD, and the molecular mechanisms should be elucidated further in the near future. PMID:28373762
Lau, Aik-Jiang; Holmes, Michael J; Woo, Soo-On; Koh, Hwee-Ling
Adulterations with synthetic drugs are common problems with herbal medicine and this can potentially cause serious adverse effects. It is therefore important to determine the presence of synthetic drugs in herbal medicine to ensure patients' safety. The objective of this study was to develop sensitive and specific methods to analyse phenylbutazone, caffeine and oxyphenbutazone present in a traditional Indonesian herbal product. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) methods in the selected reaction-monitoring (SRM) mode were developed. It was found that the sample contained 0.53% w/w (n=3, RSD=7.56%) phenylbutazone and 0.04% w/w (n=3, RSD=8.39%) caffeine. This corresponded to 43.17 mg phenylbutazone and 3.23 mg caffeine in each sachet of powder. The methods were validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, LOD and LOQ. LOD and LOQ were found to be 3.69 and 12.29 ng/ml, respectively for phenylbutazone. For caffeine, the LOD and LOQ were 0.84 and 2.80 ng/ml, respectively. Oxyphenbutazone in the sample was found to be present at a level below the quantification level of 10.2 ng/ml. With better methods developed for analysis of adulterants in herbal medicine, the quality and safety of these medicines can be better controlled and regulated to ensure patients' safety.
Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Kurhańska-Flisykowska, Anna
Herbalism is the oldest therapeutic system useful also ayurvedic medicine. Homepathy uses small doses of various substances to stimulate autoregulatory and self-healing processes. Medicines are prepared by serial dilution and shaking, which proponents claim imprints information into water. Ayurveda is a holistic form of therapy. In this meaning herbalism selects substances by matching a patient's symptoms with symptoms produced by these substances in healthy individuals. The some substances useful in dentistry were showed in this letter.
Liwa, Anthony C.; Smart, Luke R.; Frumkin, Amara; Epstein, Helen-Ann B.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Peck, Robert N.
Background Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa, and rates of hypertension control are low. Use of traditional herbal medicines (THM) is common among adults in sub-Saharan Africa and may affect hypertension therapy. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge in June 2013 to find studies about THM use among hypertensive patients living in sub-Saharan Africa. Two independent reviewers evaluated titles and abstracts. Qualifying references were reviewed in full text. Data were extracted using a standardized questionnaire. Results Four hundred eighty-one references were retrieved, and 4 articles from 2 countries met criteria for inclusion. The prevalence of THM use was 25-65% (average 38.6%). THM was the most common type of complementary and alternative medicines used by patients (86.7%-96.6%). Among THM users, 47.5% concomitantly used both allopathic medicine and THM. Increased age (p<0.001), male sex (RR 2.58), belief in a supernatural cause of hypertension (RR 2.11), and family history of hypertension (OR 1.78) were positively associated with THM use while belief that hypertension is preventable was negatively associated with THM use (OR 0.57). Conclusion More than a third of adults with hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa use THM. Half of these patients use THM concurrently with allopathic medicine. Healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa must discuss THM use with their hypertensive patients. More research is urgently needed to define the impact of THM use on hypertension control and outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24764197
Liwa, Anthony C; Smart, Luke R; Frumkin, Amara; Epstein, Helen-Ann B; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Peck, Robert N
Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa, and rates of hypertension control are low. Use of traditional herbal medicines (THM) is common among adults in sub-Saharan Africa and may affect hypertension therapy. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge in June 2013 to find studies about THM use among hypertensive patients living in sub-Saharan Africa. Two independent reviewers evaluated titles and abstracts. Qualifying references were reviewed in full text. Data were extracted using a standardized questionnaire. Four hundred and eighty-one references were retrieved, and four articles from two countries met criteria for inclusion. The prevalence of THM use was 25-65% (average 38.6%). THM was the most common type of complementary and alternative medicines used by patients (86.7-96.6%). Among THM users, 47.5% concomitantly used both allopathic medicine and THM. Increased age (p<0.001), male sex (RR 2.58), belief in a supernatural cause of hypertension (RR 2.11), and family history of hypertension (OR 1.78) were positively associated with THM use, while belief that hypertension is preventable was negatively associated with THM use (OR 0.57). More than one-third of adults with hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa use THM. Half of these patients use THM concurrently with allopathic medicine. Healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa must discuss THM use with their hypertensive patients. More research is urgently needed to define the impact of THM use on hypertension control and outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa.
Zhai, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Shen, Feng; Fan, Jia; Ling, Chang-Quan
To explore the clinical efficacy of traditional herbal medicine (THM) in the prevention of disease recurrence of small hepatocellular carcinoma after surgery, a prospective randomized controlled study was conducted between October 2006 and May 2010. The results indicated that THM prevented the recurrence of SHCC with an efficacy that was superior to that of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) during a median follow-up of 26.61 months. The patients were followed up every 6 months, and the clinical data before October 20, 2015 were analyzed. The primary outcome measure was recurrence-free survival (RFS), and the secondary outcome measure was overall survival (OS). The 364 patients included 180 in the THM group and 184 in the TACE group. At the time of the data cutoff of October 20, 2015, a total of 205 patients demonstrated disease recurrence, including 85 patients in the THM group and 120 patients in the TACE group. The median RFS of the THM and TACE groups demonstrated a statistically significant difference (P<.001). Until October 20, 2105, there were 91 deaths, including 34 in the THM group and 57 in the TACE group. The median OS demonstrated a significant difference between the 2 groups (P = .008). Multivariate analysis indicated that THM was an independent factor influencing RFS and OS. The efficacy of THM was found to be superior to that of TACE in preventing disease recurrence in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma and prolonging OS. Cancer 2018;124:2161-8. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
Shin, In Sik; Seo, Chang Seob; Ha, Hye Kyung; Lee, Mee Young; Huang, Dae Sun; Huh, Jung Im; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo
Pyungwi-san (PWS, Heii-san in Japanese) is a mixture of six herbs and is traditionally used in Northeast Asia (especially Korea and Japan) for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorder, such as dyspepsia and inappetance induced by gastric dilatation and gastrointestinal catarrh. Although PWS is a widely used herbal prescription in Korea and Japan, little information is available in the literature on the safety and toxicity of PWS. As part of a safety evaluation of PWS, the present study evaluated the potential genotoxicity of PWS using a standard battery of test. We prepared PWS using a water extraction method and simultaneously extracted three compounds from PWS using high performance liquid chromatography. The PWS extract that was obtained was assayed for genotoxicity using the standard three tests recommended by the Korea Food and Drug Administration. These tests included the bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test), the chromosomal aberration test using China hamster lung cells, and the micronucleus test using ICR mice. The Ames test showed that the PWS extract did not induce an increase in the number of revertant colonies compared with vehicle control at any dose in all of tester strains. In the micronucleus test, no significant increase was observed in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) at any dose of PWS extract compared with vehicle control. Conversely, chromosomal aberration test showed that the PWS extract at a dosage of 4500 μg/mL induced an increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations in the 6 h group with metabolic activation compared with the vehicle control. PWS extract exhibits genotoxicity, based on the results of the chromosomal aberration test. Thus, further detailed experiments will be needed to identify the ingredient responsible for inducing this genotoxicity and to determine its mechanism. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carvalho, Ana Cecília Bezerra; Lana, Túlio Nader; Perfeito, João Paulo Silvério; Silveira, Dâmaris
the herbal medicinal products (HMP) market is expanding in the world, an expansion that has not occurred in Brazil when considering the number of licensed products. Despite being a megadiverse country, the number of HMP licensed in Brazil is small, and the number of HMP obtained from native species is even smaller. A new legislation for herbal products licensing, which divides the products into two categories, Herbal Medicine (HM) and Traditional Herbal Product (THP) was launched in Brazil focusing on traditional use, as well as a law regulating the use of biodiversity and traditional knowledge. to evaluate the situation of HMP licensed in Brazil and to make a comparison with the data obtained in 2008 and 2011, discussing the evolution of the licensed products and the possible impacts of the new legislation. a survey was carried out in the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (Anvisa) database to verify the HMP licensed in Brazil in September 2016. The data obtained were compared with two surveys previously published. There are 332 single, and 27 combined HM, totaling 359 HM licensed in Brazil. There is no THP notified in Anvisa's system yet. There are 214 HM classified as nonprescription (OTC), while 145 are sold under prescription, one of them with prescription retention. There are 101 plant species licensed as active in HM in Brazil, 39 of which are native, adapted or cultivated. The most licensed plant species is Mikania glomerata Spreng., with 25 HM licensed. The article includes tables with plant species that have derivatives licensed as simple and combined HM, their therapeutic classification, the native plant species indication and the distribution of the companies by Brazilian regions. There are few licensed HM in Brazil, and this number has been decreasing in recent years. It is expected that the data obtained, together with the changes promoted in sanitary and environmental rules, will help to develop and regulate HMP chain in Brazil. Copyright © 2017
Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Hong-Ying; Jin, Jin; Yu, Guang-Yun; He, Xin; Wang, Hao; Shen, Xiu; Zhou, Ze-Wei; Liu, Pei-Xun; Fan, Sai-Jun
A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula network including 362 TCM formulas was built by using complex network methodologies. The properties of this network were analyzed including network diameter, average distance, clustering coefficient, and average degree. Meanwhile, we built a TCM chemical space and a TCM metabolism room under the theory of chemical space. The properties of chemical space and metabolism room were calculated and analyzed. The properties of the medicine pairs in “eighteen antagonisms and nineteen mutual inhibitors,” an ancient rule for TCM incompatibility, were studied based on the TCM formula network, chemical space, and metabolism room. The results showed that the properties of these incompatible medicine pairs are different from those of the other TCM based on the analysis of the TCM formula network, chemical space, and metabolism room. The lines of evidence derived from our work demonstrated that the ancient rule of TCM incompatibility, “eighteen antagonisms and nineteen mutual inhibitors,” is probably scientifically based. PMID:24369478
Hu, Yan-Zhen; Wei, Jun-Ying; Tang, Shi-Huan; Yang, Hong-Jun
Gardeniae Fructus, which is widely used in health foods and clinical medicines, is a type of edible food and medicine. Dictionary of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions provides good materials for prescription analysis and the R&D of traditional Chinese medicines. The composition regularity of formulae containing Gardeniae Fructus in dictionary of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions was analyzed on the basis of the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system(TCMISS), in order to provide reference for clinical application and the R&D of new drugs. TCMISS was applied to establish a database of prescriptions containing Gardeniae Fructus. The software's frequency statistics and association rules and other date mining technologies were adopted to analyze commonly used drugs, combination rules and core combined formulae containing Gardeniae Fructus. Totally 3 523 prescriptions were included in this study and involved 1 725 Chinese herbs. With a support degree of 352(10%) and confidence coefficient of 90%, 57 most commonly used drug combinations were screened. Drugs adopted in core combinations were relatively concentrated and selected according to definite composition methods. They were used to mainly treat 18 diseases. Gardeniae Fructus have often been combined with herbs for heat-clearing and detoxification, expelling pathogenic wind, relieving exterior syndrome, invigorating the circulation of blood and gas and promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis to mainly treat jaundice, typhoid, headache and other syndromes. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Namaei-Ghassemi, Mohssen; Layegh, Massomeh; AfzalAghaee, Monavar; vafaee, Manssoreh; Zare, Gholamali; Moghiman, Toktam; Mood, Mahdi Balali
Objective(s) Herbal waters are extensively used in most parts of including . Visiting a patient with total blindness due to daily ingestion of around 200 ml of herbal water (Plant forty water) per day for six months was the rational for methanol determination in all herbal waters available in markets. Materials and Methods A total of two hundred and nineteen bottles of herbal waters were randomly bought from market. Methanol concentration was determined by gas chromatography, using a Flame Ionized Detector. Benzene (1000 mg/l) was applied as the internal standard. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS software (version 11.5), using appropriate descriptive statistical tests. Results Forty six different herbal waters from three main producing factories (A, B and C) were tested. Highest methanol concentration was measured in dill water of A (1208±202.74 mg/l), concentrated rose water of A (1017.41±59.68 mg/l) and concentrated rose water of B (978.52±92.81 mg/l). Lowest methanol concentration was determined in Trachyspermum copticum water of B (18.93±1.04 mg/l), cinnamon and ginger water of B (29.64±10.88 mg/l) and rice skin water of A (41.33±7.85 mg/l). Mean methanol concentrations of herbal waters including ginger, cinnamon, dill, peppermint, alfalfa, and plant forty from A, B and C were 374.69, 209.81 and 280.12 mg/l, respectively (P< 0.001). Conclusion Methanol concentration in all herbal waters, especially rose water of the three producers was very high that may induce toxicity in people taking these products regularly for a long time. PMID:23493100
Lee, Yoon Hee; Jin, Bora; Lee, Sung Hyun; Song, MiKyung; Bae, HyeonHui; Min, Byung Jae; Park, Juyeon; Lee, Donghun; Kim, Hocheol
It is well established that obesity causes a variety of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Despite the diligent scientific efforts to find effective ways to lower the level of obesity, the size of obese population grows continuously around the world. Here we present the results that show feeding diet containing HT048, a mixture of the extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida leaves and Citrus unshiu peel, two of the well-known traditional herbal medicines in Eastern Asia, decreases obesity in rats. We fed rats with five different diets for 10 weeks: chow diet (STD), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet with 0.04% orlistat, a drug to treat obesity (HFD + Orlistat), high-fat diet with 0.2% HT048 ( w / w ; HFD + 0.2% HT048), and high-fat diet with 0.6% HT048 ( w / w ; HFD + 0.6% HT048). It was found that both body and total white adipose tissue weight of HT048 groups significantly decreased compared to those of the HFD group. Moreover, HT048 decreased serum insulin levels in HFD-fed obese rats. At the molecular level, HT048 supplementation downregulated genes involved in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and adipogenesis, while the expression level of β-oxidation genes was increased. Supplementation-drug interactions are not likely as HFD and HT048-containing diet did not significantly induce genes encoding CYPs. Collectively, this study suggests that HT048 taken as dietary supplement helps to decrease obesity and insulin resistance in HFD-fed obese rats.
Song, Ya-Nan; Chen, Jian; Cai, Fei-Fei; Lu, Yi-Yu; Chen, Qi-Long; Zhang, Yong-Yu; Liu, Ping; Su, Shi-Bing
Fuzheng-Huayu formula (FZHY), a Chinese herbal mixture prescription, has been proven effective in treating liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in both clinical trials and animal experiments. In this study we assessed the metabolic mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome-based FZHY treatment in liver cirrhosis (LC). A total of 113 participants, including 50 healthy controls and 63 LC patients, were recruited. According to the diagnosis and differentiation of the TCM syndromes, the LC patients were classified into 5 TCM syndrome groups including the liver stagnation syndrome (LSS), spleen deficiency and damp overabundance syndrome (SDDOS), damp-heat accumulation syndrome (DHAS), liver-kidney Yin deficiency syndrome (LKYDS), and blood stagnation syndrome (BSS), and administered FZHY for 6 months. FZHY treatment significantly decreased serum levels of hyaluronic acid (HA), a biochemical marker for LC, as well as TCM syndrome scores (the TCM syndrome scores were decreased in all the groups with significant decreases in the LSS and LKYDS groups). Furthermore, FZHY treatment gradually shifted the metabolic profiles of LC patients from a pathologic state to a healthy state, especially in LC patients with LSS and LKYDS. Twenty-two differently altered metabolites (DAMs) were identified, including carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, etc with 9 DAMs in LSS patients, 9 in LKYDS patients, and 4 in other patients. The metabolic pathways involved in the conversion of amino acids and the body's detoxification process were regulated first, followed by the pathways involved in the body's energy supply process. In conclusion, the evaluation of the effect of TCM syndrome-based FZHY treatment show that FZHY has a better effect on LKYDS and LSS than on the other TCM syndromes, and the metabolic mechanisms might be involved in the increased detoxification function in LKYDS and the improvement of energy supply in LSS, which provides important evidence for the clinical
Wang, Xiaodong; Tong, Jingzhi; Li, Keqiu; Jing, Yaqing
Recently, regulatory dendritic cells (DCregs), a newly described dendritic cell subset with potent immunomodulatory function, have attracted increased attention for their utility in treating immune response-related diseases, such as graft-versus-host disease, hypersensitivity, and autoimmune diseases. Danchaiheji (DCHJ) is a traditional Chinese formula that has been used for many years in the clinic. However, whether DCHJ can program dendritic cells towards a regulatory phenotype and the underlying mechanism behind this process remain unknown. Herein, we investigate the effects of traditional Chinese DCHJ on DCregs differentiation and a mouse model of skin transplantation. The current study demonstrates that DCHJ can induce dendritic cells to differentiate into DCregs, which are represented by high CD11b and low CD86 and HLA-DR expression as well as the secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β. In addition, DCHJ inhibited DC migration and T cell proliferation, which correlated with increased IDO expression. Furthermore, DCHJ significantly prolonged skin graft survival time in a mouse model of skin transplantation without any liver or kidney toxicity. The traditional Chinese formula DCHJ has the potential to be a potent immunosuppressive agent with high efficiency and nontoxicity. PMID:27525028
Park, Eunsook; Lee, Mee-Young; Jeon, Woo-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; You, Sooseong; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo
Paljung-san is a traditional herbal medicine used widely for the treatment of urogenital diseases in East Asia. However, scientific evidence of the efficacy of Paljung-san and its mechanisms of action against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is not clearly established. We investigated the inhibitory effect of Paljung-san water extract (PSWE) and its mechanisms against BPH in vitro and in vivo. Active compounds of PSWE were analyzed quantitatively by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For in vitro study, PSWE treated BPH-1 cells were used to perform western blot analysis, cell cycle analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For in vivo BPH model, male rats were subcutaneously injected with 10 mg/kg of testosterone propionate (TP) every day for four weeks. 200 and 500 mg/kg of PSWE was administrated daily by oral gavage with s.c. injection of TP, respectively. HPLC revealed that PSWE contains 1.21, 1.18, 2.27, 3.56, 4.23, 3.00, 6.78, and 0.004 mg/g of gallic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, geniposide, liquiritin apioside, liquiritin, glycyrrhizin, and chrysophanol components, respectively. In human BPH-1 cells, PSWE treatment reduced cell proliferation through arresting the cell cycle in the DNA synthesis phase. Moreover, PSWE suppressed prostaglandin E 2 production with reduced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. In TP -induced BPH rat model, PSWE administration showed reduced prostate weights and dihydrotestosterone levels and led to a restoration of normal prostate morphology. PSWE also decreased TP-induced Ki-67 and cyclin D1 protein levels in the prostatic tissues. Decreased glutathione reductase activity and increased malondialdehyde levels in the BPH groups were reversed by PSWE administration. PSWE attenuates the progression of BPH through anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, these data provide the scientific evidence of pharmacological efficacy of PSWE against BPH
Determination of Five Chemical Markers in DF Formula, the Herbal Composition of Ephedra intermedia, Rheum palmatum, and Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Using High-performance Liquid Chromatography-ultraviolet Detection
Jeong, Birang; Roh, Jong Seong; Yoon, Michung; Yoon, Yoosik; Shin, Soon Shik; Cho, Hyun Joo; Kwon, Yong Soo; Yang, Heejung
Background: DF formula is a herbal preparation comprised three medicinal herbs, namely, Ephedra intermedia, Rheum palmatum, and Lithospermum erythrorhizon, which is being used for the treatment of obesity and liver fibrosis in Korean local clinics. Objective: Since the abovementioned three herbs exist with different proportions in DF formula and their chemical markers have different physiochemical properties; it is quite challenging to develop an analytical methodology for the determination of these chemical markers. Materials and Methods: For the analysis of the three herbs, five chemicals, (+)-pseudoephedrine (1) and (−)-ephedrine (2) for E. intermedia, aloe-emodin (3), and chrysophanol (4) for R. palmatum, and shikonin (5) for L. erythrorhizon, were selected for method validation of DF formula, and the analytical conditions were optimized and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). Results: The specificities for the five compounds 1–5 were determined by their UV absorption spectra (1–4: 215 nm and 5: 520 nm). Their calibration curves showed good linear regressions with high correlation coefficient values (R2 > 0.9997). The limits of detection of these five markers were in the range 0.4–2.1 ng/mL, with the exception of 5 (12.7 ng/mL). The intraday variability for all the chemical markers was less than a Relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3%, except for 5 (RSD = 12.6%). In the case of interday analysis, 1 (1.0%), 2 (3.1%), and 4 (3.7%) showed much lower variabilities (RSD < 5%) than 3 (7.6%) and 5 (8.2%). Moreover, the five chemical markers showed good recoveries with good accuracies in the range of 90%–110%. Conclusions: The developed HPLC-UV method for the determination of the five chemical markers of the components of DF formula was validated. SUMMARY DF formula, the herbal composition of Ephedra intermedia, Rheum palmatum and Lithospermum erythrorhizonFive chemical markers in DF formula
Determination of Five Chemical Markers in DF Formula, the Herbal Composition of Ephedra intermedia, Rheum palmatum, and Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Using High-performance Liquid Chromatography-ultraviolet Detection.
Jeong, Birang; Roh, Jong Seong; Yoon, Michung; Yoon, Yoosik; Shin, Soon Shik; Cho, Hyun Joo; Kwon, Yong Soo; Yang, Heejung
DF formula is a herbal preparation comprised three medicinal herbs, namely, Ephedra intermedia , Rheum palmatum , and Lithospermum erythrorhizon , which is being used for the treatment of obesity and liver fibrosis in Korean local clinics. Since the abovementioned three herbs exist with different proportions in DF formula and their chemical markers have different physiochemical properties; it is quite challenging to develop an analytical methodology for the determination of these chemical markers. For the analysis of the three herbs, five chemicals, (+)-pseudoephedrine (1) and (-)-ephedrine (2) for E. intermedia , aloe-emodin (3), and chrysophanol (4) for R. palmatum , and shikonin (5) for L. erythrorhizon , were selected for method validation of DF formula, and the analytical conditions were optimized and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). The specificities for the five compounds 1-5 were determined by their UV absorption spectra (1-4: 215 nm and 5: 520 nm). Their calibration curves showed good linear regressions with high correlation coefficient values ( R 2 > 0.9997). The limits of detection of these five markers were in the range 0.4-2.1 ng/mL, with the exception of 5 (12.7 ng/mL). The intraday variability for all the chemical markers was less than a Relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3%, except for 5 (RSD = 12.6%). In the case of interday analysis, 1 (1.0%), 2 (3.1%), and 4 (3.7%) showed much lower variabilities (RSD < 5%) than 3 (7.6%) and 5 (8.2%). Moreover, the five chemical markers showed good recoveries with good accuracies in the range of 90%-110%. The developed HPLC-UV method for the determination of the five chemical markers of the components of DF formula was validated. DF formula, the herbal composition of Ephedra intermedia , Rheum palmatum and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Five chemical markers in DF formula were (+)-pseudoephedrine (1) and (-)-ephedrine (2) for E. intermedia , aloe
Sinusitis and bronchitis belong to the most frequent respiratory infections. The relevant guidelines mention the therapy with herbal substances and assign a good activity to cineole and Myrtol as well as to combination preparations with cowslip. There is no final statement of the guidelines' authors concerning the extract of Pelargonium sidoides. Further studies will be necessary to give reliable therapeutic recommendations.
Azaizeh, Hassan; Saad, Bashar; Khalil, Khalid; Said, Omar
Historical and current studies indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished from other regions by a rich inventory of complementary alternative medicine (CAM), in particular herbal medicine. Data collected from several surveys and studies indicate that there is a flourishing and well-developed trade of herbs. These surveys also reveal that 200–250 herbs are used in treating human diseases and are sold or traded in market places in the Mediterranean region or internationally. In addition, some of these herbs are rare or even endangered species. In regard to the status of the know-how of herbalists, unfortunately, herbal medicine in our region is mostly prescribed by ethnopharmacologists symptomatically—based on signs and symptoms alone, rather than as a result of a full understanding of the underlying disease. In some cases, herbs used today may not even correspond to the plants described originally in the old literature, as the former are cultivated from herbs that went through different breeding procedures throughout several centuries. This article presents a systematic review of both the state of the art of traditional Arab herbal medicine and the status of the know-how of Arab herbalists. PMID:16786053
Sham, Tung-Ting; Chan, Chi-On; Wang, You-Hua; Yang, Jian-Mei; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah; Chan, Shun-Wan
Hyperlipidemia, characterized by the abnormal blood lipid profiles, is one of the dominant factors of many chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). For the low cost, effectiveness, and fewer side effects, the popularity of using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to handle hyperlipidemia is increasing and its role in health care has been recognized by the public at large. Despite the importance of TCM herbs and formulations, there is no comprehensive review summarizing their scientific findings on handling hyperlipidemia. This review summarizes the recent experimental and clinical results of nine representative single Chinese herbs and seven classic TCM formulae that could improve lipid profiles so as to help understand and compare their underlying mechanisms. Most of single herbs and formulae demonstrated the improvement of hyperlipidemic conditions with multiple and diverse mechanisms of actions similar to conventional Western drugs in spite of their mild side effects. Due to increasing popularity of TCM, more extensive, well-designed preclinical and clinical trials on the potential synergistic and adverse side effects of herb-drug interactions as well as their mechanisms are warranted. Hyperlipidemic patients should be warned about the potential risks of herb-drug interactions, particularly those taking anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs. PMID:25110708
Lu, Caixia; Zhao, Xinjie; Li, Yan; Li, Yanjie; Yuan, Chengkun; Xu, Fang; Meng, Xiaoyu; Hou, Lihui; Xu, Guowang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a most common, heterogeneous, complex endocrinopathy disease. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in the treatment of PCOS for many years. However, the mechanism underlying TCM remains obscure and challenging. In this study, 30 PCOS subjects were separated into normoinsulinemic group (NI=13) and hyperinsulinemic group (HI=17), and treated for three menstrual cycles with TCM Formula, Bushen Huatan Formula (BHF). A metabolomics approach based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with linear ion trap Orbi-trap mass spectrometer (LTQ Orbi-trap MS) is used to investigate serum metabolic changes of TCM intervention to PCOS. After BHF intervention for three menstrual cycles, the serum levels of glycerophosphorylethanolamine (GPEA), creatine, creatinine decreased in both NI and HI groups. Furthermore, in NI group, the main manifestation was the changes of phospholipid metabolism. While in HI group, lysine, phenol sulfate, phe-phe etc. decreased, and ornithine, proline, betaine, acetylcholine etc. increased. Combined with clinical biochemical data, BHF was proved effective to PCOS by reducing the inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress. This study also illustrates that the LC-MS based metabolomic approach is a helpful tool to evaluate curative effect and to understand the mechanisms of TCM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rivera, Diego; Verde, Alonso; Obón, Concepción; Alcaraz, Francisco; Moreno, Candelaria; Egea, Teresa; Fajardo, José; Palazón, José Antonio; Valdés, Arturo; Signorini, Maria Adele; Bruschi, Piero
This paper has two overarching aims: (1) presenting the results of studying the Albacete tariff of medicines of 1526 and (2) broadly analyzing the origin and influences of medicinal traditional knowledge in the region of Albacete, Spain. We use historical and modern literature that may have influenced this knowledge. Our primary goal was to determine the ingredients used in the pharmacy in the 16th century CE in Albacete through the analysis of the tariff, and our secondary goal was to investigate until when ingredients and uses present in pharmacy and herbals persisted in later periods. The identity of medicines and ingredients was determined by analyzing contemporary pharmacopoeias and classical pharmaceutical references. We analyzed further 21 sources (manuscripts, herbals, and books of medicines, pharmacopoeias, pharmacy inventories, and modern ethnobotanical records) for the presence/absence of ingredients and complex formulations of the tariff. Using factorial and cluster analysis and Bayesian inference applied to evolution models (reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo), we compared textual sources. Finally, we analyzed the medicinal uses of the top 10 species in terms of frequency of citation to assess the dependence of modern ethnobotanical records on Renaissance pharmacy and herbals, and, ultimately, on Dioscorides. In Albacete 1526, we determined 101 medicines (29 simple drugs and 72 compound medicines) comprising 187 ingredients (85% botanical, 7.5% mineral, and 7.5% zoological substances). All composed medicines appear standardized in the pharmacopoeias, notably in the pharmacopoeia of Florence from 1498. However, most were no longer in use by 1750 in the pharmacy, and were completely absent in popular herbal medicine in Albacete 1995 as well as in Alta Valle del Reno (Italy) in 2014. Among the ingredients present in different formulation are the flowers of Rosa gallica, honey (Apis mellifera), the roots of Nardostachys jatamansi, and Convolvulus
Colegate, Steven M.; Boppré, Michael; Monzón, Julio; Betz, Joseph M.
Ethnopharmacological relevance Asmachilca is a Peruvian medicinal herb preparation ostensibly derived from Eupatorium gayanum Wedd. = Aristeguietia gayana (Wedd.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae). Decoctions of the plant have a reported bronchodilation effect that is purported to be useful in the treatment of respiratory allergies, common cold and bronchial asthma. However, its attractiveness to pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous insects indicated a potential for toxicity for human consumers. Aim of the study To determine if commercial asmachilca samples, including fully processed herbal teas, contain potentially toxic 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Materials and methods Two brands of “Asmachilca” herbal tea bags and four other commercial samples of botanical materials for preparing asmachilca medicine were extracted and analyzed using HPLC-esi(+)MS and MS/MS for the characteristic retention times and mass spectra of known dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Other suspected dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids were tentatively identified based on MS/MS profiles and high resolution molecular weight determinations. Further structure elucidation of isolated alkaloids was based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Results Asmachilca attracted many species of moths which are known to pharmacophagously gather dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Analysis of 5 of the asmachilca samples revealed the major presence of the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid monoesters rinderine and supinine, and their N-oxides. The 6th sample was very similar but did not contain supinine or its N-oxide. Small quantities of other dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid monoesters, including echinatine and intermedine, were also detected. In addition, two major metabolites, previously undescribed, were isolated and identified as dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid monoesters with two “head-to-tail” linked viridifloric and/or trachelanthic acids. Estimates of total pyrrolizidine alkaloid and N
Gschossmann, J M; Krayer, M; Flogerzi, B; Balsiger, B M
The high prevalence of functional bowel disorders among the general population contrasts with the limited number of pharmacological treatment options for this condition. This has led to an interest for alternative therapeutic approaches. Padma Lax is an herbal laxative on the basis of Tibetan formulas. Our aim is to examine the effect of Padma Lax on visceral nociception in vivo and (B) on contractile activity of longitudinal smooth muscle of the lower gut in vitro and ex vivo. (A) Visceral sensory function in response to colorectal distension was assessed by abdominal wall electromyography in male Wistar rats pretreated with Padma Lax. (B) Effects of Padma Lax on contractility of gut smooth muscles were studied both in vitro with superfusion of the agent and ex vivo following oral administration of the preparation. Activities were measured as area under the curve. (A) For visceral sensitivity, no differences were observed between the Padma Lax and the control group. (B) Proximal colon muscle strips of the Padma Lax pretreated group showed significantly lower spontaneous contractility ex vivo than controls. Cholinergic procontractile stimulation was reduced in Padma Lax pretreated group and in colon strips of naive rats when Padma Lax was superfused in vitro (all P < 0.05). Cholinergic mechanisms appear to be important in the modulation of rat proximal colon contractility of orally and directly applied Padma Lax. These findings help elucidate a potential mechanism of action of this herbal remedy which has undergone clinical testing in patients with constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome.
Vissiennon, Cica; Hammoud, Dima; Rodewald, Steffen; Fester, Karin; Goos, Karl-Heinz; Nieber, Karen; Arnhold, Jürgen
A traditional herbal medicinal product, containing myrrh, chamomile flower, and coffee charcoal, has been used in Germany for the relief of gastrointestinal complaints for decades. Clinical studies suggest its use in the maintenance therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. However, the pharmacological mechanisms underlying the clinical effects are not yet fully understood.The present study aims to elucidate immunopharmacological activities of myrrh, chamomile flower, and coffee charcoal by studying the influence of each plant extract on gene expression and protein release of activated human macrophages.The plant extracts effect on gene and protein expression of activated human monocyte-derived macrophages was investigated by microarray gene expression analysis and assessment of the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators (TNF α , chemokine CXCL13, and interleukin-10) using an ELISA test system.The extracts of myrrh, chamomile flower, and coffee charcoal influenced gene expression of activated human macrophages within the cytokine/chemokine signaling pathway. Particularly, chemokine gene expression was suppressed. Subsequently, the production of CXCL13 and, to a minor extent, cytokine TNF α was inhibited by all herbal extracts. Chamomile flower and coffee charcoal extracts enhanced interleukin-10 release from activated macrophages. The observed effects on protein release were comparable to the effect of budesonide, which decreased TNF α and CXCL13 and enhanced interleukin-10 release.The components of the herbal medicinal product influence the activity of activated human macrophages on both gene and protein level. The induced alterations within chemokine/cytokine signaling could contribute to a positive effect on the immunological homeostasis, which is disturbed in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki
This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon ( Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.
Background Samsoeum (SSE), a traditional herbal formula, has been widely used to treat cough, fever, congestion, and emesis for centuries. Recent studies have demonstrated that SSE retains potent pharmacological efficiency in anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory reactions. However, the anti-cancer activity of SSE and its underlying mechanisms have not been studied. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effect of SSE on cell death and elucidate its detailed mechanism. Methods Following SSE treatment, cell growth and cell death were measured using an MTT assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. Cell cycle arrest and YO-PRO-1 uptake were assayed using flow cytometry, and LC3 redistribution was observed using confocal microscope. The mechanisms of anti-cancer effect of SSE were investigated through western blot analysis. Results We initially found that SSE caused dose- and time-dependent cell death in cancer cells but not in normal primary hepatocytes. In addition, during early SSE treatment (6–12 h), cells were arrested in G2/M phase concomitant with up-regulation of p21 and p27 and down-regulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1, followed by an increase in apoptotic YO-PRO-1 (+) cells. SSE also induced autophagy via up-regulation of Beclin-1 expression, conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) I to LC3-II, and re-distribution of LC3, indicating autophagosome formation. Moreover, the level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), which is critical for cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy, was significantly reduced in SSE-treated cells. Phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was increased, followed by suppression of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt/mTOR) pathway, and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in response to SSE treatment. In particular, among MAPKs inhibitors, only the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-specific inhibitor SP600125 nearly
He, Yu-su; Sun, Zhi-yi; Zhang, Yan-ling
By using the pharmacophore model of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists as a starting point, the experiment stud- ies the method of traditional Chinese medicine formula design for anti-hypertensive. Pharmacophore models were generated by 3D-QSAR pharmacophore (Hypogen) program of the DS3.5, based on the training set composed of 33 mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. The best pharmacophore model consisted of two Hydrogen-bond acceptors, three Hydrophobic and four excluded volumes. Its correlation coefficient of training set and test set, N, and CAI value were 0.9534, 0.6748, 2.878, and 1.119. According to the database screening, 1700 active compounds from 86 source plant were obtained. Because of lacking of available anti-hypertensive medi cation strategy in traditional theory, this article takes advantage of patent retrieval in world traditional medicine patent database, in order to design drug formula. Finally, two formulae was obtained for antihypertensive.
Doan, D D; Nguyen, N H; Doan, H K; Nguyen, T L; Phan, T S; van Dau, N; Grabe, M; Johansson, R; Lindgren, G; Stjernström, N E
Herbal remedies are widely used in Vietnam alongside modern drugs. We assessed the diuretic effect of four traditional Vietnamese herbal remedies from Zea mays, Imperata cylindrica, Plantago major and Orthosiphon stamineus, all claimed to produce an increase of diuresis. No influence was recorded for the 12- and 24-h urine output or on the sodium excretion for any of the drugs when tested under standardized conditions in a placebo controlled double-blind crossover model. The present study indicates the need for critical review of the present recommendations regarding therapy with plant materials in countries relying on empiric traditions.
Abdallah, Abedin; Zhang, Pei; Zhong, Qingzhen; Sun, Zewei
Misuse of synthetic antibiotics in livestock leads to the transfer of antibiotic resistant pathogens into humans and deposits toxic residues in meat and milk. There is therefore an urgent need for safe and viable alternative approaches to improve the nutrition and wellbeing of farm animals. An alternative source that has been widely exploited is traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). These herbal medicines are an important part of the healthcare system in many Asian countries. Such herbs contain several but less toxic bioactive compounds which are generally regarded biodegradable. Recently, advances in knowledge on the importance of TCHM have led to a rapid increase in its production and hence, increasing the amount of by-products generated. Such by-products have become a serious environmental challenge because producers regard them as industrial waste and discard them directly. Incorporating TCHM by-products as feed additives to improve animal health and nutrition has been proposed because they contain high amounts of bioactive compounds which confer several health benefits to animals. TCHM by-products as feed additives apart from being a good alternative for synthetic antibiotics could also minimize the current environmental challenges associated with its disposal. This review summarizes scientific findings on the bioactive compounds in TCHM and TCHM by-products, discusses functional dietary patterns and outlines challenges that may hinder full utilization of TCHM by-products in animal production. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tejedor-García, Noelia; García-Pastor, Coral; Navalmoral-Arenas, Estefanía; Blas-Espada, Javier; Madrigal-Martínez, Antonio; de Lucio-Cazaña, Francisco Javier
Directive 2004/24/EC, which came into force in 2011, created new regulatory requirements for traditional herbal medicines (THM). This study compared the Spanish THM registry before and after the Directive came fully into force in 2011. We consulted the herbal medicinal plant and drug catalogues (General Council of the Official Colleges of Pharmacists), the website of the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and retail web sites. Of 315 THM (from 39 companies) licensed in Spain in 2010, only 48 (10 companies) remained licensed in 2013, mainly due to their withdrawal: the EMA had received just 123 applications from Spain and at least 34% formerly licensed THM had shifted to the less strictly regulated food sector, while up to 54% might have disappeared from the market. However, there is still a significant presence of retail websites making illegal health claims. In Spain, the public health benefits of the Directive 2004/24/EC might be less than expected. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji
This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120
Ali, N; Hashim, N H; Saad, B; Safan, K; Nakajima, M; Yoshizawa, T
Traditional herbal medicines, popularly known as 'jamu' and 'makjun' in Malaysia and Indonesia, are consumed regularly to promote health. In consideration of their frequent and prolonged consumption, the natural occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) in these products was determined using immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization. The evaluated method, which entails dilution of sample extracts with Tween 20-phosphate buffered saline (1:9, v/v) and a chromatographic system using isocratic mobile phase composed of water-methanol-acetonitrile (70:20:10, v/v/v), was effective in separating AFB1, AFG1 and AFG2 from interference at their retention times. Results were confirmed using post-column derivatization with photochemical reactor. For 23 commercial samples analyzed, mean levels (incidence) of AFB(1), AFB(2) and AFG1 in positive samples were 0.26 (70%), 0.07 (61%) and 0.10 (30%) microg/kg, respectively; one sample was positive for AFG2 at a level of 0.03 (4%) microg/kg. In contrast to the high levels of AF in crude herbal drugs and medicinal plants reported previously by other researchers, the low contamination levels reported in this study may be attributed to the higher selectivity to AF of the method applied. Based on the AFB1 levels and the daily consumption of positive samples, a mean probable daily intake of 0.022 ng/kg body weight was calculated.
Martínez-Francés, Vanessa; Hahn, Emeline; Ríos, Segundo; Rivera, Diego; Reich, Eike; Vila, Roser; Cañigueral, Salvador
In Valencia Region (Spain), some wild and cultivated sages are used for medicinal purposes. Among them, Salvia officinalis subsp. lavandulifolia (SL) is widely employed and known for production of Spanish sage oil and herbal products. Nevertheless, it shares the market with S. blancoana subsp. mariolensis (SB) and, to a lesser extent, with their hybrid S. x hegelmaieri (SH). The knowledge on these two species is far low and confusion between them is possible. The aim of the present paper is to improve the ethnopharmacological, morphological and chemical knowledge of these sages, and to contribute to setting up quality specifications for improving identification and distinction from other Salvia species, such as, S. officinalis subsp. officinalis, S. x auriculata and S. microphylla var. microphylla. Samples were collected in Valencia Region and surrounding mountain areas during the ethnopharmacological field work. Twenty-nine medicinal uses were reported for SL, 13 of them being also recorded for SB. Of particular interest is a homemade liquor, used as digestive and known as “salvieta,” which is mainly prepared with SB. The macro- and microscopic characters are insufficient for identification of cut, crushed or powdered material. The study of the essential oil and a HPTLC (High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography) fingerprint of their extracts could help to distinguish SB from the other sages. The essential oil from dried aerial parts of SB (content: 1.8–4.5%) was characterized by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry) showing a composition close to that currently accepted for Spanish sage essential oil in the European Pharmacopoeia, ISO (International Standard Organization) and UNE (Una Norma Española) standards, with 1,8-cineole (13.7–45.7%) and camphor (12.1–28.6%) as major constituents. HPTLC methods, based on the analysis of hydroalcoholic and dichloromethane extracts
Man, Kee-Ming; Chen, Wen-Chi; Wang, Hwei-Ming; Chen, Huey-Yi; Shen, Jui-Lung; Chen, Lieh-Der; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Yu, De-Xin; Chiang, Feng-Fan
Dried flowers and buds of Sophora japonica (Huaihua) are used in China, Japan and Korea for treating haematemesis and bleeding haemorrhoids. This study compared the clinical safety and efficacy of a Sophora flower formula with a placebo for the conservative treatment of symptomatic haemorrhoids. The study was a prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. The clinical effective rate, symptom score and the incidence of important clinical events were used as observation indices to evaluate the effect of the Sophora flower formula. The results showed that after 7 days of treatment, improvement was observed in 87.0% of the patients' major symptoms in the Sophora flower formula group compared with 81.8% of those in the placebo group. After 14 days, 78.2% patients in the Sophora flower formula group were asymptomatic, whereas 40.9% of those in the placebo group exhibited residual symptoms. However, the difference between both groups was not statistically significant. As the bowel habits of the patients improved and as the patients took sitz baths, their symptoms improved drastically, regardless of the use of the Sophora flower formula. These findings indicate that the traditional Chinese Sophora flower formula is clinically safe; however, its effects on haemorrhoids need to be studied in a larger sample size and with different dosages. The present study results may be a potential clinical reference for physicians prescribing medications for patients with symptomatic haemorrhoids.
Fahimi, Shirin; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin
Background: Burns are known as one of the most common and destructive forms of injury with a vast spectrum of consequences. Despite the discovery of various antibacterial and antiseptic agents, burn wound healing still has remained a challenge to modern medicine. Plants, with a valuable traditional support, have been considered as potential agents for prevention and treatment of disorders in recent years. However, modern scientific methods should be applied to validate the claims about the therapeutic effects of the herbal products. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the wound-healing activity of a poly herbal cream (PHC), retrieved from Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM), in a rat burn wound model in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, PHC containing aqueous extracts of Malva sylvestris and Solanum nigrum leaves and oily extract of Rosa damascena petals was used. Second-degree burn wounds were induced in four groups of five rats each. Group 1 received no treatment while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given cream base, silver sulfadiazine (SS) 1% and PHC, respectively to compare the efficacy of PHC with the negative and positive control groups. The percentage of wound healing on days 2, 6, 10 and 14 and histopathological parameters of healed wounds on the 14th day were assessed. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of PHC were evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and micro-dilution methods, respectively. Results: There was a significant improvement in healing percentage of PHC-treated rats in comparison to the other groups at the end of the treatment period (87.0% ± 2.1% for PHC in comparison to 32.2% ± 1.6%, 57.0% ± 5.3% and 70.8% ± 3.5% for the control, cream base and SS groups, respectively). Moreover, the healed wounds in PHC-treated animals contained less inflammatory cells and had desirable re-epithelialization with remarkable neovascularization. In addition to the antioxidant activity, PHC exhibited
Cruz Martínez, Cindy; Diaz Gómez, Martha; Oh, Myung Sook
Herbal therapies are used worldwide to treat health conditions. In Mexico, generations have used them to treat gingivitis, periodontitis, mouth infections, and discoloured teeth. However, few studies have collected scientific evidence on their effects. This study aimed at searching and compiling scientific evidence of alternative oral and dental treatments using medicinal herbs from Mexico. We collected various Mexican medicinal plants used in the dental treatment from the database of the Institute of Biology at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. To correlate with existing scientific evidence, we used the PubMed database with the key term '(scientific name) and (oral or dental)'. Mexico has various medical herbs with antibacterial and antimicrobial properties, according to ancestral medicinal books and healers. Despite a paucity of experimental research demonstrating the antibacterial, antimicrobial, and antiplaque effects of these Mexican plants, they could still be useful as an alternative treatment of several periodontal diseases or as anticariogenic agents. However, the number of studies supporting their uses and effects remains insufficient. It is important for the health of consumers to scientifically demonstrate the real effects of natural medicine, as well as clarify and establish their possible therapeutic applications. Through this bibliographical revision, we found papers that testify or refute their ancestral uses, and conclude that the use of plants to treat oral conditions or to add to the dental pharmacological arsenal should be based on experimental studies verifying their suitability for dental treatments.
Hosseinkhani, Ayda; Falahatzadeh, Maryam; Raoofi, Elahe; Zarshenas, Mohammad M
Research on wound healing agents is a developing area in biomedical sciences. Traditional Persian medicine is one of holistic systems of medicine providing valuable information on natural remedies. To collect the evidences for wound-healing medicaments from traditional Persian medicine sources, 5 main pharmaceutical manuscripts in addition to related contemporary reports from Scopus, PubMed, and ScienceDirect were studied. The underlying mechanisms were also saved and discussed. Totally, 65 herbs used in traditional Persian medicine for their wound healing properties was identified. Related anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and wound-healing activities of those remedies were studied. Forty remedies had at least one of those properties and 10 of the filtered plants possessed all effects. The medicinal plants used in wound healing treatment in traditional Persian medicine could be a good topic for further in vivo and clinical research. This might lead to development of effective products for wound treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.
Hosseinkhani, Ayda; Falahatzadeh, Maryam; Raoofi, Elahe; Zarshenas, Mohammad M.
Research on wound healing agents is a developing area in biomedical sciences. Traditional Persian medicine is one of holistic systems of medicine providing valuable information on natural remedies. To collect the evidences for wound-healing medicaments from traditional Persian medicine sources, 5 main pharmaceutical manuscripts in addition to related contemporary reports from Scopus, PubMed, and ScienceDirect were studied. The underlying mechanisms were also saved and discussed. Totally, 65 herbs used in traditional Persian medicine for their wound healing properties was identified. Related anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and wound-healing activities of those remedies were studied. Forty remedies had at least one of those properties and 10 of the filtered plants possessed all effects. The medicinal plants used in wound healing treatment in traditional Persian medicine could be a good topic for further in vivo and clinical research. This might lead to development of effective products for wound treatment. PMID:27330012
The herbal medicinal genus Aconitum L., belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, represents the earliest diverging lineage within the eudicots. It currently comprises of two subgenera, A. subgenus Lycoctonum and A. subg. Aconitum. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequences were characterized in three species: A. angustius, A. finetianum, and A. sinomontanum in subg. Lycoctonum and compared to other Aconitum species to clarify their phylogenetic relationship and provide molecular information for utilization of Aconitum species particularly in Eastern Asia. The length of the chloroplast genome sequences were 156,109 bp in A. angustius, 155,625 bp in A. finetianum and 157,215 bp in A. sinomontanum, with each species possessing 126 genes with 84 protein coding genes (PCGs). While genomic rearrangements were absent, structural variation was detected in the LSC/IR/SSC boundaries. Five pseudogenes were identified, among which Ψrps19 and Ψycf1 were in the LSC/IR/SSC boundaries, Ψrps16 and ΨinfA in the LSC region, and Ψycf15 in the IRb region. The nucleotide variability (Pi) of Aconitum was estimated to be 0.00549, with comparably higher variations in the LSC and SSC than the IR regions. Eight intergenic regions were revealed to be highly variable and a total of 58–62 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected in all three species. More than 80% of SSRs were present in the LSC region. Altogether, 64.41% and 46.81% of SSRs are mononucleotides in subg. Lycoctonum and subg. Aconitum, respectively, while a higher percentage of di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta- SSRs were present in subg. Aconitum. Most species of subg. Aconitum in Eastern Asia were first used for phylogenetic analyses. The availability of the complete cp genome sequences of these species in subg. Lycoctonum will benefit future phylogenetic analyses and aid in germplasm utilization in Aconitum species. PMID:29134154
Kong, Hanghui; Liu, Wanzhen; Yao, Gang; Gong, Wei
The herbal medicinal genus Aconitum L., belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, represents the earliest diverging lineage within the eudicots. It currently comprises of two subgenera, A . subgenus Lycoctonum and A . subg. Aconitum . The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequences were characterized in three species: A. angustius , A. finetianum , and A. sinomontanum in subg. Lycoctonum and compared to other Aconitum species to clarify their phylogenetic relationship and provide molecular information for utilization of Aconitum species particularly in Eastern Asia. The length of the chloroplast genome sequences were 156,109 bp in A. angustius , 155,625 bp in A. finetianum and 157,215 bp in A. sinomontanum , with each species possessing 126 genes with 84 protein coding genes (PCGs). While genomic rearrangements were absent, structural variation was detected in the LSC/IR/SSC boundaries. Five pseudogenes were identified, among which Ψ rps 19 and Ψ ycf 1 were in the LSC/IR/SSC boundaries, Ψ rps 16 and Ψ inf A in the LSC region, and Ψ ycf 15 in the IRb region. The nucleotide variability ( Pi ) of Aconitum was estimated to be 0.00549, with comparably higher variations in the LSC and SSC than the IR regions. Eight intergenic regions were revealed to be highly variable and a total of 58-62 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected in all three species. More than 80% of SSRs were present in the LSC region. Altogether, 64.41% and 46.81% of SSRs are mononucleotides in subg. Lycoctonum and subg. Aconitum , respectively, while a higher percentage of di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta- SSRs were present in subg. Aconitum . Most species of subg. Aconitum in Eastern Asia were first used for phylogenetic analyses. The availability of the complete cp genome sequences of these species in subg. Lycoctonum will benefit future phylogenetic analyses and aid in germplasm utilization in Aconitum species.
Griffin, Caroline T; Gosetto, Francesca; Danaher, Martin; Sabatini, Stefano; Furey, Ambrose
Publications linking hepatotoxicity to the use of herbal preparations are escalating. Herbal teas, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and dietary supplements have been shown to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Acute PA toxicosis of the liver can result in sinusoidal-obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD). This paper describes a sensitive and robust method for the detection of targeted PAs and their N-oxides (PANOs) in herbal products (selected herbal teas and TCMs) sourced within Ireland. The sample preparation includes a simple acidic extraction with clean-up via solid-phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were accurately analysed by using LC-ESI-MS/MS applying for the first time a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) core-shell column to the chromatographic separation of PAs and PANOs. The method was validated for selectivity, taking into consideration matrix effects, specificity, linearity, precision and trueness. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were quantified for all PAs and PANOs ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 µg kg⁻¹ and from 1.3 to 6.3 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. In this study 10 PAs and four PANOs were targeted because they are commercially available as reference standards. Therefore, this study can only report the levels of these PAs and PANOs analysed in the herbal teas and TCMs. The results reported represent the minimum levels of PAs and PANOs present in the samples analysed; commercially available herbal teas (n = 18) and TCMs (n = 54). A total of 50% herbal teas and 78% Chinese medicines tested positive for one or more PAs and/or PANOs included within this study, ranging from 10 to 1733 and from 13 to 3668 µg kg⁻¹, respectively.
Suleman, Sultan; Beyene Tufa, Takele; Kebebe, Dereje; Belew, Sileshi; Mekonnen, Yimer; Gashe, Fanta; Mussa, Seid; Wynendaele, Evelien; Duchateau, Luc; De Spiegeleer, Bart
Medicinal plants have always been an integral part of different cultures in Ethiopia in the treatment of different illnesses including malaria and related symptoms. However, due to lack of proper documentation, urbanization, drought, acculturation and deforestation, there is an increased risk of losing this traditional knowledge. Hence, the use of the indigenous knowledge should be well documented and validated for potential future use. To gather and document information on medicinal plants which are used in the traditional treatment of malaria and related symptoms in Ethiopia. First, an ethnomedicinal survey of plants was conducted in 17 districts of Jimma zone, the Oromia national regional state of Ethiopia. Jimma zone is malarious and rich in natural flora. A total of 115 traditional healers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire containing personal data of the respondents, and information on medicinal plants used to treat malaria and related symptoms. In addition, a literature search using Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and HINARI was conducted on the indigenous use, in-vitro/in-vivo anti-malarial activity reports, and the chemical characterization of medicinal plants of Ethiopia used against malaria. From ethnomedicinal survey, a total of 28 species of plants used in the traditional treatment of malaria and related symptoms in Jimma Zone were collected, identified and documented. In addition, the literature search revealed that 124 medicinal plant species were reported to be traditionally used in the treatment of malaria in Ethiopia. From both ethnomedicinal survey and the literature search, Asteraceae and Fabaceae were the most represented families and Allium sativum L., Carica papaya L., Vernonia amygdalina Del., Lepidium sativum L. and Croton macrostachyus Del. were the most frequently reported plant species for their anti-malarial use. The dominant plant parts used in the preparation of remedies were leaves. About 54% of the
Rahimi, Roja; Baghaei, Amir; Baeeri, Maryam; Amin, Gholamreza; Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Abdollahi, Mohammad
AIM: To investigate the efficacy of Magliasa, a traditional Iranian formula, on experimental colitis. METHODS: After botanical authentication of herbal ingredients, formulation of Magliasa, quantitative determination of total glucosinolates and total phenolic content, and analysis of the thin layer chromatography profile were performed. Colitis was then induced in male rats by instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in all groups, aside from the Sham group. The experimental groups consisted of: the Sham group that received only normal saline; the Mag-50, Mag-100 and Mag-200 groups, which received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg per day of Magliasa, respectively; the control group, which received vehicle water orally; the infliximab group, which received infliximab (5 mg/kg per day, subcutaneously); and the Dexa group, which received dexamethasone (1 mg/kg per day, orally). After completing the treatment period (2 wk), the rats were sacrificed, the colon was removed, its macroscopic and microscopic changes were recorded, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), total antioxidant capacity, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were assessed in colon homogenate. RESULTS: The mean value of total glucosinolates in one gram of Magliasa was 19 ± 1 μmol. The mean value of the total phenolic content was 293.8 ± 17.6 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 gram of Magliasa. Macroscopic scores were significantly decreased in Mag-100 (1.80 ± 0.58, P = 0.019) and Mag-200 (1.20 ± 0.20, P = 0.001) compared to the control group (3.40 ± 0.24), although some inflammation and hyperemia were evident. Treatment of rats by dexamethasone (0.33 ± 0.21, P < 0.001) and infliximab (0.83 ± 0.31, P < 0.001) remarkably attenuated scores where mild hyperemia was observed macroscopically. In comparison to the control group (4.00 ± 0.32), only Mag-200 (1.60 ± 0.40) showed a significant decrease in colonic histopathological scores (P = 0
Zhou, Fen; Wu, Hong-Jun; Zhai, Jun-Ping; Zhang, Gui-Yan; Shao, Yan; Tian, Xia; Xia, Ru-Yu; Jia, Li-Yan; Li, Wen-Yuan; Liang, Ning; Yan, Xiao-Yi; Wu, Ruo-Han; Zhang, Kang; Li, Xin-Lin; Wang, Cong-Cong; Liu, Jian-Ping
Sanfu acupoint herbal patching (SAHP) is a unique traditional Chinese medicine therapy, which has become popular for preventing acute attack of respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in many regions of mainland China. However, the knowledge about its users is lacking, especially the characteristics of the users and their experience and perspectives.To investigate the demographics of users, conditions for its use and the previous experience of SAHP, as well as users' perspectives to provide baseline information for its practice.A cross-sectional consecutive-sample survey was conducted at outpatient departments from 3 traditional Chinese medicine hospitals in northern China. Each participant completed a questionnaire, after informed consent. Data description and analyses were done using SPSS 20.0.Among 949 SAHP users from 3 hospitals, female was predominant (n = 592; 62.4%), aged from 2 to 96 years (median = 52 years). 64.7% (380/587) of regular users have applied consecutively for 3 years or over, and the self-perceived satisfaction rates of respiratory diseases were from 45.9% to 77.7%. Positive attitude toward traditional Chinese medicine was the top reason for choosing SAHP. 42.4% of users held a motivation of being cured by SAHP and with great outcome expectancy on SAHP (70.8%).SAHP users were mainly female adults or elderly population; more than half were regular users, who predominantly used SAHP for various chronic respiratory diseases during their stable stage. The majority of users expressed satisfaction to previous SAHP for their respiratory diseases. 42.4% of users held a motivation of being cured by SAHP and with great outcome expectancy on SAHP (70.8%). The findings from this survey deserve further clinical trials for their clinical effectiveness.
Chung, Mun Su; Bae, Woong Jin; Choi, Sae Woong; Lee, Kyu Won; Jeong, Hyun Cheoul; Bashraheel, Fahad; Jeon, Seung Hwan; Jung, Jin Woo; Yoon, Byung Il; Kwon, Eun Bi; Oh, Hyun A; Hwang, Sung Yeoun; Kim, Sae Woong
Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HC) is a traditional herbal medicine widely used in Asia for the treatment of patients with alopecia, usually in combination with other two herbal medicines (Perilla frutescens var. acuta (PFVA) and green tea (GT)). However, the effect of this herbal complex has not been clearly demonstrated. We sought to determine the hair growth-promoting effect of this herbal complex (HC, PFVA, and GT) in the animal model. Six-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups (negative control, finasteride (1 mg/kg) as a positive control, and two (200 and 400 mg/kg) concentrations of the herbal complex as experimental groups) and were fed its corresponding medications orally for 25 days. Hair growth was evaluated visually and microscopically. Western blot analysis for insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 was performed. The herbal complex exhibited hair growth-promoting activity in C57BL/6 mice. Grossly, the area of hair regrowth was 55.1 (±3.8) %, 70.2 (±6.3) % and 83.5 (±5.7) % in negative control, herbal complex 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg group, respectively. In histologic examination, the hair follicle count in deep subcutis was 2.6 (±0.7), 5.8 (±0.7) and 8.6 (±1.2) and the diameter of hair follicles was 11.9 (±5.0) μm, 17.4 (±3.9) μm and 22.8 (±5.2) μm in negative control, herbal complex 200 and 400 mg/kg group, respectively. The expression of IGF-1 was 0.14 (±0.01), 0.23 (±0.02) and 0.24 (±0.01) and the expression of TGF-β1 was 0.26 (±0.01), 0.19 (±0.02) and 0.15 (±0.01) in negative control, the 200 and 400 mg/kg group, respectively. This data provides adequate preliminary experimental evidence to support the hair regeneration effect of this herbal complex.
Background Melatonin content was screened in leaves of seven edible herbs used as sleeping aids in Thai traditional medicine. These plants are Piper nigrum L, Sesbania glandiflora (L.) Desv., Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr., Senna tora (L.) Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lam., Momordica charantia L. and Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Dried leaves were extracted by sonication in methanol for six hours at room temperature, and then melatonin was purified by C18 solid phase extraction (SPE). Melatonin was then quantified by a validated RP-C18 HPLC method with fluorescent detection. Findings Melatonin contents in extracts of B. ramiflora, S. glandiflora, M. charantia, S. tora and S. sesban were 43.2, 26.3, 21.4, 10.5 and 8.7 ng/g of dry sample weight, respectively. The highest melatonin content was from P. nigrum extract (1092.7 ng/g of dry sample weight). Melatonin was not detected in the extract of M. oleifera. Melatonin identification was confirmed by ELISA. Conclusions Melatonin was found in six of the seven herbs in the traditional Thai sleeping recipe. One of these, P. nigrum, exhibited an encouragingly high amount of melatonin. PMID:24393215
Padumanonda, Tanit; Johns, Jeffrey; Sangkasat, Autcharaporn; Tiyaworanant, Suppachai
Melatonin content was screened in leaves of seven edible herbs used as sleeping aids in Thai traditional medicine. These plants are Piper nigrum L, Sesbania glandiflora (L.) Desv., Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr., Senna tora (L.) Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lam., Momordica charantia L. and Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Dried leaves were extracted by sonication in methanol for six hours at room temperature, and then melatonin was purified by C18 solid phase extraction (SPE). Melatonin was then quantified by a validated RP-C18 HPLC method with fluorescent detection. Melatonin contents in extracts of B. ramiflora, S. glandiflora, M. charantia, S. tora and S. sesban were 43.2, 26.3, 21.4, 10.5 and 8.7 ng/g of dry sample weight, respectively. The highest melatonin content was from P. nigrum extract (1092.7 ng/g of dry sample weight). Melatonin was not detected in the extract of M. oleifera. Melatonin identification was confirmed by ELISA. Melatonin was found in six of the seven herbs in the traditional Thai sleeping recipe. One of these, P. nigrum, exhibited an encouragingly high amount of melatonin.
Morales, Fátima; Padilla, Susana; Falconí, Félix
Background: Phyto-therapy studies on Chimborazo province in Ecuador are really limited. This area, located within the Andes, is considered a millenarian and intercultural province, where multiples cultures and ethnic groups coexist. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted through direct interviews with 84 ancestral healers from the Province of Chimborazo, Ecuador. Results: We presented ten most used species by ancestral healers of Chimborazo province to cure different illnesses and their medicinal uses. We also provided the application mode and some features of healing that should be emphasized. Conclusion: The nettle was the medicinal plant employed for more different illness and the chamomile was the one with higher prevalence. We could confirm that the Native Ecuadorians have a vast variety of traditions and popular medicinal practices that have great value and are needed to be researched and studied extensively. PMID:28331911
Morales, Fátima; Padilla, Susana; Falconí, Félix
Phyto-therapy studies on Chimborazo province in Ecuador are really limited. This area, located within the Andes, is considered a millenarian and intercultural province, where multiples cultures and ethnic groups coexist. The study was conducted through direct interviews with 84 ancestral healers from the Province of Chimborazo, Ecuador. We presented ten most used species by ancestral healers of Chimborazo province to cure different illnesses and their medicinal uses. We also provided the application mode and some features of healing that should be emphasized. The nettle was the medicinal plant employed for more different illness and the chamomile was the one with higher prevalence. We could confirm that the Native Ecuadorians have a vast variety of traditions and popular medicinal practices that have great value and are needed to be researched and studied extensively.
Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Ansari, Ramin; Dadbakhsh, Amirhossein; Mohammadi, Maryam
Among various neurological disorders, multiple sclerosis (MS) is an expanding global immune- related inflammatory disease with complex etiologies. There is increasing demand for the use and administration of natural medicaments for this disorder. Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) is a school of medicine and a medicinal plants-based resource for clinical studies put forward by Persian scholars. This paper aims to gather and study the effectiveness of all medicinal plants from the most popular Persian pharmacopeias. Five main Persian pharmacopeias from the 9th to the 18th century A.D. have been studied to identify the remedial plants for this disorder. Moreover, PubMed, and Scopus databases have been checked to derive relevant activities for these plants. Khaddar (numbness), Esterkha (Palsy) and Falej (quadriplegia) are traditional definitions; these are clinically close to what is known as MS in today's medicine. In all, 118 medicinal plants, related to 65 families, have been authenticated out of 157 chosen medicaments. Apiaceae is the most frequent family (13 reports). Fruits and roots of plants have been the most reported botanical parts (34 and 32 items). The employed routes of administration are topical, oral, or a combination of the two (27, 57, and 34 sequentially). Fifteen medicines have been reported for Khaddar, Esterkha, and Falej simultaneously. Antioxidant activities, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory properties of medicines are known as some main mechanisms to manage MS. These functions are possessed by 81%, 36%, and 48% of the studied plants, respectively. Hence, conducting adducible clinical trials and highly approved experimental tests on animals may lead to novel drugs with lesser undesirable and much more therapeutic effects on controlling MS. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Ung, Choong Yong; Li, Hu; Cao, Zhi Wei; Li, Yi Xue; Chen, Yu Zong
Multi-herb prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) often include special herb-pairs for mutual enhancement, assistance, and restraint. These TCM herb-pairs have been assembled and interpreted based on traditionally defined herbal properties (TCM-HPs) without knowledge of mechanism of their assumed synergy. While these mechanisms are yet to be determined, properties of TCM herb-pairs can be investigated to determine if they exhibit features consistent with their claimed unique synergistic combinations. We analyzed distribution patterns of TCM-HPs of TCM herb-pairs to detect signs indicative of possible synergy and used artificial intelligence (AI) methods to examine whether combination of their TCM-HPs are distinguishable from those of non-TCM herb-pairs assembled by random combinations and by modification of known TCM herb-pairs. Patterns of the majority of 394 known TCM herb-pairs were found to exhibit signs of herb-pair correlation. Three AI systems, trained and tested by using 394 TCM herb-pairs and 2470 non-TCM herb-pairs, correctly classified 72.1-87.9% of TCM herb-pairs and 91.6-97.6% of the non-TCM herb-pairs. The best AI system predicted 96.3% of the 27 known non-TCM herb-pairs and 99.7% of the other 1,065,100 possible herb-pairs as non-TCM herb-pairs. Our studies suggest that TCM-HPs of known TCM herb-pairs contain features distinguishable from those of non-TCM herb-pairs consistent with their claimed synergistic or modulating combinations.
Park, Kwang Il; Kim, Dong Gun; Lee, Bo Hyoung
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). IBD increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), depending on the extent and duration of intestinal inflammation. Increased IL-6 expression has been reported in IBD patients, which may be associated with intestinal barrier function through discontinuous tight junction (TJ). KIOM-MA is a specific agent for allergic diseases and cancer, and it is composed of several plants; these herbs have been used in traditional oriental medicine. We fermented KIOM-MA, the product of KIOM-MA128, using probiotics to improve the therapeutic efficacy via the absorption and bioavailability of the active ingredients. In this study, we demonstrated that KIOM-MA/MA128 exhibited anticolitis effects via the modulation of TJ protein. Interleukin-6 resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the TER and an increase in the FITC-dextran permeability; however, pretreatment with 400 µg/ml KIOM-MA/MA128 resulted in a significant increase in the TER and a decrease in the FITC-dextran permeability via IL-6 induction. Furthermore, protein and mRNA TJ levels remained stable after pretreatment with 400 µg/ml KIOM-MA/MA128. Moreover, KIOM-MA/MA128 suppressed the expression of PLCγ1 and PKC. Taken together, these findings suggest novel information and clue of the anticolitis effects of KIOM-MA128 via regulation of tight junction. PMID:27980357
Park, Kwang Il; Kim, Dong Gun; Lee, Bo Hyoung; Ma, Jin Yeul
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). IBD increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), depending on the extent and duration of intestinal inflammation. Increased IL-6 expression has been reported in IBD patients, which may be associated with intestinal barrier function through discontinuous tight junction (TJ). KIOM-MA is a specific agent for allergic diseases and cancer, and it is composed of several plants; these herbs have been used in traditional oriental medicine. We fermented KIOM-MA, the product of KIOM-MA128, using probiotics to improve the therapeutic efficacy via the absorption and bioavailability of the active ingredients. In this study, we demonstrated that KIOM-MA/MA128 exhibited anticolitis effects via the modulation of TJ protein. Interleukin-6 resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the TER and an increase in the FITC-dextran permeability; however, pretreatment with 400 µ g/ml KIOM-MA/MA128 resulted in a significant increase in the TER and a decrease in the FITC-dextran permeability via IL-6 induction. Furthermore, protein and mRNA TJ levels remained stable after pretreatment with 400 µ g/ml KIOM-MA/MA128. Moreover, KIOM-MA/MA128 suppressed the expression of PLC γ 1 and PKC. Taken together, these findings suggest novel information and clue of the anticolitis effects of KIOM-MA128 via regulation of tight junction.
Analysis of Sheng-Mai-San, a Ginseng-Containing Multiple Components Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Physical Examination by Electron and Light Microscopies.
Cheng, Yung-Yi; Tsai, Tung-Hu
Sheng-Mai-San is a multi-component traditional Chinese herbal preparation. Due to the fact granulated additives, such as starch, carboxymethyl cellulose, lactose and raw herbal powder may alter the content of the bioactive markers in the herbal products, a developed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of ginsenoside Rb₁, Rb₂, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg₁, Rh₁, compound K, ophiopogonin D and schizandrin from the Sheng-Mai-San herbal formulation. Besides, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the herbal granular powders. Light microscopy with Congo red and iodine-KI reagent staining was used to identify the cellulose fiber and cornstarch added to pharmaceutical herbal products. The swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), and crude fiber analysis were used to determine the contents of cellulose fiber and cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products. In this study, we developed a novel skill to assess the quantification of appended cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products using Aperio ImageScope software. Compared with the traditional cornstarch analysis, our analysis method is a rapid, simple and conversion process which could be applied to detect the percentage of added cornstarch in unknown powder products. The various range of the herbal content for the five pharmaceutical manufacturers varied by up to several hundreds-fold. The physical examination reveals that the morphology of the herbal pharmaceutical products is rough and irregular with sharp layers. This study provides a reference standard operating procedure guide for the quality control of the Chinese herbal pharmaceutical products of Sheng-Mai-San.
Li, Guanhong; Cai, Linli; Jiang, Hongli; Dong, Shoujin; Fan, Tao; Liu, Wei; Xie, Li; Mao, Bing
The common cold is one of the most frequent acute illnesses of the respiratory tract, affecting all age groups. The compound formulas of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are frequently used to treat the common cold in China and other parts of the world. Until now, however, the efficacy and safety of compound formulas of TCM for the common cold, studied in comparison with placebos, have not been systematically reviewed. This literature review intended to assess existing evidence of the effectiveness and safety of compound formulas of TCM for the common cold. Randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) comparing compound formulas of TCM with placebos in treating the common cold were included, regardless of publication status. The research team searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, the Chinese Scientific and Technological Periodical Database, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and the Wangfang Database from their inceptions to December 2013. The team also searched Web sites listing ongoing trials and contacted experts in the field and relevant pharmaceutical companies to locate unpublished materials. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies, using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A total of 6 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving 1502 participants were included. Most trials had a low risk of bias. Five were conducted in mainland China and 1 in Hong Kong; 5 were multicenter clinical trials and 1 was a single-center trial; 4 were published in Chinese and 2 were published in English. Compound formulas of TCM were superior to placebos in reducing disease symptoms, inducing recovery from a TCM syndrome, and increasing quality of life. In addition, the formulas were superior in shortening the duration of the main symptoms, the amount of time for a decline in temperature of at least 0.5°C to occur, and the duration of any fever
Chiu, Po Yee; Leung, Hoi Yan; Siu, Ada Hoi Ling; Chen, Na; Poon, Michel K T; Ko, Kam Ming
Previous work in our laboratory has shown that long-term treatment with Vigconic 28 (VI-28), a Yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula used for the promotion of overall wellness in Chinese medicine, can enhance the mitochondrial functional ability and antioxidant capacity in various tissues of both male and female rats. To investigate whether the VI-28 treatment regimen could afford tissue protection against oxidative injury, the effects of long-term VI-28 treatment (80 or 240 mg/kg/d x 30) on oxidative stress-induced tissue damage in various organs (brain, heart, liver, and kidney) were examined in female rats. The results indicated that long-term VI-28 treatment invariably protected against oxidative tissue damage in the rat models of cerebral/myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, CCl4 hepatotoxicity, and gentamicin nephrotoxicity. The tissue protection was associated with increases in the levels and activities of mitochondrial antioxidant components as well as with the preservation of mitochondrial structural integrity. This was evidenced by decreases in the sensitivity of mitochondria to Ca2+-induced permeability transition, and in the levels of mitochondrial malondialdehyde production, Ca2+ loading, and cytochrome c release in the tissues examined. Interestingly, the VI-28 treatment increased red cell CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) levels, and these levels correlated positively with the degree of tissue protection afforded by long-term VI-28 treatment in rats. The generalized tissue protection afforded by long-term VI-28 treatment may have clinical implications in the prevention of age-related diseases, and VI-28 treatment may possibly delay the aging process.
Cao, Yuxue; Du, Yijie; Zhang, Hongying; Luo, Qingli; Li, Bei; Wu, Jinfeng; Lv, Yubao; Sun, Jing; Jin, Hualiang; Wei, Kai; Zhao, Zhengxiao; Kong, Lingwen; Zhou, Xianmei; Miao, Qing; Wang, Gang; Zhou, Qingwei; Dong, Jingcheng
Objective The study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of stable COPD. Methods A multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, and randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. All groups were treated with additional conventional medicines. There were a 6-month treatment and a 12-month follow-up for 5 times. Primary outcomes included lung function test, exacerbation frequency, score of SGRQ. Second outcomes consisted of 6MWD, BODE index, psychological field score, inflammatory factors and cortisol. Results A total of 331 patients were randomly divided into two active treatment groups (Bushen Yiqi (BY) granule group, n = 109; Bushen Fangchuan (BF) tablet group, n = 109) and a placebo group (n = 113). Finally 262 patients completed the study. BY granule & BF tablet increased the values of VC, FEV1 (%) and FEV1/FVC (%), compared with placebo. BY granule improved PEF. Both treatments reduced acute exacerbation frequency (P = 0.067), BODE index and psychological field score, while improved 6MWD. In terms of descent rang of SGRQ score, both treatments increased (P = 0.01). Both treatments decreased inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-8, and IL-17(P = 0.0219). BY granule obviously descended IL-17(P<0.05), IL-1β (P = 0.05), IL-6, compared with placebo. They improved the level of IL-10 and cortisol. BY granule raised cortisol (P = 0.07) and decreased TNF-α. Both treatments slightly descended TGF-β1. In terms of safety, subject compliance and drug combination, there were no differences (P>0.05) among three groups. Conclusions BY granule and BF tablet were positively effective for the treatment of COPD, and the former performed better in general. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register center ChiCTR-TRC-09000530 PMID:25118962
Yin, Xiaochen; Peng, Jinghua; Zhao, Liping; Yu, Yunpeng; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Ping; Feng, Qin; Hu, Yiyang; Pang, Xiaoyan
Accumulating evidence indicates that disruption of the gut microbiota by a high-fat diet (HFD) may play a pivotal role in the progression of metabolic disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, the structural changes of gut microbiota were analyzed in an HFD-induced NAFLD rat model during treatment with an ancient Chinese herbal formula (CHF) used in clinical practice -Qushi Huayu Fang. CHF treatment significantly reduced body weight, alleviated hepatic steatosis, and decreased the content of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the livers of the rats. Gut microbiota of treated and control rats were profiled with polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and bar-coded pyrosequencing of the V3 region of 16S rRNA genes. Both analyses indicated that the CHF-treated group harbored significantly different gut microbiota from that of model rats. Partial least squares discriminant analysis and taxonomy-based analysis were further employed to identify key phylotypes responding to HFD and CHF treatment. Most notably, the genera Escherichia/Shigella, containing opportunistic pathogens, were significantly enriched in HFD-fed rats compared to controls fed normal chow (P<0.05) but they decreased to control levels after CHF treatment. Collinsella, a genus with short chain fatty acid producers, was significantly elevated in CHF-treated rats compared to HFD-fed rats (P<0.05). The results revealed that the bacterial profiles of HFD-induced rats could be modulated by the CHF. Elucidation of these differences in microbiota composition provided a basis for further understanding the pharmacological mechanism of the CHF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Jin, Seong Eun; Ha, Hyekyung; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential influences of Socheongryong-tang (SCRT) on the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) in vivo. Materials and Methods: SCRT was orally administered to either male or female Sprague-Dawley rats once daily at doses of 0, 1000, 2000, or 5000 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks. The mRNA expression of CYP450s (CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B1/2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1) in liver tissues was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. And then, the protein expression of CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2 in liver tissues was analyzed by the Western blot. Results: We found no significant influence in the mRNA expression of hepatic CYP1A2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1 after repeated administration of SCRT for 13 weeks. By contrast, the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP1A1 was increased by repeated SCRT treatment in male rats, but not in female rats. The mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP2B1/2 in both genders was increased by administration of SCRT. Conclusion: A caution is needed when SCRT is co-administered with substrates of CYP2B1/2 for clinical usage. In case of male, an attention is also required when SCRT and drugs metabolized by CYP1A1 are taken together. Our findings provide information regarding the safety and effectiveness of SCRT when combined with conventional drugs. SUMMARY Oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks did not affect the mRNA expression of hepatic CYP1A2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1In male rats, oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks induced the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2In female rats, oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks induced the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP2B1/2. Abbreviations used: SCRT: Socheongryong-tang, CYP450: Cytochrome P450, HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography, RT-PCR: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. PMID:27601852
Han, Shi-You; Hong, Zhi-You; Xie, Yu-Hua; Zhao, Yong; Xu, Xiao
Stroke is a condition with high morbidity and mortality, and 75% of stroke survivors lose their ability to work. Stroke is a burden to the family and society. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese herbal patent medicines in the treatment of patients after the acute phase of a stroke. We searched the following databases through August 2016: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (CNKI), China Science Periodical Database (CSPD), and China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc) for studies that evaluated Chinese herbal patent medicines for post stroke recovery. A random-effect model was used to pool therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal patent medicines on stroke recovery. Network meta-analysis was used to rank the treatment for each Chinese herbal patent medicine. In our meta-analysis, we evaluated 28 trials that included 2780 patients. Chinese herbal patent medicines were effective in promoting recovery after stroke (OR, 3.03; 95% CI: 2.53-3.64; P < .001). Chinese herbal patent medicines significantly improved neurological function defect scores when compared with the controls (standard mean difference [SMD], -0.89; 95% CI, -1.44 to -0.35; P = .001). Chinese herbal patent medicines significantly improved the Barthel index (SMD, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.53-0.94; P < .001) and the Fugl-Meyer assessment scores (SMD, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.34-0.86; P < .001). In the network analysis, MLC601, Shuxuetong, and BuchangNaoxintong were most likely to improve stroke recovery in patients without acupuncture. Additionally, Mailuoning, Xuesaitong, BuchangNaoxintong were the patented Chinese herbal medicines most likely to improve stroke recovery when combined with acupuncture. Our research suggests that the Chinese herbal patent medicines were effective for stroke recovery. The most effective treatments for stroke recovery were MLC601, Shuxuetong, and BuchangNaoxintong. However, to clarify the specific effective
Su, Zhi-Heng; Zou, Guo-An; Preiss, Alfred; Zhang, Hong-Wu; Zou, Zhong-Mei
Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula containing seven herbal medicines, has been used in treatment of gastritis, peptic ulcer, irritable bowel syndrome and depression clinically. However, the chemical constituents in CSGS had not been studied so far. To quickly identify the chemical constituents of CSGS and to understand the chemical profiles related to antioxidant activity of CSGS, liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization hybrid linear trap quadrupole orbitrap (LC-LTQ-Orbitrap) mass spectrometry has been applied for online identification of chemical constituents in complex system, meanwhile, antioxidant profile of CSGS was investigated by the fraction collecting and microplate reading system. As a result, 33 chemical constituents in CSGS were identified. Among them, 13 components could be detected both in positive and in negative ion modes, 20 constituents were determined only in positive ion mode and 2 components were only detected in negative ion mode. Meanwhile, the potential antioxidant profile of CSGS was also characterized by combination of 96-well plate collection of elutes from HPLC analysis and microplate spectrophotometer, in which the scavenging activities of free radical produced by DPPH of each fraction could be directly investigated by the analysis of microplate reader. This study quickly screened the contribution of CSGS fractions to the antioxidant activity and online identified the corresponding active constituents. The results indicated that the combination of LC-MS(n) and 96-well plate assay system established in this paper would be a useful strategy for correlating the chemical profile of TCMs with their bioactivities without isolation and purification. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Xiong, Fei; Jiang, Miao; Huang, Zhenzhou; Chen, Meijuan; Chen, Kejun; Zhou, Jing; Yin, Lian; Tang, Yuping; Wang, Mingyan; Ye, Lihong; Zhan, Zhen; Duan, Jinao; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Xu
In recent years, the incidence of lung cancer, as well as the mortality rate from this disease, has increased. Moreover, because of acquired drug resistance and adverse side effects, the effectiveness of current therapeutics used for the treatment of lung cancer has decreased significantly. Chinese medicine has been shown to have significant antitumor effects and is increasingly being used for the treatment of cancer. However, as the mechanisms of action for many Chinese medicines are undefined, the application of Chinese medicine for the treatment of cancer is limited. The formula tested has been used clinically by the China National Traditional Chinese Medicine Master, Professor Zhonging Zhou for treatment of cancer. In this article, we examine the efficacy of Ke formula in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and elucidate its mechanism of action. A Balb/c nude mouse xenograft model using A549 cells was previously established. The mice were randomly divided into normal, mock, Ke, cisplatin (DDP), and co-formulated (Ke + DDP) groups. After 15 days of drug administration, the animals were sacrificed, body weight and tumor volume were recorded, and the tumor-inhibiting rate was calculated. A cancer pathway finder polymerase chain reaction array was used to monitor the expression of 88 genes in tumor tissue samples. The potential antiproliferation mechanism was also investigated by Western blot analysis. Ke formula minimized chemotherapy-related weight loss in tumor-bearing mice without exhibiting distinct toxicity. Ke formula also inhibited tumor growth, which was associated with the downregulation of genes in the PI3K/AKT, MAPK, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. The results from Western blot analyses further indicated that Ke blocked the cell cycle progression at the G1/S phase and induced apoptosis mainly via the PI3K/AKT pathway. Ke formula inhibits tumor growth in an A549 xenograft mouse model with no obvious side effects. Moreover, Ke exhibits synergistic
Xu, Yun; Mao, Jun J; Sun, Lingyun; Yang, Lin; Li, Jie; Hao, Yingxu; Li, Huashan; Hou, Wei; Chu, Yuping; Bai, Yu; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jinwan; Shen, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jianbin; Liu, Jianping; Yang, Yufei
Chinese cancer patients often use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herbal medicine during or after active cancer treatments. However, little is known about how TCM herbal medicine impacts cancer outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the association between TCM herbal therapy and survival outcomes in patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer. We conducted an eight-center prospective cohort study in China among patients who had undergone radical resection for stage II and III colorectal cancer. All patients received comprehensive conventional treatments according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, and follow-up visits were conducted over five years. We defined high exposure as a patient's use of TCM individualized herbs for more than one year, ascertained via clinical interviews. The primary outcome was disease-free survival (DFS), with overall survival (OS) as a secondary outcome. Between April 2007 and February 2009, we enrolled 312 patients into the cohort; 166 (53.2%) met the definition of high exposure to TCM herbs. Adjusting for covariates, high exposure to TCM was associated with both better DFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.39 to 0.98) and OS (HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.68). In subgroup exploratory analysis, the effects demonstrated that the differences in outcomes were statistically significant in patients who had received chemotherapy. Longer duration of TCM herbal use is associated with improved survival outcomes in stage II and III colorectal cancer patients in China. More research is needed to evaluate the effects and underlying mechanisms of herbal medicine on colorectal cancer outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cui, Xue-Jun; Sun, Yue-Li; You, Sheng-Fu; Mo, Wen; Lu, Sheng; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yong-Jun
Neck pain is a common symptom in most patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy. However, some conservative treatments are limited by their modest effectiveness. On the other hand, surgical intervention for cervical disc disorders is indicated when symptoms are refractory to conservative treatments and neurological symptoms are progressive. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. The purpose of the present study is to examine the efficacy and safety of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, for neck pain in patients with cervical radiculopathy. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Qishe Pill is proposed. The study will include 240 patients from five sites across China and diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy, according to the following inclusion criteria: age 18 to 65 with pain or stiffness in the neck for at least 2 weeks (neck disability index score 25 or more) and accompanying arm pain that radiates distally from the elbow. Qualified participants will be randomly allocated into two groups: Qishe Pill group and placebo group. The prescription of the trial medications (Qishe Pill/placebo) are 3.75 g each twice a day for 28 consecutive days. The primary outcome is pain severity. Secondary outcomes are functional status, patient satisfaction, and adverse events as reported in the trial. Qishe Pill is composed of processed Radix Astragali, Muscone, Szechuan Lovage Rhizome, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Ovientvine, and Calculus Bovis Artifactus. According to modern research and preparation standards, Qishe Pill is developed to improve on the various symptoms of cervical radiculopathy, especially for neck pain. As it has a potential benefit in treating patients with neck pain, we designed a double-blind, prospective, randomized-controlled trial and would like to publish the results and
Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, Kyoung Mee; Hong, Nam Doo; Jung, Yi-Sook
Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), a traditional herbal prescription, contains six main ingredients; Rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurae, Lycium chinense, Aquillaria agallocha, Poria cocos, Panax ginseng, and honey. KOK has been widely taken as a traditional oriental medicine for improving blood circulation or age-related symptoms, such as dementia and stroke. However, the effect of KOK on platelet activity has not been clarified. To evaluate the effect of KOK on platelet function, we evaluated its effect on functional markers of platelet activation such as aggregation and shape change. As a mechanism study for the effect of KOK, we examined its effect on granule secretion, intracellular Ca(2+) increase, and PLCγ and Akt activation. To investigate the effect of orally administered KOK (0.5, 1, 2 g/kg), we examined its ex vivo effect on platelet aggregation in rat, and its in vivo anti-thrombotic effect in mice thromboembolism model. Furthermore, the effect of KOK on bleeding time was examined to estimate its potential side effect. KOK (0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/ml) inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation and shape change in rat platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. The mechanism for the anti-platelet effect of KOK seems to involve the inhibition of ATP release, intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, and the phosphorylation of PLCγ and Akt. In rat ex vivo study, KOK (2 g/kg, p.o. for 1 day, and 0.5, 1, 2 g/kg, p.o. for 7 days) also had significant inhibitory effects on collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In addition, KOK showed a significant protective effect against thrombosis attack in mice. The prolongation of bleeding time by KOK was much less than that by ASA, suggesting a beneficial potential of KOK than ASA in view of side effect. These findings suggest that KOK elicits remarkable anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic effects with less side effect of bleeding, and therefore, it may have a therapeutic potential for the prevention of platelet-associated cardiovascular diseases
Zhang, Grant G; Lee, Wenlin; Bausell, Barker; Lao, Lixing; Handwerger, Barry; Berman, Brian
To ascertain if previous findings of low levels of agreement of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) pattern diagnoses made by TCM practitioners in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were a function of practitioner differences or would be replicated with a different sample of clinicians, and to examine the relationship between TCM diagnosis and herbal treatment plans. A prospective survey. General clinical research center, University of Maryland Hospital System, Baltimore, MD. Forty (40) patients with RA. PRACTITIONERS: Licensed acupuncturists with at least 5 years' experience and education in Chinese herbs. Three (3) TCM practitioners examined the same 40 RA patients separately, following the traditional Four Diagnostic Methods. Patients filled out questionnaires and physical examinations, including observations of the tongue and palpation of radial pulse, were conducted by the 3 practitioners. Each practitioner then provided both a TCM diagnosis and an herbal prescription. These diagnoses/prescriptions were examined with respect to the rate of agreement among the 3 practitioners. The average agreement with respect to the TCM diagnoses among the 3 TCM practitioners was 31.7 % (range, 27.5-35%). The degree to which the herbal prescriptions agreed with textbook recommended practice for each TCM diagnosis was 91.7% (range, 85-100%). The most commonly used TCM assessments in arriving at these diagnoses were inquiry about factors affecting pain and pulse diagnosis. No statistically significant differences were found between this study and our previous study regarding the level of agreement on TCM diagnosis. The average agreement of the diagnoses provided by 3 TCM practitioners was at the same low level as previously reported. No association was found between the diagnostic methods used and the consistency of diagnosis. Both studies, however, found a high degree of consistency between the TCM pattern diagnoses provided and the herbal treatment plans made as a result
Lee, Jinho; Shin, Joon-Shik; Kim, Me-Riong; Byun, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Shin, Ye-Sle; Kim, Hyejin; Byung Park, Ki; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ha, In-Hyuk
The objective of this study is to report the incidence of liver injury from herbal medicine in musculoskeletal disease patients as large-scale studies are scarce. Considering that herbal medicine is frequently used in patients irrespective of liver function in Korea, we investigated the prevalence of liver injury by liver function test results in musculoskeletal disease patients. Of 32675 inpatients taking herbal medicine at 7 locations of a Korean medicine hospital between 2005 and 2013, we screened for liver injury in 6894 patients with liver function tests (LFTs) at admission and discharge. LFTs included t-bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP. Liver injury at discharge was assessed by LFT result classifications at admission (liver injury, liver function abnormality, and normal liver function). In analyses for risk factors of liver injury at discharge, we adjusted for age, sex, length of stay, conventional medicine intake, HBs antigen/antibody, and liver function at admission. A total 354 patients (prevalence 5.1%) had liver injury at admission, and 217 (3.1%) at discharge. Of the 354 patients with liver injury at admission, only 9 showed a clinically significant increase after herbal medicine intake, and 225 returned to within normal range or showed significant liver function recovery. Out of 4769 patients with normal liver function at admission, 27 (0.6%) had liver injury at discharge. In multivariate analyses for risk factors, younger age, liver function abnormality at admission, and HBs antigen positive were associated with injury at discharge. The prevalence of liver injury in patients with normal liver function taking herbal medicine for musculoskeletal disease was low, and herbal medicine did not exacerbate liver injury in most patients with injury prior to intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pichini, Simona; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Bellotti, Pasquale; Minutillo, Adele; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Pacifici, Roberta
A pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal has been performed analyzing best selling drugs from an official pharmacy and a street market in two principal cities of Senegal and some traditional preparations from herbal medicine from the same market. A simple and rapid gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction of pharmaceutical products and traditional preparations at acidic, neutral and basic pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1, v/v). The assay was validated in the range from 10mg to 250 mg/g powder preparations with good determination coefficients (r(2)≥ 0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, mean recoveries of substances under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were always better than 15%. The four best selling drugs purchased from a Dakar local pharmacy exactly contained the amount of active principles reported in the respective labels while the best selling drugs freely purchased from Kaolack market contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label. No pharmacological active compound, but salicylic acid was found in one of the traditional herbal preparations. This pilot study showed that whereas official drugs sold in pharmacies at prices accessible for a very few portion of the population contained the amount of active principles as reported in the labels, those from street market bought by the majority of population contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label and finally traditional herbal preparations seldom contain pharmacological active principles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mehrabani, Mehrnaz; Seyyedkazemi, Seyyed Mohsen; Nematollahi, Mohammad Hadi; Jafari, Elham; Mehrabani, Mitra; Mehdipour, Mohammad; Sheikhshoaee, Zahra; Mandegary, Ali
Background A combination of the oils of sesame, hemp, wild pistachio, and walnut has been used for treatment of skin disorders, including wound burns, in some parts of Kerman, Iran. Evaluation of this remedy in the form of a pharmaceutical formulation in animal models can pave the way for its future application in wound burn healing in humans. Objectives This experimental study investigated the healing potential of a new formula (NF) based on folk medicine from Iran for the treatment of third degree burns in mice. The formula was a combination of the oils of four plants: sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.), hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), and walnut (Juglans regia L.) Methods Twenty-four mice were selected based on simple random sampling. Twenty-five percent of the total body surface area was burned by exposure to boiling water, according to the Walker-Mason method. NF and silver sulfadiazine (the positive control) were applied topically twice a day for 21 days. The burned area in the negative control group was left untreated. Epithelialization time and the percent of wound contraction were measured during the treatment period. The process of wound repairing was evaluated using histological (H and E and trichrome staining) and immunohistological (anti-pancytokeratin) methods. Results When compared to the controls, NF significantly improved wound contraction after day 10. Epithelialization time in the NF group was significantly faster than in the other groups (20 vs. 25.5 days) (P < 0.001). Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the efficacy of the NF. Conclusions A new therapeutic remedy was introduced for the treatment of burn wounds. Further clinical and molecular studies are suggested to determine the exact mechanism(s) involved in the burn wound healing effect of NF. PMID:28191338
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Using the Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine Saikokeishikankyoto: A Randomized, Observer-Blinded, Controlled Trial in Survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami
GunFan, Shen; Takahashi, Satomi; Monma, Yasutake; Kuroda, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Junichi; Nara, Masayuki; Kagaya, Yutaka; Ishii, Tadashi; Kohzuki, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Koh
The Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami caused immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan. Hence, many survivors are at high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of the traditional Japanese herbal formula saikokeishikankyoto (SKK) in the treatment of PTSD among survivors of this disaster. Forty-three participants with an Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) score ≥ 25 were randomized into SKK (n = 21) and control (n = 22) groups. The primary endpoint was the change in IES-R scores from baseline till after 2 weeks of treatment. Intergroup statistical comparisons were performed. The magnitude of changes in total IES-R scores differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that the total IES-R score improved significantly in the SKK group from 49.6 ± 11.9 to 25.5 ± 17.0 (P < 0.001). Subscale scores improved significantly in the SKK group (avoidance, P = 0.003; hyperarousal, P < 0.001; intrusion, P < 0.001). Two-week treatment with SKK significantly improved IES-R scores among PTSD patients. This traditional medicine may be a valid choice for the treatment of psychological and physical symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:24790634
Li, Xiaohang; Cui, Jin; Ding, Jianqing; Wang, Ying; Zeng, Xianglu; Ling, Yun; Shen, Xiaoheng; Chen, Shengdi; Huang, Chenggang; Pei, Gang
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe disease-modifying treatment and symptomatic intervention alternatives against AD. Smart Soup (SS), a Chinese medicine formula composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT), Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP) and Radix Polygalae (RP), is a typical prescription against memory deficits. Here, we assessed the efficacy of SS against AD. Oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD transgenic mice, with reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss in the brains of AD mice. Consistently, SS treatment reduced amyloid-related locomotor dysfunctions and premature death of AD transgenic Drosophila. Mechanistic studies showed that RP reduced Aβ generation, whereas AT and PRP exerted neuroprotective effects against Aβ. Taken together, our study indicates that SS could be effective against AD, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against the disease. PMID:25386946
Huang, Jinxia; Wang, Junfa; Yu, Yonghong
This article aims to design a kind of gripping-belt speed automatic tracking system of traditional Chinese herbal harvester by AT89C52 single-chip micro computer as a core combined with fuzzy PID control algorithm. The system can adjust the gripping-belt speed in accordance with the variation of the machine's operation, so there is a perfect matching between the machine operation speed and the gripping-belt speed. The harvesting performance of the machine can be improved greatly. System design includes hardware and software.
Casey, M G; Adams, J; Sibbritt, D
To describe the patterns of prescription and dispensing of herbal medicines employed by Western herbal practitioners in Australia. A national postal survey sent to all full members of the National Herbalist Association of Australia (NHAA). Nationwide clinics of professional herbal practitioners in Australia. Measures of medicinal use were collected including aspects of prescription, formulation, dispensing and preparation forms of medicines used. The practitioners were asked if they dispensed their own medicines, about the form of herbal preparations used, aspects of formulation and dosages. The predominant prescription by most Western herbal practitioners in Australia is individualised herbal formulae rather than the use of single herbs. Traditional preparations of herbals such as teas and powders are used but liquid herbal extracts are most commonly dispensed. These liquid medicines are in the form of highly concentrated fluid extracts in ratios of 1:1 or 1:2, herb material to liquid. Pre-formulated tablets or capsules made by herbal manufacturers are being incorporated into modern practice but most prescriptions are individualised liquid formulae prepared and dispensed, from the clinic dispensary, after patient consultation. In addition to internal prescriptions, topical creams, pessaries, douches, gargles, eyebaths and poultices or washes are still incorporated into treatments. Although there is variation in used dosage ranges, the predominant system is that of pharmacologically active doses of highly concentrated fluid extracts. The professional prescription of Western herbal medicines is different to commercial usage. As opposed to pre-formulated tablets, or use of single herbals, the vast majority of Western herbalists in Australia construct individualised herbal formulations for their patients after consultation. The preferred form of administration of these prescriptions is as highly concentrated liquid herbal extracts in pharmacologically active doses.
Xiaoshan, Wang; Zhixi, Li; Liang, Liang; Shuchun, Luo; Xia, Wang; Yuyi, Wang; Feng, Luo
Abstract Objective: A case series is presented to investigate the efficacy and safety of Erhegao for patients with breast cancer who have radiotherapy-induced moist desquamation. Eighteen women with breast cancer who received radiotherapy and developed moist desquamation were enrolled. Erhegao cream, a Traditional Chinese Medicine formula consisting of zinc oxide powder, calamine powder, and lithospermum oil, was applied on areas of moist desquamation. Application was repeated once a day until healing. The primary end point for efficacy was the time to healing of the moist desquamation areas. A numerical rating scale was used to measure wound pain relief daily. Incidence of toxicity was also assessed. The average time to healing of the moist desquamation area was 13.56 days. The mean pain scores on the first, third, and seventh days were 5.22, 2.94, and 0.83, respectively. Eight-three percent of patients reported pain relief after the first 3 days, and 94%, after the first week. The mean daily reduction in the pain score was 0.40. None of the patients developed clinical infections or reported any toxicity. This formula is effective and safe, especially for pain relief, and may be an alternative treatment for radiotherapy-induced moist desquamation in patients with breast cancer. Future randomized, controlled studies are needed to better evaluate the efficacy of Erhegao cream.
Park, Hwayong; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yang, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyun-Kyu; Song, Kyung Seuk; Ma, Jin Yeul
Guibi-tang (Guipi-tang in Chinese and Kihi-to in Japanese) is a multi-herb traditional medicine commonly prescribed to treat psychoneurosis in East Asia. Although this medicine has been widely used, there is little available information on the safety and toxicity of Guibi-tang, especially on the fermented one. Guibi-tang, composed of 12 herbs, was fermented with bacteria and lyophilized. Single dose acute toxicity in rats was observed for 14 days after administration. Genetic toxicity of fermented Guibi-tang was evaluated on bacterial reverse mutation in Salmonella and Escherichia spp., chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and micronucleus formation in mice. Ingredients in FGBT were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In acute oral toxicity study, behavior, clinical signs and body weight changes were normal observing in all experimental animals. No revertant colonies were found in any bacterial cultures examined. Morphological or numerical anomalies and significant increased number of aberrant metaphases were not observed. Micronucleus assay showed no significant increases in the frequency of inducing micronuclei in any dose examined. Decursinol, decursin, glycyrrhizin, and 6-gingerol in fermented Guibi-tang were identified and quantitated. As a whole, no acute and genotoxic effects were found in all the assays and parameters analyzed. Fermented Guibi-tang was recognized as safe and non-toxic, and therefore can be used for applications of traditional medicine in modern complementary and alternative therapeutics and health care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Li; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Shen, Hong; Mao, Qian; Kong, Ming; Zou, Ye-Ting; Xu, Ya-Yun; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin
Exploring processing chemistry, in particular the chemical transformation mechanisms involved, is a key step to elucidate the scientific basis in traditional processing of herbal medicines. Previously, taking Rehmanniae Radix (RR) as a case study, the holistic chemome (secondary metabolome and glycome) difference between raw and processed RR was revealed by integrating hyphenated chromatographic techniques-based targeted glycomics and untargeted metabolomics. Nevertheless, the complex chemical transformation mechanisms underpinning the holistic chemome variation in RR processing remain to be extensively clarified. As a continuous study, here a novel strategy by combining chemomics-based marker compounds mining and mimetic processing is proposed for further exploring the chemical mechanisms involved in herbal processing. First, the differential marker compounds between raw and processed herbs were rapidly discovered by untargeted chemomics-based mining approach through multivariate statistical analysis of the chemome data obtained by integrated metabolomics and glycomics analysis. Second, the marker compounds were mimetically processed under the simulated physicochemical conditions as in the herb processing, and the final reaction products were chemically characterized by targeted chemomics-based mining approach. Third, the main chemical transformation mechanisms involved were clarified by linking up the original marker compounds and their mimetic processing products. Using this strategy, a set of differential marker compounds including saccharides, glycosides and furfurals in raw and processed RR was rapidly found, and the major chemical mechanisms involved in RR processing were elucidated as stepwise transformations of saccharides (polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and monosaccharides) and glycosides (iridoid glycosides and phenethylalcohol glycosides) into furfurals (glycosylated/non-glycosylated hydroxymethylfurfurals) by deglycosylation and/or dehydration. The
Vogl, Sylvia; Picker, Paolo; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dirsch, Verena M.; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte
Ethnopharmacological relevance In Austria, like in most Western countries, knowledge about traditional medicinal plants is becoming scarce. Searching the literature concerning Austria's ethnomedicine reveals its scant scientific exploration. Aiming to substantiate the potential of medicinal plants traditionally used in Austria, 63 plant species or genera with claimed anti-inflammatory properties listed in the VOLKSMED database were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Material and methods 71 herbal drugs from 63 plant species or genera were extracted using solvents of varying polarities and subsequently depleted from the bulk constituents, chlorophylls and tannins to avoid possible interferences with the assays. The obtained 257 extracts were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The expression of the inflammatory mediators E-selectin and interleukin-8 (IL-8), induced by the inflammatory stimuli tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured in endothelial cells. The potential of the extracts to activate the nuclear factors PPARα and PPARγ and to inhibit TNF-α-induced activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in HEK293 cells was determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. Results In total, extracts from 67 of the 71 assessed herbal drugs revealed anti-inflammatory activity in the applied in vitro test systems. Thereby, 30 could downregulate E-selectin or IL-8 gene expression, 28 were strong activators of PPARα or PPARγ (inducing activation of more than 2-fold at a concentration of 10 µg/mL) and 21 evoked a strong inhibition of NF-κB (inhibition of more than 80% at 10 µg/mL). Conclusion Our research supports the efficacy of herbal drugs reported in Austrian folk medicine used for ailments associated with inflammatory processes. Hence, an ethnopharmacological screening approach is a useful tool for the discovery of new drug leads. PMID:23770053
Li, Panlin; Su, Weiwei; Yun, Sha; Liao, Yiqiu; Liao, Yinyin; Liu, Hong; Li, Peibo; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Wei; Yao, Hongliang
Since traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a complex mixture of multiple components, the application of methodologies for evaluating single-components Western medicine in TCM studies may have certain limitations. Appropriate strategies that recognize the integrality of TCM and connect to TCM theories remain to be developed. Here we use multiple unique approaches to study the scientific connotation of a TCM formula Dan-hong injection (DHI) without undermining its prescription integrity. The blood circulation improving and healing promoting effects of DHI were assessed by a qi stagnation blood stasis rat model and a mouse model of laser irradiation induced cerebral microvascular thrombosis. By UFLC-PDA-Triple Q-TOF-MS/MS and relevance analysis between chemical characters and biological effects, 82 chemical constituents and nine core components, whose blood circulation promoting effects were found comparable to that of whole DHI, were successfully identified. What’s more, the rationality of DHI prescription compatibility could be reflected not only in the maximum efficacy of the original ratio, but also in the interactions of compounds from different ingredient herbs, such as complementary activities and facilitating tissues distribution. This study provides scientific evidences in explanation of the clinical benefits of DHI, and also gives a good demonstration for the comprehensive evaluation of other TCM. PMID:28393856
A herbal formula comprising Rosae Multiflorae Fructus and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators and the IRAK-1/TAK1 and TBK1/IRF3 pathways in RAW 264.7 and THP-1 cells.
Cheng, Brian Chi Yan; Yu, Hua; Su, Tao; Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Guo, Hui; Li, Ting; Cao, Hui-Hui; Tse, Anfernee Kai-Wing; Kwan, Hiu-Yee; Yu, Zhi-Ling
As documented in the Chinese Materia Medica Grand Dictionary (), a herbal formula (RL) consisting of Rosae Multiflorae Fructus (multiflora rose hips) and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Japanese honeysuckle flowers) has traditionally been used in treating inflammatory disorders. RL was previously reported to inhibit the expression of various inflammatory mediators regulated by NF-κB and MAPKs that are components of the TLR4 signalling pathways. This study aims to provide further justification for clinical application of RL in treating inflammatory disorders by further delineating the involvement of the TLR4 signalling cascades in the effects of RL on inflammatory mediators. RL consisting of Rosae Multiflorae Fructus and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (in 5:3 ratio) was extracted using absolute ethanol. We investigated the effect of RL on the production of cytokines and chemokines that are regulated by three key transcription factors of the TLR4 signalling pathways AP-1, NF-κB and IRF3 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells using the multiplex biometric immunoassay. Phosphorylation of AP-1, NF-κB, IRF3, IκB-α, IKKα/β, Akt, TAK1, TBK1, IRAK-1 and IRAK-4 were examined in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and THP-1 cells using Western blotting. Nuclear localizations of AP-1, NF-κB and IRF3 were also examined using Western blotting. RL reduced the secretion of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines regulated by transcription factors AP-1, NF-κB and IRF3. Phosphorylation and nuclear protein levels of these transcription factors were decreased by RL treatment. Moreover, RL inhibited the activation/phosphorylation of IκB-α, IKKα/β, TAK1, TBK1 and IRAK-1. Suppression of the IRAK-1/TAK1 and TBK1/IRF3 signalling pathways was associated with the effect of RL on inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells. This provides further pharmacological basis for the clinical application of RL in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier
Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise
Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional
Bampali, Evangelia; Graikou, Konstantia; Aligiannis, Nektarios
The chemical composition, as well as the total phenolic content (TPC) and the potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, of three Kainari-herbal tea samples from different areas of Lesvos Island (Greece) was evaluated. The rich aroma of the mixtures was studied through GC-MS, as well as through Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME)/GC-MS analyses. Cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, pepper, and ginger were identified as main ingredients, while, throughout the chemical analysis of the volatiles of one selected sample, several secondary metabolites have been isolated and identified on the basis of GC-MS as well as spectral evidence as eugenol, cinnamic aldehyde and myristicin, cinnamyl alcohol, alpha-terpinyl acetate, and β-caryophyllene. Furthermore, two food dyes, azorubine and amaranth, were also isolated and identified from the infusions. The total phenolic content was estimated and the free radical scavenging activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays and the antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested showing a very interesting profile against all the assayed microorganisms. Due to its very pleasant aroma and taste properties as well as to its bioactivities, Kainari-herbal tea could be further proposed as functional beverage. PMID:29681979
Lu, Peng; Chen, Chang; Fu, Meihong; Fang, Jing; Gao, Jian; Zhu, Li; Liang, Rixin; Shen, Xin; Yang, Hongjun
Recently, the pharmaceutical industry has shifted to pursuing combination therapies that comprise more than one active ingredient. Interestingly, combination therapies have been used for more than 2500 years in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Understanding optimal proportions and synergistic mechanisms of multi-component drugs are critical for developing novel strategies to combat complex diseases. A new multi-objective optimization algorithm based on least angle regression-partial least squares was proposed to construct the predictive model to evaluate the synergistic effect of the three components of a novel combination drug Yi-qi-jie-du formula (YJ), which came from clinical TCM prescription for the treatment of encephalopathy. Optimal proportion of the three components, ginsenosides (G), berberine (B) and jasminoidin (J) was determined via particle swarm optimum. Furthermore, the combination mechanisms were interpreted using PLS VIP and principal components analysis. The results showed that YJ had optimal proportion 3(G): 2(B): 0.5(J), and it yielded synergy in the treatment of rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion induced focal cerebral ischemia. YJ with optimal proportion had good pharmacological effects on acute ischemic stroke. The mechanisms study demonstrated that the combination of G, B and J could exhibit the strongest synergistic effect. J might play an indispensable role in the formula, especially when combined with B for the acute stage of stroke. All these data in this study suggested that in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, besides restoring blood supply and protecting easily damaged cells in the area of the ischemic penumbra as early as possible, we should pay more attention to the removal of the toxic metabolites at the same time. Mathematical system modeling may be an essential tool for the analysis of the complex pharmacological effects of multi-component drug. The powerful mathematical analysis method could greatly
Hun Lee, Jong; Shu, Limin; Fuentes, Francisco; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Tony Kong, Ah-Ng
Excessive oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and reactive metabolites of carcinogens alters cellular homeostasis, leading to genetic/epigenetic changes, genomic instability, neoplastic transformation, and cancer initiation/progression. As a protective mechanism against oxidative stress, antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes reduce these reactive species and protect normal cells from endo-/exogenous oxidative damage. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidative stress response, plays a critical role in the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Recent studies demonstrated that many dietary phytochemicals derived from various vegetables, fruits, spices, and herbal medicines induce Nrf2-mediated antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes, restore aberrant epigenetic alterations, and eliminate cancer stem cells (CSCs). The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response prevents many age-related diseases, including cancer. Owing to their fundamental contribution to carcinogenesis, epigenetic modifications and CSCs are novel targets of dietary phytochemicals and traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). In this review, we summarize cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals, including TCHM, which have great potential as a safer and more effective strategy for preventing cancer. PMID:24716158
Hun Lee, Jong; Shu, Limin; Fuentes, Francisco; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Tony Kong, Ah-Ng
Excessive oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and reactive metabolites of carcinogens alters cellular homeostasis, leading to genetic/epigenetic changes, genomic instability, neoplastic transformation, and cancer initiation/progression. As a protective mechanism against oxidative stress, antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes reduce these reactive species and protect normal cells from endo-/exogenous oxidative damage. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidative stress response, plays a critical role in the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes, including quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Recent studies demonstrated that many dietary phytochemicals derived from various vegetables, fruits, spices, and herbal medicines induce Nrf2-mediated antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes, restore aberrant epigenetic alterations, and eliminate cancer stem cells (CSCs). The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response prevents many age-related diseases, including cancer. Owing to their fundamental contribution to carcinogenesis, epigenetic modifications and CSCs are novel targets of dietary phytochemicals and traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). In this review, we summarize cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals, including TCHM, which have great potential as a safer and more effective strategy for preventing cancer.
A computational and functional study elicits the ameliorating effect of the Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan on experimental ischemia-induced myocardial injury in rats via inhibition of apoptosis.
Han, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Wei; Ye, Hang-Cheng; Xu, Ying-Zi; Huang, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Shu-Feng
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and remains a major life-threatening factor in humans. Apoptosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of IHD. The Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), one of the commonly used Chinese herbal formulas, consists of Salviae miltiorrhizae, Angelica sinensis, Gummi olibanum, and Commiphora myrrha, with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activity. However, the mechanism of action and molecular targets of HLXLD in the treatment of IHD are unclear. This study aimed to computationally predict the molecular interactions between the major active components of HLXLD and key regulators of apoptosis and then examine the effect of HLXLD on coronary artery ligation-induced acute myocardial ischemia in rats. The molecular interactions between the major active components of HLXLD, including ferulic acid, ligustilide, succinic acid, vanillic acid, tanshinone IIA, tanshinone IIB, danshensu, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid C, protocatechuic aldehyde, and β-boswellic acid and human protein molecules including B cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl), B cell lymphoma 2 antagonist/killer 1 (Bak1), B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), procaspase 3, and caspase 9 with regard to hydrogen bond formation, charge interaction, and π-π stacking using Discovery Studio(®) program 3.1. The 12 HLXLD components were predicted by ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) Predictor to have favorable pharmacokinetic and low hepatotoxicity profiles. The acute myocardial ischemia was established by surgical ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The rats were divided into a sham operative group, a model group, a positive control group treated with 0.2 mg/kg isosorbide mononitrate, and groups treated with 2.7, 5.4, or 10.8 g/kg HLXLD. The results showed that administration of HLXLD increased mean arterial pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure, heart rate, and maximal rate
Zhu, Zhi; Song, Zhen-Hui; Cao, Li-Ting; Wang, Yong; Zhou, Wen-Zhang; Zhou, Pei; Zuo, Fu-Yuan
This study was conducted to evaluate effects of traditional Chinese medicine formula (TCMF) combined with several herbs on ruminal fermentation, enzyme activities and nutrient digestibility. Twenty finishing bulls were assigned to control or different TCMFs (Yufeisan-1, -2, -3; 2.5% dry matter (DM) in concentrate). Results showed that DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) in the Yufeisan-3 group than others. Compared to control, apparent digestibility of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were increased (P < 0.05) by Yufeisan-3. No changes were observed in ruminal pH, concentrations of ammonia-N, microbial crude protein and total volatile fatty acid, whereas ratio of acetate to propionate was lower (P < 0.05) and propionate proportion tended to be higher (P < 0.1) in three TCMFs than control. Ruminal xylanase (P = 0.061) and carboxymethylcellulase (P < 0.05) activities were higher in Yufeisan-3 than control. No changes were observed in abundance of total bacteria, fungi and protozoa, whereas Fibrobacter succinogenes (P = 0.062) and Ruminococcus flavefaciens (P < 0.05) were increased and total methanogens was reduced (P = 0.069) by Yufeisan-3 compared to control. Yufeisan-3 improved nutrient digestibility and ruminal enzyme activity, and modified fermentation and microbial community, maybe due to the presence of Herba agastaches, Cortex phellodendri and Gypsum fibrosum. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Ma, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaoyu; Song, Yuelin; Qiao, Lirui; Wang, Wenguang; Zhao, Mingbo; Tu, Pengfei; Jiang, Yong
Clarification of the chemical composition of traditional Chinese medicine formulas (TCMFs) is a challenge due to the variety of structures and the complexity of plant matrices. Herein, an integrated strategy was developed by hyphenating ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF), hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (Qtrap-MS), and the novel post-acquisition data processing software UNIFI to achieve automatic, rapid, accurate, and comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chemical components in TCMFs. As a proof-of-concept, the chemical profiling of Baoyuan decoction (BYD), which is an ancient TCMF that is clinically used for the treatment of coronary heart disease that consists of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle, and Cinnamomi Cortex, was performed. As many as 236 compounds were plausibly or unambiguously identified, and 175 compounds were quantified or relatively quantified by the scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) method. The findings demonstrate that the strategy integrating the rapidity of UNIFI software, the efficiency of UPLC, the accuracy of Q-TOF-MS, and the sensitivity and quantitation ability of Qtrap-MS provides a method for the efficient and comprehensive chemome characterization and quality control of complex TCMFs.
... used for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... extracts, and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...
... Recipes Nutrition Information Prevention Guidelines Home > Health Library Herbal Medicine See related health topics and resources Diseases and ... to treat a specific condition, such as depression. Herbal supplements, unlike medicines, are not required to be standardized to ensure ...
Son, Mi Ju; Im, Hwi-Jin; Kim, Young-Eun; Ku, Boncho; Lee, Jun-Hwan; Son, Chang-Gue
Many herbal medicines are traditionally used as anti-fatigue agents in east Asian countries; however, there is a dearth of clinical evidence supporting the anti-fatigue effects of such medicines and their mechanisms. This study is a feasibility trial to assess the clinical efficacy of Gongjin-dan (GJD) and verify its mechanisms by exploring fatigue outcomes, including endocrine and immunological biomarkers in humans. To investigate the anti-fatigue effects of GJD and the mechanism underlying these effects, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial was designed. Participants (24 healthy male volunteers) will be hospitalised for 4 days (3 nights), during which acute fatigue and stress conditions will be induced by sleep deprivation, and GJD or a placebo will be administered (twice daily). The primary outcome will be changes in serum cortisol levels, measured in the morning, as an objective biomarker of sleep deprivation-induced fatigue and stress. The secondary outcomes will include: the Fatigue Severity Scale; the Brief Fatigue Inventory, and the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire scores; levels of salivary cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, oxidative stress-related biomarkers, homocysteine, and immunological factors; and heart rate variability. After a washout period of more than 4 weeks, a second treatment phase will commence in which participants who were previously administered the placebo will receive the drug and vice versa, following the same treatment regime as in the first phase. This study protocol provides a unique opportunity to enhance our understanding of fatigue and the effects of GJD on fatigue in terms of endocrine and immunological mechanisms by validating the study design and determining feasibility. Findings from this trial will help researchers to design a pilot or definitive clinical trial of traditional herbal medicine for chronic fatigue. Korean National Clinical Trial Registry CRIS; KCT0001681
Chan, Kelvin; Shaw, Debbie; Simmonds, Monique S J; Leon, Christine J; Xu, Qihe; Lu, Aiping; Sutherland, Ian; Ignatova, Svetlana; Zhu, You-Ping; Verpoorte, Rob; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Duez, Pierre
resulted in the compilation of (i) a robust scoring system and (ii) a set of minimum standards for publishing in the herbal medicines field, based on an analysis of the main problems identified in published TCM literature. Good quality, peer-reviewed literature is crucial in maintaining the integrity and the reputation of the herbal scientific community and promoting good research in TCM. These guidelines provide a clear starting point for this important endeavour. They also provide a platform for adaptation, as appropriate, to other systems of traditional medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asabere-Ameyaw, Akwasi; Sefa Dei, George J.; Raheem, Kolawole
This article presents the preliminary findings of a pilot study of the practice, uses, and effectiveness of traditional medicine in Ghana. Based on in-depth interviews with local key practitioners and users of traditional medicine, the article points to some of the educational significance of local cultural knowledge on the environment and the…
This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners’ products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional
This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners' products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional
Yan, Yuhe; Liu, Wali; Andres, Philippe; Pernin, Colette; Chantalat, Laurent; Briantais, Philippe; Lin, Albert; Feng, Lilian
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal ointment, Shi Du Ruan Gao, in patients with plaque-type psoriasis. Design. Single-center, randomized, investigator-blinded, parallel group, placebo-controlled study. Participants. One hundred outpatients with mild to moderate chronic plaque-type psoriasis were enrolled. Intervention. The patients applied either Shi Du Ruan Gao ointment or vehicle ointment topically to for 8 weeks. Main Outcome Measures. The outcomes were assessed using the following criteria: Total Severity Score (TSS, sum of erythema, scaling, and plaque elevation/induration, on a 0 to 4 scale), Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) evaluated on a 0 (Clear) to 4 (s to very severe) scale, and Global Subjects' Assessment of treatment response on a 7-point scale from −1 (worse) to 5 (Cleared). Results. Significant reductions in the Total Severity Score (P < 0.001) (mean score: 2.7 after Shi Du Ruan Gao treatment versus 5.1 in control subjects). Both Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) and Global Subjects' Assessment of treatment are better in the Shi Du Ruan Gao group than the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Shi Du Ruan Gao ointment was a safe, and effective therapy for plaque-type psoriasis. PMID:25834623
Wang, Shijun; Tang, Qiaofei; Qian, Wei; Fan, Yu
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for the prevention and treatment of persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR), but results are still equivocal. This study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of CHM in patients with PAR. Databases searched included articles published in the Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang database from 1999 to 2011. The studies included were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CHM to placebo if they included patients with PAR. The main outcomes were the changes in the standardized mean difference (SMD) of nasal symptom scores and total serum IgE level. Methodological quality was assessed by the modified Jadad's scale. Seven RCTs with 533 patients were identified and analyzed. In the meta-analysis, CHM reduced the total nasal symptom scores compared to placebo (SMD, -1.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.03 to -0.62; P = 0.003). The effect estimate was in favor of the CHM intervention (SMD, -1.09; 95% CI, -2.74 to 0.55) in reducing the total serum IgE level, although this was not significant (P = 0.19). CHM interventions appear to have beneficial effects in patients with PAR. However, the published efficacy studies are too small to draw firm conclusion. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Endo, Mari; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Tetsuro; Hanawa, Toshihiko
Daikenchuto (DKT), a gastrointestinal prokinetic Japanese herbal medicine, is prescribed for patients with postoperative ileus (POI) and adhesive bowel obstruction following abdominal surgery. Several mechanisms for the amelioration of POI by DKT have been suggested; however, it has remained unclear whether DKT shows anti-inflammatory effects in POI. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DKT in a mouse POI model and attempted to clarify the detailed mechanisms of action. Intestinal manipulation (IM) was applied to the distal ileum of mice. DKT was administered orally to the animals 4 times before and after IM. Gastrointestinal transit in vivo, leukocyte infiltration, cytokine mRNA expression and gastrointestinal motility were analyzed. We also investigated the effects of the α7nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine citrate (MLA) on the DKT-mediated ameliorative action against POI, and we studied the effects of DKT on inflammatory activity in α7nAChR knockout mice. DKT treatment led to recovery of the delayed intestinal transit induced by IM. DKT significantly inhibited the infiltration of neutrophils and CD68-positive macrophages, and inhibited mRNA expressions of TNF-α and MCP-1. MLA significantly reduced the anti-inflammatory action of DKT, and the amelioration of macrophage infiltration by DKT was partially suppressed in α7nAChR knockout mice. In conclusion, in addition to the gastrointestinal prokinetic action, DKT serves as a novel therapeutic agent for POI characterized by its anti-inflammatory potency. The DKT-induced anti-inflammatory activity may be partly mediated by activation of α7nAChR.
Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki
This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (神農本草經 Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110
Koon, Ho Kee; Fan, Wen; Wei, Wei; Xu, Chuanshan
Progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). The efficacy of these currently used drugs is limited while traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in the management of neurodegenerative diseases for many years. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of a modified traditional Chinese herbal medicine decoction, Cong Rong Jing (CRJ), on cell survival and apoptosis of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium- (MPP+-) treated MES23.5 dopaminergic cells. CRJ was prepared as a decoction from three Chinese herbs, namely, Herba Cistanches, Herba Epimedii, and Rhizoma Polygonati. We reported here that CRJ significantly enhanced the cell survival of MES23.5 cells after the exposure of MPP+ and inhibited the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by MPP+. CRJ also prevented the MPP+-treated MES23.5 cells from apoptosis by reducing the externalization of phosphatidylserine and enhancing the Bcl-2/Bax protein expression ratio. Signaling proteins such as JAK2, STAT3, and ERK1/2 were also involved in the action of CRJ. Taken together, these results provide a preliminary mechanism to support clinical application of the TCM formulation in PD and possibly other neurodegenerative diseases associated with ROS injury and apoptosis. PMID:28607800
Sarris, Jerome; Ng, Chee Hong; Schweitzer, Isaac
The field of genetics, which includes the use of 'omic' technologies, is an evolving area of science that has emerging application in phytotherapy. Omic studies include pharmacogenomics, proteomics and metabolomics. Herbal medicines, as monotherapies, or complex formulations such as traditional Chinese herbal prescriptions, may benefit from omic studies, and this new field may be termed 'herbomics'. Applying herbomics in the field of psychiatry may provide answers about which herbal interventions may be effective for individuals, which genetic processes are triggered, and the subsequent neurochemical pathways of activity. The use of proteomic technology can explore the differing epigenetic effects on neurochemical gene expression between individual herbs, isolated constituents and complex formulae. The possibilities of side effects or insufficient response to the herb can also be assessed via pharmacogenomic analysis of polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 liver enzymes or P-glycoprotein. While another novel application of omic technology is for the validation of the concept of synergy in individual herbal extracts and prescriptive formulations. Chronic administration of psychotropic herbal medicines may discover important effects on chromatin remodelling via modification of histone and DNA methylation. This paper focuses on the emerging field of herbomics, and is to our knowledge the first publication to explore this in the area of psychiatry. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zhou, Simin; Dong, Lanlan; He, Yuan; Xiao, Hong
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the unprecedented aging tendency in our world population and has become a significant health issue. The use of Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat AD has been increasing in recent years. The objective of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of combining acupuncture with herbal medicine to treat AD. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture plus herbals versus treatment with western drugs for AD were retrieved from 11 databases. The data were extracted by two authors; dichotomous data were expressed as odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), while continuous data were calculated by mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs. Although the combined analysis of the score of Activity of Daily Life (ADL) scale MD was [Formula: see text]3.59 (95% CI [Formula: see text]7.18-0.01, [Formula: see text]), which indicates there was no statistically significant difference between the two treatments at reducing the ADL scale score, the pooled results of 12 trials indicated that acupuncture plus Chinese herbal medicine was better than western drugs at improving the effectiveness rate (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.40-3.56), the combined evidence of 11 articles showed that acupuncture plus Chinese herbal medicine was more effective than western drugs at improving the scores for the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale (2.10, 95% CI 0.69-3.51, [Formula: see text]) and the traditional Chinese medicine symptom (MD 5.07, 95% CI 3.90-6.25, [Formula: see text]). From the current research results, acupuncture plus herbal medicine may have advantages over western drugs for treating AD. Nevertheless, well-designed RCTs with a larger sample size are required in the future.
Chemical interaction between Lilium brownii and Rhizoma Anemarrhenae, the herbal constituents of Baihe Zhimu decoction, by liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer.
Yang, Bo; Liu, Zhirui; Wang, Qian; Xia, Peiyuan
During the course of decoction, the components of herbal formula interact with each other, such that chemical extraction characteristics are altered. The crude drugs, Lilium brownii (Baihe) and Rhizoma Anemarrhenae (Zhimu), are the herbal constituents of Baihe Zhimu decoction, a traditional herbal formula. To investigate the chemical interaction between Baihe and Zhimu when decocting together, eight marker components in Baihe Zhimu decoction were simultaneously characterized and quantified in one run by a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer in the multiple reactions monitoring-information dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion mode. The results showed that Zhimu significantly suppressed the extraction of phenolic glycosides (the components from Baihe) when co-decocting, and Baihe clearly suppressed the extraction of xanthones and steroidal saponins (the components from Zhimu). Overall, the presently developed method would be a preferred candidate for the investigation of the chemical interaction between herbal medicines. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Takeda, Takashi; Kamiura, Shouji; Kimura, Tadashi
Radiation-induced enteritis is a serious clinical problem for which there is currently no recommended standard management. Daikenchuto (DKT) is a Japanese herbal medicine that has been used to treat adhesive bowel obstruction in Japan. This report describes a patient with radiation-induced enteritis whose clinical symptoms were much improved by treatment with DKT. The patient was administered DKT, a traditional Japanese herbal formula, orally (2.5 g 3 times daily). Abdominal distention was evaluated objectively with computed tomography. Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with radiation-induced enteritis were controlled successfully with DKT treatment. DKT treatment may be useful for the management of radiation-induced enteritis.
Woo, Sang-Mi; Choi, Youn Kyung; Cho, Sung-Gook; Park, Sunju; Ko, Seong-Gyu
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in tumor microenvironment regulate cancer progression and metastases. In breast cancer, macrophage infiltration is correlated with a poor prognosis. While metastatic breast cancer is poor prognostic with a severe mortality, therapeutic options are still limited. In this study, we demonstrate that KSG-002, a new herbal composition of radices Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica gigas, suppresses breast cancer via inhibiting TAM recruitment. KSG-002, an extract of radices Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica gigas at 3 : 1 ratio, respectively, inhibited MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis in nude mice, while KSG-001, another composition (1 : 1 ratio, w/w), enhanced tumor growth, angiogenesis, and pulmonary metastasis, in vivo. KSG-002 further decreased the infiltrated macrophage numbers in xenograft tumor cohorts. In Raw264.7 cells, KSG-002 but not KSG-001 inhibited cell proliferation and migration and reduced TNF-alpha (TNFα) production by inhibiting NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, a combinatorial treatment of KSG-002 with TNFα inhibited a proliferation and migration of both MDA-MB-231 and Raw264.7 cells. Taken together, we conclude that KSG-002 suppresses breast cancer growth and metastasis through targeting NF-κB-mediated TNFα production in macrophages. PMID:23818931
Nagai, Aiko; Shibamoto, Yuta; Ogawa, Keiko
Despite the development of radiotherapy machines and technologies, a proportion of patients suffer from radiation-induced lymphedema. Saireito (SRT) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine that has been used for treating edema and inflammation in conditions such as nephritic disease. This study investigated the effect of SRT on lymphedema caused by radiotherapy. Four patients were treated with SRT at a dose of 9 g/day. The severity of lymphedema was evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4 and Numerical Rating Scale before and after SRT treatment. After the treatment with SRT, 2 of 4 patients (50%) showed apparent improvement in lymphedema. One of the cases had difficulty in wearing the custom-made thermoplastic cast, but after SRT administration, he could wear the mask easily. One case decided to stop taking SRT 3 days after initiation because cough and fever appeared. In conclusion, it is important to control the side effects of radiotherapy, which leads to improved tumor control rates. Prospective randomized studies are necessary to confirm the findings of this case series study.
Kim, Doeun; Kim, Jung Nam; Nam, Joo Hyun; Lee, Jong Rok; Kim, Sang Chan; Kim, Byung Joo
The Gamisoyo-san (GSS) has been used for -improving the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of GSS, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on the pacemaker potentials of mouse small intestinal interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). ICCs from the small intestines were dissociated and cultured. Whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record pacemaker potentials and membrane currents. GSS depolarized ICC pacemaker potentials in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with 4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide completely inhibited GSS-induced pacemaker potential depolarizations. Intracellular GDP-β-S inhibited GSS-induced effects, and in the presence of U-73122, GSS-induced effects were inhibited. Also, GSS in the presence of a Ca2+-free solution or thapsigargin did not depolarize pacemaker potentials. However, in the presence of calphostin C, GSS slightly depolarized pacemaker potentials. Furthermore, GSS inhibited both transient receptor potential melastatin7 and Ca2+-activated Cl- channel (anoctamin1) currents. GSS depolarized pacemaker potentials of ICCs via G protein and muscarinic M3 receptor signaling pathways and through internal or external Ca2+-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-dependent and transient receptor potential melastatin 7-, and anoctamin 1-independent pathways. The study shows that GSS may regulate GI tract motility, suggesting that GSS could be a basis for developing novel prokinetic agents for treating GI motility dysfunctions. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Zhang, Lei; Wu, Chengyu; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Fang; Wang, Xiaoen; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M.
Unlike Western medicine that generally uses purified compounds and aims to target a single molecule or pathway, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compositions usually comprise multiple herbs and components that are necessary for efficacy. Despite the very long-time and wide-spread use of TCM, there are very few direct comparisons of TCM and standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the present report, we compared the efficacy of the TCM herbal mixture LQ against lung cancer in mouse models with doxorubicin (DOX) and cyclophosphamide (CTX). LQ inhibited tumor size and weight measured directly as well as by fluorescent-protein imaging in subcutaneous, orthotopic, spontaneous experimental metastasis and angiogenesis mouse models of lung cancer. LQ was efficacious against primary and metastatic lung cancer without weight loss and organ toxicity. In contrast, CTX and DOX, although efficacious in the lung cancer models caused significant weight loss, and organ toxicity. LQ also had anti-angiogenic activity as observed in lung tumors growing in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) transgenic nude mice, which selectively express GFP in nascent blood vessels. Survival of tumor-bearing mice was also prolonged by LQ, comparable to DOX. In vitro, lung cancer cells were killed by LQ as observed by time-lapse imaging, comparable to cisplatinum. LQ was more potent to induce cell death on cancer cell lines than normal cell lines unlike cytotoxic chemotherapy. The results indicate that LQ has non-toxic efficacy against metastatic lung cancer. PMID:25286158
Weon, Jin Bae; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul; Ma, Choong Je
Background: Bangpungtongsung-san, one of the traditional herbal medicines, was known to be a prescription for obesity. Objective: For the simultaneous determination of five components (paeoniflorin, 6-gingerol, decursin, geniposide, and glycyrrhizin) in Bangpungtongsung-san, a high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector method was established. Materials and Methods: To develop the method, a reverse phase column, DIONEX C 18 (5 μm, 120 µ, 4.6 mm × 150 mm) was used. The mobile phase consisted of methanol and water using a gradient elution. The UV wavelength was set at 230, 240, and 254 nm. Method validation was accomplished by linearity, precision test, and recovery test. Results: All calibration curves of components showed good linearity (R 2 > 0.9959). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.01 to 0.17 μg/ml and 0.04 to 0.53 μg/ml, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) value of precision test, intraday and interday tests were less than 0.43% and 1.26%. In the recovery test, results of accuracy ranged from 95.27% to 107.70% with RSD values less than 2.21%. Conclusion: This developed method was applied to the commercial Bangpungtongsung-san sample and the five marker components were separated effectively without interference of any peaks of components. PMID:21472081
Cisplatin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. However, the development of cisplatin resistance is common. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction (BZYQD), a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, is widely used for the enhancement of antitumor effect in other medications. In this study, we evaluated the effect and drug-resistance reversal mechanism of BZYQD combined with cisplatin on cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells. Our results showed that BZYQD exhibited direct cytotoxic and chemosensitizing effects. Cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin induced intrinsic apoptotic pathways which were measured by condensed nuclear chromatin, Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay, and apoptosis related proteins expression. In addition, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin also activated autophagy, as indicated by an increase in LC3 puncta, classical autophagosomes and/or autolysosomes, and an accumulation of LC3-II and ATG7 protein. Finally, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin resulted in the generation of ROS and scavenging ROS by NAC almost completely suppressing cell death. These results suggest that cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin might reverse cisplatin resistance by inducing ROS accumulation, which activates apoptosis and autophagy by oxidative stress. The combination of BZYQD and cisplatin may represent a novel approach in treatment for NSCLC and thus offer a new target for chemotherapy. PMID:28154825
Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Ortiz-Andrade, Rolffy; Sanchez-Recillas, Amanda; Flores-Guido, José Salvador; Ramírez Camacho, Mario A
Preclinical Research The purpose of this work was to assess the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic properties of an herbal preparation, composed of four vegetal species: Pouteria campechiana (P. campechiana), Chrysophyllum cainito (C. cainito), Citrus limonum (C. limonum), and Annona muricata (A. muricata), that is commonly used in combination (PCCA) in traditional Mayan medicine for the treatment of diabetes and pain. An ethanolic extract of PCCA was prepared at a ratio of 1:1:1:1 for each plant. The systemic antinociceptive effect of PCCA extract (50-600 mg/kg, p.o.) was dose-dependent in the rat formalin (1%) producing 66% antinociceptive response at 400 mg/kg, p.o. A concentration-dependent antinociceptive effect of the PCCA extract (20-160 mg/paw) was also demonstrated in the rat capsaicin (0.2%) test. The PCCA extract (100-400 mg/kg, p.o.) had antihyperalgesic effects in alloxan diabetic rats. These findings demonstrate the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects of PCCA and supports the use of the plant extracts in Mayan folk medicine. Drug Dev Res 78 : 91-97, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ohno, Rintaro; Miyagishi, Hiroko; Tsuji, Minoru; Saito, Atsumi; Miyagawa, Kazuya; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Hiroshi
Yokukansan is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine that has been approved in Japan as a remedy for neurosis, insomnia, and irritability in children. It has also been reported to improve behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with various forms of dementia. To evaluate the usefulness of co-treatment with an antidepressant and an herbal medicine in the psychiatric field, the current study examined the effect of yokukansan on the anxiolytic-like effect of fluvoxamine in mice. The anxiolytic-like effect in mice was estimated by the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. Contextual fear conditioning consisted of two sessions, i.e., day 1 for the conditioning session and day 2 for the test session. The expression levels of 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 2A receptor in the mouse brain regions were quantified by western blot analysis. A single administration of fluvoxamine (5-20 mg/kg, i.p.) before the test session dose-dependently and significantly suppressed freezing behavior in mice. In the combination study, a sub-effective dose of fluvoxamine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly suppressed freezing behavior in mice that had been repeatedly pretreated with yokukansan (0.3 and 1 g/kg, p.o.) once a day for 6 days after the conditioning session. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression level of 5-HT 2A receptor was specifically decreased in the prefrontal cortex of mice that had been administered yokukansan and fluvoxamine. Furthermore, microinjection of the 5-HT 2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (5 nmol/mouse) into the prefrontal cortex significantly suppressed freezing behavior. The present findings indicate that repeated treatment with yokukansan synergistically enhances the anxiolytic-like effect of fluvoxamine in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm in mice in conjunction with a decrease in 5-HT 2A receptor-mediated signaling in the prefrontal cortex. Therefore, combination therapy with fluvoxamine and yokukansan may be beneficial for the treatment of
Dinda, Biswanath; Das, Niranjan; Dinda, Subhajit; Dinda, Manikarna; SilSarma, Indrajit
Sida L. (Malvaceae) has been used for centuries in traditional medicines in different countries for the prevention and treatment of different diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, gastrointestinal and urinary infections, malarial and other fevers, childbirth and miscarriage problems, skin ailments, cardiac and neural problems, asthma, bronchitis and other respiratory problems, weight loss aid, rheumatic and other inflammations, tuberculosis, etc. To assess the scientific evidence for therapeutic potential of Sida L. and to identify the gaps of future research needs. The available information on the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Sida species was collected via a library and electronic searches in SciFinder, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar for the period, 1933-2015. A variety of ethnomedicinal uses of Sida species have been found in India, China, Afrian and American countries. Phytochemical investigation of this genus has resulted in identification of about 142 chemical constituents, among which alkaloids, flavonoids and ecdysteroids are the predominant groups. The crude extracts and isolates have exhibited a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects involving antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, abortifacient, neuroprotective, cardiovascular and cardioprotective, antimalarial, antitubercular, antidiabetic and antiobesity, antioxidant and nephroprotective activities among others. Ethnopharmacological preparations containing Sida species as an ingredient in India, African and American countries possess good efficacy in health disorders. From the toxicity perspective, only three Sida species have been assessed and found safe for oral use in rats. Pharmacological results supported some of the uses of Sida species in the traditional medicine. Alkaloids, flavonoids, other phenolics and ecdysteroids were perhaps responsible for the activities of extracts of the plants of this genus. No clinical study
Zhang, Grant G; Lee, Wen-Lin; Lao, Lixing; Bausell, Barker; Berman, Brian; Handwerger, Barry
The consistency of diagnosis made among Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners and the relationship between TCM diagnosis and Chinese herbal prescription have not been adequately examined. To investigate the degree of consistency with which TCM diagnoses and herbal prescriptions can be made by practitioners examining rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. To survey TCM diagnostic patterns and to examine the correlation between herbal prescriptions and these diagnoses for a sample of RA patients. A prospective survey. General Clinical Research Center, University of Maryland Hospital System, Baltimore, MD. Rheumatoid arthritis patients. PRACTITIONERS: Licensed acupuncturists with a minimum of 5 years licensure and education in Chinese herbs. Three TCM practitioners examined the same 39 RA patients separately, following the traditional "Four Diagnostic Methods." Patients filled out a questionnaire to serve as the data for the "Inquiry" component. They then underwent a physical examination, including the tongue and pulse, conducted by each of the practitioners. Based upon the examination results, each practitioner provided both a TCM diagnosis and a herbal prescription. These diagnoses/prescriptions were then examined with respect to the rate of agreement among the 3 practitioners. The average agreement with respect to the TCM diagnoses among the 3 pairs of TCM practitioners was 28.2% (25.6 to 33.3% with kappas ranging from 0.23 to 0.30). The degree to which the herbal prescriptions agreed with textbook recommended practice of each TCM diagnosis was 93.2% (range = 87.2 to 100%). The total agreement on TCM diagnosis on RA patients among 3 TCM practitioners was low. When less stringent, but theoretically justifiable, criteria were employed, greater consensus was obtained among the 3 practitioners. The correspondence between the TCM diagnosis and the herbal formula prescribed for that diagnosis was high, although there was little agreement among the 3 practitioners
Donnapee, Sineeporn; Li, Jin; Yang, Xi; Ge, Ai-hua; Donkor, Paul Owusu; Gao, Xiu-mei; Chang, Yan-xu
Cuscuta chinensis Lam. has found its use as a traditional medicine in China, Korea, Pakistan, Vietnam, India and Thailand. It is commonly used as an anti-aging agent, anti-inflammatory agent, pain reliever and aphrodisiac. To provide an overview of the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology and clinical applications of Cuscuta chinensis, as well as being an evidence base for further research works of the plant. The present review covers the literature available from 1985 to 2014. The information was collected from journals, books, theses and electronic search (Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, ESBCO, Springerlink and CNKI). Literature abstracts and full-text articles were analyzed and included in the review. Many phytochemicals have been isolated, identified and published to date, including: at least 18 flavonoids; 13 phenolic acids; 2 steroids; 1 hydroquinone; 10 volatile oils; 22 lignans; 9 polysaccharides; 2 resin glycosides; 16 fatty acids. These phytochemicals and plant extracts exhibit a range of pharmacological activities that include hepatoprotective, renoprotective, antiosteoporotic, antioxidant, anti-aging, antimutagenic, antidepressant, improve sexual function, abortifacient effects, etc. This present review offers primary information for further studies of Cuscuta chinensis. The in vitro studies and in vivo models have provided a bioscientific explanation for its various ethnopharmacological uses and pharmacological activities (most notably antioxidant effects) especially in the prevention of hepatic disease and renal failure. It is necessary and important to do more pharmacokinetic and toxicological research works on human subjects in order to inform the possible active compounds in the body and validate its safety in clinical uses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
XU, XIAOPING; LI, XIAOHUA; ZHANG, LEI; LIU, ZHAOHUI; PAN, YUAN; CHEN, DONG; BIN, DONGHUA; DENG, QUN; SUN, YU; HOFFMAN, M. ROBERT; YANG, ZHIJIAN; YUAN, HONG
Background/Aim: Hemorrhoidectomy is often associated with significant postoperative complications that may result in slow wound healing. The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound Sophora flavescens (CSF) has shown efficacy on many inflammatory disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of CSF on wound healing in a rat model of perianal ulceration. Materials and Methods: A rat model of perianal ulceration was induced by subcutaneous injection of 75% glacial acetic acid. The animals with induced perianal ulcer received topical treatment of low, medium, and high doses of CFS twice daily. Potassium permanganate (PP); 0.02%) was given to the animals for comparison. Macroscopic and histological assessments of the ulcerated area were performed after treatment. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) was detected by immunohistochemical analysis. Results: Topical administration of medium- and high-dose CSF significantly enhanced perianal ulcer healing as compared to the untreated control (p<0.05). The macroscopic ulceration score was significantly reduced only in the high-dose CSF-treated group as compared to the control (p<0.01). All doses of CSF and PP ameliorated histological damages in the rats with induced perianal ulceration. High-dose CSF or PP significantly reduced the expression of PGE2 and IL-8 as compared to the control (p<0.01). No treatment-related toxicity was found in either the CSF- or the PP-treated mice. Conclusion: CSF enhances wound healing in a rat model of perianal ulceration. The inhibitory effect of CSF on pro-inflammatory cytokines PGE2 and IL-8 may be involved in the mechanism of enhanced wound-healing. PMID:28652418
Xu, Xiaoping; Li, Xiaohua; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Zhaohui; Pan, Yuan; Chen, Dong; Bin, Donghua; Deng, Qun; Sun, Y U; Hoffman, Robert M; Yang, Zhijian; Yuan, Hong
Hemorrhoidectomy is often associated with significant postoperative complications that may result in slow wound healing. The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound Sophora flavescens (CSF) has shown efficacy on many inflammatory disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of CSF on wound healing in a rat model of perianal ulceration. A rat model of perianal ulceration was induced by subcutaneous injection of 75% glacial acetic acid. The animals with induced perianal ulcer received topical treatment of low, medium, and high doses of CFS twice daily. Potassium permanganate (PP); 0.02%) was given to the animals for comparison. Macroscopic and histological assessments of the ulcerated area were performed after treatment. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) was detected by immunohistochemical analysis. Topical administration of medium- and high-dose CSF significantly enhanced perianal ulcer healing as compared to the untreated control (p<0.05). The macroscopic ulceration score was significantly reduced only in the high-dose CSF-treated group as compared to the control (p<0.01). All doses of CSF and PP ameliorated histological damages in the rats with induced perianal ulceration. High-dose CSF or PP significantly reduced the expression of PGE 2 and IL-8 as compared to the control (p<0.01). No treatment-related toxicity was found in either the CSF- or the PP-treated mice. CSF enhances wound healing in a rat model of perianal ulceration. The inhibitory effect of CSF on pro-inflammatory cytokines PGE 2 and IL-8 may be involved in the mechanism of enhanced wound-healing. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Fumanjian, a Classic Chinese Herbal Formula, Can Ameliorate the Impairment of Spatial Learning and Memory through Apoptotic Signaling Pathway in the Hippocampus of Rats with Aβ1–40-Induced Alzheimer's Disease
Hu, Hai-yan; Cui, Zhi-hui; Li, Hui-qin; Wang, Yi-ru; Chen, Xiang; Li, Ji-huang; Xv, Dong-mei
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and lacks disease-altering treatments. Fumanjian (FMJ), a famous classic Chinese herbal prescription for dementia, was first recorded in the Complete Works of Jingyue during the Ming Dynasty. This study aimed to investigate whether FMJ could prevent cognitive deficit and take neuroprotective effects in Aβ 1–40-induced rat model through apoptotic signaling pathway. AD model was established by bilateral injection of Aβ 1–40 into hippocampus in rat. All rats were tested for their capabilities of spatial navigation and memorization by Morris water maze. Apoptosis was tested using TUNEL staining in hippocampus neuronal cells; RT-PCR tested expression of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA; western blotting tested protein level of cleaved caspase-3. After 14 days of treatment, FMJ significantly improved the escape latency and enhanced platform-cross number compared with the Aβ 1–40-injected group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). FMJ also significantly decreased number of TUNEL-positive neuronal apoptosis and the expressions of Bax and cleaved Caspase-3 and increased the expression of Bcl-2 (P < 0.01) compared with AD model group. In conclusion, FMJ exerts a protective effect against Aβ 1–40-induced learning and memory deficits and neuronal apoptosis, suggesting that FMJ could be used as a potential therapeutic formula for AD. PMID:25050129
Systematic chemical profiling of a multicomponent Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupoletime-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Wang, Fenrong; Ai, Yu; Wu, Yun; Ma, Wen; Bian, Qiaoxia; Lee, David Y-W; Dai, Ronghua
Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan, a Chinese herbal formula consisting of 11 different herbs, has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the chemical compositions of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan are not completely characterized. In the present study, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method in positive and negative ion modes was employed to identify biochemical constitutes in Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan. As a result, a total of 76 compounds including alkaloids, monoterpene glycosides, iridoids, phenolic acids, and tanshinones, coumarins, lactones, flavones, and their glycosides, triterpenes, and triterpene saponins were characterized by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry data with reference standards within 5 ppm error or by reference to the reference literature. These results would provide the basis for a further in vivo study of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan and information for potential new drug candidates for treating arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Sarhadynejad, Zarrin; Sharififar, Fariba; Pardakhty, Abbas; Nematollahi, Mohammad-Hadi; Sattaie-Mokhtari, Saeedeh; Mandegary, Ali
"Zereshk-e-Saghir" (ZES), one of the traditional herbal medicines in old manuscripts of Persian hakims, has been used for the treatment of liver disorders. This current study is aimed to evaluate ZES effects on animal model to investigate its safety and hepatoprotective activity. ZES was prepared according to a traditional method by blending aqueous extracts of Berberis vulgaris L., with fine particles of other plants including Rosa damascene Mill, Cichorium intybus L., Cucumis sativus L., Portulaca oleracea L., Rheum palmatum L., and Nardostachys jatamansi DC.. The lethality of ZES was determined in male NMRI mice. Acute organ toxicity of ZES (750 and 1500mg/kg for 15 days, orally) was evaluated by measuring the cell blood count, liver marker enzymes, creatinine, antioxidant status and histopathological examinations in rats. CCl4-induced liver toxicity was used to examine the hepatoprotective effects of the preparation. The rats were pretreated with 250, 500, 750 and 1500mg/kg ZES by gavage for 15 days. At day 16, the rats were intraperitoneally injected 1ml/kg CCl4 in olive oil. Forty-eight hours after CCl4 injection, the animals were sacrificed and their liver samples and blood were collected for determination of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase (ALT, AST, and ALP), histopathological examinations and antioxidant status. Treatment of the mice with a single dose of ZES up to 2g/kg did not cause mortality. Treatment of the rats with doses of 750 and 1500mg/kg for 15 days showed no significant hematotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Treatment of the rats with ZES reduced the increased serum levels of ALT, AST, and ALP induced by CCl4 at the doses of 250, 500, and 750mg/kg. This was almost confirmed by histopathological examinations. Pretreatment with ZES also decreased lipid peroxidation and maintained the levels of glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. The present in vivo study revealed that the long term usage of ZES
Hu, Weicheng; Yeo, Jin-Hee; Jiang, Yunyao; Heo, Seong-Il; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon
A folk prescription consisting of Alnus hirsuta, Rosa davurica, Acanthopanax senticosus and Panax schinseng has been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of the herb formula extract (HFE) composed of Alnus hirsuta, Rosa davurica, Acanthopanax senticosus and Panax schinseng in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The HFE was mixed in the food supply of the healthy and STZ-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats, and its effects on the body weight, water and food intake, hyperglycemia, hypolipidemic and islet structure were studied. The treatment of the rats with STZ for 6 weeks resulted in marasmus, polydipsia, polyphagia, hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. In addition, the diabetic rats showed an apparent decrease in the insulin immunoreactivity and the number of β-cells in the pancreas. The addition of the HFE to the rats' food supply significantly lowered the serum glucose and the serum triglycerides level and preserved the normal histological appearance of the pancreatic islets. These results indicate that the HEF have a strong antidiabetic potential along with the significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects, which may be applicable in the pharmaceutical industry.
Zhao, Peng; Yang, Liping; Li, Jiansheng; Li, Ya; Tian, Yange; Li, Suyun
Bufei Jianpi formula (BJF) has long been used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of COPD. Systems pharmacology identified 145 active compounds and 175 potential targets of BJF in a previous study. Additionally, BJF was previously shown to effectively prevent COPD and its comorbidities, such as ventricular hypertrophy, by inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production, matrix metalloproteinases expression, and other cytokine production, in vivo. However, the system-level mechanism of BJF for the treatment of COPD is still unclear. The aim of this study was to gain insight into its system-level mechanisms by integrating transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics together with systems pharmacology datasets. Using molecular function, pathway, and network analyses, the genes and proteins regulated in COPD rats and BJF-treated rats could be mainly attributed to oxidoreductase activity, antioxidant activity, focal adhesion, tight junction, or adherens junction. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of systems pharmacology, transcript, protein, and metabolite datasets is performed. The results showed that a number of genes, proteins, metabolites regulated in BJF-treated rats and potential target proteins of BJF were involved in lipid metabolism, cell junction, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response, which might be the system-level therapeutic mechanism of BJF treatment. PMID:27042044
Xiao, Bin; Wang, Yun
In order to elucidate the mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, much work has been done based on chemical constituent-target in the molecular system. It cannot comply with the holistic efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. Thus, the authors of this paper proposed to study the functional target adopted from Western medicine. The data of Chinese herbal function were collected from 2005 edition of The People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. A total of 135 functional targets were found, and a network about functional target and mode of action was built. The authors also explored the applications of functional target and the network combined with Sijunzi Decoction and Mahuang Decoction. The results, reflecting the feature of Chinese herbal medicine, will not only be helpful to elucidate the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, but also beneficial to studying the theory of Chinese formulas and developing new formulas.
Lee, Jee Young; Oh, Hye Kyung; Ryu, Han Sung; Yoon, Sung Soo; Eo, Wankyu; Yoon, Seong Woo
Sleep disturbance is the second most bothersome symptom in patients with cancer, and it can significantly impair their quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the traditional herbal medicine Gamiguibi-tang (GGBT) in patients with cancer-related sleep disturbance. We conducted a prospective, randomized, wait-list-controlled, open-label pilot clinical trial on cancer-related sleep disturbance. Patients with cancer experiencing poor sleep quality with a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index of at least 6 were randomly assigned to the GGBT and wait-list groups to receive GGBT and conventional care, respectively, for 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) score. Fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment were assessed as the secondary endpoints by using the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Thirty participants who met the eligibility criteria were enrolled. Sleep disturbance assessed using the ISI improved significantly more in the GGBT group than in the wait-list group (-5.5 ± 4.4 vs 0.1 ± 1.1, P < .001). Fatigue level determined using the BFI also improved significantly more in the GGBT group than in the wait-list group (-0.8 ± 0.8 vs 0.0 ± 0.3, P = .002). The BDI and MoCA scores showed no significant changes. Adverse events were reported in two patients in the GGBT group and consisted of mild dyspepsia and mild edema. GGBT may be a potential treatment option for cancer-related sleep disturbance. Further research is needed to investigate the efficacy and safety of GGBT.
Xiong, Ying; Shang, Bingzhen; Xu, Siying; Zhao, Ran; Gou, He; Wang, Chun
Drug-induced renal injury is a serious toxic side effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment. Bu-zhong-yi-qi decoction (BZYQD), a water extract of Chinese traditional herbal medicine, is widely used in Asia as an alternative treatment to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy and also improve cancer survival. However, the mechanism is unknown. This study is designed to investigate the protective effect of BZYQD on 5-FU-induced renal injury in mice. Mice were divided into four groups: the control, 5-FU, 5-FU + low, and high BZYQD group. Mice in the three latter groups were administered 5-FU (100 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) for six days, and in the 5-FU + low and high BZYQD groups were given BZYQD (1 or 2 g raw herb/kg/day, intragastrically) beginning four days before 5-FU and continuing until the termination of the experiment. The right kidney fixed in formalin for histological examination and the left was homogenized to measure the levels of apoptosis-related proteins and activities of oxidative stress-related biomarkers. Blood samples were collected for measuring renal function-related biochemical indices. Renal morphology injury, increased urea nitrogen and creatinine concentration, and decreased SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px were all observed in 5-FU-administrated mice. However, BZYQD almost reversed the morphological injury as well as renal function-related indices and antioxidant enzyme activity. These results suggest that BZYQD inhibits 5-FU-induced renal injury, possibly through the reduction of apoptosis and necrosis in renal tubular epithelial cells via the antioxidant mechanism. Henceforth, BZYQD may be a potential antioxidant against drug-induced oxidative stress.
Perioperative Administration of Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine Daikenchuto Relieves Postoperative Ileus in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Ishizuka, Mitsuru; Shibuya, Norisuke; Nagata, Hitoshi; Takagi, Kazutoshi; Iwasaki, Yoshimi; Hachiya, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Taku; Kubota, Keiichi
Although it has been widely demonstrated that administration of Daikenchuto (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, improves gastrointestinal (GI) motility in patients undergoing abdominal surgery, few studies have investigated the efficacy of perioperative DKT administration for relief of postoperative ileus (PI) in patients undergoing surgery for GI cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether perioperative administration of DKT relieves PI in patients with GI cancer. We performed a comprehensive electronic search of the literature (Cochrane Library, PubMed, the Web of Science and ICHUSHI) up to December 2016 to identify studies that had shown the efficacy of perioperative DKT administration for relief of PI in patients with GI cancer. To integrate the individual effect of DKT, a meta-analysis was performed using random-effects models to calculate the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), and heterogeneity was analyzed using I 2 statistics. Seven studies involving a total of 1,134 patients who had undergone GI cancer surgery were included in this meta-analysis. Among 588 patients who received DKT perioperatively, 67 (11.4%) had PI, whereas among 546 patients who did not receive DKT perioperatively, 87 (15.9%) had PI. Perioperative administration of DKT significantly reduced the occurrence of PI (RR=0.58, 95% CI=0.35-0.97, p=0.04, I 2 =48%) in comparison to patients who did not receive DKT or received placebo. The result of this meta-analysis suggests that perioperative administration of DKT relieves PI in patients undergoing surgery for GI cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Ahn, Hee-Young; Choo, Young-Moo; Cho, Young-Su
We have previously found that mycelia culture broth of eight kinds of traditional herbal extracts fermented with Phellinus linteus (previously named as 8-HsPLCB) not only inhibited melanin and tyrosinase activity, but also reduced the contents of melanogenesis-related proteins, including tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, in 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine-stimulated B16F0 melanoma cells. For a further study, the effect of 8-HsPLCB against skin pigmentation in brown guinea pigs with ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced hyperpigmentation was investigated. 8-HsPLCB (3%) and arbutin (2%) as positive controls were applied topically twice daily for 4 weeks to the hyperpigmented areas. 8-HsPLCB showed skin-lightening effect as effective as arbutin, one of the most widely used in whitening cosmetics. Melanin index values as the degree of pigmentation showed a significant reduction week by week post 8-HsPLCB treatment and then substantially reduced by 4 weeks. The degree of depigmentation after 4 weeks of topical application with 8-HsPLCB was 32.2% as compared with before treatment (0 week). Moreover, using Fontana-Masson staining and hematoxylin-eosin staining, 8-HsPLCB reduced melanin pigmentation in the basal layer of the epidermis and epidermal thickness changes exposed to the UV-B irradiation as compared with non-treatment and vehicle treatment. The intensity of the skin-lightening effect of 8-HsPLCB was similar to arbutin. These results suggest that the skin-lightening effect of 8-HsPLCB might be resulted from inhibition of melanin synthesis by tyrosinase in melanocytes. To conclude, 8-HsPLCB treatment showed reduction of the melanin pigment and histological changes induced by UV irradiation in brown guinea pigs.
Schödel, René; Walkov, Alexander; Voigt, Michael; Bartl, Guido
The refractive index of air is a major limiting factor in length measurements by interferometry, which are mostly performed under atmospheric conditions. Therefore, especially in the last century, measurement and description of the air refractive index was a key point in order to achieve accuracy in the realisation of the length by interferometry. Nevertheless, interferometric length measurements performed in vacuum are much more accurate since the wavelength of the light is not affected by the air refractive index. However, compared with thermal conditions in air, in high vacuum heat conduction is missing. In such a situation, dependent on the radiative thermal equilibrium, a temperature distribution can be very inhomogeneous. Using a so-called contact gas instead of high vacuum is a very effective way to enable heat conduction on nearly the same level as under atmospheric pressure conditions whereby keeping the effect of the air refractive index on a small level. As physics predicts, and as we have demonstrated previously, helium seems like the optimal contact gas because of its large heat conduction and its refractive index that can be calculated from precisely known parameters. On the other hand, helium gas situated in a vacuum chamber could easily be contaminated, e.g. by air leakage from outside. Above the boiling point of oxygen (‑183 °C) it is therefore beneficial to use dry air as a contact gas. In such an approach, the air refractive index could be calculated based on measured quantities for pressure and temperature. However, existing formulas for the air refractive index are not valid in the low-pressure regime. Although it seems reasonable that the refractivity (n ‑ 1) of dry air simply downscales with the pressure, to our knowledge there is no experimental evidence for the applicability of any empirical formula. This evidence is given in the present paper which reports on highly accurate measurements of the air refractive index for the
YE, LIN; JIA, YONGNING; JI, KE; SANDERS, ANDREW J.; XUE, KAN; JI, JIAFU; MASON, MALCOLM D.; JIANG, WEN G.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been a major part of healthcare in China, and has extensively affected medicine and healthcare in surrounding countries over a long period of time. In the fight against cancer, certain anticancer remedies using herbs or herbal formulas derived from TCM have been developed for the management of malignancies. Furthermore, there are clinical trials registered for the use of herbal remedies in cancer management. Herbal medicine has been used as part of combined therapies to reduce the side-effects of chemotherapy, including bone marrow suppression, nausea and vomiting. Herbal remedies have also been used as chemopreventive therapies to treat precancerous conditions in order to reduce the incidence of cancer in high-risk populations. Emerging evidence has revealed that herbal remedies can regulate the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration of cancer cells. In addition to this direct effect upon cancer cells, a number of herbal remedies have been identified to suppress angiogenesis and therefore reduce tumour growth. The inhibition of tumour growth may also be due to modifications of the host immune system by the herbal treatment. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of herbal remedies remain poorly understood and are yet to be fully elucidated. The present study aims to summarize the current literature and clinical trial results of herbal remedies for cancer treatment, with a particular focus on the recent findings and development of the Yangzheng Xiaoji capsule. PMID:26622657
Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Feng, Bo; Liu, Wei; Duan, Lian; Gao, Ao; Li, Haixia; Ma, Jizheng; Du, Xinliang; Li, Nan; Wang, Pengqian; Su, Kelei; Chu, Fuyong; Zhang, Guohao; Li, Xiaoke; Wang, Jie
Objectives. To assess the clinical effectiveness and adverse effects of Zhen Gan Xi Feng Decoction (ZGXFD) for essential hypertension (EH). Methods. Five major electronic databases were searched up to August 2012 to retrieve any potential randomized controlled trials designed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of ZGXFD for EH reported in any language, with main outcome measure as blood pressure (BP). Results. Six randomized trials were included. Methodological quality of the trials was evaluated as generally low. Four trials compared prescriptions based on ZGXFD with antihypertensive drugs. Meta-analysis showed that ZGXFD was more effective in BP control and TCM syndrome and symptom differentiation (TCM-SSD) scores than antihypertensive drugs. Two trials compared the combination of modified ZGXFD plus antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs. Meta-analysis showed that there is significant beneficial effect on TCM-SSD scores. However, no significant effect on BP was found. The safety of ZGXFD is still uncertain. Conclusions. ZGXFD appears to be effective in improving blood pressure and hypertension-related symptoms for EH. However, the evidence remains weak due to poor methodological quality of the included studies. More rigorous trials are warranted to support their clinical use. PMID:23573163
Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Feng, Bo; Liu, Wei; Duan, Lian; Gao, Ao; Li, Haixia; Ma, Jizheng; Du, Xinliang; Li, Nan; Wang, Pengqian; Su, Kelei; Chu, Fuyong; Zhang, Guohao; Li, Xiaoke; Wang, Jie
Objectives. To assess the clinical effectiveness and adverse effects of Zhen Gan Xi Feng Decoction (ZGXFD) for essential hypertension (EH). Methods. Five major electronic databases were searched up to August 2012 to retrieve any potential randomized controlled trials designed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of ZGXFD for EH reported in any language, with main outcome measure as blood pressure (BP). Results. Six randomized trials were included. Methodological quality of the trials was evaluated as generally low. Four trials compared prescriptions based on ZGXFD with antihypertensive drugs. Meta-analysis showed that ZGXFD was more effective in BP control and TCM syndrome and symptom differentiation (TCM-SSD) scores than antihypertensive drugs. Two trials compared the combination of modified ZGXFD plus antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs. Meta-analysis showed that there is significant beneficial effect on TCM-SSD scores. However, no significant effect on BP was found. The safety of ZGXFD is still uncertain. Conclusions. ZGXFD appears to be effective in improving blood pressure and hypertension-related symptoms for EH. However, the evidence remains weak due to poor methodological quality of the included studies. More rigorous trials are warranted to support their clinical use.
Pan, Zhenxiang; Leng, Yashu; Lv, Jiayin; Li, Bingjin
Traditional herbal medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of epilepsy. Though herbal medicine is widely used in antiepileptic treatment, there is a lack of robust evidence for efficacy and toxicity of most herbs. Besides, the herbal medicine should be subject to evidence-based scrutiny. In this context, we present a review to introduce the effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy. However, hundreds of herbal medicines have been investigated in the available studies. Some commonly used herbal medicines for epilepsy have been listed in our study. The overwhelming majority of these data are based on animal experiments. The lack of clinical data places constraints on the clinical recommendation of herbal medicine. Our study may conduct further studies and provide some insight on the development of anti-epileptic drugs. PMID:28423368
Liu, Wei; Ge, Tongtong; Pan, Zhenxiang; Leng, Yashu; Lv, Jiayin; Li, Bingjin
Traditional herbal medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of epilepsy. Though herbal medicine is widely used in antiepileptic treatment, there is a lack of robust evidence for efficacy and toxicity of most herbs. Besides, the herbal medicine should be subject to evidence-based scrutiny. In this context, we present a review to introduce the effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy. However, hundreds of herbal medicines have been investigated in the available studies. Some commonly used herbal medicines for epilepsy have been listed in our study. The overwhelming majority of these data are based on animal experiments. The lack of clinical data places constraints on the clinical recommendation of herbal medicine. Our study may conduct further studies and provide some insight on the development of anti-epileptic drugs.
Guo, Zhongning; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Jian Ping; Liao, Juan; Yang, Yufei
Herbal medicine has been widely used in patients with advanced colorectal cancer in China, but its efficacy has not been confirmed. To evaluate the beneficial effect and safety on Chinese herbal medicine therapy for advanced stage colorectal cancer, and it's influence on the patients' quality of life. The following electronic databases were searched: BIOSIS Previews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline EMBASE, Biological Abstracts, until Aug. 2011. Manual searching was performed on 16 types of Chinese journals which started from their respective first publication dates, as well as unpublished conference proceedings. No language restriction was applied. Randomized or quasi-randomised controlled trials on the treatment of advanced stage colorectal cancer by herbal medicines or herbal medicines combined with chemotherapy, regardless of blinding. The data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Methodological quality of the included in trials was assessed according to the following parameters: randomisation, allocation concealment, double blinding, and drop-out rates. A total of 20 randomised controlled trials with 1304 participants were identified. All the 20 trials compared the use of herbal medicines with chemotherapy and chemotherapy alone in the treatment of advanced stage colorectal cancers.Compared with chemotherapy alone, the use of Quxie capsule combined with chemotherapy could decrease mortality rate (RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.97); the use of Jianpi Jiedu formula, Xiaozheng formula and Yiqi Huoxue herbal medicine combined with chemotherapy respectively could improve 1-year survival rate significantly; the use of Xiaozheng Formula in conjunction with chemotherapy could improve 3-year survival rate. There were 10 herbal medicines showing benefit in improving quality of life. Herbal medicines did not show additional benefit in response rate or stability rate. No trials reported serious adverse effect from herbal medicine. Some herbal medicines
Almog, Limor; Lev, Efraim; Schiff, Elad; Linn, Shai; Ben-Arye, Eran
The high prevalence of the use of traditional herbs among patients with cancer is a cause for concern with regard to potentially adverse interactions with conventional oncology treatments. In this study, we explore herbal use among patients with cancer in northern Israel who are referred by their health care providers to complementary and traditional medicine (CTM) consultations provided to them within the conventional oncology department. The study's objectives were to identify which herbs patients use and to examine the scope of current research on the efficacy and safety regarding the identified herbs. Herbal use by patients receiving oncology care was assessed prospectively from July 2009 to July 2012 by integrative physicians (IPs) trained in herbal medicine. Historical, ethnobotanical, basic research, and clinical data regarding the identified herbs were explored by using a keyword search in PubMed and Middle Eastern ethnohistorical literature. Disclosure of herbal use was reported by 154 of the 305 patients (50.5 %) interviewed by IPs. The use of 85 single herbs and 30 different herbal formulas was documented during the initial or follow-up IP assessments. Patients reported 14 quality of life-associated indications for herbal use. The ten most prevalent herbs displaying in vitro/in vivo anticancer activity and nine other herbs were preliminarily assessed concerning potential risks, safety, and interaction with chemotherapy. Herbal use by patients with cancer in northern Israel is widespread and calls for further study in order to address issues of safety and effectiveness. We recommend constructing a multinational and multidisciplinary team of researchers with ethnopharmacological and clinical expertise that will explore the use of herbs among patients with cancer in a cross-cultural perspective attuned with patients' affinity to traditional herbal medicine.
Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Yang, Nan; Wen, Ming-Chun; Wang, Rong; Goldfarb, Joseph; Sampson, Hugh; Li, Xiu-Min
OBJECTIVE Anti-asthma herbal medicine intervention (ASHMI™), a combination of three traditional Chinese medicinal herbs developed in our laboratory, has demonstrated efficacy in both mouse models of allergic asthma, and a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in patients with asthma. This study was designed to determine if the anti-inflammatory effects of individual herbal constituents of ASHMI™ exhibited synergy. METHODS Effects of ASHMI and its components aqueous extracts of Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum), Kushen (Sophora flavescens) and Gancao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis), on Th2 cytokine secretion by murine memory Th2 cells (D10.G4.1) and eotaxin-1 secretion by human lung fibroblast (HLF-1) cells were determined by measuring levels in culture supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Potential synergistic effects were determined by computing interaction indices from concentration-effect curve parameters. RESULTS Individual Lingzhi, Kushen and Gancao extracts and ASHMI (the combination of individual extracts) inhibited production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 by murine memory Th2 cells and eotaxin-1 production by HLF-1 cells. The mean 25%-inhibitory-concentration (IC25) values (mg/mL) for ASHMI, Lingzhi, Kushen and Gancao for IL-4 production were 30.9, 79.4, 123, and 64.6, respectively; for IL-5 production were 30.2, 263, 123.2 and 100, respectively; for eotaxin-1 were 13.2, 16.2, 30.2, and 25.1, respectively. The IC50 values (mg/mL) for ASHMI, Lingzhi, Kushen and Gancao for IL-4 production were 158.5, 239.9, 446.7, and 281.8, respectively; for eotaxin-1 were 38.1, 33.1, 100, and 158.5, respectively. The interaction indices of ASHMI constituents at IC25 were 0.35 for IL-4, 0.21 for IL-5 and 0.59 for eotaxin-1. The interaction indices at IC50 values were 0.50 for IL-4 and 0.62 for eotaxin-1 inhibition. Inhibition of IL-5 did not reach IC50 values. All interaction indices were below 1 which indicated synergy. CONCLUSION By comparing the interaction
A multiple-dimension liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry data strategy for the rapid discovery and identification of unknown compounds from a Chinese herbal formula (Er-xian decoction).
Wang, Caihong; Zhang, Jinlan; Wu, Caisheng; Wang, Zhe
It is very important to rapidly discover and identify the multiple components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula. High performance liquid chromatography with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS/MS) has been widely used to analyze TCM formula and contains multiple-dimension data including retention time (RT), high resolution mass (HRMS), multiple-stage mass spectrometric (MS n ), and isotope intensity distribution (IID) data. So it is very necessary to exploit a useful strategy to utilize multiple-dimension data to rapidly probe structural information and identify chemical compounds. In this study, a new strategy to initiatively use the multiple-dimension LC-MS data has been developed to discover and identify unknown compounds of TCM in many styles. The strategy guarantees the fast discovery of candidate structural information and provides efficient structure clues for identification. The strategy contains four steps in sequence: (1) to discover potential compounds and obtain sub-structure information by the mass spectral tree similarity filter (MTSF) technique, based on HRMS and MS n data; (2) to classify potential compounds into known chemical classes by discriminant analysis (DA) on the basis of RT and HRMS data; (3) to hit the candidate structural information of compounds by intersection sub-structure between MTSF and DA (M,D-INSS); (4) to annotate and confirm candidate structures by IID data. This strategy allowed for the high exclusion efficiency (greater than 41%) of irrelevant ions in er-xian decoction (EXD) while providing accurate structural information of 553 potential compounds and identifying 66 candidates, therefore accelerating and simplifying the discovery and identification of unknown compounds in TCM formula. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bhutta, Z A; Molla, A M; Issani, Z; Badruddin, S; Hendricks, K; Snyder, J D
We prospectively studied clinical outcome and nutrition absorption in male children (6-36 months of age) with persistent diarrhea (PD) and severe protein-energy malnutrition (mean z score for age, -4.2 +/- 0.8). Fifty-one children were randomly allocated to receive a combination of khitchri, a rice-lentil mixture, yogurt, and half-strength buffalo milk (group A; n = 26) or full-strength soy formula (group B; n = 25) for 14 days. The initial caloric intake (p < 0.02) and mean weight gain (p < 0.02) were greater in the group B patients. The mean stool volume and frequency were comparable between the two groups. Seven children in group A were considered clinical failures by criteria of weight loss and PD, compared to three in group B. The coefficients of absorption (COA) for protein were similar between the two groups, but group B patients had higher values of COA for energy and fat (p < 0.05) in the second week of nutritional rehabilitation. The majority (63%) of the children improved on the khichri-yogurt-milk diet but the nutritional outcome was not as good as with the soy formula. These data indicate that a traditional diet can be successfully used in the dietary management of PD and severe malnutrition but that a more optimal composition, yielding a higher success rate, should be sought.
Zhang, Baixia; He, Shuaibing; Lv, Chenyang; Zhang, Yanling
The identification of bioactive components in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important part of the TCM material foundation research. Recently, molecular docking technology has been extensively used for the identification of TCM bioactive components. However, target proteins that are used in molecular docking may not be the actual TCM target. For this reason, the bioactive components would likely be omitted or incorrect. To address this problem, this study proposed the GEPSI method that identified the target proteins of TCM based on the similarity of gene expression profiles. The similarity of the gene expression profiles affected by TCM and small molecular drugs was calculated. The pharmacological action of TCM may be similar to that of small molecule drugs that have a high similarity score. Indeed, the target proteins of the small molecule drugs could be considered TCM targets. Thus, we identified the bioactive components of a TCM by molecular docking and verified the reliability of this method by a literature investigation. Using the target proteins that TCM actually affected as targets, the identification of the bioactive components was more accurate. This study provides a fast and effective method for the identification of TCM bioactive components. PMID:29692857
Zhang, Baixia; He, Shuaibing; Lv, Chenyang; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Yun
The identification of bioactive components in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important part of the TCM material foundation research. Recently, molecular docking technology has been extensively used for the identification of TCM bioactive components. However, target proteins that are used in molecular docking may not be the actual TCM target. For this reason, the bioactive components would likely be omitted or incorrect. To address this problem, this study proposed the GEPSI method that identified the target proteins of TCM based on the similarity of gene expression profiles. The similarity of the gene expression profiles affected by TCM and small molecular drugs was calculated. The pharmacological action of TCM may be similar to that of small molecule drugs that have a high similarity score. Indeed, the target proteins of the small molecule drugs could be considered TCM targets. Thus, we identified the bioactive components of a TCM by molecular docking and verified the reliability of this method by a literature investigation. Using the target proteins that TCM actually affected as targets, the identification of the bioactive components was more accurate. This study provides a fast and effective method for the identification of TCM bioactive components.
Chen, Fang-Pey; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Yu-Chun; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used in treating liver diseases in Asian countries. To conduct a large-scale pharmacoepidemiological study and evaluate the frequency and pattern of CHM prescriptions in treating chronic hepatitis. We obtained the database of traditional Chinese medicine outpatient claims from the national health insurance in Taiwan for the whole 2002. Patients with chronic hepatitis were identified by the corresponding diagnosis of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and association rule were applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM in treating chronic hepatitis. Among the 91,080 subjects treated by CHM for chronic hepatitis, the peak age was in the 40 s, followed by 30 s and 50 s. Male/female ratio was 2.07:1. Long-dan-xie-gan-tang and Saliva miltiorrhiza (Dan-shen) were the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herbal drug, respectively. The most common two-drug prescription was Jia-wei-xia-yao-san plus Saliva miltiorrhiza, and the most common three-drug prescription was Jia-wei-xia-yao-san plus Saliva miltiorrhiza and Artemisia capillaries (Yin-chen-hao). This study showed the utilization pattern of Chinese herbal drugs or formulae in treating chronic hepatitis. Further researches and clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these Chinese herbs or its ingredients in treating chronic hepatitis.
Yang, Pei-Rung; Shih, Wei-Tai; Chu, Yen-Hua; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wu, Ching-Yuan
Chinese herbal products (CHPs) have been frequently used among patients with chronic diseases including hypertension; however, the co-prescription pattern of herbal formulae and single herbs remain uncharacterized. Thus, this large-scale pharmacoepidemiological study evaluated the frequency and co-prescription pattern of CHPs for treating hypertension in Taiwan from 2003 to 2009. The database of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims was obtained from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan. Patients with hypertension during study period were defined according to diagnostic codes in the International Classification of Disease Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. The frequencies and percentages of herbal formula and single herb prescriptions for hypertension were analyzed. We also applied association rules to evaluate the CHPs co-prescription patterns. The hypertension cohort included 154,083 patients, 123,240 patients of which (approximately 80 %) had used TCM at least once. In total, 81,582 visits involving CHP prescriptions were hypertension related; Tian-Ma-Gou-Teng-Yin and Dan Shen (Radix Salvia Miltiorrhizae) were the most frequently prescribed herbal formula and single herb, respectively, for treating hypertension. This study elucidated the utilization pattern of CHPs for treating hypertension. Future studies on the efficacy and safety of these CHPs and on drug-herb interactions are warranted.
Liu, Cuiqing; Huang, Yu
Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of death worldwide. The potentially serious adverse effects of therapeutic drugs lead to growing awareness of the role of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in many countries especially in China from antiquity; however, the mechanisms by which herbal medicine acts in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases are far from clear. In this review, we briefly describe the characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine by comparing with western medicine. Then we summarize the formulae and herbs/natural products applied in the clinic and animal studies being sorted according to the specific cardiovascular diseases. Most importantly, we elaborate the existing investigations into mechanisms by which herbal compounds act at the cellular levels, including vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes and immune cells. Future research should focus on well-designed clinic trial, in-depth mechanic study, investigations on side effects of herbs and drug interactions. Studies on developing new agents with effectiveness and safety from traditional Chinese medicine is a promising way for prevention and treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases.
Liu, Cuiqing; Huang, Yu
Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of death worldwide. The potentially serious adverse effects of therapeutic drugs lead to growing awareness of the role of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in many countries especially in China from antiquity; however, the mechanisms by which herbal medicine acts in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases are far from clear. In this review, we briefly describe the characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine by comparing with western medicine. Then we summarize the formulae and herbs/natural products applied in the clinic and animal studies being sorted according to the specific cardiovascular diseases. Most importantly, we elaborate the existing investigations into mechanisms by which herbal compounds act at the cellular levels, including vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes and immune cells. Future research should focus on well-designed clinic trial, in-depth mechanic study, investigations on side effects of herbs and drug interactions. Studies on developing new agents with effectiveness and safety from traditional Chinese medicine is a promising way for prevention and treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27990122
Wang, Kai; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xuan; Zhao, Jiantong; Sun, Tingting; Jin, Tingting; Li, Baoli; Pathak, Janak L
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Bi-Qi capsule (Bi-Qi) is a commonly prescribed drug to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the mechanism of Bi-Qi-mediated amelioration of RA pathogenesis is still a mystery. Collagen induced arthritis (CIA) in rats is an established model that shares many similarities with RA in humans. In this study we investigated the effect of Bi-Qi on the pathogenesis of CIA in rats. CIA was developed in Sprague-Dawley (S.D) rats (n = 60, female) and used as a model resembling RA in humans. Rats were treated with a high or moderate dose of Bi-Qi, or methotrexate (MTX). Effects of the treatment on local joint and systemic inflammation, synovial hyperplasia, cartilage destruction, and other main features in the pathogenesis of CIA were analyzed. Inflamed and swollen ankles and joints were observed in arthritic rats, while Bi-Qi or MTX treatment alleviated these symptoms. Only the Bi-Qi moderate dose decreased RA-induced serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Both Bi-Qi and MTX reduced the interleukin (IL)-18 serum level. Protein levels of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and osteopontin in serum, synovium, and cartilage were elevated in arthritic rats, while Bi-Qi alleviated these effects. Synovial hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration in synovium and a high degree of cartilage degradation was observed in RA, and Bi-Qi or MTX alleviated this effect. Bi-Qi at the moderate dose was the most effective in mitigating CIA-related clinical complications. Our findings showed that Bi-Qi alleviates CIA-induced inflammation, synovial hyperplasia, cartilage destruction, and the other main features in the pathogenesis of CIA. This provides fundamental evidence for the anti-arthritic properties of Bi-Qi and corroborates the use of Bi-Qi TCM formula for the treatment of RA.
Trinh, Kien; Cui, Xuejun; Wang, Yong-Jun
Systematic review. To assess the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines in treating chronic neck pain with radicular signs or symptoms. Chronic neck pain with radicular signs or symptoms is a common condition. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. We electronically searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and AMED (up to 2009), the Chinese Biomedical Database and related herbal medicine databases in Japan and South Korea (up to 2007). We also contacted content experts and hand searched a number of journals published in China.We included randomized controlled trials with adults with a clinical diagnosis of cervical degenerative disc disease, cervical radiculopathy, or myelopathy supported by appropriate radiologic findings. The interventions were Chinese herbal medicines. The primary outcome was pain relief, measured with a visual analogue scale, numerical scale, or other validated tool. All 4 included studies were in Chinese; 2 of which were unpublished. Effect sizes were not clinically relevant and there was low quality evidence for all outcomes due to study limitations and sparse data (single studies). Two trials (680 participants) found that Compound Qishe Tablets relieved pain better in the short-term than either placebo or Jingfukang; one trial (60 participants) found than an oral herbal formula of Huangqi relieved pain better than Mobicox or Methycobal, and another trial (360 participants) showed that a topical herbal medicine, Compound Extractum Nucis Vomicae, relieved pain better than Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel. There is low quality evidence that an oral herbal medication, Compound Qishe Tablet, reduced pain more than placebo or Jingfukang and a topical herbal medicine, Compound Extractum Nucis Vomicae, reduced pain more than Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel. Further research is very likely to change both the effect size and our confidence in the results.
... doctor will probably recommend a formula made from cow’s milk. Some formulas are iron-fortified. This means ... formulas are made from soy milk instead of cow’s milk. If your baby seems to be allergic ...
Zen, X X; Yuan, Y; Liu, Y; Wu, T X; Han, S
Hyperthyroidism is a disease in which excessive amounts of thyroid hormones circulate in the blood. Patients, among other things suffer from tachycardia, warm moist skin and raised body temperature. The treatment of hyperthyroidism includes symptom relief and therapy with antithyroid medications, radioiodine and thyroidectomy. Medicinal herbs are used alone or in combination with antithyroid agents to treat hyperthyroidism in China and some other countries. To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines for treating hyperthyroidism. Studies were obtained from computerised searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biomedical Database. Randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of Chinese herbal medicines alone with Chinese herbal medicines combined with antithyroid drugs, radioiodine or both. Three authors interviewed authors of all potentially relevant studies by telephone to verify randomisation procedures. One author entered data into a data extraction form and another author verified the results of this procedure. Thirteen relevant trials with 1770 participants were included. All of them were of low quality. Fifty-two studies still need to be assessed because the original authors could not be interviewed. None of these trials analysed mortality, health related quality of life, economic outcomes or compliance. Compared to antithyroid drugs alone the results showed that Chinese herbal medicines combined with antithyroid drugs may offer benefits in lowering relapse rates, reducing the incidence of adverse effects, relieving symptoms, improving thyroid antibody status and thyroid function. Two trials investigated Chinese herbal medicine versus radioiodine and reported improvements in anxiety, tachycardia and heat intolerance. However, thyroid function - with the exception of restored thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) - was not significantly altered. The results suggest that traditional Chinese herbal medicines added to other routine
Chen, Lih-Chi; Wang, Bi-Ru; Chen, I-Chin; Shao, Chun-Hui
To assess the patterns of use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used by women in Taiwan to treat menopausal symptoms. A retrospective review of the records of women who received CHM therapies for menopausal symptoms at the Traditional Medicine Center, Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, between January 2003 and December 2006. The average number of therapies per prescription, dosage, and duration of the prescription were recorded. The most commonly prescribed herbs and formulae were also recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The records of 3432 women who were administered a total of 19370 CHMs to treat symptoms of the menopause were reviewed. The average number of drugs per prescription was 5.64. Most of the prescriptions (97.1%) were prescribed to be taken 3 times a day. The most commonly prescribed Chinese herb was Leonurus heterophyllus. Jia-Wey-Shiau-Yau-San was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. CHM is commonly used in Taiwan for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. The efficacy and safety of CHM drugs used for the management of menopausal symptoms require further study. Copyright 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuang, Lin; Deng, Yihui; Liu, Xiaodan; Zou, Zhixiang; Mi, Lan
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Longdanxiegan formula granule (LDXGFG), a Chinese traditional medicine on Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway in recurrent genital herpes. An experimental recurrent genital herpes model was constructed using herpes guinea pig model. The effect of LDXGFG on expression levels of TLR pathway genes were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the dendritic cells and Langerhans cells were isolated and the TLR pathway genes of these cells were assayed after LDXGFG treatment. The result suggested two different expression patterns of TLR pathway genes in genital herpes and recurrent genital herpes, including upregulated genes and downregulated genes. TLR1, TLR4, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, and TLR10 showed a significant decrease while, TLR2, TLR3, and TLR5 increased in genital herpes and recurrent genital herpes guinea pigs. Meanwhile, the downregulated genes in genital herpes and recurrent genital herpes were stimulated by LDXGFG. By contrast, the upregulated genes decreased significantly after LDXGFG treatment. In both dendritic cells and Langerhans cells, the TLR pathway genes exhibited same pattern: the LDXGFG corrected the abnormal expression of TLR pathway genes. The present results suggest that LDXGFG is an alternative, inexpensive, and lasting-effect medicine for herpes simplex virus 2 infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Wang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Sui, Yi; Yu, Hongshuang; Shen, Xiaoheng; Chen, Shengdi; Pei, Gang; Zhao, Jian; Ding, Jianqing
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease affecting cognitive function in the elderly, which is characterized by the presence of extracellular deposits of insoluble amyloid-β plaques and neuronal loss. Modern pharmacology and drug development usually follow a single-target principle, which might contribute to the failure of most compounds in clinical trials against AD. Considering AD is a multifactorial disease, a combination therapeutic strategy that applies drugs with different mechanisms would be an alternative way. Smart Soup (SS), a Traditional Chinese Medicine formula, is composed of three herbaceous plants and has been applied in the treatment of amnesia in China for hundreds of years. In this work, we studied the clinical potency of the combination of SS and Aricept in AD therapy. In the in vivo model, both longevity and locomotive activity of AD transgenic Drosophila were improved remarkably in the combined medicine treated group. We also observed less amyloid-β deposition and retarded neuronal loss following the combined drug treatment. In the retrospective cohort study, we found the combination therapy exerted better therapeutic effect on AD patients. Our study revealed that combination therapy with multiple drug targets did have a better therapeutic outcome. It provides a new strategy to develop an optimum pharmaceutical approach against AD.
Li, Xu-Zhao; Zhang, Shuai-Nan; Liu, Shu-Min; Lu, Fang
Herbal medicines have attracted considerable attention in recent years, which are used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) in China based on traditional Chinese medicine or modern pharmacological theories. We summarized and analyzed the anti-Parkinsonian activities of herbal medicines and herbal formulations investigated in PD models and provide future references for basic and clinical investigations. All the herbal medicines and herbal formulations were tested on PD models in vitro and in vivo. The relevant compounds and herbal extracts with anti-Parkinsonian activities were included and analyzed according to their genera or pharmacological activities. A total of 38 herbal medicines and 11 herbal formulations were analyzed. The relevant compounds, herbal extracts and formulations were reported to be effective on PD models by modulating multiple key events or signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. The plant species of these herbal medicines belong to 24 genera and 18 families, such as Acanthopanax, Alpinia and Astragalus, etc. These herbal medicines can be an alternative and valuable source for anti-Parkinsonian drug discovery. The plant species in these genera and families may be the most promising candidates for further investigation and deserve further consideration in clinical trials. Active components in some of the herbal extracts and the compatibility law of herbal formulations remain to be further investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Asing; Ali, Eaqub; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, Motalib; Ahamad, Mohammad Nasir Uddin; Hossain, S M Azad; Naquiah, Nina; Zaidul, I S M
The Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) (MBT) is a vulnerable and protected species widely used in exotic foods and traditional medicines. Currently available polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to identify MBT lack automation and involve long targets which break down in processed or denatured tissue. This SYBR Green duplex real-time PCR assay has addressed this research gap for the first time through the combination of 120- and 141-bp targets from MBT and eukaryotes for the quantitative detection of MBT DNA in food chain and herbal medicinal preparations. This authentication ensures better security through automation, internal control and short targets that were stable under the processing treatments of foods and medicines. A melting curve clearly demonstrated two peaks at 74.63 ± 0.22 and 78.40 ± 0.31°C for the MBT and eukaryotic products, respectively, under pure, admixed and commercial food matrices. Analysis of 125 reference samples reflected a target recovery of 93.25-153.00%, PCR efficiency of 99-100% and limit of detection of 0.001% under various matrices. The quantification limits were 0.00001, 0.00170 ± 0.00012, 0.00228 ± 0.00029, 0.00198 ± 0.00036 and 0.00191 ± 0.00043 ng DNA for the pure meat, binary mixtures, meatball, burger and frankfurter products, respectively. The assay was used to screen 100 commercial samples of traditional Chinese herbal jelly powder from eight different brands; 22% of them were found to be MBT-positive (5.37 ± 0.50-7.00 ± 0.34% w/w), which was reflected through the Ct values (26.37 ± 0.32-28.90 ± 0.42) and melting curves (74.63-78.65 ± 0.22°C) of the amplified MBT target (120 bp), confirming the speculation that MBT materials are widely used in Chinese herbal desserts, exotic dishes consumed with the hope of prolonging life and youth.
Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Ying-Yu; Huang, Tzu-Ping; Chang, Tung-Ti; Tsao, Jung-Ying; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Sun, Mao-Feng
Uterine fibroid (myoma) is one of the most common diseases in women. Although there are several studies on the efficacy of Chinese herbs, there is a lack of large-scale survey on the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of uterine fibroid. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of Chinese herbal products for patients with uterine fibroid, prescribed by licensed TCM doctors in Taiwan. A random sample comprised of one million individuals with newly diagnosed uterine fibroid between 2002 and 2010 from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database was analyzed. Demographic characteristics, TCM usage, the frequency as well as average daily dose of Chinese herbal formulas and the single herbs prescribed for patients with uterine fibroid, were analyzed. Overall, 35,786 newly diagnosed subjects with uterine fibroid were included. Majority of these patients (87.1%; n=31,161) had visited TCM clinics. Among them, 61.8% of their visits used Chinese herbal remedies. Patients less than 45 years of age tended to use TCM more frequently than elder patients. Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan (Cinnamon Twig and Poria Pill) was the most frequently prescribed Chinese herbal formula, while San-Leng (Rhizoma Sparganii) was the most commonly prescribed single herb. Our study identified the characteristics and prescription patterns of TCM for patients with uterine fibroid in Taiwan. Further basic mechanistic studies and clinical trials are needed to confirm the therapeutic effects and mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wei, Min; Zheng, Sheng Z; Lu, Ye; Liu, Daniel; Ma, Hong; Mahady, Gail B
Menoprogen (MPG), a traditional Chinese medicine formula for menopause, improves menopausal symptoms; however, its mechanism remains unknown. Previous studies have shown that MPG is not directly estrogenic; thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of MPG on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) levels in an aged female rat model of menopause. In a six-arm study, 14-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8 per arm) were randomly divided into the following groups: untreated aged, 17β-estradiol-treated aged (estradiol [E2]), and three arms with increasing doses of MPG (162, 324, or 648 mg/kg/d). The sixth arm contained 4-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats as a normal comparison group. Four weeks after MPG or E2 administration, animals were killed after blood draws, and ovarian tissues were excised. Levels of E2 and progesterone (P4) were determined by radioimmunoassay. Serum and ovarian tissue levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and IGF-1 receptor were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with the normal group, aged rats had significantly reduced serum levels of E2, P4, and IGF-1, and increased serum and ovarian tissue levels of IGFBP-1. MPG restored serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 levels and down-regulated ovarian levels of IGFBP-1, which were closely related to increases in E2 and P4 levels in aged rats. No significant differences in either IGF-1 or IGFBP-1 were observed between the three doses of MPG. MPG exerts a direct in vivo effect on aged female rats by positively regulating serum and ovarian IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 levels.
Shi, Xiao; Kong, Grace Wing Shan; Wu, Justin Che Yuen; Li, Tin Chiu
Oligoasthenozoospermia is a crucial factor in male infertility. Wuzi Yanzong (WZYZ) pill is a popular traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula which has been used for male infertility treatment for years. However, its effects on semen quality remain controversial. We conducted a preregistered meta-analysis to assess the effect of WZYZ pill for the therapeutic effects on oligoasthenozoospermia. Five randomized controlled trials including 960 participants were selected from databases of domains in North-East Asian regions, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. WZYZ pill group yielded a greater mean increment on sperm concentration (5 trials: MD 5.99, 95% CI 2.12–9.85, P = 0.002), sperm motility (5 trials: MD 4.57, 95% CI 0.47–8.68, P = 0.03), sperm morphology (2 trials: MD −1.93, 95% CI −4.87–1.01, P = 0.20), activity of acrosomal enzyme (2 trials: MD 28.27, 95% CI 12.41–44.14, P < 0.01), volume of semen (2 trials: MD 0.56, 95% CI 0.21–0.91, P = 0.002), and a decrement of sperm DNA fragmentation index (2 trials: MD −3.82, 95% CI −6.45–−1.19, P = 0.004). However, qualities of selected studies were generally unsatisfactory, and there was inherent heterogeneity among some of the outcomes. Despite these limitations, the WZYZ pill improved sperm quality by improving several semen parameters and decreasing DNA damage in oligoasthenozoospermia patients. PMID:29576794
Zheng, Xiao-yong; Cao, Dong-sheng; Ye, Fa-qing; Xiang, Zheng
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has unique therapeutic effects for complex chronic diseases. However, for the lack of an effective systematic approach, the research progress on the effective substances and pharmacological mechanism of action has been very slow. In this paper, by incorporating network biology, bioinformatics and chemoinformatics methods, an integrated approach was proposed to systematically investigate and explain the pharmacological mechanism of action and effective substances of TCM. This approach includes the following main steps: First, based on the known drug targets, network biology was used to screen out putative drug targets; Second, the molecular docking method was used to calculate whether the molecules from TCM and drug targets related to chronic kidney diseases (CKD) interact or not; Third, according to the result of molecular docking, natural product-target network, main component-target network and compound-target network were constructed; Finally, through analysis of network characteristics and literature mining, potential effective multi-components and their synergistic mechanism were putatively identified and uncovered. Bu-shen-Huo-xue formula (BSHX) which was frequently used for treating CKD, was used as the case to demonstrate reliability of our proposed approach. The results show that BSHX has the therapeutic effect by using multi-channel network regulation, such as regulating the coagulation and fibrinolytic balance, and the expression of inflammatory factors, inhibiting abnormal ECM accumulation. Tanshinone IIA, rhein, curcumin, calycosin and quercetin may be potential effective ingredients of BSHX. This research shows that the integration approach can be an effective means for discovering active substances and revealing their pharmacological mechanisms of TCM. PMID:24598793
Li, Peng; Chen, Jianxin; Zhang, Wuxia; Fu, Bangze; Wang, Wei
Herbal medicine is a concoction of numerous chemical ingredients, and it exhibits polypharmacological effects to act on multiple pharmacological targets, regulating different biological mechanisms and treating a variety of diseases. Thus, this complexity is impossible to deconvolute by the reductionist method of extracting one active ingredient acting on one biological target. To dissect the polypharmacological effects of herbal medicines and their underling pharmacological targets as well as their corresponding active ingredients. We propose a system-biology strategy that combines omics and bioinformatical methodologies for exploring the polypharmacology of herbal mixtures. The myocardial ischemia model was induced by Ameroid constriction of the left anterior descending coronary in Ba-Ma miniature pigs. RNA-seq analysis was utilized to find the differential genes induced by myocardial ischemia in pigs treated with formula QSKL. A transcriptome-based inference method was used to find the landmark drugs with similar mechanisms to QSKL. Gene-level analysis of RNA-seq data in QSKL-treated cases versus control animals yields 279 differential genes. Transcriptome-based inference methods identified 80 landmark drugs that covered nearly all drug classes. Then, based on the landmark drugs, 155 potential pharmacological targets and 57 indications were identified for QSKL. Our results demonstrate the power of a combined approach for exploring the pharmacological target and chemical space of herbal medicines. We hope that our method could enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of herbal systems and further accelerate the exploration of the value of traditional herbal medicine systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... to 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. ... than 12 months old who are not drinking breast milk . While there are some differences, infant formulas sold ...
Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schröder, Sven
Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. PMID:24285975
Ahmed, Selim; Uchida, Ryuichi; Hussain, Maleeha; Kabir, Arm Luthful; Rahman, Mohammed Zakiur; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur; Honda, Sumihisa; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur
Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children less than 5 years of age. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries in the tropical areas of Africa and South Asia. Goreisan/Wulingsan, a formula of Japanese-Chinese medicinal herbs (Kampo), has been used for the treatment of diarrhea and vomiting from ancient times in East Asia. Therefore, we planned a randomized controlled clinical trial of Goreisan/Wulingsan in Bangladeshi children. Although it is believed to be safe in East Asia, information regarding its toxicity on animals is scarce. Since Goreisan/Wulingsan has never been used in Bangladesh, it was necessary to ensure the safety of the formula in an animal experiment. Rats were assigned to a control group (normal saline, n = 4) or various Goreisan/Wulingsan groups (n = 26) receiving doses of 1 to 8 mg/g/day (7.7 to 61.5 times the recommended pediatric dose) over a period of 25 days. Their activities and health conditions were observed until they were sacrificed, after which blood samples were collected for biochemical liver function tests. The kidneys, liver and heart tissue were collected for histopathological study. No lethality was observed during the experiment. All of the rats consumed the doses completely and no constipation was observed, suggesting the absence of any inhibitory effect on intestinal motion. Also, no abnormal neurological activity was detected, nor any significant elevation of AST, ALT or ALP levels, except for AST and ALT at the highest dose of 8 mg/g/day. Histopathological studies of the kidneys, liver and heart tissues revealed no abnormalities. In conclusion, our results showed that Goreisan/Wulingsan is safe for rats, thereby justifying the use of the drug in a human trial.
Huang, Jianchun; Tang, Xiaojun; Ye, Fangxing; He, Junhui; Kong, Xiaolong
Coronary heart disease is characterized by vascular stenosis or occlusion resulting in myocardial ischemia, hypoxia and necrosis. In China, the combination of aspirin and Fufang Danshen Diwan (FDD), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been suggested in the treatment of coronary heart disease. There have been several studies comparing the effectiveness of aspirin alone and in combination with FDD to treat coronary artery disease; however, it remains unclear whether combined aspirin therapy is superior. This study was thus designed to clarify this issue through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Databases including PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, Wanfang Data and VIP Information were searched. Papers were reviewed systematically by two researchers and analyzed using Cochrane software Revman 5.1. Fourteen randomized controlled trials enrolling 1367 subjects were included. Meta-analyses revealed that aspirin in combination with FDD was significantly more effective at alleviating angina pectoris and improving electrocardiogram (ECG) results relative to aspirin therapy alone, reflected by the summary effects for the clinical markedly effective (OR = 2.45; 95% CI 1.95-3.08) and the total effective (OR = 3.92; 95% CI 2.87-5.36) rates. In addition, combined aspirin and FDD was significantly more efficacious than aspirin monotherapy at improving blood lipid levels, as indicated by the following outcomes: 1) reduction of TC level (SMD -1.12; 95% CI -1.49 to -0.76); 2) reduction of TG level (SMD -0.94; 95% CI -1.15 to -0.74); 3) reduction of LDL level (SMD -0.68; 95% CI -0.88 to -0.48); and 4) improvement of HDL level (SMD 0.52; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.99 ). No serious adverse events were reported in any of the included trials. The present meta-analysis demonstrated that aspirin in combination with FDD was more effective than aspirin alone for treating coronary heart disease. More full-scale randomized clinical trials with reliable
Liu, Hong; Peng, Yao-Yao; Liang, Feng-Yin; Chen, Si; Li, Pei-Bo; Peng, Wei; Liu, Zhong-Zheng; Xie, Cheng-Shi; Long, Chao-Feng; Su, Wei-Wei
NaoShuanTong capsule (NSTC), an oral traditional Chinese medicine formula, is composed of Pollen Typhae , Radix Paeoniae Rubra , Rhizoma Gastrodiae , Radix Rhapontici and Radix Curcumae . It has been widely used to treat ischemic stroke in clinic for many years in China. In addition to neuronal apoptosis, haemorheology and cerebral energy metabolism disorders also play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of ischemic stroke. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vivo protective effects of NSTC on haemorheology and cerebral energy metabolism disorders in rats with blood stasis. Sixty specific pathogen-free sprague-dawley rats, male only, were randomly divided into six groups (control group, model group, aspirin (100 mg/kg/d) group, NSTC low-dose (400 mg/kg/d) group, NSTC intermediate-dose (800 mg/kg/d) group, NSTC high-dose (1600 mg/kg/d) group) with 10 animals in each. The rats except those in the control group were placed in ice-cold water (0-4 °C) for 5 min during the time interval (4 h) of two adrenaline hydrochloride injections (0.8 mg/kg) to induce blood stasis. After treatment, whole blood viscosity at three shear rates, plasma viscosity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate significantly decreased in NSTC intermediate- and high-dose groups; erythrocyte aggregation index and red corpuscle electrophoresis index significantly decreased in all the three dose NSTC groups. Moreover, treatment with high-dose NSTC could significantly improve Na + -K + adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and Ca 2+ ATPase activity, as well as lower lactic acid level in brain tissues. These results demonstrated the protective effects of NSTC on haemorheology and cerebral energy metabolism disorders, which may provide scientific information for the further understanding of mechanism(s) of NSTC as a clinical treatment for ischemic stroke. Furthermore, the protective effects of activating blood circulation as observed in this study might create valuable
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in China to treat various diseases for thousands of years. Given its reputed effectiveness, low cost, and favorable safety profile, TCM is attracting great interest in Western societies as a source of therapy for an array of illnesses, including allergies and asthma. Although food allergy has not been described in the TCM literature, a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), was developed using TCM principles. Using a well-characterized murine model of peanut allergy, FAHF-2 has been shown to be highly effective in providing long-term protection against peanut-induced anaphylaxis, with a high safety margin. Phase 1 human trials have demonstrated the safety of FAHF-2 in food allergic individuals. Currently, a phase 2 trial examining efficacy of FAHF-2 is on-going. Other TCMs also show a potential for treating food allergies in preclinical studies. PMID:22581122
Thomford, Nicholas Ekow; Dzobo, Kevin; Chimusa, Emile; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin; Chirikure, Shadreck; Wonkam, Ambroise; Dandara, Collet
While drugs remain the cornerstone of medicine, herbal medicine is an important comedication worldwide. Thus, precision medicine ought to face this clinical reality and develop "companion diagnostics" for drugs as well as herbal medicines. Yet, many are in denial with respect to the extent of use of traditional/herbal medicines, overlooking that a considerable number of contemporary therapeutic drugs trace their discovery from herbal medicines. This expert review underscores that absent such appropriate attention on both classical drug therapy and herbal medicines, precision medicine biomarkers will likely not stand the full test of clinical practice while patients continue to use both drugs and herbal medicines and, yet the biomarker research and applications focus only (or mostly) on drug therapy. This asymmetry in biomarker innovation strategy needs urgent attention from a wide range of innovation actors worldwide, including governments, research funders, scientists, community leaders, civil society organizations, herbal, pharmaceutical, and insurance industries, policymakers, and social/political scientists. We discuss the various dimensions of a future convergence map between herbal and conventional medicine, and conclude with a set of concrete strategies on how best to integrate biomarker research in a realm of both herbal and drug treatment. Africa, by virtue of its vast experience and exposure in herbal medicine and a "pregnant" life sciences innovation ecosystem, could play a game-changing role for the "birth" of biomarker-informed personalized herbal medicine in the near future. At this critical juncture when precision medicine initiatives are being rolled out worldwide, precision/personalized herbal medicine is both timely and essential for modern therapeutics, not to mention biomarker innovations that stand the test of real-life practices and implementation in the clinic and society.
Li, Xiu-Min; Brown, Laverne
Although corticosteroids and beta(2)-agonists are effective in managing asthma symptoms, a curative therapy for asthma is lacking. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care as a complementary and alternative medicine modality. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma and explores their possible mechanisms of action. We first reviewed 5 clinical studies of antiasthma TCM herbal remedies published between 2005 and 2007. We then summarized possible mechanisms underlying their effects on the basis of data in the original articles, published abstracts, and available databases. Possible mechanisms include anti-inflammation, inhibition of airway smooth muscle contraction, and immunomodulation. Research on TCM herbal therapy for food allergy is rare, and we therefore focused on the effect and mechanism of action of food allergy herbal formula-2 on a murine model of peanut allergy and preliminary clinical study results. Evidence from clinical studies supports beneficial effects of TCM herbal therapy on asthma. A number of mechanisms may be responsible for efficacy of these agents. Strong preclinical study data suggest the potential efficacy of food allergy herbal formula-2 for food allergy.
Adeniyi, Samuel O.; Olufemi-Adeniyi, Olubukola A.; Erinoso, Sakiru M.
The use of traditional medicine as alternative or complimentary therapy is gaining prominence in primary health care worldwide. This is because of the efficacy in the management of mild, chronic seemingly incurable ailments/diseases. Though the publicity is on the increase from country to country in the world, however, one cannot conclude that the…
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Liu, Lei; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Yicun; Wang, Pu; Li, Yuxin; Li, Bingjin
The prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and insomnia are very common. These well-known forms of psychiatric disorders have been affecting many people from all around the world. Herb alone, as well as herbal formula, is commonly prescribed for the therapies of mental illnesses. Since various adverse events of western medication exist, the number of people who use herbs to benefit their health is increasing. Over the past decades, the exploration in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has received much attention. Literatures showed a variety of herbal mechanisms of action used for the therapy of depression, anxiety and insomnia, involving re-uptake of monoamines, affecting neuroreceptor binding and channel transporter activity, modulating neuronal communication or hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) etc. Nonetheless, a systematic review on herbal pharmacology in depression, anxiety and insomnia is still lacking. This review has been performed to further identify modes of action of different herbal medicine, and thus provides useful information for the application of herbal medicine. PMID:26412068
Wat, Elaine; Wang, Yanping; Chan, Ken; Law, Hon Wai; Koon, Chi Man; Lau, Kit Man; Leung, Ping Chung; Yan, Choly; Lau, Clara Bik San
Metabolic syndrome is the cluster of risk factors that leads to increased episodes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These risk factors include but are not limited to obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. Since the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome has multiple metabolic origins, there is no single treatment for it. Pharmacological approaches consist of separate drugs which target at individual risk factors which pose various side effects. Functional foods or nutraceuticals which have potentially important anti-obesity properties have thus attracted great attention. Schisandrae Fructus is a Chinese herb traditionally used as a liver tonic. Silymarin, an extract of the milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is a dietary supplement that is widely used in western society for the prevention and treatment of liver problems. Crataegus Fructus (hawthorn) is traditionally used to promote digestion and dissipate food stagnation. Momordica charantia (bitter melon) is traditionally used for treatment of diabetes in Ayurvedic Medicine. We aimed to develop a multi-targeted herbal formula to target on the multiple risk factors of metabolic syndrome using individual herbs. This proposed herbal formula include sylimarin and Schisandrae Fructus, for NAFLD; Crataegus Fructus for obesity and hyperlipidemia; and Momordica charantia for hyperglycemia. For in vitro study, we carried out insulin-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes differentiation and fluorescent tagged cholesterol-treated Caco-2 cell assay to study for adipogenesis and cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells, respectively. Oleic acid-induced HepG2 cell assay was used to study for oleic acid-induced fatty liver, and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) assay was used to study for glucose uptake from the gut. For in vivo study, we performed an 8-week and a 12-week treatment studies, with each study comprising of 4 groups of C57Bl/6 male mice given: (i) Normal-chow diet; (ii)-(iv) High-fat diet
Huang, Chung-Yu; Lai, Jung-Nien; Hsu, Feng-Lin
Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), when given as a therapy for symptom relief, has gained widespread popularity among diabetic patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the utilization of TCM among type 2 diabetic patients in Taiwan. Methods. The use of TCM for type 2 diabetic patients were evaluated using a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Results. Overall, 77.9% (n = 31,289) of type 2 diabetic patients utilized TCM and 13.9% (n = 4,351) of them used TCM for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Among the top ten most frequently prescribed herbal formulae, four remedies, Zhi-Bo-Di-Huang-Wan, Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Ji-Sheng-Shen-Qi-Wan and Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan are derivative formulae of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan. In other words, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan and its derivatives were found to be the most common herbal formulae prescribed by TCM doctors for the treatment of diabetes in Taiwan. Conclusion. Although some evidence does support the use TCM to treat diabetes, the results from the current study may have been confounded by placebo effect, which emphasize the need for well conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in order to further evaluate the efficacy of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan on patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23843864
Zhang, Lei; Wu, Chengyu; Bouvet, Michael; Yano, Shuya; Hoffman, Robert M
We used the fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) to monitor cell cycle arrest after treatment of FUCCI-expressing HeLa cells (FUCCI-HeLa) with a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture LQ, previously shown to have anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activity in mouse models. Paclitaxel was used as the positive control. In 2D monolayer culture, the untreated control had approximately 45% of the cells in S/G₂/M phase. In contrast, the LQ-treated cells (9 mg/ml) were mostly in the G₀/G₁ (>90%) after 72 hours. After treatment with paclitaxel (0.01 μm), for 72 hours, 95% of the cells were in S/G₂/M. In 2.5D Matrigel culture, the colonies in the untreated control group had 40% of the cells in S/G₂/M. LQ arrested the cells in G₀/G₁ after 72 hours. Paclitaxel arrested almost all the cells in S/G₂/M after 72 hours. In 3D Gelfoam culture, the untreated control culture had approximately 45% of cells in G₂/M. In contrast, the LQ-treated cells were mostly in G₀/G₁ phase (>80%) after 72 hours treatment. Paclitaxel resulted in 90% of the cells arrested in S/G₂/M after 72 hours. The present report suggests the non-toxic LQ has potential to maintain cancers in a quiescent state for long periods of time.
Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Khan, Amir Hasan; Adnan, Muhammad; Izatullah, Izatullah
In the study area, knowledge related to the traditional uses of medicinal plants is totally in the custody of elder community members and local herbalists. The younger generation is unaware of the traditional knowledge, however with only few exceptions. Therefore, this study was planned with objective to document the medicinal importance of plants, conserve this precious indigenous knowledge, and share it among other communities through published literature. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews from the community members and local herbalists. The reported plants were collected post interviews and later on pressed on herbarium vouchers for reference. Afterwards, the data was analyzed through Use value (UV) and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC). In total, 79 medicinal plant species were used for the treatment of different ailments in the study region. Out of the total plant species, 28 species were not reported from any other mountainous communities across the country. In this study, the ethno-medicinal value of Opuntia littoralis (Engelm.) Cockerell and Viola indica W.Becker was reported for the first time, which have moderate confidential level in terms of their medicinal uses in the study area. Important medicinal plants of the region with high UV are Berberis lycium Royle (0.94), V. indica (0.90), Isodon rugosus (Wall. ex Benth.) Codd (0.88), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (0.87), Peganum harmala L (0.86), Solanum virginianum L. (0.85), and Cassia fistula L. (0.79). Medicinal plants with higher RFC values are Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. (0.86), Cannabis sativa L. (0.82), Mentha piperita L. (0.82), Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. (0.76), Allium sativum L. (0.73), Coriandrum sativum L. (0.73), and F. vulgare (0.72). Traditional knowledge on folk medicines is directly linked to the local culture, faith and perception. This knowledge is gaining high threat of extinction because of its limitation to a small portion of the society in the region
Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of preparation methods on the holistic quality of Qiong-Yu-Gao, a traditional complex herbal medicine.
Xu, Jin-Di; Mao, Qian; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Li, Song-Lin; Yan, Ru
Qiong-Yu-Gao (QYG), consisting of Rehmanniae Radix (RR), Poriae (PO) and Ginseng Radix (GR), is a commonly used tonic traditional complex herbal medicine (CHM). So far, three different methods have been documented for preparation of QYG, i.e. method 1 (M1): mixing powders of GR and PO with decoction of RR; method 2 (M2): combining the decoction of RR and PO with the decoction of GR; method 3 (M3): decocting the mixture of RR, GR and PO. In present study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS) based chemical profiling approach was developed to investigate the influence of the three preparation methods on the holistic quality of QYG. All detected peaks were unambiguously identified by comparing UV spectra, accurate mass data/characteristic mass fragments and retention times with those of reference compounds, and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formula with that of known compounds, and/or elucidating quasi-molecular ions and fragment ions referring to information available in literature. A total of 103 components, mainly belonging to ginsenosides, phenethylalcohol glycosides, iridoid glycosides and triterpenoid acids, were identified, of which 5 degraded ginsenosides were putatively determined to be newly generated during preparation procedures of QYG samples. Triterpenoid acids and malonyl-ginsenosides were detected only in M1 samples, while degraded ginsenosides were merely detectable in M2/M3 samples. The possible reasons for the difference among chemical profiles of QYG samples prepared with three methods were also discussed. It could be concluded that preparation method do significantly affect the holistic quality of QYG. The influence of the altered chemical profiles on the bioactivity of QYG needs further investigation. The present study demonstrated that UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS based chemical profiling approach is efficient and
Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou
Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan. PMID:16550238
Nguyen, Phung Anh; Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Xu, Rong; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack
Traditional Chinese Medicine utilization has rapidly increased worldwide. However, there is limited database provides the information of TCM herbs and diseases. The study aims to identify and evaluate the meaningful associations between TCM herbs and breast cancer by using the association rule mining (ARM) techniques. We employed the ARM techniques for 19.9 million TCM prescriptions by using Taiwan National Health Insurance claim database from 1999 to 2013. 364 TCM herbs-breast cancer associations were derived from those prescriptions and were then filtered by their support of 20. Resulting of 296 associations were evaluated by comparing to a gold-standard that was curated information from Chinese-Wikipedia with the following terms, cancer, tumor, malignant. All 14 TCM herbs-breast cancer associations with their confidence of 1% were valid when compared to gold-standard. For other confidences, the statistical results showed consistently with high precisions. We thus succeed to identify the TCM herbs-breast cancer associations with useful techniques.
Dubey, Sachin; Nema, Neelesh; Nayak, S.
Two preparations of herbal shampoo powder were formulated using some common traditional drugs used by folk and traditional people of Bundelkhand region (M.P) India, for hair care. The preparations were formulated using bahera, amla, neem tulsi, shikakai henna & brahmi evaluated for organoleptic, powder charecterestics, foam test and physical evaluation. As the selected drugs being used since long time as single drug or in combination, present investigations will further help to establish a standard formulation and evaluation parameters, which will certainly help in the standardization for quality and purity of such type of herbal powder shampoos. PMID:22557149
Jong, Maw-Shiou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Chen, Fang-Pey
Constipation is a common gastrointestinal problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of use and prescriptive patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in treating constipation by analyzing the claims data of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan. The computerized claims dataset of the TCM office visits and the corresponding prescription files in 2004 compiled by the NHI Research Institute in Taiwan were linked and processed. Visit files with the single diagnostic coding of constipation (ICD-9-CM code 564.0) were extracted to analyze the frequency and pattern of corresponding CHM prescriptions. The association rule was applied to analyze the co-prescription of CHM in treating constipation. There were 152,564 subjects who visited TCM clinics only for constipation in Taiwan during 2004 and received a total of 387,268 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 20 and 29 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.5%). Female subjects used CHM for constipation more frequently than male subjects (female:male = 3.31:1). There was an average of 4.6 items of single Chinese herbs or formula in a single prescription for constipation. Ma-zi-renwan was the most commonly prescribed herbal formula, while Da-huang (Rheum palmatum) was the most commonly used single Chinese herb. According to the association rule, the most common prescribed pattern of 2-drug combination of CHM for treating constipation was Ban-xia-xie-xin-tang plus Ma-zi-ren-wan, while the 3-drug combination of CHM was Fang-feng-tong-sheng-san, Rheum palmatum and Ma-zi-ren-wan. This study showed the pattern of single Chinese herbs or herbal formulae used in treating constipation in Taiwan. Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs in treating constipation. 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Niizeki, Shozo; Araki, Makoto
The purpose of our article is to show two simpler and clearer methods of proving Stirling's formula than the traditional and conventional ones. The distinction of our method is to use the simple trapezoidal formula.
Song, Kwang Hoon; Kim, Yun Hee; Kim, Bu-Yeo
Sho-saiko-to (SST) (also known as so-shi-ho-tang or xiao-chai-hu-tang) has been widely prescribed for chronic liver diseases in traditional Oriental medicine. Despite the substantial amount of clinical evidence for SST, its molecular mechanism has not been clearly identified at a genome-wide level. By using a microarray, we analyzed the temporal changes of messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA expression in primary mouse hepatocytes after SST treatment. The pattern of genes regulated by SST was identified by using time-series microarray analysis. The biological function of genes was measured by pathway analysis. For the identification of the exact targets of the microRNAs, a permutation-based correlation method was implemented in which the temporal expression of mRNAs and microRNAs were integrated. The similarity of the promoter structure between temporally regulated genes was measured by analyzing the transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region. The SST-regulated gene expression had two major patterns: (1) a temporally up-regulated pattern (463 genes) and (2) a temporally down-regulated pattern (177 genes). The integration of the genes and microRNA demonstrated that 155 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally up-regulated pattern and 19 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally down-regulated pattern. The temporally up-regulated pattern by SST was associated with signaling pathways such as the cell cycle pathway, whereas the temporally down-regulated pattern included drug metabolism-related pathways and immune-related pathways. All these pathways could be possibly associated with liver regenerative activity of SST. Genes targeted by microRNA were moreover associated with different biological pathways from the genes not targeted by microRNA. An analysis of promoter similarity indicated that co-expressed genes after SST treatment were clustered into subgroups, depending on the temporal expression patterns. We are the
di Tizio, Alessandro; Łuczaj, Łukasz Jacub; Quave, Cassandra L; Redžić, Sulejman; Pieroni, Andrea
In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic "isles" in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian), a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions). Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7) were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK) of the local flora. Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses) were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis) shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium) juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of the elderberry tree ( Sambucus nigra) for treating
Background Sho-saiko-to (SST) (also known as so-shi-ho-tang or xiao-chai-hu-tang) has been widely prescribed for chronic liver diseases in traditional Oriental medicine. Despite the substantial amount of clinical evidence for SST, its molecular mechanism has not been clearly identified at a genome-wide level. Methods By using a microarray, we analyzed the temporal changes of messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA expression in primary mouse hepatocytes after SST treatment. The pattern of genes regulated by SST was identified by using time-series microarray analysis. The biological function of genes was measured by pathway analysis. For the identification of the exact targets of the microRNAs, a permutation-based correlation method was implemented in which the temporal expression of mRNAs and microRNAs were integrated. The similarity of the promoter structure between temporally regulated genes was measured by analyzing the transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region. Results The SST-regulated gene expression had two major patterns: (1) a temporally up-regulated pattern (463 genes) and (2) a temporally down-regulated pattern (177 genes). The integration of the genes and microRNA demonstrated that 155 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally up-regulated pattern and 19 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally down-regulated pattern. The temporally up-regulated pattern by SST was associated with signaling pathways such as the cell cycle pathway, whereas the temporally down-regulated pattern included drug metabolism-related pathways and immune-related pathways. All these pathways could be possibly associated with liver regenerative activity of SST. Genes targeted by microRNA were moreover associated with different biological pathways from the genes not targeted by microRNA. An analysis of promoter similarity indicated that co-expressed genes after SST treatment were clustered into subgroups, depending on the temporal
Background In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic “isles” in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. Methods A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian), a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions). Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7) were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK) of the local flora. Results Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses) were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis) shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium) juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of the elderberry tree
Kim Sooi, Law
This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy. PMID:24093047
Jeon, Woo-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jin, Seong Eun; Lee, Mee-Young
Gumiganghwal-tang is a traditional herbal prescription that is used widely for the treatment of the common cold and inflammatory diseases in Korea and other Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of a Gumiganghwal-tang aqueous extract (GGTA) against airway inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis using a mouse model of chronic asthma. Chronic asthma was modeled in BALB/c mice via sensitization/challenge with an intraperitoneal injection of 1% ovalbumin (OVA) and inhalation of nebulized 1% OVA for 4 weeks. GGTA (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg) was also administered by oral gavage once a day for 4 weeks. We investigated the number of inflammatory cells, production of T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines, chemokine and the total transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); the levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the plasma; the infiltration of inflammatory cells in lung tissue; and the expression of TGF-β1, Smad-3, and collagen in lung tissue. Our results revealed that GGTA lowered the recruitment of inflammatory cells (particularly, lymphocyte); and decreased the production of Th2 cytokines, chemokine and total TGF-β1; and attenuated the levels of total and OVA-specific IgE; and decreased the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Moreover, GGTA significantly reduced the expression of TGF-β1 and Smad-3, and lowered collagen deposition. These results indicate that GGTA reduces airway inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis by regulating Th2 cytokines production and the TGF-β1/Smad-3 pathway, thus providing a potential treatment for chronic asthma.
Restoration of Spermatogenesis Using a New Combined Herbal Formula of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and Angelica gigas Nakai in an Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonist-Induced Rat Model of Male Infertility
Purpose We investigated the protective effect of a mixture of 2 herbal extracts, KH-465, which consisted of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and Angelica gigas Nakai, on spermatogenesis in a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist-induced rat model of male infertility. Materials and Methods Seventy-five 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, containing 15 rats each: a normal control group that received no treatment and 4 experimental groups (I, II, III, and IV) in which an LHRH agonist was administered for 4 weeks to induce spermatogenic failure. Group I received distilled water, and groups II, III, and IV received 200 mg/kg/day of KH-465, 400 mg/kg/day KH-465, and depo-testosterone for 4 weeks, respectively. Weight changes of the testis and epididymis, sperm count motility, and levels of testosterone (T), free T, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were estimated. Results Body, testis, and epididymis weight showed no significant differences among the control and experimental groups. Treatment with KH-465 increased the sperm count and motility. Serum hormone levels of T, free T, and FSH were not significantly different in the experimental groups, while the LH level was higher than in the LHRH agonist-induced control group, but not to a significant extent. Levels of SOD were higher and 8-OHdG were lower in the groups that received KH-465 than in the LHRH agonist-induced control group. Conclusions Our results suggest that KH-465 increased sperm production via reducing oxidative stress and had a positive effect in a male infertility model. PMID:29076302
Cui, Xuejun; Trinh, Kien; Wang, Yong-Jun
Chronic neck pain with radicular signs or symptoms is a common condition. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. To assess the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines in treating chronic neck pain with radicular signs or symptoms. We electronically searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and AMED (beginning to October 1, 2009), the Chinese Biomedical Database and related herbal medicine databases in Japan and South Korea (1979 to 2007). We also contacted content experts and handsearched a number of journals published in China. We included randomized controlled trials with adults with a clinical diagnosis of cervical degenerative disc disease, cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy supported by appropriate radiological findings. The interventions were Chinese herbal medicines, defined as products derived from raw or refined plants or parts of plants, minerals and animals that are used for medicinal purposes in any form. The primary outcome was pain relief, measured with a visual analogue scale, numeric scale or other validated tool. The data were independently extracted and recorded by two review authors on a pre-developed form. Risk of bias and clinical relevance were assessed separately by two review authors using the twelve criteria and the five questions recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. All four included studies were in Chinese; two of which were unpublished. Effect sizes were not clinically relevant and there was low quality evidence for all outcomes due to study limitations and sparse data (single studies). Two trials (680 participants) found that Compound Qishe Tablets relieved pain better in the short-term than either placebo or Jingfukang; one trial (60 participants) found than an oral herbal formula of Huangqi ((Radix Astragali)18 g, Dangshen (Radix Codonopsis) 9 g, Sanqi (Radix
Tilburt, Jon C; Kaptchuk, Ted J
Governments, international agencies and corporations are increasingly investing in traditional herbal medicine research. Yet little literature addresses ethical challenges in this research. In this paper, we apply concepts in a comprehensive ethical framework for clinical research to international traditional herbal medicine research. We examine in detail three key, underappreciated dimensions of the ethical framework in which particularly difficult questions arise for international herbal medicine research: social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio. Significant challenges exist in determining shared concepts of social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio across international research collaborations. However, we argue that collaborative partnership, including democratic deliberation, offers the context and process by which many of the ethical challenges in international herbal medicine research can, and should be, resolved. By "cross-training" investigators, and investing in safety-monitoring infrastructure, the issues identified by this comprehensive framework can promote ethically sound international herbal medicine research that contributes to global health.
Safety and efficacy of a traditional herbal medicine (Throat Coat) in symptomatic temporary relief of pain in patients with acute pharyngitis: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.
Brinckmann, Josef; Sigwart, Herbert; van Houten Taylor, Leslie
To investigate the safety and efficacy of Throat Coat) (Traditional Medicinals,) Sebastopol, CA), a traditional demulcent herbal tea, in comparison with a placebo tea in the symptomatic treatment of acute pharyngitis. Multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, two-armed, parallel-group clinical trial. Three primary care clinics in Duluth, MN, Madison, WI, and Middleton, WI. Patients of both genders (>or=18 years of age) with clinical diagnoses of acute pharyngitis. Patients (n = 60) were randomly assigned to receive 5-8 oz of Throat Coat (n = 30) or a placebo (n = 30), four to six times daily. The study period was 2 to 7 days with a window for the follow-up visit of 2-10 days accounting for the variable duration of sore throat symptoms. Primary efficacy parameter: sum of pain intensity differences (SPID) for pain in throat on swallowing, calculated as the area under the curve (AUC) of pain intensity difference scores (assessed at 1 minute, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 20 minutes, and 30 minutes after treatment). Secondary efficacy parameter: total pain relief (TOTPAR), calculated as the AUC from time 0 (baseline) to 30 minutes of pain relief (assessed at 1 minute, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 20 minutes, and 30 minutes). Compared to placebo, intensity of throat pain when swallowing was significantly reduced by Throat Coat in intention to treat and valid for efficacy analysis (VEA). Significant differences in change from baseline pain were observed at 5 min (p = 0.007), 10 min (p = 0.005), 15 minutes (p = 0.01), 20 minutes (p = 0.05), and 30 minutes (p = 0.04) after completion of the first dose (VEA analysis). There was a statistically significant improvement of SPID in the Throat Coat-treated group: Least square means +/- standard error of the means (SEM) of SPID were -16.5 +/- 13.9 in the placebo group and -43.8 +/- 11.9 in the Throat Coat-treated group (p = 0.012). TOTPAR was also significantly higher in the Throat Coat
Vlietinck, Arnold; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra
In the European Union (EU) herbal medicinal products have become increasingly important. This is, for instance, underlined by the recent introduction of a simplified procedure in the Member States of the EU allowing the registration of herbal medicinal products which fulfill the criteria of a traditional herbal medicinal product, i.e., sufficient evidence of its medicinal use throughout a period of at least 30 years for products in the EU and at least 15 years within the EU and 15 years elsewhere for products outside the EU. With regard to the manufacturing of these products and their quality, applications of traditional herbal medicinal products have to fulfil the same requirements as applications for a marketing authorization. The quality of herbal substances as well as herbal preparations will be determined by the availability of modern science-based public monographs in the European Pharmacopoeia and their equivalents developed by the pharmaceutical industry. The standards put forward in these monographs must allow us not only to define the quality of these products, but also to eliminate dangerous counterfeit, substandard, adulterated and contaminated (traditional) herbal medicinal products. The usefulness of these monographs to implement the criteria on quality and specifications put forward for these products in the different guidelines of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) is discussed.
Jagtenberg, Tom; Evans, Sue
Herbal medicine finds itself at a crossroads. If it continues to become mainstreamed in a commodity-driven health industry, its focus will change from craft-based tradition to globalized industry. On the other hand, if the fundamental importance of tradition to indigenous and nonindigenous medicine is respected, ecologic and cultural issues arise. Central here are the issues associated with control of both land and culture. Many indigenous cultures and their local ecologies are currently threatened by globalization. Historically, successful large corporations have neither respected the environment nor easily acknowledged indigenous claims to land and intellectual property, so no easy resolution of these conflicts seems likely. Our case study of Mapuche medicine allows us to explore the social and cultural conflicts that many practising herbalists experience. We argue that because of the basic contradictions involved, the protection of cultures and ecologies that underpin the discipline must be made a clear priority. We argue that local cultural traditions are clearly at odds with a globalizing herbal industry.
Liu, Jian-Xun; Ren, Jian-Xun; Lin, Cheng-Ren
The efficacy not only is summarized by clinical effect of Chinese herbal compound on theory of traditional Chinese medicine, but also is manifested to clinical effect by interaction of many intricate chemical substances. The efficacy of Chinese herbal compound is current research focus in field of traditional Chinese medicine. By currently knowing in different aspects which included the progression in efficacy of Chinese herbal compound, symptomatic efficacy of Chinese herbal compound, the relationship between the efficacy and pharmacologic effect of Chinese herbal compound, the efficacy related pharmacodynamic substance and the evaluation of efficacy, it had been summarized mainly problems and methods in research and development process of the efficacy of Chinese herbal compound in this paper. Paper also elucidated problems that need to pay attention in research of efficacy in order to provide references for clinical and experimental studies of efficacy in Chinese herbal compound, boost research and development level of new traditional Chinese drug and facilitate modernization of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Jin, Rui; Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Bing
Herbal property theory of traditional Chinese medicines is the theoretical guidance on authentication of medicinal plants, herborization, preparation of herbal medicines for decoction and clinical application, with important theoretical value and prac- tical significance. Our research team proposed the "three-element" theory for herbal properties for the first time, conducted a study by using combined methods of philology, chemistry, pharmacology and mathematics, and then drew the research conclusion that herbal properties are defined as the chemical compositions-based comprehensive expression with complex and multi-level (positive/negative) biological effects in specific organism state. In this paper, researchers made a systematic mathematical analysis in four aspects--the correlation between herbal properties and chemical component factors, the correlation between herbal properties and organism state fac- tor, the correlation between herbal properties and biological effect factor and the integration study of the three elements, proposed future outlook, and provided reference to mathematical studies and mathematical analysis of herbal properties.
Li, Hao-Tian; Liu, Hong-Hong; Yang, Yu-Xue; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Xue-Lin; Yu, Yang; Li, Su-Na; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Rui-Lin; Li, Jian-Yu; Wei, Shi-Zhang; Li, Kun; Li, Peng-Yan; Qian, Li-Qi
As a common disorder that accounts for over 70% of all breast disease cases, mammary gland hyperplasia (MGH) causes a severe problem for the quality of patients' life, and confers an increased risk of breast carcinoma. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of MGH remain unclear, and the safety and efficacy of current western drug therapy for MGH still need to be improved. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted by our team to determine whether a TCM formula named Ru-Pi-Xiao in combination with tamoxifen or Ru-Pi-Xiao treated alone can show more prominent therapeutic effects against MGH with fewer adverse reactions than that of tamoxifen. Studies published before June 2017 were searched based on standardized searching rules in several mainstream medical databases. A total of 27 articles with 4,368 patients were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The results showed that the combination of Ru-Pi-Xiao and tamoxifen could exhibit better therapeutic effects against MGH than that of tamoxifen (OR: 3.79; 95% CI: 3.09–4.65; P < 0.00001) with a lower incidence of adverse reactions (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.28–0.43; P < 0.00001). The results also suggested that this combination could improve the level of progesterone (MD: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.72–2.71; P < 0.00001) and decrease the size of breast lump (MD: −0.67; 95% CI: −0.86 to −0.49; P < 0.00001) to a greater extent, which might provide a possible explanation for the pharmacodynamic mechanism of Ru-Pi-Xiao plus tamoxifen. In conclusion, Ru-Pi-Xiao and related preparations could be recommended as auxiliary therapy combined tamoxifen for the treatment of MGH. PMID:29456506
Manchishi, Stephen M
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide, with about 80 percent of cases thought to be in developing nations where it is mostly linked to superstition. The limited supply, high cost as well as low efficacy and adverse side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a matter of major concern. Herbal medicine has always been traditionally part of treatment of epilepsy. Herbal medicines are generally well tolerated, with fewer side effects. To highlight some herbal extracts that have been studied for their anticonvulsant activity in animal models, literature search from PubMed and Science Direct, was performed. The keywords for the search consisted of combinations of the following terms: Herbal antiepileptic and/or anticonvulsant, botanicals + epilepsy. Literature published in the last five years was considered. Eighteen (18) anticonvulsant herbal agents are reported and discussed. Experiments mostly consisted of phenotypic screens in rodents, with little diversity in screening methods. In most experiments, the tested extracts prolonged the time to onset of seizures and decreased their duration. Most experimenters implicate potentiation of GABAergic activity as the mode of action of the extracts, even though some experimenters did not fully characterise the bioactive chemical composition of their extracts. Potential herbal remedies have shown positive results in animal models. It remains unclear how many make it into clinical trials and eventually making part of the AED list. More rigorous research, applying strict research methodology with uniform herbal combinations, as well as clinical studies are urgently needed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Cho, B H
Hanbang, the Korean medical practice with origins in classical Chinese texts, is a prominent part of the Korean health care system. Hanbang physicians, called hanuisas, are looked down on by biomedical doctors, but their practice has enjoyed increasing popularity for several decades. As the market for herbal preparations has become more lucrative, biomedical pharmacists have begun to participate in it. The Pharmaceutical Act in 1993 explicitly allowed pharmacists to prescribe and dispense herbal drugs. This provoked a bitter public conflict between hanuisas and pharmacists, involving street demonstrations and strikes. The hanuisas asserted that the pharmacists were unqualified to assume their traditional practice. They also agitated for recognition in the state-sponsored system of health care and for the state's support for developing Hanbang medicine. This paper attributes the conflicts concerning Hanbang to the expanding market for herbal preparations, Korean nationalism, and to the oversupply of biomedical pharmacists.
Chu, Shih-Meng; Shih, Wei-Tai; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chen, Pau-Chung; Chu, Yen-Hua
Chinese herbal products (CHPs) are commonly used in patients with hyperlipidemia in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Because hyperlipidemia and related disease are common issues worldwide, this study analyzed the prescription patterns and frequencies of CHPs for treating patients with hyperlipidemia in Taiwan. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has become popular as a therapy for controlling symptoms in patients with hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to analyze the prescription patterns of TCM for patients with hyperlipidemia in Taiwan. The study population was recruited from a random-sampled cohort of 1,000,000 people from the National Health Insurance Research Database between 2003 and 2009. We identified 30,784 outpatient visits related with hyperlipidemia diagnosis and collected these medical records. Association rules of data mining were conducted to explore the co-prescription patterns for Chinese herbal products (CHPs). The most commonly prescribed herbal formula for hyperlipidemia treatment was Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang (16.1%), and Shan Zha (Crataegi fructus; 25.0%) was the most commonly prescribed single herb. The most commonly prescribed combination of an herbal formula and a single herb was Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang and Dan Shen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae), and the most commonly prescribed combination of couplet herbs was Dan Shen and Shan Zha. Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang is the most frequently prescribed formula and is typically prescribed with Shan Zha, Dan Shen, and He Shou Wu for patients with hyperlipidemia. Clinical trials are warranted in future research to investigate the effects of the CHPs in terms of safety and efficacy and in particular to evaluate potential interactions with conventional treatments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Ayaz, S; Efe, S Yaman
Numerous traditional methods are used in the treatment of infertility around the world. To identify the traditional practices of infertile women using one clinic in Ankara, Turkey. The population comprised all women (5700) who attended one infertility outpatient clinic in 2007. The sample was calculated using sample calculation formula and 410 women were included in the study. The survey method was used for data collection. Of the responding women, 27.3% had tried a traditional practice, and 67.8% who tried traditional practices used an herbal mixture. The reason for the women's use of a traditional practice was 'hope' (66.9%), and 15.2% of them had experienced an adverse effect related with traditional practice. Maternal education level, perceived economic status, duration of marriage all significantly affected the use of traditional practices (P<0.05). The women who had received unsuccessful medical treatment for infertility and who had experienced side effects after medical treatment had a higher rate of use of traditional practice (P<0.05). Almost one in three of the women who responded to the questionnaire had tried traditional methods, and some experienced adverse effects related to the practice. For couples with infertility problems, educational programmes and consultation services should be organized with respect to their traditional culture. Women should be informed about the hazards of traditional practices and avoidance of harmful practices, and continuous emotional support must be provided for infertile couples. In the future, nursing staff should play a much larger role in these supportive services.
Rapid Discrimination for Traditional Complex Herbal Medicines from Different Parts, Collection Time, and Origins Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Near-Infrared Spectral Fingerprints with Aid of Pattern Recognition Methods
Fu, Haiyan; Fan, Yao; Zhang, Xu; Lan, Hanyue; Yang, Tianming; Shao, Mei; Li, Sihan
As an effective method, the fingerprint technique, which emphasized the whole compositions of samples, has already been used in various fields, especially in identifying and assessing the quality of herbal medicines. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and near-infrared (NIR), with their unique characteristics of reliability, versatility, precision, and simple measurement, played an important role among all the fingerprint techniques. In this paper, a supervised pattern recognition method based on PLSDA algorithm by HPLC and NIR has been established to identify the information of Hibiscus mutabilis L. and Berberidis radix, two common kinds of herbal medicines. By comparing component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and particularly partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) with different fingerprint preprocessing of NIR spectra variables, PLSDA model showed perfect functions on the analysis of samples as well as chromatograms. Most important, this pattern recognition method by HPLC and NIR can be used to identify different collection parts, collection time, and different origins or various species belonging to the same genera of herbal medicines which proved to be a promising approach for the identification of complex information of herbal medicines. PMID:26345990
Wang, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Jian-Gang; Li, Hao; Yang, Hui-Ming
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder associated with dementia, not only severely decreases the quality of life for its victims, but also brings a heavy economic burden to the family and society. Unfortunately, few chemical drugs designed for clinical applications have reached the expected preventive or therapeutic effect so far, and combined with their significant side-effects, there is therefore an urgent need for new strategies to be developed for AD treatment. Traditional Chinese Medicine has accumulated many experiences in the treatment of dementia during thousands of years of practice; modern pharmacological studies have confirmed the therapeutic effects of many active components derived from Chinese herbal medicines (CHM). Ginsenoside Rg1, extracted from Radix Ginseng, exerts a [Formula: see text]-secretase inhibitor effect so as to decrease A[Formula: see text] aggregation. It can also inhibit the apoptosis of neuron cells. Tanshinone IIA, extracted from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, and baicalin, extracted from Radix Scutellariae[Formula: see text] can inhibit the oxidative stress injury in neuronal cells. Icariin, extracted from Epimedium brevicornum, can decrease A[Formula: see text] levels and the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, and can also inhibit oxidative stress and apoptosis. Huperzine A, extracted from Huperzia serrata, exerts a cholinesterase inhibitor effect. Evodiamine, extracted from Fructus Evodiae, and curcumin, extracted from Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, exert anti-inflammatory actions. Curcumin can act on A[Formula: see text] and tau too. Due to the advantages of multi-target effects and fewer side effects, Chinese medicine is more appropriate for long-term use. In this present review, the pharmacological effects of commonly used active components derived from Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of AD are discussed.
HIV-positive support groups, together with hospital pharmacists in Thailand are fighting the high cost and lack of access to pharmaceuticals by producing and distributing herbal medicines. In Theung district, Chiang Rai province, members of the local support group for people with HIV produce their own, low-cost, herbal medicines. Although the herbal medicines they produce do not provide a cure for HIV/AIDS, they do offer relief for some of the symptoms of opportunistic infections. The herbs are prepared by the group members under the supervision of the pharmacy department at the district hospital. Local people judge their effectiveness by hearing testimonials from people who have witnessed improvement in symptoms. In response to the popularity and effectiveness of herbal medicines, the Ministry of Public Health has approved plans to sell products derived from local herbs in the pharmacies of government hospitals.
... called a botanical product) is a type of dietary supplement that contains one or more herbs. Herbal health ... effective by the FDA. But the FDA defines dietary supplements as a category of food, not as drugs. ...
Xu, Huan-Hua; Hao, Fei-Ran; Wang, Mei-Xi; Ren, Si-Jia; Li, Ming; Tan, Hong-Ling; Wang, Yu-Guang; Tang, Xiang-Lin; Xiao, Cheng-Rong; Liang, Qian-De
The purpose of this work was to study the influences of Realgar-Indigo naturalis (RIF) and its principal element realgar on 4 main cytochrome P450 enzymes activities in rats. A simple and efficient cocktail method was developed to detect the four probe drugs simultaneously. In this study, Wistar rats were administered intragastric RIF and realgar for 14 days; mixed probe drugs were injected into rats by caudal vein. Through analyzing the pharmacokinetic parameter of mixed probe drugs in rats, we can calculate the CYPs activities. The results showed that RIF could inhibit CYP1A2 enzyme activity and induce CYP2C11 enzyme activity significantly. Interestingly, in realgar high dosage group, CYP3A1/2 enzyme activity was inhibited significantly, and different dosage of realgar manifested a good dose-dependent manner. The RIF results indicated that drug coadministrated with RIF may need to be paid attention in relation to drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Realgar, a toxic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), does have curative effect on acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Its toxicity studies should be focused on. We found that, in realgar high dosage group, CYP3A1/2 enzymes activity was inhibited. This phenomenon may explain its potential toxicity mechanism. PMID:28421119
Xu, Huan-Hua; Hao, Fei-Ran; Wang, Mei-Xi; Ren, Si-Jia; Li, Ming; Tan, Hong-Ling; Wang, Yu-Guang; Tang, Xiang-Lin; Xiao, Cheng-Rong; Liang, Qian-De; Gao, Yue; Ma, Zeng-Chun
The purpose of this work was to study the influences of Realgar- Indigo naturalis (RIF) and its principal element realgar on 4 main cytochrome P450 enzymes activities in rats. A simple and efficient cocktail method was developed to detect the four probe drugs simultaneously. In this study, Wistar rats were administered intragastric RIF and realgar for 14 days; mixed probe drugs were injected into rats by caudal vein. Through analyzing the pharmacokinetic parameter of mixed probe drugs in rats, we can calculate the CYPs activities. The results showed that RIF could inhibit CYP1A2 enzyme activity and induce CYP2C11 enzyme activity significantly. Interestingly, in realgar high dosage group, CYP3A1/2 enzyme activity was inhibited significantly, and different dosage of realgar manifested a good dose-dependent manner. The RIF results indicated that drug coadministrated with RIF may need to be paid attention in relation to drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Realgar, a toxic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), does have curative effect on acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Its toxicity studies should be focused on. We found that, in realgar high dosage group, CYP3A1/2 enzymes activity was inhibited. This phenomenon may explain its potential toxicity mechanism.
Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Xuemin
Diabetes, especially type 2, has been rapidly increasing all over the world. Although many drugs have been developed and used to treat diabetes, side effects and long-term efficacy are of great challenge. Therefore, natural health product and dietary supplements have been of increasing interest alternatively. In this regard, Chinese herbs and herbal products have been considered a rich resource of product development. Although increasing evidence has been produced from various scientific studies, the mechanisms of action are lacking. Here, we have proposed that many herbal monomers and formulae improve glucose homeostasis and diabetes through the BMID axis; B represents gut microbiota, M means mucosal immunity, I represents inflammation, and D represents diabetes. Chinese herbs have been traditionally used to treat diabetes, with minimal side and toxic effects. Here, we reviewed monomers such as berberine, ginsenoside, M. charantia extract, and curcumin and herbal formulae such as Gegen Qinlian Decoction, Danggui Liuhuang Decoction, and Huanglian Wendan Decoction. This review was intended to provide new perspectives and strategies for future diabetes research and product. PMID:29164155
Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Li, Xinxue; Yang, Guoyan; Liu, Jian Ping
Chinese herbal medicine is frequently used for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy in China. Many controlled trials have been undertaken to investigate its efficacy.This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in the year 2011. To assess the beneficial effects and harms of Chinese herbal medicine for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. On 14 May 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2012), AMED (January 1985 to May 2012) and in October 2012, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1979 to October 2012), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI) (1979 to October 2012), and VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (1989 to October 2012). We searched for unpublished literature in the Chinese Conference Papers Database, and Chinese Dissertation Database (from inception to October 2012). There were no language or publication restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine (with a minimum of four weeks treatment duration) for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions. Trials of herbal medicine plus a conventional drug versus the drug alone were also included. Two authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. Forty-nine randomised trials involving 3639 participants were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Thirty-eight different herbal medicines were tested in these trials, including four single herbs (extracts from a single herb), eight traditional Chinese patent medicines, and 26 self concocted Chinese herbal compound prescriptions. The trials reported on global symptom improvement (including improvement in numbness or pain) and changes in nerve conduction
Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Liu, Jian Ping
Chinese herbal medicine is frequently used for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy in China. Many controlled trials have been undertaken to investigate its efficacy. To assess the beneficial effects and harms of Chinese herbal medicine for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (15 June 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2, 2010 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1966 to June 2010), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2010), AMED (January 1985 to June 2010), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1979 to June 2010), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI) (1979 to June 2010), and VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (1989 to June 2010). We searched for unpublished literature in the Chinese Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (from inception to March 2010). No language or publication restrictions were used. We included randomized controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine (with a minimum of four weeks treatment duration) for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions. Trials of herbal medicine plus a conventional drug versus the drug alone were also included. Two authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. The data analyses were carried out using Review Manager 5.1 (Cochrane software). Thirty-nine randomized trials involving 2890 participants were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Thirty different herbal medicines were tested in these trials, including four single herbs (extracts from a single herb), eight traditional Chinese patent medicines, and 18 self-concocted Chinese herbal compound prescriptions. The trials reported on global symptom improvement (including improvement in numbness or pain) and changes in nerve
Tsai, Ming-Yen; Hu, Wen-Long; Lin, Che-Chen; Lee, Yi-Chiao; Chen, Shih-Yu; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Chen, Yung-Hsiang
Certain Chinese herbal products (CHPs) may protect against the progression of heart failure (HF). However, there is a lack of research regarding the use of CHPs in patients with HF. The aims of this study were to analyze CHPs usage patterns in patients with HF and to identify the frequency and combination of CHPs most commonly used for HF. This retrospective, nationwide, population-based cohort study was conducted using a randomly sampled cohort of one million patients selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for the years 2000-2010 in Taiwan. CHP use and the top ten most frequently prescribed formulae and single herbs for treating HF were assessed, including total formulae number and average and frequency of prescriptions. Demographic characteristics, including sex and age at diagnosis of HF, were examined, together with existing comorbidities. The cohort included 19,988 newly diagnosed AD patients, who were given CHP treatment for HF between 2000 and 2010. Among them, female patients (53.3%) and those over 65years old (63.9%) were more likely to use CM. After adjusting for demographic factors, HF patients suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD) were more likely to seek traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment than those with non-TCM users (57.6% vs. 52.6%). Zhi-Gan-Cao-Tang (4.07%) and Danshen (5.13%) were the most frequent formula CHP and single CHP prescribed by TCM practitioners for treating HF, respectively. Most people with HF who consumed CHPs used CHPs to supplement Yang-Qi, nourish the Ying-blood, and strengthen the heart spirit as complementary medicines to relieve HF-related symptoms, in addition to using standard anti-HF treatments. Further large-scale, randomized clinical trials are warranted in order to determine the effectiveness and safety of these herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chao, Te-Hsin; Fu, Pin-Kuei; Chang, Chiung-Hung; Chang, Shih-Ni; Chiahung Mao, Frank; Lin, Ching-Heng
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is commonly provided to cancer patients, however, the patterns of prescriptions for this type of medicine in Taiwan are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the use of traditional Chinese medicine products in colon cancer patients post-surgery in Taiwan and to research patterns of TCM. This was a cross-sectional study of newly diagnosed colon cancer patients who received surgery between 2004 and 2008 identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The prescription patterns and reasons for the use of TCM for colon cancer were analyzed. The results showed that "symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions" (23.3%) and diseases of the digestive system (16.9%) were the most common reasons for using Chinese herbal medicine. Xiang-sha-liu-jun-zi-tang (7.1%), Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (4.3%), Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (4.1%), Shen-Ling-Bai-Zhu-San (3.7%), Ban-Xia-Xie-Xin-Tang (3.4%), Gui-pi-tang (2.4%), Ping-Wei-San (2.4%), Gan-Lu-Yin (2.0%), Bao-He-Wan (1.9%), and Zhen-Ren-Huo-Ming-Yin (1.8%) were the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herbal formulae (CHF) for colon cancer patients post-surgery. Hedyotis diffusa Willd (Bai Hua She She Cao) (5.1%) and Scutellaria barbata (Ban Zhi Lian )(4.8%) were the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herbs. This study identified patterns of TCM use in colon cancer patients post-surgery in Taiwan. The herbal ingredients were most commonly used for stimulate ghrelin secretion to increase food intake and had potential anti-tumor effect. However, further research is required to evaluate any beneficial effects which could identify leads for the development of new treatment strategies using TCM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tang, Huan-Huan; Li, Hai-Long; Li, Yue-Xuan; You, Yan; Guan, Yun-Yun; Zhang, Su-Lin; Liu, Li-Xin; Bao, Wei-Lian; Zhou, Yong; Shen, Xiao-Yan
Jiang-Xian HuGan (JXHG) formulated by five natural products including Freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea), Curcuma longa L., Ligustrum lucidum, Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. and Paeonia lactiflora Pall., has exhibited a great hepatoprotective effect. We investigated the effect of JXHG on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute live injury in mice, and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. Jiangkanling Capsule (900 mg/kg), low-dose JXHG (LJXHG, 700 mg/kg), high-dose JXHG (HJXHG, 1400 mg/kg) were administered to mice by oral gavage daily for 20 days prior to a single intravenous injection of ConA (20 mg/kg). Liver injury was evaluated by measuring the serum levels of enzymes and cytokines as well as liver histological analysis. We also measured the hepatic expression of cytokines at mRNA levels and the proteins related to NF-κB and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathways. Our results showed that JXHG pretreatment significantly alleviated ConA-induced live injury as evidenced by decreased serum levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (AST), and reduced hepatocyte apoptosis and mortality. Furthermore, JXHG was able to significantly reduce the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, down-regulate the mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and up-regulate IL-10 as well as superoxide-dimutase-1 (SOD1), glutathione reductase (GSR) and Glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX2) mRNA in the liver tissues after Con A injection. In addition, JXHG pretreatment dramatically suppressed the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 (p65), increased Nrf2 expression, and decreased the expression ratio of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 in liver tissues. These results suggest that JXHG protects against ConA-induced acute live injury through inhibiting NF-κB mediated inflammatory pathway and promoting Nrf2 mediated anti-oxidative stress signaling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Suzuki, Hidekazu; Inadomi, John M.; Hibi, Toshifumi
Background Management of functional gastrointestinal disorders is hindered by both poor efficacy and adverse effects of traditional pharmacological therapy. Herbal medicine may be an attractive alternative based on the perception of its “natural” approach and low risk of side effects; however, the lack of standardization of drug components has limited the ability to perform rigorous clinical studies in Western countries. Japanese herbal medicine (JHM) is a standardized form of herbal medicine with regards to the quality and quantities of ingredients. While extensively studied and widely used in Asia, there is a paucity of data upon which physicians in other parts of the world may draw conclusions regarding the effectiveness of herbal medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. Aim To summarize the most recent developments in JHM for treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Methods Animal and human studies were systematically reviewed to identify published data of JHM used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The herbal components of JHM were examined. Results describing the physiological and clinical effects of JHM were abstracted, with an emphasis on functional gastrointestinal disorders. Results JHM are associated with a variety of beneficial physiological on the gastrointestinal system. Patient-based clinical outcomes are improved in several conditions. Rikkunnshi-to reduces symptoms and reverses physiological abnormalities associated with functional dyspepsia, while Dai-Kenchu-to improves symptoms of post-operative ileus and constipation in children. Conclusions This updated summary of JHM in the field of gastrointestinal disorders illustrates the potential for herbal medication to serve a valuable role in the management of patients with functional disorders. PMID:19563404
Chen, L C; Wang, B R; Chou, Y C; Tien, J H
Drug utilization studies are important for the optimization of drug therapy and have received a great attention in recent years. Most of the information on drug use patterns has been derived from studies in modern Western medicines; however, studies regarding the drug utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (CM) are few. The present study was the first clinical research to evaluate the drug utilization patterns of Chinese herbal medicines in a general hospital in Taiwan. Data were collected prospectively from the patients attending the Traditional Medicine Center of Taipei Veteran General Hospital under CM drug treatments. The study was carried out over a period of 1 year, from January 2002 to December 2002. Core drug use indicators, such as the average number of drugs per prescriptions, the dosing frequency of prescriptions, and the most common prescribed CM herbs and formulae were evaluated. The primary diagnosis and the CM drugs prescribed for were also revealed. All data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. A total of 10 737 patients, representing 52 255 CM drugs, were screened during the study period. Regarding the prescriptions, the average number of drugs per prescription was 4.87 and 37.21% of prescriptions were composed by five drugs. Most of prescriptions (91.38%) were prescribed for three times a day. The most often prescribed Chinese herb was Hong-Hwa (5.76%) and the most common Chinese herbal formula was Jia-Wey-Shiau-Yau-San (3.80%). The most frequent main diagnosis was insomnia (15.58%), followed by menopause (5.22%) and constipation (5.09%). The survey revealed the drug use pattern of CMs in a general hospital. The majority of CM prescriptions were composed by 3-6 drugs and often prescribed for three times a day. Generally, the rational drug uses of CM drugs were provided with respect to the various diagnoses. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Szeto, Yim-Tong; Cheng, Ngok-Fung; Pak, Sok-Cheon; Kalle, Wouter
The Chinese herbal decoction formula Xiao Jian Zhong Tang (XJZT) is one of the classic formulas from the classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Previous studies on XJZT found that it is effective for treating peptic ulcer, irritable bowel syndrome, functional gastroenteritis and similar psychosomatic disorders of the digestive organs. It has also been shown that all the herbs used in XJZT contain antioxidants. In this study, we investigated the in vitro DNA protection effect of the individual herb extracts and the whole formula. Water extract of the herbs and XJZT were used to pre-treat human lymphocytes. The lymphocytes were then exposed to hydrogen peroxide. The in vitro DNA protection effect of the herbs was investigated by comet assay. No DNA protective effect (P < 0.05) was found for individual herb extracts, but XJZT showed protection of human lymphocytic DNA upon oxidative stress (P < 0.05). The in vitro DNA protection effect of XJZT was conferred by the synergistic effect of the herbs, while the individual herbs had no such effect.
... can help you choose and use herbals safely. Herbals are not Medicines You have to be careful when using an ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Herbal Medicine Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...
Osteoarthritis is one of the leading causes of pain and disability. In the UK, up to 8.5 million people are affected by joint pain that may be attributed to the condition. Non-surgical treatment options include lifestyle measures (e.g. exercise); local therapy involving heat or cold; manual therapy; transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS); topical capsaicin; simple analgesics; NSAIDs; opioids; and intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Studies have reported widespread use of complementary and alternative therapies such as herbal medicines by patients with arthritis. Here we review the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines for symptoms of osteoarthritis.
Identification of multiple constituents in the traditional Chinese medicine formula Zhi-zi-chi decoction and rat plasma after oral administration by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.
Zhao, Xu; Long, Zhimin; Dai, Jinna; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui
Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to positive electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) employing a time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer was established to identify multi-components of Zhi-zi-chi decoction, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, and the constituents in rat plasma after oral administration of Zhi-zi-chi decoction. The LC separation was achieved on a C(18) column. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile/0.2% formic acid with gradient program. The quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer was operated in the positive ion mode with an electrospray ionization source (ESI+). The capillary voltage of the ion source was set at 4500 V and the capillary exit was 90 V. The nebulizer pressure was maintained at 1.2 bar. Hexapole radio frequencies 1 and 2 were set to 200 Vpp and 250 Vpp, respectively. A total 47 compounds in the Zhi-zi-chi decoction and 24 constituents in rat plasma after oral administration of Zhi-zi-chi decoction were identified. Of the 47 detected compounds in the Zhi-zi-chi decoction, 15 were identified by comparing the retention time and MS data with that of reference compounds and the rest were identified by MS analysis and retrieving the reference literature. Of the identified 24 compounds in rat plasma, 19 were the original form of the compounds absorbed from the 47 detected compounds, and the other five were the metabolites of the compounds existing in the Zhi-zi-chi decoction. A fast and sensitive LC/Q-TOF MS method has been developed and successfully utilized to screen the active ingredients of a Chinese medical formula, Zhi-zi-chi decoction, for the first time. The results indicated that the 24 compounds identified in rat plasma were the potential active ingredients of Zhi-zi-chi decoction, which provided helpful chemical information for further pharmacology and active mechanism research on Zhi-zi-chi decoction and other traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zhu, Fangshi; Liu, Xuan; Li, Qi; Su, Shi-bing
Proteomics technology, a major component of system biology, has gained comprehensive attention in the area of medical diagnosis, drug development, and mechanism research. On the holistic and systemic theory, proteomics has a convergence with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this review, we discussed the applications of proteomic technologies in diseases-TCM syndrome combination researches. We also introduced the proteomic studies on the in vivo and in vitro effects and underlying mechanisms of TCM treatments using Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), Chinese herbal formula (CHF), and acupuncture. Furthermore, the combined studies of proteomics with other “-omics” technologies in TCM were also discussed. In summary, this report presents an overview of the recent advances in the application of proteomic technologies in TCM studies and sheds a light on the future global and further research on TCM. PMID:26557869
Liu, Yan; Nie, Qing; Chen, Jing
With the development of society and the improvement of people's living standards, the effect of Chinese medicine in treatment and health care is more and more prominent. The herbal decoction pieces are the important part of Chinese medicine,it can be applied directly to clinical treatment and it's also the raw material of Chinese patent medicine. Therefore, the quality of herbal decoction pieces is quite important. The parts of the production of herbal decoction pieces are numerous, and there are possibilities of adverse effects on the quality of the herbal decoction pieces in every part. In this paper, we based on the production chain of herbal decoction pieces, analyzed the main problem that affect the quality of herbal decoction pieces in the part of selection of Chinese herbal medicines, planting, purchasing, processing, packaging, storage and transport, such as the poor quality of seed and seedlings of plant-based Chinese medicines, some plants left their place of origin and have been introduced in the place that is not suitable for this kind of plant, the insufficient growth time and the excessive harmful substances. The purchasers and the accepters lack of professional knowledge and professional ethics. The mechanism of processing is not clear, the standards can not be uniformed, and lack of qualified person in processing, etc. So we suggest: intensify the basic research of key scientific issues. Improve the quality of persons who work in herbal decoction pieces; Establish an "integration" mode of operation in herbal decoction pieces enterprise; Breeding high quality plant resources, establish the large-scale planting basement; Make the packing of herbal decoction pieces standard; Establish the modernization traditional Chinese medicine logistics enterprise.
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Although both genetic and environmental factors are implicated in the development of Parkinson's disease, the cause of the disease is still unclear. So far conventional treatments to Parkinson's are symptomatic relief and focused mainly on motor symptoms. Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat many conditions in China, Korea, Japan, and many Southeast Asian countries for 1000 years. During past a few decades, Chinese herbal medicine has gained wider and increasing acceptance within both public and medical profession due to its effectiveness on many conditions in western countries. In this chapter, mechanisms of action of many Chinese herbal compounds/extracts and Chinese herb formulas on the models of Parkinson's were reviewed. Further, reports of effectiveness of Chinese herb formulas on patients with Parkinson's were summarized. It was shown that both Chinese herbal compounds/extracts and herb formulas have either specific target mechanisms of action or multitargets mechanisms of action, as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antiapoptosis agents. Clinical studies showed that Chinese herb formulas as an adjunct improved both motor and nonmotor symptoms, and reduced dose of dopaminergic drugs and occurrence of dyskinesia. The evidence from the studies suggests that Chinese herb medicine has potential, acting as neuroprotective to slow down the progression of Parkinson's, and it is able to simultaneously treat both motor and nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's. More studies are needed to explore the new compounds/extracts derived from Chinese herbs, in particular, their mechanisms of action. It is hopeful that new drugs developed from Chinese herb compounds/extracts and Chinese herb formulas will lead to better and complimentary therapy to PD. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Xiu-Min; Brown, Laverne
Background While corticosteroids and β-2 agonists are effective in managing asthma symptoms, a curative therapy for asthma is lacking. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care as a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modality. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. Objective This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma and explores their possible mechanisms of action. Methods We first reviewed five clinical studies of “anti-asthma” TCM herbal remedies published between 2005–2007. We then summarized possible mechanisms underlying their effects based on data in the original articles, published abstracts, and available data bases. Possible mechanisms include anti-inflammation, inhibition of airway smooth muscle contraction, and immunomodulation. Research on TCM herbal therapy for food allergy is rare, and we therefore focused on the effect and mechanism of action of Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) on a murine model of peanut allergy and preliminary clinical study results. Conclusion Evidence from clinical studies supports beneficial effects of TCM herbal therapy on asthma. A number of mechanisms may be responsible for efficacy of these agents. Strong preclinical study data suggest potential efficacy of FAHF-2 for food allergy. PMID:19203653
Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety. PMID:22249085
YiXin-Shu, a ShengMai-San-based traditional Chinese medicine formula, attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by suppressing mitochondrial mediated apoptosis and upregulating liver-X-receptor α.
Zhao, Yichao; Xu, Longwei; Qiao, Zhiqing; Gao, Lingchen; Ding, Song; Ying, Xiaoying; Su, Yuanyuan; Lin, Nan; He, Ben; Pu, Jun
Positive evidence from clinical trials has fueled growing acceptance of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of cardiac diseases; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we investigated the nature and underlying mechanisms of the effects of YiXin-Shu (YXS), an antioxidant-enriched TCM formula, on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. YXS pretreatment significantly reduced infarct size and improved viable myocardium metabolism and cardiac function in hypercholesterolemic mice. Mechanistically, YXS attenuated myocardial apoptosis by inhibiting the mitochondrial mediated apoptosis pathway (as reflected by inhibition of mitochondrial swelling, cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activity, and normalization of Bcl-2 and Bax levels) without altering the death receptor and endoplasmic reticulum-stress death pathways. Moreover, YXS reduced oxidative/nitrative stress (as reflected by decreased superoxide and nitrotyrosine content and normalized pro- and anti-oxidant enzyme levels). Interestingly, YXS upregulated endogenous nuclear receptors including LXRα, PPARα, PPARβ and ERα, and in-vivo knockdown of cardiac-specific LXRα significantly blunted the cardio-protective effects of YXS. Collectively, these data show that YXS is effective in mitigating MI/R injury by suppressing mitochondrial mediated apoptosis and oxidative stress and by upregulating LXRα, thereby providing a rationale for future clinical trials and clinical applications.
Yan, Zhixiang; Chen, Ying; Li, Tianxue; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Xinghao
Si-Ni-San (SNS) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine formula (TCMF) in treating various diseases. However, the in vivo integrated metabolism of its multiple components remains unknown. In this paper, a liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and triple-quadrupole spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS) method was developed for detection and identification of SNS metabolites in rat plasma and urine at a normal clinical dosage. Accurate structural elucidation was performed using MS/MS, UV data and n-octanol/water partition coefficient. Based on the proposed strategy, 36 absorbed compounds and 29 metabolites in plasma and 33 metabolites in urine were detected by a highly sensitive MRM method. Our results indicated that phase II reactions (e.g., methylation, glucuronidation and sulfation) were the main metabolic pathways of gallic acid and flavanones, while phase I reactions (e.g., hydroxylation) were the major metabolic reaction for triterpenoid saponins. The metabolite profile analysis of SNS provided a comprehensive understanding of the in vivo metabolic fates of constituents in SNS. Moreover, the results in this work demonstrated the present strategy based on the combination of chromatographic, spectrophotometric, mass-spectrometric, and software prediction to detect and identify metabolites was effective and reliable. And such a strategy may also be extended to investigate the metabolism of other TCMF. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hou, Yuanyuan; Nie, Yan; Cheng, Binfeng; Tao, Jin; Ma, Xiaoyao; Jiang, Min; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang
Gram-negative pathogen–induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG), cholic acid (CLA), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and sinapic acid (SPA), regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES), reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively. PMID:27175332
Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating osteoarthritis in Asia for centuries. This study aimed to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM used in treating osteoarthritis in Taiwan. Methods A complete database (total 22,520,776 beneficiaries) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims offered by the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan for the year 2002 was employed for this research. Patients with osteoarthritis were identified according to the diagnostic code of the International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM for treating osteoarthritis. Results There were 20,059 subjects who visited TCM clinics for osteoarthritis and received a total of 32,050 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (19.2%), followed by 50-59 years (18.8%) and 60-69 years group (18.2%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for osteoarthritis more frequently than male subjects (female: male = 1.89: l). There was an average of 5.2 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for osteoarthritis. Du-zhong (Eucommia bark) was the most commonly prescribed Chinese single herb, while Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula for osteoarthritis. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed formula was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang plus Shen-tong-zhu-yu-tang, and the most commonly prescribed triple-drug combination was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang, Gu-sui-pu (Drynaria fortune (Kunze) J. Sm.), and Xu-Duan (Himalaya teasel). Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating osteoarthritis. Conclusions This study
Doganay-Knapp, Kirsten; Orland, Annika; König, Gabriele M; Knöss, Werner
Herbal substances and preparations thereof play an important role in healthcare systems worldwide. Due to the variety of these products regarding origin, composition and processing procedures, appropriate methodologies for quality assessment need to be considered. A majority of herbal substances is administered as multicomponent mixtures, especially in the field of Traditional Chinese Medicine and ayurvedic medicine, but also in finished medicinal products. Quality assessment of complex mixtures of herbal substances with conventional methods is challenging. Thus, emphasis of the present work was directed on the development of complementary methods to elucidate the composition of mixtures of herbal substances and finished herbal medicinal products. An indispensable prerequisite for the safe and effective use of herbal medicines is the unequivocal authentication of the medicinal plants used therein. In this context, we investigated the potential of three different PCR-related methods in the characterization and authentication of herbal substances. A multiplex PCR assay and a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay were established to analyze defined mixtures of the herbal substances Quercus cortex, Juglandis folium, Aristolochiae herba, Matricariae flos and Salviae miltiorrhizae radix et rhizoma and a finished herbal medicinal product. Furthermore, a standard cloning approach using universal primers targeting the ITS region was established in order to allow the investigation of herbal mixtures with unknown content. The cloning approach had some limitations regarding the detection/recovery of the components in defined mixtures of herbal substances, but the complementary use of two sets of universal primer pairs increased the detection of components out of the mixture. While the multiplex PCR did not retrace all components in the defined mixtures of herbal substances, the established qPCR resulted in simultaneous and specific detection of the five target sequences in all defined
Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf
Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance. PMID:27128912
Huang, Lu-Qi; Su, Gang-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Guo, Lan-Ping; Li, Meng; Wang, Hui; Jing, Zhi-Xian
To build a well-off society in an all-round way, eliminate poverty, improve people's livelihood and improve the level of social and economic development in poverty-stricken areas is the frontier issues of the government and science and technology workers at all levels. Chinese herbal medicine is the strategic resource of the people's livelihood, Chinese herbal medicine cultivation is an important part of China's rural poor population income. As most of the production of Chinese herbal medicine by the biological characteristics of their own and the interaction of natural ecological environment factors, showing a strong regional character.the Ministry of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the State Council Poverty Alleviation Office and other five departments jointly issued the "China Herbal Industry Poverty Alleviation Action Plan (2017-2020)", according to local conditions of guidance and planning of Chinese herbal medicine production practice, promote Chinese herbal medicine industry poverty alleviation related work In this paper, based on the relevant data of poverty-stricken areas, this paper divides the areas with priority to the poverty alleviation conditions of Chinese herbal medicine industry, and analyzes and catalogs the list of Chinese herbal medicines grown in poverty-stricken areas at the macro level. The results show that there are at least 10% of the poor counties in the counties where the poverty-stricken counties and the concentrated areas are concentrated in the poverty-stricken areas. There is already a good base of Chinese herbal medicine industry, which is the key priority area for poverty alleviation of Chinese herbal medicine industry. Poverty-stricken counties, with a certain degree of development of Chinese medicine industry poverty alleviation conditions, the need to strengthen the relevant work to expand the foundation and capacity of Chinese herbal medicine industry poverty alleviation; 37% of poor counties to develop Chinese medicine
Park, Kyoung-Sun; Lee, Jin-Moo; Jang, Jun-Bock; Lee, Chang-Hoon
Purpose. Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a common gynecological complaint among adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. This study aims to review the findings of published articles on the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of herbal medicines for PD. Methods. In vitro and in vivo studies of herbal compounds, individual herbal extracts, or herbal formula decoctions published from their inception to April 2014 were included in this review. Results. A total of 18 studies involving herbal medicines exhibited their inhibitory effect on PD. The majority of in vitro studies investigated the inhibition of uterine contractions. In vivo studies suggest that herbal medicines exert a peripheral analgesic effect and a possible anti-inflammatory activity via the inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. The mechanisms of herbal medicines for PD are associated with PG level reduction, suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 expression, superoxide dismutase activation and malondialdehyde reduction, nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-kappa B reduction, stimulation of somatostatin receptor, intracellular Ca2+ reduction, and recovery of phospholipid metabolism. Conclusions. Herbal medicines are thought to be promising sources for the development of effective therapeutic agents for PD. Further investigations on the appropriate herbal formula and their constituents are recommended. PMID:25431607
Yang, Bo; Xie, Yun; Guo, Maojuan; Rosner, Mitchell H; Yang, Hongtao; Ronco, Claudio
Chinese herbal medicine has been practiced for the prevention, treatment, and cure of diseases for thousands of years. Herbal medicine involves the use of natural compounds, which have relatively complex active ingredients with varying degrees of side effects. Some of these herbal medicines are known to cause nephrotoxicity, which can be overlooked by physicians and patients due to the belief that herbal medications are innocuous. Some of the nephrotoxic components from herbs are aristolochic acids and other plant alkaloids. In addition, anthraquinones, flavonoids, and glycosides from herbs also are known to cause kidney toxicity. The kidney manifestations of nephrotoxicity associated with herbal medicine include acute kidney injury, CKD, nephrolithiasis, rhabdomyolysis, Fanconi syndrome, and urothelial carcinoma. Several factors contribute to the nephrotoxicity of herbal medicines, including the intrinsic toxicity of herbs, incorrect processing or storage, adulteration, contamination by heavy metals, incorrect dosing, and interactions between herbal medicines and medications. The exact incidence of kidney injury due to nephrotoxic herbal medicine is not known. However, clinicians should consider herbal medicine use in patients with unexplained AKI or progressive CKD. In addition, exposure to herbal medicine containing aristolochic acid may increase risk for future uroepithelial cancers, and patients require appropriate postexposure screening. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Vriens, Joris; Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi
Although the benefits are sometimes obvious, traditional or herbal medicine is regarded with skepticism, because the mechanism through which plant compounds exert their powers are largely elusive. Recent studies have shown however that many of these plant compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate the sensing mechanism of the human body. Especially members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have drawn large attention lately as the receptors for plant-derived compounds such as capsaicin and menthol. TRP channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that can serve as versatile sensors that allow individual cells and entire organisms to detect changes in their environment. For this family, a striking number of empirical views have turned into mechanism-based actions of natural compounds. In this review we will give an overview of herbal compounds and toxins, which modulate TRP channels. PMID:19305789
Chen, Fang-Pey; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Yu-Chun; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16 134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29 801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female : male = 1.94 : 1). There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia. PMID:19339485
Valdivia-Correa, Bárbara; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum
In Mexico, herbal products are commonly used as therapeutic tools. The analysis of several publications reveals that there are dozens of different herbs and herbal products used for different reasons, some of which have been implicated in causing toxic liver disease. However, methodological aspects limit the attribution of causality, and the precise incidence and clinical manifestations of herb-induced liver injury have not been well characterized. This review outlines the history of traditional herbal medicine in Mexico, critically summarizes the mechanisms and adverse effects of commonly used herbal plants, and examines the regulatory issues regarding the legal use of these products.
Valdivia-Correa, Bárbara; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum
In Mexico, herbal products are commonly used as therapeutic tools. The analysis of several publications reveals that there are dozens of different herbs and herbal products used for different reasons, some of which have been implicated in causing toxic liver disease. However, methodological aspects limit the attribution of causality, and the precise incidence and clinical manifestations of herb-induced liver injury have not been well characterized. This review outlines the history of traditional herbal medicine in Mexico, critically summarizes the mechanisms and adverse effects of commonly used herbal plants, and examines the regulatory issues regarding the legal use of these products. PMID:26891292
Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Dan; Kang, Li-Ping; He, Ya-Li; Wang, Sheng; Zhou, Liang-Yun
Pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicine has attracted widespread attention at home and abroad. This paper analyzed the pollution present situation and existing problems of pesticide residue for Chinese herbal medicines, explicited the analytical methods of pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicines. Meanwhile, the commonly used pesticide residue degradation and application in Chinese herbal medicines were discussed. Moreover, on the basis of analysis of pesticide residue standards, this paper proposed the necessity and urgency of the limit standard of pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicines, and provided a scientific references for deepening research and developing safe, green medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Byard, Roger W; Musgrave, Ian; Maker, Garth; Bunce, Michael
Traditional herbal products are widely used in Australia to treat a broad range of conditions and diseases. It is popularly believed that these products are safer than prescribed drugs. While many may be safe, it is worrying that the specific effects and harmful interactions of a number of their components with prescription medications is not well understood. Some traditional herbal preparations contain heavy metals and toxic chemicals, as well as naturally occurring organic toxins. The effects of these substances can be dire, including acute hepatic and renal failure, exacerbation of pre-existing conditions and diseases, and even death. The content and quality of herbal preparations are not tightly controlled, with some ingredients either not listed or their concentrations recorded inaccurately on websites or labels. Herbal products may also include illegal ingredients, such as ephedra, Asarum europaeum (European wild ginger) and endangered animal species (eg, snow leopard). An additional problem is augmentation with prescription medications to enhance the apparent effectiveness of a preparation. Toxic substances may also be deliberately or inadvertently added: less expensive, more harmful plants may be substituted for more expensive ingredients, and processing may not be adequate. The lack of regulation and monitoring of traditional herbal preparations in Australia and other Western countries means that their contribution to illness and death is unknown. We need to raise awareness of these problems with health care practitioners and with the general public.
Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong
To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the
Combination of counterpropagation artificial neural networks and antioxidant activities for comprehensive evaluation of associated-extraction efficiency of various cyclodextrins in the traditional Chinese formula Xue-Zhi-Ning.
Sun, Lili; Yang, Jianwen; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Huijie; Liu, Yanan; Ren, Xiaoliang; Qi, Aidi
Xue-Zhi-Ning (XZN) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine formula to treat hyperlipidemia. Recently, cyclodextrins (CDs) have been extensively used to minimize problems relative to medicine bioavailability, such as low solubility and poor stability. The objective of this study was to determine the associated-extraction efficiency of various CDs in XZN. Three various type CDs were evaluated, including native CDs (α-CD, β-CD), hydrophilic CD derivatives (HP-β-CD and Me-β-CD), and ionic CD derivatives (SBE-β-CD and CM-β-CD). An ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) fingerprint was applied to determine the components in CD extracts and original aqueous extract (OAE). A counterpropagation artificial neural network (CP-ANN) was used to analyze the components in different extracts and compare the selective extraction of various CDs. Extraction efficiencies of the various CDs in terms of extracted components follow the ranking, ionic CD derivatives>hydrophilic CD derivatives>native CDs>OAE. Besides, different types of CDs have their own selective extraction and ionic CD derivatives present the strongest associated-extraction efficiency. Antioxidant potentials of various extracts were evaluated by determining the inhibition of spontaneous, H2O2-induced, CCl4-induced and Fe(2+)/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) and analyzing the scavenging capacity for DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The order of extraction efficiencies of the various CDs relative to antioxidant activities is as follows: SBE-β-CD>CM-β-CD>HP-β-CD>Me-β-CD>β-CD>α-CD. It can be demonstrated that all of the CDs studied increase the extraction efficiency and that ionic CD derivatives (SBE-β-CD and CM-β-CD) present the highest extraction capability in terms of amount extracted and antioxidant activities of extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Corns, Cathryn M
The use of herbal products in the UK is increasing, and over-the-counter herbal supplements are perceived by the public as 'safe' and 'harmless'. Although the majority of them are safe, some herbal medicines carry risks. Heavy metal contamination, adulteration with Western pharmaceuticals and inclusion of prohibited animal and plant ingredients are regularly reported in ethnic medicines. Other herbs are hepato- or nephrotoxic and some interact with prescription medicines. Doctors should be made aware of the need to take a herbal as well as a drug history, and the clinical laboratory has a role in helping understanding of how herbal products may affect laboratory tests and in suggesting relevant lines of investigation in patients whose symptoms may be linked to the use of herbal products.
Marrone, C M
To review safety issues associated with the use of herbal products. Literature accessed through MEDLINE and other Internet search engines. Key search terms included herbs, dietary supplements, and safety. A misconception exists among consumers that herbal remedies are safe because they are natural. In an effort to provide healthcare practitioners with information necessary for a patient discussion, a review of safety concerns with herbal products was conducted. Several safety concerns exist with herbal products including lack of safety data, absence of quality-control requirements for potency and purity, and lenient labeling standards.
Weight loss - herbal remedies and supplements; Obesity - herbal remedies; Overweight - herbal remedies ... A, Gutiérrez-Salmeán G. New dietary supplements for obesity: what we currently know. Curr Obes Rep . 2016; ...
Liu, Shwu-Huey; Chuang, Wu-Chang; Lam, Wing; Jiang, Zaoli
Herbal medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for the prevention, treatment, and cure of disorders or diseases for centuries. In addition to being used directly as therapeutic agents, medicinal plants are also important sources for pharmacological drug research and development. With the increasing consumption of herbal products intended to promote better health, it is extremely important to assure the safety and quality of herbal preparations. However, under current regulation surveillance, herbal preparations may not meet expectations in safety, quality, and efficacy. The challenge is how to assure the safety and quality of herbal products for consumers. It is the responsibility of producers to minimize hazardous contamination and additives during cultivation, harvesting, handling, processing, storage, and distribution. This article reviews the current safety obstacles that have been involved in traditional Chinese herbal medicine preparations with examples of popular herbs. Approaches to improve the safety of traditional Chinese medicine are proposed. PMID:25647717
Goodarzi, Mohammad; Russell, Paul J; Vander Heyden, Yvan
Herbal medicines are becoming again more popular in the developed countries because being "natural" and people thus often assume that they are inherently safe. Herbs have also been used worldwide for many centuries in the traditional medicines. The concern of their safety and efficacy has grown since increasing western interest. Herbal materials and their extracts are very complex, often including hundreds of compounds. A thorough understanding of their chemical composition is essential for conducting a safety risk assessment. However, herbal material can show considerable variability. The chemical constituents and their amounts in a herb can be different, due to growing conditions, such as climate and soil, the drying process, the harvest season, etc. Among the analytical methods, chromatographic fingerprinting has been recommended as a potential and reliable methodology for the identification and quality control of herbal medicines. Identification is needed to avoid fraud and adulteration. Currently, analyzing chromatographic herbal fingerprint data sets has become one of the most applied tools in quality assessment of herbal materials. Mostly, the entire chromatographic profiles are used to identify or to evaluate the quality of the herbs investigated. Occasionally only a limited number of compounds are considered. One approach to the safety risk assessment is to determine whether the herbal material is substantially equivalent to that which is either readily consumed in the diet, has a history of application or has earlier been commercialized i.e. to what is considered as reference material. In order to help determining substantial equivalence using fingerprint approaches, a quantitative measurement of similarity is required. In this paper, different (dis)similarity approaches, such as (dis)similarity metrics or exploratory analysis approaches applied on herbal medicinal fingerprints, are discussed and illustrated with several case studies. Copyright © 2013
Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning
Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS. PMID:27366194
Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Li; Zhong, Linda
Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS.
Wu, Bei-Yu; Liu, Chun-Ting; Chen, Shih-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Yen
A case is presented to illustrate a potential effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) formulas in treating chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity. An 18-year-old adolescent male with refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had experienced anthracycline-induced congestive heart failure (CHF) for 3 weeks. Under intensive care with conventional therapy, the patient still had exercise intolerance and depended on supplemental oxygen all day. Therefore, he consented to treatment with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for alternative therapy. This patient was treated with modified Zhi Gan Cao Tang (ZGCT), three times a day for 2 months. After 6 days of CHM treatment, the patient could tolerate daily activity without supplemental oxygen. After 2 months of CHM treatment, the follow-up chest X-ray showed great improvements in pulmonary edema and cardiomegaly. In this case, anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity resolved slowly following the administration of modified ZGCT. It is suggested that the CHM formula has a protective effect on the progression of CHF secondary to the use of anthracyclines in pediatric cancer. Further studies to determine the mechanism and clinical trials are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper introduces regulatory pathways and characteristic quality requirements for marketing authorization of herbal medicinal products in the European Union（EU）, and the legal status and applications of "European Union list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations" and "European Union herbal monographs". Also introduced are Chinese herbs that have been granted the EU list entry, those with EU herbal monographs, and registered EU traditional herbal medicinal products with Chinese herbs as active ingredients. Special attention is paid to the technical details of three authorized EU herbal medicinal products (Veregen, Sativex and Episalvan) in comparison with Andrographis paniculata extract HMPL-004 that failed the phase Ⅲ clinical trial for ulcerative colitis. The paper further emphasizes the importance of enriching active fractions of herbal extracts and taking regulatory and quality considerations into account in early stage of botanical drug development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Takayama, Shin; Kaneko, Soichiro; Numata, Takehiro; Kamiya, Tetsuharu; Arita, Ryutaro; Saito, Natsumi; Kikuchi, Akiko; Ohsawa, Minoru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Ishii, Tadashi
Large-scale natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and typhoons, occur worldwide. After the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami, our medical support operation's experiences suggested that traditional medicine might be useful for treating the various symptoms of the survivors. However, little information is available regarding herbal medicine treatment in such situations. Considering that further disasters will occur, we performed a literature review and summarized the traditional medicine approaches for treatment after large-scale disasters. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library for articles written in English, and Ichushi for those written in Japanese. Articles published before 31 March 2016 were included. Keywords "disaster" and "herbal medicine" were used in our search. Among studies involving herbal medicine after a disaster, we found two randomized controlled trials investigating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), three retrospective investigations of trauma or common diseases, and seven case series or case reports of dizziness, pain, and psychosomatic symptoms. In conclusion, herbal medicine has been used to treat trauma, PTSD, and other symptoms after disasters. However, few articles have been published, likely due to the difficulty in designing high quality studies in such situations. Further study will be needed to clarify the usefulness of herbal medicine after disasters.
Yang, Y-H; Chen, P-C; Wang, J-D; Lee, C-H; Lai, J-N
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has become more popular as a therapy for symptom relief among menopause-aged women. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of TCM for climacteric women in Taiwan. The study analyzed frequency distributions among 19 379 women aged 45-55 years, recruited from a random-sampled cohort of 200 000 people from the National Health Insurance database. Data mining was conducted to explore the co-prescription patterns for finished herbal products (FHP). There were 19 379 women aged 45-55 years in the sample; of these, 12 572 (64.9%) utilized TCM services at least once. A total of 4078 (21.0%) of the 19 379 climacteric women utilized 145 200 (79.2%) TCM visits. Of these, 39 802 (21.7%) visits were because of diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue, of which more than half were treated with acupuncture and traumatology manipulative therapies. There were 28 154 visits with FHP prescriptions because of non-specific symptoms and ill-defined conditions, and Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san was the most frequent formula. Nearly two-thirds of FHP contained more than two herbal formulae. Women of climacteric age in Taiwan utilized TCM more often than other age groups. To deal with multiple symptoms and/or diseases among climacteric women, new prescription patterns of combining two or more herbal formulae have evolved. Studies on safety issues and drug-herb interactions are warranted for future research.
Ben-Arye, Eran; Oren, Amnon; Ben-Arie, Alon
Women use herbs and other traditional and complementary modalities to treat various ailments throughout their life circle. This article reviewed 19 randomized controlled trials, which studied efficacy and safety of various herbs in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy and menopausal hot flushes. Preliminary data support the efficacy of Chaste tree fruit (Vitex agnus) in the treatment of PMS, Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum and (Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes. Additional and more rigorous studies are warranted in order to support the efficacy and safety of these herbal remedies.
Uchi, Hiroshi; Tokunaga, Shoji; Mitoma, Chikage; Shibata, Satoko; Hamada, Naoki; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Kajiwara, Junboku; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Furue, Masutaka
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional herbal medicines (Kampo) on the symptoms of Yusho. Yusho is a mass food poisoning that was caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with dioxins and related organochlorines in 1968. Patients with Yusho suffer from skin symptoms (acneform eruptions, liability to suppuration and pigmentation), respiratory symptoms (cough and expectoration of sputum), neurological symptoms (numbness and paresthesia of extremities), arthralgia and general fatigue, and no effective treatment has yet been developed. In this clinical trial, four Kampo formulae (Bakumondo-to, Keigai-rengyo-to, Gosha-jinki-gan and Hochu-ekki-to) were administered to four representative Yusho symptoms (respiratory, skin, neurological symptoms and general fatigue), respectively. Twenty-seven Yusho patients were enrolled and two formulae were administered to each patient for half-a-year each. The effectiveness of Kampo formulae was estimated by changes in the intensity of symptoms measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) of 100 mm recorded at baseline and after administration of each formula. The influence of Kampo formulae on patients' quality of life (QOL) was also assessed by the SF-36 (NBS). Twenty-five patients completed the treatment. Bakumondo-to significantly improved respiratory symptoms as well as patients' QOL in the context of vitality, compared with other formulae. In contrast, Hochu-ekki-to impaired patients' QOL in the context of physical functioning and vitality, compared with other formulae. This study demonstrated for the first time that a Kampo formula Bakumondo-to is useful for treating respiratory symptoms caused by dioxins.
Uchi, Hiroshi; Tokunaga, Shoji; Mitoma, Chikage; Shibata, Satoko; Hamada, Naoki; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Kajiwara, Junboku; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Furue, Masutaka
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional herbal medicines (Kampo) on the symptoms of Yusho. Yusho is a mass food poisoning that was caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with dioxins and related organochlorines in 1968. Patients with Yusho suffer from skin symptoms (acneform eruptions, liability to suppuration and pigmentation), respiratory symptoms (cough and expectoration of sputum), neurological symptoms (numbness and paresthesia of extremities), arthralgia and general fatigue, and no effective treatment has yet been developed. In this clinical trial, four Kampo formulae (Bakumondo-to, Keigai-rengyo-to, Gosha-jinki-gan and Hochu-ekki-to) were administered to four representative Yusho symptoms (respiratory, skin, neurological symptoms and general fatigue), respectively. Twenty-seven Yusho patients were enrolled and two formulae were administered to each patient for half-a-year each. The effectiveness of Kampo formulae was estimated by changes in the intensity of symptoms measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) of 100 mm recorded at baseline and after administration of each formula. The influence of Kampo formulae on patients' quality of life (QOL) was also assessed by the SF-36 (NBS). Twenty-five patients completed the treatment. Bakumondo-to significantly improved respiratory symptoms as well as patients' QOL in the context of vitality, compared with other formulae. In contrast, Hochu-ekki-to impaired patients' QOL in the context of physical functioning and vitality, compared with other formulae. This study demonstrated for the first time that a Kampo formula Bakumondo-to is useful for treating respiratory symptoms caused by dioxins. PMID:19996156
In the first year of life, the major infant food choices have traditionally been breast milk (BM), cow's milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF). Studies examining the effects of infant formula on early life skeletal development are extremely limited. We have enrolled 120 healthy 6-month-old infants ...
This article focuses the category status of Chinese herbal medicine in the United States where it has been mistakenly classifified as a dietary supplement. According to Yellow Emperor Canon of Internal Medicine (Huang Di Nei Jing), clinical treatment in broad sense is to apply certain poisonous medicines to fight against pathogeneses, by which all medicines have certain toxicity and side effect. From ancient times to modern society, all, or at least most, practitioners have used herbal medicine to treat patients' medical conditions. The educational curriculums in Chinese medicine (CM) comprise the courses of herbal medicine (herbology) and herbal formulae. The objective of these courses is to teach students to use herbal medicine or formulae to treat disease as materia medica. In contrast, dietary supplements are preparations intended to provide nutrients that are missing or are not consumed in suffificient quantity in a person's diet. In contrast, Chinese herbs can be toxic, which have been proven through laboratory research. Both clinical practice and research have demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine is a special type of natural materia medica, not a dietary supplement.
Park, Bongki; Noh, Hyeonseok; Choi, Dong-Jun
Xerostomia (dry mouth) causes many clinical problems, including oral infections, speech difficulties, and impaired chewing and swallowing of food. Many cancer patients have complained of xerostomia induced by cancer therapy. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy of herbal medicine for the treatment of xerostomia in cancer patients. Randomized controlled trials investigating the use of herbal medicines to treat xerostomia in cancer patients were included. We searched the following 12 databases without restrictions on time or language. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Twenty-five randomized controlled trials involving 1586 patients met the inclusion criteria. A total of 24 formulas were examined in the included trials. Most of the included trials were insufficiently reported in the methodology section. Five formulas were shown to significantly improve the salivary flow rate compared to comparators. Regarding the grade of xerostomia, all formulas with the exception of a Dark Plum gargle solution with normal saline were significantly effective in reducing the severity of dry mouth. Adverse events were reported in 4 trials, and adverse effects of herbal medicine were reported in 3 trials. We found herbal medicines had potential benefits for improving salivary function and reducing the severity of dry mouth in cancer patients. However, methodological limitations and a relatively small sample size reduced the strength of the evidence. More high-quality trials reporting sufficient methodological data are warranted to enforce the strength of evidence regarding the effectiveness of herbal medicines.
Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna
The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Liu, Jinxin; Shi, Linchun; Song, Jingyuan; Sun, Wei; Han, Jianping; Liu, Xia; Hou, Dianyun; Yao, Hui; Li, Mingyue; Chen, Shilin
Herbal drug authentication is an important task in traditional medicine; however, it is challenged by the limitations of traditional authentication methods and the lack of trained experts. DNA barcoding is conspicuous in almost all areas of the biological sciences and has already been added to the British pharmacopeia and Chinese pharmacopeia for routine herbal drug authentication. However, DNA barcoding for the Korean pharmacopeia still requires significant improvements. Here, we present a DNA barcode reference library for herbal drugs in the Korean pharmacopeia and developed a species identification engine named KP-IDE to facilitate the adoption of this DNA reference library for the herbal drug authentication. Using taxonomy records, specimen records, sequence records, and reference records, KP-IDE can identify an unknown specimen. Currently, there are 6,777 taxonomy records, 1,054 specimen records, 30,744 sequence records (ITS2 and psbA-trnH) and 285 reference records. Moreover, 27 herbal drug materials were collected from the Seoul Yangnyeongsi herbal medicine market to give an example for real herbal drugs authentications. Our study demonstrates the prospects of the DNA barcode reference library for the Korean pharmacopeia and provides future directions for the use of DNA barcoding for authenticating herbal drugs listed in other modern pharmacopeias. PMID:29326593
Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel
This review deals with herbal hepatotoxicity, identical to herb induced liver injury (HILI), and critically summarizes the pitfalls associated with the evaluation of assumed HILI cases. Analysis of the relevant publications reveals that several dozens of different herbs and herbal products have been implicated to cause toxic liver disease, but major quality issues limit the validity of causality attribution. In most of these reports, discussions around quality specifications regarding herbal products, case data presentations and causality assessment methods prevail. Though the production of herbal drugs is under regulatory surveillance and quality aspects are normally not a matter of concern, low quality of the less regulated herbal supplements may be a critical issue considering product batch variability, impurities, adulterants and herb misidentifications. Regarding case data presentation, essential diagnostic information is often lacking, as is the use of valid and liver specific causality assessment methods that also consider alternative diseases. At present, causality is best assessed by using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale ( CIOMS) in its original or updated form, which should primarily be applied prospectively by the treating physician when evaluating a patient rather than retrospectively by regulatory agencies. To cope with these problems, a common quality approach by manufacturers, physicians and regulatory agencies should strive for the best quality. We propose steps for improvements with impact on future cases of liver injury by herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements. PMID:22831551
Ben-Arye, Eran; Mahajna, Jamal; Aly, Radi; Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed Saleem; Bentur, Yedidia; Lev, Efraim; Deng, Gary; Samuels, Noah
The unmonitored use of herbal medicinal remedies by patients with cancer presents a significant challenge to oncology healthcare professionals. We describe an increasingly popular herbal "wonder drug," Ephedra foeminea (Alanda in Arabic), whose use has spread from the Palestinian patient population throughout the Middle East. We conducted a multicentered and multidisciplinary collaborative research effort in order to understand the potential benefits and harms of this popular herbal remedy. We conducted an in-depth search of the medical literature, both traditional and modern, for any mention of the clinical use of Alanda for the treatment of cancer. We then tested the remedy, first for toxic ephedra alkaloid components and then for anticancer effects, as well as effects on the cytotoxic activity of chemotherapy agents (cisplatin and carboplatin) on breast cancer cell cultures. We found no mention in the literature, both conventional and traditional, on the use of Alanda for the treatment of cancer. Laboratory testing did not find any toxic components (i.e., ephedra alkaloids) in the preparation. However, in vitro exposure to Alanda led to a reduced cytotoxic effect of chemotherapy on breast cancer cell cultures. The use of an integrative ethnobotanical, laboratory and clinical research-based approach can be extremely helpful when providing nonjudgmental and evidence-based guidance to patients with cancer, especially on the use of traditional herbal medicine. The effectiveness and safety of these products need to be examined by integrative physicians who are dually trained in both complementary medicine and supportive cancer care.
Thyagarajan, S P; Jayaram, S; Gopalakrishnan, V; Hari, R; Jeyakumar, P; Sripathi, M S
The use of natural remedies for the treatment of liver diseases has a long history, starting with the Ayurvedhic treatment, and extending to the Chinese, European and other systems of traditional medicines. The 21st century has seen a paradigm shift towards therapeutic evaluation of herbal products in liver diseases by carefully synergizing the strengths of the traditional systems of medicine with that of the modern concept of evidence-based medicinal evaluation, standardization of herbal products and randomized placebo controlled clinical trials to support clinical efficacy. The present review provides the status report on the scientific approaches made to herbal preparations used in Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of liver diseases. In spite of the availability of more than 300 preparations for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases in Indian systems of medicine using more than 87 Indian medicinal plants, only four terrestrial plants have been scientifically elucidated while adhering to the internationally acceptable scientific protocols. In-depth studies have proved Sylibum marianum to be anti-oxidative, antilipidperoxidative, antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and liver regenerative. Glycyrrhiza glabra has been shown to be hepatoprotective and capable of inducing an indigenous interferon. Picrorhiza kurroa is proved to be anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory. Extensive studies on Phyllanthus amarus have confirmed this plant preparation as being anti-viral against hepatitis B and C viruses, hepatoprotective and immunomodulating, as well as possessing anti-inflammatory properties. For the first time in the Indian systems of medicine, a chemo-biological fingerprinting methodology for standardization of P. amarus preparation has been patented. Copyright 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Chen, Shao-Ru; Qiu, Hong-Cong; Hu, Yang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yi-Tao
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant cancer and is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Effective treatment of this disease is limited by the complicated molecular mechanism underlying HCC pathogenesis. Thus, therapeutic options for HCC management are urgently needed. Targeting the Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog, Notch, and Hippo-YAP signaling pathways in cancer stem cell development has been extensively investigated as an alternative treatment. Herbal medicine has emerged as an initiative therapeutic option for HCC management because of its multi-level, multi-target, and coordinated intervention effects. In this article, we summarized the recent progress and clinical benefits of targeting the above mentioned signaling pathways and using natural products such as herbal medicine formulas to treat HCC. Proving the clinical success of herbal medicine is expected to deepen the knowledge on herbal medicine efficiency and hasten the adoption of new therapies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wong, Wendy W; Gabriel, Allen; Maxwell, G Patrick; Gupta, Subhas C
The utilization of complementary and alternative medicine has increased tremendously in the last two decades. Herbal products, homeopathic medicines, and dietary supplements are extremely popular and are available without a prescription (which likely contributes to their popularity). Despite their "natural" characteristics, these remedies have the potential to cause bleeding in patients who undergo surgery. The high use of these supplements among cosmetic surgery patients, coupled with increasing reports of hematomas associated with herbal and homeopathic medicines, prompted the authors to conduct a comprehensive review focused on bleeding risks of such products in an effort to raise awareness among plastic surgeons. This review focuses on 19 herbs, three herbal formulas, two herbal teas, and several other supplements that can cause bleeding perioperatively and postoperatively. In addition to being aware of such adverse effects, plastic surgeons must adequately screen all patients and educate them on the possible dangers associated with these treatments.
McKeown-Moak, Mary P.
One of the most critical components of the college or university chief financial officer's job is budget planning, especially using formulas. A discussion of funding formulas looks at advantages, disadvantages, and types of formulas used by states in budgeting for higher education, and examines how chief financial officers can position the campus…
Steen, Ralph W.; And Others
Explained and illustrated is the formula funding system used for colleges and universities in Texas. This system is considerably more complicated than the formulas used in other states. Data for institutions in the state system for fiscal 1978 are presented; actual appropriations are used rather than requests, and formula-produced amounts are…
Stournaras, Evangelos; Tziomalos, Konstantinos
Herbal medicine products represent a common therapeutic approach in the East and are gaining increasing popularity in Western countries. They are unjustifiably considered to be side-effect free; on the contrary, severe toxicity, including catastrophic hepatic injury has been reported in association with their use. Vigilance is required from both physicians and the general public. Physicians should always suspect herbal medicines when evaluating a patient with unexplained liver injury. Regulation standards for herbal products need to be reconsidered, so that the efficacy and safety of these products have been clearly demonstrated before they enter the markets. PMID:26380043
Lian, Xiao-Xiao; Guo, Xiao-Xia
To investigate the herbal prescription rules of Professor Jiang Liangduo in the treatment of abdominal mass based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system software (TCMISS) of version 2.5, find out new herbal formulas for the treatment of abdominal mass, and then provide new reference to its traditional Chinese medicine therapy. By the method of retrospective study, one hundred and thirty-two outpatient prescriptions of Professor Jiang for the treatment of abdominal mass were collected to establish a typical database with TCMISS. Four properties, five tastes, channel tropism, frequency count, Chinese herbal prescriptions rules and the new prescriptions were analyzed so as to dig out the prescription rules. There were 57 herbs with a frequency>=15, and then 91 core combinations of 2-5 herbs were evolved and 9 new prescriptions were created. It was found out that these drugs mainly had the effects of liver nourishing and soothing, soft-moist and dredging-tonifying, supporting right and dispeling evil, cooperating with the method of calming the liver and resolving hard lump according to the actual situation. It reflected the thought of treatment based on syndrome differentiation in TCM, and provided a new reference for its clinical treatment and research. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Kang, Hong; Tang, Kailin; Liu, Qi; Sun, Yi; Huang, Qi; Zhu, Ruixin; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Duanfeng; Huang, Chenggang; Cao, Zhiwei
Herbal medicine has long been viewed as a valuable asset for potential new drug discovery and herbal ingredients' metabolites, especially the in vivo metabolites were often found to gain better pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and even better safety profiles compared to their parent compounds. However, these herbal metabolite information is still scattered and waiting to be collected. HIM database manually collected so far the most comprehensive available in-vivo metabolism information for herbal active ingredients, as well as their corresponding bioactivity, organs and/or tissues distribution, toxicity, ADME and the clinical research profile. Currently HIM contains 361 ingredients and 1104 corresponding in-vivo metabolites from 673 reputable herbs. Tools of structural similarity, substructure search and Lipinski's Rule of Five are also provided. Various links were made to PubChem, PubMed, TCM-ID (Traditional Chinese Medicine Information database) and HIT (Herbal ingredients' targets databases). A curated database HIM is set up for the in vivo metabolites information of the active ingredients for Chinese herbs, together with their corresponding bioactivity, toxicity and ADME profile. HIM is freely accessible to academic researchers at http://www.bioinformatics.org.cn/.
Fan, Tai-Ping; Deal, Greer; Koo, Hoi-Lun; Rees, Daryl; Sun, He; Chen, Shaw; Dou, Jin-Hui; Makarov, Valery G; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Shikov, Alexander N; Kim, Yeong Shik; Huang, Yi-Tsau; Chang, Yuan Shiun; Jia, William; Dias, Alberto; Wong, Vivian Chi-Woon; Chan, Kelvin
GP-TCM is the first EU-funded Coordination Action consortium dedicated to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research. One of the key deliverables of the Work Package 7 in GP-TCM was to investigate information of the existing requirements for registration of TCM products listed by global regulatory bodies. The paper aims to collate data and draw comparison of these regulations. Case studies are also presented to illustrate the problems involved in registering TCM products in different regions worldwide. A collaborative network task force was established during the early stage of the GP-TCM project and operated through exchanges, teleconferences and focused discussions at annual meetings. The task force involved coordinators, academics who are actively involved with R&D of Chinese herbal medicines, experts on monographic standards of Chinese materia medica, representatives from regulatory agencies, experts from industries in marketing Chinese medicines/herbal medicines and natural products. The co-ordinators took turns to chair teleconferences, led discussions on specific issues at AGM discussion sessions, at joint workshops with other work-packages such as WP1 (quality issues), WP3 (toxicology issues) and WP6 (clinical trial issues). Collectively the authors were responsible for collating discussion outcomes and updating written information. A global overview of regulations on herbal registration has been compiled during the three years of the consortium. The regulatory requirements for registration of herbal products in the EU and China were compared, and this is extended to other regions/countries: Africa, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. A wide variation of the regulations for the categories of herbal products exists: food (functional food, novel foods, dietary food for special medical purpose, foods for particular nutritional use, food supplement); cosmetic, traditional herbal medicine products; herbal
Bruno, Luciana O; Simoes, Ricardo Santos; de Jesus Simoes, Manuel; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Grundmann, Oliver
The indiscriminate use of herbal medicines to prevent or to heal diseases or even the use for questionable purposes such as weight loss has received both interest and scrutiny from the scientific community and general public alike. An increasing number of women put their own and the unborn child's health at risk due to a lack of knowledge about the phytochemical properties and adequate use of herbal medicine (phytomedicines or herbal supplements) and lack of communication with their healthcare provider. The purpose of this narrative review was to summarize the use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and their potential toxic effects to highlight the importance of caution when prescribing herbal medicines or supplements for women, because, in addition to suffering interactions and a great amount of information obtained in preclinical predictive studies, assessment of nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity, and teratogenicity of traditional medicinal herbs still remains scarce in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Gao, Yue; Ma, Zengchun; Zhang, Boli
The research of new herbal drugs involves in new herbal drugs development and renew the old drugs. It is necessary to research new herbal drugs based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The current development of famous TCM focuses on the manufacture process, quality control standards, material basis and clinical research. But system management of security evaluation is deficient, the relevant system for the safety assessment TCM has not been established. The causes of security problems, security risks, target organ of toxicity, weak link of safety evaluation, and ideas of safety evaluation are discussed in this paper. The toxicology research of chinese herbal drugs is necessary based on standard of good laboratory practices (GLP), the characteristic of Chinese herbal drugs is necessary to be fully integrated into safety evaluation. The safety of new drug research is necessary to be integrated throughout the entire process. Famous Chinese medicine safety research must be paid more attention in the future.
Shinde, Devanand B.; Chavan, Machindra J.; Wakte, Pravin S.
For the past few decades, compounds from natural sources have been gaining importance because of the vast chemical diversity they offer. This has led to phenomenal increase in the demand for herbal medicines in the last two decades and need has been felt for ensuring the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal drugs. Phytochemical evaluation is one of the tools for the quality assessment, which include preliminary phytochemical screening, chemoprofiling, and marker compound analysis using modern analytical techniques. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has been emerged as an important tool for the qualitative, semiquantitative, and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the herbal drugs and formulations. This includes developing TLC fingerprinting profiles and estimation of biomarkers. This review has an attempt to focus on the theoretical considerations of HPTLC and some examples of herbal drugs and formulations analyzed by HPTLC.
Kantawong, Fahsai; Singhatong, Supawatchara; Srilamay, Aomjai; Boonyuen, Kantarose; Mooti, Niroot; Wanachantararak, Phenphichar; Kuboki, Thasaneeya
Introduction: The addition of herbs into hot sesame oil could increase the oil-pulling efficiency of sesame oil. The aim of present study was to modify the proportion of herbs and sesame oil with the addition of other ingredients including menthol, camphor, and borneol and improve the medicinal properties and the scent of the oil. Methods: Macerated herbal oil was prepared by heat extraction of five species of herbs (Zingiber cassumunar, Zingiber zerumbet, Plantago major Linn, Citrus hystrix, and Amomum biflorum) with hot sesame oil. The study was performed to evaluate the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial properties of this macerated herbal oil. Results: Macerated herbal oil was evaluated for antioxidant activity using DPPH and ABTS assays. It was shown that at dilution 1:2 in DMSO, the macerated herbal oil had DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities equal to 63% and 22%, respectively. Macerated herbal oil dilution 1:8 in DMSO demonstrated ferric reducing capacity equivalent to ascorbic acid (0.208 µM) and had reducing power equivalent to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) 7.41 µg/mL. MTT assay was performed using immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) as a cell culture model. The result indicated that the cytotoxic concentration of the macerated herbal oil was ≥ 2.5 µL/mL in complete DMEM. Anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated using the nitrite assay and RT-PCR. It was found that the macerated herbal oil could inhibit nitrite accumulation in culture media. Change in the expression of COX-2, Nrf2, and NF-kB in RT-PCR confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of the macerated herbal oil. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the macerated herbal oil could inhibit nitrite accumulation in culture media, which might be the inhibitory effect of the macerated herbal oil on COX-2 or Nrf2, the downstream modulator of the COX-2 pathway. Further intensive studies are needed for the optimization before bringing this macerated herbal oil
Zhu, Jiayi; Shen, Lan; Lin, Xiao; Hong, Yanlong; Feng, Yi
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic, fatal neurodegenerative disease which leads to progressive muscle atrophy and paralysis. In order to summarize the characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine compounds and their preparations in the prevention and treatment of ALS through analyzing the mechanism, action site, and symptoms according to effective clinical research. We searched ALS, motor neuron disease, chemical drugs, herbal medicine, Chinese medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and various combinations of these terms in databases including the PudMed, Springer, Ovid, Google, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases. It was found that the chemical drugs almost had not sufficient evidence to show their effectiveness in the treatment of ALS, except RILUZOLE. According to the characteristics of clinical symptoms of ALS, Chinese medicine practitioners believe that this disease belongs to the category of "atrophic disease". In clinical research, many Chinese herbal formulas had good clinical efficacies in the treatment of ALS with multiple targets, multiple links, and few side effects. And four kinds of dialectical treatment had been developed based on Clinical data analysis and the use of dialectical therapy: Benefiting the kidney; Declaring the lungs; Enhancing the Qi; and Dredging the meridian. In this review, we provide an overview of chemical drugs and Traditional Chinese Medicine compound and its preparations in therapy of ALS as well as how they may contribute to the ALS pathogenesis, thereby offering some clues for further studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Singhuber, Judith; Zhu, Ming; Prinz, Sonja; Kopp, Brigitte
Aconitum species have been used in China as an essential drug in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for 2000 years. Reviewing the clinical application of Aconitum, their pharmacological effects, toxicity and detoxifying measures, herb-herb interactions, clinical taboos, famous herbal formulas, traditional and current herbal processing methods based upon a wide range of literature investigations serve as a case study to explore the multidisciplinary implications of botanicals used in TCM. The toxicological risk of improper usage of Aconitum remains very high, especially in countries like China, India and Japan. The toxicity of Aconitum mainly derives from the diester diterpene alkaloids (DDAs) including aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA) and hypaconitine (HA). They can be decomposed into less or non-toxic derivatives through Chinese traditional processing methods (Paozhi), which play an essential role in detoxification. Using Paozhi, the three main forms of processed aconite -- yanfuzi, heishunpian and baifupian -- can be obtained (CPCommission, 2005). Moreover, some new processing techniques have been developed in China such as pressure-steaming. The current development of fingerprint assays, in particular HPLC, has set a good basis to conduct an appropriate quality control for TCM crude herbs and their ready-made products. Therefore, a stipulation for a maximum level of DDA content of Aconitum is highly desirable in order to guarantee the clinical safety and its low toxicity in decoctions. Newly developed HPLC methods have made the accurate and simultaneous determination and quantification of DDA content interesting.
Lin, Yi-Rong; Wu, Mei-Yao; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Yen, Hung-Rong; Yang, Su-Tso
Many patients with gynecological disorders seek traditional medicine consultations in Asian countries. This study intended to investigate the utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) in Taiwan. We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We included 46,337 subjects with newly diagnosed DUB (ICD-9-CM codes 626.8) from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2010. The patients were categorized into TCM seekers and non-TCM seekers according to their use of TCM. Among the subjects, 41,558 (89.69%) were TCM seekers and 4,779 (10.31%) were non-TCM seekers. Patients who were younger tended to be TCM seekers. Most of the patients had also taken Western medicine, especially tranexamic acid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). More than half of TCM seekers (55.41%) received combined treatment with both Chinese herbal remedies and acupuncture. The most commonly used TCM formula and single herb were Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Bupleurum and Peony Formula) and Yi-Mu-Cao (Herba Leonuri), respectively. The core pattern of Chinese herbal medicine for DUB patients consisted of Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Xiang-Fu (Rhizoma Cyperi), and Yi-Mu-Cao (Herba Leonuri). TCM use is popular among patients with DUB in Taiwan. Further pharmacological investigations and clinical trials are required to validate the efficacy and safety of these items.
Lai, Daniel; Chappell, Neena
Research is needed about the usage of complementary and alternative medicines within culturally diverse groups because of a growing number of people who use these remedies. To understand the prevalence and predictors of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) use by older Chinese immigrants in Canada. This is based on the data collected from a representative sample of 2167 elderly Chinese immigrants aged 55 years and above in seven Canadian cities. Logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of using TCM in combination with Western health services (WHS). Use of Chinese herbs, herbal formulas, and TCM practitioners (herbalists) was predicted, based upon the effects of predisposing, enabling and need factors. The response rate was 77%. Over two-thirds of the older Chinese immigrants reported using TCM in combination with WHS. About half (50.3%) of the older Chinese immigrants used Chinese herbs, 48.7% used Chinese herbal formulas, and 23.8% consulted a Chinese herbalist. Although separate analysis was conducted, similar predictors were identified. Country of origin, Chinese health beliefs, social support, city of residency, and health variables were the common predictors of using a form of TCM. The combined use of TCM and WHS is common among elderly Chinese immigrants. Culture-related variables are important in determining use of TCM. The predictors identified should help physicians to recognize who among the elderly Chinese immigrants are more likely to use TCM so that a more in-depth understanding toward their health practices and needs can be achieved.
Lee, Yi-Chiao; Wang, Ting-Hao; Chen, Shih-Yu; Lin, Hsiang-Ling; Tsai, Ming-Yen
Viral oral ulcers are common presentations in pediatric clinics. Although self-limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and lead to dehydration. Despite the widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for pediatric upper respiratory disease in Taiwan, there is little evidence for its effectiveness as an antipyretic or in aiding ulcer healing for children with viral oral ulcers. We report two cases of children who presented with viral oral ulcers to illustrate the potential efficacy of CHM treatment in recovery from herpangina (HA) and herpetic gingivostomatitis (HGS). A 10-year-old girl with HA presented with an acute febrile illness associated with small vesicular or ulcerative lesions on the posterior oropharyngeal structures. The family refused western medicine due to a prior anaphylactic skin rash when she had taken sulfa drugs. The other patient was a 4-year-old boy with complaints of painful ulcers and hemorrhagic crusts on the lips. He was diagnosed with HGS and had received ibuprofen and supportive treatments such as hydration and local anesthesia spray for days, characterized by fever, anorexia, and nausea to no effect. Because the patients were suffering from the damp-heat syndrome according to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) differentiation, both were treated using the same herbal formulas powder prescription, named Liang Ge San (LGS) and Gan Lu Xiao Du Dan (GLXDD). After several days of CHM treatment, the oral ulcers were in regression. Follow-up of the frontal view in both patients showed satisfactory disappearance of the sick furred tongue. The results of these case reports show that the early prescription of CHM is an effective modality of alternative treatment for viral oral ulcers. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CHM treatment hastening the recovery from febrile disease with viral oral ulcers in Taiwan. Future experimental studies to determine the definitive mechanism and clinical trials
Chen, Sammy Pak Lam; Ng, Sau Wah; Poon, Wing Tat; Lai, Chi Kong; Ngan, Teresa Man Shan; Tse, Man Li; Chan, Thomas Yan Keung; Chan, Albert Yan Wo; Mak, Tony Wing Lai
Aconite poisoning is a severe, life-threatening poisoning related to the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Despite current legislation, repeated poisoning cases are steadily encountered. The aim of the study was to summarize the clinical features and to elucidate the causative and contributory factors leading to aconite poisoning. This study was conducted within the Hospital Authority Toxicology Reference Laboratory, which is the sole tertiary referral clinical toxicology laboratory in Hong Kong. This retrospective study reviewed all confirmed aconite poisoning cases handled by a clinical toxicology laboratory between April 2004 and July 2009. The diagnosis in all cases was confirmed biochemically by detecting aconitum alkaloids in urine specimens. Additionally, herbal specimens were morphologically identified and herbal formulae were studied and transcribed. The cause of poisoning for each case was determined whenever possible. Fifty-two cases were examined in this aconite poisoning case series. Neurological, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal toxicities were encountered in 49 (94.2%), 46 (88.5%) and 31 (59.6%) patients, respectively. The poisoning was severe in 6 (11.5%) patients, moderate in 17 (32.7%) patients and mild in 29 (55.8%) patients. Amongst 44 patients (84.6%) in whom the underlying reasons of poisoning could be determined, four major causes were found. These included overdose - prescription of a higher than recommended dosage of aconite herbs in 17 (32.7%) cases; 'hidden' poisoning (the aconite herb was not prescribed but dispensed inadvertently) in 17 (32.7%) cases; usage of inadequately processed herbs in 7 (13.5%) cases; and dispensary error in 2 (3.9%) cases. No case fatality was recorded. In the majority of cases in this series, the causes of poisoning can be traced to poor-quality herbs, poor quality of prescription practice, or dispensary errors. The quality issues of TCM practice should be critically addressed to minimize this
Pei, Tianli; Zheng, Chunli; Huang, Chao; Chen, Xuetong; Guo, Zihu; Fu, Yingxue; Liu, Jianling; Wang, Yonghua
Vitiligo is a depigmentation disorder, which results in substantial cosmetic disfigurement and poses a detriment to patients' physical as well as mental. Now the molecular pathogenesis of vitiligo still remains unclear, which leads to a daunting challenge for vitiligo therapy in modern medicine. Herbal medicines, characterized by multi-compound and multi-target, have long been shown effective in treating vitiligo, but their molecular mechanisms of action also remain ambiguous. Here we proposed a systems pharmacology approach using a clinically effective herb formula as a tool to detect the molecular pathogenesis of vitiligo. This study provided an integrative analysis of active chemicals, drug targets and interacting pathways of the Uygur medicine Qubaibabuqi formula for curing Vitiligo. The results show that 56 active ingredients of Qubaibabuqi interacting with 83 therapeutic proteins were identified. And Qubaibabuqi probably participate in immunomodulation, neuromodulation and keratinocytes apoptosis inhibition in treatment of vitiligo by a synergistic/cooperative way. The drug-target network-based analysis and pathway-based analysis can provide a new approach for understanding the pathogenesis of vitiligo and uncovering the molecular mechanisms of Qubaibabuqi, which will also facilitate the application of traditional Chinese herbs in modern medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomford, Nicholas E.; Dzobo, Kevin; Chopera, Denis; Wonkam, Ambroise; Skelton, Michelle; Blackhurst, Dee; Chirikure, Shadreck; Dandara, Collet
The most accessible points of call for most African populations with respect to primary health care are traditional health systems that include spiritual, religious, and herbal medicine. This review focusses only on the use of herbal medicines. Most African people accept herbal medicines as generally safe with no serious adverse effects. However, the overlap between conventional medicine and herbal medicine is a reality among countries in health systems transition. Patients often simultaneously seek treatment from both conventional and traditional health systems for the same condition. Commonly encountered conditions/diseases include malaria, HIV/AIDS, hypertension, tuberculosis, and bleeding disorders. It is therefore imperative to understand the modes of interaction between different drugs from conventional and traditional health care systems when used in treatment combinations. Both conventional and traditional drug entities are metabolized by the same enzyme systems in the human body, resulting in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics interactions, whose properties remain unknown/unquantified. Thus, it is important that profiles of interaction between different herbal and conventional medicines be evaluated. This review evaluates herbal and conventional drugs in a few African countries and their potential interaction at the pharmacogenomics level. PMID:26402689
Liu, Yongsuo; Cao, Min; Chen, Yuying; Hu, Yuzhu; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan
The irregularity in herbal plant composition is influenced by multiple factors. As for quality control of traditional Chinese medicine, the most critical challenge is to ensure the dosage content uniformity. This content uniformity can be improved by blending different batches of the extracts of herbal plants. Nonlinear least-squares regression was used to calculate the blending coefficient, which means no great absolute differences allowed for all ingredients. For traditional Chinese medicines, even relatively smaller differences could present to be very important for all the ingredients. The auto-scaling pretreatment was used prior to the calculation of the blending coefficients. The pretreatment buffered the characteristics of individual data for the ingredients in different batches, so an improved auto-scaling pretreatment method was proposed. With the improved auto-scaling pretreatment, the relative. differences decreased after blending different batches of extracts of herbal plants according to the reference samples. And the content uniformity control of the specific ingredients could be achieved by the error control coefficient. In the studies for the extracts of fructus gardeniae, the relative differences of all the ingredients is less than 3% after blending different batches of the extracts. The results showed that nonlinear least-squares regression can be used to calculate the blending coefficient of the herbal plant extracts.
Zhu, Weili; Zhang, Yinan; Huang, Yingjie; Lu, Lin
This chapter summarizes recent developments in preclinical and clinical research on Chinese herbal medicines and their neurochemical mechanism of action for the treatment of drug addiction. We searched Chinese and English scientific literature and selected several kinds of Chinese herbal medicines that have beneficial effects on drug addiction. Ginseng (Renshen) may be clinically useful for the prevention of opioid abuse and dependence. Rhizoma Corydalis (Yanhusuo) may be used to prevent relapse to chronic drug dependence. Alkaloids of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Gouteng) appear to have positive effects on methamphetamine and ketamine addiction. Both Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) and Radix Pueraiae (Gegen) have beneficial inhibitory effects on alcohol intake. Sinomenine has been shown to have preventive and curative effects on opioid dependence. l-Stepholidine, an alkaloid extract of the Chinese herb Stephania intermedia (Rulan), attenuated the acquisition, maintenance, and reacquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference and antagonized the heroin-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. Traditional Chinese herbal medicines may be used to complement current treatments for drug addiction, including withdrawal and relapse. As the molecular mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese herbal medicines are elucidated, further advances in their use for the treatment of drug addiction are promising. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Namdari, Mehrdad; Eatemadi, Ali; Soleimaninejad, Maryam; Hammed, Aiyelabegan T
Herbal medicines have been routinely employed all over the world dated back from the ancient time and have been identified by patients and physicians for their excellent therapeutic value as they have lower adverse effects when compared with the modern medicines. Phytotherapeutics requires a scientific technique to deliver the active herbal extract in a controlled manner to avoid repeated administration and increase patient compliance. This can be reached by fabricating a novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for herbal components. NDDSs does not only decrease the repeated dose to overcome ineffectiveness, but also help to increase potency by decreasing toxicity and elevating drug bioavailability. Nano-sized DDS of herbal drugs have a potential application for improving the activity and countering the problems related to herbal medicines. Hence, application of nanocarriers as an NDDS in the traditional herbal medicine system is important to treat more chronic diseases like infectious endocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Egea, Teresa; Signorini, Maria Adele; Bruschi, Piero; Rivera, Diego; Obón, Concepción; Alcaraz, Francisco; Palazón, José Antonio
Fermented drinks, often alcoholic, are relevant in many nutritional, medicinal, social, ritual and religious aspects of numerous traditional societies. The use of alcoholic drinks of herbal extracts is documented in classical pharmacy since the 1st century CE and it is often recorded in ethnobotanical studies in Europe, particularly in Italy, where are used for a wide range of medicinal purposes. Formulations and uses represent a singular tradition which responds to a wide range of environmental and cultural factors. This research has two overarching aims To determine how long ancient uses, recipes and formulas for medicinal liqueurs from the pharmacopoeias and herbals of the 18th century persisted in later periods and their role in present ethnobotanical knowledge in areas of Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna (Italy). To trace other possible relationships among ancient and recent recipes of alcoholic beverages, from both popular and 'classic' (learned) sources in N-C Italy and neighboring areas. The review of herbals and classical pharmacopoeias, and ethnobotanical field work in Alta Valle del Reno (Tuscany and Emilia Romagna, Italy) were followed of a systematic study of ingredients and medicinal uses with multivariate analysis techniques. The multivariate analysis clearly shows six different styles of preparing medicinal alcoholic beverages: 1. The medicinal wine formulae by Dioscorides (1st century CE). 2. The pharmacopoeias of Florence and Bologna in the 18th century CE. 3. The formularies of Santa Maria Novella and Castiglione (19th and early 20th centuries CE). 4. The ethnobotanical data from Appennino Tosco-Emiliano; home-made formulations based almost exclusively on the use of local resources. 5. Traditional recipes from NE Italy and Austria. 6. Traditional recipes from NW Italy, Emilia, and Provence (France). A total of 54 ingredients (29 fruits) from 48 species are used in different combinations and proportions in Alta Valle del Reno (Italy) to produce
Effects of a traditional Chinese medicine formula and its extraction on muscle fiber characteristics in finishing pigs, porcine cell proliferation and isoforms of myosin heavy chain gene expression in myocytes
Yu, Qin Ping; Feng, Ding Yuan; He, Xiao Jun; Wu, Fan; Xia, Min Hao; Dong, Tao; Liu, Yi Hua; Tan, Hui Ze; Zou, Shi Geng; Zheng, Tao; Ou, Xian Hua; Zuo, Jian Jun
Objective This study evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine formula (TCMF) on muscle fiber characteristics in finishing pigs and the effects of the formula’s extract (distilled water, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extraction) on porcine cell proliferation and isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) gene expression in myocytes. Methods In a completely randomized design, ninety pigs were assigned to three diets with five replications per treatment and six pigs per pen. The diets included the basal diet (control group), TCMF1 (basal diet+2.5 g/kg TCMF) and TCMF2 (basal diet+5 g/kg TCMF). The psoas major muscle was obtained from pigs at the end of the experiment. Muscle fiber characteristics in the psoas major muscle were analyzed using myosin ATPase staining. Cell proliferation was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye and cytometry. Isoforms of MyHC gene expression were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results The final body weight and carcass weight of finishing pigs were increased by TCMF1 (p<0.05), while the psoas major muscle cross-sectional area was increased by TCMF (p<0.05). The cross-sectional area and diameter of psoas major muscle fiber I, IIA, and IIB were increased by TCMF2 (p<0.05). The cross-sectional area and fiber diameter of psoas major muscle fiber IIA and IIB were increased by diet supplementation with TCMF1 (p<0.05). Psoas major muscle fiber IIA and IIB fiber density from the pigs fed the TCMF1 diet and the type IIB fiber density from the pigs fed the TCMF2 diet were lower compared to pigs fed the control diet (p<0.05). Pigs fed TCMF2 had a higher composition of type I fiber and a lower percentage of type IIB fiber in the psoas major muscle (p<0.05). The expression levels of MyHC I, MyHC IIa, and MyHC IIx mRNA increased and the amount of MyHC IIb mRNA decreased in the psoas major muscle from TCMF2, whereas MyHC I and MyHC IIx mRNA increased in the
Woo, Sang-Mi; Choi, Youn Kyung; Kim, Ah-Jeong; Yun, Yee Jin; Shin, Yong Cheol; Cho, Sung-Gook; Ko, Seong Gyu
Despite its therapeutic advantages, chemotherapy can also cause adverse effects, including anorexia and loss of appetite. Although numerous patients with cancer have been reported to suffer from anorexia during or following chemotherapy, treatment options for anorexia remain to be determined. In Asian countries, traditional medicines are widely used to treat problems with appetite; sip-jeon-dea-bo-tang (SJDBT) is one of those medicines used for the treatment of anorexia. The present study demonstrated that SJDBT ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia. In a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced anorexia, oral administration of SJDBT prevented the cisplatin-induced reduction of food intake, inhibiting weight loss. The results of multiplex assays showed that SJDBT only altered the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and leptin in the serum and fat tissue. In addition, SJDBT maintained the serum leptin level and increased the serum IL-6 level, whereas cisplatin reduced the levels of both serum leptin and IL‑6. Furthermore, SJDBT was revealed to increase the levels of leptin and IL-6 in the fat tissue by activating the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present results revealed that SJDBT ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia, suggesting its usefulness in the prevention of anorexia during chemotherapy.
WOO, SANG-MI; CHOI, YOUN KYUNG; KIM, AH-JEONG; YUN, YEE JIN; SHIN, YONG CHEOL; CHO, SUNG-GOOK; KO, SEONG GYU
Despite its therapeutic advantages, chemotherapy can also cause adverse effects, including anorexia and loss of appetite. Although numerous patients with cancer have been reported to suffer from anorexia during or following chemotherapy, treatment options for anorexia remain to be determined. In Asian countries, traditional medicines are widely used to treat problems with appetite; sip-jeon-dea-bo-tang (SJDBT) is one of those medicines used for the treatment of anorexia. The present study demonstrated that SJDBT ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia. In a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced anorexia, oral administration of SJDBT prevented the cisplatin-induced reduction of food intake, inhibiting weight loss. The results of multiplex assays showed that SJDBT only altered the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and leptin in the serum and fat tissue. In addition, SJDBT maintained the serum leptin level and increased the serum IL-6 level, whereas cisplatin reduced the levels of both serum leptin and IL-6. Furthermore, SJDBT was revealed to increase the levels of leptin and IL-6 in the fat tissue by activating the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present results revealed that SJDBT ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia, suggesting its usefulness in the prevention of anorexia during chemotherapy. PMID:26936678
Chang, Yu-Yun; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Yeh, Chia-Hao; Lin, Shun-Ku
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), when given for symptom relief, has gained widespread popularity among migraine patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the utilization of TCM among migraine patients in Taiwan. The usage, frequency of service, and the Chinese herbal products prescribed for migraine were evaluated using a representative sample of one million subjects selected at random from the 22 million beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance scheme of Taiwan. Overall, 89.3% (N=12,827) migraine patients utilized TCM and 24.2% of them sought TCM with the intention of treating their migraine-related symptoms. Migraine patients who are living in urban area and those with an episodic migraine pattern (<15 days/month) (aOR=3.18, 95% CI: 2.75-3.67) were more likely to be TCM users than those living in a rural area and those who suffered from chronic migraine (≥15 days/month) (aOR=1.00). Overall, 81.2% of TCM visits involved the prescription of a Chinese herbal remedy or remedies and Chuan-Xiong-Cha-Tiao-San, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Ge-Gen-Tang, Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang, Ban-Xia-Bai-Zhu-Tian-Ma-Tang, Qing-Shang-Juan-Tong-Tang, Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang, Tian-Ma-Gou-Teng-Yin, Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang, and Tian-Wang-Bu-Xin-Dan were the ten most frequently prescribed formula for treating migraine based on syndrome differentiation. Chuan-Xiong-Cha-Tiao-San, which contains sedative and anti-inflammatory agents, is the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula for the treatment of migraine-related phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi
The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999
Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi
The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited.
This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…
... use, but can cause nausea and abdominal pain. Herbal supplements aren't monitored by the FDA the same ... mean safe. If you're considering taking any herbal supplement as a treatment for anxiety, talk to your ...
Talebi, Somayeh; Sabokbar, Azar; Riazipour, Majid; Saffari, Mohsen
Background: During the recent decades research has focused to find scientific evidence for the effects of herbal medicines. Researchers are interested in herbal