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Sample records for traditional surveillance applying

  1. Safety Surveillance of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Current and Future

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shwu-Huey; Chuang, Wu-Chang; Lam, Wing; Jiang, Zaoli

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for the prevention, treatment, and cure of disorders or diseases for centuries. In addition to being used directly as therapeutic agents, medicinal plants are also important sources for pharmacological drug research and development. With the increasing consumption of herbal products intended to promote better health, it is extremely important to assure the safety and quality of herbal preparations. However, under current regulation surveillance, herbal preparations may not meet expectations in safety, quality, and efficacy. The challenge is how to assure the safety and quality of herbal products for consumers. It is the responsibility of producers to minimize hazardous contamination and additives during cultivation, harvesting, handling, processing, storage, and distribution. This article reviews the current safety obstacles that have been involved in traditional Chinese herbal medicine preparations with examples of popular herbs. Approaches to improve the safety of traditional Chinese medicine are proposed. PMID:25647717

  2. The monocular visual imaging technology model applied in the airport surface surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhe; Wang, Jian; Huang, Chao

    2013-08-01

    At present, the civil aviation airports use the surface surveillance radar monitoring and positioning systems to monitor the aircrafts, vehicles and the other moving objects. Surface surveillance radars can cover most of the airport scenes, but because of the terminals, covered bridges and other buildings geometry, surface surveillance radar systems inevitably have some small segment blind spots. This paper presents a monocular vision imaging technology model for airport surface surveillance, achieving the perception of scenes of moving objects such as aircrafts, vehicles and personnel location. This new model provides an important complement for airport surface surveillance, which is different from the traditional surface surveillance radar techniques. Such technique not only provides clear objects activities screen for the ATC, but also provides image recognition and positioning of moving targets in this area. Thereby it can improve the work efficiency of the airport operations and avoid the conflict between the aircrafts and vehicles. This paper first introduces the monocular visual imaging technology model applied in the airport surface surveillance and then the monocular vision measurement accuracy analysis of the model. The monocular visual imaging technology model is simple, low cost, and highly efficient. It is an advanced monitoring technique which can make up blind spot area of the surface surveillance radar monitoring and positioning systems.

  3. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Fouillet, Anne; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors. Materials and Methods We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events. Results We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness. Conclusions We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings. PMID:27182731

  4. Issues in applied statistics for public health bioterrorism surveillance using multiple data streams: research needs.

    PubMed

    Rolka, Henry; Burkom, Howard; Cooper, Gregory F; Kulldorff, Martin; Madigan, David; Wong, Weng-Keen

    2007-04-15

    The objective of this report is to provide a basis to inform decisions about priorities for developing statistical research initiatives in the field of public health surveillance for emerging threats. Rapid information system advances have created a vast opportunity of secondary data sources for information to enhance the situational and health status awareness of populations. While the field of medical informatics and initiatives to standardize healthcare-seeking encounter records continue accelerating, it is necessary to adapt analytic and statistical methodologies to mature in sync with sibling information science technologies. One major right-of-passage for statistical inference is to advance the optimal application of analytic methodologies for using multiple data streams in detecting and characterizing public health population events of importance. This report first describes the problem in general and the data context, then delineates more specifically the practical nature of the problem and the related issues. Approaches currently applied to data with time-series, statistical process control and traditional inference concepts are described with examples in the section on Statistics and the Role of the Analytic Surveillance Data Monitor. These are the techniques that are providing substance to surveillance professionals and enabling use of multiple data streams. The next section describes use of a more complex approach that takes temporal as well as spatial dimensions into consideration for detection and situational awareness regarding event distributions. The space-time statistic has successfully been used to detect and track public health events of interest. Important research questions which are summarized at the end of this report are described in more detail with respect to the methodological application in the respective sections. This was thought to help elucidate the research requirements as summarized later in the report. Following the description

  5. Breast Cancer–Related Lymphedema: Comparing Direct Costs of a Prospective Surveillance Model and a Traditional Model of Care

    PubMed Central

    Pfalzer, Lucinda A.; Springer, Barbara; Levy, Ellen; McGarvey, Charles L.; Danoff, Jerome V.; Gerber, Lynn H.; Soballe, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary prevention involves monitoring and screening to prevent negative sequelae from chronic diseases such as cancer. Breast cancer treatment sequelae, such as lymphedema, may occur early or late and often negatively affect function. Secondary prevention through prospective physical therapy surveillance aids in early identification and treatment of breast cancer–related lymphedema (BCRL). Early intervention may reduce the need for intensive rehabilitation and may be cost saving. This perspective article compares a prospective surveillance model with a traditional model of impairment-based care and examines direct treatment costs associated with each program. Intervention and supply costs were estimated based on the Medicare 2009 physician fee schedule for 2 groups: (1) a prospective surveillance model group (PSM group) and (2) a traditional model group (TM group). The PSM group comprised all women with breast cancer who were receiving interval prospective surveillance, assuming that one third would develop early-stage BCRL. The prospective surveillance model includes the cost of screening all women plus the cost of intervention for early-stage BCRL. The TM group comprised women referred for BCRL treatment using a traditional model of referral based on late-stage lymphedema. The traditional model cost includes the direct cost of treating patients with advanced-stage lymphedema. The cost to manage early-stage BCRL per patient per year using a prospective surveillance model is $636.19. The cost to manage late-stage BCRL per patient per year using a traditional model is $3,124.92. The prospective surveillance model is emerging as the standard of care in breast cancer treatment and is a potential cost-saving mechanism for BCRL treatment. Further analysis of indirect costs and utility is necessary to assess cost-effectiveness. A shift in the paradigm of physical therapy toward a prospective surveillance model is warranted. PMID:21921254

  6. Applied learning-based color tone mapping for face recognition in video surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yew, Chuu Tian; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present an applied learning-based color tone mapping technique for video surveillance system. This technique can be applied onto both color and grayscale surveillance images. The basic idea is to learn the color or intensity statistics from a training dataset of photorealistic images of the candidates appeared in the surveillance images, and remap the color or intensity of the input image so that the color or intensity statistics match those in the training dataset. It is well known that the difference in commercial surveillance cameras models, and signal processing chipsets used by different manufacturers will cause the color and intensity of the images to differ from one another, thus creating additional challenges for face recognition in video surveillance system. Using Multi-Class Support Vector Machines as the classifier on a publicly available video surveillance camera database, namely SCface database, this approach is validated and compared to the results of using holistic approach on grayscale images. The results show that this technique is suitable to improve the color or intensity quality of video surveillance system for face recognition.

  7. A Comparison of Traditional and Non-Traditional Methods of Testing: Applied Educational Research and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Wilford Winston; Barrett, Anita G.

    A study involving two groups of students enrolled in two concurrent 16-week terms of a course taught at two Southwest Texas Junior College campuses compared the effects of traditional and non-traditional testing. The traditional approach consisted of typical individual testing, while the non-traditional approach involved group testing (i.e., two…

  8. Using networks to combine "big data" and traditional surveillance to improve influenza predictions.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael W; Haim, Dotan A; Radin, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza infects approximately 5-20% of the U.S. population every year, resulting in over 200,000 hospitalizations. The ability to more accurately assess infection levels and predict which regions have higher infection risk in future time periods can instruct targeted prevention and treatment efforts, especially during epidemics. Google Flu Trends (GFT) has generated significant hope that "big data" can be an effective tool for estimating disease burden and spread. The estimates generated by GFT come in real-time--two weeks earlier than traditional surveillance data collected by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, GFT had some infamous errors and is significantly less accurate at tracking laboratory-confirmed cases than syndromic influenza-like illness (ILI) cases. We construct an empirical network using CDC data and combine this with GFT to substantially improve its performance. This improved model predicts infections one week into the future as well as GFT predicts the present and does particularly well in regions that are most likely to facilitate influenza spread and during epidemics. PMID:25634021

  9. Surveillance theory applied to virus detection: a case for targeted discovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bogich, Tiffany L.; Anthony, Simon J.; Nichols, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Virus detection and mathematical modeling have gone through rapid developments in the past decade. Both offer new insights into the epidemiology of infectious disease and characterization of future risk; however, modeling has not yet been applied to designing the best surveillance strategies for viral and pathogen discovery. We review recent developments and propose methods to integrate viral and pathogen discovery and mathematical modeling through optimal surveillance theory, arguing for a more targeted approach to novel virus detection guided by the principles of adaptive management and structured decision-making.

  10. Efficient super-resolution image reconstruction applied to surveillance video captured by small unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qiang; Schultz, Richard R.; Chu, Chee-Hung Henry

    2008-04-01

    The concept surrounding super-resolution image reconstruction is to recover a highly-resolved image from a series of low-resolution images via between-frame subpixel image registration. In this paper, we propose a novel and efficient super-resolution algorithm, and then apply it to the reconstruction of real video data captured by a small Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). Small UAS aircraft generally have a wingspan of less than four meters, so that these vehicles and their payloads can be buffeted by even light winds, resulting in potentially unstable video. This algorithm is based on a coarse-to-fine strategy, in which a coarsely super-resolved image sequence is first built from the original video data by image registration and bi-cubic interpolation between a fixed reference frame and every additional frame. It is well known that the median filter is robust to outliers. If we calculate pixel-wise medians in the coarsely super-resolved image sequence, we can restore a refined super-resolved image. The primary advantage is that this is a noniterative algorithm, unlike traditional approaches based on highly-computational iterative algorithms. Experimental results show that our coarse-to-fine super-resolution algorithm is not only robust, but also very efficient. In comparison with five well-known super-resolution algorithms, namely the robust super-resolution algorithm, bi-cubic interpolation, projection onto convex sets (POCS), the Papoulis-Gerchberg algorithm, and the iterated back projection algorithm, our proposed algorithm gives both strong efficiency and robustness, as well as good visual performance. This is particularly useful for the application of super-resolution to UAS surveillance video, where real-time processing is highly desired.

  11. Analysis of traditional poultry trader networks to improve risk-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Vallée, Emilie; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Chaka, Hassen; Duboz, Raphaël; Balcha, Melesse; Goutard, Flavie

    2013-01-01

    Live bird markets and contacts between them through poultry traders are known risk factors in the spread of diseases such as Newcastle disease. A traders' questionnaire survey was used to build networks of chicken movements among 29 shared markets during and outside festive seasons in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. A comparison was made between typologies built using centrality indexes (in-degree, out-degree, in-closeness, out-closeness and random-walk betweenness) and descriptive characteristics of the markets (number of chickens, number and type of sellers and the frequency with which they use different markets). The festive seasons did not appear to have an impact on the network structure, implying that it was not necessary to make structural changes to surveillance targets during these periods. Based on centrality indices, three markets (Meki, Debre Zeit and Adulala) emerged from the typology as being central to the network, which would not have been deduced from their descriptive characteristics alone. These three poultry markets ideally would be chosen in a risk-based type of surveillance system and in targeted control policies. PMID:22763128

  12. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system. PMID:26489602

  13. A surveillance sector review applied to infectious diseases at a country level

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The new International Health Regulations (IHR) require World Health Organization (WHO) member states to assess their core capacity for surveillance. Such reviews also have the potential to identify important surveillance gaps, improve the organisation of disparate surveillance systems and to focus attention on upstream hazards, determinants and interventions. Methods We developed a surveillance sector review method for evaluating all of the surveillance systems and related activities across a sector, in this case those concerned with infectious diseases in New Zealand. The first stage was a systematic description of these surveillance systems using a newly developed framework and classification system. Key informant interviews were conducted to validate the available information on the systems identified. Results We identified 91 surveillance systems and related activities in the 12 coherent categories of infectious diseases examined. The majority (n = 40 or 44%) of these were disease surveillance systems. They covered all categories, particularly for more severe outcomes including those resulting in death or hospitalisations. Except for some notifiable diseases and influenza, surveillance of less severe, but important infectious diseases occurring in the community was largely absent. There were 31 systems (34%) for surveillance of upstream infectious disease hazards, including risk and protective factors. This area tended to have many potential gaps and lack integration, partly because such systems were operated by a range of different agencies, often outside the health sector. There were fewer surveillance systems for determinants, including population size and characteristics (n = 9), and interventions (n = 11). Conclusions It was possible to create and populate a workable framework for describing all the infectious diseases surveillance systems and related activities in a single developed country and to identify potential surveillance sector gaps

  14. Combining Search, Social Media, and Traditional Data Sources to Improve Influenza Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Santillana, Mauricio; Nguyen, André T.; Dredze, Mark; Paul, Michael J.; Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a machine learning-based methodology capable of providing real-time (“nowcast”) and forecast estimates of influenza activity in the US by leveraging data from multiple data sources including: Google searches, Twitter microblogs, nearly real-time hospital visit records, and data from a participatory surveillance system. Our main contribution consists of combining multiple influenza-like illnesses (ILI) activity estimates, generated independently with each data source, into a single prediction of ILI utilizing machine learning ensemble approaches. Our methodology exploits the information in each data source and produces accurate weekly ILI predictions for up to four weeks ahead of the release of CDC’s ILI reports. We evaluate the predictive ability of our ensemble approach during the 2013–2014 (retrospective) and 2014–2015 (live) flu seasons for each of the four weekly time horizons. Our ensemble approach demonstrates several advantages: (1) our ensemble method’s predictions outperform every prediction using each data source independently, (2) our methodology can produce predictions one week ahead of GFT’s real-time estimates with comparable accuracy, and (3) our two and three week forecast estimates have comparable accuracy to real-time predictions using an autoregressive model. Moreover, our results show that considerable insight is gained from incorporating disparate data streams, in the form of social media and crowd sourced data, into influenza predictions in all time horizons. PMID:26513245

  15. Combining Search, Social Media, and Traditional Data Sources to Improve Influenza Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Santillana, Mauricio; Nguyen, André T; Dredze, Mark; Paul, Michael J; Nsoesie, Elaine O; Brownstein, John S

    2015-10-01

    We present a machine learning-based methodology capable of providing real-time ("nowcast") and forecast estimates of influenza activity in the US by leveraging data from multiple data sources including: Google searches, Twitter microblogs, nearly real-time hospital visit records, and data from a participatory surveillance system. Our main contribution consists of combining multiple influenza-like illnesses (ILI) activity estimates, generated independently with each data source, into a single prediction of ILI utilizing machine learning ensemble approaches. Our methodology exploits the information in each data source and produces accurate weekly ILI predictions for up to four weeks ahead of the release of CDC's ILI reports. We evaluate the predictive ability of our ensemble approach during the 2013-2014 (retrospective) and 2014-2015 (live) flu seasons for each of the four weekly time horizons. Our ensemble approach demonstrates several advantages: (1) our ensemble method's predictions outperform every prediction using each data source independently, (2) our methodology can produce predictions one week ahead of GFT's real-time estimates with comparable accuracy, and (3) our two and three week forecast estimates have comparable accuracy to real-time predictions using an autoregressive model. Moreover, our results show that considerable insight is gained from incorporating disparate data streams, in the form of social media and crowd sourced data, into influenza predictions in all time horizons. PMID:26513245

  16. An Aural Learning Project: Assimilating Jazz Education Methods for Traditional Applied Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamso, Nancy M.

    2011-01-01

    The Aural Learning Project (ALP) was developed to incorporate jazz method components into the author's classical practice and her applied woodwind lesson curriculum. The primary objective was to place a more focused pedagogical emphasis on listening and hearing than is traditionally used in the classical applied curriculum. The components of the…

  17. Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Elizabeth

    Abstract words such as "tradition" are like ancient coins whose concrete images have worn away. Traditions can be of two forms--either alive, amendable, and expandable (such as those in a family's annual Christmas celebration), or dead, empty formalities. An example of an empty tradition is the strict rule in freshman composition classes that…

  18. Quali-quantitative analysis of best selling drugs from pharmacy, street market and traditional herbal medicine: a pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Bellotti, Pasquale; Minutillo, Adele; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Pacifici, Roberta

    2015-02-01

    A pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal has been performed analyzing best selling drugs from an official pharmacy and a street market in two principal cities of Senegal and some traditional preparations from herbal medicine from the same market. A simple and rapid gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction of pharmaceutical products and traditional preparations at acidic, neutral and basic pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1, v/v). The assay was validated in the range from 10mg to 250 mg/g powder preparations with good determination coefficients (r(2)≥ 0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, mean recoveries of substances under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were always better than 15%. The four best selling drugs purchased from a Dakar local pharmacy exactly contained the amount of active principles reported in the respective labels while the best selling drugs freely purchased from Kaolack market contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label. No pharmacological active compound, but salicylic acid was found in one of the traditional herbal preparations. This pilot study showed that whereas official drugs sold in pharmacies at prices accessible for a very few portion of the population contained the amount of active principles as reported in the labels, those from street market bought by the majority of population contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label and finally traditional herbal preparations seldom contain pharmacological active principles. PMID:25481086

  19. Molecular surveillance of traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Larocca, Vittorio; Losurdo, Michele; Lanave, Gianvito; Lucente, Maria Stella; Corrente, Marialaura; Catella, Cristiana; Bo, Stefano; Elia, Gabriella; Torre, Giorgio; Grandolfo, Erika; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2016-08-30

    A molecular survey for traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) was conducted in Italy between 2011 and 2013 on a total of 138 dogs, including 78 early acute clinically ill CIRD animals, 22 non-clinical but exposed to clinically ill CIRD dogs and 38 CIRD convalescent dogs. The results showed that canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) was the most commonly detected CIRD pathogen, followed by canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma cynos, Mycoplasma canis and canine pneumovirus (CnPnV). Some classical CIRD agents, such as canine adenoviruses, canine distemper virus and canid herpesvirus 1, were not detected at all, as were not other emerging respiratory viruses (canine influenza virus, canine hepacivirus) and bacteria (Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus). Most severe forms of respiratory disease were observed in the presence of CPIV, CRCoV and M. cynos alone or in combination with other pathogens, whereas single CnPnV or M. canis infections were detected in dogs with no or very mild respiratory signs. Interestingly, only the association of M. cynos (alone or in combination with either CRCoV or M. canis) with severe clinical forms was statistically significant. The study, while confirming CPIV as the main responsible for CIRD occurrence, highlights the increasing role of recently discovered viruses, such as CRCoV and CnPnV, for which effective vaccines are not available in the market. PMID:27527760

  20. Monitoring Influenza Activity in the United States: A Comparison of Traditional Surveillance Systems with Google Flu Trends

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Justin R.; Zhou, Hong; Shay, David K.; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. Methods and Findings Influenza activity data from 2003–04 through 2007–08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance), and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance). Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79). The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89). Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003–04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87) or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90). Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003–04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior. PMID:21556151

  1. A model of laboratory surveillance for neuro-arbovirosis applied during 2012 in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pierro, A; Landini, M P; Gaibani, P; Rossini, G; Vocale, C; Finarelli, A C; Cagarelli, R; Sambri, V; Varani, S

    2014-07-01

    Arboviruses with neuroinvasive potential are gaining more attention due to the increased number of cases of autochthonous and imported infections in the human host. Diagnosis of infection caused by these viruses in patients with central nervous system (CNS) diseases is still underestimated and these infections represent an emerging threat to public health. We describe a model suitable for the laboratory surveillance of neuro-arbovirosis that was applied in the Emilia-Romagna region, north-eastern Italy, during the 2012 summer season. One hundred and twenty cases of suspected neuroinvasive infection were tested for arboviral agents on the basis of clinical and laboratory signs and epidemiological data. The most common virus detected was Toscana virus (TOSV): anti-TOSV specific antibodies or viral components were detected in 28.3% of the cases; 79.4% of the TOSV cases were in the acute phase of infection. No cases resulted in acute phase for West Nile (WNV), Usutu (USUV), Chikungunya (CHIKV) or Dengue (DENV) virus infection. Conversely, two patients with a history of staying in a tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) endemic area showed a probable TBEV infection. These results emphasize the importance of a complete and 'ready to act' laboratory diagnostic system to be implemented within the larger frame of a regional integrated surveillance system. PMID:24329773

  2. Constructivism applied to psychiatric-mental health nursing: an alternative to supplement traditional clinical education.

    PubMed

    DeCoux Hampton, Michelle

    2012-02-01

    With the popularity of accelerated pre-licensure nursing programmes and the growth in nursing student enrolments, traditional clinical education continues to be a challenge to deliver. Nursing faculty members are required to develop and implement educational innovations that achieve effective learning outcomes, while using fewer resources. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the effectiveness of a constructivism-based learning project to achieve specific learning outcomes and to supplement approximately 30 clinical hours in a psychiatric-mental health nursing course. Students participated in a 10-week, multistage project that examined life histories, treatment resources, and evidence-based practice, as applied to a single individual with a mental illness. Students reported increased understanding of mental health and illness, developed personal relevance associated with the knowledge gained, and learned to problem solve with regard to nursing care of individuals diagnosed with mental illness. For many students, there also appeared to be a reduction in stigmatized attitudes towards mental illness. Constructivism-based learning is a promising alternative to supplement clinical hours, while effectively achieving learning outcomes. Future research is needed to further validate the use of this method for the learning of course content, as well as the reduction of stigma. PMID:21676137

  3. Applying GIS and Machine Learning Methods to Twitter Data for Multiscale Surveillance of Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Anoshe; Nagel, Anna; Gawron, Jean-Mark

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods for monitoring influenza are haphazard and lack fine-grained details regarding the spatial and temporal dynamics of outbreaks. Twitter gives researchers and public health officials an opportunity to examine the spread of influenza in real-time and at multiple geographical scales. In this paper, we introduce an improved framework for monitoring influenza outbreaks using the social media platform Twitter. Relying upon techniques from geographic information science (GIS) and data mining, Twitter messages were collected, filtered, and analyzed for the thirty most populated cities in the United States during the 2013–2014 flu season. The results of this procedure are compared with national, regional, and local flu outbreak reports, revealing a statistically significant correlation between the two data sources. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce a comprehensive data mining process that enhances previous attempts to accurately identify tweets related to influenza. Additionally, geographical information systems allow us to target, filter, and normalize Twitter messages. PMID:27455108

  4. Applying GIS and Machine Learning Methods to Twitter Data for Multiscale Surveillance of Influenza.

    PubMed

    Allen, Chris; Tsou, Ming-Hsiang; Aslam, Anoshe; Nagel, Anna; Gawron, Jean-Mark

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods for monitoring influenza are haphazard and lack fine-grained details regarding the spatial and temporal dynamics of outbreaks. Twitter gives researchers and public health officials an opportunity to examine the spread of influenza in real-time and at multiple geographical scales. In this paper, we introduce an improved framework for monitoring influenza outbreaks using the social media platform Twitter. Relying upon techniques from geographic information science (GIS) and data mining, Twitter messages were collected, filtered, and analyzed for the thirty most populated cities in the United States during the 2013-2014 flu season. The results of this procedure are compared with national, regional, and local flu outbreak reports, revealing a statistically significant correlation between the two data sources. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce a comprehensive data mining process that enhances previous attempts to accurately identify tweets related to influenza. Additionally, geographical information systems allow us to target, filter, and normalize Twitter messages. PMID:27455108

  5. A comparison between brand-specific and traditional alcohol surveillance methods to assess underage drinkers’ reported alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah P.; Siegel, Michael B.; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent alcohol consumption remains common and is associated with many negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, common alcohol surveillance methods often underestimate consumption. Improved alcohol use measures are needed to characterize the landscape of youth drinking. Objectives We aimed to compare a standard quantity-frequency measure of youth alcohol consumption to a novel brand-specific measure. Methods We recruited a sample of 1,031 respondents across the United States to complete an online survey. Analyses included 833 male and female underage drinkers ages 13–20. Respondents reported on how many of the past 30 days they consumed alcohol, and the number of drinks consumed on an average drinking day. Using our brand-specific measure, respondents identified which brands they consumed, how many days they consumed each brand, and how many drinks per brand they usually had. Results Youth reported consuming significantly more alcohol (on average, 11 drinks more per month) when responding to the brand-specific versus the standard measure (p<.001). The two major predictors of the difference between the two measures were being a heavy episodic drinker (p<.001, 95% CI = 4.1 to 12.0) and the total number of brands consumed (p<.001, 95% CI = 2.0 to 2.8). Conclusion This study contributes to the field of alcohol and adolescent research first by investigating a potentially more accurate alcohol surveillance method, and secondly by promoting the assessment of alcohol use among adolescents vulnerable to risky alcohol use. Finally, our survey addresses the potential impact of alcohol marketing on youth and their subsequent alcohol brand preferences and consumption. PMID:25062357

  6. Modeling the dynamics of backyard chicken flows in traditional trade networks in Thailand: implications for surveillance and control of avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Paul, Mathilde Cécile; Bicout, Dominique Joseph; Tiensin, Thanawat; Triampo, Wannapong; Chalvet-Monfray, Karine

    2014-06-01

    In Southeast Asia, traditional poultry marketing chains have been threatened by epidemics caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) virus. In Thailand, the trade of live backyard chickens is based on the activities of traders buying chickens from villages and supplying urban markets with chicken meat. This study aims to quantify the flows of chickens traded during a 1-year period in a province of Thailand. A compartmental stochastic dynamic model was constructed to illustrate trade flows of live chickens from villages to slaughterhouses. Live poultry movements present important temporal variations with increased activities during the 15 days preceding the Chinese New Year and, to a lesser extent, other festivals (Qingming Festival, Thai New Year, Hungry Ghost Festival, and International New Year). The average distance of poultry movements ranges from 4 to 25 km, defining a spatial scale for the risk of avian influenza that spread through traditional poultry marketing chains. Some characteristics of traditional poultry networks in Thailand, such as overlapping chicken supply zones, may facilitate disease diffusion over longer distances through combined expansion and relocation processes. This information may be of use in tailoring avian influenza and other emerging infectious poultry disease surveillance and control programs provided that the cost-effectiveness of such scenarios is also evaluated in further studies. PMID:24668078

  7. Dynamic optimization of ISR sensors using a risk-based reward function applied to ground and space surveillance scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSena, J. T.; Martin, S. R.; Clarke, J. C.; Dutrow, D. A.; Newman, A. J.

    2012-06-01

    As the number and diversity of sensing assets available for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) operations continues to expand, the limited ability of human operators to effectively manage, control and exploit the ISR ensemble is exceeded, leading to reduced operational effectiveness. Automated support both in the processing of voluminous sensor data and sensor asset control can relieve the burden of human operators to support operation of larger ISR ensembles. In dynamic environments it is essential to react quickly to current information to avoid stale, sub-optimal plans. Our approach is to apply the principles of feedback control to ISR operations, "closing the loop" from the sensor collections through automated processing to ISR asset control. Previous work by the authors demonstrated non-myopic multiple platform trajectory control using a receding horizon controller in a closed feedback loop with a multiple hypothesis tracker applied to multi-target search and track simulation scenarios in the ground and space domains. This paper presents extensions in both size and scope of the previous work, demonstrating closed-loop control, involving both platform routing and sensor pointing, of a multisensor, multi-platform ISR ensemble tasked with providing situational awareness and performing search, track and classification of multiple moving ground targets in irregular warfare scenarios. The closed-loop ISR system is fullyrealized using distributed, asynchronous components that communicate over a network. The closed-loop ISR system has been exercised via a networked simulation test bed against a scenario in the Afghanistan theater implemented using high-fidelity terrain and imagery data. In addition, the system has been applied to space surveillance scenarios requiring tracking of space objects where current deliberative, manually intensive processes for managing sensor assets are insufficiently responsive. Simulation experiment results are presented

  8. [Possibility of applying nanotechnology to research on the basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ye-Tao; Shi, Shan-Quan; Pan, Hui-Wei

    2005-11-01

    The ancient theory and technology which are related to preventive treatment of disease by dietetic regulation and coordinating meridian according to 25 tones have been developed in the early 21st century. It is proved in sonocytology by nanotechnology that cells are able to produce noise, and the noise will change at first when the cells have any disorders. This theory is in accordance with the one in Huangdi Neijing. The nanotechnology can be introduced into the basic research of traditional Chinese medicine and may contribute to the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:16282048

  9. Understanding an Organization through Oral Traditions: "No Kinks, Snakes or Whiners Need Apply."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Kristin; And Others

    Twenty-two interviews were conducted with the owner, managers, employees, suppliers, customers, and competitors of an auto dealership employing 91 people in order to examine the oral traditions of that company. The interviews provided data on management styles, dynamics of the managers' interaction, general language usage, paralanguage, favorable…

  10. Optimizing Provider Recruitment for Influenza Surveillance Networks

    PubMed Central

    Scarpino, Samuel V.; Dimitrov, Nedialko B.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2012-01-01

    The increasingly complex and rapid transmission dynamics of many infectious diseases necessitates the use of new, more advanced methods for surveillance, early detection, and decision-making. Here, we demonstrate that a new method for optimizing surveillance networks can improve the quality of epidemiological information produced by typical provider-based networks. Using past surveillance and Internet search data, it determines the precise locations where providers should be enrolled. When applied to redesigning the provider-based, influenza-like-illness surveillance network (ILINet) for the state of Texas, the method identifies networks that are expected to significantly outperform the existing network with far fewer providers. This optimized network avoids informational redundancies and is thereby more effective than networks designed by conventional methods and a recently published algorithm based on maximizing population coverage. We show further that Google Flu Trends data, when incorporated into a network as a virtual provider, can enhance but not replace traditional surveillance methods. PMID:22511860

  11. [Clustering analysis applied to near-infrared spectroscopy analysis of Chinese traditional medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Mu-qing; Zhou, De-cheng; Xu, Xin-yuan; Sun, Yao-jie; Zhou, Xiao-li; Han, Lei

    2007-10-01

    The present article discusses the clustering analysis used in the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy analysis of Chinese traditional medicines, which provides a new method for the classification of Chinese traditional medicines. Samples selected purposely in the authors' research to measure their absorption spectra in seconds by a multi-channel NIR spectrometer developed in the authors' lab were safrole, eucalypt oil, laurel oil, turpentine, clove oil and three samples of costmary oil from different suppliers. The spectra in the range of 0.70-1.7 microm were measured with air as background and the results indicated that they are quite distinct. Qualitative mathematical model was set up and cluster analysis based on the spectra was carried out through different clustering methods for optimization, and came out the cluster correlation coefficient of 0.9742 in the authors' research. This indicated that cluster analysis of the group of samples is practicable. Also it is reasonable to get the result that the calculated classification of 8 samples was quite accorded with their characteristics, especially the three samples of costmary oil were in the closest classification of the clustering analysis. PMID:18306778

  12. A risk-based coverage model for video surveillance camera control optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongzhou; Du, Zhiguo; Zhao, Xingtao; Li, Peiyue; Li, Dehua

    2015-12-01

    Visual surveillance system for law enforcement or police case investigation is different from traditional application, for it is designed to monitor pedestrians, vehicles or potential accidents. Visual surveillance risk is defined as uncertainty of visual information of targets and events monitored in present work and risk entropy is introduced to modeling the requirement of police surveillance task on quality and quantity of vide information. the prosed coverage model is applied to calculate the preset FoV position of PTZ camera.

  13. ‘Speed advising’ for medical students applying to residency programs: an efficient supplement to traditional advising

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Jillian L.; Bischof, Jason J.; Greenberger, Sarah; Bachmann, Daniel J.; Way, David P.; Gorgas, Diane L.; Kman, Nicholas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Over time, Residency Match dynamics fluctuate with some specialties experiencing increases in medical student popularity. Academic departments with limited resources must devise methods for coping with increased demand for their specialty. Students perceive traditional programs on Match mechanics as inadequate. Subsequently, faculty are confronted with demands for more personal attention from more students. Objectives We developed a strategy for providing specialty-specific residency match advising to large numbers of students. Methods The ‘speed-advising’ session (SAS) was developed to address the common questions and concerns that medical students pose during the Match process and to provide advisees with a breadth of faculty perspectives. Two SASs were offered over a 2-week period. After the sessions, students and faculty were surveyed regarding their experience. Results Twenty-six students pursued our specialty in the 2015 Match (26 of 234, 11.1%). Twenty-three (89%) participated in the SAS. Seventy-four percent of students (17 of 23) and all faculty completed the post-session survey. Students found the SAS to be informative, helpful and an efficient use of time. Common discussion topics included: career goals, to which programs and how many to apply, and how academic record impacts their likelihood of matching in our specialty. Students would have preferred more time with each faculty; however, most (77%) conceded that their questions were adequately answered. Faculty-favored speed advising over traditional advising (86%), primarily due to estimated time savings of 7.3 h per faculty member. Conclusions In preparing students for the Match, specialty-specific speed advising offers an efficient supplement to traditional advising. PMID:27056564

  14. Workspace design for crane cabins applying a combined traditional approach and the Taguchi method for design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Spasojević Brkić, Vesna K; Veljković, Zorica A; Golubović, Tamara; Brkić, Aleksandar Dj; Kosić Šotić, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Procedures in the development process of crane cabins are arbitrary and subjective. Since approximately 42% of incidents in the construction industry are linked to them, there is a need to collect fresh anthropometric data and provide additional recommendations for design. In this paper, dimensioning of the crane cabin interior space was carried out using a sample of 64 crane operators' anthropometric measurements, in the Republic of Serbia, by measuring workspace with 10 parameters using nine measured anthropometric data from each crane operator. This paper applies experiments run via full factorial designs using a combined traditional and Taguchi approach. The experiments indicated which design parameters are influenced by which anthropometric measurements and to what degree. The results are expected to be of use for crane cabin designers and should assist them to design a cabin that may lead to less strenuous sitting postures and fatigue for operators, thus improving safety and accident prevention. PMID:26652099

  15. Diagnostic imaging methods applied in long-term surveillance after EVAR. Will computed tomography angiography be replaced by other methods?

    PubMed Central

    Stefaniak, Karolina; Gabriel, Marcin; Oszkinis, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular implantation of a stent graft in the abdominal aorta (endovascular aneurysm repair – EVAR) is a widely accepted alternative to open surgery in treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Although EVAR is connected with a significant reduction in the risk of peri- and post-operative complications, it does not eliminate them totally. Long-term surveillance of post-EVAR patients is aimed at early detection of and fast reaction to a group of complications called endovascular leaks. Currently, the gold standard in leak diagnostics is computed tomography angiography (CTA). The other methods are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, intra-aneurysm sac pressure measurement, X-ray, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Despite many analyses based on long-term research, emphasising the high value and competitiveness of less invasive tests such as US or X-ray compared to CTA, it is still difficult for them to win the trust and acceptance of clinicians. The persisting view is that computed tomography is the test that finally resolves any inaccuracies. Consequently, a patient with a number of concurrent diseases is subject to absurdly high radiation exposure and effects of a radiocontrast agent within a short time. It is therefore logical to acknowledge that the EVAR-related risk is catching up with the open surgery risk, while the endovascular procedure is much more costly. Nevertheless, the status of CTA as the gold standard ultimately seems to be unthreatened. This paper presents a description of the diagnostic imaging tests that make it possible to detect any vascular leaks and to develop strategies for therapeutic processes. PMID:26966443

  16. Predicting Commitment in Adult and Traditional-Age Students: Applying Rusbult's Investment Model to the Study of Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cini, Marie A.; Fritz, Janie M. Harden

    Rusbult's Investment Model, a theoretical model of commitment based on notions of social exchange and interdependence theory, was used to predict college commitment in traditional-age and adult college students. A questionnaire assessing rewards, costs, investments, alternatives, and commitment to college was administered to 216 traditional-age…

  17. Changes in the microbial composition of raw milk induced by thermization treatments applied prior to traditional Greek hard cheese processing.

    PubMed

    Samelis, John; Lianou, Alexandra; Kakouri, Athanasia; Delbès, Céline; Rogelj, Irena; Bogovic-Matijasić, Bojana; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2009-04-01

    The microbiological quality, safety, and composition of mixtures of ewe's and goat's milk (90:10) used for cheesemaking were evaluated before and after thermization at 60 and 67 degrees C for 30 s. Such mild thermal treatments are commonly applied to reduce natural contaminants of raw milk before processing for traditional hard Greek cheeses. Raw milk samples had an average total bacterial count of 7.3 log CFU/ml; most of these bacteria were lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and pseudomonads. The LAB flora of raw milk was dominated by enterococci (40.8%), followed by lactococci (20.4%), leuconostocs (18.4%), and mesophilic lactobacilli (10.2%). Enterococcus faecalis (30.1%) and Enterococcus faecium (13.7%) were the most common LAB isolates, followed by Enterococcus durans, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Leuconostoc lactis. Thermization at 60 degrees C for 30 s was effective for reducing raw milk contamination by enterobacteria (5.1 log CFU/ml), coagulase-positive staphylococci (3.3 log CFU/ml), and Listeria (present in 25-ml samples) to safe levels, but it also reduced mesophilic lactococci, leuconostocs, lactobacilli, and selected enterococci (72.0%) in thermized milk. Thermization at 67 degrees C for 30 s had a major inactivation effect on all bacterial groups. Two nisin-producing L. lactis subsp. lactis strains (M78 and M104) were isolated from raw milk, but neither nisin-producing nor other bacteriocin-producing LAB strains were isolated from thermized milk. Thus, thermization treatments control harmful bacteria but also may have a negative impact on milk quality by reducing desirable LAB and the biodiversity of raw milk bacteria overall, inactivating potentially protective LAB strains and enhancing the ability of potentially pathogenic enterococci to grow in fresh cheese curds. PMID:19435227

  18. SURVEILLANCE REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveillance reports are designed to provide useful data to researchers, planners, policymakers, and other professionals interested in alcohol abuse and its associated illnesses and mortality. Other surveillance report topics include apparent per capita consumption of alcoholic b...

  19. Information surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiders, Barbara; McQuerry, Dennis; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Whitney, Paul D.; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    Biological weapons are within reach of individuals, small groups, terrorist organizations, as well as nations. With pervasive integration of civilian and military populations worldwide, the ill winds of biological warfare stand to affect military troops and civilians alike. A variety of technologies are emerging - such as pathogen detection devices, streaming internet characterization tools, information exploitation techniques, automated feature extraction, and ubiquitous wireless communication - that can help. These technologies, if taken together within an integrated analytical framework, could make possible the monitoring of diverse parameters that may indicate a change in the state of health of a given population - either the emergence of a naturally occurring disease or the outbreak of a disease as a result of hostile intent. This presentation will discuss the application of new information surveillance tools and technologies as they apply to health and disease monitoring, particularly within the context of potential terrorist or hostile nation use of biological warfare. Although discussed within the specific context of health surveillance, the tools and processes described here are generally applicable within other domains of subject matter expertise.

  20. Information surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Seiders, Barbara AB; McQuerry, Dennis L.; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Whitney, Paul D.; Rybka, Anthony J.

    2002-07-15

    Biological weapons are within reach of individuals, small groups, terrorist organizations, as well as nations. With pervasive integration of civilian and military populations worldwide, the ill winds of biological warfare stand to affect military troops and civilians alike. A variety of technologies are emerging - such as pathogen detection devices, streaming internet characterization tools, information exploitation techniques, automated feature extraction, and ubiquitous wireless communication - that can help. These technologies, if taken together within an integrated analytical framework, could make possible the monitoring of diverse parameters that may indicate a change in the state of health of a given population - either the emergence of a naturally occurring disease or the outbreak of a disease as a result of hostile intent. This presentation will discuss the application of new information surveillance tools and technologies as they apply to health and disease monitoring, particularly within the context of potential terrorist or hostile nation use of biological warfare. Although discussed within the specific context of health surveillance, the tools and processes described here are generally applicable within other domains of subject matter expertise.

  1. Social Learning versus Traditional Teaching in an Elementary School Cardiovascular Health Promotion Program. Applied Research Brief: Behavior Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kerry J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Reports a study that compared a program of nutrition education guided by social learning theory with a more traditional teaching approach for elementary students. Pretests and posttests of students' nutrition knowledge and behavior and physical health indicated that children in both groups showed similar improvements. (SM)

  2. Potential Misclassification of Urinary Tract-Related Bacteremia Upon Applying the 2015 Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Surveillance Definition From the National Healthcare Safety Network.

    PubMed

    Greene, M Todd; Ratz, David; Meddings, Jennifer; Fakih, Mohamad G; Saint, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated the surveillance definition of catheter-associated urinary tract infection to include only urine culture bacteria of at least 1×105 colony-forming units/mL. Our findings suggest that the new surveillance definition may fail to capture clinically meaningful catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(4):469-471. PMID:26778287

  3. Applying a New Model for Sharing Population Health Data to National Syndromic Influenza Surveillance: DiSTRIBuTE Project Proof of Concept, 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Olson, Donald R; Paladini, Marc; Lober, William B; Buckeridge, David L

    2011-01-01

    The Distributed Surveillance Taskforce for Real-time Influenza Burden Tracking and Evaluation (DiSTRIBuTE) project began as a pilot effort initiated by the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS) in autumn 2006 to create a collaborative electronic emergency department (ED) syndromic influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance network based on existing state and local systems and expertise. DiSTRIBuTE brought together health departments that were interested in: 1) sharing aggregate level data; 2) maintaining jurisdictional control; 3) minimizing barriers to participation; and 4) leveraging the flexibility of local systems to create a dynamic and collaborative surveillance network. This approach was in contrast to the prevailing paradigm for surveillance where record level information was collected, stored and analyzed centrally. The DiSTRIBuTE project was created with a distributed design, where individual level data remained local and only summarized, stratified counts were reported centrally, thus minimizing privacy risks. The project was responsive to federal mandates to improve integration of federal, state, and local biosurveillance capabilities. During the proof of concept phase, 2006 to 2009, ten jurisdictions from across North America sent ISDS on a daily to weekly basis year-round, aggregated data by day, stratified by local ILI syndrome, age-group and region. During this period, data from participating U.S. state or local health departments captured over 13% of all ED visits nationwide. The initiative focused on state and local health department trust, expertise, and control. Morbidity trends observed in DiSTRIBuTE were highly correlated with other influenza surveillance measures. With the emergence of novel A/H1N1 influenza in the spring of 2009, the project was used to support information sharing and ad hoc querying at the state and local level. In the fall of 2009, through a broadly collaborative effort, the project was expanded to enhance

  4. Traditional and innovative methods applied to a crystalline aquifer for characterizing fault zone hydrology at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bour, O.; Ruelleu, S.; Le Borgne, T.; Boudin, F.; Moreau, F.; Durand, S.; Longuevergne, L.

    2011-12-01

    Crystalline rocks aquifers are difficult to characterize since flow is mainly localized in few fractures or faults. In particular, the geometry of the main flow paths and the connections of the aquifer with the sub-surface are often poorly constrained. Here, we present results from different geophysical and hydraulic methods to quantify fault zone hydrology of a crystalline confined aquifer (Ploemeur, French Brittany). This outstandingly productive crystalline rock aquifer is exploited at a rate of about 10 6 m3 per year since 1991. The pumping site is located at the intersection of two main structures: the contact zone between granite roof and overlying micaschists, and a steeply dipping fault striking North 20°, with combined dextral strike-slip and normal components. Core samples and borehole optical imagery reveals that the contact zone at the granite roof consists of alternating deformed granitic sheets and enclaves of micaschists, pegmatite and aplite dykes, as well as quartz veins. Locally, this contact is marked by mylonites and pegmatite-bearing breccias that are often but not systematically associated with major borehole inflows. Other significant inflows are localized within single fractures independently of the lithologies encountered. At the borehole scale the structural and hydraulic properties of the aquifer are thus highly variable. At the site scale - typically a kilometer squared - the water levels are monitored in 22 boreholes, 100 meters deep in average. The connectivity of the main flow paths and the hydraulic properties are relatively well constrained and quantified thanks to cross-borehole flowmeter tests and traditional pumping tests. In complement, long-base tiltmeters monitoring and ground-surface leveling allows to monitor sub-surface deformation. It provides a quantification of the hydro-mechanical properties of the aquifer and better constraints about the geometry of the main fault zone. Surprisingly, the storage coefficient of the

  5. Design considerations for intrusion detection wide-area surveillance radars for perimeters and borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Walker

    2009-05-01

    Ground Surveillance Radars (GSRs) can build a virtual wall around facilities or on a border. They provide operators and agents with much more time to assess, prioritize and apprehend intruders than a traditional fence system. The extra response time is one of the important features of the wide area surveillance concept, along with added benefits for both the operators and the response teams. These are described in detail in the paper. But all GSRs are not alike. There are two primary GSR technologies - Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) and Pulse Doppler. Most pulse Doppler radars are derivatives of legacy military battlefield radar technology being applied for wide area surveillance, while a new generation of FMCW radar technology has been developed for this new type of surveillance, applied to high value site security, airports, military bases, ports and borders. The purpose of this paper is to explore the benefits of each type of radar for the wide area application.

  6. Poliomyelitis surveillance.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    Attention to the 4 poliomyelitis surveillance indicators approved by the International Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (ICCPE) in 1994, has deteriorated since the Americas were declared free from wild poliovirus. The indicators are designed to measure the performance of health services and the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect wild poliovirus circulating in the community. Sensitivity is the most important characteristic of the poliomyelitis surveillance system and it is measured by the rate of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) per 100,000 under age 15 years. As of March 21, 1998, the AFP rate reached its lowest level yet in the Americas, with only Bolivia, Chile, and Honduras presenting an acceptable rate (the analysis does not include the US and Canada). The other countries in the Caribbean region and Latin America had rates under 1 AFP case per 100,000 children under age 15. It follows that only 6% of children under age 15 in the region are currently protected by a sensitive AFP surveillance system. Poliovirus may therefore be circulating silently in the region. Renewed attention must be given to the AFP surveillance indicators. PMID:12321498

  7. [Influenza surveillance].

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Karolina; Hallmann-Szelińska, Ewelina; Kondratiuk, Katarzyna; Brydak, Lidia B

    2016-01-01

    Influenza surveillance was established in 1947. From this moment WHO (World Health Organization) has been coordinating international cooperation, with a goal of monitoring influenza virus activity, effective diagnostic of the circulating viruses and informing society about epidemics or pandemics, as well as about emergence of new subtypes of influenza virus type A. Influenza surveillance is an important task, because it enables people to prepare themselves for battle with the virus that is constantly mutating, what leads to circulation of new and often more virulent strains of influenza in human population. As vaccination is the most effective method of fighting the virus, one of the major tasks of GISRS is developing an optimal antigenic composition of the vaccine for the current epidemic season. European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN) has also developed over the years. EISN is running integrated epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance, to provide appropriate data to public health experts in member countries, to enable them undertaking relevant activities based on the current information about influenza activity. In close cooperation with GISRS and EISN are National Influenza Centres--national institutions designated by the Ministry of Health in each country. PMID:27117107

  8. Concepts for risk-based surveillance in the field of veterinary medicine and veterinary public health: Review of current approaches

    PubMed Central

    Stärk, Katharina DC; Regula, Gertraud; Hernandez, Jorge; Knopf, Lea; Fuchs, Klemens; Morris, Roger S; Davies, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background Emerging animal and zoonotic diseases and increasing international trade have resulted in an increased demand for veterinary surveillance systems. However, human and financial resources available to support government veterinary services are becoming more and more limited in many countries world-wide. Intuitively, issues that present higher risks merit higher priority for surveillance resources as investments will yield higher benefit-cost ratios. The rapid rate of acceptance of this core concept of risk-based surveillance has outpaced the development of its theoretical and practical bases. Discussion The principal objectives of risk-based veterinary surveillance are to identify surveillance needs to protect the health of livestock and consumers, to set priorities, and to allocate resources effectively and efficiently. An important goal is to achieve a higher benefit-cost ratio with existing or reduced resources. We propose to define risk-based surveillance systems as those that apply risk assessment methods in different steps of traditional surveillance design for early detection and management of diseases or hazards. In risk-based designs, public health, economic and trade consequences of diseases play an important role in selection of diseases or hazards. Furthermore, certain strata of the population of interest have a higher probability to be sampled for detection of diseases or hazards. Evaluation of risk-based surveillance systems shall prove that the efficacy of risk-based systems is equal or higher than traditional systems; however, the efficiency (benefit-cost ratio) shall be higher in risk-based surveillance systems. Summary Risk-based surveillance considerations are useful to support both strategic and operational decision making. This article highlights applications of risk-based surveillance systems in the veterinary field including food safety. Examples are provided for risk-based hazard selection, risk-based selection of sampling strata as

  9. Ethical issues in public health surveillance: drawing inspiration from ethical frameworks.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo; Ricciardi, Gualtiero

    2015-01-01

    The issues raised by public health surveillance are typical of those involved in public health ethics. Surveillance calls, in particular, for the balancing of individual rights and collective interests, which are often in conflict. One of the issues most closely linked with public health surveillance is the collection and use of personal data for purposes of public concern. Numerous frameworks (proposed by institutions, working groups or single individuals) are available for use in assessing the ethical correctness of public health interventions in general or, more specifically, of public health surveillance. While heterogeneous in nature, these frameworks are nonetheless built on a foundation of common values that are similar to those typically encountered in a clinical setting and to which bioethics has traditionally devoted considerable attention. However, it is necessary to apply these values to the specific context of public health, where the focus is more on the interests of the public at large than on those of the individual. PMID:26783212

  10. Geographic information systems applied to the international surveillance and control of transboundary animal diseases, a focus on highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Martin, Vincent; De Simone, Lorenzo; Lubroth, Juan

    2007-01-01

    To respond to the lack of early warning in dealing with livestock diseases, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) developed and launched the Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES) programme in 1994. Emphasis was placed on the prevention of emergencies due to transboundary epidemic diseases of livestock of significant economic, trade and/or food security importance. EMPRES early warning activities, mainly based on disease surveillance, reporting and epidemiological analysis are supported by the EMPRES-i information system which enables integration, analysis and sharing of animal health data, combined with relevant layers of information, such as socio-economic, production and climatic data. Indeed, data integration, analysis and mapping represent a key step towards a better understanding of the distribution and behaviour, source and evolution of a disease (or infection) for the definition of appropriate cost-effective disease control strategies. With the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in South-East Asia and its rapid spread beyond its known original distribution range, through its EMPRES programme the FAO has invested time and resources in the implementation of several studies to reveal HPAI epidemiological features in specific ecosystems of Asia and advise member countries accordingly on the best disease control options. Some of the key findings are presented in this paper and illustrate the incredible potential of using geographic information systems as part of international early warning systems and their multiple applications in the surveillance and control of infectious diseases, such as HPAI. PMID:20422520

  11. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  12. Comparison of PCR/Electron spray Ionization-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry versus Traditional Clinical Microbiology for active surveillance of organisms contaminating high-use surfaces in a burn intensive care unit, an orthopedic ward and healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding nosocomial pathogen transmission is restricted by culture limitations. Novel platforms, such as PCR-based electron spray ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS), may be useful as investigational tools. Methods Traditional clinical microbiology (TCM) and PCR/ESI-TOF-MS were used to recover and detect microorganisms from the hands and personal protective equipment of 10 burn intensive care unit (ICU) healthcare workers providing clinical care at a tertiary care military referral hospital. High-use environmental surfaces were assessed in 9 burn ICU and 10 orthopedic patient rooms. Clinical cultures during the study period were reviewed for pathogen comparison with investigational molecular diagnostic methods. Results From 158 samples, 142 organisms were identified by TCM and 718 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. The molecular diagnostic method detected more organisms (4.5 ± 2.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.8, p < 0.01) from 99% vs. 67% of samples (p < 0.01). TCM detected S. aureus in 13 samples vs. 21 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. Gram-negative organisms were less commonly identified than gram-positive by both methods; especially by TCM. Among all detected bacterial species, similar percentages were typical nosocomial pathogens (18-19%) for TCM vs. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS also detected mecA in 112 samples, vanA in 13, and KPC-3 in 2. MecA was associated (p < 0.01) with codetection of coagulase negative staphylococci but not S. aureus. No vanA was codetected with enterococci; one KPC-3 was detected without Klebsiella spp. Conclusions In this pilot study, PCR/ESI-TOF-MS detected more organisms, especially gram-negatives, compared to TCM, but the current assay format is limited by the number of antibiotic resistance determinants it covers. Further large-scale assessments of PCR/ESI-TOF-MS for hospital surveillance are warranted. PMID:23050585

  13. Vector-borne disease surveillance in puerto rico: pathogen prevalence rates in canines ? Implications for public health and the u.s. Military ? Applying the one health concept.

    PubMed

    McCown, Michael E; Opel, Taylor; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) make up a large number of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases. Vectors such as ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes parasitize dogs, thus making canine populations adequate reservoirs for infectious disease and zoonoses. The U.S. military deploys its personnel and Military Working Dogs (MWDs) throughout the world with possible risk of exposure to VBDs. Canine VBDs continue to have veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for deployed U.S. personnel and MWDs. Thus, ongoing and consistent disease surveillance is an essential component to preserve health. The purpose of this study was to survey dogs from multiple cities and varying regions throughout Puerto Rico to determine the prevalence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) from May to July 2012. Canine blood samples (1?3 ml) from the cities of San Juan (n = 629), Guaynabo (n = 50), Ponce (n = 20) and Vieques Island (n = 53) were obtained and tested on-site using an IDEXX SNAP? 4Dx? (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test kit. Prevalence for single or multiple disease status was calculated for each site. The overall period prevalence of VBD in Puerto Rico in the shelter population was 57.7% (71/123). In Guaynabo, the VBD prevalence was 30% (15/50); 2 (13%) of these positive dogs had VBD co-infection. In the coastal port city of Ponce, it was 60% (12/20); 6 (50%) dogs were infected by two or more VBDs. On Vieques Island, it was 83% (44/53); 27 (61%) dogs were coinfected. Conversely, samples collected at the Fort Buchanan Veterinary Clinic in the capitol city of San Juan resulted in a VBD prevalence of 8.9% (56/629). Lyme disease was not detected in any sample. This study showed the presence of D. immitis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in all four sites of Puerto Rico, emphasizing the value of surveillance for VBDs to determine disease

  14. Estimating vaccine effectiveness against severe influenza in England and Scotland 2011/2012: applying the screening method to data from intensive care surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Thomas, H L; Andrews, N; Green, H K; Boddington, N L; Zhao, H; Reynolds, A; McMenamin, J; Pebody, R G

    2014-01-01

    Methods for estimating vaccine effectiveness (VE) against severe influenza are not well established. We used the screening method to estimate VE against influenza resulting in intensive care unit (ICU) admission in England and Scotland in 2011/2012. We extracted data on confirmed influenza ICU cases from severe influenza surveillance systems, and obtained their 2011/2012 trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) status from primary care. We compared case vaccine uptake with population vaccine uptake obtained from routine monitoring systems, adjusting for age group, specific risk group, region and week. Of 60 influenza ICU cases reported, vaccination status was available for 56 (93%). Adjusted VE against ICU admission for those aged ≥ 65 years was -10% [95% confidence interval (CI) -207 to 60], consistent with evidence of poor protection from the 2011/2012 TIV in 2011/2012. Adjusted VE for those aged <65 years in risk groups was -296% (95% CI -930 to -52), suggesting significant residual confounding using the screening method in those subject to selective vaccination. PMID:23591102

  15. Comparison of surveillance methods applied to a situation of low malaria prevalence at rural sites in The Gambia and Guinea Bissau

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Health record-based observations from several parts of Africa indicate a major decline in malaria, but up-to-date information on parasite prevalence in West-Africa is sparse. This study aims to provide parasite prevalence data from three sites in the Gambia and Guinea Bissau, respectively, and compares the usefulness of PCR, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT), serology and slide-microscopy for surveillance. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in 12 villages at three rural sites were carried out in the Gambia and Guinea Bissau in January/February 2008, shortly following the annual transmission season. Results A surprisingly low microscopically detectable parasite prevalence was detected in the Gambia (Farafenni: 10.9%, CI95%: 8.7-13.1%; Basse: 9.0%, CI95%: 7.2-10.8%), and Guinea Bissau (Caio: 4%, CI95%: 2.6-5.4%), with low parasite densities (geometric mean: 104 parasites/μl, CI95%: 76-143/μl). In comparison, PCR detected a more than three times higher proportion of parasite carriers, indicating its usefulness to sensitively identify foci where malaria declines, whereas the RDT had very low sensitivity. Estimates of force of infection using age sero-conversion rates were equivalent to an EIR of approximately 1 infectious bite/person/year, significantly less than previous estimates. The sero-prevalence profiles suggest a gradual decline of malaria transmission, confirming their usefulness in providing information on longer term trends of transmission. A greater variability in parasite prevalence among villages within a site than between sites was observed with all methods. The fact that serology equally captured the inter-village variability, indicates that the observed heterogeneity represents a stable pattern. Conclusion PCR and serology may be used as complementary tools to survey malaria in areas of declining malaria prevalence such as the Gambia and Guinea Bissau. PMID:19954532

  16. Laser ablation ICP-MS and traditional micromorphological techniques applied to the study of different genetic horizons in thin sections: soil genesis and trace element distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Barca, Donatella; de Rosa, Rosanna; Pulice, Iolanda; Vacca, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    This work focuses on an innovative methodological approach to investigate in situ chemical composition of trace and rare earth (REE) elements in discrete soil features from different soil horizons: laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was applied to clay coatings, pedogenic matrix and skeletal parent rock fragments in thin sections, coupled with traditional pedological investigations, specially clay mineralogy and micromorphology. Analyses were performed on 80 μm-thick sections obtained from undisturbed soil samples, which represent three reddish argillic (Bt) horizons from an Alfisol developed on late Pleistocene slope deposits and three brown organic-mineral (A) horizons from an Entisol formed on Holocene aggrading fluvial sediments in the Muravera area (southeast Sardinia, Italy). Validation of the LA-ICP-MS technique provides in situ accurate and reproducible (RSD 13-18%) analysis of low concentration trace elements in the studied soil samples (0.001-0.1 ppm). Our results showed a high reliability of this method on soil thin sections and revealed that concentrations of trace and rare earth elements in the different portions of a soil profile can be used to investigate their distribution, as a response to soil-forming processes. A general trend of increase of most trace elements from rock fragments to (both clayey and organic-rich) soil matrix, to clay coatings in argillic horizons is clearly highlighted. On this basis a prominent role of pedogenetic processes in element fractionation and distribution during weathering can be supposed. In particular, element adsorption onto reactive sites of organic matter and clay particles (and possibly Fe-oxyhydroxides) and clay illuviation appear the main pedogenetic processes able to promote element enrichment after their release from the weathering of primary minerals. As clay coatings exhibit the highest concentration of trace elements, and specifically of REEs, and represent the most

  17. Obesity Assemblages and Surveillance in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Emma

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I draw on the growing body of work in surveillance studies, to examine the increasing propensity in recent years towards the monitoring and collection of information about children's weight and health within school contexts. Applying Haggerty and Ericson's concept of the surveillant assemblage within school contexts, the paper…

  18. The surveillant assemblage.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy. PMID:11140886

  19. Surgical wound infection surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lee, J T

    2003-12-01

    Measuring the frequency of a defined outcome flaw for a series of patients undergoing operative procedures generates information for performance evaluation. Such data influence decisions to improve care if used responsibly. Wound infection (WI), bacterial invasion of the incision, is the most common infectious complication of surgical care and WI prevention has value because the complication affects economic, patient satisfaction, and patient functional status outcomes. WI frequency, one kind of surgical outcome flaw rate, is traditionally used to judge one aspect of surgical care quality. At the author's institution, global WI surveillance was conducted without interruption for 20 years. Results for 85,260 consecutive inpatient operations performed during the period showed that secular changes in infection rates occurred but were not necessarily caused by surgical care quality decrements. PMID:14750065

  20. National nosocomial infections surveillance system (NNIS): description of surveillance methods.

    PubMed

    Emori, T G; Culver, D H; Horan, T C; Jarvis, W R; White, J W; Olson, D R; Banerjee, S; Edwards, J R; Martone, W J; Gaynes, R P

    1991-02-01

    The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) is an ongoing collaborative surveillance system sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to obtain national data on nosocomial infections. The CDC uses the data that are reported voluntarily by participating hospitals to estimate the magnitude of the nosocomial infection problem in the United States and to monitor trends in infections and risk factors. Hospitals collect data by prospectively monitoring specific groups of patients for infections with the use of protocols called surveillance components. The surveillance components used by the NNIS are hospitalwide, intensive care unit, high-risk nursery, and surgical patient. Detailed information including demographic characteristics, infections and related risk factors, pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibilities, and outcome, is collected on each infected patient. Data on risk factors in the population of patients being monitored are also collected; these permit the calculation of risk-specific rates. An infection risk index, which includes the traditional wound class, is being evaluated as a predictor of the likelihood that an infection will develop after an operation. A major goal of the NNIS is to use surveillance data to develop and evaluate strategies to prevent and control nosocomial infections. The data collected with the use of the surveillance components permit the calculation of risk-specific infection rates, which can be used by individual hospitals as well as national health-care planners to set priorities for their infection control programs and to evaluate the effectiveness of their efforts. The NNIS will continue to evolve in finding more effective and efficient ways to assess the influence of patient risk and changes in the financing of health care on the infection rate. PMID:1850582

  1. The Tertiary Debate: A Case Study Analysis of Factors Considered when Applying for University Entry by Traditional Age School Leavers in Brisbane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Fiona; Davis, Gabrielle; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2014-01-01

    Many interacting factors contribute to a student's choice of a university. This study takes a systems perspective of the choice and develops a Bayesian Network to represent and quantify these factors and their interactions. The systems model is illustrated through a small study of traditional school leavers in Australia, and highlights…

  2. Discovery of predictive models in an injury surveillance database: an application of data mining in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J H; Durbin, D R; Winston, F K

    2000-01-01

    A new, evolutionary computation-based approach to discovering prediction models in surveillance data was developed and evaluated. This approach was operationalized in EpiCS, a type of learning classifier system specially adapted to model clinical data. In applying EpiCS to a large, prospective injury surveillance database, EpiCS was found to create accurate predictive models quickly that were highly robust, being able to classify > 99% of cases early during training. After training, EpiCS classified novel data more accurately (p < 0.001) than either logistic regression or decision tree induction (C4.5), two traditional methods for discovering or building predictive models. PMID:11079905

  3. Traditional medicine applied by the Saraguro yachakkuna: a preliminary approach to the use of sacred and psychoactive plant species in the southern region of Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During the colonial period, the indigenous saraguros maintained their traditions, knowledge, and practices to restore and preserve the health of their members. Unfortunately, many of their practices and medicinal resources have not been documented. In this study, we sought to document the traditional healers’ (yachakkuna saraguros) knowledge about medicinal and psychoactive plants used in the mesas and in magical-religious rituals. The study was conducted under a technical and scientific cooperation agreement between the Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (UTPL), the Dirección Provincial de Salud de Loja (DPSL), and the Saraguro Healers Council (Consejo de Sanadores de Saraguro). Methods For the present study, the DPSL and Saraguro Healers Council selected the 10 yachakkuna most recognized for their knowledge and their use of sacred and psychoactive species. Ten interviews with the selected yachakkuna were conducted between 2010 and 2011 to ascertain how the Saraguro traditional healing system is structured and to obtain a record of the sacred and medicinal plant species used to treat supernatural diseases and for psychoactive purposes. Results The present study describes the traditional health system in the Saraguro indigenous community located in southern Ecuador. It also describes the main empirical methods used to diagnose diseases: direct physical examination of the patient, observation of the patient’s urine, documentation of the patient’s pulse, limpia, palpation and visionary methods, including supernatural diseases (susto, vaho de agua, mal aire, mal hecho, shuka) and reports of the use of sacred and medicinal psychoactive plants, such as the San Pedro cactus (Echinopsis pachanoi), wandug (Brugmansia spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana spp.). This study also describes the rituals (limpia, soplada) employed by the Saraguro yachakkuna to treat supernatural diseases. Finally, we report on the main plants used during limpia in the Saraguro

  4. Digital Dashboard Design Using Multiple Data Streams for Disease Surveillance With Influenza Surveillance as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Calvin KY; Ip, Dennis KM; Cowling, Benjamin J; Ho, Lai Ming; Leung, Gabriel M

    2011-01-01

    Background Great strides have been made exploring and exploiting new and different sources of disease surveillance data and developing robust statistical methods for analyzing the collected data. However, there has been less research in the area of dissemination. Proper dissemination of surveillance data can facilitate the end user's taking of appropriate actions, thus maximizing the utility of effort taken from upstream of the surveillance-to-action loop. Objective The aims of the study were to develop a generic framework for a digital dashboard incorporating features of efficient dashboard design and to demonstrate this framework by specific application to influenza surveillance in Hong Kong. Methods Based on the merits of the national websites and principles of efficient dashboard design, we designed an automated influenza surveillance digital dashboard as a demonstration of efficient dissemination of surveillance data. We developed the system to synthesize and display multiple sources of influenza surveillance data streams in the dashboard. Different algorithms can be implemented in the dashboard for incorporating all surveillance data streams to describe the overall influenza activity. Results We designed and implemented an influenza surveillance dashboard that utilized self-explanatory figures to display multiple surveillance data streams in panels. Indicators for individual data streams as well as for overall influenza activity were summarized in the main page, which can be read at a glance. Data retrieval function was also incorporated to allow data sharing in standard format. Conclusions The influenza surveillance dashboard serves as a template to illustrate the efficient synthesization and dissemination of multiple-source surveillance data, which may also be applied to other diseases. Surveillance data from multiple sources can be disseminated efficiently using a dashboard design that facilitates the translation of surveillance information to public

  5. General Medical Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is presented. The purpose of the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the program are discussed.

  6. Intelligent route surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemaker, Robin; Sandbrink, Rody; van Voorthuijsen, Graeme

    2009-05-01

    Intelligence on abnormal and suspicious behaviour along roads in operational domains is extremely valuable for countering the IED (Improvised Explosive Device) threat. Local sensor networks at strategic spots can gather data for continuous monitoring of daily vehicle activity. Unattended intelligent ground sensor networks use simple sensing nodes, e.g. seismic, magnetic, radar, or acoustic, or combinations of these in one housing. The nodes deliver rudimentary data at any time to be processed with software that filters out the required information. At TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) research has started on how to equip a sensor network with data analysis software to determine whether behaviour is suspicious or not. Furthermore, the nodes should be expendable, if necessary, and be small in size such that they are hard to detect by adversaries. The network should be self-configuring and self-sustaining and should be reliable, efficient, and effective during operational tasks - especially route surveillance - as well as robust in time and space. If data from these networks are combined with data from other remote sensing devices (e.g. UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles)/aerostats), an even more accurate assessment of the tactical situation is possible. This paper shall focus on the concepts of operation towards a working intelligent route surveillance (IRS) research demonstrator network for monitoring suspicious behaviour in IED sensitive domains.

  7. Computational Approaches to Influenza Surveillance: Beyond Timeliness

    PubMed Central

    Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Several digital data sources and systems have been advanced for use in augmenting traditional influenza surveillance systems. Although timeliness is one of the main advantage of these tools, there are several other recognizable uses and potential impact of these systems on the public and global public health. PMID:25766284

  8. Community -and hospital laboratory-based surveillance for respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, Philip; Whittier, Susan; Reed, Carrie; LaRussa, Philip; Larson, Elaine L; Vargas, Celibell Y; Saiman, Lisa; Stockwell, Melissa S

    2016-09-01

    Traditional surveillance for respiratory viruses relies on symptom detection and laboratory detection during medically attended encounters for acute respiratory infection/influenza-like illness (ARI/ILI). Ecological momentary reporting using text messages is a novel method for surveillance. This study compares respiratory viral activity detected through longitudinal community-based surveillance using text message responses for sample acquisition and testing to respiratory viral activity obtained from hospital laboratory data from the same community. We demonstrate a significant correlation between community- and hospital laboratory-based surveillance for most respiratory viruses, although the relative proportions of viruses detected in the community and hospital differed significantly. PMID:26987664

  9. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Loo, Virginia; Saidel, Tobi; Reddy, Amala; Htin, Khin Cho Win; Shwe, Ye Yu; Verbruggen, Bob

    2012-07-01

    In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings. PMID:23908915

  10. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Virginia; Reddy, Amala; Htin, Khin Cho Win; Shwe, Ye Yu; Verbruggen, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings. PMID:23908915

  11. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  12. Bridging the gap between traditional cell cultures and bioreactors applied in regenerative medicine: practical experiences with the MINUSHEET perfusion culture system.

    PubMed

    Minuth, Will W; Denk, Lucia

    2016-03-01

    To meet specific requirements of developing tissues urgently needed in tissue engineering, biomaterial research and drug toxicity testing, a versatile perfusion culture system was developed. First an individual biomaterial is selected and then mounted in a MINUSHEET(®) tissue carrier. After sterilization the assembly is transferred by fine forceps to a 24 well culture plate for seeding cells or mounting tissue on it. To support spatial (3D) development a carrier can be placed in various types of perfusion culture containers. In the basic version a constant flow of culture medium provides contained tissue with always fresh nutrition and respiratory gas. For example, epithelia can be transferred to a gradient container, where they are exposed to different fluids at the luminal and basal side. To observe development of tissue under the microscope, in a different type of container a transparent lid and base are integrated. Finally, stem/progenitor cells are incubated in a container filled by an artificial interstitium to support spatial development. In the past years the described system was applied in numerous own and external investigations. To present an actual overview of resulting experimental data, the present paper was written. PMID:25894791

  13. Using Poison Center Data for Postdisaster Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H.; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25205009

  14. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  15. New digital technologies for the surveillance of infectious diseases at mass gathering events.

    PubMed

    Nsoesie, E O; Kluberg, S A; Mekaru, S R; Majumder, M S; Khan, K; Hay, S I; Brownstein, J S

    2015-02-01

    Outbreaks of infectious diseases at mass gatherings can strain the health system of the host region and pose a threat to local and global health. In addition to strengthening existing surveillance systems, most host nations also use novel technologies to assess disease risk and augment traditional surveillance approaches. We review novel approaches to disease surveillance using the Internet, mobile phone applications, and wireless sensor networks. These novel approaches to disease surveillance can result in prompt detection. PMID:25636385

  16. New Digital Technologies for the Surveillance of Infectious Diseases at Mass Gathering Events

    PubMed Central

    Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Kluberg, Sheryl A.; Mekaru, Sumiko R.; Majumder, Maimuna S.; Khan, Kamran; Hay, Simon I.; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of infectious diseases at mass gatherings can strain the health system of the host region and pose a threat to local and global health. In addition to strengthening existing surveillance systems, most host nations also utilize novel technologies to assess disease risk and augment traditional surveillance approaches. We review novel approaches to disease surveillance utilizing the Internet, mobile phone applications, and wireless sensor networks. These novel approaches to disease surveillance can result in prompt detection. PMID:25636385

  17. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  18. Multisensor/multimission surveillance aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobe, John T.

    1994-10-01

    The realignment of international powers, and the formation of new nations has resulted in increasing worldwide concern over border security, an expanding refugee problem, protection of fishery and mineral areas, and smuggling of all types. The focus on military services, to protect or defend against these threats of vital, national interest, is shifting to other government agencies and even commercial contractors to apply innovative and cost effective solutions. Previously, airborne surveillance and reconnaissance platforms have been large, mission dedicated military aircraft. The time has arrived for a smaller, more efficient, and more effective airborne capability. This paper briefly outlines a system of systems approach that smaller nations can afford to incorporate in their budgets, while greatly expanding their surveillance capability. The characteristics of specific cameras and sensors are purposely not addressed, so the emphasis can be placed on the integration of multiple sensors and capabilities.

  19. Mercury Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on mercury exposure is presented including forms, sources, permissible exposure limits, and physiological effects. The purpose of the Mercury Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Mercury Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  20. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  1. Arsenic surveillance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background information about arsenic is presented including forms, common sources, and clinical symptoms of arsenic exposure. The purpose of the Arsenic Surveillance Program and LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Arsenic Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  2. Asbestos Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on asbestos is presented including the different types and the important medical distinctions between those different types. The four diseases associated with asbestos exposure are discussed: mesothelioma, lung cancer, asbestosis, and benign pleural disorders. The purpose of the LeRC Asbestos Surveillance Program is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Asbestos Monitoring at LeRC are discussed.

  3. Lead Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on lead exposure is presented including forms of lead, sources, hematologic effects, neurologic effects, endocrine effects, renal effects, and reproductive and developmental effects. The purpose of the Lead Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Lead Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  4. Unattended optical surveillance equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangan, D. L.; Johnson, C. S.; Schneider, S. L.

    In many security situations, it is necessary to utilize unattended optical surveillance systems. Sandia National Laboratories has developed three optical surveillance systems which operate in the unattended surveillance mode. The first of these systems is known as the Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS). The MIVS is a microprocessor controlled video system which records scenes at selectable intervals. Each scene consists of six to ten frames recorded on a 8 mm videotape. A MIVS video recorder has the capacity to record approximately 26,000 scenes. Scenes can be recorded at intervals ranging from 1 to 99 minutes between recordings. The unit has been designed for permanent installation with facility power. The camera can be located up to 30 m from the recording module with the authentication technology protecting the cable connecting the camera to the recording unit. The Portable Surveillance unit (PSU) is a second system which has been designed for unattended operation. The PSU is designed for situations where quick set up of an optical surveillance device is required. The PSU operates in a manner similar to the MIVS and can be operated off of facility power for long time periods, or from an internal battery pack for short term surveillance applications. The Video Surveillance Unit (VSU) provides similar capabilities for permanent rack mounted installations. This paper describes the MIVS, the PSU, and the VSU, and discusses potential applications for the system. Equipment for reviewing the videotapes produced by the systems is also described.

  5. Colorectal cancer surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease: A critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Desai, Devendra; Desai, Nutan

    2014-11-16

    Colonoscopic surveillance is advocated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) for detection of dysplasia. There are many issues regarding surveillance in IBD: the risk of colorectal cancer seems to be decreasing in the majority of recently published studies, necessitating revisions of surveillance strategy; surveillance guidelines are not based on concrete evidence; commencement and frequency of surveillance, cost-effectiveness and adherence to surveillance have been issues that are only partly answered. The traditional technique of random biopsy is neither evidence-based nor easy to practice. Therefore, highlighting abnormal areas with newer technology and biopsy from these areas are the way forward. Of the newer technology, digital mucosal enhancement, such as high-definition white light endoscopy and chromoendoscopy (with magnification) have been incorporated in guidelines. Dyeless chromoendoscopy (narrow band imaging) has not yet shown potential, whereas some forms of digital chromoendoscopy (i-Scan more than Fujinon intelligent color enhancement) have shown promise for colonoscopic surveillance in IBD. Other techniques such as autofluorescence imaging, endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy need further evidence. Surveillance with genetic markers (tissue, serum or stool) is at an early stage. This article discusses changing epidemiology of colorectal cancer development in IBD and critically evaluates issues regarding colonoscopic surveillance in IBD. PMID:25400868

  6. Circuits of Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Robin; Johnson, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the increasing police use of DNA profiling and databasing as a developing instrumentality of modern state surveillance. It briefly notes previously published work on a variety of surveillance technologies and their role in the governance of social action and social order. It then argues that there are important differences amongst the ways in which several such technologies construct and use identificatory artefacts, their orientations to human subjectivity, and their role in the governmentality of citizens and others. The paper then describes the novel and powerful form of bio-surveillance offered by DNA profiling and illustrates this by reference to an ongoing empirical study of the police uses of the UK National DNA Database for the investigation of crime. It is argued that DNA profiling and databasing enable the construction of a ‘closed circuit’ of surveillance of a defined population. PMID:16467920

  7. DIALYSIS SURVEILLANCE NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    A voluntary national surveillance system monitoring bloodstream and vascular infections. This is a yearly survey, done in collaboration with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) that collects data on infection control practices, and the frequency of certain dialys...

  8. IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE SURVEILLANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health surveillance has played a key role in controlling the spread of communicable disease and identifying the need for specific publich health practices, such as the filteration and chlorination of drinking water supplies. However, the characteristics of waterborne ou...

  9. Cyber surveillance for flood disasters.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective. PMID:25621609

  10. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective. PMID:25621609

  11. Surveillance and Conformity in Competitive Youth Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Underpinned by a Foucauldian analysis of sporting practices, this paper identifies the disciplinary mechanism of surveillance at work in competitive youth swimming. It highlights the ways in which swimmers and their coaches are subject to and apply this mechanism to produce embodied conformity to normative behaviour and obedient, docile bodies.…

  12. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. PMID:24290841

  13. Assessment of the utility of routinely collected cattle census and disposal data for syndromic surveillance.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Jean-Baptiste; Ducrot, Christian; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Morignat, Eric; Calavas, Didier; Hendrikx, Pascal

    2012-07-01

    Census and disposal data provide a multipurpose source of information on cattle mortality. The retrospective analyses we conducted on the data gathered in the National Cattle Register produced relevant information for describing and modelling the cattle mortality baseline and evaluating the impact of the 2007-2008 Blue Tongue epidemic on the French cattle population. This work was conducted retrospectively but showed that monitoring cattle mortality near real time could help detecting unexpected events. We are thus currently working on a timely and automated system to monitor cadaver disposal requests received by rendering plants, thanks to a data interchange system recently implemented between the Ministry of Agriculture and the fallen stock companies. Besides technical and methodological challenges, using these data for surveillance purposes raises epidemiological questions that still need to be answered. The question remains notably as to whether an abnormal increased mortality is a sensitive and timely signal for detecting unexpected health events. It appears also very challenging to identify the most adequate surveillance scale (time, space and population) and the most adequate anomaly detection algorithms to apply when the characteristics of the signals to be detected (shape, amplitude, etc.) are not known a priori. In Human health, similar systems have not yet proven their ability to detect unexpected events earlier than classical surveillance systems currently in place, but they have already demonstrated their value for real time assessment of identified and potentially dangerous events. Combined with traditional surveillance systems, we think that monitoring routinely collected data could improve the surveillance of the animal population health. Even if not used for detection purposes, cattle mortality monitoring could be used to rapidly produce information on the impact and evolution of identified events, what would facilitate decision-making regarding

  14. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  15. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Michael S.; Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A.

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  16. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance involves the collection and analysis of data for the detection and monitoring of threats to public health. Surveillance should also inform as to the epidemiology of the threat and its burden in the population. A further key component of surveillance is the timely feedback of data to stakeholders with a view to generating action aimed at reducing or preventing the public health threat being monitored. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation. Correlation of these data with demographic and clinical data for the patient populations from whom the pathogens were isolated gives insight into the underlying epidemiology and facilitates the formulation of rational interventions aimed at reducing the burden of resistance. This article describes a range of surveillance activities that have been undertaken in the UK over a number of years, together with current interventions being implemented. These activities are not only of national importance but form part of the international response to the global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. PMID:25918439

  17. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2004-10-12

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  18. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2006-02-14

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  19. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2003-04-22

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  20. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a SPRT sequential probability ratio test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  1. Smart video surveillance system preserving privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufaux, Frederic; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, we present a smart video surveillance system based on standard technologies and wired or wireless IP networking. The key novelty of the system is that it protects the privacy of people under surveillance. More specifically, a video analysis module detects regions of interest in the scene by change detection or face detection techniques. It is assumed that these regions contain private and sensitive information. Scrambling is then applied only to the corresponding regions. Furthermore, the amount of distortion can be controlled by restricting scrambling to some resolution levels. As a result, the scene remains visible, but privacy-sensitive information is unidentifiable. The scrambling is controlled by a private encryption key which is kept under control of legal authorities. The latter are therefore the only ones who can grant authorization to unlock the protection and view the whole scene. Therefore, this system successfully addresses the loss of privacy issue associated with video surveillance.

  2. Can Novel Flu Surveillance Be Conducted With Limited Resources?

    PubMed Central

    Siniscalchi, Alan; Schulte, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Objective This project was organized to facilitate discussions on whether successful novel flu surveillance can be conducted by jurisdictions with limited resources. The discussions will focus on gathering opinions regarding the best combination of surveillance systems to quickly and efficiently identify the presence of influenza A (H3N2)v and other novel influenza viruses in circulation. Introduction The past decade has witnessed rapid development and implementation of numerous syndromic and other advanced surveillance systems to supplement traditional laboratory testing to identify the presence of novel influenza strains and track the impact on local populations. While much of the development and widespread implementation of these systems had been supported by public health preparedness funding, the loss of these monies has greatly constrained the ability of public health agencies to staff and maintain these systems. The periodic appearance of novel flu viruses, such as H3N2v, requires agencies to carefully choose which systems will provide the most cost-effective data to support their public health practice. Methods This project will be facilitated by an experienced public health practitioner who has conducted surveillance for a variety of disease agents. Additional public health practitioners are being recruited among members of the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS) Public Health Practice Committee (PHPC) to contribute information on comparative approaches to cost effective surveillance. Questions were selected for discussion and responses will be collected from influenza surveillance coordinators using a web-based survey tool managed by ISDS staff on behalf of the PHPC. Survey responses and subsequent recommendations will be presented at a PHPC meeting. Results Initial questions selected for the survey tool and subsequent discussions include: What surveillance systems does your agency use for conducting influenza surveillance? Which

  3. [Worker's Health Surveillance

    PubMed

    Machado

    1997-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities. PMID:10886936

  4. Global health surveillance.

    PubMed

    St Louis, Michael

    2012-07-27

    Awareness of the importance of global health surveillance increased in the latter part of the 20th century with the global emergence of human immunodeficiency virus and novel strains of influenza. In the first decade of the 21st century, several events further highlighted global shared interests in and vulnerability to infectious diseases. Bioterrorist use of anthrax spores in 2001 raised awareness of the value of public health surveillance for national security. The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, re-emergence of a panzootic of avian influenza A H5N1 in 2005, and the sudden emergence of pandemic H1N1 in North America in 2009 all highlighted the importance of shared global responsibility for surveillance and disease control. In particular, in 2003, SARS precipitated changes in awareness of the world's collective economic vulnerability to epidemic shocks. PMID:22832992

  5. Viral surveillance and discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lipkin, Walter Ian; Firth, Cadhla

    2014-01-01

    The field of virus discovery has burgeoned with the advent of high throughput sequencing platforms and bioinformatics programs that enable rapid identification and molecular characterization of known and novel agents, investments in global microbial surveillance that include wildlife and domestic animals as well as humans, and recognition that viruses may be implicated in chronic as well as acute diseases. Here we review methods for viral surveillance and discovery, strategies and pitfalls in linking discoveries to disease, and identify opportunities for improvements in sequencing instrumentation and analysis, the use of social media and medical informatics that will further advance clinical medicine and public health. PMID:23602435

  6. Approaches to the Surveillance of Foodborne Disease: A Review of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Ford, Laura; Miller, Megge; Cawthorne, Amy; Fearnley, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-12-01

    Foodborne disease surveillance aims to reduce the burden of illness due to contaminated food. There are several different types of surveillance systems, including event-based surveillance, indicator-based surveillance, and integrated food chain surveillance. These approaches are not mutually exclusive, have overlapping data sources, require distinct capacities and resources, and can be considered a hierarchy, with each level being more complex and resulting in a greater ability to detect and control foodborne disease. Event-based surveillance is generally the least resource-intensive system and makes use of informal data sources. Indicator-based surveillance is seen as traditional notifiable disease surveillance and consists of routinely collected data. Integrated food chain surveillance is viewed as the optimal practice for conducting continuous risk analysis for foodborne diseases, but also requires significant ongoing resources and greater multisectoral collaboration compared to the other systems. Each country must determine the most appropriate structure for their surveillance system for foodborne diseases based on their available resources. This review explores the evidence on the principles, minimum capabilities, and minimum requirements of each type of surveillance and discusses examples from a range of countries. This review forms the evidence base for the Strengthening the Surveillance and Response for Foodborne Diseases: A Practical Manual. PMID:26554434

  7. GONOCOCCAL SURVEILLANCE ISOLATE PROJECT (GSIP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) is a collaborative project to monitor antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States. The database is a sentinel surveillance system of 26 clinics for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and 5 regional la...

  8. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir New ... Minority Data Released! The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors ...

  9. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  10. TUBERCULOSIS SURVEILLANCE REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The TB Surveillance Reports contain tabular and graphic information about reported TB cases collected from 59 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, New York City, U.S. dependencies and possessions, and independent nations in free association with the United St...

  11. Mortar launched surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Carl E.; Carlton, Lindley A.

    2001-02-01

    Accurate Automation Corporation has completed the conceptual design of a mortar launched air vehicle system to perform close range or over-the-horizon surveillance missions. Law enforcement and military units require an organic capability to obtain real time intelligence information of time critical targets. Our design will permit law enforcement to detect, classify, locate and track these time critical targets. The surveillance system is a simple, unmanned fixed-winged aircraft deployed via a conventional mortar tube. The aircraft's flight surfaces are deployed following mortar launch to permit maximum range and time over target. The aircraft and sensor system are field retrievable. The aircraft can be configured with an engine to permit extended time over target or range. The aircraft has an integrated surveillance sensor system; a programmable CMOS sensor array. The integrated RF transmitted to capable of down- linking real-time video over line-of-sight distances exceeding 10 kilometers. The major benefit of the modular design is the ability to provide surveillance or tracking quickly at a low cost. Vehicle operational radius and sensor field coverage as well as design trade results of vehicle range and endurance performance and payload capacity at operational range are presented for various mortar configurations.

  12. A Population Health Surveillance Theory

    PubMed Central

    Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Michel, Pascal; Ravel, André

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Despite its extensive use, the term "Surveillance" often takes on various meanings in the scientific literature pertinent to public health and animal health. A critical appraisal of this literature also reveals ambiguities relating to the scope and necessary structural components underpinning the surveillance process. The authors hypothesized that these inconsistencies translate to real or perceived deficiencies in the conceptual framework of population health surveillance. This paper presents a population health surveillance theory framed upon an explicit conceptual system relative to health surveillance performed in human and animal populations. METHODS The population health surveillance theory reflects the authors' system of thinking and was based on a creative process. RESULTS Population health surveillance includes two broad components: one relating to the human organization (which includes expertise and the administrative program), and one relating to the system per se (which includes elements of design and method) and which can be viewed as a process. The population health surveillance process is made of five sequential interrelated steps: 1) a trigger or need, 2) problem formulation, 3) surveillance planning, 4) surveillance implementation, and 5) information communication and audit. CONCLUSIONS The population health surveillance theory provides a systematic way of understanding, organizing and evaluating the population health surveillance process. PMID:23251837

  13. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  14. Parallax-Robust Surveillance Video Stitching.

    PubMed

    He, Botao; Yu, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a parallax-robust video stitching technique for timely synchronized surveillance video. An efficient two-stage video stitching procedure is proposed in this paper to build wide Field-of-View (FOV) videos for surveillance applications. In the stitching model calculation stage, we develop a layered warping algorithm to align the background scenes, which is location-dependent and turned out to be more robust to parallax than the traditional global projective warping methods. On the selective seam updating stage, we propose a change-detection based optimal seam selection approach to avert ghosting and artifacts caused by moving foregrounds. Experimental results demonstrate that our procedure can efficiently stitch multi-view videos into a wide FOV video output without ghosting and noticeable seams. PMID:26712756

  15. Parallax-Robust Surveillance Video Stitching

    PubMed Central

    He, Botao; Yu, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a parallax-robust video stitching technique for timely synchronized surveillance video. An efficient two-stage video stitching procedure is proposed in this paper to build wide Field-of-View (FOV) videos for surveillance applications. In the stitching model calculation stage, we develop a layered warping algorithm to align the background scenes, which is location-dependent and turned out to be more robust to parallax than the traditional global projective warping methods. On the selective seam updating stage, we propose a change-detection based optimal seam selection approach to avert ghosting and artifacts caused by moving foregrounds. Experimental results demonstrate that our procedure can efficiently stitch multi-view videos into a wide FOV video output without ghosting and noticeable seams. PMID:26712756

  16. Hui and Walter’s latent-class model extended to estimate diagnostic test properties from surveillance data: a latent model for latent data

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Mairead L.; Handel, Ian G.; Glass, Elizabeth J.; Woolliams, John A.; Bronsvoort, B. Mark de Clare; McBride, Stewart H.; Skuce, Robin A.; Allen, Adrian R.; McDowell, Stanley W. J.; Bishop, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity are probabilistic estimates with far reaching implications for disease control, management and genetic studies. In the absence of ‘gold standard’ tests, traditional Bayesian latent class models may be used to assess diagnostic test accuracies through the comparison of two or more tests performed on the same groups of individuals. The aim of this study was to extend such models to estimate diagnostic test parameters and true cohort-specific prevalence, using disease surveillance data. The traditional Hui-Walter latent class methodology was extended to allow for features seen in such data, including (i) unrecorded data (i.e. data for a second test available only on a subset of the sampled population) and (ii) cohort-specific sensitivities and specificities. The model was applied with and without the modelling of conditional dependence between tests. The utility of the extended model was demonstrated through application to bovine tuberculosis surveillance data from Northern and the Republic of Ireland. Simulation coupled with re-sampling techniques, demonstrated that the extended model has good predictive power to estimate the diagnostic parameters and true herd-level prevalence from surveillance data. Our methodology can aid in the interpretation of disease surveillance data, and the results can potentially refine disease control strategies. PMID:26148538

  17. Surface-water surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  18. Postmarket surveillance. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2002-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is implementing the postmarket surveillance (PS) provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), as amended by the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA). The purpose of this rule is to provide for the collection of useful data about devices that can reveal unforeseen adverse events or other information necessary to protect the public health. PMID:12053947

  19. Small animal disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Jones, Philip H; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Radford, Alan D; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Noble, Peter J M; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J; McConnell, Katie

    2015-12-12

    This is the first UK small animal disease surveillance report from SAVSNET. Future reports will expand to other syndromes and diseases. As data are collected for longer, the estimates of changes in disease burden will become more refined, allowing more targeted local and perhaps national interventions. Anonymised data can be accessed for research purposes by contacting the authors. SAVSNET welcomes feedback on this report. PMID:26667432

  20. Comparing Methods for UAV-Based Autonomous Surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Harris, Robert; Shafto, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We describe an approach to evaluating algorithmic and human performance in directing UAV-based surveillance. Its key elements are a decision-theoretic framework for measuring the utility of a surveillance schedule and an evaluation testbed consisting of 243 scenarios covering a well-defined space of possible missions. We apply this approach to two example UAV-based surveillance methods, a TSP-based algorithm and a human-directed approach, then compare them to identify general strengths, and weaknesses of each method.

  1. Using Environmental DNA for Invasive Species Surveillance and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    The method employed for environmental DNA (eDNA) surveillance for detection and monitoring of rare species in aquatic systems has evolved dramatically since its first large-scale applications. Both active (targeted) and passive (total diversity) surveillance methods provide helpful information for management groups, but each has a suite of techniques that necessitate proper equipment training and use. The protocols described in this chapter represent some of the latest iterations in eDNA surveillance being applied in aquatic and marine systems. PMID:27460374

  2. Developmental Surveillance and Screening in the Electronic Health Record.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy Ryan

    2016-10-01

    Effective well-child care includes developmental surveillance and screening to identify developmental delays and subsequent interventions. Electronic health records (EHRs) have been widely adopted to improve efficiency and appropriate clinical practice. Developmental surveillance tools have been introduced. This article summarizes a conceptual framework for application and highlights the principles and tools of EHRs applied to developmental assessment, including interoperability, health information exchange, clinical decision support systems, consumer health informatics, dashboards, and patient portals. Further investigation and dedicated resources will be required for successful application to developmental surveillance and screening. PMID:27565369

  3. Supportive housing and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jade; Cunningham, David; Anderson, Solanna; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Urban centres in the US, Britain and Canada have responded to identified visible 'social problems' such addiction, mental health and homelessness by providing some supportive housing for the urban poor and marginalized. While some critics have questioned what supportive housing specifically entails in terms of the built environment, what remains under explored, though a growing area of concern, is the relationship between surveillance and supportive housing for urban residents identified as having addiction and mental health problems - a gap addressed in this paper. Drawing upon qualitative ethnographic observational data we examine some of the measures of control and coercion that are encroaching into social housing primarily established for poor and marginalized people with addiction and mental health problems in the urban centre of Vancouver, Canada. We witnessed three modes of regulation and control, that vary widely, among the residencies observed: physical surveillance technologies; site-specific modes of coercion; police presence and staff surveillance, which all together impact the everyday lives of residents living in low-income and supportive housing. We argue that supportive housing has the potential to provide its intended commitment - safe and secure affordable housing. However, owing to an (over)emphasis on 'security', the supportive housing we observed were also sites of social control. PMID:27453148

  4. Surveillance of instruments by noise analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thie, J.A.

    1981-11-01

    Random fluctuations of neutron flux, temperature, and pressure in a reactor provide multifrequency excitation of the corresponding instrumentation chains. Mathematical descriptors suitable for characterizing the output, or noise, of the instrumentation are reviewed with a view toward using such noise in detecting instrument faults. Demonstrations of the feasibility of this approach in a number of reactors provide illustrative examples. Comparisons with traditional surveillance testing are made, and a number of advantages and some disadvantages of using noise analysis as a supplementary technique are pointed out.

  5. Building capacity for birth defects surveillance in Africa: Implementation of an intermediate birth defects surveillance workshop

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Alina; Valencia, Diana; Sekkarie, Ahlia; Hillard, Christina L.; Williams, Jennifer; Groisman, Boris; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Bauwens, Lieven; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2016-01-01

    Each year around the world, it is estimated that 300,000 neonates are born with a neural tube defect. Many countries, however, are still lacking comprehensive birth defects surveillance registries. Comprehensive birth defects surveillance systems can help countries understand the magnitude and distribution of the problem. These systems can also provide information about biological, contextual, social and environmental determinants of birth defects. This information in turn can be used to identify effective and implementable solutions, and to evaluate prevention and management strategies to improve quality performance. This paper summarizes the development and implementation of an online pre-course training and in-person surveillance workshop conducted between 2014 December and 2015 March for representatives from six African countries. Feedback given by participants provided valuable lessons learned that can be applied to subsequent trainings and workshops. PMID:26753106

  6. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized. PMID:26621054

  7. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  8. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  9. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  10. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  11. Systems for persistent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2011-09-01

    The requirements for a persistent wide-area surveillance system are discussed in the context of evolving military operations. Significant emphasis has been placed on the development of new sensing technologies to meet the challenges posed by asymmetric threats. Within the UK, the Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC) has supported the research and development of new capabilities including radio-frequency (RF) and electro-optic (EO) systems, as well as work on sensor exploitation, with a goal of developing solutions for enhancing situational awareness. This activity has been supported by field trials to determine the efficacy of competing technologies in relation to realistic threat scenarios.

  12. Capture-recapture approaches and the surveillance of livestock diseases: A review.

    PubMed

    Vergne, Timothée; Del Rio Vilas, Victor J; Cameron, Angus; Dufour, Barbara; Grosbois, Vladimir

    2015-07-01

    In disease surveillance, capture-recapture approaches have been used to estimate the frequency of endemic diseases monitored by imperfect surveillance systems. A standard output of these techniques is an estimate of the sensitivity of the surveillance. In addition, capture-recapture applications contribute to a better understanding of the disease detection processes and of the relationships between different surveillance data sources, and help identify variables associated with the under-detection of diseases. Although capture-recapture approaches have long been used in public health, their application to livestock disease surveillance is only recent. In this paper, we review the different capture-recapture approaches applied in livestock disease surveillance, and discuss their benefits and limitations in the light of the characteristics of the surveillance and control practices used in animal health. PMID:25962955

  13. Public health for the people: participatory infectious disease surveillance in the digital age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The 21st century has seen the rise of Internet-based participatory surveillance systems for infectious diseases. These systems capture voluntarily submitted symptom data from the general public and can aggregate and communicate that data in near real-time. We reviewed participatory surveillance systems currently running in 13 different countries. These systems have a growing evidence base showing a high degree of accuracy and increased sensitivity and timeliness relative to traditional healthcare-based systems. They have also proven useful for assessing risk factors, vaccine effectiveness, and patterns of healthcare utilization while being less expensive, more flexible, and more scalable than traditional systems. Nonetheless, they present important challenges including biases associated with the population that chooses to participate, difficulty in adjusting for confounders, and limited specificity because of reliance only on syndromic definitions of disease limits. Overall, participatory disease surveillance data provides unique disease information that is not available through traditional surveillance sources. PMID:24991229

  14. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  15. Reaction kinetic analysis of reactor surveillance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiie, T.; Sato, K.; Xu, Q.; Nagai, Y.

    2015-06-01

    In reactor pressure vessel surveillance data, it was found that the concentration of matrix defects was very low even after nearly 40 years of operation, though a large number of precipitates existed. In this paper, defect structures obtained from surveillance data of A533B (high Cu concentration) were simulated using reaction kinetic analysis with 11 rate equations. The coefficients used in the equations were quite different from those obtained by fitting a Fe-0.6 wt%Cu alloy irradiated by the Kyoto University Reactor. The difference was mainly caused by alloying elements in A533B, and the effect of alloying elements was extracted. The same code was applied to low-Cu A533B irradiated with high irradiation damage rate, and the formation of voids was correctly simulated.

  16. Privacy enabling technology for video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufaux, Frédéric; Ouaret, Mourad; Abdeljaoued, Yousri; Navarro, Alfonso; Vergnenègre, Fabrice; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we address the problem privacy in video surveillance. We propose an efficient solution based on transformdomain scrambling of regions of interest in a video sequence. More specifically, the sign of selected transform coefficients is flipped during encoding. We address more specifically the case of Motion JPEG 2000. Simulation results show that the technique can be successfully applied to conceal information in regions of interest in the scene while providing with a good level of security. Furthermore, the scrambling is flexible and allows adjusting the amount of distortion introduced. This is achieved with a small impact on coding performance and negligible computational complexity increase. In the proposed video surveillance system, heterogeneous clients can remotely access the system through the Internet or 2G/3G mobile phone network. Thanks to the inherently scalable Motion JPEG 2000 codestream, the server is able to adapt the resolution and bandwidth of the delivered video depending on the usage environment of the client.

  17. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Gonorrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... and 44.1% among women. Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project Antimicrobial resistance remains an important consideration in the ... 4–9 In 1986, the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP), a national sentinel surveillance system, was established ...

  18. DEFENSE MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE MONTHLY REPORT (MSMR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) is the Army Medical Surveillance Activity's (AMSA) principal vehicle for disseminating medical surveillance information of broad interest. It routinely publishes summaries of notifiable diseases, trends of illnesses of special survei...

  19. NATIONAL ELECTRONIC DISEASE SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NEDSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) project is a public health initiative to provide a standard-based, integrated approach to disease surveillance and to connect public health surveillance to the burgeoning clinical information systems infrastructure. NEDS...

  20. Equine Disease Surveillance: Quarterly Summary.

    PubMed

    2016-01-23

    West Nile virus in Europe and the USA. Evidence that the spread of vesicular stomatitis in the USA is beginning to slow. Summary of UK surveillance testing, July to September 2015 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:26795859

  1. PEDIATRIC NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PEDNSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is a program-based surveillance system designed to monitor the growth, anemia, and breast-feeding status of low-income U.S. children who participate in federally funded maternal and child health nutritional programs. The system...

  2. BORDER INFECTIOUS DISEASES SURVEILLANCE PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. ...

  3. PREGNANCY NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PNSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System (PNSS) is a program based surveillance system developed in order to assist health professionals in achieving of the goals of identifying and reducing pregnancy-related health risks that contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Its purp...

  4. Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.

    PubMed

    2016-07-30

    National and international disease outbreaksAfrican horse sickness in South AfricaRising EHV-1 abortion cases in the UKSummary of surveillance testing, January to March 2016 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:27474057

  5. [Entomological surveillance in Mauritius].

    PubMed

    Gopaul, R

    1995-01-01

    The entomological surveillance is an essential link in the fight against malaria in Mauritius. Because of the large number of malaria-infected travellers in Mauritius and the presence of the vector Anopheles arabiensis, the risk of local transmission is very real. The medical entomology division together with the malaria control unit and the health appointees exert a rigorous entomological surveillance of malaria. Field agents make entomological investigations of pilot villages and around the harbor and airport, where there have been cases of malaria, in addition to a few randomly chosen regions. All of the inhabited regions are accessible because of a good highway infrastructure, which enables a complete coverage for the entomological prospectives. Entomological controls are also conducted in the airplanes and the ships. All of the captured mosquitos and the harvested larva are transferred to a laboratory for identification, dissection or sensibility tests, etc. The larva of A. arabiensis have not yet developed resistance to Temephos and the adults are still sensitive to DDT. Thus, the larval habitats are treated with Temephos and DDT is sprayed in the residences where there have been native cases of malaria. The entomology division studies the ecology and the evolution of the larval habitats, as well as the impact of the anti-larval fight on the anophelene density. In addition to the chemical fight, a biological control is being tried with larva-eating fish such as Lebistes and Tilapia. In general, the anophelene density in Mauritius is low, but after the big summer rains, especially during a period of cyclones, there is a considerable increase of larval habitats and consequently a higher number of A. arabiensis. Therefore during this season, it is necessary to make an even more rigorous entomological surveillance. A. arabiensis has a strong exophile tendency even if it is endophage and exophage. This mosquito is zoophile, mostly towards cattle, and the

  6. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  7. Secure surveillance videotapes

    SciTech Connect

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P.; Olsen, R.; Chitumbo, K.; Pepper, S.

    1995-12-31

    With assistance from the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), Aquila Technologies Group developed the Tamper-Resistant Analog Media (TRAM-1000) system to provide standard VHS surveillance video tapes with an enhanced tamper-indicating capability. This project represents further implementation of the partnership approach in facilities including light water reactors with MOX facilities. These facilities use Uniplex Digiquad system video tapes. The partnership approach ensures that one organization can exchange the tapes in a machine without the presence of the other, without losing continuity of information. The TRAM-1000 system development project was accomplished in two stages. In the first stage of the project, the original system delivered to the IAEA, consists of three parts: (1) the tamper detection unit, (2) a specially augmented VHS video tape, and (3) an HP-95 reader. The tamper detection unit houses a VACOSS active fiber-optic seal and an electronic identification tag (E-TAG) reader. In the second stage of the project, the original TRAM-1000 was modified to its current design based on agency input. After delivery of the original TRAM-1000 system to the IAEA, it was reviewed by inspectors. The inspectors felt that the initial system`s tape storage/transport method could be simplified. Rather than threading the fiber through the tape spindles, the inspectors suggested that the tape be placed in a bag capable of being sealed. Also, a more flexible fiber-optic cable was recommended. As a result of these suggestions, Aquila developed a tamper-proof bag specifically for holding a surveillance video tape and sealable with a VACOSS fiber optical seal.

  8. Drug approval and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance. PMID:6110574

  9. Inferring Epidemic Network Topology from Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiang; Liu, Jiming; Cheung, William K.; Tong, Tiejun

    2014-01-01

    The transmission of infectious diseases can be affected by many or even hidden factors, making it difficult to accurately predict when and where outbreaks may emerge. One approach at the moment is to develop and deploy surveillance systems in an effort to detect outbreaks as timely as possible. This enables policy makers to modify and implement strategies for the control of the transmission. The accumulated surveillance data including temporal, spatial, clinical, and demographic information, can provide valuable information with which to infer the underlying epidemic networks. Such networks can be quite informative and insightful as they characterize how infectious diseases transmit from one location to another. The aim of this work is to develop a computational model that allows inferences to be made regarding epidemic network topology in heterogeneous populations. We apply our model on the surveillance data from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong. The inferred epidemic network displays significant effect on the propagation of infectious diseases. PMID:24979215

  10. A composite CBRN surveillance and testing service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeyer, Debra M.

    2004-08-01

    The terrorist threat coupled with a global military mission necessitates quick and accurate identification of environmental hazards, and CBRN early warning. The Air Force Institute for Operational Health (AFIOH) provides fundamental support to protect personnel from and mitigate the effects of untoward hazards exposures. Sustaining healthy communities since 1955, the organizational charter is to enhance warfighter mission effectiveness, protect health, improve readiness and reduce costs, assess and manage risks to human heath and safety, operational performance and the environment. The AFIOH Surveillance Directorate provides forward deployed and reach-back surveillance, agent identification, and environ-mental regulatory compliance testing. Three unique laboratories process and analyze over two million environmental samples and clinical specimens per year, providing analytical chemistry, radiological assessment, and infectious disease testing, in addition to supporting Air Force and Department of Defense (DoD) clinical reference laboratory and force health protection testing. Each laboratory has an applied or investigational testing section where new technologies and techniques are evaluated, and expert consultative support to assist in technology assessments and test analyses. The Epidemiology Surveillance Laboratory and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory are critical assets of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Laboratory Response Network. Deployable assets provide direct support to the Combatant Commander and include the Air Force Radiological Assessment Team, and the Biological Augmentation Team. A diverse directorate, the synergistic CBRN response capabilities are a commander"s force protection tool, critical to maintaining combat power.

  11. The Development of Surveillance Systems.

    PubMed

    Henderson, D A

    2016-03-01

    Surveillance systems in public health practice have increased in number and sophistication with advances in data collection, analysis, and communication. When the Communicable Disease Center (now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was founded some 70 years ago, surveillance referred to the close observation of individuals with suspected smallpox, plague, or cholera. Alexander Langmuir, head of the Epidemiology Branch, redefined surveillance as the epidemiology-based critical factor in infectious disease control. I joined Langmuir as assistant chief in 1955 and was appointed chief of the Surveillance Section in 1961. In this paper, I describe Langmuir's redefinition of surveillance. Langmuir asserted that its proper use in public health meant the systematic reporting of infectious diseases, the analysis and epidemiologic interpretation of data, and both prompt and widespread dissemination of results. I outline the Communicable Disease Center's first surveillance systems for malaria, poliomyelitis, and influenza. I also discuss the role of surveillance in the global smallpox eradication program, emphasizing that the establishment of systematic reporting systems and prompt action based on results were critical factors of the program. PMID:26928219

  12. Photometric Color Conversions for Space Surveillance Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, J.

    In order to maximize sensitivity, optical space surveillance sensors use detectors that have good sensitivity over a wide region of the spectrum. For example, the CCD detectors for the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) Project, which are nearly identical to the detectors of the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance System, have good sensitivity over the visible spectrum from 380 nanometers to beyond 1000 nanometers. However, photometric calibration of the intensities of objects (stars, satellites, asteroids, etc.) measured by these systems must be referenced to astronomical star catalogs that were measured over much narrower portions of the available spectrum. For example, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Photometric Database contains photometric measurements in five bandpasses that are each about 150 nanometers wide. This paper will present a method for converting between photometric systems with different bandpasses. The method uses the measured response functions of the detectors of interest along with a model of the spectral transmissivity of the atmosphere (Stone, 1996), and a catalog of stellar spectra (Pickles, 1998) to derive polynomial functions that allow for the conversion of brightness measurements from astronomical catalogs to the bandpass of the sensor. The method has been extensively tested using data from the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research project in comparison with catalog measurements from the USNO B1.0 astrometric catalog, and the SDSS Photometric Database. Through OPAL (Optical Processing Architecture at Lincoln), this technique is being applied to ground-based and space-based sensors including the Space-Based Visible (SBV) system, the Space-Based Space Surveillance (SBSS) system, and the Space Surveillance Telescope (SST).

  13. The Surveyor Mobile Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This paper reports that KLM Technologies, Inc. delivered the Surveyor Mobile Surveillance System to Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) in May 1986 for a long-term test and evaluation program at the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Plant. NMPC is leasing the Surveyor, and KLM personnel will be providing training and support during the test and evaluation program, which will cover various surveillance, inspection, and possible light maintenance tasks in high radiation and contamination areas of the plant. Prior to delivery to NMPC, the surveyor was demonstrated at Detroit Edison Company's Fermi II Nuclear Plant where it was judged to be rugged, compact, and easy to use for surveillance and inspection tasks.

  14. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  15. Strategy for conducting environmental surveillance of groundwater to comply with DOE orders

    SciTech Connect

    Forstrom, J.M.

    1990-12-01

    This document defines the strategy for conducting environmental surveillance of groundwater quality at Department of Energy (DOE) installations as it will be implemented by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The primary objectives of defining this generic strategy prior to developing site-specific plans are to: clearly differentiate between effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance as they apply to groundwater, describe the principles and concepts of groundwater flow that must be considered when establishing a groundwater surveillance program, and provide for a consistent approach to developing plant-specific groundwater surveillance plans. 18 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Modeling target acquisition tasks associated with security and surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmerhausen, Richard; Robinson, Aaron L.

    2007-07-01

    Military sensor applications include tasks such as the surveillance of activity and searching for roadside explosives. These tasks involve identifying and tracking specific objects in a cluttered scene. Unfortunately, the probability of accomplishing these tasks is not predicted by the traditional detect, recognize, and identify (DRI) target acquisition models. The reason why many security and surveillance tasks are functionally different from the traditional DRI tasks is described. Experiments using characters and simple shapes illustrate the problem with using the DRI model to predict the probability of identifying individual objects. The current DRI model is extended to predict specific object identification by including the frequency spectrum content of target contrast. The predictions of the new model match experimental data.

  17. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H.D.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Gribble, R.P.

    1995-10-03

    A holographic surveillance system is disclosed including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm. 21 figs.

  18. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Gribble, R. Parks

    1995-01-01

    A holographic surveillance system including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm.

  19. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; McMakin, D.L.; Gribble, R.P.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Reid, L.D.

    1996-09-17

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm. 28 figs.

  20. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. Dale; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Gribble, R. Parks; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Prince, James M.; Reid, Larry D.

    1996-01-01

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm.

  1. DEFENSE MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (DMSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    AMSA operates the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS), an executive information system whose database contains up-to-date and historical data on diseases and medical events (e.g., hospitalizations, ambulatory visits, reportable diseases, HIV tests, acute respiratory diseas...

  2. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance System presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data demonstrate details which provide information about STD morbidity in the United States, STD prevalence with subgroups and populations which are the f...

  3. Concern, but not with surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ivinson, A J

    2000-01-01

    According to Brian Ward, vaccines are probably the most efficacious and cost-effective medical interventions ever invented. He notes that surveillance of vaccine-related adverse events is important, and resources should be made available for monitoring vaccine safety at a time of increasing vaccine activity. However, in an environment of limited resources, there is a dispute over the level of resources devoted to vaccine surveillance versus vaccine deployment. In an examination of the balance of risk versus benefit, several arguments are given. Nevertheless, no tangible evidence supports the claim that the increased use of new vaccines will be more trouble than it is worth. Ward offers a more worthy argument against the use of vaccines aimed at maintaining productivity rather than securing personal health and well-being. Overall, the author upholds the importance of good vaccine surveillance but opposes the notion of shifting resources from vaccine development to vaccine surveillance. PMID:10743292

  4. Systems Approaches to Animal Disease Surveillance and Resource Allocation: Methodological Frameworks for Behavioral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Karl M.; Denwood, Matthew J.; Stott, Alistair W.; Mellor, Dominic J.; Reid, Stuart W. J.; Gunn, George J.

    2013-01-01

    While demands for animal disease surveillance systems are growing, there has been little applied research that has examined the interactions between resource allocation, cost-effectiveness, and behavioral considerations of actors throughout the livestock supply chain in a surveillance system context. These interactions are important as feedbacks between surveillance decisions and disease evolution may be modulated by their contextual drivers, influencing the cost-effectiveness of a given surveillance system. This paper identifies a number of key behavioral aspects involved in animal health surveillance systems and reviews some novel methodologies for their analysis. A generic framework for analysis is discussed, with exemplar results provided to demonstrate the utility of such an approach in guiding better disease control and surveillance decisions. PMID:24348922

  5. Hallam environmental radiation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    An environmental surveillance report is presented for decommissioned Hallam power plant. Statistical analysis shows that the spring data mean is significantly greater than the fall data mean for all water sources. The spring variation is also significantly greater than the fall variation. The water sources demonstrate homogeneity for spring and fall sub-surface sources. Surface water has significantly more radiation than sub-surface water. This may be attributed to increased tritium content in surface water due to atmospheric leaching. Finally, the surface water samples are in close proximity to Sheldon Station, a coal fired plant, and increased coal particulate matter may be increasing the environmental radioactivity. A linear regression model suggests spring readings are decreasing and fall readings significantly increasing from 1975 to 1987. The spring recharge water probably contains natural and man-made radioactivity leached from the atmosphere, as well as natural radioactivity leached from the soil and rocks. The lower mean and less variance for the fall data may better characterize the aquifer. 7 figs.

  6. Collaborative space surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang; Pham, Khanh D.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a space-based, space-surveillance study wherein the goal is to demonstrate the feasibility and scalability of the modeling and simulation of a distributed multi-agent multiple satellites tracking and prediction system. A flexible and modular system architecture that enables collaborative and efficient teaming among distributed agents is delineated. Hierarchical objective methodology is deployed to align the mission objectives with the diverse agents' capabilities and resources. A set of satellite platform and sensor configuration/models is considered. Detailed mathematical models of the satellite orbits including the mutual visibility function are simulated for combinations of GEO and LEO orbits. An Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF)/Distributed Unscented Information Filter (DUIF) for high-accuracy orbital determination and tracking is demonstrated to show that the LEO orbit estimation from the GEO satellite with only angle measurements based on UKF is an excellent approach. Simulation studies show that the rate of filter convergence depends on sample time period, initial error, process error, measurement errors as well as the relative geometry of the LEO and GEO satellite orbits.

  7. Breast cancer surveillance.

    PubMed

    Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173

  8. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  9. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  10. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    SciTech Connect

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  11. Application of feature descriptors to low-pixel-count persistent surveillance tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelberg, Jason; Miller, Christopher; Wilson, Michael

    2013-05-01

    The largest challenge with all persistent surveillance systems is they require a trade between area coverage and ground object resolution. This trade typically results in provision of imagery where objects desired to be tracked have a small total number of pixels (often less than a few hundred total). With such low pixel counts, traditional target recognition methods become difficult. For this reason, most persistent surveillance tracking systems are based on detection and tracking of image changes. These change-detection tracking systems, however, struggle to maintain tracks through quick maneuvers, stops, obscurations, and dense traffic. Feature descriptors, including template matching, histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and local binary patterns (LBP) are evaluated for use in the special case of very low pixel count target detection and track maintenance. These dynamic feature-based detection models are incorporated into a change-detection based tracking system. The resulting composite tracking system will be described as applied to EO and MWIR wide area data collected under a variety of conditions. Resulting tracking system improvements and tradeoffs between feature descriptors are presented.

  12. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  13. Surveillance of Aedes aegypti: Comparison of House Index with Four Alternative Traps

    PubMed Central

    Codeço, Claudia T.; Lima, Arthur W. S.; Araújo, Simone C.; Lima, José Bento P.; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Honório, Nildimar A.; Galardo, Allan K. R.; Braga, Ima A.; Coelho, Giovanini E.; Valle, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses, is an important target of vector control programs in tropical countries. Most mosquito surveillance programs are still based on the traditional household larval surveys, despite the availability of new trapping devices. We report the results of a multicentric entomological survey using four types of traps, besides the larval survey, to compare the entomological indices generated by these different surveillance tools in terms of their sensitivity to detect mosquito density variation. Methods The study was conducted in five mid-sized cities, representing variations of tropical climate regimens. Surveillance schemes using traps for adults (BG-Sentinel, Adultrap and MosquiTRAP) or eggs (ovitraps) were applied monthly to three 1 km2 areas per city. Simultaneously, larval surveys were performed. Trap positivity and density indices in each area were calculated and regressed against meteorological variables to characterize the seasonal pattern of mosquito infestation in all cities, as measured by each of the four traps. Results The House Index was consistently low in most cities, with median always 0. Traps rarely produced null indices, pointing to their greater sensitivity in detecting the presence of Ae. aegypti in comparison to the larval survey. Trap positivity indices tend to plateau at high mosquito densities. Despite this, both indices, positivity and density, agreed on the seasonality of mosquito abundance in all cities. Mosquito seasonality associated preferentially with temperature than with precipitation even in areas where temperature variation is small. Conclusions All investigated traps performed better than the House Index in measuring the seasonal variation in mosquito abundance and should be considered as complements or alternatives to larval surveys. Choice between traps should further consider differences of cost and ease-of-use. PMID:25668559

  14. Signal processing techniques for surveillance radar - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, A.; Galati, G.

    1985-06-01

    The present paper is concerned with a survey of the signal processing techniques presently employed in modern air defense and surveillance radars and those techniques likely to be applied in the future. Attention is given to the requirements for enhancing performance in surveillance radar, current processing techniques, advanced techniques, low probability of intercept (LPI) and anti-ARM (anti-radiation missile), anti-stealth, digital beamforming (DBF), adaptivity, high directivity and high resolution, multidimensional processing, target classification, and fieldability. Stealth is the term given to means of reducing the radar cross section of a target and the reduction of infrared emissions from the engine exhaust.

  15. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Pantex Plant from January 1, 1995 through December 31,1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Pantex and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center,located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The data presented apply only to Pantex. The main sections of the report are the same as in previous years; the 1995 report provides additional information describing the work force by age and occupational groups.

  16. Public participation in radiological surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hanf, R W; Schreckhise, R G; Patton, G W; Poston, T M; Jaquish, R E

    1997-10-01

    In 1989, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a program, for the U.S. Department of Energy, to involve local citizens in environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site. The Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program was patterned after similar community-involvement efforts at the Nevada Test Site and the Three Mile Island nuclear facility. Its purpose is to increase the flow of information to the public, thereby enhancing the public's awareness and understanding of surveillance activities. The program consists of two components: radiological air monitoring at nine offsite locations and agricultural product sampling at selected locations near the site. At each air-monitoring station, two local school teachers collect air particulate samples and operate equipment to monitor ambient radiation levels. Atmospheric tritium samples (as water vapor) are also collected at some locations. Four of the air-monitoring stations include large, colorful informational displays for public viewing. These displays provide details on station equipment, sample types, and sampling purposes. Instruments in the displays also monitor, record, and show real-time ambient radiation readings (measured with a pressurized ionization chamber) and meteorological conditions. Agricultural products, grown primarily by middle-school-aged students, are obtained from areas downwind of the site. Following analysis of these samples, environmental surveillance staff visit the schools to discuss the results with the students and their teachers. The data collected by these air and agricultural sampling efforts are summarized with other routinely collected sitewide surveillance data and reported annually in the Hanford Site environmental report. PMID:9314235

  17. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  18. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinlei; Yang, Bo; Huang, Jing; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan; Du, Zhanwei

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  19. Disease Surveillance and the Academic, Clinical, and Public Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Rebmann, Catherine A.; Schuchat, Anne; Hughes, James M.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Infections Programs (EIPs), a population-based network involving 10 state health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, complement and support local, regional, and national surveillance and research efforts. EIPs depend on collaboration between public health agencies and clinical and academic institutions to perform active, population-based surveillance for infectious diseases; conduct applied epidemiologic and laboratory research; implement and evaluate pilot prevention and intervention projects; and provide capacity for flexible public health response. Recent EIP work has included monitoring the impact of a new conjugate vaccine on the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease, providing the evidence base used to derive new recommendations to prevent neonatal group B streptococcal disease, measuring the impact of foodborne diseases in the United States, and developing a systematic, integrated laboratory and epidemiologic method for syndrome-based surveillance. PMID:12890317

  20. Second generation HIV surveillance in Pakistan: policy challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Michelle; Holte-McKenzie, Merydth; Ahmed, Sadia; Archibald, Chris P; Blanchard, James F; Thompson, Laura H

    2013-01-01

    From 2004 to 2011, the Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (HASP) worked with government and non-government partners in Pakistan to design and implement an HIV second generation surveillance (SGS) system. Insights into the development of scalable cost effective surveillance methodologies, implementation, use of data for HIV prevention and human rights were gained over the course of HASP. An ideal SGS system would be affordable, able to be implemented independently by local partners and produce data that could be readily applied in policy and programmes. Flexibility in design and implementation is important to ensure that any SGS system is responsive to information needs, political changes and changes in key population dynamics and HIV epidemics. HASP's mapping methodology is innovative and widely accepted as best practice, but sustainability of the SGS system it developed is a challenge. PMID:23220785

  1. Applying bioethical principles to human biomonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Myron

    2008-01-01

    Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1) Autonomy – Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2) Beneficence – "do good" for people; (3) Nonmaleficence – "do no harm"; (4) Justice – fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health) across stakeholders. Some of the points made are: (1) There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2) Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3) Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4) There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5) Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge. PMID:18541074

  2. Applying bioethical principles to human biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Myron

    2008-01-01

    Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1) Autonomy--Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2) Beneficence--"do good" for people; (3) Nonmaleficence--"do no harm"; (4) Justice--fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health) across stakeholders.Some of the points made are: (1) There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2) Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3) Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4) There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5) Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge. PMID:18541074

  3. Towards sustainable public health surveillance for enteric fever.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen P; Saha, Samir; Andrews, Jason R

    2015-06-19

    Enteric fever that results from infection by the typhoidal Salmonellas (Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, B and C) is a life-threatening preventable illness. Surveillance of enteric fever is important to understand current burden of disease, to track changes in human health burden from increasing antimicrobial resistance and to assess the impact of efforts to reduce disease burden. Since enteric fever occurs predominantly in low income communities, expensive surveillance is not sustainable. Traditional hospital-based surveillance does not estimate population burden and intensive community-based cohort studies do not capture the severe disease that is crucial to policy decisions. While cohort studies have been considered the gold standard for incidence estimates, the resources required to conduct them are great; as a consequence, estimates of enteric fever burden have been highly geographically and temporally restricted. A hybrid approach combining laboratory diagnosis that is already being conducted in healthcare centers with community-based surveillance of health care facility use offers a low-cost, sustainable approach to generate policy relevant data. PMID:25912287

  4. Prospective Lymphedema Surveillance in a Clinic Setting.

    PubMed

    Chance-Hetzler, Janet; Armer, Jane; Van Loo, Maggie; Anderson, Blake; Harris, Robin; Ewing, Rebecca; Stewart, Bob

    2015-01-01

    The potential impact of breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) is quite extensive, yet it often remains under-diagnosed until the later stages. This project examines the effectiveness of prospective surveillance in post-surgical breast cancer patients. A retrospective analysis of 49 out of 100 patients enrolled in a longitudinal prospective study at a Midwestern breast center evaluates: (1) time required for completion of bilateral limb measurements and Lymphedema Breast Cancer Questionnaire (LBCQ); (2) referral to LE management with limb volume increase (LVI) and/or LBCQ symptoms; and (3) cost of LE management at lower LVI (≥5%-≤10%) versus traditional (≥10%). Findings revealed a visit timeframe mean of 40.3 min (range = 25-60); 43.6% of visits were ≤30-min timeframe. Visit and measurement times decreased as clinic staff gained measurement experience; measurement time mean was 17.9 min (range = 16.9-18.9). LBCQ symptoms and LVI were significantly (p < 0.001) correlated to LE referral; six of the nine patients referred (67%) displayed both LBCQ symptoms/LVI. Visits with no symptoms reported did not result in referral, demonstrating the importance of using both indicators when assessing early LE. Lower threshold referral provides compelling evidence of potential cost savings over traditional threshold referral with reported costs of: $3755.00 and $6353.00, respectively (40.9% savings). PMID:26308061

  5. Design of natural user interface of indoor surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; Liu, Dan; Jiang, Mu-Jin; Cao, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Conventional optical video surveillance systems usually just record what they view, but they can't make sense of what they are viewing. With lots of useless video information stored and transmitted, waste of memory space and increasing the bandwidth are produced every day. In order to reduce the overall cost of the system, and improve the application value of the monitoring system, we use the Kinect sensor with CMOS infrared sensor, as a supplement to the traditional video surveillance system, to establish the natural user interface system for indoor surveillance. In this paper, the architecture of the natural user interface system, complex background monitoring object separation, user behavior analysis algorithms are discussed. By the analysis of the monitoring object, instead of the command language grammar, when the monitored object need instant help, the system with the natural user interface sends help information. We introduce the method of combining the new system and traditional monitoring system. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. It can satisfy the system requirements of non-contact, online, real time, higher precision and rapid speed to control the state of affairs at the scene.

  6. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones.

    PubMed

    Tilston, Natasha; Skelly, Chris; Weinstein, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. This paper proposed pan-European surveillance zones for Chikungunya, based on the climatic conditions necessary for vector activity and viral transmission. Pan-European surveillance provides the best hope for an early-warning of outbreaks, because national boundaries do not play a role in defining the risk of this new vector borne disease threat. A review of climates, where Chikungunya has been active, was used to inform the delineation of three pan-European surveillance zones. These vary in size each month across the June-September period of greatest risk. The zones stretch across southern Europe from Portugal to Turkey. Although the focus of this study was to define the geography of potential surveillance zones based on the climatic limits on the vector and virus, a preliminary examination of inward bound airline passengers was also undertaken. This indicated that France and Italy are likely to be at greater risk due to the number of visitors they receive from Chikungunya active regions, principally viraemic visitors from India. Therefore this study represents a first attempt at creating risk stratified surveillance zones, which we believe could be usefully refined with the use of higher resolution climate data and more complete air travel data. PMID:19878588

  7. Sharing Stories: Multicultural Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imdieke, Sandra J.

    As more emphasis is placed on helping children gain a global perspective and understanding of the world, children's literature seems to be a natural vehicle for fostering that understanding. By studying the storyteller, educators can learn about literary traditions of communities, particularly traditions which reflect the use of stories. An…

  8. Mathematics: Montessori of Traditional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessner, Ruth

    1995-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the approaches to mathematics in Montessori schools and traditional schools. Suggests that in a traditional curriculum, math is studied as a separate subject and isolated discipline, in an abstract format, with the entire group of children moving together through the prescribed curriculum. In contrast, the Montessori school…

  9. Traditional Native Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    1985-01-01

    While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…

  10. Rethinking the "Western Tradition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the "Western tradition" has increasingly come under attack in anti-colonialist and postmodernist discourses. It is not difficult to sympathise with the concerns that underlie advocacy of historically marginalised traditions, and the West undoubtedly has a lot to answer for. Nonetheless, while arguing a qualified yes to…

  11. Family Customs and Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Cynthia

    Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

  12. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  13. Infectious disease surveillance in the United States and the United Kingdom: from public goods to the challenges of new technologies.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Tony; Sorenson, Corinna

    2011-02-01

    Infectious diseases are a long-standing and continuing threat to health and welfare, with their containment dependent on national disease surveillance and response capacities. This article discusses infectious disease surveillance in the United States and the United Kingdom, examining historical national traditions for identifying and controlling infectious disease risks and how globalization and technical advances have influenced the evolution of their respective approaches. The two systems developed in different but parallel ways. In the United States, surveillance remained quite localized at the state level until the early twentieth century and still retains many of those features. The U.K. approach became centralized from the latter part of the nineteenth century and has principally remained so. In both cases, disease surveillance was traditionally conceived as a public good, where national or local authorities held sovereign rights and power to protect public health. With the increasing globalized nature of infectious disease, such notions shifted toward surveillance as a global public good, with countries responding in turn by creating new global health governance arrangements and regulations. However, the limitations of current surveillance systems and the strong hold of national interests place into question the provision of surveillance as a global public good. These issues are further highlighted with the introduction of new surveillance technologies, which offer opportunities for improved disease detection and identification but also create potential tensions between individual rights, corporate profit, equitable access to technology, and national and global public goods. PMID:21498799

  14. Preferential sampling in veterinary parasitological surveillance.

    PubMed

    Cecconi, Lorenzo; Biggeri, Annibale; Grisotto, Laura; Berrocal, Veronica; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Catelan, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    In parasitological surveillance of livestock, prevalence surveys are conducted on a sample of farms using several sampling designs. For example, opportunistic surveys or informative sampling designs are very common. Preferential sampling refers to any situation in which the spatial process and the sampling locations are not independent. Most examples of preferential sampling in the spatial statistics literature are in environmental statistics with focus on pollutant monitors, and it has been shown that, if preferential sampling is present and is not accounted for in the statistical modelling and data analysis, statistical inference can be misleading. In this paper, working in the context of veterinary parasitology, we propose and use geostatistical models to predict the continuous and spatially-varying risk of a parasite infection. Specifically, breaking with the common practice in veterinary parasitological surveillance to ignore preferential sampling even though informative or opportunistic samples are very common, we specify a two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model that adjusts for preferential sampling and we apply it to data on Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep farms in Campania region (Southern Italy) in the years 2013-2014. PMID:27087037

  15. Video Sensor Architecture for Surveillance Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Jordi; Benet, Ginés; Simó, José E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a flexible hardware and software architecture for a smart video sensor. This sensor has been applied in a video surveillance application where some of these video sensors are deployed, constituting the sensory nodes of a distributed surveillance system. In this system, a video sensor node processes images locally in order to extract objects of interest, and classify them. The sensor node reports the processing results to other nodes in the cloud (a user or higher level software) in the form of an XML description. The hardware architecture of each sensor node has been developed using two DSP processors and an FPGA that controls, in a flexible way, the interconnection among processors and the image data flow. The developed node software is based on pluggable components and runs on a provided execution run-time. Some basic and application-specific software components have been developed, in particular: acquisition, segmentation, labeling, tracking, classification and feature extraction. Preliminary results demonstrate that the system can achieve up to 7.5 frames per second in the worst case, and the true positive rates in the classification of objects are better than 80%. PMID:22438723

  16. Video sensor architecture for surveillance applications.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jordi; Benet, Ginés; Simó, José E

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a flexible hardware and software architecture for a smart video sensor. This sensor has been applied in a video surveillance application where some of these video sensors are deployed, constituting the sensory nodes of a distributed surveillance system. In this system, a video sensor node processes images locally in order to extract objects of interest, and classify them. The sensor node reports the processing results to other nodes in the cloud (a user or higher level software) in the form of an XML description. The hardware architecture of each sensor node has been developed using two DSP processors and an FPGA that controls, in a flexible way, the interconnection among processors and the image data flow. The developed node software is based on pluggable components and runs on a provided execution run-time. Some basic and application-specific software components have been developed, in particular: acquisition, segmentation, labeling, tracking, classification and feature extraction. Preliminary results demonstrate that the system can achieve up to 7.5 frames per second in the worst case, and the true positive rates in the classification of objects are better than 80%. PMID:22438723

  17. SETI radio spectrum surveillance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, B.; Lokshin, A.; Marina, M.; Ching, L.

    1985-01-01

    The SETI Radio Spectrum Surveillance System (SRSSS) will provide a data base for assessing the radio frequency interference (RFI) environment for SETI and minimizing RFI disruptions during the search. The system's hardware and software are described and the sensitivity of the system is discussed.

  18. Instrumental Surveillance of Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. A.; And Others

    The role analytical instrumentation performs in the surveillance and control of the quality of water resources is reviewed. Commonly performed analyses may range from simple tests for physical parameters to more highly sophisticated radiological or spectrophotometric methods. This publication explores many of these types of water quality analyses…

  19. Privacy-protecting video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasuriya, Jehan; Alhazzazi, Mohanned; Datt, Mahesh; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    2005-02-01

    Forms of surveillance are very quickly becoming an integral part of crime control policy, crisis management, social control theory and community consciousness. In turn, it has been used as a simple and effective solution to many of these problems. However, privacy-related concerns have been expressed over the development and deployment of this technology. Used properly, video cameras help expose wrongdoing but typically come at the cost of privacy to those not involved in any maleficent activity. This work describes the design and implementation of a real-time, privacy-protecting video surveillance infrastructure that fuses additional sensor information (e.g. Radio-frequency Identification) with video streams and an access control framework in order to make decisions about how and when to display the individuals under surveillance. This video surveillance system is a particular instance of a more general paradigm of privacy-protecting data collection. In this paper we describe in detail the video processing techniques used in order to achieve real-time tracking of users in pervasive spaces while utilizing the additional sensor data provided by various instrumented sensors. In particular, we discuss background modeling techniques, object tracking and implementation techniques that pertain to the overall development of this system.

  20. Video surveillance with speckle imaging

    DOEpatents

    Carrano, Carmen J.; Brase, James M.

    2007-07-17

    A surveillance system looks through the atmosphere along a horizontal or slant path. Turbulence along the path causes blurring. The blurring is corrected by speckle processing short exposure images recorded with a camera. The exposures are short enough to effectively freeze the atmospheric turbulence. Speckle processing is used to recover a better quality image of the scene.

  1. Mortar-launched surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Carl E.; Cooper, Steve; Carlton, Lindley A.

    2001-09-01

    Accurate Automation Corporation has completed the conceptual design of a mortar launched air vehicle system to perform close range or over-the-horizon surveillance missions. Law enforcement and military units require an organic capability to obtain real time intelligence information of time critical targets. Our design will permit law enforcement to detect, classify, locate and track these time critical targets. The surveillance system is a simple, unmanned fixed-winged aircraft deployed via a conventional mortar tube. The aircraft's flight surfaces are deployed following mortar launch to permit maximum range and time over target. The aircraft and sensor system are field retrievable. The aircraft can be configured with an engine to permit extended time over target or range. The aircraft has an integrated surveillance sensor system; a programmable CMOS sensor array. The integrated RF transmitter is capable of down- linking real-time video over line-of-sight distances exceeding 10 kilometers. The major benefit of the modular design is the ability to provide surveillance or tracking quickly at a low cost. Vehicle operational radius and sensor field coverage as well as design trade results of vehicle range and endurance performance and payload capacity at operational range are presented for various mortar configurations.

  2. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZA DISEASES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Haemophilus Influenzae System at NIP compiles information on all U.S. Haemophilus influenzae invasive disease cases reported to CDC via NETSS since 1991 (managed by EPO and NIP), or via active surveillance in several locales since 1989 (managed by NCIP). Information collected...

  3. Nutrition Surveillance. Annual Summary 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes information, including selected indices of nutritional status, as reported from 28 states and the District of Columbia to the Nutritional Status Surveillance System. This system has two components, one addressing nutritional status among high-risk pediatric populations, and the other addressing nutritional status among…

  4. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs.

    PubMed

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-07-20

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate. PMID:24633656

  5. Extending cluster Lot Quality Assurance Sampling designs for surveillance programs

    PubMed Central

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance based on the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible non-parametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate. PMID:24633656

  6. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  7. Student Resistance to the Surveillance Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The growth of surveillance in UK schools in recent years has resulted in the development of what can be labelled as the surveillance curriculum. Operating through the overt and hidden curricula, contemporary surveillance practices and technologies not only engage students in a discourse of control, but also increasingly socialise them into a…

  8. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  9. Surveillance Cameras in Schools: An Ethical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, Bryan R. Warnick responds to the increasing use of surveillance cameras in public schools by examining the ethical questions raised by their use. He explores the extent of a student's right to privacy in schools, stipulates how video surveillance is similar to and different from commonly accepted in-person surveillance practices,…

  10. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surveillance requirements... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting 42.1104 Surveillance requirements. (a) The contract administration office determines the extent...

  11. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  12. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  13. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surveillance requirements... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting 42.1104 Surveillance requirements. (a) The contract administration office determines the extent...

  14. 48 CFR 44.304 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surveillance. 44.304... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.304 Surveillance. (a) The ACO shall maintain a sufficient level of surveillance to ensure that the contractor is effectively...

  15. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surveillance requirements... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting 42.1104 Surveillance requirements. (a) The contract administration office determines the extent...

  16. 48 CFR 44.304 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surveillance. 44.304... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.304 Surveillance. (a) The ACO shall maintain a sufficient level of surveillance to ensure that the contractor is effectively...

  17. 40 CFR 52.12 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.12 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.12 Source surveillance. (a) Each subpart identifies the plan provisions for source surveillance which are disapproved, and sets forth...

  18. 48 CFR 44.304 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surveillance. 44.304... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.304 Surveillance. (a) The ACO shall maintain a sufficient level of surveillance to ensure that the contractor is effectively...

  19. 40 CFR 52.12 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.12 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.12 Source surveillance. (a) Each subpart identifies the plan provisions for source surveillance which are disapproved, and sets forth...

  20. 48 CFR 44.304 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surveillance. 44.304... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.304 Surveillance. (a) The ACO shall maintain a sufficient level of surveillance to ensure that the contractor is effectively...

  1. 48 CFR 44.304 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surveillance. 44.304... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.304 Surveillance. (a) The ACO shall maintain a sufficient level of surveillance to ensure that the contractor is effectively...

  2. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surveillance requirements... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting 42.1104 Surveillance requirements. (a) The contract administration office determines the extent...

  3. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surveillance requirements... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting 42.1104 Surveillance requirements. (a) The contract administration office determines the extent...

  4. 40 CFR 52.12 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.12 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.12 Source surveillance. (a) Each subpart identifies the plan provisions for source surveillance which are disapproved, and sets forth...

  5. NATIONAL WEST NILE VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to understand the implications of WN viruses introduction into the United States the Centers of Disease Control and the U.S. Department of Agriculture created a system of active bird surveillance, active mosquito surveillance, enhanced passive veterinary surveillance, an...

  6. Surveillance system using the CCTV at the fuel transfer pond in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, T.; Fukuhara, J.; Ochiai, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Ogata, Y.; Okamoto, H. )

    1991-01-01

    The Fuel Transfer Pond (FTP) in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) is a strategic point for safeguards. Spent fuels, therefore, in the FTP have been surveyed by the surveillance system using the underwater CCTV. This system was developed through the improvement of devices composed of cameras and VCRs and the provision of tamper resistance function as one of the JASPAS (Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards) program. The purpose of this program is to realize the continuous surveillance of the slanted tunnel through which the spent fuel on the conveyor is moved from the FTP to the Mechanical Processing Cell (MPC). This paper reports that, when this surveillance system is applied to an inspection device, the following requirements are needed: To have the ability of continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel on the conveyor path from the FTP to the MPC; To have the tamper resistance function for continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel.

  7. Health promotion and surveillance: the establishment of an IUHPE global working group.

    PubMed

    Campostrini, Stefano; McQueen, David V; Evans, Linnea

    2009-12-01

    Following a series of international meetings on behavioral monitoring and surveillance, in 2007 the Italian Ministry of Health (Ministerio della Salute) and the Institute for Health (Istituto Superiore della Sanità) hosted the 5(th) International Conference on Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance (BRFS) in Rome. A key focus of the conference was on how current surveillance systems could be applied to the field of health promotion, particularly in building the evidence base for health promotion practice. As a result of these discussions, the World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS), an IUHPE Global Working Group, was formed to work toward providing knowledge and expertise in surveillance as a tool for advancing health promotion. For those IUHPE members interested in participation, this article provides an overview on the strategic direction of WARFS and the newly formed sub-working groups. PMID:20028670

  8. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  9. Privacy Sensitive Surveillance for Assisted Living - A Smart Camera Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, Sven; Straßer, Wolfgang

    An elderly woman wanders about aimlessly in a home for assisted living. Suddenly, she collapses on the floor of a lonesome hallway. Usually it can take over two hours until a night nurse passes this spot on her next inspection round. But in this case she is already on site after two minutes, ready to help. She has received an alert message on her beeper: "Inhabitant fallen in hallway 2b". The source: the SmartSurv distributed network of smart cameras for automated and privacy respecting video analysis.Welcome to the future of smart surveillance Although this scenario is not yet daily practice, it shall make clear how such systems will impact the safety of the elderly without the privacy intrusion of traditional video surveillance systems.

  10. Postmarketing Surveillance for “Modified-Risk” Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) acquired authority to regulate tobacco products in 2009. This authority will provide a structured process for manufacturers to introduce products that may have “modified-risk” for morbidity or mortality relative to traditional tobacco products, with postmarketing surveillance and studies a condition of marketing. Method: A narrative review approach was taken. The author searched and integrated publicly accessible literature on tobacco product surveillance as well as drug and medical device postmarket activities currently performed by FDA. Results: FDA relies on active and passive methods for postmarket surveillance and can require specific studies and risk evaluation and mitigation strategies for certain products, including those with abuse liability. Past efforts at examining the individual and population effects of reduced harm tobacco products provide an example of integrating different data streams. Discussion: Postmarket surveillance can be viewed in terms of the Agent–Host–Vector–Environment model, and concepts from diffusion of innovations are relevant to understanding factors associated with the adoption of new products by the population. Given that active and passive surveillance approaches have different strengths and weaknesses, multiple approaches may be necessary to evaluate population-level effects. Assuring that required studies are properly conducted and reported and that data indicating significant public health harms are quickly recognized will be important going forward. Conclusions: The advent of broad regulatory authority over tobacco provides opportunities for policy evaluation research. The research community can provide FDA with the independent science it needs to evaluate the public health impact of novel tobacco products. PMID:21330282

  11. Flat Panel Space Based Space Surveillance Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, R.; Duncan, A.; Wilm, J.; Thurman, S. T.; Stubbs, D. M.; Ogden, C.

    2013-09-01

    limited telescope is, therefore, replaced by in-process integration and test as part of the PIC fabrication that substantially reduces associated schedule and cost. The low profile and low SWaP of a SPIDER system enables high resolution imaging with a payload that is similar in size and aspect ratio to a solar panel. This allows high resolution low cost options for space based space surveillance telescopes. The low SWaP design enables hosted payloads, cubesat designs as well as traditional bus options that are lower cost. We present a description of the concept and preliminary simulation and experimental data that demonstrate the imaging capabilities of the SPIDER technique.

  12. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  13. Comparison of adult HIV prevalence from national population-based surveys and antenatal clinic surveillance in countries with generalised epidemics: implications for calibrating surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    Gouws, E; Mishra, V; Fowler, T B

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates of the impact of HIV in countries with generalised epidemics are generally based on antenatal clinic surveillance data collected over time. In an attempt to obtain geographically more representative estimates of HIV prevalence, many countries are now also conducting national population-based surveys in which HIV testing is included. We compare adult HIV prevalence estimates from antenatal clinic surveillance to those from national population-based surveys to assess the implications for calibrating surveillance data. Methods: HIV prevalence estimates derived from fitting prevalence curves to antenatal clinic surveillance data are statistically compared to prevalence from national population-based surveys using data from 26 countries with generalised epidemics for the year in which the survey was conducted. Appropriate transformations are applied to inform the correction factors needed to adjust prevalence in countries where population-based surveys have not been conducted. Results: HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data generally overestimate population-based survey prevalence by about 20% (95% confidence interval: 10% to 30%) in both urban and rural areas. Conclusions: In countries where national population-based HIV surveys have been conducted, survey estimates of HIV prevalence (adjusted for potential survey biases as appropriate) can be used directly to calibrate antenatal clinic surveillance data. In countries where national HIV surveys have not been conducted, HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data should be multiplied by about 0.8 to adjust for overestimation. PMID:18647861

  14. Public involvement in environmental surveillance at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Hanf, R.W. Jr.; Patton, G.W.; Woodruff, R.K.; Poston, T.M.

    1994-08-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site began during the mid-1940s following the construction and start-up of the nation`s first plutonium production reactor. Over the past approximately 45 years, surveillance operations on and off the Site have continued, with virtually all sampling being conducted by Hanford Site workers. Recently, the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office directed that public involvement in Hanford environmental surveillance operations be initiated. Accordingly, three special radiological air monitoring stations were constructed offsite, near hanford`s perimeter. Each station is managed and operated by two local school teaches. These three stations are the beginning of a community-operated environmental surveillance program that will ultimately involve the public in most surveillance operations around the Site. The program was designed to stimulate interest in Hanford environmental surveillance operations, and to help the public better understand surveillance results. The program has also been used to enhance educational opportunities at local schools.

  15. Applied Ethics and the Humanistic Tradition: A Comparative Curricula Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deonanan, Carlton R.; Deonanan, Venus E.

    This research work investigates the problem of "Leadership, and the Ethical Dimension: A Comparative Curricula Approach." The research problem is investigated from the academic areas of (1) philosophy; (2) comparative curricula; (3) subject matter areas of English literature and intellectual history; (4) religion; and (5) psychology. Different…

  16. The Sharper Image for Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-13

    A technique adapted by Livermore scientists to take the twinkle out of stars is now being used to improve the resolution of long-range surveillance systems trained on earthbound objects. The speckle-imaging technique involves taking tens to hundreds of pictures with short-exposure times and reconstructing a single, sharp image using image-processing software. The technique drew the interest of Livermore engineer Carmen Carrano. She developed a prototype remote-surveillance system that can produce a detailed image of a face from a couple of kilometers away. The system also helps identify vehicles tens of kilometers away and improves the viewing of large structures more than 60 kilometers away.

  17. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    SciTech Connect

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities. However, ongoing S&M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations.

  18. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  19. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L E

    1992-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. Samples for radiological analyses include Air-Particulate Filter, gases and vapor; Water/Columbia River, Onsite Pond, Spring, Irrigation, and Drinking; Foodstuffs/Animal Products including Whole Milk, Poultry and Eggs, and Beef; Foodstuffs/Produce including Leafy Vegetables, Vegetables, and Fruit; Foodstuffs/Farm Products including Wine, Wheat and Alfalfa; Wildlife; Soil; Vegetation; and Sediment. Direct Radiation Measurements include Terrestrial Locations, Columbia River Shoreline Locations, and Onsite Roadway, Railway and Aerial, Radiation Surveys.

  20. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

    1999-07-14

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment.

  1. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  2. An improved cumulative sum-based procedure for prospective disease surveillance for count data in multiple regions.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Sesha; French, Joshua P

    2016-07-10

    We present an improved procedure for detecting outbreaks in multiple spatial regions using count data. We combine well-known methods for disease surveillance with recent developments from other areas to provide a more powerful procedure that is still relatively simple and fast to implement. Disease counts from neighboring regions are aggregated to compute a Poisson cumulative sum statistic for each region of interest. Instead of controlling the average run length criterion in the monitoring process, we instead utilize the FDR, which is more appropriate in a public health context. Additionally, p-values are used to make decisions instead of traditional critical values. The use of the FDR and p-values in testing allows us to utilize recently developed multiple testing methodologies, greatly increasing the power of this procedure. This is verified using a simulation experiment. The simplicity and rapid detection ability of this procedure make it useful in disease surveillance settings. The procedure is successfully applied in detecting the 2011 Salmonella Newport outbreak in 16 German federal states. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26891014

  3. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.; Singer, Ralph M.; Humenik, Keith E.

    1993-01-01

    An expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  4. Video-based real-time surveillance of vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Satyam; Delp, Edward J.

    2013-10-01

    The large volume of vehicles on the road has created new challenges for agencies responsible for law enforcement and public safety. Such agencies utilize visual surveillance technology to assist monitoring of vehicles from a remote location. These surveillance systems typically require trained human operators. Consequently, they are prone to human errors due to fatigue or diverted attention caused by excess information. Thus a need exists for an automated system that can analyze the surveillance videos and extract important information. This information would be used to detect occurrence of "anomalous" events. We propose a visual surveillance system designed to function in the above-mentioned manner. The system observes vehicular traffic from a standoff range and extracts information about the vehicles. This information includes vehicle type, make, tire size, and its trajectory. Based on this information, the system checks for anomalies in the vehicles' appearance and/or motion. We describe analysis methods for obtaining the vehicle information from two cameras placed in an orthogonal configuration and for classifying the vehicles using these observations. We present the results of applying these methods on traffic videos. Our proposed system can be deployed for traffic monitoring (on highways/intersections) or infrastructure protection (at check points).

  5. Surveillance strategies for detecting chronic wasting disease in free-ranging deer and elk: results of a CWD surveillance workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Joly, Damien O.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wright, Scott D.; Otis, David L.; Werge, Rob W.; Miller, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a fatal brain disease of North American deer and elk, has recently emerged as an important wildlife management issue. Interest and concern over the spread of this disease and its potential impact on free-ranging cervid populations has increased with discovery of the disease in numerous states and provinces. Current studies suggest that CWD may adversely affect of these highly visible, socially desirable, and economically valuable species. Despite the lack of evidence that CWD affects humans or livestock, a significant concern has been the perceived risk to humans and livestock. Uncertainty about whether CWD poses a health risk to hunters and their families who consume venison has resulted in testing of free-ranging cervids for CWD. In response to many of these concerns, wildlife management agencies across the nation have undertaken surveillance programs to detect CWD in their cervid populations. The nation-wide costs for an extensive CWD surveillance program have been estimated at several million dollars. This document provides guidance on the development and conduct of scientifically sound surveillance programs to detect CWD in free-ranging deer and elk populations. These guidelines will not apply equally to all jurisdictions. In many cases local circumstances, resources, area(s) of concern, disease risk, animal and landscape ecology, political, social, and many other factors will influence the objectives, design, and conduct of CWD surveillance programs. Part I of this report discusses the importance of management goals, strategies, and disease risks in developing a surveillance program. Part II describes surveillance methods, steps in designing a sampling strategy to detect CWD, alternative collection methods, and statistical considerations. Part III describes costs (personnel, time, and money) associated with implementation of these plans that will influence program design. Part IV outlines research that is needed to further

  6. Retrospective time series analysis of veterinary laboratory data: preparing a historical baseline for cluster detection in syndromic surveillance.

    PubMed

    Dórea, Fernanda C; Revie, Crawford W; McEwen, Beverly J; McNab, W Bruce; Kelton, David; Sanchez, Javier

    2013-05-01

    The practice of disease surveillance has shifted in the last two decades towards the introduction of systems capable of early detection of disease. Modern biosurveillance systems explore different sources of pre-diagnostic data, such as patient's chief complaint upon emergency visit or laboratory test orders. These sources of data can provide more rapid detection than traditional surveillance based on case confirmation, but are less specific, and therefore their use poses challenges related to the presence of background noise and unlabelled temporal aberrations in historical data. The overall goal of this study was to carry out retrospective analysis using three years of laboratory test submissions to the Animal Health Laboratory in the province of Ontario, Canada, in order to prepare the data for use in syndromic surveillance. Daily cases were grouped into syndromes and counts for each syndrome were monitored on a daily basis when medians were higher than one case per day, and weekly otherwise. Poisson regression accounting for day-of-week and month was able to capture the day-of-week effect with minimal influence from temporal aberrations. Applying Poisson regression in an iterative manner, that removed data points above the predicted 95th percentile of daily counts, allowed for the removal of these aberrations in the absence of labelled outbreaks, while maintaining the day-of-week effect that was present in the original data. This resulted in the construction of time series that represent the baseline patterns over the past three years, free of temporal aberrations. The final method was thus able to remove temporal aberrations while keeping the original explainable effects in the data, did not need a training period free of aberrations, had minimal adjustment to the aberrations present in the raw data, and did not require labelled outbreaks. Moreover, it was readily applicable to the weekly data by substituting Poisson regression with moving 95th percentiles

  7. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  8. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  9. Family traditions and generations.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Gerald; Barrera, Maru

    2009-01-01

    Currently, traditional family values that have been passed down through generations appear to be at risk. This has significant implications for the stability and health of individuals, families, and communities. This article explores selected issues related to intergenerational transmission of family values and cultural beliefs, with particular reference to Western culture and values that are rooted in Jewish and Christian traditions. It also examines family values and parenting styles as they influence the developing perspective of children and the family's adaptation to a changing world. PMID:19752638

  10. Robust Feedback Zoom Tracking for Digital Video Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Tengyue; Tang, Xiaoqi; Song, Bao; Wang, Jin; Chen, Jihong

    2012-01-01

    Zoom tracking is an important function in video surveillance, particularly in traffic management and security monitoring. It involves keeping an object of interest in focus during the zoom operation. Zoom tracking is typically achieved by moving the zoom and focus motors in lenses following the so-called “trace curve”, which shows the in-focus motor positions versus the zoom motor positions for a specific object distance. The main task of a zoom tracking approach is to accurately estimate the trace curve for the specified object. Because a proportional integral derivative (PID) controller has historically been considered to be the best controller in the absence of knowledge of the underlying process and its high-quality performance in motor control, in this paper, we propose a novel feedback zoom tracking (FZT) approach based on the geometric trace curve estimation and PID feedback controller. The performance of this approach is compared with existing zoom tracking methods in digital video surveillance. The real-time implementation results obtained on an actual digital video platform indicate that the developed FZT approach not only solves the traditional one-to-many mapping problem without pre-training but also improves the robustness for tracking moving or switching objects which is the key challenge in video surveillance. PMID:22969388

  11. Surveillance of nasal and bladder cancer to locate sources of exposure to occupational carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, K; Morgan, M S; Checkoway, H; Franklin, G; Spinelli, J J; van Belle, G; Weiss, N S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To locate sources of occupational exposure to nasal and bladder carcinogens for surveillance follow up in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: Incident cases of nasal cancer (n = 48), bladder cancer (n = 105), and population based controls (n = 159) matched for sex and age, were interviewed about their jobs, exposures, and smoking histories. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for 57 occupational groups with stratified exact methods to control for age, sex, and smoking. RESULTS: Occupational groups at increased risk of nasal cancer included: textile workers (six cases, OR 7.6); miners, drillers, and blasters (six cases, OR 3.5); welders (two cases, OR 3.5); pulp and paper workers (three cases, OR 3.1); and plumbers and pipefitters (two cases, OR 3.0). Nasal cancer ORs were not increased in occupations exposed to wood dust, possibly due to low exposures in local wood industries. Strongly increased risks of bladder cancer were found for sheet metal workers (four cases, OR 5.3), miners (19 cases, OR 4.5), gardeners (six cases, OR 3.7), and hairdressers (three cases, OR 3.2). Among occupations originally considered at risk, the following had increased risks of bladder cancer: painters (four cases, OR 2.8); laundry workers (five cases, OR 2.3); chemical and petroleum workers (15 cases, OR 1.8); machinists (eight cases, OR 1.6); and textile workers (three cases, OR 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: Occupational groups with increased risks and three or more cases with similar duties were selected for surveillance follow up. For nasal cancer, these included textile workers (five were garment makers) and pulp and paper workers (three performed maintenance tasks likely to entail stainless steel welding). For bladder cancer, these included miners (12 worked underground), machinists (five worked in traditional machining), hairdressers (three had applied hair dyes), and laundry workers (three were drycleaners). PMID:9245952

  12. Traditional Cherokee Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Janey B.

    A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

  13. Tradition in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisenberg, Werner

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the influence of tradition in science on selection of scientific problems and methods and on the use of concepts as tools for research work. Indicates that future research studies will be directed toward the change of fundamental concepts in such fields as astrophysics, molecular biology, and environmental science. (CC)

  14. Tradition and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyre, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Honors programs, like the institutions that host them, need to exercise constant re-examination to remain effective and to serve their students the best they can. As a private, liberal arts institution, in the tradition of the Irish Catholic Christian Brothers, Iona College provides many avenues to enhance student learning, and paramount to the…

  15. The Traditional Rebel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemansky, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the Linden, New Jersey, schools' introduction and use of electronic musical technology and contemporary instruments in the orchestral music program, which has broadened the musical repertoire and the recruitment of talented students not schooled in the classical tradition. Four applications of technology for rehearsals and instrumental…

  16. GLOBECORP: Simulation versus Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spelman, Mary Dean

    2002-01-01

    Describes an empirical study conducted at the University of Central Oklahoma that investigated the differences in learning outcomes between English as a second language composition courses taught with two different methods, one based on a simulation called GLOBECORP and one on traditional instruction. Discusses progress measured by mandated…

  17. In Defense of Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekich, John

    A disturbing trend is developing in higher education which may jeopardize the quality and importance of the classical tradition in education. This trend is exemplified by demands that the liberal arts be made relevant and comprehensible to the student and that they be related in some way to the search for a good job. The great classical…

  18. Traditional healers formalised?

    PubMed

    Van Niekerk, Jp

    2012-03-01

    Traditional healers are the first to be called for help when illness strikes the majority of South Africans. Their communities have faith in their ability to cure or alleviate conditions managed by doctors, and much more. A visit to such practitioners' websites (they are up with the latest advertising technology!) shows that they promise help with providing more power, love, security or money, protection from evil people and spirits, enhancing one's sex life with penis enlargement and vagina tightening spells, etc. Contemplating such claims, it is easy to be dismissive of traditional healers. But in this issue of the SAMJ Nompumelelo Mbatha and colleagues1 argue that the traditional healers' regulatory council, promised by an Act of Parliament, should be established, followed by (or preferably preceded by) formal recognition by employers of sick certificates issued by traditional healers. Can matters be so simply resolved? What does this mean for doctors and other formally recognised healthcare professionals, and how to respond to such claims and social pressures? PMID:22380886

  19. Reinventing the Rhetorical Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Aviva, Ed.; Pringle, Ian, Ed.

    The 19 conference papers in this collection deal with the relationship of various rhetorical theories and their practical applications to the rhetorical traditions that they are superseding. The papers deal with many topics, including the following: (1) a multidisciplinary approach to writing instruction; (2) the importance of writing as a human…

  20. Teaching Traditional Tropical Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that the teaching of traditional tropical agriculture through the presentation of large numbers of categories or types tends to overemphasize superficial differences at the expense of comprehending the inner essence of life as it exists for the majority of the world's farmers. Offers an alternative approach which claims to foster greater…

  1. Non-Traditional Wraps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

  2. Surveillance and response to disease emergence.

    PubMed

    Merianos, Angela

    2007-01-01

    New and emerging infectious diseases affect humans, domestic animals, livestock and wildlife and can have a significant impact on health, trade and biodiversity. Of the emerging infectious diseases of humans, 75% are zoonotic, with wildlife being an increasingly important source of inter-species transmission. Recent animal health emergencies have highlighted the vulnerability of the livestock sector to the impact of infectious diseases and the associated risks to human health. Outbreaks resulting from wildlife trade have resulted in enormous economic losses globally. On a global level, the human health sector lags behind the animal health sector in the assessment of potential threats, although substantive differences exist among countries in the state of national preparedness planning for emerging diseases. The lack of surveillance data on emerging zoonoses from many developing countries means that the burden of human, livestock and wildlife disease is underestimated and opportunities for control interventions thereby limited. In the context of emerging zoonoses, comprehensive risk assessments are needed to identify the animal-human and animal-animal interfaces where transmission of infectious agents occurs and the feasibility of risk reduction interventions. The impact of emerging diseases can be minimised through a well-prepared and strong public health system and similar systems developed by the livestock, wildlife and food safety sectors. National animal disease emergencies, especially those that spill over to affect human health, require a whole-of-government approach for effective disease containment. As it is highly likely that zoonoses and animal diseases with the potential to affect human health will continue to emerge, surveillance and response systems for emerging zoonotic diseases will need to be strengthened and maintained at national and international levels. Applied research, linked across the human, livestock and wildlife sectors, is needed to

  3. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

  4. Geographic information system-based avian influenza surveillance systems for village poultry in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of surveillance data facilitates the planning, implementation and evaluation of disease control programmes. Geographic information systems (GIS) have several functions, including input (database functions), analysis (interpolation, cluster detection, identification of spatial risk factors) and output (sampling design, disease risk maps). This paper focuses on visualisation techniques that enable improved design and evaluation of surveillance data. Data generated within a pilot GIS-based surveillance programme for avian influenza in village poultry in the Romanian county of Tulcea is used as an example. The use of kriging helped highlight areas in the country where sampling potentially was sub-optimal, and error maps demonstrated the level of confidence that can be placed in serological surveillance results in different localities. Disease surveillance systems traditionally have not focused on the issues of disease risk and sample size visualisation. Standards need to be developed on how sampling and disease data generated within animal health surveillance systems are analysed and presented. This is particularly important for transboundary diseases such as avian influenza. PMID:20422525

  5. Measles surveillance in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yung-Hsuan J.; Andrews, Ross M.; Lambert, Stephen B.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many countries are implementing measles elimination strategies. In Australia, the State of Victoria has conducted enhanced measles surveillance since 1997 using case interviews and home-based specimen collection for laboratory confirmation. We attempted to identify features of notified cases that would better target surveillance resources. METHODS: We retrospectively classified notifications received from 1998 to 2003 as having been received in an epidemic (one or more laboratory-confirmed cases) or an interepidemic period (no laboratory-confirmed cases). We labelled the first case notified in any epidemic period that was not laboratory-confirmed at the time of notification as a "sentinel case". To maximize detection of sentinel cases while minimizing the follow-up of eventually discarded notifications, we generated algorithms using sentinel cases and interepidemic notifications. FINDINGS: We identified 10 sentinel cases with 422 interepidemic notifications from 1281 Victorian notifications. Sentinel cases were more likely to report fever at rash onset (odds ratio (OR) 15.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) CI: 2.1-688.9), cough (OR 10.4, 95% CI: 1.4-456.7), conjunctivitis (OR 7.9, 95% CI: 1.8-39.1), or year of birth between 1968 and 1981 (OR 31.8, 95% CI: 6.7-162.3). Prospective application of an algorithm consisting of fever at rash onset or born between 1968 and 1981 in the review period would have detected all sentinel cases and avoided the need for enhanced follow-up of 162 of the 422 eventually discarded notifications. CONCLUSION: Elimination strategies should be refined to suit regional and local priorities. The prospective application of an algorithm in Victoria is likely to reduce enhanced measles surveillance resource use in interepidemic periods, while still detecting early cases during measles outbreaks. PMID:16501727

  6. Norovirus Surveillance: An Epidemiological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Harris, John P

    2016-02-01

    Surveillance for norovirus is challenging because the nature of illness due to norovirus is such that the majority of people who are infected will not have any contact with medical services and are highly unlikely to have a sample collected for diagnosis. Public health advice urges people to not visit hospitals or their family physicians, to prevent the risk further spread. The recognition of the importance of this pathogen was quickly established following the introduction of surveillance of outbreaks of gastrointestinal infection in England and Wales in 1992. This period saw >1800 outbreaks of norovirus infection reported in hospitals in England, affecting >45 000 patients and staff. A new system for reporting outbreaks of norovirus infection in hospitals, the Hospital Norovirus outbreak Reporting Scheme (HNORS), began in January 2009. Summary information on outbreaks is provided by infection control staff at hospitals and includes questions on the date the first and last person in the outbreak became symptomatic and whether closure of a bay or ward was needed. In the first 3 years (2009-2011) of the HNORS surveillance scheme, 4000 outbreaks were reported, affecting 40 000 patients and 10 000 staff. Over the last 3 years, these outbreaks have been associated with an average of 13 000 patients and 3400 staff becoming ill, with 15 000 lost bed-days annually. With the possible introduction of a vaccine on the horizon, targeted research with a more integrated approach to laboratory testing and outbreak reporting is essential to a greater understanding of the epidemiology of norovirus. PMID:26744431

  7. Optimal Colonoscopy Surveillance Interval after Polypectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Oh

    2016-01-01

    The detection and removal of adenomatous polyps and postpolypectomy surveillance are considered important for the control of colorectal cancer (CRC). Surveillance using colonoscopy is an effective tool for preventing CRC after colorectal polypectomy, especially if compliance is good. In current practice, the intervals between colonoscopies after polypectomy are variable. Different recommendations for recognizing at risk groups and defining surveillance intervals after an initial finding of colorectal adenomas have been published. However, high-grade dysplasia and the number and size of adenomas are known major cancer predictors. Based on this, a subgroup of patients that may benefit from intensive surveillance colonoscopy can be identified. PMID:27484812

  8. Remotely piloted LTA vehicle for surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seemann, G. R.; Harris, G. L.; Brown, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Various aspects of a remotely piloted mini-LTA vehicle for surveillance, monitoring and measurement for civilian and military applications are considered. Applications, operations and economics are discussed.

  9. Anomaly detection for internet surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Henri; Raaijmakers, Stephan; Halma, Arvid; Wedemeijer, Harry

    2012-06-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming to monitor many websites. In this paper, we present a novel method to automatically monitor trends and find anomalies on the internet. The system was tested on Twitter data. The results showed that it can successfully recognize abnormal changes in activity or emotion.

  10. The collaborative experience of creating the National Capital Region Disease Surveillance Network.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sheri H; Holtry, Rekha S; Loschen, Wayne A; Wojcik, Richard; Hung, Lang; Lombardo, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) implemented state and district surveillance nodes in a central aggregated node in the National Capital Region (NCR). Within this network, de-identified health information is integrated with other indicator data and is made available to local and state health departments for enhanced disease surveillance. Aggregated data made available to the central node enable public health practitioners to observe abnormal behavior of health indicators spanning jurisdictions and view geographical spread of outbreaks across regions.Forming a steering committee, the NCR Enhanced Surveillance Operating Group (ESOG), was key to overcoming several data-sharing issues. The committee was composed of epidemiologists and key public health practitioners from the 3 jurisdictions. The ESOG facilitated early system development and signing of the cross-jurisdictional data-sharing agreement. This agreement was the first of its kind at the time and provided the legal foundation for sharing aggregated health information across state/district boundaries for electronic disease surveillance.Electronic surveillance system for the early notification of community-based epidemics provides NCR users with a comprehensive regional view to ascertain the spread of disease, estimate resource needs, and implement control measures. This article aims to describe the creation of the NCR Disease Surveillance Network as an exceptional example of cooperation and potential that exists for regional surveillance activities. PMID:21464687

  11. Field assessment of yeast- and oxalic Acid-generated carbon dioxide for mosquito surveillance.

    PubMed

    Harwood, James F; Richardson, Alec G; Wright, Jennifer A; Obenauer, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sources improve the efficacy of mosquito traps. However, traditional CO2 sources (dry ice or compressed gas) may be difficult to acquire for vector surveillance during military contingency operations. For this reason, a new and convenient source of CO2 is required. Two novel CO2 generators were evaluated in order to address this capability gap: 1) an electrolyzer that converts solid oxalic acid into CO2 gas, and 2) CO2 produced by yeast as it metabolizes sugar. The flow rate and CO2 concentration produced by each generator were measured, and each generator's ability to attract mosquitoes to BG-Sentinel™ traps during day surveillance and to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps with incandescent bulbs during night surveillance was compared to dry ice and compressed gas in Jacksonville, FL. The electrolyzed oxalic acid only slightly increased the number of mosquitoes captured compared to unbaited traps. Based on the modest increase in mosquito collection for traps paired with the oxalic acid, it is not a suitable stand-in for either of the 2 traditional CO2 sources. Conversely, the yeast-generated CO2 resulted in collections with mosquito abundance and species richness more closely resembling those of the traditional CO2 sources, despite achieving a lower CO2 flow rate. Therefore, if dry ice or compressed gas cannot be acquired for vector surveillance, yeast-generated CO2 can significantly improve trap capability. PMID:25843133

  12. LANL surveillance requirements management and surveillance requirements from NA-12 tasking memo

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, Charles R

    2011-01-25

    Surveillance briefing to NNSA to support a tasking memo from NA-12 on Surveillance requirements. This talk presents the process for developing surveillance requirements, discusses the LANL requirements that were issued as part of that tasking memo, and presents recommendations on Component Evaluation and Planning Committee activities for FY11.

  13. Comparative evaluation of three surveillance systems for infectious equine diseases in France and implications for future synergies.

    PubMed

    Amat, J P; Hendrikx, P; Tapprest, J; Leblond, A; Dufour, B

    2015-10-01

    It is necessary to assess surveillance systems for infectious animal diseases to ensure they meet their objectives and provide high-quality health information. Each system is generally dedicated to one disease and often comprises various components. In many animal industries, several surveillance systems are implemented separately even if they are based on similar components. This lack of synergy may prevent optimal surveillance. The purpose of this study was to assess several surveillance systems within the same industry using the semi-quantitative OASIS method and to compare the results of the assessments in order to propose improvements, including future synergies. We have focused on the surveillance of three major equine diseases in France. We have identified the mutual and specific strengths and weaknesses of each surveillance system. Furthermore, the comparative assessment has highlighted many possible synergies that could improve the effectiveness and efficiency of surveillance as a whole, including the implementation of new joint tools or the pooling of existing teams, tools or skills. Our approach is an original application of the OASIS method, which requires minimal financial resources and is not very time-consuming. Such a comparative evaluation could conceivably be applied to other surveillance systems, other industries and other countries. This approach would be especially relevant to enhance the efficiency of surveillance activities when resources are limited. PMID:25712325

  14. Traditional Chinese drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, John K

    2003-12-01

    More than 4,000 years old, traditional Chinese medicine continues to be widely practiced in China and in western countries. Traditional Chinese medicine teaches that good health is the result of harmony and balance between five basic elements: earth, water, fire, wood and metal. Also important to health are the two types of energy Yin and Yang, constituting a vital substance that circulates through the body. Drug therapy has been one of the means used in Chinese medicine to keep these elements and the flow of energy in balance. Many of the same herbs used thousands of years ago in China could be the source of new pharmaceuticals in Western medicine. PMID:14747850

  15. [West African childbirth traditions].

    PubMed

    Hallgren, R

    1983-11-01

    Religious and medical practices are steeped in the traditions of West African culture vis-a-vis childbirth. It is customary for delivery to occur with the woman squatting on the ground surrounded by sisters and female relatives, some of whom function as midwives. Midwives get paid only if delivery is successful. A stool is also often used in childbirth. The name given to a child in the Yoruba tribe in Nigeria has to refer to the circumstances of the individual's birth. The contact with the earth (as in the squatting position) has religious overtones--it indicates the fecundity of the earth, and the mother's contact with it. Infertility is considered the greatest tragedy in traditional African society. In Senegal, a childless woman pays a fertile one a certain sum in return for bearing her a child who would be raised as her own (this tradition is not unlike surrogate motherhood in Western countries). Men are never present at birth; however, in urban settings this practice is changing. The burial of the placenta and umbilical cord is thought to restore the woman's fertility and help heal her womb. This practice was even recorded in 19th century Sweden harkening back to heathen times. In Ghana, an infertile woman urinates on the ground where the placenta is buried in the belief that her fertility will be restored. The birth of twins is regarded as a great blessing, and as a sign of fertility; however, the inability of the mother to breast-feed both twins may result in the death of the weaker child. The harmony of nature, animals, and human beings is paramount in traditional West Africa religion and life, and undoubtedly Western culture could learn from some of these beliefs. PMID:6558064

  16. Next Generation Space Surveillance System-of-Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McShane, B.

    2014-09-01

    International economic and military dependence on space assets is pervasive and ever-growing in an environment that is now congested, contested, and competitive. There are a number of natural and man-made risks that need to be monitored and characterized to protect and preserve the space environment and the assets within it. Unfortunately, today's space surveillance network (SSN) has gaps in coverage, is not resilient, and has a growing number of objects that get lost. Risks can be efficiently and effectively mitigated, gaps closed, resiliency improved, and performance increased within a next generation space surveillance network implemented as a system-of-systems with modern information architectures and analytic techniques. This also includes consideration for the newest SSN sensors (e.g. Space Fence) which are born Net-Centric out-of-the-box and able to seamlessly interface with the JSpOC Mission System, global information grid, and future unanticipated users. Significant opportunity exists to integrate legacy, traditional, and non-traditional sensors into a larger space system-of-systems (including command and control centers) for multiple clients through low cost sustainment, modification, and modernization efforts. Clients include operations centers (e.g. JSpOC, USSTRATCOM, CANSPOC), Intelligence centers (e.g. NASIC), space surveillance sensor sites (e.g. AMOS, GEODSS), international governments (e.g. Germany, UK), space agencies (e.g. NASA), and academic institutions. Each has differing priorities, networks, data needs, timeliness, security, accuracy requirements and formats. Enabling processes and technologies include: Standardized and type accredited methods for secure connections to multiple networks, machine-to-machine interfaces for near real-time data sharing and tip-and-queue activities, common data models for analytical processing across multiple radar and optical sensor types, an efficient way to automatically translate between differing client and

  17. Social Media and Internet-Based Data in Global Systems for Public Health Surveillance: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    VELASCO, EDWARD; AGHENEZA, TUMACHA; DENECKE, KERSTIN; KIRCHNER, GÖRAN; ECKMANNS, TIM

    2014-01-01

    Context: The exchange of health information on the Internet has been heralded as an opportunity to improve public health surveillance. In a field that has traditionally relied on an established system of mandatory and voluntary reporting of known infectious diseases by doctors and laboratories to governmental agencies, innovations in social media and so-called user-generated information could lead to faster recognition of cases of infectious disease. More direct access to such data could enable surveillance epidemiologists to detect potential public health threats such as rare, new diseases or early-level warnings for epidemics. But how useful are data from social media and the Internet, and what is the potential to enhance surveillance? The challenges of using these emerging surveillance systems for infectious disease epidemiology, including the specific resources needed, technical requirements, and acceptability to public health practitioners and policymakers, have wide-reaching implications for public health surveillance in the 21st century. Methods: This article divides public health surveillance into indicator-based surveillance and event-based surveillance and provides an overview of each. We did an exhaustive review of published articles indexed in the databases PubMed, Scopus, and Scirus between 1990 and 2011 covering contemporary event-based systems for infectious disease surveillance. Findings: Our literature review uncovered no event-based surveillance systems currently used in national surveillance programs. While much has been done to develop event-based surveillance, the existing systems have limitations. Accordingly, there is a need for further development of automated technologies that monitor health-related information on the Internet, especially to handle large amounts of data and to prevent information overload. The dissemination to health authorities of new information about health events is not always efficient and could be improved. No

  18. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  19. Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Stange, A W; Furman, F J; Hilmas, D E

    1996-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP), initiated in June 1991, was designed to provide medical surveillance for current and former employees exposed to beryllium. The BHSP identifies individuals who have developed beryllium sensitivity using the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). A detailed medical evaluation to determine the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is offered to individuals identified as beryllium sensitized or to those who have chest X-ray changes suggestive of CBD. The BHSP has identified 27 cases of CBD and another 74 cases of beryllium sensitization out of 4268 individuals tested. The distribution of BeLPT values for normal, sensitized, and CBD-identified individuals is described. Based on the information collected during the first 3 1/3 years of the BHSP, the BeLPT is the most effective means for the early identification of beryllium-sensitized individuals and to identify individuals who may have CBD. The need for BeLPT retesting is demonstrated through the identification of beryllium sensitization in individuals who previously tested normal. Posterior/anterior chest X-rays were not effective in the identification of CBD. PMID:8933045

  20. Rocky Flats beryllium health surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, A.W.; Furman, F.J.; Hilmas, D.E.

    1996-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP), initiated in June 1991, was designed to provide medical surveillance for current and former employees exposed to beryllium. The BHSP identifies individuals who have developed beryllium sensitivity using the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). A detailed medical evaluation to determine the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is offered to individuals identified as beryllium sensitized or to those who have chest X-ray changes suggestive of CBD. The BHSP has identified 27 cases of CBD and another 74 cases of beryllium sensitization out of 4268 individuals tested. The distribution of BeLPT values for normal, sensitized, and CBD-identified individuals is described. Based on the information collected during the first 3 1/3 years of the BHSP, the BeLPT is the most effective means for the early identification of beryllium-sensitized individuals and to identify individuals who may have CBD. The need for BeLPT retesting is demonstrated through the identification of beryllium sensitization in individuals who previously tested normal. Posterior/anterior chest X-rays were not effective in the identification of CBD. 12 refs., 8 tabs.

  1. Systematic acquisition of audio classes for elevator surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Divakaran, Ajay

    2005-03-01

    We present a systematic framework for arriving at audio classes for detection of crimes in elevators. We use a time series analysis framework to analyze the low-level features extracted from the audio of an elevator surveillance content to perform an inlier/outlier based temporal segmentation. Since suspicious events in elevators are outliers in a background of usual events, such a segmentation help bring out such events without any a priori knowledge. Then, by performing an automatic clustering on the detected outliers, we identify consistent patterns for which we can train supervised detectors. We apply the proposed framework to a collection of elevator surveillance audio data to systematically acquire audio classes such as banging, footsteps, non-neutral speech and normal speech etc. Based on the observation that the banging audio class and non-neutral speech class are indicative of suspicious events in the elevator data set, we are able to detect all of the suspicious activities without any misses.

  2. Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyatikanto, Rhorom; Religia, Bahar; Rachman, Abdul; Dani, Tiar

    2015-09-01

    Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO & GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar scheme to establish an analysis pipeline for optical space surveillance system hosted in Indonesia.

  3. Automated recommendation for cervical cancer screening and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Casey, Petra M; Kastner, Thomas M; Henry, Michael R; Hankey, Ronald A; Peters, Steve G; Greenes, Robert A; Chute, Christopher G; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhry, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Because of the complexity of cervical cancer prevention guidelines, clinicians often fail to follow best-practice recommendations. Moreover, existing clinical decision support (CDS) systems generally recommend a cervical cytology every three years for all female patients, which is inappropriate for patients with abnormal findings that require surveillance at shorter intervals. To address this problem, we developed a decision tree-based CDS system that integrates national guidelines to provide comprehensive guidance to clinicians. Validation was performed in several iterations by comparing recommendations generated by the system with those of clinicians for 333 patients. The CDS system extracted relevant patient information from the electronic health record and applied the guideline model with an overall accuracy of 87%. Providers without CDS assistance needed an average of 1 minute 39 seconds to decide on recommendations for management of abnormal findings. Overall, our work demonstrates the feasibility and potential utility of automated recommendation system for cervical cancer screening and surveillance. PMID:25368505

  4. Occupational Injury and Illness Surveillance: Conceptual Filters Explain Underreporting

    PubMed Central

    Azaroff, Lenore S.; Levenstein, Charles; Wegman, David H.

    2002-01-01

    Occupational health surveillance data are key to effective intervention. However, the US Bureau of Labor Statistics survey significantly underestimates the incidence of work-related injuries and illnesses. Researchers supplement these statistics with data from other systems not designed for surveillance. The authors apply the filter model of Webb et al. to underreporting by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, workers’ compensation wage-replacement documents, physician reporting systems, and medical records of treatment charged to workers’ compensation. Mechanisms are described for the loss of cases at successive steps of documentation. Empirical findings indicate that workers repeatedly risk adverse consequences for attempting to complete these steps, while systems for ensuring their completion are weak or absent. PMID:12197968

  5. Automated Recommendation for Cervical Cancer Screening and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Casey, Petra M; Kastner, Thomas M; Henry, Michael R; Hankey, Ronald A; Peters, Steve G; Greenes, Robert A; Chute, Christopher G; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhry, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Because of the complexity of cervical cancer prevention guidelines, clinicians often fail to follow best-practice recommendations. Moreover, existing clinical decision support (CDS) systems generally recommend a cervical cytology every three years for all female patients, which is inappropriate for patients with abnormal findings that require surveillance at shorter intervals. To address this problem, we developed a decision tree-based CDS system that integrates national guidelines to provide comprehensive guidance to clinicians. Validation was performed in several iterations by comparing recommendations generated by the system with those of clinicians for 333 patients. The CDS system extracted relevant patient information from the electronic health record and applied the guideline model with an overall accuracy of 87%. Providers without CDS assistance needed an average of 1 minute 39 seconds to decide on recommendations for management of abnormal findings. Overall, our work demonstrates the feasibility and potential utility of automated recommendation system for cervical cancer screening and surveillance. PMID:25368505

  6. 48 CFR 242.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... production surveillance is required, shall— (A) Conduct a periodic risk assessment of the contractor to... risk assessment shall consider information provided by the contractor and the contracting officer; (B) Develop a production surveillance plan based on the risk level determined during a risk assessment;...

  7. 48 CFR 242.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... production surveillance is required, shall— (A) Conduct a periodic risk assessment of the contractor to... risk assessment shall consider information provided by the contractor and the contracting officer; (B) Develop a production surveillance plan based on the risk level determined during a risk assessment;...

  8. Citizen Science and Wildlife Disease Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Becki; Petrovan, Silviu O; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2015-12-01

    Achieving effective wildlife disease surveillance is challenging. The incorporation of citizen science (CS) in wildlife health surveillance can be beneficial, particularly where resources are limited and cost-effectiveness is paramount. Reports of wildlife morbidity and mortality from the public facilitate large-scale surveillance, both in time and space, which would otherwise be financially infeasible, and raise awareness of incidents occurring on privately owned land. CS wildlife disease surveillance schemes benefit scientists, the participating public and wildlife alike. CS has been employed for targeted, scanning and syndromic surveillance of wildlife disease. Whilst opportunistic surveillance is most common, systematic observations enable the standardisation of observer effort and, combined with wildlife population monitoring schemes, can allow evaluation of disease impacts at the population level. Near-universal access to digital media has revolutionised reporting modalities and facilitated rapid and economical means of sharing feedback with participants. Here we review CS schemes for wildlife disease surveillance and highlight their scope, benefits, logistical considerations, financial implications and potential limitations. The need to adopt a collaborative and multidisciplinary approach to wildlife health surveillance is increasingly recognised and the general public can make a significant contribution through CS. PMID:26318592

  9. Video Surveillance: All Eyes Turn to IP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2011-01-01

    Many university officials recognize the need to upgrade their older analog video surveillance systems. In a 2010 survey by "Campus Safety" magazine, half of university respondents expressed dissatisfaction with the quality and coverage of their current video surveillance systems. Among the limitations of analog closed-circuit television (CCTV)…

  10. 40 CFR 52.1077 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1077 Section 52.1077 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1077 Source surveillance....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2684 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2684 Section 52.2684 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2684 Source surveillance. (a)...

  12. 48 CFR 244.304 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surveillance. 244.304 Section 244.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Reviews 244.304 Surveillance. (b) The ACO, or the purchasing system analyst (PSA) with the concurrence...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2684 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2684 Section 52.2684 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2684 Source surveillance. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1077 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1077 Section 52.1077 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1077 Source surveillance....

  15. 40 CFR 52.1077 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1077 Section 52.1077 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1077 Source surveillance....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2684 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2684 Section 52.2684 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2684 Source surveillance. (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1479 Section 52.1479 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1479 Source surveillance. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2684 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2684 Section 52.2684 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2684 Source surveillance. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 52.479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.479 Section 52.479 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.479 Source surveillance. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1479 Section 52.1479 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1479 Source surveillance. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 52.130 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....130, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.130 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.130 Source surveillance. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 52.479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.479 Section 52.479 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.479 Source surveillance. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 52.130 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....130, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.130 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.130 Source surveillance. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2684 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2684 Section 52.2684 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2684 Source surveillance. (a)...

  5. 17 CFR 38.604 - Financial surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Financial surveillance. 38.604 Section 38.604 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Financial Integrity of Transactions § 38.604 Financial surveillance. A designated contract...

  6. 40 CFR 52.479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.479 Section 52.479 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.479 Source surveillance. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1077 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1077 Section 52.1077 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1077 Source surveillance....

  8. 40 CFR 52.479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.479 Section 52.479 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.479 Source surveillance....

  9. 40 CFR 52.130 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....130, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.130 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.130 Source surveillance. (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1479 Section 52.1479 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1479 Source surveillance. (a)...

  11. 10 CFR 34.51 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Surveillance. 34.51 Section 34.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.51 Surveillance. During each radiographic operation the radiographer, or the other...

  12. GLOBAL EMERGING INFECTIONS SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Department of Defense (DoD) Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP). The DoD Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS) partners with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in the global surv...

  13. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41...

  14. Geographical Information Systems for Dengue Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Duncombe, Jennifer; Clements, Archie; Hu, Wenbiao; Weinstein, Philip; Ritchie, Scott; Espino, Fe Esperanza

    2012-01-01

    This review provides details on the role of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in current dengue surveillance systems and focuses on the application of open access GIS technology to emphasize its importance in developing countries, where the dengue burden is greatest. It also advocates for increased international collaboration in transboundary disease surveillance to confront the emerging global challenge of dengue. PMID:22556070

  15. 48 CFR 242.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... production surveillance is required, shall— (A) Conduct a periodic risk assessment of the contractor to... risk assessment shall consider information provided by the contractor and the contracting officer; (B) Develop a production surveillance plan based on the risk level determined during a risk assessment;...

  16. 48 CFR 242.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... production surveillance is required, shall— (A) Conduct a periodic risk assessment of the contractor to... risk assessment shall consider information provided by the contractor and the contracting officer; (B) Develop a production surveillance plan based on the risk level determined during a risk assessment;...

  17. 48 CFR 242.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... production surveillance is required, shall— (A) Conduct a periodic risk assessment of the contractor to... risk assessment shall consider information provided by the contractor and the contracting officer; (B) Develop a production surveillance plan based on the risk level determined during a risk assessment;...

  18. 17 CFR 38.604 - Financial surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MARKETS Financial Integrity of Transactions § 38.604 Financial surveillance. A designated contract market must monitor members' compliance with the designated contract market's minimum financial standards and... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Financial surveillance....

  19. 40 CFR 52.1479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1479 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1479 Source surveillance. (a) The... records of, and periodically report, information on the nature and amount of emissions. (b)...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1479 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1479 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1479 Source surveillance. (a) The... records of, and periodically report, information on the nature and amount of emissions. (b)...

  1. 40 CFR 52.12 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exclusive use, of any credible evidence or information, relevant to whether a source would have been in... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.12 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.12 Source surveillance. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2075 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2075 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2075 Source surveillance... report information as may be necessary to enable the state to determine whether such sources are...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2075 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2075 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2075 Source surveillance... report information as may be necessary to enable the state to determine whether such sources are...

  4. 40 CFR 52.12 - Source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exclusive use, of any credible evidence or information, relevant to whether a source would have been in... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.12 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.12 Source surveillance. (a)...

  5. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China. PMID:26343705

  6. Wireless sensor network for mobile surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, Gert J. A.; Maris, Marinus G.

    2004-11-01

    Guarding safety and security within industrial, commercial and military areas is an important issue nowadays. A specific challenge lies in the design of portable surveillance systems that can be rapidly deployed, installed and easily operated. Conventional surveillance systems typically employ stand alone sensors that transmit their data to a central control station for data-processing. One of the disadvantages of these kinds of systems is that they generate a lot of data that may induce processing or storage problems. Moreover, data from the sensors must be constantly observed and assessed by human operators. In this paper, a surveillance concept based on distributed intelligence in wireless sensor networks is proposed. In this concept, surveillance is automatically performed by means of many small sensing devices including cameras. The requirements for such surveillance systems are investigated. Experiments with a demonstration system were conducted to verify some of the claims made throughout this paper.

  7. Improved Global Capacity for Influenza Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Polansky, Lauren S; Outin-Blenman, Sajata; Moen, Ann C

    2016-06-01

    During 2004-2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) partnered with 39 national governments to strengthen global influenza surveillance. Using World Health Organization data and program evaluation indicators collected by CDC in 2013, we retrospectively evaluated progress made 4-9 years after the start of influenza surveillance capacity strengthening in the countries. Our results showed substantial increases in laboratory and sentinel surveillance capacities, which are essential for knowing which influenza strains circulate globally, detecting emergence of novel influenza, identifying viruses for vaccine selection, and determining the epidemiology of respiratory illness. Twenty-eight of 35 countries responding to a 2013 questionnaire indicated that they have leveraged routine influenza surveillance platforms to detect other pathogens. This additional surveillance illustrates increased health-system strengthening. Furthermore, 34 countries reported an increased ability to use data in decision making; data-driven decisions are critical for improving local prevention and control of influenza around the world. PMID:27192395

  8. Improved Global Capacity for Influenza Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Outin-Blenman, Sajata; Moen, Ann C.

    2016-01-01

    During 2004–2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) partnered with 39 national governments to strengthen global influenza surveillance. Using World Health Organization data and program evaluation indicators collected by CDC in 2013, we retrospectively evaluated progress made 4–9 years after the start of influenza surveillance capacity strengthening in the countries. Our results showed substantial increases in laboratory and sentinel surveillance capacities, which are essential for knowing which influenza strains circulate globally, detecting emergence of novel influenza, identifying viruses for vaccine selection, and determining the epidemiology of respiratory illness. Twenty-eight of 35 countries responding to a 2013 questionnaire indicated that they have leveraged routine influenza surveillance platforms to detect other pathogens. This additional surveillance illustrates increased health-system strengthening. Furthermore, 34 countries reported an increased ability to use data in decision making; data-driven decisions are critical for improving local prevention and control of influenza around the world. PMID:27192395

  9. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html). PMID:27389614

  10. Optical signal processing of video surveillance for recognizing and measurement location railway infrastructure elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diyazitdinov, Rinat R.; Vasin, Nikolay N.

    2016-03-01

    Processing of optical signals, which are received from CCD sensors of video cameras, allows to extend the functionality of video surveillance systems. Traditional video surveillance systems are used for saving, transmitting and preprocessing of the video content from the controlled objects. Video signal processing by analytics systems allows to get more information about object's location and movement, the flow of technological processes and to measure other parameters. For example, the signal processing of video surveillance systems, installed on carriage-laboratories, are used for getting information about certain parameters of the railways. Two algorithms for video processing, allowing recognition of pedestrian crossings of the railways, as well as location measurement of the so-called "Anchor Marks" used to control the mechanical stresses of continuous welded rail track are described in this article. The algorithms are based on the principle of determining the region of interest (ROI), and then the analysis of the fragments inside this ROI.

  11. Respiratory disease surveillance in Hungary

    SciTech Connect

    Agocs, M.M.; Rudnai, P.; Etzel, R.A. )

    1992-08-28

    In October 1989, the Hungarian National Institute of Hygiene initiated the Children's Acute Respiratory Morbidity (CHARM) Surveillance System to assess the association between nine reportable respiratory diseases and air pollution. The weekly number of physician-diagnosed, reportable respiratory diseases among four age groups of children (less than 1, 1-2, 3-5, and 6-14 years) was tabulated for Sopron, a city with 60,000 residents. We calculated the proportion of diseases occurring during weeks with low, moderate, and high sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. The weekly averages of the 24-hour median SO2 concentrations were divided into thirds at less than or equal to 17.6, greater than 17.6 to less than or equal to 26.3, and greater than 26.3 micrograms/m3 (range: 0.9-79.6 micrograms/m3), and the NO2 concentrations at less than or equal to 29.8, greater than 29.8 to less than or equal to 44.1, and greater than 44.1 micrograms/m3 (range: 4.2-90.1 micrograms/m3). During 1990, 11,474 respiratory disease cases occurred among the 4,020 children less than 15 years of age living in Sopron and monitored by the CHARM system. The two most frequently reported disease categories were rhinitis/tonsillitis/pharyngitis (71.5%) and acute bronchitis (8.5%). Sixty-seven percent of pneumonia cases occurred when SO2 concentrations were highest. We found no association between levels of NO2 and respiratory diseases. The CHARM Surveillance System may characterize more fully which groups of children develop particular respiratory diseases following exposure to air pollution.

  12. [Ethical problems in health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Toffoletto, F; Briatico Vangosa, G; Panizza, C

    2000-01-01

    Surveillance of workers' health in the field of occupational medicine poses substantial ethical problems in view of occupational medicine's complex responsibilities towards workers and employers, preventive and protection services, workers' representatives, public healthcare and preventive medicine facilities, controlling agencies and judicial authorities. Potentially conflicting rights and duties often come into play in this sector. In the last few years various international and national bodies have drawn up codes of ethics or guidelines for the conduct of physicians in occupational medicine, three of which are of particular importance: 1) The International Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH, 1992); 2) The Code of Conduct of the National Association of Company Doctors (ANMA, 1997); 3) The Technical and Ethical Guidelines for workers' health (ILO, 1998). The chief purpose of all these documents is to safeguard the health of workers and to guarantee the safety of the workplace by defining programmes of health supervision to match specific risks. The methods should be non-invasive and should allow for a check or efficiency. The physician is expected to have a high degree of professionalism and up-to-date skills; to be independent and impartial; to be reserved and capable of inter-disciplinary co-operation. On the basis of the above documents, a number of problematic aspects may be appraised concerning the relationship between the occupational health physician responsible for the surveillance activities of the local health authority and the relative company physician. The documents stress the importance of keeping up to date and of quality, fields in which the dominant role played by Scientific Societies is underlined. Finally it is recommended that health supervision be arranged in such a manner as to foster the professionalism and responsibility of the physician in charge rather than the formal implementation of health

  13. Surveillance strategies for foot and mouth disease to prove absence of disease and absence of viral circulation.

    PubMed

    Caporale, V; Giovannini, A; Zepeda, C

    2012-12-01

    Free trade of animals and their products is based on the international or bilateral recognition of the health status of the animal populations being traded. This recognition is based on documentation of their health status by the exporting country, based on the results of continuing surveillance. According to the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), this may be based on various methods of surveillance, such as: documenting non-specific surveillance (clinical surveillance, passive notification of suspect cases, etc.); documenting activities that increase the sensitivity of non-specific surveillance (training activities, rewards/sanctions for notification/failure to notify, etc.); documenting all specific surveillance and its results (random surveys, targeted and risk-based surveillance, convenience-testing activities, etc.). Usually, the infection is the subject of the declaration of freedom. While clinical and passive surveillance can provide a high level of confidence that foot and mouth disease (FMD) infection is absent, this is not the case in vaccinated populations. In these populations, specific surveillance becomes much more important than non-specific clinical surveillance. Specific surveillance is severely restricted by the performance of the test(s) employed. The imperfect specificity of any serological test is further complicated when techniques to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) are used, because imperfect purification of the antigen used for vaccination may foster the production of undesired antibodies in the vaccinated animals. The authors discuss various approaches to overcome this problem; their merits and flaws in documenting the absence of infection or virus circulation for animal diseases in general, and for FMD in particular. Particular attention is paid to finding methods that can be applied in a variety of epidemiological conditions and organisational structures, since these

  14. Visual traffic surveillance framework: classification to event detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambardekar, Amol; Nicolescu, Mircea; Bebis, George; Nicolescu, Monica

    2013-10-01

    Visual traffic surveillance using computer vision techniques can be noninvasive, automated, and cost effective. Traffic surveillance systems with the ability to detect, count, and classify vehicles can be employed in gathering traffic statistics and achieving better traffic control in intelligent transportation systems. However, vehicle classification poses a difficult problem as vehicles have high intraclass variation and relatively low interclass variation. Five different object recognition techniques are investigated: principal component analysis (PCA)+difference from vehicle space, PCA+difference in vehicle space, PCA+support vector machine, linear discriminant analysis, and constellation-based modeling applied to the problem of vehicle classification. Three of the techniques that performed well were incorporated into a unified traffic surveillance system for online classification of vehicles, which uses tracking results to improve the classification accuracy. To evaluate the accuracy of the system, 31 min of traffic video containing multilane traffic intersection was processed. It was possible to achieve classification accuracy as high as 90.49% while classifying correctly tracked vehicles into four classes: cars, SUVs/vans, pickup trucks, and buses/semis. While processing a video, our system also recorded important traffic parameters such as the appearance, speed, trajectory of a vehicle, etc. This information was later used in a search assistant tool to find interesting traffic events.

  15. How to reach the poor? Surveillance in low-income countries, lessons from experiences in Cambodia and Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Goutard, F L; Binot, A; Duboz, R; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Pedrono, M; Holl, D; Peyre, M I; Cappelle, J; Chevalier, V; Figuié, M; Molia, S; Roger, F L

    2015-06-01

    Surveillance of animal diseases in developing countries faces many constraints. Innovative tools and methods to enhance surveillance in remote and neglected areas should be defined, assessed and applied in close connection with local farmers, national stakeholders and international agencies. The authors performed a narrative synthesis of their own publications about surveillance in Madagascar and Cambodia. They analysed the data in light of their fieldwork experiences in the two countries' very challenging environments. The burden of animal and zoonotic diseases (e.g. avian influenza, African swine fever, Newcastle disease, Rift Valley fever) is huge in both countries which are among the poorest in the world. Being poor countries implies a lack of human and financial means to ensure effective surveillance of emerging and endemic diseases. Several recent projects have shown that new approaches can be proposed and tested in the field. Several advanced participatory approaches are promising and could be part of an innovative method for improving the dialogue among different actors in a surveillance system. Thus, participatory modelling, developed for natural resources management involving local stakeholders, could be applied to health management, including surveillance. Data transmission could benefit from the large mobile-phone coverage in these countries. Ecological studies and advances in the field of livestock surveillance should guide methods for enhancing wildlife monitoring and surveillance. Under the umbrella of the One Health paradigm, and in the framework of a risk-based surveillance concept, a combination of participatory methods and modern technologies could help to overcome the constraints present in low-income countries. These unconventional approaches should be merged in order to optimise surveillance of emerging and endemic diseases in challenging environments. PMID:25842000

  16. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  17. Modernization of existing VVER-1000 surveillance programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kochkin, V.; Erak, D.; Makhotin, D.

    2011-07-01

    According to generally accepted world practice, evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material behavior during operation is carried out using tests of surveillance specimens. The main objective of the surveillance program consists in insurance of safe RPV operation during the design lifetime and lifetime-extension period. At present, the approaches of pressure vessels residual life validation based on the test results of their surveillance specimens have been developed and introduced in Russia and are under consideration in other countries where vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactors- (VVER-) 1000 are in operation. In this case, it is necessary to ensure leading irradiation of surveillance specimens (as compared to the pressure vessel wall) and to provide uniformly irradiated specimen groups for mechanical testing. Standard surveillance program of VVER-1000 has several significant shortcomings and does not meet these requirements. Taking into account program of lifetime extension of VVER-1000 operating in Russia, it is necessary to carry out upgrading of the VVER-1000 surveillance program. This paper studies the conditions of a surveillance specimen's irradiation and upgrading of existing sets to provide monitoring and prognosis of RPV material properties for extension of the reactor's lifetime up to 60 years or more. (authors)

  18. Applied Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Spencer G.

    Stratigraphy is a cornerstone of the Earth sciences. The study of layered rocks, especially their age determination and correlation, which are integral parts of stratigraphy, are key to fields as diverse as geoarchaeology and tectonics. In the Anglophile history of geology, in the early 1800s, the untutored English surveyor William Smith was the first practical stratigrapher, constructing a geological map of England based on his own applied stratigraphy. Smith has, thus, been seen as the first “industrial stratigrapher,” and practical applications of stratigraphy have since been essential to most of the extractive industries from mining to petroleum. Indeed, gasoline is in your automobile because of a tremendous use of applied stratigraphy in oil exploration, especially during the latter half of the twentieth century. Applied stratigraphy, thus, is a subject of broad interest to Earth scientists.

  19. Cumulative Query Method for Influenza Surveillance Using Search Engine Data

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dong-Woo; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, JaeHo; Yu, Maengsoo; Kim, Won Young; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Sang-Il

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet search queries have become an important data source in syndromic surveillance system. However, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using Internet search query data in South Korea. Objectives The objective of this study was to examine correlations between our cumulative query method and national influenza surveillance data. Methods Our study was based on the local search engine, Daum (approximately 25% market share), and influenza-like illness (ILI) data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A quota sampling survey was conducted with 200 participants to obtain popular queries. We divided the study period into two sets: Set 1 (the 2009/10 epidemiological year for development set 1 and 2010/11 for validation set 1) and Set 2 (2010/11 for development Set 2 and 2011/12 for validation Set 2). Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated between the Daum data and the ILI data for the development set. We selected the combined queries for which the correlation coefficients were .7 or higher and listed them in descending order. Then, we created a cumulative query method n representing the number of cumulative combined queries in descending order of the correlation coefficient. Results In validation set 1, 13 cumulative query methods were applied, and 8 had higher correlation coefficients (min=.916, max=.943) than that of the highest single combined query. Further, 11 of 13 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 4 of 13 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. In validation set 2, 8 of 15 cumulative query methods showed higher correlation coefficients (min=.975, max=.987) than that of the highest single combined query. All 15 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 6 of 15 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. Conclusions Cumulative query method showed relatively higher correlation with national influenza surveillance data than combined queries in the development and validation

  20. Point-of-Care Testing as an Influenza Surveillance Tool: Methodology and Lessons Learned from Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Gren, Lisa H.; Porucznik, Christina A.; Joy, Elizabeth A.; Lyon, Joseph L.; Staes, Catherine J.; Alder, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Disease surveillance combines data collection and analysis with dissemination of findings to decision makers. The timeliness of these activities affects the ability to implement preventive measures. Influenza surveillance has traditionally been hampered by delays in both data collection and dissemination. Methods. We used statistical process control (SPC) to evaluate the daily percentage of outpatient visits with a positive point-of-care (POC) influenza test in the University of Utah Primary Care Research Network. Results. Retrospectively, POC testing generated an alert in each of 4 seasons (2004–2008, median 16 days before epidemic onset), suggesting that email notification of clinicians would be 9 days earlier than surveillance alerts posted to the Utah Department of Health website. In the 2008-09 season, the algorithm generated a real-time alert 19 days before epidemic onset. Clinicians in 4 intervention clinics received email notification of the alert within 4 days. Compared with clinicians in 6 control clinics, intervention clinicians were 40% more likely to perform rapid testing (P = 0.105) and twice as likely to vaccinate for seasonal influenza (P = 0.104) after notification. Conclusions. Email notification of SPC-generated alerts provided significantly earlier notification of the epidemic onset than traditional surveillance. Clinician preventive behavior was not significantly different in intervention clinics. PMID:23691297

  1. Point-of-Care Testing as an Influenza Surveillance Tool: Methodology and Lessons Learned from Implementation.

    PubMed

    Gren, Lisa H; Porucznik, Christina A; Joy, Elizabeth A; Lyon, Joseph L; Staes, Catherine J; Alder, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Disease surveillance combines data collection and analysis with dissemination of findings to decision makers. The timeliness of these activities affects the ability to implement preventive measures. Influenza surveillance has traditionally been hampered by delays in both data collection and dissemination. Methods. We used statistical process control (SPC) to evaluate the daily percentage of outpatient visits with a positive point-of-care (POC) influenza test in the University of Utah Primary Care Research Network. Results. Retrospectively, POC testing generated an alert in each of 4 seasons (2004-2008, median 16 days before epidemic onset), suggesting that email notification of clinicians would be 9 days earlier than surveillance alerts posted to the Utah Department of Health website. In the 2008-09 season, the algorithm generated a real-time alert 19 days before epidemic onset. Clinicians in 4 intervention clinics received email notification of the alert within 4 days. Compared with clinicians in 6 control clinics, intervention clinicians were 40% more likely to perform rapid testing (P = 0.105) and twice as likely to vaccinate for seasonal influenza (P = 0.104) after notification. Conclusions. Email notification of SPC-generated alerts provided significantly earlier notification of the epidemic onset than traditional surveillance. Clinician preventive behavior was not significantly different in intervention clinics. PMID:23691297

  2. Sustaining surveillance: Evaluating syndromic surveillance in the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Beverley J.; Kool, Jacob L.; Durrheim, David N.; Pavlin, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Prior to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) had agreed to develop a standardised, simple syndromic surveillance system to ensure compliance with International Health Regulations requirements (rapid outbreak detection, information sharing and response to outbreaks). In October 2010, the new system was introduced and over the next 12 months implemented in 20 of 22 PICTs. An evaluation was conducted to identify strengths and weaknesses of the system, ease of use and possible points for improvement. An in-country quantitative and qualitative evaluation in five PICTs identified that the most important determinants of the system's success were: simplicity of the system; support from all levels of government; clearly defined roles and responsibilities; feedback to those who collect the data; harmonisation of case definitions; integration of data collection tools into existing health information systems; and availability of clinical and epidemiological advice from external agencies such as the World Health Organization and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Regional reporting of alerts, outbreaks and outbreak updates has dramatically increased since implementation of the system. This syndromic system will assist PICTs to detect future influenza pandemics and other emerging infectious diseases and to rapidly contain outbreaks in the Pacific. PMID:22817479

  3. Sustaining surveillance: evaluating syndromic surveillance in the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Beverley J; Kool, Jacob L; Durrheim, David N; Pavlin, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Prior to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) had agreed to develop a standardised, simple syndromic surveillance system to ensure compliance with International Health Regulations requirements (rapid outbreak detection, information sharing and response to outbreaks). In October 2010, the new system was introduced and over the next 12 months implemented in 20 of 22 PICTs. An evaluation was conducted to identify strengths and weaknesses of the system, ease of use and possible points for improvement. An in-country quantitative and qualitative evaluation in five PICTs identified that the most important determinants of the system's success were: simplicity of the system; support from all levels of government; clearly defined roles and responsibilities; feedback to those who collect the data; harmonisation of case definitions; integration of data collection tools into existing health information systems; and availability of clinical and epidemiological advice from external agencies such as the World Health Organization and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Regional reporting of alerts, outbreaks and outbreak updates has dramatically increased since implementation of the system. This syndromic system will assist PICTs to detect future influenza pandemics and other emerging infectious diseases and to rapidly contain outbreaks in the Pacific. PMID:22817479

  4. Applied oceanography

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book combines oceanography principles and applications such as marine pollution, resources, and transportation. It is divided into two main parts treating the basic principles of physical oceanography, and presenting a unique systems framework showing how physical oceanography, marine ecology, economics, and government policy may be combined to define the newly developing field of applied oceanography.

  5. Joint operations planning for space surveillance missions on the MSX satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Grant; Good, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite, sponsored by BMDO, is intended to gather broad-band phenomenology data on missiles, plumes, naturally occurring earthlimb backgrounds and deep space backgrounds. In addition the MSX will be used to conduct functional demonstrations of space-based space surveillance. The JHU/Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), located in Laurel, MD, is the integrator and operator of the MSX satellite. APL will conduct all operations related to the MSX and is charged with the detailed operations planning required to implement all of the experiments run on the MSX except the space surveillance experiments. The non-surveillance operations are generally amenable to being defined months ahead of time and being scheduled on a monthly basis. Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (LL), located in Lexington, MA, is the provider of one of the principle MSX instruments, the Space-Based Visible (SBV) sensor, and the agency charged with implementing the space surveillance demonstrations on the MSX. The planning timelines for the space surveillance demonstrations are fundamentally different from those for the other experiments. They are generally amenable to being scheduled on a monthly basis, but the specific experiment sequence and pointing must be refined shortly before execution. This allocation of responsibilities to different organizations implies the need for a joint mission planning system for conducting space surveillance demonstrations. This paper details the iterative, joint planning system, based on passing responsibility for generating MSX commands for surveillance operations from APL to LL for specific scheduled operations. The joint planning system, including the generation of a budget for spacecraft resources to be used for surveillance events, has been successfully demonstrated during ground testing of the MSX and is being validated for MSX launch within the year. The planning system developed for the MSX forms a

  6. Biosurveillance applying scan statistics with multiple, disparate data sources.

    PubMed

    Burkom, Howard S

    2003-06-01

    Researchers working on the Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections System (DoD-GEIS) pilot system, the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-Based Epidemics (ESSENCE), have applied scan statistics for early outbreak detection using both traditional and nontraditional data sources. These sources include medical data indexed by International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes, as well as less-specific, but potentially timelier, indicators such as records of over-the-counter remedy sales and of school absenteeism. Early efforts employed the Kulldorff scan statistic as implemented in the SaTScan software of the National Cancer Institute. A key obstacle to this application is that the input data streams are typically based on time-varying factors, such as consumer behavior, rather than simply on the populations of the component subregions. We have used both modeling and recent historical data distributions to obtain background spatial distributions. Data analyses have provided guidance on how to condition and model input data to avoid excessive clustering. We have used this methodology in combining data sources for both retrospective studies of known outbreaks and surveillance of high-profile events of concern to local public health authorities. We have integrated the scan statistic capability into a Microsoft Access-based system in which we may include or exclude data sources, vary time windows separately for different data sources, censor data from subsets of individual providers or subregions, adjust the background computation method, and run retrospective or simulated studies. PMID:12791780

  7. Expectation maximization applied to GMTI convoy tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Wolfgang

    2002-08-01

    Collectively moving ground targets are typical of a military ground situation and have to be treated as separate aggregated entities. For a long-range ground surveillance application with airborne GMTI radar we inparticular address the task of track maintenance for ground moving convoys consisting of a small number of individual vehicles. In the proposed approach the identity of the individual vehicles within the convoy is no longer stressed. Their kinematical state vectors are rather treated as internal degrees of freedom characterizing the convoy, which is considered as a collective unit. In this context, the Expectation Maximization technique (EM), originally developed for incomplete data problems in statistical inference and first applied to tracking applications by STREIT et al. seems to be a promising approach. We suggest to embed the EM algorithm into a more traditional Bayesian tracking framework for dealing with false or unwanted sensor returns. The proposed distinction between external and internal data association conflicts (i.e. those among the convoy vehicles) should also enable the application of sequential track extraction techniques introduced by Van Keuk for aircraft formations, providing estimates of the number of the individual convoy vehicles involved. Even with sophisticated signal processing methods (STAP: Space-Time Adaptive Processing), ground moving vehicles can well be masked by the sensor specific clutter notch (Doppler blinding). This physical phenomenon results in interfering fading effects, which can well last over a longer series of sensor updates and therefore will seriously affect the track quality unless properly handled. Moreover, for ground moving convoys the phenomenon of Doppler blindness often superposes the effects induced by the finite resolution capability of the sensor. In many practical cases a separate modeling of resolution phenomena for convoy targets can therefore be omitted, provided the GMTI detection model is used

  8. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  9. Use of Unstructured Event-Based Reports for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Blench, Michael; Tolentino, Herman; Freifeld, Clark C.; Mandl, Kenneth D.; Mawudeku, Abla; Eysenbach, Gunther; Brownstein, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Free or low-cost sources of unstructured information, such as Internet news and online discussion sites, provide detailed local and near real-time data on disease outbreaks, even in countries that lack traditional public health surveillance. To improve public health surveillance and, ultimately, interventions, we examined 3 primary systems that process event-based outbreak information: Global Public Health Intelligence Network, HealthMap, and EpiSPIDER. Despite similarities among them, these systems are highly complementary because they monitor different data types, rely on varying levels of automation and human analysis, and distribute distinct information. Future development should focus on linking these systems more closely to public health practitioners in the field and establishing collaborative networks for alert verification and dissemination. Such development would further establish event-based monitoring as an invaluable public health resource that provides critical context and an alternative to traditional indicator-based outbreak reporting. PMID:19402953

  10. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Severtsen, R.H.

    1999-01-12

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system is disclosed including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image. 13 figs.

  11. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Severtsen, Ronald H.

    1999-01-01

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image.

  12. Disease surveillance in England and Wales, June 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Targeted surveillance for bluetongue virus beginsHighlights from the scanning surveillance networkUpdate on international disease threatsMonitoring of colistin resistance in pigs in scanning surveillance submissions These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) June disease surveillance report. PMID:27365239

  13. Cyber-Surveillance: A Case Study in Policy and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Richard S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation examines the historical development of surveillance, electronic surveillance, and cyber-surveillance from colonial times in the United States to the present. It presents the surveillance laws, technologies and policies as a balance between national security and privacy. To examine more recent developments, the dissertation…

  14. 48 CFR 37.604 - Quality assurance surveillance plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... surveillance plans. 37.604 Section 37.604 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... assurance surveillance plans. Requirements for quality assurance and quality assurance surveillance plans are in Subpart 46.4. The Government may either prepare the quality assurance surveillance plan...

  15. 48 CFR 37.604 - Quality assurance surveillance plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... surveillance plans. 37.604 Section 37.604 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... assurance surveillance plans. Requirements for quality assurance and quality assurance surveillance plans are in Subpart 46.4. The Government may either prepare the quality assurance surveillance plan...

  16. 48 CFR 37.604 - Quality assurance surveillance plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... surveillance plans. 37.604 Section 37.604 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... assurance surveillance plans. Requirements for quality assurance and quality assurance surveillance plans are in Subpart 46.4. The Government may either prepare the quality assurance surveillance plan...

  17. 48 CFR 237.172 - Service Contracts Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Surveillance. 237.172 Section 237.172 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS...-General 237.172 Service Contracts Surveillance. Ensure that quality assurance surveillance plans are....) Retain quality assurance surveillance plans in the official contract file. See https://sam.dau.mil,...

  18. 48 CFR 237.172 - Service Contracts Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Surveillance. 237.172 Section 237.172 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS...-General 237.172 Service Contracts Surveillance. Ensure that quality assurance surveillance plans are....) Retain quality assurance surveillance plans in the official contract file. See https://sam.dau.mil,...

  19. 48 CFR 237.172 - Service Contracts Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Surveillance. 237.172 Section 237.172 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS...-General 237.172 Service Contracts Surveillance. Ensure that quality assurance surveillance plans are....) Retain quality assurance surveillance plans in the official contract file. See https://sam.dau.mil,...

  20. 48 CFR 37.604 - Quality assurance surveillance plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... surveillance plans. 37.604 Section 37.604 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... assurance surveillance plans. Requirements for quality assurance and quality assurance surveillance plans are in Subpart 46.4. The Government may either prepare the quality assurance surveillance plan...

  1. 48 CFR 237.172 - Service Contracts Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Surveillance. 237.172 Section 237.172 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS...-General 237.172 Service Contracts Surveillance. Ensure that quality assurance surveillance plans are....) Retain quality assurance surveillance plans in the official contract file. See https://sam.dau.mil,...

  2. 48 CFR 237.172 - Service Contracts Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Surveillance. 237.172 Section 237.172 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS...-General 237.172 Service Contracts Surveillance. Ensure that quality assurance surveillance plans are....) Retain quality assurance surveillance plans in the official contract file. See https://sam.dau.mil,...

  3. Evaluation of historical dry well surveillance logs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.K.

    1996-09-09

    Several dry well surveillance logs from 1975 through 1995 for the SX Tank Farm have been examined to identify potential subsurface zones of radioactive contaminant migration. Several dynamic conditions of the gamma-ray emitting radioactive contaminant shave been identified.

  4. NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

  5. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program

    Cancer.gov

    A premier source for cancer statistics in the US. We collect incidence, prevalence and survival data and publish reports on these and cancer mortality. For those interested in cancer statistics and surveillance methods.

  6. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2000-01-27

    This document contains the CY2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed.

  7. 10 CFR 34.51 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... area, as defined in 10 CFR part 20 of this chapter, except at permanent radiographic installations... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.51 Surveillance. During each radiographic...

  8. 10 CFR 34.51 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... area, as defined in 10 CFR part 20 of this chapter, except at permanent radiographic installations... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.51 Surveillance. During each radiographic...

  9. 10 CFR 34.51 - Surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... area, as defined in 10 CFR part 20 of this chapter, except at permanent radiographic installations... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.51 Surveillance. During each radiographic...

  10. [Health surveillance: foundations, interfaces and tendencies].

    PubMed

    Arreaza, Antonio Luis Vicente; de Moraes, José Cássio

    2010-07-01

    The present article rescues initially the forms, content and operational projection of the epidemiological surveillance as indispensable tool for the knowledge field and public health practices. After that, we verify that the health surveillance model establishes an enlargement of this operational concept of surveillance by integrating the collectives and individuals practices in different health necessities dimensions, which includes beyond of the risks and damages control also the eco-socials determinants. In the sequence, we search to dimension the distinct levels of actuation of this sanitary practice articulated to the interventions of promotion, protection and recovery under a located and integrated logic of the unique system of Brazilian health. Finally, we argue that all the conceptual-operational model framework of public health surveillance itself constitutes as a politics and sanitary base for the consolidation of the health promotion paradigm in the collective health field. PMID:20694344

  11. NATIONAL NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NNIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System is a cooperative effort that began in 1970 between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and participating hospitals to create a national nosocomial infections database. The database is used to describe ...

  12. Surveillance and Monitoring of Dialysis Access

    PubMed Central

    Kumbar, Lalathaksha; Karim, Jariatul; Besarab, Anatole

    2012-01-01

    Vascular access is the lifeline of a hemodialysis patient. Currently arteriovenous fistula and graft are considered the permanent options for vascular access. Monitoring and surveillance of vascular access are an integral part of the care of hemodialysis patient. Although different techniques and methods are available for identifying access dysfunction, the scientific evidence for the optimal methodology is lacking. A small number of randomized controlled trials have been performed evaluating different surveillance techniques. We performed a study of the recent literature published in the PUBMED, to review the scientific evidence on different methodologies currently being used for surveillance and monitoring and their impact on the care of the dialysis access. The limited randomized studies especially involving fistulae and small sample size of the published studies with conflicting results highlight the need for a larger multicentered randomized study with hard clinical end points to evaluate the optimal surveillance strategy for both fistula and graft. PMID:22164333

  13. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (TBISS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had developed and maintains a surveillance system to understand the magnitude and characteristics of hospitalized and fatal traumatic brain injuries in the United State...

  14. Medical Surveillance Requirements For Nonionizing Radiation Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, James A.

    1980-10-01

    The potential value of medical surveillance examinations for laser workers and other workers potentially exposed to high intensity optical radiation is evaluated. A review of the known adverse biological effects leads to the conclusion that most effects are related to acute and subacute exposures which do not lend themselves to effective medical surveillance. In addition, surveys of thousands of laser workers conducted since 1965 demonstrated that routine periodic medical surveillance has been unnecessary and/or impractical using currently available ophthalmic screening methods. Examination techniques to detect early changes in cataract formation or retinal degeneration (two potential chronic effects of optical radiation) are not sufficiently reliable or specific to be of value as routine screening tests. Epidemiologic studies of large worker groups are suggested to evaluate the potential for these chronic conditions to develop as the result of job exposure; however, specific recommendations for routine medical surveillance are limited to preplacement and termination examinations with appropriate evaluation of individuals following acute injury.

  15. Applied Nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Hobson, David W; Roberts, Stephen M; Shvedova, Anna A; Warheit, David B; Hinkley, Georgia K; Guy, Robin C

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials, including nanoparticles and nanoobjects, are being incorporated into everyday products at an increasing rate. These products include consumer products of interest to toxicologists such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, food packaging, household products, and so on. The manufacturing of products containing or utilizing nanomaterials in their composition may also present potential toxicologic concerns in the workplace. The molecular complexity and composition of these nanomaterials are ever increasing, and the means and methods being applied to characterize and perform useful toxicologic assessments are rapidly advancing. This article includes presentations by experienced toxicologists in the nanotoxicology community who are focused on the applied aspect of the discipline toward supporting state of the art toxicologic assessments for food products and packaging, pharmaceuticals and medical devices, inhaled nanoparticle and gastrointestinal exposures, and addressing occupational safety and health issues and concerns. This symposium overview article summarizes 5 talks that were presented at the 35th Annual meeting of the American College of Toxicology on the subject of "Applied Nanotechnology." PMID:26957538

  16. Immune surveillance for ERAAP dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Niranjana A; Shastri, Nilabh

    2013-09-01

    The ER aminopeptidase associated with antigen processing, ERAAP (or ERAP1), is essential for trimming peptides that are presented by MHC class I molecules. ERAP1 is inhibited by human cytomegalovirus, and ERAP1 polymorphisms are associated with autoimmune diseases. How the immune system detects ERAAP dysfunction, however, is unknown. We have shown previously that ERAAP-deficient cells present an immunogenic pMHC I repertoire, that elicits CD8+ T cell response in WT mice. Additionally, we discovered that the WT CD8+ T cells recognized novel peptides presented by non-classical, or MHC class Ib, molecules on ERAAP-deficient cells. The MHC Ib restricted WT CD8 T cells eliminated ERAAP-deficient cells in vitro and in vivo. We identified the FL9 peptide, presented by Qa-1(b), a MHC class Ib molecule exclusively on ERAAP-deficient cells. Remarkably, T cells specific for the FL9-Qa-1(b) complex were frequent in naïve WT mice, and had an antigen-experienced phenotype. Thus, novel non-classical pQa-1(b) complexes direct cytotoxic T cells to target cells with defective peptide processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we discuss the implications of our findings, and the possible roles of pMHC Ib-specific T cells in immune surveillance for ERAAP dysfunction. PMID:23433779

  17. Malaria elimination: surveillance and response

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Daniel J; Winters, Anna M; Hamer, Davidson H

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in reducing malaria-associated morbidity and mortality across the globe. Nevertheless, sustained malaria control is essential to continue this downward trend. In some countries, where aggressive malaria control has reduced malaria to a low burden level, elimination, either nationally or subnationally, is now the aim. As countries or areas with a low malaria burden move towards elimination, there is a transition away from programs of universal coverage towards a strategy of localized detection and response to individual malaria cases. To do so and succeed, it is imperative that a strong surveillance and response system is supported, that community cadres are trained to provide appropriate diagnostics and treatment, and that field diagnostics are further developed such that their sensitivity allows for the detection and subsequent treatment of malaria reservoirs in low prevalence environments. To be certain, there are big challenges on the road to elimination, notably the development of drug and insecticide resistance. Nevertheless, countries like Zambia are making great strides towards implementing systems that support malaria elimination in target areas. Continued development of new diagnostics and antimalarial therapies is needed to support progress in malaria control and elimination. PMID:23265423

  18. Molecular biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis and their role in surveillance and early intervention.

    PubMed

    Garcea, G; Sharma, R A; Dennison, A; Steward, W P; Gescher, A; Berry, D P

    2003-05-01

    Modern medicine is increasingly focused towards population surveillance for disease, coupled with the implementation of preventative measures applied to 'at-risk' patients. Surveillance in colorectal cancer is limited by the cost and risk of endoscopy. Trials of putative chemopreventive agents in colorectal cancer are hampered by difficulties in following up large cohorts of patients over long periods of time to ascertain the clinical effect. Research into possible pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis has revealed a range of biological intermediates which could be used in surveillance, the identification of high risk populations and early diagnosis of cancer. The aim of this paper was to review the possible role of biomarkers in surveillance and the timing of intervention. A literature review using both Medline and Web of Science was performed from 1995 onwards using keywords: biomarkers, colorectal cancer, carcinogenesis, chemoprevention, surveillance and screening. Research has identified many potential biomarkers, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), oxidative DNA adducts and glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms, which could be applied in a clinical setting to screen for and detect colorectal cancer. Molecular biomarkers, such as COX-2, oxidative DNA adducts and GST polymorphisms offer new prospects in the detection of early colorectal cancer, surveillance of high-risk populations and prediction of the clinical effectiveness of chemopreventive drugs. Their role could be extended into surgical surveillance for potentially operable disease and post-operative follow-up for disease recurrence. Research should be directed at assessing complementary biomarkers to increase clinical effectiveness in determining management options for patients. PMID:12736102

  19. A Complete Molecular Diagnostic Procedure for Applications in Surveillance and Subtyping of Avian Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Chang, Chung-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The following complete molecular diagnostic procedure we developed, based on real-time quantitative PCR and traditional PCR, is effective for avian influenza surveillance, virus subtyping, and viral genome sequencing. Method. This study provides a specific and sensitive step-by-step procedure for efficient avian influenza identification of 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase avian influenza subtypes. Result and Conclusion. This diagnostic procedure may prove exceedingly useful for virological and ecological advancements in global avian influenza research. PMID:25057497

  20. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2002-01-16

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The document contains the CY 2002 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project.

  1. Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MARQUEZ, D.L.

    2000-12-21

    The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities.

  2. Enhanced surveillance program FY1998 accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, J

    1998-10-01

    This report highlights the accomplishments of the Enhanced Surveillance Program (ESP), the highest-priority research and development effort in stockpile management today. This is volume one of eleven, the unclassified summary of selected program highlights. These highlights fall into the following focus areas: pits, high explosives, organics, dynamics, diagnostics, systems, secondaries, materials-aging models, non-nuclear components, and routine surveillance testing system upgrades. Principal investigators from around the DOE complex contributed to this report.

  3. Public health surveillance and infectious disease detection.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen S

    2012-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and pandemic influenza, and the anthrax attacks of 2001, have demonstrated that we remain vulnerable to health threats caused by infectious diseases. The importance of strengthening global public health surveillance to provide early warning has been the primary recommendation of expert groups for at least the past 2 decades. However, despite improvements in the past decade, public health surveillance capabilities remain limited and fragmented, with uneven global coverage. Recent initiatives provide hope of addressing this issue, and new technological and conceptual advances could, for the first time, place capability for global surveillance within reach. Such advances include the revised International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) and the use of new data sources and methods to improve global coverage, sensitivity, and timeliness, which show promise for providing capabilities to extend and complement the existing infrastructure. One example is syndromic surveillance, using nontraditional and often automated data sources. Over the past 20 years, other initiatives, including ProMED-mail, GPHIN, and HealthMap, have demonstrated new mechanisms for acquiring surveillance data. In 2009 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) program, which includes the PREDICT project, to build global capacity for surveillance of novel infections that have pandemic potential (originating in wildlife and at the animal-human interface) and to develop a framework for risk assessment. Improved understanding of factors driving infectious disease emergence and new technological capabilities in modeling, diagnostics and pathogen identification, and communications, such as using the increasing global coverage of cellphones for public health surveillance, can further enhance global surveillance. PMID:22455675

  4. Phylogeography of Swine Influenza H3N2 in the United States: Translational Public Health for Zoonotic Disease Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Scotch, Matthew; Mei, Changjiang

    2012-01-01

    The field of phylogeography has received a lot of attention for its application to molecular evolution and geographic migration of species. More recent work has included infectious diseases especially zoonotic RNA viruses like influenza and rabies. Phylogeography of viruses has the potential to advance surveillance at agencies such as public health departments, agriculture departments, and wildlife agencies. However, little is known about how these agencies could use phylogeography for applied surveillance and the integration of animal and human sequence data. Here, we highlight its potential to support ‘translational public health’ that could bring sequence data to the forefront of surveillance. We focus on swine influenza H3N2 because of the recent link to a variant form in humans. We discuss the implications to applied surveillance and the need for an integrated biomedical informatics approach for adoption at agencies of animal and public health. PMID:23137647

  5. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, D. L.; Sheen, D. M.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, T. E.; Smith, R. R.; Droppo, J. G., Jr.

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. Metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 (times) 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electronically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  6. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, D.L.; Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; Smith, R.R.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 {times} 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electonically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  7. Surveillance and Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fitzmorris, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of cancer-related death worldwide. If the disease is detected early, the treatment is more likely to be curative. This article discusses the current evidence regarding the surveillance and diagnosis of HCC, focusing on recent articles and the recommendations of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), which are briefly compared with the recommendations of other liver disease organizations. HCC surveillance aims to detect disease at an early stage in order to augment the likelihood of curative treatment. According to AASLD recommendations, patients who have cirrhosis and those who do not have cirrhosis but are at high risk for HCC should be screened. Ultrasonogra-phy (USG) at 6-month intervals is recommended. The available serologic markers, including serum alpha-fetoprotein, are inadequate for surveillance, even when combined with USG. Despite achievements in HCC management, physicians continue to underutilize surveillance. Quadruple-phase, contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans or magnetic resonance images with characteristic radiologic findings are commonly used to diagnose HCC in suspicious cases. The available surveillance and diagnostic tests effectively identify HCC at an early stage, and as a result, the chances of cure are increased. Physicians caring for patients who have cirrhosis and chronic liver disease should be familiar with HCC surveillance recommendations and the prognostic importance of early diagnosis. PMID:27099571

  8. Applied Koopmanisma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budišić, Marko; Mohr, Ryan; Mezić, Igor

    2012-12-01

    A majority of methods from dynamical system analysis, especially those in applied settings, rely on Poincaré's geometric picture that focuses on "dynamics of states." While this picture has fueled our field for a century, it has shown difficulties in handling high-dimensional, ill-described, and uncertain systems, which are more and more common in engineered systems design and analysis of "big data" measurements. This overview article presents an alternative framework for dynamical systems, based on the "dynamics of observables" picture. The central object is the Koopman operator: an infinite-dimensional, linear operator that is nonetheless capable of capturing the full nonlinear dynamics. The first goal of this paper is to make it clear how methods that appeared in different papers and contexts all relate to each other through spectral properties of the Koopman operator. The second goal is to present these methods in a concise manner in an effort to make the framework accessible to researchers who would like to apply them, but also, expand and improve them. Finally, we aim to provide a road map through the literature where each of the topics was described in detail. We describe three main concepts: Koopman mode analysis, Koopman eigenquotients, and continuous indicators of ergodicity. For each concept, we provide a summary of theoretical concepts required to define and study them, numerical methods that have been developed for their analysis, and, when possible, applications that made use of them. The Koopman framework is showing potential for crossing over from academic and theoretical use to industrial practice. Therefore, the paper highlights its strengths in applied and numerical contexts. Additionally, we point out areas where an additional research push is needed before the approach is adopted as an off-the-shelf framework for analysis and design.

  9. Applied Koopmanism.

    PubMed

    Budisić, Marko; Mohr, Ryan; Mezić, Igor

    2012-12-01

    A majority of methods from dynamical system analysis, especially those in applied settings, rely on Poincaré's geometric picture that focuses on "dynamics of states." While this picture has fueled our field for a century, it has shown difficulties in handling high-dimensional, ill-described, and uncertain systems, which are more and more common in engineered systems design and analysis of "big data" measurements. This overview article presents an alternative framework for dynamical systems, based on the "dynamics of observables" picture. The central object is the Koopman operator: an infinite-dimensional, linear operator that is nonetheless capable of capturing the full nonlinear dynamics. The first goal of this paper is to make it clear how methods that appeared in different papers and contexts all relate to each other through spectral properties of the Koopman operator. The second goal is to present these methods in a concise manner in an effort to make the framework accessible to researchers who would like to apply them, but also, expand and improve them. Finally, we aim to provide a road map through the literature where each of the topics was described in detail. We describe three main concepts: Koopman mode analysis, Koopman eigenquotients, and continuous indicators of ergodicity. For each concept, we provide a summary of theoretical concepts required to define and study them, numerical methods that have been developed for their analysis, and, when possible, applications that made use of them. The Koopman framework is showing potential for crossing over from academic and theoretical use to industrial practice. Therefore, the paper highlights its strengths in applied and numerical contexts. Additionally, we point out areas where an additional research push is needed before the approach is adopted as an off-the-shelf framework for analysis and design. PMID:23278096

  10. The Great East Japan Earthquake: a need to plan for post-disaster surveillance in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Arima, Yuzo; Matsui, Tamano; Partridge, Jeffrey; Kasai, Takeshi

    2011-10-01

    After a devastating earthquake and tsunami struck north-eastern Japan in March 2011, the public health system, including the infectious disease surveillance system, was severely compromised. While models for post-disaster surveillance exist, they focus predominantly on developing countries during the early recovery phase. Such models do not necessarily apply to developed countries, which differ considerably in their baseline surveillance systems. Furthermore, there is a need to consider the process by which a surveillance system recovers post-disaster. The event in Japan has highlighted a need to address these concerns surrounding post-disaster surveillance in developed countries. In May 2011, the World Health Organization convened a meeting where post-disaster surveillance was discussed by experts and public health practitioners. In this paper, we describe a post-disaster surveillance approach that was discussed at the meeting, based on what had actually occurred and what may have been, or would be, ideal. Briefly, we describe the evolution of a surveillance system as it returns to the pre-existing system, starting from an event-based approach during the emergency relief phase, a syndromic approach during the early recovery phase, an enhanced sentinel approach during the late recovery phase and a return to baseline during the development phase. Our aim is not to recommend a specific model but to encourage other developed countries to initiate their own discussions on post-disaster surveillance and develop plans according to their needs and capacities. As natural disasters will continue to occur, we hope that developing such plans during the "inter-disaster" period will help mitigate the surveillance challenges that will arise post-disaster. PMID:23908893

  11. Kazakh Traditional Dance Gesture Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussipbekov, A. K.; Amirgaliyev, E. N.; Hahn, Minsoo

    2014-04-01

    Full body gesture recognition is an important and interdisciplinary research field which is widely used in many application spheres including dance gesture recognition. The rapid growth of technology in recent years brought a lot of contribution in this domain. However it is still challenging task. In this paper we implement Kazakh traditional dance gesture recognition. We use Microsoft Kinect camera to obtain human skeleton and depth information. Then we apply tree-structured Bayesian network and Expectation Maximization algorithm with K-means clustering to calculate conditional linear Gaussians for classifying poses. And finally we use Hidden Markov Model to detect dance gestures. Our main contribution is that we extend Kinect skeleton by adding headwear as a new skeleton joint which is calculated from depth image. This novelty allows us to significantly improve the accuracy of head gesture recognition of a dancer which in turn plays considerable role in whole body gesture recognition. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method and that its performance is comparable to the state-of-the-art system performances.

  12. Foucault and the Architecture of Surveillance: Creating Regimes of Power in Schools, Shrines, and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piro, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    Michel Foucault's critical studies concerning regimes of power are of special interest when applied to architecture. In particular, he warned of the hazards of building surveillance into architectural structures for the purpose of monitoring people and took as his historical exemplar English philosopher Jeremy Bentham's "Panopticon," a structure…

  13. European Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Mosquito Populations

    PubMed Central

    Engler, Olivier; Savini, Giovanni; Papa, Anna; Figuerola, Jordi; Groschup, Martin H.; Kampen, Helge; Medlock, Jolyon; Vaux, Alexander; Wilson, Anthony J.; Werner, Doreen; Jöst, Hanna; Goffredo, Maria; Capelli, Gioia; Federici, Valentina; Tonolla, Mauro; Patocchi, Nicola; Flacio, Eleonora; Portmann, Jasmine; Rossi-Pedruzzi, Anya; Mourelatos, Spiros; Ruiz, Santiago; Vázquez, Ana; Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Schaffner, Francis; Mathis, Alexander; Johnson, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    WNV in mosquito populations across Europe and how this is informing our understanding of virus epidemiology. Key findings such as detection of virus, presence of vector species and invasive mosquito species are summarized, and some of the difficulties encountered when applying a cost-effective surveillance programme are highlighted. PMID:24157510

  14. Surveillance test bed for SDIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesley, Michael; Osterheld, Robert; Kyser, Jeff; Farr, Michele; Vandergriff, Linda J.

    1991-08-01

    The Surveillance Test Bed (STB) is a program under development for the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO). Its most salient features are (1) the integration of high fidelity backgrounds and optical signal processing models with algorithms for sensor tasking, bulk filtering, track/correlation and discrimination and (2) the integration of radar and optical estimates for track and discrimination. Backgrounds include induced environments such as nuclear events, fragments and debris, and natural environments, such as earth limb, zodiacal light, stars, sun and moon. At the highest level of fidelity, optical emulation hardware combines environmental information with threat information to produce detector samples for signal processing algorithms/hardware under test. Simulation of visible sensors and radars model measurement degradation due to the various environmental effects. The modeled threat is composed of multiple object classes. The number of discrimination classes are further increased by inclusion of fragments, debris and stars. High fidelity measurements will be used to drive bulk filtering algorithms that seek to reject fragments and debris and, in the case of optical sensors, stars. The output of the bulk filters will be used to drive track/correlation algorithms. Track algorithm output will include sequences of measurements that have been degraded by backgrounds, closely spaced objects (CSOs), signal processing errors, bulk filtering errors and miscorrelations; these measurements will be presented as input to the discrimination algorithms. The STB will implement baseline IR track file editing and IR and radar feature extraction and classification algorithms. The baseline will also include data fusion algorithms which will allow the combination of discrimination estimates from multiple sensors, including IR and radar; alternative discrimination algorithms may be substituted for the baseline after STB completion.

  15. Suggestopedia, Sophrology and the Traditional Foreign Language Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1982-01-01

    Describes suggestopedia and sophrology techniques and shows how to apply them within the limitations of the traditional foreign language classroom. Cites beginning French classes at Scarborough College as an example of these techniques improving class atmosphere and student motivation. (EKN)

  16. Quality in applied science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sten, T.

    1993-12-01

    Science is in many senses a special kind of craft and only skilled craftsmen are able to distinguish good work from bad. Due to the variation in approaches, methods and even philosophical basis, it is nearly impossible to derive a general set of quality criteria for scientific work outside specific research traditions. Applied science introduces a new set of quality criteria having to do with the application of results in practical situations and policy making. A scientist doing basic research relates mainly to the scientific community of which he is a member, while in applied contract research the scientist has to consider the impact of his results both for the immediate users and upon interest groups possibly being affected. Application thus raises a whole new set of requirements having to do with business ethics, policy consequences and societal ethics in general.

  17. Applied geodesy

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc.

  18. Weighing in on Surveillance: Perception of the Impact of Surveillance on Female Ballet Dancers' Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryburgh, Anne; Fortin, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate professional ballet dancers' perceptions of the impact of surveillance on their psychological and physical health. The theoretical framework was inspired by Foucault's writing, particularly his concepts of surveillance, power, discipline and docile bodies. Fifteen professional ballet dancers…

  19. An integrated national mortality surveillance system for death registration and mortality surveillance, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiwei; Wu, Xiaoling; Lopez, Alan D; Wang, Lijun; Cai, Yue; Page, Andrew; Yin, Peng; Liu, Yunning; Li, Yichong; Liu, Jiangmei; You, Jinling; Zhou, Maigeng

    2016-01-01

    In China, sample-based mortality surveillance systems, such as the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention's disease surveillance points system and the Ministry of Health's vital registration system, have been used for decades to provide nationally representative data on health status for health-care decision-making and performance evaluation. However, neither system provided representative mortality and cause-of-death data at the provincial level to inform regional health service needs and policy priorities. Moreover, the systems overlapped to a considerable extent, thereby entailing a duplication of effort. In 2013, the Chinese Government combined these two systems into an integrated national mortality surveillance system to provide a provincially representative picture of total and cause-specific mortality and to accelerate the development of a comprehensive vital registration and mortality surveillance system for the whole country. This new system increased the surveillance population from 6 to 24% of the Chinese population. The number of surveillance points, each of which covered a district or county, increased from 161 to 605. To ensure representativeness at the provincial level, the 605 surveillance points were selected to cover China's 31 provinces using an iterative method involving multistage stratification that took into account the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. This paper describes the development and operation of the new national mortality surveillance system, which is expected to yield representative provincial estimates of mortality in China for the first time. PMID:26769996

  20. Urban Habitat Evaluation For West Nile Virus Surveillance In Mosquitoes In Albuquerque, New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    DiMenna, Mark A.; Bueno, Rudy; Parmenter, Robert R.; Norris, Douglas E.; Sheyka, Jeff M.; Molina, Josephine L.; LaBeau, Elisa M.; Hatton, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, Christine M.; Glass, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    As part of an ongoing mosquito surveillance program, 27 sites in the greater metropolitan Albuquerque area (Bernalillo County, New Mexico) were trapped from May through September 2004. Each site was sampled for 1 night weekly, using a standard CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap and a gravid trap. Captured mosquitoes were catalogued by location, species, and date, and selected pools were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Based on previous surveillance, WNV was already established in the state of New Mexico. Surveillance during 2003, the 1st year of WNV detection in New Mexico mosquitoes, was focused on the bosque forest of the Rio Grande river valley. Surveillance during summer of 2004 was extended to additional areas around the city of Albuquerque, the state's largest population center. In addition to the standard surveillance objectives, a secondary goal was to determine whether foci of WNV activity were detectable in other habitats besides the riparian ecosystem of the Rio Grande, and in other species not previously identified as vectors. There was no demonstrable advantage to extending the traditional trapping area outside of the Rio Grande valley. Sites in the valley area had WNV-positive mosquitoes earlier in the season, and for a longer period than the added sites. In addition, riparian sites had the highest diversity of species, the largest numbers of Culex spp. captured, and the largest proportion of the WNV-positive mosquito pools from the study. Species found in other areas of the metropolitan area were also represented in the valley. Although WNV activity was detected in other areas of the city, its activity began later and ended earlier than in the river valley. We surmise that the greatest benefit to mosquito surveillance could be achieved by focusing on the river valley area. PMID:17847847

  1. Urban habitat evaluation for West Nile virus surveillance in mosquitoes in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    DiMenna, Mark A; Bueno, Rudy; Parmenter, Robert R; Norris, Douglas E; Sheyka, Jeff M; Molina, Josephine L; LaBeau, Elisa M; Hatton, Elizabeth S; Roberts, Christine M; Glass, Gregory E

    2007-06-01

    As part of an ongoing mosquito surveillance program, 27 sites in the greater metropolitan Albuquerque area (Bernalillo County, New Mexico) were trapped from May through September 2004. Each site was sampled for 1 night weekly, using a standard CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap and a gravid trap. Captured mosquitoes were catalogued by location, species, and date, and selected pools were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Based on previous surveillance, WNV was already established in the state of New Mexico. Surveillance during 2003, the 1st year of WNV detection in New Mexico mosquitoes, was focused on the bosque forest of the Rio Grande river valley. Surveillance during summer of 2004 was extended to additional areas around the city of Albuquerque, the state's largest population center. In addition to the standard surveillance objectives, a secondary goal was to determine whether foci of WNV activity were detectable in other habitats besides the riparian ecosystem of the Rio Grande, and in other species not previously identified as vectors. There was no demonstrable advantage to extending the traditional trapping area outside of the Rio Grande valley. Sites in the valley area had WNV-positive mosquitoes earlier in the season, and for a longer period than the added sites. In addition, riparian sites had the highest diversity of species, the largest numbers of Culex spp. captured, and the largest proportion of the WNV-positive mosquito pools from the study. Species found in other areas of the metropolitan area were also represented in the valley. Although WNV activity was detected in other areas of the city, its activity began later and ended earlier than in the river valley. We surmise that the greatest benefit to mosquito surveillance could be achieved by focusing on the river valley area. PMID:17847847

  2. Influenza surveillance using electronic health records in the American Indian and Alaska Native population

    PubMed Central

    Keck, James W; Redd, John T; Cheek, James E; Layne, Larry J; Groom, Amy V; Kitka, Sassa; Bruce, Michael G; Suryaprasad, Anil; Amerson, Nancy L; Cullen, Theresa; Bryan, Ralph T; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Increasing use of electronic health records (EHRs) provides new opportunities for public health surveillance. During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic, we developed a new EHR-based influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance system designed to be resource sparing, rapidly scalable, and flexible. 4 weeks after the first pandemic case, ILI data from Indian Health Service (IHS) facilities were being analyzed. Materials and methods The system defines ILI as a patient visit containing either an influenza-specific International Classification of Disease, V.9 (ICD-9) code or one or more of 24 ILI-related ICD-9 codes plus a documented temperature ≥100°F. EHR-based data are uploaded nightly. To validate results, ILI visits identified by the new system were compared to ILI visits found by medical record review, and the new system's results were compared with those of the traditional US ILI Surveillance Network. Results The system monitored ILI activity at an average of 60% of the 269 IHS electronic health databases. EHR-based surveillance detected ILI visits with a sensitivity of 96.4% and a specificity of 97.8% based on chart review (N=2375) of visits at two facilities in September 2009. At the peak of the pandemic (week 41, October 17, 2009), the median time from an ILI visit to data transmission was 6 days, with a mode of 1 day. Discussion EHR-based ILI surveillance was accurate, timely, occurred at the majority of IHS facilities nationwide, and provided useful information for decision makers. EHRs thus offer the opportunity to transform public health surveillance. PMID:23744788

  3. New method for height estimation of subjects represented in photograms taken from video surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Sala, Remo; Cantatore, Angela; Poppa, Pasquale; Dufour, Michele; Grandi, Marco; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2007-11-01

    The article describes a method developed and applied by the authors for the purpose of determining the height of subjects taped on video surveillance systems. The determination of height is obtained by developing a virtual telecamera having the same characteristics of the video surveillance system with which the images have been shot. The results demonstrate that height is a parameter that can be accurately estimated with the method proposed, in the experimental conditions described, and consequently, can be utilized in probatory inquiry. PMID:17541786

  4. Ion chromatographic determination of transition metals in irradiated nuclear reactor surveillance samples.

    PubMed

    Louw, I

    1996-02-01

    The determination of transition metal ions in radioactive (+/-25 microCi/g) low-alloy steels (nuclear reactor surveillance samples) by ion chromatography (IC) is described. The analysis has been done directly without prior separation of the iron matrix. The eluted metal ions have been detected with a UV-visible spectrophotometric detector after post-column complexation with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. The results are in a good agreement with the certified values for the standard reference material used. The method was applied to nuclear reactor surveillance samples for the determination of Cu, Mn, Co and Ni. PMID:15048428

  5. Occupational Choice: Do Traditional and Non-Traditional Women Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Roslyn D.; Frazee, Pamela

    A national survey of women in nontraditional, mixed, and traditional occupational training at area vocational technical schools was conducted to determine the factors which influence women to enter nontraditional training and how they differ from those of traditional women. It was found that women have difficulty selecting a nontraditional…

  6. Improving Surveillance for Surgical Site Infections Following Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Using Diagnosis and Procedure Codes in a Provincial Surveillance Network.

    PubMed

    Rusk, Alysha; Bush, Kathryn; Brandt, Marlene; Smith, Christopher; Howatt, Andrea; Chow, Blanda; Henderson, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate hospital administrative data to identify potential surgical site infections (SSIs) following primary elective total hip or knee arthroplasty. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING All acute care facilities in Alberta, Canada. METHODS Diagnosis and procedure codes for 6 months following total hip or knee arthroplasty were used to identify potential SSI cases. Medical charts of patients with potential SSIs were reviewed by an infection control professional at the acute care facility where the patient was identified with a diagnosis or procedure code. For SSI decision, infection control professionals used the National Healthcare Safety Network SSI definition. The performance of traditional surveillance methods and administrative data-triggered medical chart review was assessed. RESULTS Of the 162 patients identified by diagnosis or procedure code, 46 (28%) were confirmed as an SSI by an infection control professional. More SSIs were identified following total hip vs total knee arthroplasty (42% vs16%). Of 46 confirmed SSI cases, 20 (43%) were identified at an acute care facility different than their procedure facility. Administrative data-triggered medical chart review with infection control professional confirmation resulted in a 1.1- to 1.7-fold increase in SSI rate compared with traditional surveillance. SSIs identified by administrative data resulted in sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 99%. CONCLUSION Medical chart review for cases identified through administrative data is an efficient supplemental SSI surveillance strategy. It improves case-finding by increasing SSI identification and making identification consistent across facilities, and in a provincial surveillance network it identifies SSIs presenting at nonprocedure facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:699-703. PMID:27018968

  7. Mobile Phone-Based mHealth Approaches for Public Health Surveillance in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brinkel, Johanna; Krämer, Alexander; Krumkamp, Ralf; May, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius

    2014-01-01

    Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM), BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC), the Public Library of Science (PLoS) and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3), tuberculosis (n = 1) and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1) as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2), maternal health (n = 1) and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1). Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region. PMID:25396767

  8. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the (guidance) to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Transition to CCTV surveillance for safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, K.J.; Heaysman, B.; Kerr, R.E.; Rundquist, D.E.

    1987-07-01

    After many years of development effort and as a result of regular maintenance the Agency's most important optical surveillance system, the Twin Minolta, has matured to a highly reliable, economic and user friendly equipment. In 1986 its reliability was 95.7%, including human failures. However, because they are no longer available, the Agency is forced to replace the Minolta Super 8 cameras by adequate Closed Circuit Television systems. Ten years of experience with television systems clearly indicate that they must work actively to improve the overall reliability of CCTV systems. The recording units, from the authors experience, are the most critical components. Therefore new systems - already existing or under development - focus on this aspect. The Multiplex TV Surveillance System (MUX), uses redundant time lapse recorders, which are specifically designed for surveillance applications. The Compact Surveillance Monitoring System (COSMOS) will be using low speed time lapse recorders which are specifically developed for still-picture recording surveillance applications. The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS) will use two redundant 8 mm video recorders to achieve the goal of high reliability. It is their understanding that this intensive consideration of reliability aspects in the design phase will also result in a decrease in maintenance and operational costs for the Agency in the future.

  10. Moving Object Detection for Video Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Kalirajan, K.; Sudha, M.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of video surveillance is the most promising solution for people living independently in their home. Recently several contributions for video surveillance have been proposed. However, a robust video surveillance algorithm is still a challenging task because of illumination changes, rapid variations in target appearance, similar nontarget objects in background, and occlusions. In this paper, a novel approach of object detection for video surveillance is presented. The proposed algorithm consists of various steps including video compression, object detection, and object localization. In video compression, the input video frames are compressed with the help of two-dimensional discrete cosine transform (2D DCT) to achieve less storage requirements. In object detection, key feature points are detected by computing the statistical correlation and the matching feature points are classified into foreground and background based on the Bayesian rule. Finally, the foreground feature points are localized in successive video frames by embedding the maximum likelihood feature points over the input video frames. Various frame based surveillance metrics are employed to evaluate the proposed approach. Experimental results and comparative study clearly depict the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:25861686

  11. Cost and schedule control systems criteria for contract performance measurement. Systems review/surveillance guide

    SciTech Connect

    1986-06-01

    When the Department of Energy (DOE) Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria (CSCSC) are applied to a contract in accordance with DOE 2250.1B, the contractor's management control systems are reviewed by DOE to determine their initial and continuing compliance with the CSCSC. This document provides guidance to DOE personnel responsible for applying the CSCSC requirements on contracts, reviewing contractor implementation of the requirements, and surveillance to assure continuing compliance with the CSCSC.

  12. [Active surveillance of adverse drug reaction in the era of big data: challenge and opportunity for control selection].

    PubMed

    Wang, S F; Zhan, S Y

    2016-07-01

    Electronic healthcare databases have become an important source for active surveillance of drug safety in the era of big data. The traditional epidemiology research designs are needed to confirm the association between drug use and adverse events based on these datasets, and the selection of the comparative control is essential to each design. This article aims to explain the principle and application of each type of control selection, introduce the methods and parameters for method comparison, and describe the latest achievements in the batch processing of control selection, which would provide important methodological reference for the use of electronic healthcare databases to conduct post-marketing drug safety surveillance in China. PMID:27453095

  13. Bayesian filtering in electronic surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coraluppi, Stefano; Carthel, Craig

    2012-06-01

    Fusion of passive electronic support measures (ESM) with active radar data enables tracking and identification of platforms in air, ground, and maritime domains. An effective multi-sensor fusion architecture adopts hierarchical real-time multi-stage processing. This paper focuses on the recursive filtering challenges. The first challenge is to achieve effective platform identification based on noisy emitter type measurements; we show that while optimal processing is computationally infeasible, a good suboptimal solution is available via a sequential measurement processing approach. The second challenge is to process waveform feature measurements that enable disambiguation in multi-target scenarios where targets may be using the same emitters. We show that an approach that explicitly considers the Markov jump process outperforms the traditional Kalman filtering solution.

  14. A qualitative approach to measure the effectiveness of active avian influenza virus surveillance with respect to its cost: a case study from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Häsler, B; Howe, K S; Hauser, R; Stärk, K D C

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the project was to apply cost-effectiveness analysis to the economic appraisal of avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance, using the implemented surveillance programme in Switzerland as a case study. First a qualitative risk assessment approach was used to assess the expected impact of surveillance on the transmission and spread of AIV. The effectiveness of surveillance was expressed as the difference in defined probabilities between a scenario with surveillance and a scenario without surveillance. The following probabilities were modelled (i) transmission of highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) from wild birds to poultry, (ii) mutation from low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) into HPAIV in poultry, and (iii) transmission of HPAIV to other poultry holdings given a primary outbreak. The cost-effectiveness ratio was defined conventionally as the difference in surveillance costs (ΔC) divided by the change in probability (ΔP), the technical objective, on the presumption that surveillance diminishes the respective probabilities. However, results indicated that surveillance in both wild birds and poultry was not expected to change the probabilities of primary and secondary AIV outbreaks in Switzerland. The overall surveillance costs incurred were estimated at 31,000 €/year, which, to be a rational investment of resources, must still reflect the value policy makers attribute to other benefits from having surveillance (e.g. peace of mind). The advantage of the approach adopted is that it is practical, transparent, and thus able to clarify for policy makers the key variables to be taken into account when evaluating the economic efficiency of resources invested in surveillance, prevention and intervention to exclude AIV. PMID:22296733

  15. Cherokee Stickball: A Changing Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Ted

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the history of Cherokee stickball, a ball game dating back at least to the 1500s that was once used (as an alternative to war) for resolving grievances between tribes and townships. Describes traditional aspects of Cherokee stickball and notes the steady decline of the game and its traditional rules and ceremonies. (LP)

  16. NASA Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Atlanta Demonstration: Surveillance Systems Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Rick; Evers, Carl; Hicok, Dan; Lee, Derrick

    1999-01-01

    NASA conducted a series of flight experiments at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport as part of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Program. LVLASO is one of the subelements of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program, which is focused on providing technology and operating procedures for achieving clear-weather airport capacity in instrument-weather conditions, while also improving safety. LVLASO is investigating various technologies to be applied to airport surface operations, including advanced flight deck displays and surveillance systems. The purpose of this report is to document the performance of the surveillance systems tested as part of the LVLASO flight experiment. There were three surveillance sensors tested: primary radar using Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS), Multilateration using the Airport Surface Target Identification System (ATIDS), and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) operating at 1090 MHz. The performance was compared to the draft requirements of the ICAO Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). Performance parameters evaluated included coverage, position accuracy, and update rate. Each of the sensors was evaluated as a stand alone surveillance system.

  17. Real-time air quality monitoring by using internet video surveillance camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. J.; Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Low, K. L.

    2007-04-01

    Nowadays internet video surveillance cameras are widely use in security monitoring. The quantities of installations of these cameras also become more and more. This paper reports that the internet video surveillance cameras can be applied as a remote sensor for monitoring the concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM10), so that real time air quality can be monitored at multi location simultaneously. An algorithm was developed based on the regression analysis of relationship between the measured reflectance components from a surface material and the atmosphere. This algorithm converts multispectral image pixel values acquired from these cameras into quantitative values of the concentrations of PM10. These computed PM10 values were compared to other standard values measured by a DustTrak TM meter. The correlation results showed that the newly develop algorithm produced a high degree of accuracy as indicated by high correlation coefficient (R2) and low root-mean-square-error (RMS) values. The preliminary results showed that the accuracy produced by this internet video surveillance camera is slightly better than that from the internet protocol (IP) camera. Basically the spatial resolution of images acquired by the IP camera was poorer compared to the internet video surveillance camera. This is because the images acquired by IP camera had been compressed and there was no compression for the images from the internet video surveillance camera.

  18. Policy-driven development of cost-effective, risk-based surveillance strategies.

    PubMed

    Reist, M; Jemmi, T; Stärk, K D C

    2012-07-01

    Animal health and residue surveillance verifies the good health status of the animal population, thereby supporting international free trade of animals and animal products. However, active surveillance is costly and time-consuming. The development of cost-effective tools for animal health and food hazard surveillance is therefore a priority for decision-makers in the field of veterinary public health. The assumption of this paper is that outcome-based formulation of standards, legislation leaving room for risk-based approaches and close collaboration and a mutual understanding and exchange between scientists and policy makers are essential for cost-effective surveillance. We illustrate this using the following examples: (i) a risk-based sample size calculation for surveys to substantiate freedom from diseases/infection, (ii) a cost-effective national surveillance system for Bluetongue using scenario tree modelling and (iii) a framework for risk-based residue monitoring. Surveys to substantiate freedom from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and enzootic bovine leucosis between 2002 and 2009 saved over 6 million € by applying a risk-based sample size calculation approach, and by taking into account prior information from repeated surveys. An open, progressive policy making process stimulates research and science to develop risk-based and cost-efficient survey methodologies. Early involvement of policy makers in scientific developments facilitates implementation of new findings and full exploitation of benefits for producers and consumers. PMID:22265642

  19. Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with speckle imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, C J

    2004-01-13

    Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with Speckle Imaging is a high-resolution imaging system that substantially improves resolution and contrast in images acquired over long distances. This technology will increase image resolution up to an order of magnitude or greater for video surveillance systems. The system's hardware components are all commercially available and consist of a telescope or large-aperture lens assembly, a high-performance digital camera, and a personal computer. The system's software, developed at LLNL, extends standard speckle-image-processing methods (used in the astronomical community) to solve the atmospheric blurring problem associated with imaging over medium to long distances (hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers) through horizontal or slant-path turbulence. This novel imaging technology will not only enhance national security but also will benefit law enforcement, security contractors, and any private or public entity that uses video surveillance to protect their assets.

  20. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  1. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    PubMed

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones. PMID:26378390

  2. Improvements to Technical Specifications surveillance requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Lobel, R.; Tjader, T.R.

    1992-12-01

    In August 1983 an NRC task group was formed to investigate problems with surveillance testing required by Technical Specifications, and to recommend approaches to effect improvements. NUREG-1024 ( Technical Specifications-Enhancing Safety Impact'') resulted, and it contained recommendations to review the basis for test frequencies; to ensure that the tests promote safety and do not degrade equipment; and to review surveillance tests so that they do not unnecessarily burden personnel. The Technical Specifications Improvement Program (TSIP) was established in December 1984 to provide the framework for rewriting and improving the Technical Specifications. As an element of the TSIP, all Technical Specifications surveillance requirements were comprehensively examined as recommended in NUREG-1024. The results of that effort are presented in this report. The study found that while some testing at power is essential to verify equipment and system operability, safety can be improved, equipment degradation decreased, and unnecessary personnel burden relaxed by reducing the amount of testing at power.

  3. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  4. Methods for molecular surveillance of influenza

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruixue; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2010-01-01

    Molecular-based techniques for detecting influenza viruses have become an integral component of human and animal surveillance programs in the last two decades. The recent pandemic of the swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1) and the continuing circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1) further stress the need for rapid and accurate identification and subtyping of influenza viruses for surveillance, outbreak management, diagnosis and treatment. There has been remarkable progress on the detection and molecular characterization of influenza virus infections in clinical, mammalian, domestic poultry and wild bird samples in recent years. The application of these techniques, including reverse transcriptase-PCR, real-time PCR, microarrays and other nucleic acid sequencing-based amplifications, have greatly enhanced the capability for surveillance and characterization of influenza viruses. PMID:20455681

  5. Disease surveillance in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    This issue of Veterinary Record introduces a new look for the monthly disease surveillance report for England and Wales from the APHA. The format and content has been changed to provide a report that brings together data and information from different sources of government-funded and other veterinary scanning surveillance activity. This first report in the new format considers current issues, such as actions to prevent porcine epidemic diarrhea and what to do if it is suspected, and provides an update on international disease threats, such as bluetongue and avian influenza. It also discusses the seasonal impact of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pig herds, and guidance for laboratory investigation of ovine abortion/stillbirths. Highlights from the scanning surveillance network for November/December 2015 are reported and, on p 43, a separate article describes the work of the Veterinary Risk Group. PMID:26744008

  6. Laser Surveillance System for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M.S.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures.

  7. Rinderpest surveillance performance monitoring using quantifiable indicators.

    PubMed

    Mariner, J C; Jeggo, M H; van't Klooster, G G M; Geiger, R; Roeder, P L

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes an objective system of monitoring the performance of disease surveillance. The system was developed through dialogue with a number of countries in Africa and adopted as part of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The performance monitoring system uses a clinical stomatitis-enteritis case definition, an outbreak investigation classification scheme, and a series of eight performance indicators to measure the sensitivity, specificity and timeliness of the surveillance system. Field-testing indicates that the approach is successful when good record-keeping is practiced and highlights the importance of dialogue in helping to ensure that the system is simple and acceptable. The system provides a quantitative measure of the efficacy of national disease surveillance programmes and of the quality of data derived from such programmes for use in international disease control, animal health information exchange and trade risk analysis. PMID:15005541

  8. [The epidemiological surveillance of dengue in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Montesano-Castellanos, R; Ruiz-Matus, C

    1995-01-01

    The clinical behavior of dengue fever in Mexico has changed, now with the occurrence of hemorrhagic cases. In response to the emergence of such cases, a specific epidemiologic surveillance system has been designed and implemented. This system includes the means to monitor the factors involved in the evolution of the disease. The identification and analysis of these factors is necessary to implement prevention and control measures. This paper presents the main components and procedures of the epidemiologic surveillance system for common and hemorrhagic dengue fever in Mexico, emphasizing the usefulness of the risk approach to predict the pattern of this disease. The model includes the collaboration of a multidisciplinary group. The Epidemiologic Surveillance State Committee, coordinated by the National Health System, participates in the collection and analysis of epidemiologic data, particularly data related to the population, the individual, the vector, the viruses and the environment. PMID:8599150

  9. Enhancing Disease Surveillance Event Communication Among Jurisdictions

    PubMed Central

    Tabernero, Nathaniel R.; Loschen, Wayne A.; Jorgensen, Joel; Suereth, Joshua; Coberly, Jacqueline S.; Holtry, Rekha S.; Sikes, Marvin L.; Babin, Steven M.; Lewis, Sheryl L. Happel

    2009-01-01

    Automated disease surveillance systems are becoming widely used by the public health community. However, communication among non-collocated and widely dispersed users still needs improvement. A web-based software tool for enhancing user communications was completely integrated into an existing automated disease surveillance system and was tested during two simulated exercises and operational use involving multiple jurisdictions. Evaluation of this tool was conducted by user meetings, anonymous surveys, and web logs. Public health officials found this tool to be useful, and the tool has been modified further to incorporate features suggested by user responses. Features of the automated disease surveillance system, such as alerts and time series plots, can be specifically referenced by user comments. The user may also indicate the alert response being considered by adding a color indicator to their comment. The web-based event communication tool described in this article provides a common ground for collaboration and communication among public health officials at different locations. PMID:27325909

  10. Statistical genetics in traditionally cultivated crops.

    PubMed

    Artoisenet, Pierre; Minsart, Laure-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Traditional farming systems have attracted a lot of attention over the past decades as they have been recognized to supply an important component in the maintenance of the genetic diversity worldwide. A broad spectrum of traditionally managed crops has been studied to investigate how reproductive properties in combination with husbandry characteristics shape the genetic structure of the crops over time. However, traditional farms typically involve populations of small size whose genetic evolution is overwhelmed with statistic fluctuations inherent to the stochastic nature of the crossings. Hence there is generally no one-to-one mapping between crop properties and measured genotype data, and claims regarding crop properties on the basis of the observed genetic structure must be stated within a confidence level to be estimated by means of a dedicated statistical analysis. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive framework to carry out such statistical analyses. We illustrate the capabilities of our approach by applying it to crops of C. lanatus var. lanatus oleaginous type cultivated in Côte d׳Ivoire. While some properties such as the effective field size considerably evade the constraints from experimental data, others such as the mating system turn out to be characterized with a higher statistical significance. We discuss the importance of our approach for studies on traditionally cultivated crops in general. PMID:24992232

  11. Objective Sepsis Surveillance Using Electronic Clinical Data

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Chanu; Kadri, Sameer; Huang, Susan S.; Murphy, Michael V.; Li, Lingling; Platt, Richard; Klompas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the accuracy of surveillance of severe sepsis using electronic health record clinical data vs claims and to compare incidence and mortality trends using both methods. DESIGN We created an electronic health record–based surveillance definition for severe sepsis using clinical indicators of infection (blood culture and antibiotic orders) and concurrent organ dysfunction (vasopressors, mechanical ventilation, and/or abnormal laboratory values). We reviewed 1,000 randomly selected medical charts to characterize the definition’s accuracy and stability over time compared with a claims-based definition requiring infection and organ dysfunction codes. We compared incidence and mortality trends from 2003–2012 using both methods. SETTING Two US academic hospitals. PATIENTS Adult inpatients. RESULTS The electronic health record–based clinical surveillance definition had stable and high sensitivity over time (77% in 2003–2009 vs 80% in 2012, P=.58) whereas the sensitivity of claims increased (52% in 2003–2009 vs 67% in 2012, P=.02). Positive predictive values for claims and clinical surveillance definitions were comparable (55% vs 53%, P=.65) and stable over time. From 2003 to 2012, severe sepsis incidence imputed from claims rose by 72% (95% CI, 57%–88%) and absolute mortality declined by 5.4% (95% CI, 4.6%–6.7%). In contrast, incidence using the clinical surveillance definition increased by 7.7% (95% CI, −1.1% to 17%) and mortality declined by 1.7% (95% CI, 1.1%–2.3%). CONCLUSIONS Sepsis surveillance using clinical data is more sensitive and more stable over time compared with claims and can be done electronically. This may enable more reliable estimates of sepsis burden and trends. PMID:26526737

  12. Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in France.

    PubMed

    Dufour, B; La Vieille, S

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological surveillance, namely the continuous monitoring of diseases and health determinants in a population, has developed over the past fifteen years, in the sphere of human health as well as in animal health. All epidemiological surveillance networks include the following four stages: data collection, data transmission, data processing and dissemination of information. However, despite this basic similarity, the very many networks existing in France are extremely varied in nature. At the national level, the bodies involved in epidemiological surveillance for infectious animal diseases are the Direction générale de l'alimentation, the Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments and, to a lesser degree, the Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer. In the field, the networks rely on the Direction des services vétérinaires, veterinary practitioners, laboratories in each département, and livestock producers' groups (especially animal health protection groups). Some twenty French networks currently in operation are presented in this article according to a classification based on published criteria. In the case of human infectious diseases, epidemiological surveillance is carried out almost entirely by the Direction générale de la santé and the Directions départementales d'action sanitaire et sociale, the Institut de veille sanitaire and the various Centres nationaux de référence (CNRs). Most human infectious diseases are monitored by one or more of the following broad categories of networks: reporting of notifiable diseases, the CNRs, the network of sentinel doctors, the network of hospital laboratories and departments, and medical causes of death. An example where surveillance is covered by several networks is also presented, namely surveillance for salmonellosis and Salmonella. Lastly, methods for evaluating networks are discussed. PMID:10779198

  13. [From surveillance to work-related accident prevention: the contribution of the ergonomics of the activity].

    PubMed

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Mendes, Renata Wey Berti

    2012-10-01

    Work-related accidents are complex phenomena determined by the work organization process, the dimensions of which are usually invisible to surveillance agents. The scope of this paper was a case study based on documentary evidence to analyze and compare the success of an intervention conducted at a meat processing and packaging factory, by focusing on checking health and safety norms in 1997, and incorporating ergonomic concepts in 2008. In 1997, surveillance actions focused primarily on visible risk factors. Despite fulfilling sanitation requirements, the company still had an annual accident rate of 26% in 2008, which motivated the search for a new approach. In 2008, it was seen that accidents were caused by a vicious cycle involving intense work, technical inadequacy, absenteeism and high turnover (84%) that led the company to recruit inexperienced workers. This scenario was aggravated by authoritarian management practices. The ergonomics of the activity contributed to the understanding of organizational causes -thus superseding the normative aspects of traditional surveillance - which revealed the importance of ensuring that surveillance actions for prevention are more effective. PMID:23099767

  14. Comparative efficacy of existing surveillance tools for Aedes aegypti in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Yalwala, Sancto; Clark, Jeffrey; Oullo, David; Ngonga, Daniel; Abuom, David; Wanja, Elizabeth; Bast, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    All traditional surveillance techniques for Aedes aegypti have been developed for the cosmopolitan domestic subspecies Ae. aegypti aegypti, and not the sylvatic subspecies, Ae. aegypti formosus. The predominant form in Western Kenya is Ae. aegypti formosus that is rarely associated with human habitations but is linked to transmission of sylvatic dengue virus strains. We compared five surveillance methods for their effectiveness in sampling Ae. aegypti formosus with the goal of determining a sustainable surveillance strategy in Kenya. The methods included larval and pupal surveys, oviposition trapping, BG-Sentinel trapping, resting boxes, and backpack aspirations. Larval and pupal surveys collected the highest number of Ae. aegypti formosus (51.3%), followed by oviposition traps (45.7%), BG-Sentinel traps (3.0%), and zero collected with either backpack aspiration or resting box collections. No Ae. aegypti formosus larvae or pupae were found indoors. The results indicate that oviposition traps and outdoor larval and pupal surveys were better surveillance methods for Ae. aegypti formosus in Western Kenya. PMID:26611965

  15. The role of the Biological Weapons Convention in disease surveillance and response.

    PubMed

    Enemark, Christian

    2010-11-01

    This article assesses the role and significance of the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) with respect to infectious disease surveillance and response to outbreaks. Increasingly, the BWC is being used as a platform for addressing infectious disease threats arising naturally as well as traditional concerns about malicious dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms. The latter have long had a place on the security agenda, but natural disease outbreaks too are now being partially 'securitized' through the use of the BWC as a forum for exchanging information and ideas on disease surveillance and response. The article focuses on two prominent issues discussed at recent meetings of BWC member states: enhancing capacity for disease surveillance and response; and responding to allegations of biological weapons use and investigating outbreaks deemed suspicious. It concludes, firstly, that the BWC supports the efforts of international health organizations to enhance disease surveillance and response capacity worldwide. And secondly, that the BWC, rather than the World Health Organization (WHO), is the appropriate institution to deal with biological weapons allegations and investigations of suspicious outbreaks. The overall message is that securitization in the health sphere cuts both ways. Adding a security dimension (BW) alongside the task of detecting and responding to naturally occurring disease outbreaks is beneficial, but requiring a non-security organization (the WHO) to assume a security role would be counterproductive. PMID:20961949

  16. Syndromic surveillance for health information system failures: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mei-Sing; Magrabi, Farah; Coiera, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the applicability of a syndromic surveillance method to the early detection of health information technology (HIT) system failures. Methods A syndromic surveillance system was developed to monitor a laboratory information system at a tertiary hospital. Four indices were monitored: (1) total laboratory records being created; (2) total records with missing results; (3) average serum potassium results; and (4) total duplicated tests on a patient. The goal was to detect HIT system failures causing: data loss at the record level; data loss at the field level; erroneous data; and unintended duplication of data. Time-series models of the indices were constructed, and statistical process control charts were used to detect unexpected behaviors. The ability of the models to detect HIT system failures was evaluated using simulated failures, each lasting for 24 h, with error rates ranging from 1% to 35%. Results In detecting data loss at the record level, the model achieved a sensitivity of 0.26 when the simulated error rate was 1%, while maintaining a specificity of 0.98. Detection performance improved with increasing error rates, achieving a perfect sensitivity when the error rate was 35%. In the detection of missing results, erroneous serum potassium results and unintended repetition of tests, perfect sensitivity was attained when the error rate was as small as 5%. Decreasing the error rate to 1% resulted in a drop in sensitivity to 0.65–0.85. Conclusions Syndromic surveillance methods can potentially be applied to monitor HIT systems, to facilitate the early detection of failures. PMID:23184193

  17. Creating a global dialogue on infectious disease surveillance: connecting organizations for regional disease surveillance (CORDS).

    PubMed

    Gresham, Louise S; Smolinski, Mark S; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2013-01-01

    Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers - not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework. PMID:23362412

  18. Creating a Global Dialogue on Infectious Disease Surveillance: Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS)

    PubMed Central

    Gresham, Louise S.; Smolinski, Mark S.; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2013-01-01

    Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers – not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework. PMID:23362412

  19. Self tuning system for industrial surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Stephan, Wegerich W; Jarman, Kristin K.; Gross, Kenneth C.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system for automatically establishing operational parameters of a statistical surveillance system. The method and system performs a frequency domain transition on time dependent data, a first Fourier composite is formed, serial correlation is removed, a series of Gaussian whiteness tests are performed along with an autocorrelation test, Fourier coefficients are stored and a second Fourier composite is formed. Pseudorandom noise is added, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed to establish SPRT missed alarm probabilities and tested with a synthesized signal. A false alarm test is then emperically evaluated and if less than a desired target value, then SPRT probabilities are used for performing surveillance.

  20. Learning from state surveillance of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Longjohn, Matt; Sheon, Amy R; Card-Higginson, Paula; Nader, Philip R; Mason, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Data on childhood obesity collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention helped reveal the nation's epidemic of overweight and obese children. But more information is needed. Collecting body mass index (BMI)-the widely accepted measurement of childhood weight status-at the state and local levels can be instrumental in identifying and tracking obesity trends, designing interventions to help overweight children, and guiding broader policy solutions. Approximately thirty states have enacted or proposed BMI surveillance laws and regulations. Arkansas stands out as the state with the highest-quality surveillance data. Innovative strategies being pursued in a number of other states should be explored for broader dissemination. PMID:20194988

  1. Surveillance of ground vehicles for airport security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Wang, Zhonghai; Shen, Dan; Ling, Haibin; Chen, Genshe

    2014-06-01

    Future surveillance systems will work in complex and cluttered environments which require systems engineering solutions for such applications such as airport ground surface management. In this paper, we highlight the use of a L1 video tracker for monitoring activities at an airport. We present methods of information fusion, entity detection, and activity analysis using airport videos for runway detection and airport terminal events. For coordinated airport security, automated ground surveillance enhances efficient and safe maneuvers for aircraft, unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) operating within airport environments.

  2. Boeing EX Concept, Advanced Surveillance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The photograph shows a model of the Boeing EX Concept installed in the NASA Langley 16 foot Transonic Tunnel. The Boeing EX is an advanced surveillance aircraft proposed by Boeing to replace the Grumman E-2C Hawkeye. The concept employs the diamond-shape 'joined-wing'planform and active aperture radar arrays in each wing segment to create a more aerodynamic effective surveillance aircraft. Wind tunnel testing was conducted to evaulate longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic charcteristics and the effectiveness of control surface deflections. Measurements were made to determine the effects of the wings and fuselage on the inlet fan face total pressure distortions at angle of attack and sideslip.

  3. Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slota, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

  4. Light armored vehicle reconnaissance and surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, Nicolas R.

    1994-10-01

    The Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) has established a requirement for a fleet of reconnaissance vehicles equipped with a modern surveillance system to be used in a wide variety of scenarios. This includes conventional operations within NATO, contingency operations in troubled areas as well as UN peacekeeping missions. As such, the Light Armored Vehicles Reconnaissance and Surveillance System will be the first 24 hour all- weather reconnaissance system integrated into a combat vehicle. This paper intends to describe how the operational requirements defined by DND were translated into sensor and system requirements. After a summary of the current configuration, it focuses on product pre-planned improvements and future needs.

  5. An emergency response UAV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro A; Geckle, William J; Barton, Jeffrey D; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z; Martin, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs. PMID:17238697

  6. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan?

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Eireen; Pacho, Agnes; Galvan, Maria Adona; Corpuz, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR), Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR) and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). Methods A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results Two of 11 (18%) surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45%) surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91%) rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7%) considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27%) surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6%) surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR) were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other. PMID:26767139

  7. Approaching Traditional Literature in Non-Traditional Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tensen, Tracy Anderson; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents three brief essays that discuss approaching traditional literature (Thornton Wilder's "Our Town," Mark Twain "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," and Geoffrey Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales") in imaginative ways in high school English and vocational/technical classrooms. (RS)

  8. Foreign surveillance radar upgrade analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, Steven D.

    1992-02-01

    This report details an example of the work required to predict the functionality of future systems based on improvements in computer technology. Areas of analysis include CPU load, bus load, memory load, I/O load, target report delay, and probability of target loss associated with the upgraded radar. The analysis scenario provides an example of how queuing theory and probability can be applied for the purpose of assessing future threats.

  9. Plutonium Surveillance Destructive Examination Requirements at Savannah River National Laboratory for K-Area Interim Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Stefek, T. M.

    2005-09-29

    The DOE 3013 storage standard requires nested, welded 300 series stainless steel containers to store plutonium-bearing materials for up to 50 years. Packaged contents include stabilized plutonium-bearing residues that contain chloride salts and a low (< 0.5 weight %) water content. The DOE 3013 STD requires surveillance of the packages over the 50 year lifetime. These surveillance requirements have been further defined by the Integrated Surveillance Program to include both non-destructive examination (NDE) and destructive examination (DE) of the 3013 container. The DE portion of surveillance involves examining the 3013 nested containers, analyzing the head space gas, and evaluating the plutonium oxide chemistry. At SRS, the stored 3013 containers will undergo preparation for the DE surveillance activities in facilities located in K-Area. The actual DE surveillance will be performed in SRNL. This report provides preliminary functional requirements for the destructive examination (DE) of plutonium-bearing oxide materials and containers in support of K-Area Interim Surveillance (KIS). The KIS project will install interim facilities to prepare the samples for analysis in SRNL. This document covers the requirements for the interim period beginning in 2007, and lasting until the Container Storage and Surveillance Capability (CSSC) project provides the permanent facilities in K-Area to perform sampling and repackaging operations associated with the 3013 container storage and surveillance program. Initial requirements for the CSSC project have been previously defined in WSRC-TR-2004-00584 ''Plutonium Surveillance Destructive Examination Requirements at Savannah River National Laboratory''. As part of the Plutonium Surveillance Program of 3013 Containers at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) will receive the emptied 3013 container components, plutonium oxide samples and headspace gas samples from K-Area. The DE program scope

  10. Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.

    This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).

  11. The US National Violent Death Reporting System: domestic and international lessons for violence injury surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, H; Gutierrez, M I; Harrison, J; Matzopoulos, R

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This article reviews and comments on the development, strengths and limitations of the US National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) from a variety of domestic and international perspectives. Methods: The authors were provided preliminary copies of the manuscripts in this special edition and examined them to understand and put in context the elements and uses of the NVDRS so far. Their comments are based on their reading and interpretation of these papers plus their own combined experience in injury and public health surveillance from four different countries: the US, Colombia, Australia, and South Africa. Results: The NVDRS is bigger than the sum of its parts because it links existing data from multiple sources. Its adoption of modern relational database technologies offers advantages over traditional injury surveillance databases and creates new opportunities for understanding, collaboration, and partnerships. Challenges include overcoming resource limitations so that it can become a truly national system, measuring and improving its sensitivity and comparability, and the need to examine mortality in context with serious non‐fatal violent events. Conclusions: The NVDRS is an important work in progress for the US. Each country should examine its own needs, traditions, resources, and existing infrastructure when deciding what kind of violence surveillance system to develop. However, collaboration in developing common definitions and classifications provides an important foundation for international comparisons. PMID:17170174

  12. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  13. Arthropod surveillance programs: Basic components, strategies, and analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective entomological surveillance planning stresses a careful consideration of methodology, trapping technologies, and analysis techniques. Herein, the basic principles and technological components of arthropod surveillance plans are described, as promoted in the symposium “Advancements in arthro...

  14. 40 CFR 49.11014 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.11014 Section 49.11014 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  15. 40 CFR 49.9864 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.9864 Section 49.9864 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... surveillance....

  16. 40 CFR 49.10704 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10704 Section 49.10704 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Source surveillance....

  17. 40 CFR 49.11014 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.11014 Section 49.11014 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  18. 40 CFR 49.10494 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10494 Section 49.10494 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Source surveillance....

  19. 40 CFR 49.10924 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10924 Section 49.10924 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  20. 40 CFR 49.10924 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10924 Section 49.10924 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  1. 40 CFR 49.11104 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.11104 Section 49.11104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  2. 40 CFR 49.10104 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10104 Section 49.10104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  3. 40 CFR 49.10704 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10704 Section 49.10704 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  4. 40 CFR 49.9864 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.9864 Section 49.9864 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... surveillance....

  5. 40 CFR 49.10434 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10434 Section 49.10434 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  6. 40 CFR 49.10104 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10104 Section 49.10104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  7. 40 CFR 49.9924 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.9924 Section 49.9924 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... surveillance....

  8. 40 CFR 49.10344 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10344 Section 49.10344 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  9. 40 CFR 49.11014 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.11014 Section 49.11014 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  10. 40 CFR 49.10104 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10104 Section 49.10104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  11. 40 CFR 49.9924 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.9924 Section 49.9924 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... surveillance....

  12. 40 CFR 49.10374 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10374 Section 49.10374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  13. 40 CFR 49.9864 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.9864 Section 49.9864 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... surveillance....

  14. 40 CFR 49.10344 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10344 Section 49.10344 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  15. 40 CFR 49.9984 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.9984 Section 49.9984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Source surveillance....

  16. 40 CFR 49.11074 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.11074 Section 49.11074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  17. 40 CFR 49.9894 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.9894 Section 49.9894 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... surveillance....

  18. 40 CFR 49.10284 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10284 Section 49.10284 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  19. 40 CFR 49.10344 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10344 Section 49.10344 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  20. 40 CFR 49.10954 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10954 Section 49.10954 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  1. 40 CFR 49.11074 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.11074 Section 49.11074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  2. 40 CFR 49.9894 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.9894 Section 49.9894 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... surveillance....

  3. 40 CFR 49.11104 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.11104 Section 49.11104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  4. 40 CFR 49.11014 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.11014 Section 49.11014 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  5. 40 CFR 49.10764 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10764 Section 49.10764 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  6. 40 CFR 49.10704 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10704 Section 49.10704 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Source surveillance....

  7. 40 CFR 49.10194 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10194 Section 49.10194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  8. 40 CFR 49.10494 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10494 Section 49.10494 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  9. 40 CFR 49.10194 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10194 Section 49.10194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  10. 40 CFR 49.10854 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10854 Section 49.10854 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  11. 40 CFR 49.10434 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10434 Section 49.10434 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  12. 40 CFR 49.10954 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10954 Section 49.10954 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  13. 40 CFR 49.10374 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10374 Section 49.10374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  14. 40 CFR 49.10134 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10134 Section 49.10134 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  15. 40 CFR 49.9984 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.9984 Section 49.9984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Source surveillance....

  16. 40 CFR 49.10954 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10954 Section 49.10954 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... surveillance....

  17. 40 CFR 49.10494 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10494 Section 49.10494 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Source surveillance....

  18. 40 CFR 49.9954 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.9954 Section 49.9954 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... surveillance....

  19. 40 CFR 49.10674 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10674 Section 49.10674 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Source surveillance....

  20. 40 CFR 49.10494 - Source surveillance. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source surveillance. 49.10494 Section 49.10494 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Source surveillance....