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Sample records for trazodone

  1. Trazodone generates m-CPP: in 2008 risks from m-CPP might outweigh benefits of trazodone.

    PubMed

    Kast, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    Since deleterious effects of m-CPP, the primary catabolic metabolite of trazodone, were last reviewed 2 years ago, research data continue to accrue showing that clinically significant levels of m-CPP (a) are generated in patients using trazodone for sleep and (b) are present 24 h a day and (c) have potentially serious ill effects. This commentary argues that the documented potential for harm and multiple risks of m-CPP outweigh potential benefits of trazodone, given the development and marketing of many safer alternatives since trazodone's introduction in the 1980s.

  2. Trazodone (Desyrel) and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... birth defects. Can taking trazodone during my pregnancy cause pregnancy complications? One small study found no greater chance ... I need to take trazodone throughout my entire pregnancy. Will it cause withdrawal symptoms in my baby? Antidepressant use late ...

  3. Trazodone for Insomnia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jaffer, Karim Yahia; Chang, Tiffany; Vanle, Brigitte; Dang, Jonathan; Steiner, Alexander J.; Loera, Natalie; Abdelmesseh, Marina; Danovitch, Itai

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: While trazodone is approved for the treatment of depression, the off-label use of this medication for insomnia has surpassed its usage as an antidepressant. In this systematic review, we examined the evidence for the efficacy and safety of trazodone for insomnia. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE/PubMed databases from the past 33 years (1983–2016) and the keywords insomnia, trazodone, sedative, treatment, and hypnotics. The results were restricted to English language and human subjects. All randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, observational studies, and placebo-controlled trials regarding trazodone for the treatment of primary or secondary insomnia were reported, per PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The study selection process yielded a total of 45 studies. RESULTS: Evidence for the efficacy of trazodone has been repeatedly demonstrated for primary insomnia, as well as secondary insomnia, including for symptoms that are a result of depression, dementia, and being a healthy man. Earlier studies (1980–2000) focused on utilizing trazodone at high doses (≥100mg/d) for the treatment of insomnia among the depressed population; however, since the 2000s, the utility of trazodone has been expanded to treat secondary insomnia among the non-depressed population as well. The side effects are dose-dependent, and the most common is drowsiness. CONCLUSION: A review of the literature suggests that there are adequate data supporting the efficacy and general safety of the low-dose use of trazodone for the treatment of insomnia. PMID:29552421

  4. Auditory hallucinations induced by trazodone

    PubMed Central

    Shiotsuki, Ippei; Terao, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old female outpatient presenting with a depressive state suffered from auditory hallucinations at night. Her auditory hallucinations did not respond to blonanserin or paliperidone, but partially responded to risperidone. In view of the possibility that her auditory hallucinations began after starting trazodone, trazodone was discontinued, leading to a complete resolution of her auditory hallucinations. Furthermore, even after risperidone was decreased and discontinued, her auditory hallucinations did not recur. These findings suggest that trazodone may induce auditory hallucinations in some susceptible patients. PMID:24700048

  5. Trazodone

    MedlinePlus

    Trazodone may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: headache nausea vomiting bad taste in mouth diarrhea constipation changes in appetite or weight weakness or tiredness nervousness dizziness or lightheadedness feeling unsteady when ...

  6. Excretion of trazodone in breast milk.

    PubMed Central

    Verbeeck, R K; Ross, S G; McKenna, E A

    1986-01-01

    The excretion of breast milk was studied in six lactating women following the oral administration of a single trazodone tablet (50 mg). The milk/plasma ratio of trazodone based on area under the plasma and milk curves was small: 0.142 +/- 0.045 (mean +/- s.d.). Assuming that the babies would drink 500 ml 12 h-1, they would be exposed to less than 0.005 mg kg-1 as compared to 0.77 mg kg-1 for the mothers. It is concluded that exposure of babies to trazodone via breast milk is very small. PMID:3768252

  7. Use of oral trazodone for sedation in cats: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Jillian M; Case, Beth C; Thomson, Andrea E; Griffith, Emily; Sherman, Barbara L

    2016-06-01

    Resistance to transportation and stressful veterinary visits are major causes for a decrease in feline veterinary care. Few options exist for oral sedatives to reduce cats' anxiety prior to veterinary visits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral trazodone for use as a single dose agent for sedation in cats. Six laboratory cats were given single 50, 75 and 100 mg doses of trazodone and placebo. Trazodone 100 mg and placebo treatments were randomized. Pre- and post-study laboratory values and physical examinations were compared. During each 4 h period post-treatment, sedation was measured via accelerometers and video observations scored by an observer blinded to treatment. Examinations were performed on the cats 90 mins after treatment, and their behavioral responses scored by the same blinded observer. No adverse effects or changes in physical examinations or laboratory values were detected as a result of trazodone administration. Accelerometer data showed trazodone 50, 75 and 100 mg caused sedation as measured by activity reduction (83%, 46% and 66%, respectively). In contrast, there was a 14% activity increase after placebo. There was a significant reduction in video observation scores when cats were given trazodone 100 mg compared with placebo. Mean latency to peak sedation for trazodone 100 mg occurred at 2 h. Scores for behavioral response to examination, performed at 90 mins post-treatment, were not significantly different between cats receiving trazodone 100 mg and placebo. Trazodone was well tolerated in this population of cats and caused appreciable sedation at all doses. Behavior during examination was not significantly different when cats received trazodone 100 mg compared with placebo. Further studies are recommended to investigate the use of oral trazodone in cats for the purpose of decreasing anxiety assocaited with transportation and examination. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  8. Fatal Cerebral Edema, Seizures, and Hyponatremia After Trazodone Overdose.

    PubMed

    Avila, Jose David

    Trazodone is a serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor that is widely used for the treatment of depression and insomnia. Fatal overdose is rare and usually occurs when combined with other drugs or alcohol. Only a few lethal cases of pure trazodone overdose have been reported, all attributed to cardiotoxicity. We reported a 37-year-old woman who presented after ingesting 6.45 g of trazodone in a suicidal attempt. She was hyponatremic because of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and, shortly after, had a seizure and developed fatal cerebral edema. Others have described seizures and hyponatremia after pure trazodone overdose, but this is the first report of cerebral edema and death from a neurological complication. Careful monitoring and correction of sodium levels may be necessary in these patients.

  9. The interaction of trazodone with rat brain muscarinic cholinoceptors.

    PubMed

    Hyslop, D K; Taylor, D P

    1980-01-01

    The muscarinic receptor binding of trazodone, a new nontricyclic antidepressant, was compared with established tricyclic antidepressants. The ability to inhibit the binding of [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate in vitro was used for comparing atropine-like effects. Trazodone was found to have essentially no activity at the muscarinic acetylcholine binding site in comparison to the tricyclic antidepressants.

  10. The interaction of trazodone with rat brain muscarinic cholinoceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hyslop, D. K.; Taylor, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    The muscarinic receptor binding of trazodone, a new nontricyclic antidepressant, was compared with established tricyclic antidepressants. The ability to inhibit the binding of [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate in vitro was used for comparing atropine-like effects. Trazodone was found to have essentially no activity at the muscarinic acetylcholine binding site in comparison to the tricyclic antidepressants. PMID:7470750

  11. [Trazodone in REM sleep behavior disorder].

    PubMed

    Chica-Urzola, Heydy Luz

    2015-01-01

    This case concerns an elderly man with a REM sleep behavior disorder, who was initially offered a pharmacological treatment with clonazepam, recommended by other articles, but with poor adherence due to its adverse reactions and persistence of symptoms. He was then offered a treatment with Trazodone was offered, achieving a complete remission of symptoms, with no reported side effects. It is clear that Trazodone has no known indication for this type of disorder; nevertheless, it was considered in this case because of its pharmacological profile, obtaining satisfactory results. Further research is needed in order to document thoroughly the mechanisms of action, efficacy and utility of this molecule in cases such as the one presented. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Trazodone improves sleep parameters in Alzheimer disease patients: a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Einstein F; Louzada, Luciana L; Quintas, Juliana L; Naves, Janeth O S; Louzada, Fernando M; Nóbrega, Otávio T

    2014-12-01

    There are no randomized clinical trials regarding efficacy of trazodone in the treatment of sleep disturbances (SD) in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). We tested the efficacy and safety of trazodone to treat SD in patients with AD. We conducted a double-blind, randomized and controlled trial during periods of 7-9 days at baseline and 2 weeks of treatment. Geriatric medical center of the university's general hospital. Individuals with probable AD and SD. The complete analysis comprised 30 patients assigned to either the active treatment group (N = 15) or the placebo group (N = 15). Patients received 50 mg of trazodone once daily at 10:00 P.M. or placebo in a 1:1 ratio for 2 weeks. Patients were evaluated using actigraphy and structured scales before and after intervention. Compared with the placebo group, trazodone users slept 42.5 more minutes per night and had their nighttime percent sleep increased 8.5 percentage points according to actigraphic data post-treatment. Neither trazodone nor placebo induced significant daytime sleepiness or naps. The treatments with trazodone or placebo did not show any effects either on cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination, forward/backward digit span task, letter-number sequencing, arithmetic, digit symbol-coding, and symbol search) or functionality (Katz index). There were no differences in frequency or severity rating of adverse events between the groups. This study shows significant therapeutic effects of trazodone 50 mg in community-dwelling AD patients with SD. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacokinetics and selected pharmacodynamics of trazodone following intravenous and oral administration to horses undergoing fitness training.

    PubMed

    Knych, Heather K; Mama, Khursheed R; Steffey, Eugene P; Stanley, Scott D; Kass, Philip H

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure concentrations of trazodone and its major metabolite in plasma and urine after administration to healthy horses and concurrently assess selected physiologic and behavioral effects of the drug. ANIMALS 11 Thoroughbred horses enrolled in a fitness training program. PROCEDURES In a pilot investigation, 4 horses received trazodone IV (n = 2) or orally (2) to select a dose for the full study; 1 horse received a vehicle control treatment IV. For the full study, trazodone was initially administered IV (1.5 mg/kg) to 6 horses and subsequently given orally (4 mg/kg), with a 5-week washout period between treatments. Blood and urine samples were collected prior to drug administration and at multiple time points up to 48 hours afterward. Samples were analyzed for trazodone and metabolite concentrations, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined; plasma drug concentrations following IV administration best fit a 3-compartment model. Behavioral and physiologic effects were assessed. RESULTS After IV administration, total clearance of trazodone was 6.85 ± 2.80 mL/min/kg, volume of distribution at steady state was 1.06 ± 0.07 L/kg, and elimination half-life was 8.58 ± 1.88 hours. Terminal phase half-life was 7.11 ± 1.70 hours after oral administration. Horses had signs of aggression and excitation, tremors, and ataxia at the highest IV dose (2 mg/kg) in the pilot investigation. After IV drug administration in the full study (1.5 mg/kg), horses were ataxic and had tremors; sedation was evident after oral administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of trazodone to horses elicited a wide range of effects. Additional study is warranted before clinical use of trazodone in horses can be recommended.

  14. Trazodone Increases the Respiratory Arousal Threshold in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and a Low Arousal Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Danny J.; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew; White, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The effect of common sedatives on upper airway physiology and breathing during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been minimally studied. Conceptually, certain sedatives may worsen OSA in some patients. However, sleep and breathing could improve with certain sedatives in patients with OSA with a low respiratory arousal threshold. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with OSA and a low arousal threshold. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of trazodone on upper airway dilator muscle activity, upper airway collapsibility, and breathing during sleep. Design: Patients were studied on 4 separate nights according to a within-subjects cross-over design. Setting: Sleep physiology laboratory. Patients: Seven patients with OSA and a low respiratory arousal threshold. Interventions: In-laboratory polysomnograms were obtained at baseline and after 100 mg of trazodone was administered, followed by detailed overnight physiology experiments under the same conditions. During physiology studies, continuous positive airway pressure was transiently lowered to measure arousal threshold (negative epiglottic pressure prior to arousal), dilator muscle activity (genioglossus and tensor palatini), and upper airway collapsibility (Pcrit). Measurements and Results: Trazodone increased the respiratory arousal threshold by 32 ± 6% (-11.5 ± 1.4 versus -15.3 ± 2.2 cmH2O, P < 0.01) but did not alter the apnea-hypopnea index (39 ± 12 versus 39 ± 11 events/h sleep, P = 0.94). Dilator muscle activity and Pcrit also did not systematically change with trazodone. Conclusions: Trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a low arousal threshold without major impairment in dilator muscle activity or upper airway collapsibility. However, the magnitude of change in arousal threshold was insufficient to overcome the compromised upper airway

  15. Trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a low arousal threshold.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Danny J; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew; White, David P

    2014-04-01

    The effect of common sedatives on upper airway physiology and breathing during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been minimally studied. Conceptually, certain sedatives may worsen OSA in some patients. However, sleep and breathing could improve with certain sedatives in patients with OSA with a low respiratory arousal threshold. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with OSA and a low arousal threshold. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of trazodone on upper airway dilator muscle activity, upper airway collapsibility, and breathing during sleep. Patients were studied on 4 separate nights according to a within-subjects cross-over design. Sleep physiology laboratory. Seven patients with OSA and a low respiratory arousal threshold. In-laboratory polysomnograms were obtained at baseline and after 100 mg of trazodone was administered, followed by detailed overnight physiology experiments under the same conditions. During physiology studies, continuous positive airway pressure was transiently lowered to measure arousal threshold (negative epiglottic pressure prior to arousal), dilator muscle activity (genioglossus and tensor palatini), and upper airway collapsibility (Pcrit). Trazodone increased the respiratory arousal threshold by 32 ± 6% (-11.5 ± 1.4 versus -15.3 ± 2.2 cmH2O, P < 0.01) but did not alter the apnea-hypopnea index (39 ± 12 versus 39 ± 11 events/h sleep, P = 0.94). Dilator muscle activity and Pcrit also did not systematically change with trazodone. Trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a low arousal threshold without major impairment in dilator muscle activity or upper airway collapsibility. However, the magnitude of change in arousal threshold was insufficient to overcome the compromised upper airway anatomy in these patients.

  16. Trazodone and Omeprazole Interaction causing Frequent Second-Degree Mobitz Type 1 Atrioventricular (AV) Block (Wenckebach Phenomenon) and Syncope: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Akinseye, Oluwaseun A.; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Radparvar, Farshid; Bakshi, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 54 Final Diagnosis: Trazodone and omeprazole interaction causing second-degree Mobitz type 1 AV block and syncope Symptoms: Syncope Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Trazodone and omeprazole withheld Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unexpected drug reaction Background: This case report highlights serious cardiovascular adverse effects with a conventional dose of trazodone as a result of its potential interaction with omeprazole. Case Report: A 54-year-old man who was a former smoker, with dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and anxiety disorder developed lightheadedness and syncope the morning of admission. He was taking trazodone 50 mg daily, omeprazole 20 mg daily, and simvastatin 20 mg at bedtime. He doubled the dose of trazodone 50 mg on the night prior to presentation to calm his anxiety. An electrocardiogram revealed sinus rhythm at 60 beats per minute and second-degree Mobitz type 1 atrioventricular (AV) block with 5:4 AV conduction. Results of basic metabolic panel, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and chest radiograph were normal. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed aortic valve sclerosis. We tested for Lyme disease given his history of hunting in the woods 8 months prior to presentation, but the titer was negative. Trazodone and omeprazole were discontinued. By the 3rd day of medication discontinuation, all symptoms had resolved and the frequency of second-degree AV Mobitz type 1 AV block had decreased to once per hour. Conclusions: Due diligence and meticulous attention to detail needs to be exercised to uncover drug interactions as potential causes of lethal and nonlethal patient symptomatology, as in this case of syncope caused by concomitant use of trazodone and a widely prescribed medication, omeprazole. PMID:26017199

  17. Propranolol, clonidine, urapidil and trazodone infusion in essential tremor: a double-blind crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Caccia, M R; Osio, M; Galimberti, V; Cataldi, G; Mangoni, A

    1989-05-01

    Accelerometric tremorgrams were recorded from 25 subjects affected by essential tremor and analysed by a Berg-Fourier frequency analyser before and during venous infusion of the following drugs: propranolol (beta-blocker), clonidine (alpha-presynaptic adrenergic agonist), urapidil (alpha-postsynaptic blocker), trazodone (adrenolytic agent) and placebo. The washout interval between infusions was 3 days. Recordings and data analyses were performed in a double-blind crossover trial. Tremor was classified as: at rest; postural (arms hyperextended); and intention (finger-nose test). Analysis of the results showed that propranolol and clonidine reduced significantly (P = 0.01 and P = 0.009, respectively) the power spectrum of postural tremor, but left at rest and intention tremors unchanged. No significant effects on the tremor power spectrum were observed after placebo, urapidil or trazodone administration. None of the drugs had any effect on tremor frequency.

  18. Effects of acepromazine and trazodone on anesthetic induction dose of propofol and cardiovascular variables in dogs undergoing general anesthesia for orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lindsey A; Barletta, Michele; Graham, Lynelle F; Reichl, Lorna J; Duxbury, Margaret M; Quandt, Jane E

    2017-02-15

    OBJECTIVE To compare the doses of propofol required to induce general anesthesia in dogs premedicated with acepromazine maleate or trazodone hydrochloride and compare the effects of these premedicants on cardiovascular variables in dogs anesthetized for orthopedic surgery. DESIGN Prospective, randomized study. ANIMALS 30 systemically healthy client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES 15 dogs received acepromazine (0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg [0.005 to 0.014 mg/lb], IM) 30 minutes before anesthetic induction and 15 received trazodone (5 mg/kg [2.27 mg/lb] for patients > 10 kg or 7 mg/kg [3.18 mg/lb] for patients ≤ 10 kg, PO) 2 hours before induction. Both groups received morphine sulfate (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], IM) 30 minutes before induction. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4 to 6 mg/kg [1.82 to 2.73 mg/lb], IV, to effect) and maintained with isoflurane or sevoflurane in oxygen. Bupivacaine (0.5 mg/kg [0.227 mg/lb]) and morphine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]) were administered epidurally. Dogs underwent tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (n = 22) or tibial tuberosity advancement (8) and were monitored throughout anesthesia. Propofol induction doses and cardiovascular variables (heart rate and systemic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures) were compared between groups. RESULTS The mean dose of propofol required for anesthetic induction and all cardiovascular variables evaluated did not differ between groups. Intraoperative hypotension developed in 6 and 5 dogs of the acepromazine and trazodone groups, respectively; bradycardia requiring intervention developed in 3 dogs/group. One dog that received trazodone had priapism 24 hours later and was treated successfully. No other adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE At the described dosages, cardiovascular effects of trazodone were similar to those of acepromazine in healthy dogs undergoing anesthesia for orthopedic surgery.

  19. Trazodone Addition to Paroxetine and Mirtazapine in a Patient with Treatment-Resistant Depression: The Pros and Cons of Combining Three Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Alves, José Carlos; Rego, Raquel Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Dual antidepressant combination for treatment-resistant depression is a strategy well supported by literature and accepted in clinical practice. Rather, the usefulness of the combination of more than two antidepressants is controversial. This may be related to the possibility of higher side-effect burden and to doubts about its pharmacological effectiveness and therapeutic advantage compared to other standard treatment options. We report a relapse of moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms with insomnia that successfully remitted after the addition of trazodone to a dual combination of paroxetine and mirtazapine (in standard effective doses) in a patient with treatment-resistant depression. We also review the literature and discuss the utility of triple antidepressant combination in treatment-resistant depression. This clinical case highlights the utility of combining trazodone as a third antidepressant for the relapse of depressive symptoms after the failure of a dual antidepressant combination. Trazodone may be advantageous in patients presenting recurrence of moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms that include sleep problems and/or insomnia and may be particularly useful when benzodiazepines are not recommended. Although its use may be controversial and associated with higher risk of side-effects, more investigation is needed to determine the efficacy and safety for triple antidepressant combinations as reliable strategies for treatment-resistant depression in clinical practice. PMID:27807450

  20. Effects on sleep stages and microarchitecture of caffeine and its combination with zolpidem or trazodone in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Paterson, L M; Nutt, D J; Ivarsson, M; Hutson, P H; Wilson, S J

    2009-07-01

    Caffeine is the world's most popular stimulant and is known to disrupt sleep. Administration of caffeine can therefore be used in healthy volunteers to mimic the effects of insomnia and thus to test the hypnotic effects of medication. This study assessed the effects of caffeine on sleep architecture and electroencephalography (EEG) spectrum alone and in combination with two different sleep-promoting medications. Home polysomnography was performed in 12 healthy male volunteers in a double-blind study whereby subjects received placebo, caffeine (150 mg), caffeine plus zolpidem (10 mg) and caffeine plus trazodone (100 mg) at bedtime in a randomised crossover design. In addition to delaying sleep onset, caffeine decreased total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE) and stage 2 sleep without significantly altering wake after sleep onset or the number of awakenings. Zolpidem attenuated the caffeine-induced decrease in SE and increased spindle density in the caffeine plus zolpidem combination compared with placebo. Trazodone attenuated the decrease in SE and TST, and it also increased stage 3 sleep, decreased the number of awakenings and decreased the spindle density. No significant changes in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep were observed, neither was any significant alteration in slow wave activity nor other EEG spectral measures, although the direction of change was similar to that previously reported for caffeine and appeared to 'normalise' after trazodone. These data suggest that caffeine mimics some, but not all of the sleep disruption seen in insomnia and that its disruptive effects are differentially attenuated by the actions of sleep-promoting compounds with distinct mechanisms of action.

  1. [The effects of antidepressants on sleep in depressed patients with particular reference to trazodone in comparison to agomelatine, amitriptyline, doxepin, mianserine and mirtazapine].

    PubMed

    Wichniak, Adam; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra

    2011-07-01

    Disturbed sleep is a core symptom of depression and is among diagnostic criteria for depressive episode. Effects of an antidepressant drug on sleep are important for its clinical profile. Rapid improvement of sleep quality is particularly indicated in depressed patients with insomnia, anxiety, agitation and suicidal thoughts. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of trazodone on sleep in depressed patients in comparison to other sleep promoting antidepressants: agomelatine, amitriptyline, doxepin, mianserine and mirtazapine according to analysis of scientific publications. Sedative antidepressants including trazodone are regarded as treatment of choice in depression with agitation, anxiety or insomnia. They are also frequently used in low dose to promote sleep, as an alternative to hypnotics. Such approach to treatment of insomnia in depressed patients protects them against dependence on hypnotic drugs. Additionally, the antagonistic action of antidepressants on serotonergic 5-HT2 receptors improves not only the sleep continuity, but promotes also slow wave sleep. Trazodone and mirtazapine in comparison to many other antidepressants do not suppress REM sleep. Antidepressants have different effects on sleep. In treatment of depression sedative antidepressants should be administered in the full, recommended dose. However, if they are administered as concomitant treatment only to promote sleep, low doses are indicated. Too late administration time and too high dose are the most common factors related to failure of insomnia treatment with these drugs.

  2. Enhanced chemiluminescence for trazodone trace analysis based on acidic permanganate oxidation in concurrent presence of rhodamine 6G.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Keiichi; Sakata, Yuta; Moriuchi-Kawakami, Takayo; Shibutani, Yasuhiko

    2017-11-01

    A new sensitized chemiluminescence method by acidic permanganate oxidation was developed for the sensitive determination of trazodone. A fluorescent dye as used rhodamine 6G to increase a chemiluminescence intensity. Under optimum conditions, the liner range of the calibration curve was obtained for 1-5000 nmol/L. The limit of detection was calculated from 3σ of a blank was 0.23 nmol/L. The coexistent ions and substances had no interference with the chemiluminescence measurement. The chemiluminescence spectra were measured to elucidate a possible mechanism for the system. The present method was satisfactorily used in the determination of the drugs in pharmaceutical samples and animal serums. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of trazodone, amineptine and amitriptyline hydrochlorides through ion-pair formation with molybdenum and thiocyanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Nour El-Dien, F. A.; Khalil, S. M.; Mohamed, Nehad A.

    2006-12-01

    Extraction spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of tricyclic drugs such as trazodone (TZH), amineptine (APH) and amitriptyline (ATPH) hydrochlorides in pure form and in the dosage forms coming from different Egyptian markets. The method based on the formation of ion-pairs between these drugs under investigation and inorganic complex of Mo(V)-thiocyanate followed by its extraction with methylene chloride. The optimum conditions for the ion-pairs formation are established. The method permits the determination of TZH, APH and ATPH over the concentration range of 2-28, 2-32 and 1-30 μg ml -1, respectively. The Sandell sensitivity ( S) is found to be 0.105, 0.138 and 0.118 g cm -2 for TZH, APH and ATPH, respectively. The SD is found to be 0.16-0.377, 0.12-0.259 and 0.091-0.286 and the R.S.D. are 0.14-0.55, 0.12-0.399 and 0.095-0.485 for TZH, APH and ATPH, respectively. The method is applicable for the assay of the investigated drugs in different dosage forms and the results are in good agreement with those obtained by the official method.

  4. Trazodone hydrochloride overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... If the medicine was prescribed for the person Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Symptom Presentation and Prescription of Sleep Medications for Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, Mark A; Neylan, Thomas C; Rosen, Craig S

    2017-02-01

    This study tested whether sleep medications prescribed to veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are being targeted to patients who report more severe insomnia or nightmares. Secondary analysis of survey and pharmacy data was conducted in samples of veterans from two periods: from 2006 to 2008 and from 2009 to 2013. Logistic regression tested associations between self-reported insomnia and nightmare severity, and being prescribed trazodone, prazosin, zolpidem, and benzodiazepines, controlling for PTSD severity and other covariates. In both samples, insomnia severity independently predicted trazodone receipt, and nightmare severity independently predicted prazosin receipt. In the later study, insomnia severity predicted receipt of zolpidem. Veterans in the later sample were more likely to receive trazodone, prazosin, and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, and less likely to receive benzodiazepines than those in the earlier sample. Further research is needed to evaluate and optimize pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for sleep problems among veterans with PTSD.

  6. Prevalence and cost of insomnia in a state Medicaid fee-for-service population based on diagnostic codes and prescription utilization.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anuja N; Smith, Michael

    2010-05-01

    The aims of this research were to estimate prevalence of insomnia, describe the utilization patterns of physician office services and prescription medications for insomnia, and estimate related costs in a Medicaid population. A cross-sectional descriptive analysis using data from the West Virginia (WV) Medicaid fee-for-service paid claims records for the year 2003 was conducted. Recipients with a diagnosis related to insomnia or a prescription claim for an FDA-approved drug for insomnia or trazodone were selected as the study sample. Costs were from the perspective of WV Medicaid. The overall prevalence of insomnia was 74.3 per 1000 recipients. Adults 45-64years of age, females, and whites had the highest prevalence and office visit rates for insomnia among demographic groups. A majority of dollars spent on insomnia treatment was for prescription drugs. Zolpidem and trazodone accounted for 88% of prescription claims; however, 84% of the total dollars paid for prescriptions was for zolpidem. Among the WV Medicaid population, rates of insomnia and office visit use for insomnia varied by demographic groups. There was greater use of zolpidem and trazodone than benzodiazepine drugs. This study provides baseline estimates that can be used for ongoing surveillance of insomnia. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of Sleep Disturbance in Alcohol Recovery: A National Survey of Addiction Medicine Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Herman, Debra S.; Freedman, Shelby; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Ramsey, Susan; Stein, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common among patients in recovery from alcoholism and can precipitate relapse. Though sleep complaints are commonly managed with medication, little is known about their management among recovering alcoholic patients. We performed a postal survey of a self-weighted, random systematic sample of 503 members of the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) to examine addiction medicine physicians’ medical management of sleep disturbance among patients in early recovery from alcoholism. After 3 mailings, 311 (62%) responded. Of responents, 64% have offered pharmacological treatment to an insomniac, alcoholic patient in the first 3 months after detoxification, but only 22% offered medication to more than half of such patients. Trazodone was the preferred therapy, chosen first by 38% of respondents, followed by other sedating antidepressants (12%), and antihistamines (12%). The mean duration of therapy for trazodone and other sedating antidepressants exceeded one month. Experts in addiction medicine appear reluctant to prescribe medication to sleep-disturbed patients in early recovery from alcoholism. When they do prescribe, trazodone, other sedating antidepressants and antihistamines are favored, despite limited evidence for or against this indication. Although the treatment of disordered sleep among alcoholic patients in early recovery may have merit to prevent relapse, controlled studies of these sleep agents are needed. PMID:12703672

  8. Levorphanol

    MedlinePlus

    ... by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond to pain. ... in Ultracet); trazodone (Oleptro); or tricyclic antidepressants ('mood elevators') such as amitriptyline, clomipramine (Anafranil), desipramine (Norpramin), doxepin ( ...

  9. Pentazocine

    MedlinePlus

    ... by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond to pain. ... Effexor); tramadol; trazodone (Oleptro); and tricyclic antidepressants ('mood elevators') such as amitriptyline, clomipramine (Anafranil), desipramine (Norpramin), doxepin ( ...

  10. Neuroprotective Effects of Psychotropic Drugs in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lauterbach, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Psychotropics (antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, anxiolytics, etc.) are commonly prescribed to treat Huntington’s disease (HD). In HD preclinical models, while no psychotropic has convincingly affected huntingtin gene, HD modifying gene, or huntingtin protein expression, psychotropic neuroprotective effects include upregulated huntingtin autophagy (lithium), histone acetylation (lithium, valproate, lamotrigine), miR-222 (lithium-plus-valproate), mitochondrial protection (haloperidol, trifluoperazine, imipramine, desipramine, nortriptyline, maprotiline, trazodone, sertraline, venlafaxine, melatonin), neurogenesis (lithium, valproate, fluoxetine, sertraline), and BDNF (lithium, valproate, sertraline) and downregulated AP-1 DNA binding (lithium), p53 (lithium), huntingtin aggregation (antipsychotics, lithium), and apoptosis (trifluoperazine, loxapine, lithium, desipramine, nortriptyline, maprotiline, cyproheptadine, melatonin). In HD live mouse models, delayed disease onset (nortriptyline, melatonin), striatal preservation (haloperidol, tetrabenazine, lithium, sertraline), memory preservation (imipramine, trazodone, fluoxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine), motor improvement (tetrabenazine, lithium, valproate, imipramine, nortriptyline, trazodone, sertraline, venlafaxine), and extended survival (lithium, valproate, sertraline, melatonin) have been documented. Upregulated CREB binding protein (CBP; valproate, dextromethorphan) and downregulated histone deacetylase (HDAC; valproate) await demonstration in HD models. Most preclinical findings await replication and their limitations are reviewed. The most promising findings involve replicated striatal neuroprotection and phenotypic disease modification in transgenic mice for tetrabenazine and for sertraline. Clinical data consist of an uncontrolled lithium case series (n = 3) suggesting non-progression and a primarily negative double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of lamotrigine. PMID:24248060

  11. Saquinavir

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease); simvastatin (Zocor, in Vytorin); tacrolimus (Astagraf XL, Envarsus XR, Protopic); thioridazine; trazodone; triazolam (Halcion); or ... Tenormin, in Tenoretic), labetalol (Trandate), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL, in Dutoprol, in Loressor HCT), nadolol (Corgard, in ...

  12. Unreported Medications Used in Incapacitating Medical Conditions Found in Fatal Civil Aviation Accidents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    Carbamazepine 62 = Verapamil 21 = Diazepam 13 = Lidocaine 96 = Fluoxetine 72 = Propranolol 113 = Trazodone 30 = Metoprolol 116 = Sertraline 41 = Procainamid...examined by an aviation medi- Lopressor ( Metoprolol ) for the treatment of high cal examiner, the majority of the cardiovascular drugs blood pressure. In

  13. [Antidepressant prescription patterns in patients affiliated with the General Social Security Health System of Colombia].

    PubMed

    Machado-Alba, Jorge E; Morales Plaza, Cristhian David; Solarte Gómez, Mónica Johanna

    2011-11-01

    Determine patterns of antidepressive drug prescription in a group of patients affiliated with the General Social Security Health System in Colombia. Observational descriptive study of 9 881 patients, of both sexes and older than 5 years of age, medicated with antidepressants and continuously treated from August to October 2009. The patients include residents from 56 Colombian cities. A database was designed based on the consumption of medicines obtained from the company that distributes them to the patients. The average age was 59.1 ± 16.1 years; 73.7% of the participants were women. Of the total number of patients, 83.3% were treated with monotherapy and 16.7% with two or more antidepressants. The order of the prescription of the medicines was: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, 47.0%; atypical, 37.8%; tricyclical, 31.8%; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and norepinephrine, 1.8%; and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, 0.03%. The combinations most used were fluoxetine + trazodone (n = 1 029); amitriptyline + fluoxetine (n = 265); amitriptyline + trazodone (n = 122); fluoxetine + imipramine (n = 106); and imipramine + trazodone (n = 71). The most prescribed co-medications were anti-hypertensives (52.3%); thyroid hormones (23.3%); anti-inflammatories (19.6%); anti-epileptics (15.4%); anti-diabetics (13.8%); anti-anxiety and hypnotics (12.4%); antipsychotics (7.4%); anti-Parkinsons (4.3%); and anti-neoplastics (2.2%). The practice of prescribing medicines with a high therapeutic value predominates, mainly for antidepressive monotherapy. Most of the antidepressants are prescribed at dosages lower than those recommended. There is a need to design educational strategies to correct some prescription practices and to conduct research.

  14. Epidemiology of Toxicological Factors in Civil Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities, 1999-2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    Tramadol 0 1 11 12 Trazodone 0 1 2 4 Triamterene 1 5 2 8 Trimethoprim 1 0 4 5 Venlafaxine/Desmethylvenlafaxine 1 3 2 6 Verapamil/Norverapamil 0 3 6 11...fatalities could have been administered by emergency health care providers at accident scenes, or at hospitals for pain reduction and/or surgical

  15. The effect of sleep medications on cognitive recovery from traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric B; Zollman, Felise S

    2010-01-01

    To summarize the literature on the available pharmacotherapy for insomnia and the adverse cognitive effects of those options in persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ovid/MEDLINE databases were searched by using the following key words: "brain injury," "sleep initiation and maintenance disorders," "hypnotics and sedatives," "benzodiazepines," "trazodone," and "neuronal plasticity." The reviewed literature consistently reported that benzodiazepines and atypical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists result in cognitive impairment when plasma levels are at their peak. Evidence of residual effects on cognition was reported for benzodiazepines but was seen less often in atypical GABA agonists. However, evidence has also been presented that GABA agonists have adverse effects on neuroplasticity, raising concerns about their use in patients recovering from TBI. Use of benzodiazepines in TBI has been discouraged and some authors also advocate caution in prescribing atypical GABA agonists. Alternate treatments including trazodone and a newer class of agents, melatonin agonists, are highlighted, along with the limited data available addressing the use of these medications in TBI. Finally, suggestions are offered for further research, especially on topic related to neural plasticity and functional recovery.

  16. Predictive Modeling of Physician-Patient Dynamics That Influence Sleep Medication Prescriptions and Clinical Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beam, Andrew L.; Kartoun, Uri; Pai, Jennifer K.; Chatterjee, Arnaub K.; Fitzgerald, Timothy P.; Shaw, Stanley Y.; Kohane, Isaac S.

    2017-02-01

    Insomnia remains under-diagnosed and poorly treated despite its high economic and social costs. Though previous work has examined how patient characteristics affect sleep medication prescriptions, the role of physician characteristics that influence this clinical decision remains unclear. We sought to understand patient and physician factors that influence sleep medication prescribing patterns by analyzing Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) including the narrative clinical notes as well as codified data. Zolpidem and trazodone were the most widely prescribed initial sleep medication in a cohort of 1,105 patients. Some providers showed a historical preference for one medication, which was highly predictive of their future prescribing behavior. Using a predictive model (AUC = 0.77), physician preference largely determined which medication a patient received (OR = 3.13 p = 3 × 10-37). In addition to the dominant effect of empirically determined physician preference, discussion of depression in a patient’s note was found to have a statistically significant association with receiving a prescription for trazodone (OR = 1.38, p = 0.04). EMR data can yield insights into physician prescribing behavior based on real-world physician-patient interactions.

  17. A fatal drug interaction between oxycodone and clonazepam.

    PubMed

    Burrows, David L; Hagardorn, Andrea N; Harlan, Gretel C; Wallen, Ellen D B; Ferslew, Kenneth E

    2003-05-01

    A case is presented of a fatal drug interaction caused by ingestion of oxycodone (Oxycontin) and clonazepam (Klonapin). Oxycodone is an opium alkaloid used in long-term pain management therapy. Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine used for the treatment of seizures and panic disorders. The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) has reported an increase of 108% in the last two years of emergency department episodes related to Oxycontin. Six billion prescriptions were written for Oxycontin in the year 2000, an 18-fold increase from four years previous (1). Oxycontin has recently gained enormous notoriety at the local and national levels; however, there are very few previously documented cases of lethal drug interactions between oxycodone and clonazepam. Synergistic effects between these two drugs are postulated to arise from different agonistic mechanisms producing similar physiological changes. It is also theorized that clonazepam may inhibit the metabolism of oxycodone. A 38-year-old white female was found dead in Jefferson County, Tennessee in March of 2001. The deceased had physical evidence of previous drug abuse and positive serological findings of hepatitis B and C. Prescription pill bottles filled under the name of the deceased, as well as another name, were found with the body. Serum, urine and gastric contents from the deceased were screened for numerous drugs and metabolites using a combination of thin layer chromatography and immunoassay techniques (EMIT and FPIA). Analysis of biological specimens from the deceased revealed the presence of: benzodiazepines, opiates (oxycodone), and trazodone metabolites in the serum; cannabinoids, benzodiazepines, opiates (oxycodone), trazodone, trazodone metabolites, nicotine, and nicotine metabolite in the urine; and benzodiazepines, opiates (oxycodone), nicotine, and nicotine metabolite in the gastric contents. Quantitative analyses for clonazepam was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and revealed a

  18. [Expressions of neurotransmitters in patients of insomnia differentiated as liver stagnation transforming into fire treated with acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiangdong; Wang, Qunsong; Zhu, Wenxian

    2015-06-01

    To compare the difference in the efficacy between acupuncture and oral administration of trazodone and the expressions of neurotransmitters in patients of insomnia differentiated as liver stagnation transforming into fire. Seventy patients of insomnia differentiated as liver stagnation transforming into fire were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 35 cases in each one. In the observation group, acupuncture therapy was adopted at Shenmen (HT 7), Baihui (GV 20), Yintang (GV 29), Hegu (LI 4), Taichong (LR 3), etc. The needles were retained for 20 min each time. The treatment was given once a day, the treatment of 2 weeks made one session. In the control group, trazodone, 100 mg, oral administration, once a day, the treatment of 2 weeks made one session. Two sessions were required in the two groups. The scores in Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and Asberg rating scale for side effects (SERS), the levels of neurotransmitters such as 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) and the expressions of protein kinase C (PKC) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in peripheral blood were observed before and after treatment in the two groups. PSQI score and SERS score after treatment were all decreased compared with those in both groups before treatment (both P<0. 05). After treatment, PSQI score and SERS score in the observation group were lower apparently than those in the control group (both P<0. 05). After treatment NE content and PKC level were decreased; 5-HT content and BDNF mRNA were increased compared with those in both groups before treatment (all P<0. 05). NE content and PKC level in the observation group were lower apparently than those in the control group (both P<0. 05). The serum 5-HT content and BDNF mRNA expression in the observation group were higher than those in the control group separately (both P<0. 05). Acupuncture therapy improves the sleeping quality of patients of insomnia differentiated as liver stagnation

  19. Antidepressant-Induced Hyponatremia in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Viramontes, Terry S; Truong, Havan; Linnebur, Sunny A

    2016-03-01

    To describe the prevalence of hyponatremia in older adults related to antidepressive agents and identify potential alternative options in older adults with a low-baseline serum sodium concentration and/or when a patient has experienced hyponatremia as a result of taking an antidepressant. A PubMed search was conducted on November 10, 2015. Search terms included: antidepressive agents, antidepressive agents second-generation, bupropion, citalopram, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, hyponatremia, milnacipran, mirtazapine, paroxetine, reboxetine, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, sertraline, trazodone, venlafaxine, and vilazodone. Filters included English language. A search of product labeling was also conducted. Out of 363 results, 124 publications were identified and reviewed along with 11 additional references. Publications were chosen based on relevance to the review: case reports of patients 60 years of age or older or clinical investigations of the association between hyponatremia and antidepressants in older adults. Hyponatremia was counted as an adverse effect if an antidepressant was the likely cause of hyponatremia, and hyponatremia was resolved after withdrawal. Antidepressant-induced hyponatremia in older adults is fairly common. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and mirtazapine were implicated in the majority of the case reports and clinical studies evaluating older adults. Bupropion, trazodone, and tricyclic antidepressants were implicated less often in the same literature. Given its unique mechanism of action, bupropion may be the most appropriate antidepressant for older adults at risk for antidepressant-induced hyponatremia.

  20. Patients with insomnia and subthreshold depression show marked worsening of insomnia after discontinuation of sleep promoting medication.

    PubMed

    Wichniak, Adam; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Jernajczyk, Wojciech

    2011-08-15

    To investigate whether the outcome of treatment with trazodone CR in primary insomnia differs between patients with and without subthreshold depression. 14 patients (9 females, mean age 57.3 ± 13.3) with primary insomnia and increased Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores (>10) and 15 sex- and age-matched patients with primary insomnia and low BDI scores (≤ 10) were treated with trazodone CR 25-150 mg/d for 3 months and followed for 1 month after discontinuation of the medication. The Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI) were completed at baseline, after each month of treatment and after the first week of run-out phase. Additional assessment tools comprised sleep diaries, the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ) and actigraphic recordings. Subjective sleep time increased by 61.5 ± 72.3 min in the group with low BDI and 60.0 ± 59.4 min in the group with increased BDI at the end of the treatment phase. The significant improvements were also observed in the AIS, CGI, LSEQ and SDS. During the run-out phase the improvement was sustained in patients with low BDI, while AIS scores, sleep latency and total sleep time deteriorated in patients with increased BDI. Patients with subthreshold depression, even if the depressive symptoms do not fulfill the time criteria for depressive episode, show marked worsening of insomnia after discontinuation of sleep promoting medication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of sildenafil on the activity of some antidepressant drugs and electroconvulsive shock treatment in the forced swim test in mice.

    PubMed

    Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Wyska, Elżbieta; Wlaź, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    Sildenafil, a potent and selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5, is used clinically to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is often taken by patients suffering from depression and receiving antidepressant drug treatment. However, its influence on the efficacy of antidepressant treatment was not sufficiently studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of sildenafil on the anti-immobility action of several antidepressant drugs (i.e., sertraline, fluvoxamine, citalopram, maprotiline, trazodone, and agomelatine) as well as on antidepressant-like effect of electroconvulsive stimulations in the forced swim test in mice. The obtained results showed that acute sildenafil treatment enhanced the antidepressant-like activity of all of the studied drugs. The observed effects were not due to the increase in locomotor activity. The interactions between sildenafil and sertraline, maprotiline, and trazodone were pharmacodynamic in nature, as sildenafil did not affect concentrations of these drugs neither in serum nor in brain tissue. Increased concentrations of fluvoxamine, citalopram, and agomelatine in brain tissue evoked by sildenafil co-administration suggest that pharmacokinetic interactions between sildenafil and these drugs are very likely. Sildenafil injected acutely did not alter the antidepressant-like efficacy of electroconvulsive stimulations in mice, as assessed in the forced swim test. Interestingly, repeated (14 days) administration of sildenafil decreased the anti-immobility action of the electroconvulsive stimulations. In conclusion, the present study shows that sildenafil may alter the effectiveness of antidepressant treatment. Further studies are warranted to better characterize the influence of sildenafil on the activity of antidepressant drugs and electroconvulsive therapy.

  2. SciTech Connect

    Raulli, R.; Crews, F.T.

    The potency of various alpha adrenergic compounds on stimulation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis was determined using (/sup 3/H)-inositol labelled cerebral cortical slices. Norepinephrine-induced PI hydrolysis was inhibited by the alpha/sub 1/ selective antagonist prazosin (1 ..mu..M) but not the beta receptor antagonist propranolol (1 ..mu..M). Tramazoline, (-)-ephedrine, and (+/-)-phenylpropanolamine were all found to be partial agonists at 1 mM concentrations. Clonidine, naphazoline, trazodone, and the novel antidepressant mianserin at concentrations of 100 ..mu..M to 1 mM produced no significant increase in PI hydrolysis above control levels. The relationship between responses and receptor binding will be discussed.

  3. Quantification of 4 antidepressants and a metabolite by LC-MS for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Choong, Eva; Rudaz, Serge; Kottelat, Astrid; Haldemann, Sophie; Guillarme, Davy; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Eap, Chin B

    2011-06-01

    A liquid chromatography method coupled to mass spectrometry was developed for the quantification of bupropion, its metabolite hydroxy-bupropion, moclobemide, reboxetine and trazodone in human plasma. The validation of the analytical procedure was assessed according to Société Française des Sciences et Techniques Pharmaceutiques and the latest Food and Drug Administration guidelines. The sample preparation was performed with 0.5 mL of plasma extracted on a cation-exchange solid phase 96-well plate. The separation was achieved in 14 min on a C18 XBridge column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 3.5 μm) using a 50 mM ammonium acetate pH 9/acetonitrile mobile phase in gradient mode. The compounds of interest were analysed in the single ion monitoring mode on a single quadrupole mass spectrometer working in positive electrospray ionisation mode. Two ions were selected per molecule to increase the number of identification points and to avoid as much as possible any false positives. Since selectivity is always a critical point for routine therapeutic drug monitoring, more than sixty common comedications for the psychiatric population were tested. For each analyte, the analytical procedure was validated to cover the common range of concentrations measured in plasma samples: 1-400 ng/mL for reboxetine and bupropion, 2-2000 ng/mL for hydroxy-bupropion, moclobemide, and trazodone. For all investigated compounds, reliable performance in terms of accuracy, precision, trueness, recovery, selectivity and stability was obtained. One year after its implementation in a routine process, this method demonstrated a high robustness with accurate values over the wide concentration range commonly observed among a psychiatric population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Learning and memory in the forced swimming test: effects of antidepressants having varying degrees of anticholinergic activity.

    PubMed

    Enginar, Nurhan; Yamantürk-Çelik, Pınar; Nurten, Asiye; Güney, Dilvin Berrak

    2016-07-01

    The antidepressant-induced reduction in immobility time in the forced swimming test may depend on memory impairment due to the drug's anticholinergic efficacy. Therefore, the present study evaluated learning and memory of the immobility response in rats after the pretest and test administrations of antidepressants having potent, comparatively lower, and no anticholinergic activities. Immobility was measured in the test session performed 24 h after the pretest session. Scopolamine and MK-801, which are agents that have memory impairing effects, were used as reference drugs for a better evaluation of the memory processes in the test. The pretest administrations of imipramine (15 and 30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (7.5 and 15 mg/kg), trazodone (10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg), and moclobemide (10 and 20 mg/kg) were ineffective, whereas the pretest administrations of scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time suggesting impaired "learning to be immobile" in the animals. The test administrations of imipramine (30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (15 mg/kg), moclobemide (10 mg/kg), scopolamine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time, which suggested that the drugs exerted antidepressant activity or the animals did not recall that attempting to escape was futile. The test administrations of trazodone (10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg) produced no effect on immobility time. Even though the false-negative and positive responses made it somewhat difficult to interpret the findings, this study demonstrated that when given before the pretest antidepressants with or without anticholinergic activity seemed to be devoid of impairing the learning process in the test.

  5. [The expressions of anxiety in the elderly. Their diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Scapicchio, P L

    1995-10-01

    Among the most common manifestations of anxiety in the elderly are those associated with neurological disorders. The etiology is often unclear, as anxiety and agitation may be a consequence of insight into the cognitive impairment rather than the direct expression of the neurological deficit. Benzodiazepines are the treatment of choice, particularly the 3-OH compounds that are non oxidised and without active metabolites. Concern about the use of benzodiazepines in the elderly may have been overstated. If used judiciously this class of drugs can prove extremely helpful in reducing day-time anxiety and night-time insomnia. Other medications that are commonly used to treat agitation and disruptive behaviour in demented elderly patients include antipsychotics, beta-blockers, trazodone, buspirone, anticonvulsants.

  6. An LC-MS/MS methodological approach to the analysis of hair for amphetamine-type-stimulant (ATS) drugs, including selected synthetic cathinones and piperazines.

    PubMed

    Lendoiro, Elena; Jiménez-Morigosa, Cristian; Cruz, Angelines; Páramo, Mario; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; de Castro, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Amphetamine-type-stimulants (ATS) are the second most commonly used group of illicit drugs worldwide. However, in the last few years, new psychoactive substances (NPS) with stimulant effects have appeared on the illegal market, which are not detected with traditional analytical methods. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination in hair of classic ATS (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), synthetic cathinones (methylone, methedrone, mephedrone, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, (±)-4-fluoromethamphetamine and 4-fluoromethcathinone), synthetic piperazines (1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) and 3-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine), and medicines (trazodone and phenazone) that produce mCPP as a metabolite, was developed and fully validated. Hair samples (30 mg) were incubated in acid methanol (0.1% HCl) and extracted by a mixed-mode solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed using an Atlantis T3 (3 µm; 2.1x50 mm) analytical column, and ammonium formate 2 mM pH 3 and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The method was validated, including selectivity (no endogenous or exogenous interferences); linearity (2-20 to 2000-4000 pg/mg); limits of detection (0.2 to 5 pg/mg) and quantification (2 to 20 pg/mg); accuracy (93.4-109.4% of target concentration); imprecision (%CV<11.6%); extraction recovery (40.5-92.1%); matrix effect (24.1-227.2%); process efficiency (9.8-165.7%) and stability in the autosampler (-14.5% of loss). The method was applied to the analysis of 16 hair samples. Amphetamine (n=7; 69.1-777.1 pg/mg), methamphetamine (n=3; 120.4-1,538.9 pg/mg), MDA (n=2; 27.8-135.4 pg/mg) and MDMA (n=8; 73.4-3,654.5 pg/mg) were found. Moreover, 10 positive results for mCPP were detected (341.7->4000 pg/mg); however, in all cases trazodone identification (2085.3->4000 pg/mg) probed a licit origin of mCPP. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright

  7. Outpatient treatment of sleep disorders in Alzheimer patients

    PubMed Central

    Scoralick, Francisca Magalhães; Camargos, Einstein Francisco; Freitas, Marco Polo Dias; Nóbrega, Otávio Toledo

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disorders are common in patients with Alzheimer dementia and affect the quality of life of patients and of their caregivers. Despite the rising number of studies in the area, almost all of them are about non-pharmacological treatment. Our objective was to review the literature concerning pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches to treat sleep disorders of elderly patients with Alzheimer dementia in the ambulatory setting. The treatments revised consisted of sleep hygiene and/or use of intense light coupled or not with use of melatonin, cholinesterase inhibitors, antipsychotics, hypnotics or antidepressants. In addition to the non-pharmacological measures, there is evidence that the use of trazodone may aid the treatment of sleep disorders of older individuals with Alzheimer dementia. More studies are necessary to examine the non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments revised herein. PMID:25946052

  8. A display of hypomania in a depressed male in response to fluvoxamine.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, T; Sai, S

    2001-10-01

    The present report describes the behavioural and psychological changes in a 55-year-old depressed male who displayed hypomania after the use of fluvoxamine in addition to other antidepressant medications. The patient experienced his first major depressive episode after the bankruptcy of his company. When fluvoxamine was prescribed at a dose of 50 mg/day in addition to sulpiride at 150 mg/day and a 50 mg dose of trazodone before sleep seven months after admission, grinning and a violation of ward rules occurred repeatedly. The patient became verbally aggressive to the staff and addicted to gambling and alcohol. Six days after the cessation of fluvoxamine, his condition remitted. None of the neuromuscular abnormalities indicative of serotonin syndrome appeared during the episode. Upon review of previous reports on manic switches induced by SSRIs and other antidepressants, we speculate that the fluvoxamine accounted for his hypomania.

  9. Diagnosis and Management of Behavioral Issues in Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Manoochehri, Masood; Huey, Edward D.

    2012-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is an umbrella term for several different disorders. In behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), patients show deterioration in cognition and social behavior. New diagnostic criteria proposed by the International Behavioral Variant FTD Consortium provide greater sensitivity in diagnosing bvFTD. Current pharmacological management of symptoms relies on medications borrowed from treating Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and psychiatric disorders. The evidence for using AD medications such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors is questionable. Psychiatric medications can be helpful. Trazodone or SSRIs can have some efficacy in reducing disinhibition, repetitive behaviors, sexually inappropriate behaviors, and hyperorality. Small doses of atypical antipsychotics may be helpful in decreasing agitation and verbal outbursts. Non-pharmacological management includes caregiver education and support and behavioral interventions. While symptomatic treatments are likely to remain important behavior management tools, targeting the underlying pathology of bvFTD with disease-modifying agents will hopefully be the future of treatment. PMID:22847063

  10. Episodic migraines in children: limited evidence on preventive pharmacological treatments.

    PubMed

    Shamliyan, Tatyana A; Kane, Robert L; Ramakrishnan, Rema; Taylor, Frederick R

    2013-10-01

    The authors conducted a systematic literature review of preventive pharmacological treatments for episodic childhood migraines searching several databases through May 20, 2012. Episodic migraine prevention was examined in 24 publications of randomized controlled trials that enrolled 1578 children in 16 nonrandomized studies. Single randomized controlled trials provided low-strength evidence that propranolol would result in complete cessation of migraine attacks in 713 per 1000 children treated (95% confidence interval, 452-974); trazodone and nimodipine decreased migraine days, while topiramate, divalproex, and clonidine were no more effective than placebo in preventing migraines. Migraine prevention with multidisciplinary drug management was not sustained at 6 months. Divalproex resulted in treatment discontinuation due to adverse effects, and topiramate increased the risk of paresthesia, upper respiratory tract infection, and weight loss. Long-term preventive benefits and improvement in disability and quality of life are unknown. No studies examined quality of life or provided evidence for individualized treatment decisions.

  11. Comparison of a rational vs. high throughput approach for rapid salt screening and selection.

    PubMed

    Collman, Benjamin M; Miller, Jonathan M; Seadeek, Christopher; Stambek, Julie A; Blackburn, Anthony C

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, high throughput (HT) screening has become the most widely used approach for early phase salt screening and selection in a drug discovery/development setting. The purpose of this study was to compare a rational approach for salt screening and selection to those results previously generated using a HT approach. The rational approach involved a much smaller number of initial trials (one salt synthesis attempt per counterion) that were selected based on a few strategic solubility determinations of the free form combined with a theoretical analysis of the ideal solvent solubility conditions for salt formation. Salt screening results for sertraline, tamoxifen, and trazodone using the rational approach were compared to those previously generated by HT screening. The rational approach produced similar results to HT screening, including identification of the commercially chosen salt forms, but with a fraction of the crystallization attempts. Moreover, the rational approach provided enough solid from the very initial crystallization of a salt for more thorough and reliable solid-state characterization and thus rapid decision-making. The crystallization techniques used in the rational approach mimic larger-scale process crystallization, allowing smoother technical transfer of the selected salt to the process chemist.

  12. [Prevalence of Avoidable Potential Interactions Between Antidepressants and Other Drugs in Colombian Patients].

    PubMed

    Machado-Alba, Jorge E; Morales-Plaza, Cristhian David

    2013-06-01

    To determine the possible drugs interactions with antidepressive agents in data bases of patients in the Health Insurance System of Colombia. From data bases of about 4 million users in Colombia, a systematic review of drugs dispensation statistics was made to identify drug interactions between antidepressive agents, cholinergic antagonists and tramadol in 2010. We identified 114,465 monthly users of antidepressive agents. Of these, 5776 (5.0%) received two, and 178 (0.2%) received three antidepressive agents simultaneously. The most frequent combination was fluoxetine+trazodone (n=3235; 56.9% of cases). About 1127 (1.0%) patients were prescribed a cholinergic antagonist simultaneously; 2523 (2.1%) users were dispensed tramadol at the same time, while raising the risk of serotonin syndrome. Drug interactions represent a potential risk that is often underestimated by physicians. Pharmacovigilance is a useful tool to optimize resources and prevent negative outcomes associated with medication. It is recommended that systematic search is made to enhance surveillance programs for the rational use of medicines in this country. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Antidepressants in Parkinson's disease. Recommendations by the movement disorder study group of the Neurological Association of Madrid.

    PubMed

    Peña, E; Mata, M; López-Manzanares, L; Kurtis, M; Eimil, M; Martínez-Castrillo, J C; Navas, I; Posada, I J; Prieto, C; Ruíz-Huete, C; Vela, L; Venegas, B

    2016-03-19

    Although antidepressants are widely used in Parkinson's disease (PD), few well-designed studies to support their efficacy have been conducted. These clinical guidelines are based on a review of the literature and the results of an AMN movement disorder study group survey. Evidence suggests that nortriptyline, venlafaxine, paroxetine, and citalopram may be useful in treating depression in PD, although studies on paroxetine and citalopram yield conflicting results. In clinical practice, however, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are usually considered the treatment of choice. Duloxetine may be an alternative to venlafaxine, although the evidence for this is less, and venlafaxine plus mirtazapine may be useful in drug-resistant cases. Furthermore, citalopram may be indicated for the treatment of anxiety, atomoxetine for hypersomnia, trazodone and mirtazapine for insomnia and psychosis, and bupropion for apathy. In general, antidepressants are well tolerated in PD. However, clinicians should consider the anticholinergic effect of tricyclic antidepressants, the impact of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors on blood pressure, the extrapyramidal effects of antidepressants, and any potential interactions between monoamine oxidase B inhibitors and other antidepressants. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Desensitization of B-adrenergic receptors following repeated injections of 2-substituted-4-phenylquinolines

    SciTech Connect

    Alhaider, A.A.

    1986-03-05

    In a previous work, they synthesized some new 2-substituted-4-phenylquinoline derivatives which demonstrated potent antidepressant activities as revealed by their antagonism to the uptake of /sup 3/(H)-norepinephrine and /sup 3/(H)-serotonin into brain synaptosomal preparation. Also, these compounds have demonstrated less anticholinergic, antihistamine and cardiovascular effects as compared to imipramine in animal models. In this present work, the chronic effects of some of these compounds on the sensitivity of the noradrenergic cyclic-AMP generating system on rat brain cortex has been conducted by the daily injection of 20 mg/kg i.p. for a period of three weeks. Imipramine and trazodone were utilized as standards,more » representing typical and atypical antidepressants, respectively. Acute treatment (single dose 20 mg/kg) and subchronic treatment (20 mg/kg for 10 days) produced no significant desensitization of the B-adrenoceptors. However, chronic treatment with the compounds significantly decreased isoprenaline-induced increase in c-AMP in the cortex which suggests desensitization of B-adrenoceptors. This effect coupled with the previous findings point to a potential rule of these compounds as suitable antidepressant candidates.« less

  15. Clemizole and modulators of serotonin signalling suppress seizures in Dravet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Aliesha; Hamling, Kyla R; Knupp, Kelly; Hong, SoonGweon; Lee, Luke P; Baraban, Scott C

    2017-03-01

    Dravet syndrome is a catastrophic childhood epilepsy with early-onset seizures, delayed language and motor development, sleep disturbances, anxiety-like behaviour, severe cognitive deficit and an increased risk of fatality. It is primarily caused by de novo mutations of the SCN1A gene encoding a neuronal voltage-activated sodium channel. Zebrafish with a mutation in the SCN1A homologue recapitulate spontaneous seizure activity and mimic the convulsive behavioural movements observed in Dravet syndrome. Here, we show that phenotypic screening of drug libraries in zebrafish scn1 mutants rapidly and successfully identifies new therapeutics. We demonstrate that clemizole binds to serotonin receptors and its antiepileptic activity can be mimicked by drugs acting on serotonin signalling pathways e.g. trazodone and lorcaserin. Coincident with these zebrafish findings, we treated five medically intractable Dravet syndrome patients with a clinically-approved serotonin receptor agonist (lorcaserin, Belviq®) and observed some promising results in terms of reductions in seizure frequency and/or severity. Our findings demonstrate a rapid path from preclinical discovery in zebrafish, through target identification, to potential clinical treatments for Dravet syndrome. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Serotonin syndrome following methylene blue administration during cardiothoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christina J; Wang, Dorothy; Sgambelluri, Anna; Kramer, Robert S; Gagnon, David J

    2015-04-01

    Despite its favorable safety profile, there have been reports of methylene blue-induced encephalopathy and serotonin syndrome in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy. We report a case of serotonin syndrome following methylene blue administration in a cardiothoracic surgery patient. A 59-year-old woman taking preoperative venlafaxine and trazodone was given a single dose of 2 mg/kg methylene blue (167 mg) during a planned coronary artery bypass and mitral valve repair. Postoperatively, she was febrile to 38.7°C and developed full-body tremors, rhythmic twitching of the perioral muscles, slow conjugate roving eye movements, and spontaneous movements of the upper extremities. Electroencephalography revealed generalized diffuse slowing consistent with toxic encephalopathy, and a computed tomography scan showed no acute process. The patient's symptoms were most consistent with a methylene blue-induced serotonin syndrome. Her motor symptoms resolved within 48 hours and she was eventually discharged home. Only 2 cases of methylene blue-induced serotonin syndrome during cardiothoracic surgery have been described in the literature, with this report representing the third case. Methylene blue and its metabolite, azure B, are potent, reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A which is responsible for serotonin metabolism. Concomitant administration of methylene blue with serotonin-modulating agents may precipitate serotonin syndrome. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Best practice guide for the treatment of nightmare disorder in adults.

    PubMed

    Aurora, R Nisha; Zak, Rochelle S; Auerbach, Sanford H; Casey, Kenneth R; Chowdhuri, Susmita; Karippot, Anoop; Maganti, Rama K; Ramar, Kannan; Kristo, David A; Bista, Sabin R; Lamm, Carin I; Morgenthaler, Timothy I

    2010-08-15

    Prazosin is recommended for treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)-associated nightmares. Level A. Image Rehearsal Therapy (IRT) is recommended for treatment of nightmare disorder. Level A. Systematic Desensitization and Progressive Deep Muscle Relaxation training are suggested for treatment of idiopathic nightmares. Level B. Venlafaxine is not suggested for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares. Level B. Clonidine may be considered for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares. Level C. The following medications may be considered for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares, but the data are low grade and sparse: trazodone, atypical antipsychotic medications, topiramate, low dose cortisol, fluvoxamine, triazolam and nitrazepam, phenelzine, gabapentin, cyproheptadine, and tricyclic antidepressants. Nefazodone is not recommended as first line therapy for nightmare disorder because of the increased risk of hepatotoxicity. Level C. The following behavioral therapies may be considered for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares based on low-grade evidence: Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescripting Therapy (ERRT); Sleep Dynamic Therapy; Hypnosis; Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR); and the Testimony Method. Level C. The following behavioral therapies may be considered for treatment of nightmare disorder based on low-grade evidence: Lucid Dreaming Therapy and Self-Exposure Therapy. Level C No recommendation is made regarding clonazepam and individual psychotherapy because of sparse data.

  18. Evaluation of drug reviews.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, N M; Amerson, A B

    1986-10-01

    Drug reviews appearing in Clinical Pharmacy, Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy (DICP), Drugs, and Pharmacotherapy from January 1982 through December 1984 were evaluated for number, duplication among journals, timeliness, scope, and format. The design of this study was primarily quantitative rather than qualitative. Pharmacotherapy published the most reviews (49), followed by Drugs (43), Clinical Pharmacy (37), and DICP (29). Drugs and Pharmacotherapy published the largest number of unique reviews (agents not reviewed by the other journals during the study period), while Pharmacotherapy and Clinical Pharmacy published the most reviews on newly marketed drugs. Reviews of four drugs (acyclovir, moxalactam, ranitidine, and trazodone) were compared in terms of major sections, terminology and format, bibliography, use of tables and figures, scope of evaluative comments, and review process. Reviews in Drugs consistently contained the most references and tables and provided the most detail. Information was most accessible in Drugs, followed by Pharmacotherapy. Drugs used the largest panel of reviewers. All of the journals provided evaluative comments, although the scope varied. Continuing-education credit is available for review articles in Clinical Pharmacy and DICP. In selecting one or more of these journals, individuals or institutions should compare their needs with regard to the timeliness, scope, and format of the review articles in each journal.

  19. Assessment and Comparison of Vitreous Humor as an Alternative Matrix for Forensic Toxicology Screening by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Metushi, Imir G; Fitzgerald, Robert L; McIntyre, Iain M

    2016-05-01

    Alternative specimens have been occasionally considered as substitutes for whole blood for postmortem toxicology testing. We studied the applicability of vitreous humor, and evaluated whether it would be suitable to replace (or augment) whole blood for routine drug screening. Results showed that from 51 autopsy cases, we were able to identify an aggregate of 209 findings in whole blood compared with 169 in vitreous. The total number of compounds identified was 71 for whole blood and 60 for vitreous humor. Quantitative analysis showed that whole-blood concentrations of trazodone were several fold higher than vitreous humor concentrations (1.42 ± 0.57 vs. 0.15 ± 0.05 mg/L, respectively) and similar results were also obtained for diazepam (0.37 ± 0.06 vs. 0.13 ± 0.01, respectively). For other drugs such as oxycodone, hydrocodone and doxylamine, a trend suggesting higher concentrations in vitreous humor vs. whole blood was observed; however, this was not significant. Our results are consistent with the limited work of other investigators, and suggest that vitreous humor could be an appropriate matrix for drug screening in postmortem toxicology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of Antidepressants on Sleep.

    PubMed

    Wichniak, Adam; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Walęcka, Małgorzata; Jernajczyk, Wojciech

    2017-08-09

    The aim of this review article was to summarize recent publications on effects of antidepressants on sleep and to show that these effects not only depend on the kind of antidepressant drugs but are also related to the dose, the time of drug administration, and the duration of the treatment. Complaints of disrupted sleep are very common in patients suffering from depression, and they are listed among diagnostic criteria for this disorder. Moreover, midnocturnal insomnia is the most frequent residual symptom of depression. Thus, all antidepressants should normalize sleep. However, at least in short-term treatment, many antidepressants with so-called activating effects (e.g. fluoxetine, venlafaxine) may disrupt sleep, while others with sedative properties (e.g., doxepin, mirtazapine, trazodone) rapidly improve sleep, but may cause problems in long-term treatment due to oversedation.For sleep-promoting action, the best effects can frequently be achieved with a very low dose, administered early enough before bedtime and importantly, always as a part of more complex interventions based on the cognitive-behavioral protocol to treat insomnia (CBT-I). For successful treatment of depression, it is necessary to understand the effects of antidepressants on sleep. Each physician should also be aware that some antidepressants may worsen or induce primary sleep disorders like restless legs syndrome, sleep bruxism, REM sleep behavior disorder, nightmares, and sleep apnea, which may result from an antidepressant-induced weight gain.

  1. Burning mouth syndrome: a systematic review of treatments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y F; Kim, Y; Yoo, T; Han, P; Inman, J C

    2018-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic oral pain syndrome that primarily affects peri- and postmenopausal women. It is characterized by oral mucosal burning and may be associated with dysgeusia, paresthesia, dysesthesia, and xerostomia. The etiology of the disease process is unknown, but is thought to be neuropathic in origin. The goal of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of the various treatments for BMS. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases, which identified 22 randomized controlled trials. Eight studies examined alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), three clonazepam, three psychotherapy, and two capsaicin, which all showed modest evidence of potentially decreasing pain/burning. Gabapentin was seen in one study to work alone and synergistically with ALA. Other treatments included vitamins, benzydamine hydrochloride, bupivacaine, Catuama, olive oil, trazodone, urea, and Hypericum perforatum. Of these other treatments, Catuama and bupivacaine were the only ones with significant positive results in symptom improvement. ALA, topical clonazepam, gabapentin, and psychotherapy may provide modest relief of pain in BMS. Gabapentin may also boost the effect of ALA. Capsaicin is limited by its side effects. Catuama showed potential for benefit. Future studies with standardized methodology and outcomes containing more patients are needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Antidepressant Prescription Pattern in the Presence of Medical Co-morbidity: REAP-AD 2013 Study.

    PubMed

    Grover, S; Avasthi, A; Tripathi, A; Tanra, A J; Chee, K Y; He, Y L; Chiu, H Fk; Kuga, H; Lee, M S; Chong, M Y; Udormatn, P; Kanba, S; Yang, S Y; Si, T M; Sim, K; Tan, C H; Shen, W W; Xiang, Y T; Sartorius, N; Shinfuku, N

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the prescription pattern of antidepressants in patients with medical co-morbidity from major psychiatric centres in Asia. The Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Pattern for Antidepressants (REAP-AD 2013) collected data from 42 psychiatric centres in 10 Asian countries and regions. Antidepressant prescriptions of 2320 patients with various psychiatric disorders were evaluated. Of these, 370 patients who had specified medical co-morbidities formed the study cohort. Escitalopram (20%) and mirtazapine (20%) were the most commonly prescribed antidepressants in patients with medical co-morbidity followed by sertraline (16%), trazodone (15%), and paroxetine (12%). Overall, more than half (52%; 247/476) of prescriptions comprised selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Slightly less than two-thirds (63%; n = 233) of patients received at least 1 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. In addition, 79% of patients were prescribed only 1 antidepressant. The mean number of antidepressants used per patient was 1.25 (standard deviation, 0.56). There were subtle differences in the most preferred antidepressant across medical illnesses such as diabetes mellitus, liver dysfunction, acid peptic disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Differences were also seen in prescription patterns across different countries. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors formed the bulk of antidepressant prescriptions in the presence of medical co-morbidity, mirtazapine was also commonly used in the presence of medical co-morbidities. Specified medical morbidities do influence the selection of antidepressants.

  3. Sleep, chronic pain, and opioid risk for apnea.

    PubMed

    Marshansky, Serguei; Mayer, Pierre; Rizzo, Dorrie; Baltzan, Marc; Denis, Ronald; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2017-07-19

    Pain is an unwelcome sleep partner. Pain tends to erode sleep quality and alter the sleep restorative process in vulnerable patients. It can contribute to next-day sleepiness and fatigue, affecting cognitive function. Chronic pain and the use of opioid medications can also complicate the management of sleep disorders such as insomnia (difficulty falling and/or staying asleep) and sleep-disordered breathing (sleep apnea). Sleep problems can be related to various types of pain, including sleep headache (hypnic headache, cluster headache, migraine) and morning headache (transient tension type secondary to sleep apnea or to sleep bruxism or tooth grinding) as well as periodic limb movements (leg and arm dysesthesia with pain). Pain and sleep management strategies should be personalized to reflect the patient's history and ongoing complaints. Understanding the pain-sleep interaction requires assessments of: i) sleep quality, ii) potential contributions to fatigue, mood, and/or wake time functioning; iii) potential concomitant sleep-disordered breathing (SDB); and more importantly; iv) opioid use, as central apnea may occur in at-risk patients. Treatments include sleep hygiene advice, cognitive behavioral therapy, physical therapy, breathing devices (continuous positive airway pressure - CPAP, or oral appliance) and medications (sleep facilitators, e.g., zolpidem; or antidepressants, e.g., trazodone, duloxetine, or neuroleptics, e.g., pregabalin). In the presence of opioid-exacerbated SDB, if the dose cannot be reduced and normal breathing restored, servo-ventilation is a promising avenue that nevertheless requires close medical supervision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adult-Onset NREM Parasomnia with Hypnopompic Hallucinatory Pain: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mantoan, Laura; Eriksson, Sofia H.; Nisbet, Angus P.; Walker, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old woman presenting with nocturnal episodes of pain and screaming during sleep starting at age 30. There was no childhood or family history of parasomnia. The events had gradually become more frequent over the years, occurring in the first half of the night within 2 h of sleep onset. There were no triggers, and she had partial amnesia for the events. A diagnosis of adult-onset sleep terrors was made on clinical grounds and supported polysomnographically. Seizures and periodic limb movements were excluded as triggering factors. There was some mild sleep disordered breathing (predominantly non-desaturating hypopnea with a propensity for REM sleep of debatable significance). Imaging of the brain and spine and neurophysiological investigations ruled out lesions, entrapments, or neuropathies as possible causes of pain. Treatment (clonazepam, paroxetine, or gabapentin) was poorly tolerated and made no difference to the nocturnal episodes, while trazodone worsened them. This is the first report of hypnopompic psychic pain in association with a NREM parasomnia. We hypothesize that the pain may represent a sensory hallucination analogous to the more commonly recognized visual NREM parasomnia-associated hypnopompic visual hallucinations and that, as such, it may arise during arousal of the sensory neocortex as confabulatory response. Citation: Mantoan L; Eriksson SH; Nisbet AP; Walker MC. Adult-onset nrem parasomnia with hypnopompic hallucinatory pain: a case report. SLEEP 2013;36(2):287–290. PMID:23372277

  5. Shortage of psychotropic medications in community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia: Causes and solutions.

    PubMed

    Al-Ruthia, Yazed Sulaiman; Mansy, Wael; Barasin, Mohammad; Ghawaa, Yazeed Mohammad; AlSultan, Mohammed; Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Alhawas, Solaiman; AlGhadeer, Sultan

    2017-07-01

    Background: Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications. Methods: The availability of 28 commonly prescribed psychotropic medications was checked in multiple retail community pharmacies in 4 different regions of Saudi Arabia. Further, potential reasons behind the shortage of some psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies were also explored. Results: Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Aripiprazole, Bupropion, Buspirone, Duloxetine, Haloperidol, Hydroxyzine, Lithium, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, Promethazine, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Trifluoperazine were unavailable in over half of the 248 community pharmacies surveyed. Four possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications were reported by 31 pharmacists working in different retail community pharmacies' purchasing departments, with a majority (58.06%) reporting the primary reason for a shortage of these medications that they are slow-moving items with low profit margins. Conclusions: The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.

  6. Quetiapine for insomnia associated with refractory depression exacerbated by phenelzine.

    PubMed

    Sokolski, Kenneth N; Brown, Brenda J

    2006-03-01

    To report the successful treatment of phenelzine-associated insomnia with low-dose quetiapine in a patient with refractory depression. A 42-year-old white man with severe major depression unresponsive to selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors, bupropion, and tricyclic antidepressants improved following treatment with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) phenelzine. Insomnia, present to a moderate degree prior to antidepressant therapy, worsened markedly following phenelzine treatment and failed to respond to diphenhydramine, temazepam, triazolam, clonazepam, zolpidem, or trazodone given at high therapeutic doses. Sleep disturbance resolved with low-dose (50 mg) adjunctive quetiapine, with no adverse effects. Major depression refractory to standard therapy is a common and serious condition. Some cases respond to MAOIs; however, orthostatic hypotension and insomnia frequently occur. Potentially serious MAOI interactions with psychotropic drugs have raised concerns about combining these agents. In this case, a failure of a number of other medications known to treat MAOI-associated insomnia safely prompted a trial of quetiapine. Despite the possibility that enhanced serotonergic activity might have resulted in serotonin syndrome, no adverse interactions between phenelzine and quetiapine were noted. The use of low-dose, once-daily quetiapine, along with its unique binding properties, may account for its increased safety in combination with phenelzine. This case illustrates that low-dose quetiapine may be an alternative treatment for phenelzine-associated insomnia. Further case reports are needed to establish the safety and effectiveness of combining these agents.

  7. Carbamazepine-induced hyperammonemia.

    PubMed

    Adams, Erin N; Marks, Alla; Lizer, Mitsi H

    2009-08-15

    A case of carbamazepine-induced hyperammonemia is presented. A 26-year-old man with bipolar disorder, seizures, and mild mental retardation secondary to a traumatic brain injury began treatment with carbamazepine for aggression and seizure control. After three weeks of carbamazepine therapy, the patient arrived at the emergency department (ED) with severe agitation and aggressive behavior. His oral medications included topiramate, carbamazepine, olanzapine, quetiapine, guanfacine, and desmopressin acetate. The patient's medications had been stable for at least six months except for the addition of carbamazepine one month before his arrival at the ED. Upon admission, the patient's vital signs were found to be within normal limits, as were his liver profile results, complete blood count, thyroid-stimulating-hormone level, and serum chemistry panel. His serum carbamazepine concentration was 3.9 microg/mL (reference range, 4-12 microg/mL), and his serum ammonia concentration was 127 microg/dL (reference range, 19-60 microg/dL). Carbamazepine was discontinued upon admission, and the patient was treated with oral lactulose. Since carbamazepine was discontinued and had been prescribed for bipolar disorder, his olanzapine dosage was increased, and trazodone was added at bedtime for insomnia. Of note, the patient had been on carbamazepine therapy one year earlier and had experienced the same adverse event. He had also developed elevated serum ammonia levels while on valproic acid. The patient's serum ammonia level returned to normal by hospital day 4, and he was discharged to his group home. A 26-year-old man with bipolar disorder developed hyperammonemia three weeks after initiating carbamazepine therapy.

  8. Treatment of esophageal motility disorders based on the chicago classification.

    PubMed

    Maradey-Romero, Carla; Gabbard, Scott; Fass, Ronnie

    2014-12-01

    The Chicago Classification divides esophageal motor disorders based on the recorded value of the integrated relaxation pressure (IRP). The first group includes those with an elevated mean IRP that is associated with peristaltic abnormalities such as achalasia and esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction. The second group includes those with a normal mean IRP that is associated with esophageal hypermotility disorders such as distal esophageal spasm, hypercontractile esophagus (jackhammer esophagus), and hypertensive peristalsis (nutcracker esophagus). The third group includes those with a normal mean IRP that is associated with esophageal hypomotility peristaltic abnormalities such as absent peristalsis, weak peristalsis with small or large breaks, and frequent failed peristalsis. The therapeutic options vary greatly between the different groups of esophageal motor disorders. In achalasia patients, potential treatment strategies comprise medical therapy (calcium channel blockers, nitrates, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors), endoscopic procedures (botulinum toxin A injection, pneumatic dilation, or peroral endoscopic myotomy) or surgery (Heller myotomy). Patients with a normal IRP and esophageal hypermotility disorder are candidates for medical therapy (nitrates, calcium channel blockers, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, cimetropium/ipratropium bromide, proton pump inhibitors, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants, trazodone, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), endoscopic procedures (botulinum toxin A injection and peroral endoscopic myotomy), or surgery (Heller myotomy). Lastly, in patients with a normal IRP and esophageal hypomotility disorder, treatment is primarily focused on controlling the presence of gastroesophageal reflux with proton pump inhibitors and lifestyle modifications (soft and liquid diet and eating in the upright position) to address patient's dysphagia.

  9. Managing acute coronary syndrome during medical air evacuation from a remote location at sea.

    PubMed

    Westmoreland, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    Coronary emergencies at sea requiring air evacuation are not uncommon. On board a Nimitz-class aircraft carrier while in a remote location, an active duty sailor suffered a myocardial infarction. A medical evacuation by helicopter was necessary. Transfer proved difficult due to the ship's location, poor flying conditions, and the patient's deteriorating condition. This case stresses the importance of expeditious diagnosis, treatment, and air transfer to shore-based facilities capable of providing definitive coronary care. A 33-yr-old man recently started on trazodone due to depression complained of chest pain. The patient was hemodynamically unstable and electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevation and Q waves in the anterior, inferior, and lateral leads. He was air-lifted to the nearest accepting facility with cardiac catheterization capabilities, which was over 300 miles away. Poor weather conditions hindered the pilot's ability to fly the original course. The patient remained critical and medication choices were limited. Even with all of these obstacles, everyone involved performed his or her duties admirably. The patient's condition improved by the time the helicopter landed. He was then rushed by ambulance to the hospital's coronary care unit, where he was successfully treated. This case highlights the need to keep a high index of suspicion when patients complain of chest pain, regardless of age. It is of the utmost importance that individuals capable of thinking and acting quickly are assigned to medical evacuation teams, and that they continue to train regularly, as coronary events at sea are not uncommon.

  10. Best Practice Guide for the Treatment of Nightmare Disorder in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Zak, Rochelle S.; Auerbach, Sanford H.; Casey, Kenneth R.; Chowdhuri, Susmita; Karippot, Anoop; Maganti, Rama K.; Ramar, Kannan; Kristo, David A.; Bista, Sabin R.; Lamm, Carin I.; Morgenthaler, Timothy I.

    2010-01-01

    Summary of Recommendations: Prazosin is recommended for treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)-associated nightmares. Level A Image Rehearsal Therapy (IRT) is recommended for treatment of nightmare disorder. Level A Systematic Desensitization and Progressive Deep Muscle Relaxation training are suggested for treatment of idiopathic nightmares. Level B Venlafaxine is not suggested for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares. Level B Clonidine may be considered for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares. Level C The following medications may be considered for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares, but the data are low grade and sparse: trazodone, atypical antipsychotic medications, topiramate, low dose cortisol, fluvoxamine, triazolam and nitrazepam, phenelzine, gabapentin, cyproheptadine, and tricyclic antidepressants. Nefazodone is not recommended as first line therapy for nightmare disorder because of the increased risk of hepatotoxicity. Level C The following behavioral therapies may be considered for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares based on low-grade evidence: Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescripting Therapy (ERRT); Sleep Dynamic Therapy; Hypnosis; Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR); and the Testimony Method. Level C The following behavioral therapies may be considered for treatment of nightmare disorder based on low-grade evidence: Lucid Dreaming Therapy and Self-Exposure Therapy. Level C No recommendation is made regarding clonazepam and individual psychotherapy because of sparse data. Citation: Aurora RN; Zak RS; Auerbach SH; Casey KR; Chowduri S; Krippot A; Maganti RK; Ramar K; Kristo DA; Bista SR; Lamm CI; Morgenthaler TI. Best practice guide for the treatment of nightmare disorder in adults. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(4):389-401. PMID:20726290

  11. Inhibitors of 7-Dehydrocholesterol Reductase: Screening of a Collection of Pharmacologically Active Compounds in Neuro2a Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Young H; Korade, Zeljka; Tallman, Keri A; Liu, Wei; Weaver, C David; Mirnics, Karoly; Porter, Ned A

    2016-05-16

    A small library of pharmacologically active compounds (the NIH Clinical Collection) was assayed in Neuro2a cells to determine their effect on the last step in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, the transformation of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) to cholesterol promoted by 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, DHCR7. Of some 727 compounds in the NIH Clinical Collection, over 30 compounds significantly increased 7-DHC in Neuro2a cells when assayed at 1 μM. Active compounds that increased 7-DHC with a Z-score of +3 or greater generally gave rise to modest decreases in desmosterol and increases in lanosterol levels. Among the most active compounds identified in the library were the antipsychotic, antidepressant, and anxiolytic compounds that included perospirone, nefazodone, haloperidol, aripiprazole, trazodone, and buspirone. Fluoxetine and risperidone were also active at 1 μM, and another 10 compounds in this class of pharmaceuticals were identified in the screen at concentrations of 10 μM. Increased levels of 7-DHC are associated with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), a human condition that results from a mutation in the gene that encodes DHCR7. The SLOS phenotype includes neurological deficits and congenital malformations, and it is linked to a higher incidence of autism spectrum disorder. The significance of the current study is that it identifies common pharmacological compounds that may induce a biochemical presentation similar to SLOS. Little is known about the side effects of elevated 7-DHC postdevelopmentally, and the elevated 7-DHC that results from exposure to these compounds may also be a confounder in the diagnosis of SLOS.

  12. Preferential reduction of binding of sup 125 I-iodopindolol to beta-1 adrenoceptors in the amygdala of rat after antidepressant treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Ordway, G.A.; Gambarana, C.; Tejani-Butt, S.M.

    1991-05-01

    This study utilized quantitative receptor autoradiography to examine the effects of repeated administration of antidepressants to rats on the binding of the beta adrenoceptor antagonist, {sup 125}I-iodopindolol ({sup 125}I-IPIN) to either beta-1 or beta-2 adrenoceptors in various regions of brain. Antidepressants were selected to represent various chemical and pharmacological classes including tricyclic compounds (desipramine and protriptyline), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (clorgyline, phenelzine and tranylcypromine), atypical antidepressants (mianserin and trazodone) and selective inhibitors of the uptake of serotonin (citalopram and sertraline). Additionally, rats were treated with various psychotropic drugs that lack antidepressant efficacy (cocaine, deprenyl, diazepam and haloperidol). Repeated treatment of ratsmore » with desipramine, protriptyline, clorgyline, phenelzine, tranylcypromine or mianserin reduced the binding of {sup 125}I-IPIN to beta-1 adrenoceptors in many brain areas. Only in the basolateral and lateral nuclei of the amygdala did all six of these antidepressants significantly reduce {sup 125}I-IPIN binding to beta-1 adrenoceptors. In these amygdaloid nuclei, the magnitude of the reduction in the binding of {sup 125}I-IPIN caused by each of these drugs was comparable to or greater than the reduction in binding produced in any other region of brain. Reductions of binding of {sup 125}I-IPIN after antidepressant treatments were not consistently observed in the cortex, the area of brain examined most often in homogenate binding studies. Only the monoamine oxidase inhibitors caused reductions in the binding of {sup 125}I-IPIN to beta-2 adrenoceptors, and this effect was generally localized to the amygdala and hypothalamus.« less

  13. Monitoring of adherence to headache treatments by means of hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Anna; Licata, Manuela; Rustichelli, Cecilia; Baraldi, Carlo; Vandelli, Daniele; Marchesi, Filippo; Palazzoli, Federica; Verri, Patrizia; Silingardi, Enrico

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of hair analysis to monitor medication adherence in headache patients undergoing chronic therapy. For this purpose, the following parameters were analyzed: the detection rate of 23 therapeutic drugs in headache patients' hair, the degree of agreement between the self-reported drug and the drug found in hair, and whether the levels found in hair reflected the drug intake reported by the patients. The study included 93 patients suffering from primary headaches declaring their daily intake of at least one of the following drugs during the 3 months before the hair sampling: alprazolam, amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, clonazepam, delorazepam, diazepam, duloxetine, fluoxetine, flurazepam, levomepromazine, levosulpiride, lorazepam, lormetazepam, mirtazapine, paroxetine, quetiapine, sertraline, topiramate, trazodone, triazolam, venlafaxine, and zolpidem. A detailed pharmacological history and a sample of hair were collected for each patient. Hair samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, using a previously developed method. All 23 drugs were detected in the examined hair samples. The agreement between the self-reported drug and the drug found in hair was excellent for most analytes (P < 0.001, Cohen's kappa); a statistically significant relationship (P < 0.05, linear regression analysis) between dose and hair level was found for amitriptyline, citalopram, delorazepam, duloxetine, lorazepam, and venlafaxine. Hair analysis proved to be a unique matrix to document chronic drug use in headache patients, and the level found for each individual drug can represent a reliable marker of adherence to pharmacological treatments.

  14. Association between Antidepressants and Fall-Related Injuries among Long-Term Care Residents.

    PubMed

    Macri, Jennifer C; Iaboni, Andrea; Kirkham, Julia G; Maxwell, Colleen; Gill, Sudeep S; Vasudev, Akshya; Whitehead, Marlo; Seitz, Dallas P

    2017-12-01

    Antidepressants are associated with an increased risk of falls although little is known of the comparative risks of different types of antidepressants or individuals who are at greatest risk for falls. We examined the association between new use of antidepressants and fall-related injuries among older adults in long-term care (LTC). This was a matched, retrospective cohort study involving LTC residents in Ontario, Canada, from 2008 to 2014. New users of antidepressants were matched to non-users of antidepressants. The primary outcome was any fall resulting in an emergency department (ED) visit or hospitalization within 90 days after exposure. Secondary outcomes included hip fractures, wrist fractures, and falls reported in LTC. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval associated with antidepressants and outcomes. New users of any antidepressant had an increased risk of ED visits or hospitalization for falls within 90 days when compared with individuals not receiving antidepressants (5.2% versus 2.8%; adjusted OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.7-2.2). Antidepressants were also associated with an increased risk of all secondary outcomes. The increased risk of fall-related injuries was evident among selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, trazodone, and across multiple patient subgroups. New use of antidepressants is associated with significantly increased risk of falls and fall-related injuries among LTC residents across different patient subgroups and antidepressant classes. The potential risk of fall-related outcomes should be carefully considered when initiating antidepressants among older adults in LTC. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anticholinergic Risk and Frequency of Anticholinergic Drug Prescriptions in a Population Older Than 65.

    PubMed

    Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique; Castro-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Álzate-Piedrahita, John Alexander; Hoyos-Pulgarín, Julián Andrés; Medina-Morales, Diego Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    To determine the risk and frequency of anticholinergic drug prescriptions in a population affiliated with the Colombian General System of Social Security in Health. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013. Patients older than 65 years who received drugs with the potential to block cholinergic receptors, in accordance with an anticholinergic risk scale. The total anticholinergic load was determined by the sum of the risk of each prescribed drug. The study included a total of 27,654 patients with a mean age of 76.1 ± 7.6 years, and 61.9% were women. A total of 9.1% of the population older than 65 years had received a prescription of at least one of these drugs, and the prevalence of these prescriptions was 112.5 per 1000 members. The average number of drugs prescribed per patient was 1.4, and the drugs most frequently prescribed contained trazodone, methocarbamol, and loratadine. Being prescribed by practitioners of surgical or related specialties was the only variable significantly associated with prescriptions with high anticholinergic risk in the multivariate analysis (odds ratio 1.61; 95% confidence interval 1.335-1.934; P < .001). We found a high frequency of prescription medications with some degree of anticholinergic load, and in almost half of the patients, the anticholinergic risk score was very high. The prevalence of prescription of these drugs falls in the range of that reported globally. It is essential to educate prescribers about the risk to their patients. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Conditions associated with REM sleep behaviour disorder: Description of a hospital series.

    PubMed

    Abenza Abildúa, M J; Miralles Martinez, A; Arpa Gutiérrez, F J; Lores Gutiérrez, V; Algarra Lucas, C; Jimeno Montero, C; Sánchez García, B; Mata Álvarez-Santullano, M; Borrue Fernández, C; Cordero Martín, G; Gutiérrez Cueto, G; Torrecillas Narváez, M D; Thuissard Vasallo, I; Gómez Aceña, A

    2017-02-16

    REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterised by violent behaviours (screaming, kicking, vivid dreams) during REM sleep. It has a prevalence of 1% to 2% of the general population and is especially frequent in men and the population older than 60. In the last decade, RBD has been suggested to be a prodrome of neurodegenerative disease. We analysed associated neurological diseases and responses to drug treatment in 33 patients with RBD treated in the multidisciplinary sleep disorders unit at Hospital Infanta Sofía. We conducted an observational descriptive retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with RBD and treated in our multidisciplinary sleep disorders unit between October 2012 and December 2015. We recorded age, sex, associated diseases, and treatments administered to these patients. A total of 365 patients were attended at our unit, including 33 with RBD: 13 women (40%) and 20 men (60%). Mean age was 62.72 years. An associated disorder was identified in 48%, with the most common being mild cognitive impairment (69%). The percentage of patients with RBD and an associated disorder among patients older than 60 was 68%. Eighty-two percent of the patients required treatment. The most commonly used drug was clonazepam (76%), followed by melatonin (9%), gabapentin (6%), and trazodone (3%). In our series, 48% of the patients had an associated disorder. The likelihood of detecting an associated disorder increases with patients' age. The vast majority of patients required drug treatment due to symptom severity; the most frequently administered drug was clonazepam (76%). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Drugs with anticholinergic effects and cognitive impairment, falls and all-cause mortality in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruxton, Kimberley; Woodman, Richard J; Mangoni, Arduino A

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim was to investigate associations between drugs with anticholinergic effects (DACEs) and cognitive impairment, falls and all-cause mortality in older adults. Methods A literature search using CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase and PubMed databases was conducted for randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort and case-control studies examining the use of DACEs in subjects ≥65 years with outcomes on falls, cognitive impairment and all-cause mortality. Retrieved articles were published on or before June 2013. Anticholinergic exposure was investigated using drug class, DACE scoring systems (anticholinergic cognitive burden scale, ACB; anticholinergic drug scale, ADS; anticholinergic risk scale, ARS; anticholinergic component of the drug burden index, DBIAC) or assessment of individual DACEs. Meta-analyses were performed to pool the results from individual studies. Results Eighteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (total 124 286 participants). Exposure to DACEs as a class was associated with increased odds of cognitive impairment (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.16, 1.73). Olanzapine and trazodone were associated with increased odds and risk of falls (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.05, 4.44; RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.60, 1.97, respectively), but amitriptyline, paroxetine and risperidone were not (RR 1.73, 95% CI 0.81, 2.65; RR 1.80, 95% CI 0.81, 2.79; RR 1.39, 95% CI 0.59, 3.26, respectively). A unit increase in the ACB scale was associated with a doubling in odds of all-cause mortality (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.82, 2.33) but there were no associations with the DBIAC (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.55, 1.42) or the ARS (OR 3.56, 95% CI 0.29, 43.27). Conclusions Certain individual DACEs or increased overall DACE exposure may increase the risks of cognitive impairment, falls and all-cause mortality in older adults. PMID:25735839

  18. Clinical Relevance of Disturbances of Sleep and Vigilance in Major Depressive Disorder: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Murck, Harald; Post, Anke

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this article is to provide a concise review of the clinical relevance of sleep and vigilance in major depressive disorder. Data Sources: PubMed was reviewed (1990–2009) and English-language articles were identified using the key words sleep and depression and sleep and antidepressants. Secondary searches included articles cited in sources identified by the primary search. Study Selection: The narrative review provides brief descriptions of the normal physiology of sleep and changes associated with depression, as well as the impact of various treatments on these processes. Data Synthesis: Although it has long been known that sleep disturbances are an important characteristic of depression, relatively few studies have been conducted with the newer-generation antidepressants. Neither of the most widely used classes of antidepressants, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, have particularly beneficial effects on sleep and, among the medications that reliably improve sleep efficiency, including mirtazapine and the tricyclic antidepressants, problems with daytime sedation can offset therapeutic benefit. Despite relatively widespread use, trazodone has not been demonstrated to be an effective and safe hypnotic in patients taking other antidepressants. For many patients, ongoing concomitant treatment with benzodiazepines and related drugs is the preferred option, again without convincing empirical support of longer-term efficacy. Among newer and investigational antidepressants, agomelatine shows promise with respect to both overall safety and effects on insomnia, although possible negative effects on liver function warrant further study. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are a significant aspect of depressive syndromes, and relief of insomnia remains an important unmet need in antidepressant therapeutics. Development of a well-tolerated antidepressant medication that rapidly

  19. Correlates of incident bipolar disorder in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Jerrell, Jeanette M; McIntyre, Roger S; Park, Yong-Moon Mark

    2014-11-01

    The greater severity and chronicity of illness in youths with co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder deserve further investigation as to the risk imparted by comorbid conditions and the pharmacotherapies employed. A retrospective cohort design was employed, using South Carolina's Medicaid claims dataset covering outpatient and inpatient medical and psychiatric service claims with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnoses and medication prescriptions between January 1996 and December 2006 for patients ≤ 17 years of age. The cohort included 22,797 cases diagnosed with ADHD at a mean age of 7.8 years; 1,604 (7.0%) were diagnosed with bipolar disorder at a mean age of 12.2 years. The bipolar disorder group developed conduct disorder (CD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety disorder, and a substance use disorder later than the ADHD-only group. The odds of a child with ADHD developing bipolar disorder were significantly and positively associated with a comorbid diagnosis of CD/ODD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.01), anxiety disorder (aOR = 2.39), or substance use disorder (aOR = 1.88); longer treatment with methylphenidate, mixed amphetamine salts, or atomoxetine (aOR = 1.01); not being African American (aOR = 1.61); and being treated with certain antidepressant medications, most notably fluoxetine (aOR = 2.00), sertraline (aOR = 2.29), bupropion (aOR = 2.22), trazodone (aOR = 2.15), or venlafaxine (aOR = 2.37) prior to the first diagnosis of mania. Controlling for pharmacotherapy differences, incident bipolar disorder was more likely in individuals clustering specific patterns of comorbid psychiatric disorders, suggesting that there are different pathways to bipolarity and providing a clinical impetus for prioritizing prevention and preemptive strategies to reduce their hazardous influence. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  20. The treatment of chronic insomnia: drug indications, chronic use and abuse liability. Summary of a 2001 New Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit meeting symposium.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Wallace B; Roth, Thomas; Cassella, James; Roehrs, Timothy; Walsh, James K; Woods, James H; Buysse, Daniel J; Meyer, Roger E

    2004-02-01

    This paper summarizes a group of presentations and panel discussions on chronic insomnia at the 2001 NCDEU meeting. The presentations and discussions focused on the twin issues of efficacy and concerns of abuse liability with long-term hypnotic therapy. The panel concluded that insomnia may be an epidemiological marker for a variety of difficulties including accidents, increased health care utilization and subsequent development of major depression. Whether or not treatment of insomnia will prevent these long-term problems has not yet been determined. Since the mid-1980s there has been a rapid rise in the off-label use of antidepressants, particularly trazodone, for treating insomnia. Some participants expressed concern at the lack of data for this practice, particularly the absence of dose-response and tolerance information, and noted that the small amount of efficacy data available is not encouraging. Similarly, there are minimal data to support the use of antihistamines as sleep aids; moreover, their side effect profile and interactions with other drugs may be under appreciated. The limited data available on nightly long-term usage of the newer non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, primarily of six-months' duration, suggest an absence of tolerance, but more data for both nightly and non-nightly administration are needed. Insomniacs tend to show therapy-seeking, rather than drug-seeking behavior, and patients without histories of drug abuse are unlikely to self-escalate dosage of currently available hypnotics. There is fairly good agreement on the characteristics of an ideal hypnotic. All currently available agents, while effective and safe, do not achieve this ideal. The next few years are likely to see the appearance of a variety of agents with new and promising mechanisms of action.

  1. 5-HT receptors as novel targets for optimizing pigmentary responses in dorsal skin melanophores of frog, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Sharique A; Salim, Saima; Sahni, Tarandeep; Peter, Jaya; Ali, Ayesha S

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Biochemical identification of 5-HT has revealed similar projection patterns across vertebrates. In CNS, 5-HT regulates major physiological functions but its peripheral functions are still emerging. The pharmacology of 5-HT is mediated by a diverse range of receptors that trigger different responses. Interestingly, 5-HT receptors have been detected in pigment cells indicating their role in skin pigmentation. Hence, we investigated the role of this monoaminergic system in amphibian pigment cells, melanophores, to further our understanding of its role in pigmentation biology together with its evolutionary significance. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Pharmacological profiling of 5-HT receptors was achieved using potent/selective agonists and antagonists. In vitro responses of melanophores were examined by Mean Melanophores Size Index assay. The melanophores of lower vertebrates are highly sensitive to external stimuli. The immediate cellular responses to drugs were defined in terms of pigment translocation within the cells. KEY RESULTS 5-HT exerted strong concentration-dependent pigment dispersion at threshold dose of 1 × 10−6 g·mL−1. Specific 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor agonists, sumatriptan and myristicin. also induced dose-dependent dispersion. Yohimbine and metergoline synergistically antagonized sumatriptan-mediated dispersion, whereas trazodone partially blocked myristicin-induced dispersion. Conversely, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor agonists, 1 (3 chlorophenyl) biguanide (1,3 CPB) and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT), caused a dose-dependent pigment aggregation. The aggregatory effect of 1,3 CPB was completely blocked by ondansetron, whereas L-lysine partially blocked the effect of 5-MT. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The results suggest that 5-HT-induced physiological effects are mediated via distinct classes of receptors, which possibly participate in the modulation of pigmentary responses in amphibian. PMID:21880033

  2. PRIORITIZING FUTURE RESEACH ON OFF-LABEL PRESCRIBING: RESULTS OF A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Surrey M.; Schumock, Glen T.; Lee, Ky-Van; Alexander, G. Caleb; Meltzer, David; Stafford, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug use for indications not approved by the Food and Drug Administration exceeds 20% of prescribing. Available compendia indicate that a minority of off-label uses are well supported by evidence. Policy makers, however, lack information to identify where systematic reviews of the evidence or other research would be most valuable. Methods We developed a quantitative model for prioritizing individual drugs for future research on off-label uses. The base model incorporated three key factors, 1) the volume of off-label use with inadequate evidence, 2) safety, and 3) cost and market considerations. Nationally representative prescribing data were used to estimate the number of off-label drug uses by indication from 1/2005 through 6/2007 in the United States, and these indications were then categorized according to the adequacy of scientific support. Black box warnings and safety alerts were used to quantify drug safety. Drug cost, date of market entry, and marketing expenditures were used to quantify cost and market considerations. Each drug was assigned a relative value for each factor, and the factors were then weighted in the final model to produce a priority score. Sensitivity analyses were conducted by varying the weightings and model parameters. Results Drugs that were consistently ranked highly in both our base model and sensitivity analyses included quetiapine, warfarin, escitalopram, risperidone, montelukast, bupropion, sertraline, venlafaxine, celecoxib, lisinopril, duloxetine, trazodone, olanzapine, and epoetin alfa. Conclusion Future research into off-label drug use should focus on drugs used frequently with inadequate supporting evidence, particularly if further concerns are raised by known safety issues, high drug cost, recent market entry, and extensive marketing. Based on quantitative measures of these factors, we have prioritized drugs where targeted research and policy activities have high potential value. PMID:19025425

  3. Efficacy and Acceptability of Pharmacological Treatments for Depressive Disorders in Primary Care: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Klaus; Kriston, Levente; Rücker, Gerta; Jamil, Susanne; Schumann, Isabelle; Meissner, Karin; Sigterman, Kirsten; Schneider, Antonius

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate whether antidepressants are more effective than placebo in the primary care setting, and whether there are differences between substance classes regarding efficacy and acceptability. METHODS We conducted literature searches in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and PsycINFO up to December 2013. Randomized trials in depressed adults treated by primary care physicians were included in the review. We performed both conventional pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis combining direct and indirect evidence. Main outcome measures were response and study discontinuation due to adverse effects. RESULTS A total of 66 studies with 15,161 patients met the inclusion criteria. In network meta-analysis, tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants (TCAs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI; venlafaxine), a low-dose serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor (SARI; trazodone) and hypericum extracts were found to be significantly superior to placebo, with estimated odds ratios between 1.69 and 2.03. There were no statistically significant differences between these drug classes. Reversible inhibitors of monoaminoxidase A (rMAO-As) and hypericum extracts were associated with significantly fewer dropouts because of adverse effects compared with TCAs, SSRIs, the SNRI, a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI), and noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant agents (NaSSAs). CONCLUSIONS Compared with other drugs, TCAs and SSRIs have the most solid evidence base for being effective in the primary care setting, but the effect size compared with placebo is relatively small. Further agents (hypericum, rMAO-As, SNRI, NRI, NaSSAs, SARI) showed some positive results, but limitations of the currently available evidence makes a clear recommendation on their place in clinical practice difficult. PMID:25583895

  4. Antidepressant Medication Use and its Association with Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality in the Reasons for Geographic and Ethnic Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Richard A.; Khodneva, Yulia; Glasser, Stephen P.; Qian, Jingjing; Redmond, Nicole; Safford, Monika M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Mixed evidence suggests second-generation antidepressants may increase risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Objective Assess whether antidepressant use is associated with acute coronary heart disease, stroke, cardiovascular disease death, and all-cause mortality. Methods Secondary analyses of the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) longitudinal cohort study were conducted. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, bupropion, nefazodone, and trazodone was measured during the baseline (2003-2007) in-home visit. Outcomes of coronary heart disease, stroke, cardiovascular disease death, and all-cause mortality were assessed every 6 months and adjudicated by medical record review. Cox proportional hazards time-to-event analysis followed patients until their first event on or before December 31, 2011, iteratively adjusting for covariates. Results Among 29,616 participants, 3,458 (11.7%) used an antidepressant of interest. Intermediate models adjusting for everything but physical and mental health found an increased risk of acute coronary heart disease (Hazard Ratio=1.21; 95% CI 1.04-1.41), stroke (Hazard Ratio=1.28; 95% CI 1.02-1.60), cardiovascular disease death (Hazard Ratio =1.29; 95% CI 1.09-1.53), and all-cause mortality (Hazard Ratio=1.27; 95% CI 1.15-1.41) for antidepressant users. Risk estimates trended in this direction for all outcomes in the fully adjusted model, but only remained statistically associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (Hazard Ratio=1.12; 95% CI 1.01-1.24). This risk was attenuated in sensitivity analyses censoring follow-up time at 2-years (Hazard Ratio=1.37; 95% CI 1.11-1.68). Conclusions In fully adjusted models antidepressant use was associated with a small increase in all-cause mortality. PMID:26783360

  5. Antidepressant Medication Use and Its Association With Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Richard A; Khodneva, Yulia; Glasser, Stephen P; Qian, Jingjing; Redmond, Nicole; Safford, Monika M

    2016-04-01

    Mixed evidence suggests that second-generation antidepressants may increase the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. To assess whether antidepressant use is associated with acute coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, cardiovascular disease (CVD) death, and all-cause mortality. Secondary analyses of the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) longitudinal cohort study were conducted. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, bupropion, nefazodone, and trazodone was measured during the baseline (2003-2007) in-home visit. Outcomes of CHD, stroke, CVD death, and all-cause mortality were assessed every 6 months and adjudicated by medical record review. Cox proportional hazards time-to-event analysis followed patients until their first event on or before December 31, 2011, iteratively adjusting for covariates. Among 29 616 participants, 3458 (11.7%) used an antidepressant of interest. Intermediate models adjusting for everything but physical and mental health found an increased risk of acute CHD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.04-1.41), stroke (HR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.02-1.60), CVD death (HR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.09-1.53), and all-cause mortality (HR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.15-1.41) for antidepressant users. Risk estimates trended in this direction for all outcomes in the fully adjusted model but only remained statistically associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.01-1.24). This risk was attenuated in sensitivity analyses censoring follow-up time at 2 years (HR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.11-1.68). In fully adjusted models, antidepressant use was associated with a small increase in all-cause mortality. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 21 antidepressant drugs for the acute treatment of adults with major depressive disorder: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Andrea; Furukawa, Toshi A; Salanti, Georgia; Chaimani, Anna; Atkinson, Lauren Z; Ogawa, Yusuke; Leucht, Stefan; Ruhe, Henricus G; Turner, Erick H; Higgins, Julian P T; Egger, Matthias; Takeshima, Nozomi; Hayasaka, Yu; Imai, Hissei; Shinohara, Kiyomi; Tajika, Aran; Ioannidis, John P A; Geddes, John R

    2018-04-07

    42012002291. We identified 28 552 citations and of these included 522 trials comprising 116 477 participants. In terms of efficacy, all antidepressants were more effective than placebo, with ORs ranging between 2·13 (95% credible interval [CrI] 1·89-2·41) for amitriptyline and 1·37 (1·16-1·63) for reboxetine. For acceptability, only agomelatine (OR 0·84, 95% CrI 0·72-0·97) and fluoxetine (0·88, 0·80-0·96) were associated with fewer dropouts than placebo, whereas clomipramine was worse than placebo (1·30, 1·01-1·68). When all trials were considered, differences in ORs between antidepressants ranged from 1·15 to 1·55 for efficacy and from 0·64 to 0·83 for acceptability, with wide CrIs on most of the comparative analyses. In head-to-head studies, agomelatine, amitriptyline, escitalopram, mirtazapine, paroxetine, venlafaxine, and vortioxetine were more effective than other antidepressants (range of ORs 1·19-1·96), whereas fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, reboxetine, and trazodone were the least efficacious drugs (0·51-0·84). For acceptability, agomelatine, citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, sertraline, and vortioxetine were more tolerable than other antidepressants (range of ORs 0·43-0·77), whereas amitriptyline, clomipramine, duloxetine, fluvoxamine, reboxetine, trazodone, and venlafaxine had the highest dropout rates (1·30-2·32). 46 (9%) of 522 trials were rated as high risk of bias, 380 (73%) trials as moderate, and 96 (18%) as low; and the certainty of evidence was moderate to very low. All antidepressants were more efficacious than placebo in adults with major depressive disorder. Smaller differences between active drugs were found when placebo-controlled trials were included in the analysis, whereas there was more variability in efficacy and acceptability in head-to-head trials. These results should serve evidence-based practice and inform patients, physicians, guideline developers, and policy makers on the relative merits of the different

  7. New-generation bar adsorptive microextraction (BAμE) devices for a better eco-user-friendly analytical approach-Application for the determination of antidepressant pharmaceuticals in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Ide, A H; Nogueira, J M F

    2018-05-10

    The present contribution aims to design new-generation bar adsorptive microextraction (BAμE) devices that promote an innovative and much better user-friendly analytical approach. The novel BAμE devices were lab-made prepared having smaller dimensions by using flexible nylon-based supports (7.5 × 1.0 mm) coated with convenient sorbents (≈ 0.5 mg). This novel advance allows effective microextraction and back-extraction ('only single liquid desorption step') stages as well as interfacing enhancement with the instrumental systems dedicated for routine analysis. To evaluate the achievements of these improvements, four antidepressant agents (bupropion, citalopram, amitriptyline and trazodone) were used as model compounds in aqueous media combined with liquid chromatography (LC) systems. By using an N-vinylpyrrolidone based-polymer phase good selectivity and efficiency were obtained. Assays performed on 25 mL spiked aqueous samples, yielded average recoveries in between 67.8 ± 12.4% (bupropion) and 88.3 ± 12.1% (citalopram), under optimized experimental conditions. The analytical performance also showed convenient precision (RSD < 12%) and detection limits (50 ng L -1 ), as well as linear dynamic ranges (160-2000 ng L -1 ) with suitable determination coefficients (r 2  > 0.9820). The application of the proposed analytical approach on biological fluids showed negligible matrix effects by using the standard addition methodology. From the data obtained, the new-generation BAμE devices presented herein provide an innovative and robust analytical cycle, are simple to prepare, cost-effective, user-friendly and compatible with the current LC autosampler systems. Furthermore, the novel devices were designed to be disposable and used together with negligible amounts of organic solvents (100 μL) during back-extraction, in compliance with the green analytical chemistry principles. In short, the new-generation BAμE devices showed to be

  8. Female sexual dysfunction and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Matytsina, Lyubov

    2010-10-01

    To review recent publications in the area of sexual dysfunction in females including the adolescent age group. Though as many as 40% of adult females have a sexual dysfunction, the incidence among adolescent females is unknown. Though over half of adolescents are sexually active, sexual dysfunction is not a term universally accepted among the general public as well as researchers. Research on sexual dysfunction in females typically starts with age 18 years or over. Causes of sexual dysfunction include medical disorders, gynecological problems, which started from the adolescent age, psychiatric disorders, and complications of medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), antipsychotics, and others. Management includes identification of the specific sexual dysfunction and treatment of the underlying condition, including surgical treatment in such cases as absent vagina or obstetrics fistula. Psychological therapy is helpful when psychological factors are contributory to the dysfunction. Pharmacologic principles of management cases can, for example, include treatment of gynecological problems such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or endometriosis as a cause of sexual dysfunction or include removal of the offending drug, use of glutamatergic strategies or trazodone in SSRI-association dysfunction, and addition of bupropion or other medications in select cases. No medication is FDA-approved for sexual dysfunction in females. Sexual dysfunction in females includes lack of sexual desire, sexual pain disorders (as dyspareunia), anorgasmia, and sexual arousal dysfunction. Acceptance of the high incidence of sexual dysfunction in all female populations is necessary to appreciate this phenomenon in the adolescent cohort, because some gynecological disease can arise from the adolescent age and can cause sexual dysfunction. Some sexual dysfunctions require immediate treatment, including surgical in the case of congenital anomaly, ovarian cyst, or

  9. Toxicology findings in cases of hanging in the City and County of San Francisco over the 3-year period from 2011 to 2013.

    PubMed

    San Nicolas, A C; Lemos, N P

    2015-10-01

    In postmortem cases where the cause of death is hanging, toxicological analyses may be considered unnecessary by some medical examiners, toxicologists, and other persons involved in medico-legal investigations because the cause of death seems "obvious." To ascertain if toxicological analyses are necessary when the cause of death is hanging, all 102 hanging cases (25 females; 77 males) from 2011 to 2013 that came under the jurisdiction of the San Francisco Office of the Chief Medical Examiner were examined from a total of 3912 sudden, unexpected, or violent death cases in the same period. Suicide was the manner of death in 99 of these cases, with two accidental and one undetermined death. The average age of decedents was 43.9 years (median 41), the youngest was an 11-year old male and the oldest was an 86-year old female. Of the 102 cases, 33 had negative toxicology while 69 cases had at least one positive toxicology result. Females were equally likely to have negative or positive results (12 and 13 cases respectively), but males were 37.5% more likely to have positive toxicology (n=56) rather than negative toxicology (n=21). For females, alcohol, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, and trazodone were the top psychoactive substances in peripheral blood while THC, cocaine, hydrocodone, bupropion, olanzapine, doxylamine, quetiapine and dextromethorphan were also reported. For males, alcohol, THC, cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, bupropion, and diphenhydramine were the top psychoactive substances in blood, but several other drugs were also found in individual cases. Our study of hanging cases over a 3-year period support the idea that complete postmortem toxicology investigation of hangings should be performed, even when the "obvious" cause of death is asphyxia due to hanging. Many of these cases involved psychoactive substances (most often alcohol and cannabis), and having such knowledge provides a better understanding of the circumstances surrounding the decedent's death

  10. Occurrence of antidepressant residues in the sewage-impacted Vistula and Utrata rivers and in tap water in Warsaw (Poland).

    PubMed

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2014-06-01

    Antidepressants, even at low concentrations, can reveal some adverse effects on aquatic life due to disturbing homeostasis throughout the central and peripheral nervous system both in vertebrates and invertebrates. To date there have not been any reports regarding the presence of these pharmaceuticals in surface and tap waters in Eastern Europe. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the presence of 21 antidepressant pharmaceuticals at specific points of the main Polish river - the Vistula, a smaller river of the Warsaw region - the Utrata, as well as in tap water samples of Warsaw. Samples were collected twice at one month intervals and analysed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique coupled with the liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) method operated under the multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). This is the first study where active compounds such as moclobemid or trazodone in the environment have been investigated. Environmental risk assessment of antidepressants in Poland was estimated on the basis of annuals sale data extracted from the NFZ (Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia-National Health Service) base of reimbursed pharmaceuticals(1). Predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of target pharmaceuticals were compared with their measured concentration (MEC). Moreover, the application of the EMEA/CHMP guideline for environmental risk assessment of the antidepressants was discussed. The highest concentration of antidepressants was observed in the small river Utrata. In tap water only trace amounts of antidepressants including citalopram (up to 1.5ng/l), mianserin (up to 0.9ng/l), sertraline (<3.1ng/l), moclobemid (up to 0.3ng/l) and venlafaxine (up to 1.9ng/l) were detected. However this highlights their inadequate elimination in the drinking waste treatment facility. The presence of antidepressants in drinking water and the aquatic environment could have long-term effects even at low exposure level

  11. Nominal ISOMERs (Incorrect Spellings Of Medicines Eluding Researchers)-variants in the spellings of drug names in PubMed: a database review.

    PubMed

    Ferner, Robin E; Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2016-12-14

     To examine how misspellings of drug names could impede searches for published literature.  Database review.  PubMed.  The study included 30 drug names that are commonly misspelt on prescription charts in hospitals in Birmingham, UK (test set), and 30 control names randomly chosen from a hospital formulary (control set). The following definitions were used: standard names-the international non-proprietary names, variant names-deviations in spelling from standard names that are not themselves standard names in English language nomenclature, and hidden reference variants-variant spellings that identified publications in textword (tw) searches of PubMed or other databases, and which were not identified by textword searches for the standard names. Variant names were generated from standard names by applying letter substitutions, omissions, additions, transpositions, duplications, deduplications, and combinations of these. Searches were carried out in PubMed (30 June 2016) for "standard name[tw]" and "variant name[tw] NOT standard name[tw]."  The 30 standard names of drugs in the test set gave 325 979 hits in total, and 160 hidden reference variants gave 3872 hits (1.17%). The standard names of the control set gave 470 064 hits, and 79 hidden reference variants gave 766 hits (0.16%). Letter substitutions (particularly i to y and vice versa) and omissions together accounted for 2924 (74%) of the variants. Amitriptyline (8530 hits) yielded 18 hidden reference variants (179 (2.1%) hits). Names ending in "in," "ine," or "micin" were commonly misspelt. Failing to search for hidden reference variants of "gentamicin," "amitriptyline," "mirtazapine," and "trazodone" would miss at least 19 systematic reviews. A hidden reference variant related to Christmas, "No-el", was rare; variants of "X-miss" were rarer.  When performing searches, researchers should include misspellings of drug names among their search terms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  12. Validation of a method for the determination of zolpidem in human plasma using LC with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Ring, P R; Bostick, J M

    2000-04-01

    A sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of zolpidem in human plasma. Zolpidem and the internal standard (trazodone) were extracted from human plasma that had been made basic. The basic sample was loaded onto a conditioned Bond Elut C18 cartridge, rinsed with water and eluted with methanol. Forty microliters were then injected onto the LC system. Separation was achieved on a C18 column (150 x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile:50 mM potassium phosphate monobasic at pH 6.0 (4:6, v/v). Detection was by fluorescence, with excitation at 254 nm and emission at 400 nm. The retention times of zolpidem and internal standard were approximately 4.7 and 5.3 min, respectively. The LC run time was 8 min. The assay was linear in concentration range 1-400 ng/ml for zolpidem in human plasma. The analysis of quality control samples for zolpidem (3, 30, and 300 ng/ml) demonstrated excellent precision with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 3.7, 4.6, and 3.0%, respectively (n = 18). The method was accurate with all intraday (n = 6) and overall (n = 18) mean concentrations within 5.8% from nominal at all quality control sample concentrations. This method was also performed using a Gilson Aspec XL automated sample processor and autoinjector. The samples were manually fortified with internal standard and made basic. The aspec then performed the solid phase extraction and made injections of the samples onto the LC system. Using the automated procedure for analysis, quality control samples for zolpidem (3, 30, and 300 ng/ml) demonstrated acceptable precision with RSD values of 9.0, 4.9, and 5.1%, respectively (n = 12). The method was accurate with all intracurve (n = 4) and overall (n = 12) mean values being less than 10.8% from nominal at all quality control sample concentrations.

  13. Sequential psychological and pharmacological therapies for comorbid and primary insomnia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Morin, Charles M; Edinger, Jack D; Krystal, Andrew D; Buysse, Daniel J; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Ivers, Hans

    2016-03-03

    Chronic insomnia is a prevalent disorder associated with significant psychosocial, health, and economic impacts. Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) and benzodiazepine receptor agonist (BzRA) medications are the most widely supported therapeutic approaches for insomnia management. However, few investigations have directly compared their relative and combined benefits, and even fewer have tested the benefits of sequential treatment for those who do not respond to initial insomnia therapy. Moreover, insomnia treatment studies have been limited by small, highly screened study samples, fixed-dose, and fixed-agent pharmacotherapy strategies that do not represent usual clinical practices. This study will address these limitations. This is a two-site randomized controlled trial, which will enroll 224 adults who meet the criteria for a chronic insomnia disorder with or without comorbid psychiatric disorders. Prospective participants will complete clinical assessments and polysomnography and then will be randomly assigned to first-stage therapy involving either behavioral therapy (BT) or zolpidem. Treatment outcomes will be assessed after 6 weeks, and treatment remitters will be followed for the next 12 months on maintenance therapy. Those not achieving remission will be offered randomization to a second, 6-week treatment, again involving either pharmacotherapy (zolpidem or trazodone) or psychological therapy (BT or cognitive therapy (CT)). All participants will be re-evaluated 12 weeks after the protocol initiation and at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-ups. Insomnia remission, defined categorically as a score < 8 on the Insomnia Severity Index, a patient-reported outcome, will serve as the primary endpoint for treatment comparisons. Secondary outcomes will include sleep parameters derived from daily sleep diaries and from polysomnography, subjective measures of fatigue, mood, quality of life, and functional impairments; and measures of adverse events; dropout rates; and

  14. Association of antidepressant and atypical antipsychotic use with cardiovascular events and mortality in a veteran population.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Tushar; Acharya, Sabeena; Tringali, Steven; Huang, Jian

    2013-10-01

    To determine the patterns of antidepressant and atypical antipsychotic use in a veteran population with depression, and to determine if an association exists between specific antidepressant classes and atypical antipsychotics and the occurrence of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Retrospective, cross-sectional study. Primary care clinic at a Veterans Affairs hospital. A total of 1136 patients diagnosed with depression who were receiving antidepressant monotherapy (664 patients) or no antidepressant therapy (472 patients [controls]) between June 2009 and December 2010. Data on patient demographics, disease diagnoses, laboratory data, and drug therapy profiles were collected through medical record review. Of the 1136 patients, the mean patient age was 61 years, 90% were men, and 77% were smokers. Mean body mass index was 30.4 kg/m(2) , blood pressure 126/73 mm Hg, hemoglobin A1c 6%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level 106.7 mg/dl, and Framingham score 17. Patients receiving antidepressant monotherapy were grouped according to antidepressant class; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were most common. Concomitant use of atypical antipsychotics was more common with the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (venlafaxine), SSRI, and serotonin receptor antagonist (trazodone) classes (p=0.0067). After adjusting for demographics, concomitant drugs, and comorbidities, SSRI use was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19-0.71, p=0.0028). Notably, noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (mirtazapine) use was significantly associated with higher prevalence of heart failure (OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.029-10.38, p=0.0445). Use of atypical antipsychotics was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of cerebrovascular events (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.29-3.83, p=0.0036) and all-cause mortality (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.03-4.1, p=0.04). Our results favor treatment of

  15. Primary Psychiatric Disorder Masking the Diagnosis of Neuropsychiatric Lupus in a Patient with Altered Mental Status: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Perez, Osman; Dave, Kairavee; Almanzar, Aimee; Prodhan, Tajul; Concepion, Livasky

    2017-10-23

    Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) has a wide variety of neurologic and psychiatric features. NPSLE symptoms and the psychotic features of primary psychiatric disorders often overlap with each other. These psychotic features often mask and delay the diagnosis of NPSLE. We present the case of a 59-year-old female previously diagnosed with bipolar disorder and generalized anxiety disorder presenting with altered mental status (AMS), subsequently diagnosed with neuropsychiatric lupus. Initially, medication overdose was suspected as an empty bottle of trazodone was found beside her. Obtaining an appropriate history was difficult due to the patient's altered mental status and absence of family members at bedside. The patient was found to have an elevated gamma gap, and further workup was pursued. Subsequently, positive antinuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-double stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA) was detected. During the hospitalization, she was found to meet the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lumbar puncture with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis, elevated protein with no bacteria and likely a non-infectious process. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) spectroscopy of the brain revealed a reversal of normal Hunter's angle, with elevated choline-to-creatine ratio within the white matter, and a lactate peak, which may be present in neuropsychiatric lupus. The patient was diagnosed with SLE with neuropsychiatric manifestations. Consequently, a kidney biopsy was obtained showing Class IV diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis with fibrillary component likely related to lupus nephritis. The patient was started on treatment for neuropsychiatric lupus, which includes treatment for lupus nephritis with high dose pulse methylprednisolone. The anti-dsDNA titers decreased from 81 to 15 IU/ml and the patient displayed a gradual improvement

  16. Primary Psychiatric Disorder Masking the Diagnosis of Neuropsychiatric Lupus in a Patient with Altered Mental Status: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Osman; Dave, Kairavee; Prodhan, Tajul; Concepion, Livasky

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) has a wide variety of neurologic and psychiatric features. NPSLE symptoms and the psychotic features of primary psychiatric disorders often overlap with each other. These psychotic features often mask and delay the diagnosis of NPSLE. We present the case of a 59-year-old female previously diagnosed with bipolar disorder and generalized anxiety disorder presenting with altered mental status (AMS), subsequently diagnosed with neuropsychiatric lupus. Initially, medication overdose was suspected as an empty bottle of trazodone was found beside her. Obtaining an appropriate history was difficult due to the patient’s altered mental status and absence of family members at bedside. The patient was found to have an elevated gamma gap, and further workup was pursued. Subsequently, positive antinuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-double stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA) was detected. During the hospitalization, she was found to meet the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lumbar puncture with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis, elevated protein with no bacteria and likely a non-infectious process. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) spectroscopy of the brain revealed a reversal of normal Hunter's angle, with elevated choline-to-creatine ratio within the white matter, and a lactate peak, which may be present in neuropsychiatric lupus. The patient was diagnosed with SLE with neuropsychiatric manifestations. Consequently, a kidney biopsy was obtained showing Class IV diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis with fibrillary component likely related to lupus nephritis. The patient was started on treatment for neuropsychiatric lupus, which includes treatment for lupus nephritis with high dose pulse methylprednisolone. The anti-dsDNA titers decreased from 81 to 15 IU/ml and the patient displayed a gradual

  17. Perception of emotion on faces in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lavenu, I; Pasquier, F

    2005-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by behavioural disorders that suggest abnormalities of emotional processing. In a previous study, we showed that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and with FTD were equally able to distinguish a face displaying affect from one not displaying affect. However, recognition of emotion was worse in patients with FTD than in patients with AD who did not differ significantly from controls. The aim of this study was to follow up the perception of emotions on faces in these patients. The poor perception of emotion could worsen differently in AD and in FTD, with the progression of atrophy of the amygdala, the anterior temporal cortex and the orbital frontal cortex, structures that are components of the brain's emotional processing systems. Patients with AD or with FTD had to recognise and point out the name of one of seven basic emotions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, sadness, surprise and contempt) on a set of 28 faces presented on slides at the first visit and 3 years later. Thirty-seven patients (AD = 19, FTD = 18) performed the tests initially. The two patient groups did not differ for age, sex and duration of the disease. During the follow-up, 12 patients died, 4 patients refused to perform the tests and 8 could not be tested because of the severity of the disease. Finally, 7 patients with AD and 6 patients with FTD performed the two tests at a mean delay of 40 months. All patients with AD had worse results at follow-up on the perception of emotion despite the prescription of inhibitors of cholinesterase in all patients and of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in 4 patients. As a whole, patients with FTD had better results in the second than in the first assessment (however, 3 of them had worse results) independently of the prescription of trazodone (n = 2), other SSRIs (n = 2), or the absence of treatment (n = 2), and of possible cognitive change. Recognition of emotion on

  18. Efficacy of antidepressants for dysthymia: a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Levkovitz, Yeciel; Tedeschini, Enrico; Papakostas, George I

    2011-04-01

    The authors sought to determine the efficacy of antidepressants in dysthymic disorder and to compare antidepressant and placebo response rates between major depressive disorder (MDD) and dysthymic disorder. PubMed/MEDLINE databases were searched for double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressants used as monotherapy for treatment of MDD or dysthymic disorder. We defined antidepressants as those with a letter of approval by the US, Canadian, or European Union drug regulatory agencies for treatment of MDD or dysthymic disorder, which included the following: amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, clomipramine, trimipramine, protriptyline, dothiepin, doxepin, lofepramine, amoxapine, maprotiline, amineptine, nomifensine, bupropion, phenelzine, tranylcypromine, isocarboxazid, moclobemide, brofaromine, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, zimelidine, tianeptine, ritanserin, trazodone, nefazodone, agomelatine, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran, reboxetine, mirtazapine, and mianserin. Eligible studies were identified by cross-referencing the search term placebo with each of the above-mentioned agents. The search was limited to articles published between January 1, 1980, and November 20, 2009 (inclusive). To expand our database, we also reviewed the reference lists of the identified studies. We selected randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressants for either MDD or dysthymic disorder according to preset criteria relating to comorbidities, patient age, drug formulation, study duration, diagnostic criteria, choice of assessment scales, and whether or not the study reported original data. Final selection of articles was determined by consensus among the authors. A total of 194 studies were found that were eligible for inclusion in our analysis. Of these, 177 focused on the treatment of MDD and 17 on the treatment of dysthymic disorder. We found that

  19. AB028. Current status of pharmacotherapy for erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Adaikan, P Ganesan

    2016-01-01

    oxide donors, guanylate cyclase activators, potassium channel openers and Rho-kinase inhibitors with the potential to overcome some limitations of the existing measures offer significant promise of clinical application in refractory and resistant cases. The TriMix preparations usually contain PGE1, papaverine and phentolamine in formulation compounded in pharmacies. Several clinical studies have also tested the efficacy of yohimbine, L-arginine, cyclic adenosine monophosphate activators, melanocortin-stimulating hormone analogs, endothelin antagonists in addition to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and calcitonin gene related peptide with variable success rates. Trazodone, a serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor was shown to improve premature ejaculation and erectile function in psychogenic cases of ED. Cloning of inducible nitric oxide synthase has opened a new era in the use of gene therapy for ED and the day for stem cells therapy and autologous penile tissue implants is not too far. Thus, ongoing research worldwide will continue to define new roles for various modalities targeted at specific sites in the erectile pathway and these advances will ultimately enable the clinicians to make the most appropriate therapeutic or other selections for individual patients including possible permanent reversal of organic ED.

  20. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Pharmacologic Treatment of Chronic Insomnia in Adults: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline.

    PubMed

    Sateia, Michael J; Buysse, Daniel J; Krystal, Andrew D; Neubauer, David N; Heald, Jonathan L

    2017-02-15

    the quality of evidence for these treatments is predictable in GRADE, due to the funding source for most pharmacological clinical trials and the attendant risk of publication bias; the relatively small number of eligible trials for each individual agent; and the observed heterogeneity in the data. The ultimate judgment regarding propriety of any specific care must be made by the clinician in light of the individual circumstances presented by the patient, available diagnostic tools, accessible treatment options, and resources. We suggest that clinicians use suvorexant as a treatment for sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use eszopiclone as a treatment for sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use zaleplon as a treatment for sleep onset insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use zolpidem as a treatment for sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use triazolam as a treatment for sleep onset insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use temazepam as a treatment for sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use ramelteon as a treatment for sleep onset insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use doxepin as a treatment for sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians not use trazodone as a treatment for sleep onset or sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians not use tiagabine as a treatment for sleep onset or sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians not use diphenhydramine as a treatment for sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no

  1. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Pharmacologic Treatment of Chronic Insomnia in Adults: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Sateia, Michael J.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Krystal, Andrew D.; Neubauer, David N.; Heald, Jonathan L.

    2017-01-01

    evidence in published data. Downgrading the quality of evidence for these treatments is predictable in GRADE, due to the funding source for most pharmacological clinical trials and the attendant risk of publication bias; the relatively small number of eligible trials for each individual agent; and the observed heterogeneity in the data. The ultimate judgment regarding propriety of any specific care must be made by the clinician in light of the individual circumstances presented by the patient, available diagnostic tools, accessible treatment options, and resources. We suggest that clinicians use suvorexant as a treatment for sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK) We suggest that clinicians use eszopiclone as a treatment for sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK) We suggest that clinicians use zaleplon as a treatment for sleep onset insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK) We suggest that clinicians use zolpidem as a treatment for sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK) We suggest that clinicians use triazolam as a treatment for sleep onset insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK) We suggest that clinicians use temazepam as a treatment for sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK) We suggest that clinicians use ramelteon as a treatment for sleep onset insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK) We suggest that clinicians use doxepin as a treatment for sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK) We suggest that clinicians not use trazodone as a treatment for sleep onset or sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK) We suggest that clinicians not use tiagabine as a treatment for sleep onset or sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK) We suggest that clinicians not use diphenhydramine as a treatment for sleep onset and sleep