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Sample records for treated exfoliative cheilitis

  1. Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714

  2. Excimer laser therapy and narrowband ultraviolet B therapy for exfoliative cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Bhavnit K; Bahr, Brooks A; Murase, Jenny E

    2015-06-01

    Exfoliative cheilitis is a condition of unknown etiology characterized by hyperkeratosis and scaling of vermilion epithelium with cyclic desquamation. It remains largely refractory to treatment, including corticosteroid therapy, antibiotics, antifungals, and immunosuppressants. We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of excimer laser therapy and narrowband ultraviolet B therapy in female patients with refractory exfoliative cheilitis. We reviewed the medical records of two female patients who had been treated unsuccessfully for exfoliative cheilitis. We implemented excimer laser therapy, followed by hand-held narrowband UVB treatments for maintenance therapy, and followed them for clinical improvement and adverse effects. Both patients experienced significant clinical improvement with minimal adverse effects with excimer laser therapy 600-700 mJ/cm 2 twice weekly for several months. The most common adverse effects were bleeding and burning, which occurred at higher doses. The hand-held narrowband UVB unit was also an effective maintenance tool. Limitations include small sample size and lack of standardization of starting dose and dose increments. Excimer laser therapy is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for refractory exfoliative cheilitis with twice weekly laser treatments of up to 700 mJ/cm 2 . Transitioning to the hand-held narrowband UVB device was also an effective maintenance strategy.

  3. Glycerin Borax Treatment of Exfoliative Cheilitis Induced by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a case study of a 19-year-old female who presented to the Oral Medicine clinic with a chief complaint of scaly and peeling lips. The lesions had persisted on her lips for more than 7 years and were refractory to previous treatment. Her physician’s diagnosis was contact dermatitis. We diagnosed this patient as having exfoliative cheilitis (EC). A patch test using the toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was positive and the patient discontinued using it. Instead, she started using a toothpaste not containing SLS. One year after treating her lesions with hydrogen peroxide mouthwash 1% and glycerin borax, a gradual improvement was observed until returning to normal. Glycerin borax was safe, low cost and simple to use in treatment of refractory exfoliative cheilitis. SLS may have been a precipitating factor in EC in this case. PMID:27789914

  4. Glycerin Borax Treatment of Exfoliative Cheilitis Induced by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Thongprasom, Kobkan

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on the results of a case study of a 19-year-old female who presented to the Oral Medicine clinic with a chief complaint of scaly and peeling lips. The lesions had persisted on her lips for more than 7 years and were refractory to previous treatment. Her physician's diagnosis was contact dermatitis. We diagnosed this patient as having exfoliative cheilitis (EC). A patch test using the toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was positive and the patient discontinued using it. Instead, she started using a toothpaste not containing SLS. One year after treating her lesions with hydrogen peroxide mouthwash 1% and glycerin borax, a gradual improvement was observed until returning to normal. Glycerin borax was safe, low cost and simple to use in treatment of refractory exfoliative cheilitis. SLS may have been a precipitating factor in EC in this case.

  5. Factitious cheilitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Erdinc; Gokoglu, Ozgur; Ozcurumez, Gamze; Aydin, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Factitious cheilitis is a chronic condition characterized by crusting and ulceration that is probably secondary to chewing and sucking of the lips. Atopy, actinic damage, exfoliative cheilitis, cheilitis granulomatosa or glandularis, contact dermatitis, photosensitivity reactions and neoplasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of crusted and ulcerated lesions of the lip. Case presentation We present a 56 year-old female with an ulcerated and crusted lesion on her lower lip. The biopsy showed granulation tissue and associated inflammation but no malignancy. Based on the tissue examination and through clinical evaluation the diagnosis of factitious cheilitis was rendered. Conclusion Thorough clinical history, utilization of basic laboratory tests and histopathologic evaluation are required to exclude other diseases and a thoruough psychiatric evaluation and treatment is vital for successful management of these patients. PMID:18226274

  6. Characterization and management of exfoliative cheilitis: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Almazrooa, Soulafa A; Woo, Sook-Bin; Mawardi, Hani; Treister, Nathaniel

    2013-12-01

    Exfoliative cheilitis (EC) is a rare inflammatory condition affecting the vermilion of the lips and characterized by production of a thick keratin scale. Given the limited available data, the approach to optimal management of EC remains unclear. The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize the clinical features, management, and outcomes of a series of patients with EC. Fifteen patients with a median age of 59 years and a female-to-male ratio of 2:1 were diagnosed with EC from 2000 to 2010. Parafunctional lip licking (53%) and a history of psychiatric disorders (40%) were common. Ten patients (66%) returned for follow-up, with an overall response rate (partial or complete) of 80% at a median of 2 months, most frequently associated with the use of topical calcineurin inhibitors or moisturizing agents. Management of EC with topical calcineurin inhibitors and moisturizing agents is associated with clinical improvement, but prospective trials are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma cell cheilitis, successfully treated with topical 0.03% tacrolimus ointment.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seon Pil; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Huh, Chang Hun

    2010-05-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis is a rare, idiopathic mucosal condition. The treatment of plasma cell cheilitis is often disappointing. It is often resistant to various topical treatments. We present a 65-year-old woman who had a painful, eroded area on her lower lip, which responded poorly to various topical treatments. A biopsy revealed a band-like infiltration composed mainly of plasma cells in the dermis. She was diagnosed as having plasma cell cheilitis, and was successfully treated with 0.03% topical tacrolimus ointment.

  8. Diclofenac in hyaluronic acid gel: an alternative treatment for actinic cheilitis

    PubMed Central

    LIMA, Giana da Silveira; da SILVA, Gabriela Ferrari; GOMES, Ana Paula Neutzling; de ARAÚJO, Lenita Maria Aver; SALUM, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Objective Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a precancerous lesion of the lip vermillion caused by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 3% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronic acid gel in the treatment of AC. Methods Thirty-four patients with chronic AC were treated twice a day with topical diclofenac during a period of 30 to 180 days. The individuals were followed up every 15 days by means of clinical examination and digital photographic documentation. Results Of the 27 patients that completed the study, 12 (44%) showed complete remission of the whitish plaques and exfoliative areas, and 15 (56%) had partial remission of the clinical picture of cheilitis. The latter group was submitted to excision of the leukoplakic areas which diagnosis varied from mild to moderate epithelial dysplasia. Conclusion The results suggest a promising role for diclofenac in hyaluronic acid gel in the treatment of AC. This treatment has the advantages of not being invasive and showing few side effects. PMID:21085813

  9. Objective assessment of isotretinoin-associated cheilitis: Isotretinoin Cheilitis Grading Scale.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Jennifer; Rosamilia, Lorraine; Larsen, Larissa; Foolad, Negar; Wang, Quinlu; Li, Chin-Shang; Sivamani, Raja K

    2016-01-01

    Isotretinoin remains an effective treatment for severe acne. Despite its effectiveness, it includes many side effects, of which cheilitis is the most common. To develop an objective grading scale for assessment of isotretinoin-associated cheilitis. Cross-sectional clinical grading study. UC Davis Dermatology clinic. Subjects were older than 18 years old and actively treated with oral isotretinoin. Oral Isotretinoin. We developed an Isotretinoin Cheilitis Grading Scale (ICGS) incorporating the following four characteristics: erythema, scale/crust, fissures and inflammation of the commissures. Three board-certified dermatologists independently graded photographs of the subjects. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC) for the ICGS was 0.88 (p < 0.0001). The Kendall's coefficient was ≥0.72 (p < 0.0001) for each of the four characteristics included in the grading scale. An image-based measurement for lip roughness statistically significantly correlated with the lip scale/crusting assessment (r = 0.52, p < 0.05). The ICGS is reproducible and relatively simple to use. It can be incorporated as an objective tool to aid in the assessment of isotretinoin associated cheilitis.

  10. Objective Assessment of Isotretinoin-Associated Cheilitis: Isotretinoin Cheilitis Grading Scale

    PubMed Central

    Ornelas, Jennifer; Rosamilia, Lorraine; Larsen, Larissa; Foolad, Negar; Wang, Quinlu; Li, Chin-Shang; Sivamani, Raja K.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Isotretinoin remains an effective treatment for severe acne. Despite its effectiveness, it includes many side effects, of which cheilitis is the most common. Objective To develop an objective grading scale for assessment of isotretinoin-associated cheilitis, Design Cross-sectional clinical grading study. Setting UC Davis Dermatology clinic. Participants Subjects were older than 18 years old and actively treated with oral isotretinoin. Exposures Oral Isotretinoin. Main outcomes and Measures We developed an isotretinoin cheilitis grading scale (ICGS) incorporating the following four characteristics: erythema, scale/crust, fissures, and inflammation of the commissures. Three board-certified dermatologists independently graded photographs of the subjects. Results The Kendall’s coefficient of concordance (KCC) for the ICGS was 0.88 (p<0.0001). The Kendall’s coefficient was ≥ 0.72 (p<0.0001) for each of the four characteristics included in the grading scale. An image-based measurement for lip roughness statistically significantly correlated with the lip scale/crusting assessment (r = 0.52, p <0.05). Conclusion and Relevance The ICGS is reproducible and relatively simple to use. It can be incorporated as an objective tool to aid in the assessment of isotretinoin associated cheilitis. PMID:26395167

  11. Erbium laser resurfacing for actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L

    2013-11-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a precancerous condition characterized by grayish-whitish area(s) of discoloration on the mucosal lip, often blunting the demarcation between mucosa and cutaneous lip. Actinic cheilitis is considered to be an early part of the spectrum of squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma specifically of the lip has a high rate of recurrence and metastasis through the oral cavity leading to a poor overall survival. Risk factors for the development of actinic cheilitis include chronic solar irradiation, increasing age, male gender, light skin complexion, immunosuppression, and possibly tobacco and alcohol consumption. Treatment options include topical pharmacotherapy (eg, fluorouracil, imiquimod) or procedural interventions (eg, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, surgical vermillionectomy, laser resurfacing), each with their known advantages and disadvantages. There is little consensus as to which treatment options offer the most clinical utility given the paucity of comparative clinical data. In my practice, laser resurfacing has become an important tool for the treatment of actinic cheilitis owing to its ease of use and overall safety, tolerability, and cosmetic acceptability. Herein the use of erbium laser resurfacing is described for three actinic cheilitis presentations for which I find it particularly useful: clinically prominent actinic cheilitis, biopsy-proven actinic cheilitis, and treatment of the entire lip following complete tumor excision of squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were treated with a 2940-nm erbium laser (Sciton Profile Contour Tunable Resurfacing Laser [TRL], Sciton, Inc., Palo Alto, CA).

  12. [Photodynamic therapy for actinic cheilitis].

    PubMed

    Castaño, E; Comunión, A; Arias, D; Miñano, R; Romero, A; Borbujo, J

    2009-12-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a subtype of actinic keratosis that mainly affects the lower lip and has a higher risk of malignant transformation. Its location on the labial mucosa influences the therapeutic approach. Vermilionectomy requires local or general anesthetic and is associated with a risk of an unsightly scar, and the treatment with 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod lasts for several weeks and the inflammatory reaction can be very intense. A number of authors have used photodynamic therapy as an alternative to the usual treatments. We present 3 patients with histologically confirmed actinic cheilitis treated using photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinic acid as the photosensitizer and red light at 630 nm. The clinical response was good, with no recurrences after 3 to 6 months of follow-up. Our experience supports the use of photodynamic therapy as a good alternative for the treatment of actinic cheilitis.

  13. [Cheilitis: Diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Samimi, Mahtab

    2016-02-01

    The whole examination of oral cavity, other mucosae and skin is required when managing a cheilitis. Irritants (climatic, mechanical, caustic agents...) constitute the main aetiological factors of cheilitis. Allergic contact cheilitis should be investigated with a detailed anamnesis in order to search any causative agent in contact with the oral mucosae. Patch testing is required to confirm the diagnosis of delayed hypersensivity. Chronic actinic cheilitis occurs mostly in middle-aged, fair-skinned men. It is a potentially malignant condition that requires biopsies to exclude severe dysplasia or carcinoma. Angular cheilitis can occur spontaneously but is frequently related with several precipitating factors, such as systemic immune suppression, local irritation and moisture, fungal and/or bacterial infection. Cheilitis can also be seen in various systemic conditions such as lichen planus, lupus, atopic dermatitis and nutritional deficiencies. Erosive and crusty cheilitis and bullous erosive stomatitis are the main oral features of erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Granulomatous macrocheilitis (cheilitis granulomatosa) presents with intermittent or permanent lip swelling. It should be confirmed by a biopsy. It can be either isolated (Miescher macrocheilitis) or associated with various systemic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Successful treatment of plasma cell cheilitis with topical tacrolimus: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Hanami, Yuka; Motoki, Yoshikazu; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2011-02-15

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an uncommon chronic inflammatory dermatitis that presents with flat to slightly elevated erosive erythematous plaques. It is histologically characterized by plasma cell infiltrates into the mucosa. Other than the lip, genital areas are often involved, which is called plasma cell balanitis or vulvitis. Plasma cell cheilitis is sometimes resistant to conventional topical corticosteroid therapy. Other choices include oral griseofulvin, topical cyclosporine, and intralesional corticosteroid injection, all of which occasionally fail to produce satisfactory results. Recent reports show that topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective for plasma cell cheilitis, balanitis, and vulvitis. However, there are so far only 2 reports of plasma cell cheilitis successfully treated with topical pimecrolimus and tacrolimus. We present herein two cases of plasma cell cheilitis, in which topical tacrolimus showed beneficial effects, suggesting that this immunomodulatory agent is a promising option for plasma cell cheilitis.

  15. Treatment of actinic cheilitis with the Er:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Armenores, Paul; James, Craig L; Walker, Patrick C; Huilgol, Shyamala C

    2010-10-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a common condition with the potential to develop into squamous cell carcinoma. Current treatments have varying cure rates and complications. The role of the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser in the treatment of actinic cheilitis has not been widely published, despite offering theoretical advantages over current treatment modalities. To evaluate the outcome of a series of patients treated with the Er:YAG laser for actinic cheilitis. This was a retrospective, interventional, nonrandomized, sequential case series set in a tertiary referral, dermatologic surgery unit. Ninety-nine consecutive patients with actinic cheilitis treated with the Er:YAG laser between January 2001 and June 2008 underwent a case note review, of which 77 went on to a structured telephone interview. The main outcome measures were a subjective improvement in lip symptoms related to actinic cheilitis and objective improvement in the lips at routine follow-up. Mean time to interview follow-up was 65.7 months. Of those interviewed, 92.2% believed there had been an improvement in the cosmetic appearance of their lips; one hundred percent believed the function of their lips had improved or remained unchanged; and 84.8% remained completely disease free at the time of follow-up. The majority of patients (93.5%) were satisfied with the laser treatment. Scarring as a direct result of the laser occurred in 5.1% of patients. Retrospective nature of data collection; inability to interview all patients who underwent treatment. The Er:YAG laser is a successful modality for the treatment of actinic cheilitis with good functional and cosmetic results and only a small risk of long-term scarring. It should be considered as a first-line treatment for the disease. Copyright © 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Photodynamic therapy for actinic cheilitis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yazdani Abyaneh, Mohammad-Ali; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Griffith, Robert D; Nouri, Keyvan

    2015-02-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a premalignant lesion of the lips that can progress to squamous cell carcinoma and metastasize. Actinic cheilitis is difficult to treat because surgical treatments have significant adverse effects whereas less invasive procedures have uncertain efficacy. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may offer a noninvasive yet effective treatment option for AC. To systematically review the safety and efficacy of PDT for AC. The terms "photodynamic," "actinic," "solar," "cheilitis," and "cheilosis" were used in combinations to search the PubMed database. Studies were considered for inclusion based on eligibility criteria, and specific data were extracted from all studies. The authors identified 15 eligible case series encompassing a total of 242 treated subjects. Among studies that evaluated subjects for complete clinical response, 139 of 223 subjects (62%) showed complete response at final follow-ups ranging from 3 to 30 months. Among studies that evaluated subjects for histological outcome, 57 of 121 subjects (47%) demonstrated histological cure at final follow-ups ranging from 1.5 to 18 months. Cosmetic outcomes were good to excellent in the majority of subjects, and adverse events were well tolerated. Photodynamic therapy is safe and has the potential to clinically and histologically treat AC, with a need for future randomized controlled trials.

  17. Contact allergy in cheilitis.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Susan M; Torgerson, Rochelle R

    2016-07-01

    Recalcitrant non-actinic cheilitis may indicate contact allergy. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of allergic contact cheilitis (ACC) in patients with non-actinic cheilitis and to identify the most relevant allergens. We used an institutional database to identify patients with non-actinic cheilitis who underwent patch testing between January 1, 2001, and August 31, 2011, and conducted a retrospective review of patch test results in these patients. Additional data were obtained from institutional electronic medical records. Ninety-one patients (70 [77%] female; mean age: 51 years) were included in the study. Almost half (41 [45%]) had a final diagnosis of ACC. Patch testing was performed in line with universally accepted methods, with application on day 1, allergen removal and an initial reading on day 3, and the final reading on day 5. The allergens of most significance were fragrance mix, Myroxylon pereirae resin, dodecyl gallate, octyl gallate, and benzoic acid. Nickel was the most relevant metal allergen. Contact allergy is an important consideration in recalcitrant cheilitis. Fragrances, antioxidants, and preservatives dominated the list of relevant allergens in our patients. Nickel and gold were among the top 10 allergens. Almost half (45%) of these patients had a final diagnosis of ACC. Patch testing beyond the oral complete series should be undertaken in any investigation of non-actinic cheilitis. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Evaluation of actinic cheilitis using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Cosci, Alessandro; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Takahama, Ademar; Souza Azevedo, Rebeca; Kurachi, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a potentially malignant disorder that mostly affects the vermilion border of the lower lip and can lead to squamous cell carcinoma. Because of its heterogeneous clinical aspect, it is difficult to indicate representative biopsy area. Late diagnosis is a limiting factor of therapeutic possibilities available to treat oral cancer. The diagnosis of actinic cheilitis is mainly based on clinical and histopathological analysis and it is a time consuming procedure to get the results. Information about the organization and chemical composition of the tissues can be obtained using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy techniques without the need for biopsy. The main targeted fluorophores are NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), which have free and bound states, each one with different average lifetimes. The average lifetimes for free and bound NADH and FAD change according to tissue metabolic alterations and allow a quick and non-invasive clinical investigation of injuries and to help clinicians with the early diagnosis of actinic cheilitis. This study aims to evaluate the fluorescence lifetime parameters at the discrimination of three degrees of epithelial dysplasia, the most important predictor of malignant development, described in up to 100% of actinic cheilitis cases.

  19. "Angular" plasma cell cheilitis.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz; Tochetto, Lucas Baldissera; Tochetto, Bruno Baldissera; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Lorencette, Nádia Aparecida; Netto, José Fillus

    2014-03-17

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an extremely rare disease, characterized by erythematous-violaceous, ulcerated and asymptomatic plaques, which evolve slowly. The histological characteristics include dermal infiltrate composed of mature plasmocytes. We report a case of Plasma cell angular cheilitis in a 58-year-old male, localized in the lateral oral commissure.

  20. Cheilitis granulomatosa associated with lupus erythematosus discoid and treated with methotrexate: report of a case*

    PubMed Central

    Nazzaro, Gianluca; Muratori, Simona; Carrera, Carlo Giovanni; Coggi, Antonella; Gianotti, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    We present the rare case of a 47-year-old patient, suffering from cheilitis granulomatosa and lupus erythematosus discoid: this association is really exceptional because only once reported in English literature. In addition, the treatment of cheilitis granulomatosa is a challenge for the dermatologist: the gold standard, represented by steroids, is in fact designed as a short-time option. Our report confi rms the good efficacy of methotrexate as a steroid-sparing agent. PMID:26312716

  1. Cheilitis, perioral dermatitis and contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Collet, Evelyne; Jeudy, Géraldine; Dalac, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Cheilitis is a superficial inflammatory condition of the lip. It can occur either alone or be associated with stomatitis or perioral eczema. Contact hypersensitivity reactions are a frequent cause of cheilitis. Cosmetic and hygiene products are the most usual causes. Less frequently, allergic cheilitis is caused by contact with musical instruments, topical medicines or food allergens. Cases of cheilitis induced by dental material are rare and debated. The diagnosis relies on patch tests, which start with the European baseline series and the patient's personal cosmetic and topical products. This investigation will then be completed by the ingredients in the topical products and specific test series.

  2. Clinically granulomatous cheilitis with plasma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Somenath; Ghosh, Sarmistha; Sengupta, Dipayan

    2016-01-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis, also known as plasma cell orificial mucositis is a benign inflammatory condition clinically characterized by erythematous plaque on lips that may be ulcerated. Histopathologically it is characterized by dense plasma cell infiltrates in a band-like pattern in dermis, which corresponds to Zoon's plasma cell balanitis. On the other hand, granulomatous cheilitis, as a part of orofacial granulomatosis, manifests as sudden diffuse or nodular swelling involving lip and cheek. Initial swelling is soft to firm, but with recurrent episodes swelling gradually become firm rubbery in consistency. We hereby report a case of cheilitis in a 52-year-old man with diffuse swelling involving lower lip, which clinically resembles granulomatous cheilitis, but histopathological examination showed diffuse infiltrate of plasma cells predominantly in upper and mid-dermis. PMID:27057489

  3. Actinic Prurigo Cheilitis: A Clinicopathologic Review of 75 Cases.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Jose A; Toussaint, Sonia; Prieto, Victor G; Mercadillo, Patricia; Diez de Medina, Juan C; Lourenco, Silvia; Batdorf, Bjorn; Sangueza, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Actinic prurigo (AP) is a chronic idiopathic photodermatosis that primarily affects American Indians in the United States and Mestizos in Latin American countries. Clinically, the onset of the disease is usually in the first decade of life but may appear initially in adult life, and it is characterized by symmetric involvement of sun-exposed areas of the skin, particularly areas of the face, resulting in polymorphic erythematous papules, macules, and plaques in different stages of evolution. Lower lip involvement includes swelling, scaling, fissures, hyperpigmentation, and ulcerations of the vermilion border. and in some cases could represent the only manifestation of the disease. The histopathologic features of AP have been studied; however, there is a controversy regarding whether AP cheilitis has distinct histopathologic features that could allow accurate separation from other specific and nonspecific forms of cheilitis. The diagnosis can be challenging, mainly when lip lesions are the only manifestation of the disease. In this study, the authors investigate the clinicopathologic features of 75 cases of AP cheilitis to provide further criteria for its diagnosis and classification. All 75 patients presented with lip lesions. Thirty-three cases were diagnosed as AP cheilitis with cutaneous lesions and 42 cases were diagnosed as AP cheilitis without cutaneous lesions (only lip lesions). Histologically, of the 33 cases with AP cheilitis with cutaneous lesions, 17 (52%) cases showed follicular cheilitis, and of the 42 cases that had only lip lesions, 18 (43%) cases showed follicular cheilitis. Histologically, AP cheilitis can present as follicular cheilitis; thus, supporting the diagnosis. Also, our findings confirm that lip lesions can present as the only manifestation of the disease, showing typical histological and clinical features. This form of cheilitis has not being well described in the dermatologic and dermatopathologic literature.

  4. Toothpaste allergy as a cause of cheilitis in Israeli patients.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Yaron; Slodownik, Dan; Trattner, Akiva; Ingber, Arieh

    2009-01-01

    Allergic contact cheilitis may appear after exposure to different substances, including dental materials, toothpastes, cosmetics, foods and medications. To compare the rate of toothpaste allergy between patients with and without cheilitis and to examine the yield of our proposed toothpaste patch test kit for use in patients with cheilitis. A patch test kit containing 11 substances used in toothpastes was formed. The study sample consisted of 44 patients, 24 with cheilitis (study group) and 20 with contact dermatitis but without cheilitis (control group). Eleven patients in the study group (45%) were found to be allergic to toothpaste, compared to only one patient (5%) in the control group (p < .05). The rate of toothpaste allergy among patients with cheilitis might be higher than previously reported. Patch-testing with our toothpaste series is recommended in the evaluation of cheilitis.

  5. Case of cheilitis granulomatosa associated with apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tomoko; Fukai, Kazuyoshi; Sowa, Junko; Ishii, Masamitsu; Teramae, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Koutetsu

    2008-02-01

    The etiology of cheilitis granulomatosa is unknown. In some cases, rapid improvement and/or complete elimination of swelling of the lips after dental treatment has been reported. Here, we describe another case of improvement following dental treatment. A 57-year-old woman had developed asymptomatic swelling of the lower lip 2 months previously. Histological examination revealed non-caseous giant cell granulomas. Neither facial nerve palsy nor fissuring of the tongue was present. Patch testing for metal allergy revealed only mild irritation to zinc ion. Although topical corticosteroid ointment and oral tranilast for 4 months were ineffective, rapid and remarkable improvement of the swelling was noted soon after treatment of two lesions of apical periodontitis. Thorough examination for foci of infection is necessary when treating a patient with cheilitis granulomatosa.

  6. Actinic cheilitis in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Savage, N W; McKay, C; Faulkner, C

    2010-06-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a potentially premalignant condition involving predominantly the vermilion of the lower lip. The aim of the current paper was to review the clinical presentation of actinic cheilitis and demonstrate the development of management plans using a series of cases. These are designed to provide immediate treatment where required but also to address the medium and long-term requirements of the patient. The authors suggest that the clinical examination of lips and the assessment of actinic cheilitis and other lip pathology become a regular part of the routine soft tissue examination undertaken as a part of the periodic examination of dental patients. Early recognition of actinic cheilitis can allow the development of strategies for individual patients that prevent progression. These are based on past sun exposure, future lifestyle changes and the daily use of emollient sunscreens, broad-brimmed hats and avoidance of sun exposure during the middle of the day. This is a service that is not undertaken as a matter of routine in general medical practice as patients are not seen with the regularity of dental patients and generally not under the ideal examination conditions available in the dental surgery.

  7. Plasma Cell Cheilitis: A Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of 13 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Kwang Ho; Hahm, Ji Eun; Ha, Jae Won; Kwon, Won Joo; Kim, Chul Woo

    2017-01-01

    Background Plasma cell cheilitis is an unusual benign plasma cell proliferative disease of an unknown etiology that typically presents on the lip. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of 13 cases of plasma cell cheilitis. Methods The present study investigated the clinical manifestations, treatment modalities, and outcome of 13 patients diagnosed with plasma cell cheilitis from 2011 to 2016 at Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital and Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital. Biopsy specimens of the all cases were evaluated using conventional hematoxylin and eosin staining with kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain immunohistochemistry. Results The age of the patients ranged from 39 to 86 years (mean, 64.7 years), with male predominance. Histopathologically, 61.5% and 38.5% of patients showed band-like and pan dermal plasmacytic infiltrates, respectively. Eosinophilic infiltration was noted in 69.2% of patients. All cases showed both kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain reactivities, and kappa predominance was confirmed in 9 patients (69.2%). A majority of the patients was treated with local therapy, such as intralesional steroid injection with topical tacrolimus. Among the 13 patients, plasma cell cheilitis completely resolved, partially resolved, and recurred in 3 (23.1%), 5 (38.5%), and 5 patients (38.5%), respectively. Conclusion Plasma cell cheilitis presented as erosive edematous circumscribed patches or plaques affecting mainly the lower lip of elderly male patients. The majority of histopathology cases showed characteristic plasma cell aggregation on the upper dermis that was immunopositive for immunoglobulin light chain, with kappa predominance. PMID:28966508

  8. Cheilitis in acne vulgaris patients with no previous use of systemic retinoid products.

    PubMed

    Balighi, Kamran; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Lajevardi, Vahideh; Talebi, Shahin; Azizpour, Arghavan

    2017-08-01

    Isotretinoin is commonly used in the treatment of acne vulgaris. While one of the more common side-effects is cheilitis, we have observed an increased incidence of cheilitis prior to the commencement of systemic isotretinoin. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cheilitis among acne vulgaris patients. A non-interventional cross-sectional study of patients with acne vulgaris. Patients with previous use of systemic retinoids were excluded. The patients were examined for signs and symptoms of cheilitis. Of a total of 400 patients, 134 (34%) had evidence of cheilitis at initial presentation. Two-thirds (63%) were female (P < 0.001). The distribution of the cheilitis was as follows; 55% on the lower lip, 30% on both lips, and 16% on the upper lip. Over a quarter (27%) of patients with cheilitis had acne excorie, compared with only 8% of patients with no signs of cheilitis. Our findings suggest that cheilitis is quite common among acne vulgaris patients even before treatment with isotretinoin. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  9. Evaluation of the efficacy of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Yuri N; Torezan, Luis Antonio; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa; Neto, Cyro Festa

    2017-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a lip intraepithelial neoplasia, whose cells present alterations similar to those presented by invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). To conduct clinical and laboratory evaluation by histopathology and immunohistochemistry of the efficacy of actinic cheilitis treatment using photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) and noncoherent red light. Patients with actinic cheilitis detected by histopathological examination were submitted to two sessions of photodynamic therapy with a two-week interval between them. They were examined immediately after the sessions, four, six, and twelve weeks after beginning treatment when a new biopsy was carried out. Clinical histopathological and immunohistochemical parameters were evaluated before and after treatment. Of the 23 patients who underwent biopsy, 16 completed two photodynamic therapy sessions and the material of one patient was insufficient for immunohistochemistry. Complete clinical response was achieved in 62.5% (10 of 16 patients) and 37.5% still remained with clinical evidence of AC. In spite of this, no case of cure by histopathological analysis was found. There was no significant statistical change among the values of Ki-67, survivin, and p53 observed before and after treatment. Photodynamic therapy, as carried out in this trial, was not an efficacious therapeutic option for treating patients with actinic cheilitis included in this sample. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Loss of cytokeratin 10 indicates malignant transformation in actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Natália Galvão; Oliveira, Denise Tostes; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Domingues, Maria Aparecida Custódio; Minicucci, Eliana Maria; Soares, Cléverson Teixeira

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship the expression of cytokeratins (CK10 and CK13) and the cell proliferation index determined by Ki-67 of lip squamous cell carcinoma and actinic cheilitis with different degrees of dysplasia. Forty-five paraffin-embedded actinic cheilitis with and without dysplasia and 20 lip squamous cell carcinoma were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using anti-human anti-CK10, anti-CK13, and anti-Ki-67 antibodies. The majority of actinic cheilitis showed immunopositivity for CK10 and CK13 with decrease or loss of expression in dysplastic areas. In lip squamous cell carcinoma of the lip, heterogeneous expression of CK13 and immunonegativity for CK10 were observed. There was a statistically significant difference between CK10 expression in lip squamous cell carcinoma and in actinic cheilitis with or without dysplasia (p < 0.001). The cell proliferation index was higher in actinic cheilitis with dysplasia and lip squamous cell carcinoma than in actinic cheilitis without epithelial dysplasia. A significant correlation was found between the intensity of the epithelial dysplasia and the cell proliferation index (p < 0.001). These results provide evidence that there is a downregulation of CK10 expression in dysplastic areas of patients with actinic cheilitis and in those with lip squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and that the index of cell proliferation, determined by Ki-67, is directly correlated with the intensity of the epithelial dysplasia. Altogether, these results suggest that CK10 expression and the epithelial cell proliferation index can help to identify malignant transformation in the lip region.

  11. Successful treatment of Miescher's cheilitis in Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome with betamethasone injections and doxycycline

    PubMed Central

    Oudrhiri, Lamia; Chiheb, Soumiya; Marnissi, Farida; Zamiati, Soumaya; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a 19-year-old girl who presented with 5-year history of swelling of upper lip and fissured tongue treated with dapsone then oral steroids without any improvement. Clinical examination found peripheral facial nerve paralysis and Labial mucosa biopsy showed non-necrotizing giganto-epithelioid granuloma. Diagnosis of Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome was retaind because of association of cheilitis, lingua plicata and facial paralysis. Given the failure of dapsone and oral steroid we suggested an association of betamethasone injection and doxycycline. Gradual and permanent reduction of the upper lip volume was observed. One year follow up objectified no reactivation of cheilitis. PMID:23397029

  12. Evaluation of hypoxia, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis in actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Natália G; Souza, Lélia B; Nonaka, Cassiano F W; Silveira, Ericka J D

    2016-11-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a potentially malignant condition caused mainly by chronic sun exposure. Here we aim to evaluate the role of hypoxia, angiogenesis, and lymphatic density in the clinical and morphological progression of a series of cases of actinic cheilitis. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate positivity to hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, and D2-40 in 40 cases of actinic cheilitis of the lower lip. The cases studied exhibited variable degrees of positivity to the markers. The median number of lymphatic vessels was 3.2, 2.4, and 3.0 in lesions showing no epithelial dysplasia (NED) and with mild (MED) and moderate (MOED) epithelial dysplasia, respectively. The median VEGF-C positivity index was 82.44% (NED), 92.74% (MED), and 82.83% (MOED), and the median HIF-1α positivity index was 11.57% (NED), 5.26% (MED), and 13.55% (MOED). No significant differences in lymphatic density or median VEGF-C and HIF-1α positivity indices were observed between histological grades or clinical presentations of actinic cheilitis (P > 0.05). Although representing early events in lip carcinogenesis, the present results suggest that hypoxia, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis do not influence the morphological or clinical progression of actinic cheilitis. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases 9 and 12 in actinic cheilitis

    PubMed Central

    Poulopoulos, Athanasios K; Andreadis, Dimitrios; Markopoulos, Anastasios K

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of matrix-degrading metalloproteinases 9, 12 (MMPs), as mediators of functional connective tissue damage in actinic cheilitis. METHODS: Thirty five formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded specimens of actinic cheilitis, and twelve specimens of normal lower lip vermillion, which were obtained by the archives of the Department of Oral Medicine and Maxillofacial Pathology, were examined. From each block, 5 μm thick sections were cut and routinely stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on 4-μm thick sections of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded actinic cheilitis lesions and of normal lower lip vermillion, for MMP-9 and MMP-12 in serial sections of our specimens. Appropriate positive and negative controls were performed to confirm the specificity of the staining reaction. MMP immunohistochemistry was evaluated using a semiquantitative immunoreactive score. RESULTS: Haematoxylin and eosin staining revealed in actinic cheilitis lesions atrophic stratified squamous cell epithelium, or focally and irregularly hyperplastic of variable thickness, in some areas was observed marked keratin production. Varying degrees of epithelial dysplasia were noticed with a wide spectrum of change within the same specimen. Characteristic was the appearance of chronic inflammatory infiltration, and a band of amorphous acellular, basophilic change like solar elastosis (elastin replacement of collagen). In normal lower lip specimens weak and scanty positive expression of MMP-9 and MMP-12 was observed. Anti-MMP-9 antibody showed a weak reaction, in actinic cheilitis lesions, focal in the elastotic material, in chronic inflammatory cells and mostly in macrophages and neutrophils. Strong and in some cases diffused immunohistochemical expression of MMP-12 was detected in actinic cheilitis lesions in the areas of the fragmented, distorted and thickened elastic fibers. MMP-12 was also expressed in chronic inflammatory cells and mostly

  14. The clinical features of angular cheilitis occurring during orthodontic treatment: a multi-centre observational study.

    PubMed

    Cross, David; Eide, May L; Kotinas, Anastasios

    2010-06-01

    To report the prevalence and clinical features of angular cheilitis occurring in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Cross-sectional, observational study. Three centres were involved; Glasgow Dental Hospital and two specialist orthodontic practices, one in Scotland and one in Greece. Six hundred and sixty consecutive patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were examined over a 9 month period. The presence and absence of angular cheilitis was recorded. A six-point clinical scale was used to describe the clinical features of angular cheilitis when present. Chi-squared tests were used to investigate the association between the presence of angular cheilitis and oral hygiene level/appliance type. Eleven per cent of orthodontic patients in this Western European population, showed signs of angular cheilitis. No correlation was found between the presence of angular cheilitis and gender. Good oral hygiene was associated with a reduced prevalence (P<0.01). Angular cheilitis is a multifactorial condition that can occur in a small percentage of patients during orthodontic treatment. Good oral hygiene may be associated with a reduced risk. A new clinical grade of angular cheilitis is suggested that may help future research. Further studies are required to investigate the microbiological features associated with angular cheilitis occurring in orthodontic patients, as well as associations with medical conditions, such as asthma.

  15. Cheilitis glandularis: Case report with respect to immunohistochemical findings

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Reinhard E.; Löning, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cheilitis glandularis (CG) is a rare benign affection of the lip mucosa. The etiology and pathogenesis of CG are unknown. Surgical measures are the leading therapeutic options to treat CG. This case report on a 55-year-old female illustrates the recurrent affection of the lips over several years and local therapy. Furthermore, the study of the resected glands intends to differentiate the lesions with respect to the recently introduced concept of immunoglobulin G4-related diseases. PMID:26816670

  16. Severely Crusted Cheilitis as an Initial Presentation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wai Man Mandy; Pang, Shiu Ming; Ng, See Ket

    2017-01-01

    Lupus erythematosus (LE) is an autoimmune disease which may initially present solely with lip lesions. Due to a wide spectrum of presentation, these features may initially be misdiagnosed as other oral diseases such as lichen planus, erythema multiforme (EM), and actinic cheilitis, leading to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. We discuss a case of severely crusted cheilitis which was initially diagnosed as EM, with subsequent development of subacute cutaneous LE, and progression to systemic LE. We will discuss the clinical and histological features of lupus cheilitis.

  17. Improvement of Cheilitis granulomatosa after Dental Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Kayoko; Hayashi, Teppei; Inasaka, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2011-01-01

    A 38-year-old male suffered from swelling of the lower lip for 3 months. Neither facial nerve palsy nor fissuring of the tongue was present. Histological examination of a biopsy taken from the lower lip revealed non-caseous epithelioid cell granulomas, suggestive of cheilitis granulomatosa. Patch testing revealed positive reactions to mercury chloride and amalgam. His symptoms markedly improved 3 months after treatment of the apical periodontitis and replacement of dental crowns. As his dental crowns did not contain mercury, we believe that the cheilitis granulomatosa may have been related to the focal dental infection. PMID:21941479

  18. Microscopically proven cure of actinic cheilitis by CO/sub 2/ laser

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a premalignant condition of the lip frequently seen in individuals with chronic sun exposure. Various surgical and ablative therapies have been employed, but microscopic outcome has not been well documented. In this study CO/sub 2/ laser ablation was performed on 16 patients with actinic cheilitis that involved 50% or greater of the lower lip. Pre- and post-treatment biopsies were performed to assess results of therapy. After treatment all 16 patients showed microscopic clearing of atypical cells and disorderly maturation characteristic of actinic cheilitis. One patient had clinical recurrence at 14 months, which was retreated with laser.

  19. Ingenol Mebutate for Recalcitrant Chronic Actinic Cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Tzika, Evangelia; Masouyé, Isabelle; Mühlstädt, Michael; Laffitte, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a healthy 76-year-old man with a whitish, hyperkeratotic lesion of the lower lip diagnosed as actinic cheilitis (AC) previously treated with classic red light photodynamic therapy 5 years ago. Initial treatment with 5% imiquimod cream - also with intensified application - failed. After 2 cycles thrice daily, consecutive applications of 150 μg/g ingenol mebutate gel at 3 weeks' interval, the lesions cleared completely. Surprisingly, no pustular or crusting reaction or other side effect occurred contrary to expectation. Remission was stable for 10 months, when recurrence occurred. Ingenol mebutate proved to be a feasible and safe treatment in this otherwise refractory case of AC. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. p53 AND MDM2 PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN ACTINIC CHEILITIS

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Maria da Conceição Andrade; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino; Moreira, André Luis Gomes; Reis, Sílvia Regina Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a potentially malignant lip lesion caused by excessive and prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which can lead to histomorphological alterations indicative of abnormal cell differentiation. In this pathology, varying degrees of epithelial dysplasia may be found. There are few published studies regarding the p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis. Fifty-eight cases diagnosed with actinic cheilitis were histologically evaluated using Banóczy and Csiba (1976) parameters, and were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using the streptavidin-biotin method in order to assess p53 and MDM2 protein expression. All studied cases expressed p53 proteins in basal and suprabasal layers. In the basal layer, the nuclei testing positive for p53 were stained intensely, while in the suprabasal layer, cells with slightly stained nuclei were predominant. All cases also tested positive for the MDM2 protein, but with varying degrees of nuclear expression and a predominance of slightly stained cells. A statistically significant correlation between the percentage of p53 and MDM2-positive cells was established, regardless of the degree of epithelial dysplasia. The expression of p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis can be an important indicator in lip carcinogenesis, regardless of the degree of epithelial dysplasia. PMID:19082401

  1. p53 and MDM2 protein expression in actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Maria da Conceição Andrade; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino; Moreira, André Luis Gomes; Reis, Sílvia Regina Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a potentially malignant lip lesion caused by excessive and prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which can lead to histomorphological alterations indicative of abnormal cell differentiation. In this pathology, varying degrees of epithelial dysplasia may be found. There are few published studies regarding the p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis. Fifty-eight cases diagnosed with actinic cheilitis were histologically evaluated using Banóczy and Csiba (1976) parameters, and were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using the streptavidin-biotin method in order to assess p53 and MDM2 protein expression. All studied cases expressed p53 proteins in basal and suprabasal layers. In the basal layer, the nuclei testing positive for p53 were stained intensely, while in the suprabasal layer, cells with slightly stained nuclei were predominant. All cases also tested positive for the MDM2 protein, but with varying degrees of nuclear expression and a predominance of slightly stained cells. A statistically significant correlation between the percentage of p53 and MDM2-positive cells was established, regardless of the degree of epithelial dysplasia. The expression of p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis can be an important indicator in lip carcinogenesis, regardless of the degree of epithelial dysplasia.

  2. Actinic Cheilitis: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Neil Hamilton; Khammissa, Razia; Meyerov, Robin; Lemmer, Johan; Feller, Liviu

    2011-01-01

    In actinic cheilitis, the current view is that the keratinocytes have undergone transformation forming a field of epithelium with the potential for neoplastic transformation. Clinical features include diffuse and poorly demarcated atrophic, erosive or keratotic plaques that may affect some parts of, or the entire vermilion border. Fair-complexioned people, those with albinism and people with eversion of the lip are all subject to actinic cheilitis. Prophylactic measures against all forms of sunlight-induced lesions must include limitation of exposure to the sun during peak sunlight hours, the use of appropriate protective clothing, and the use of a sunscreen cream. In this article, a case of albinism is used to illustrate the nature of actinic cheilitis, its clinical features and its treatment. PMID:21228959

  3. Successful treatment with 308-nm monochromatic excimer light and subsequent tacrolimus 0.03% ointment in refractory plasma cell cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Nakano, Shunji; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Ohata, Chika; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2013-06-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that presents with erythema, erosions, ulcers and occasional nodules within the mucosa, including the lips. It is histopathologically characterized by dense plasma cell infiltration in the lamina propria of the mucous membranes. Several treatments for plasma cell cheilitis have been reported, including topical steroids, topical antibiotics or topical tacrolimus. However, 308-nm monochromatic excimer light (MEL) has never been reported as a treatment option, while it was reported to be very effective in treating erosive oral lichen planus. We report a 62-year-old man who had chronic plasma cell cheilitis on the lower lip, which was refractory to topical and systemic corticosteroid. The lesion and severe pain were significantly improved by the treatment with nine sessions of 308-nm MEL twice per week with a total dose of 1120 mJ/cm(2). However, the lesion gradually worsened after treatment frequency was reduced to once per month. Subsequent tacrolimus 0.03% ointment cleared the lesion completely in a month and no recurrence was observed a year later. Refractory plasma cell cheilitis and concomitant severe pain quickly responded to 308-nm MEL when administrated twice per week. Because the long interval between each MEL treatment seemed ineffective to improve the lesion, appropriate frequency and adequate total dose of MEL treatment may be necessary for a successful treatment. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. [Tuberculous cheilitis revealing pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Bricha, Myriem; Slimani, Hajar; Hammi, Sanae; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the oral cavity is rare. It is associated with clinical polymorphism and poses above all a diagnostic problem. We report the case of a 42-year-old male patient with tubercular cheilitis. This study aims to focus attention on tuberculosis that can be detected exceptionally in specific locations, such as the oral lip.

  5. Actinic cheilitis: aesthetic and functional comparative evaluation of vermilionectomy using the classic and W-plasty techniques.

    PubMed

    Rossoe, Ed Wilson Tsuneo; Tebcherani, Antonio José; Sittart, José Alexandre; Pires, Mario Cezar

    2011-01-01

    Chronic actinic cheilitis is actinic keratosis located on the vermilion border. Treatment is essential because of the potential for malignant transformation. To evaluate the aesthetic and functional results of vermilionectomy using the classic and W-plasty techniques in actinic cheilitis. In the classic technique, the scar is linear and in the W-plasty one, it is a broken line. 32 patients with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of actinic cheilitis were treated. Out of the 32 patients, 15 underwent the W-plasty technique and 17 underwent the classic one. We evaluated parameters such as scar retraction and functional changes. A statistically significant association between the technique used and scar retraction was found, which was positive when using the classic technique (p = 0.01 with Yates' correction). The odds ratio was calculated at 11.25, i.e., there was a greater chance of retraction in patients undergoing the classic technique. Both techniques revealed no functional changes. We evaluated postoperative complications such as the presence of crusts, dry lips, paresthesia, and suture dehiscence. There was no statistically significant association between complications and the technique used (p = 0.69). We concluded that vermilionectomy using the W-plasty technique shows better cosmetic results and similar complication rates.

  6. Non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of actinic cheilitis with reflectance confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, M; González, S; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B; Roewert-Huber, J; Sterry, W; Stockfleth, E; Astner, S

    2011-03-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) represents the equivalent of actinic keratosis on the lip. Various treatment modalities are available and the efficacy of diclofenac in hyaluronic acid has recently been described. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a non-invasive imaging technique which has recently been applied for the diagnosis of actinic keratoses. Herein, we describe the applicability of RCM for the diagnosis of AC and for monitoring of treatment response of AC to diclofenac in hyaluronic acid. Ten Caucasian patients with clinical suspicion for AC were included in this study. To obtain a non-invasive diagnosis, RCM was performed at baseline, followed by biopsy and respective confocal-histopathological correlation. Six patients with a histological diagnosis of AC were treated with diclofenac in hyaluronic acid, whereby monitoring was performed by RCM. Reflectance confocal microscopy was able to correctly identify 6/7 cases of AC and 3/3 cases of benign lesions. The most important RCM criteria for diagnosis of AC were cellular atypia at the stratum spinosum and granulosum with atypical honeycomb pattern. One patient with AC was misclassified as inflammatory cheilitis by RCM as it showed marked inflammatory response and lacked clear signs of cellular atypia on RCM imaging. Following topical treatment with diclofenac gel, 5/6 patients (83%) showed a good treatment response with regression of dysplasia on consecutive RCM examination. Reflectance confocal microscopy is a promising tool for the non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of actinic cheilitis. However, marked inflammation represents a potential diagnostic pitfall. In this regard, biopsy should be performed in doubtful cases. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  7. Isotretinoin and vitiligo: can chronic cheilitis cause koebnerization?

    PubMed

    Garner, Michael L; McShane, Diana B; Burkhart, Craig N; Morrell, Dean S

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo after trauma through koebnerization is a widely reported phenomenon. Herein we present a case of vitiligo in an area of chronic cheilitis after isotretinoin treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Gangrenous cheilitis associated with all-trans retinoic acid therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mariko; Fukushima, Noriyasu; Itamura, Hidekazu; Urata, Chisako; Yokoo, Masako; Ide, Masaru; Hisatomi, Takashi; Tomimasu, Rika; Sueoka, Eisaburo; Kimura, Shinya

    2010-01-01

    A 67-year-old Japanese woman who presented with erythema on the abdomen and pancytopenia was found to have acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). A skin biopsy revealed invasion of APL cells. She was started on induction treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) at 45 mg/m(2). On day 4, the leukemic cell number had increased to over 1.0 x 10(9)/L. Consequently, chemotherapy with idarubicin and cytarabine was initiated. On day 10, dryness of the lips appeared. The lower lip swelled and developed painful black eschars. A high fever was also present. Despite discontinuing ATRA on day 20 and administering antibiotics, an anti-fungal agent and valaciclovir, these signs did not improve. Histopathologically, the biopsied lip revealed infiltration of neutrophils and vasculitis. The patient was given ATRA on days 29 and 30 due to an increase in APL cell numbers, after which the gangrenous cheilitis extended over the whole lip. On day 49, the patient was started on re-induction treatment with arsenic trioxide. She achieved complete remission and the gangrenous cheilitis slowly healed over the following 8 weeks. Since the clinical features of the gangrenous cheilitis in this case were similar to those of ATRA-associated scrotal ulcers, it appears that activated neutrophils derived from differentiated APL cells may have caused the gangrenous cheilitis. Physicians should be alert to the development of gangrenous cheilitis during treatment with ATRA.

  9. Oral medicine case book 51: actinic cheilitis in a patient with oculocutaneous albinism.

    PubMed

    Wood, N H; Moodley, A

    2013-07-01

    Patients with oculocutaneous albinism are more prone to sun-induced damage due to the lack of melanin. Actinic cheilitis is a potentially malignant disorder that occurs due to chronic UV-B radiation to the vermillion region of the lip, a region that is already at risk due to its morphology. A case of actinic cheilitis in a patient with oculocutaneous albinism is presented with a literature review.

  10. Clinical features, cytology and bacterial culture results in dogs with and without cheilitis and comparison of three sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Doelle, Maren; Loeffler, Anette; Wolf, Katharina; Kostka, Veit; Linek, Monika

    2016-06-01

    Cheilitis is a common presentation in dogs associated with a variety of skin diseases and often complicated by microbial infections. To describe and compare clinical and cytological features and bacterial culture results from the lower lips of dogs with cheilitis (as compared to healthy controls), and to evaluate three cytology sampling techniques for their abilities to differentiate between the groups. Fifty six dogs with cheilitis and 54 controls. Anatomy and clinical signs of the lower lip were recorded. Cytology samples taken by tape strip, direct impression and swabs rolled over skin were scored semiquantitatively for microorganisms, inflammatory cells and keratinocytes. Cytology scores were correlated with semiquantitative bacterial culture scores. Pure breeds, frequency of lip folds and all cytology scores except keratinocytes were higher in dogs with cheilitis than in controls, but a substantial overlap was seen in all microorganisms between the groups. Hypersensitivity disorders were diagnosed in 40 of 56 dogs with cheilitis. The tape strip technique yielded the greatest differences between groups. Bacterial growth was reported in 100% of dogs with cheilitis and in 93% of the controls. Pathogens such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spp were found more frequently in dogs with cheilitis. Cytology and bacterial culture were poorly correlated. Cheilitis was associated with primary hypersensitivity disorders and the presence of a lip fold was a predisposing factor. Results of aerobic culture were similar to prior studies on pyoderma of other body sites, except for higher rates of Pseudomonas spp. isolation. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. Pattern of galectins expression in actinic cheilitis with different risks of malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Maria Luiza Diniz de Sousa; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes; de Souza, Lélia Batista; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas

    2016-09-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a chronic inflammatory lesion that in some situations can turn into squamous cell carcinoma of the lip. The molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not yet completely understood. This study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of galectins in actinic cheilitis according to the histopathological grading. Immunoexpression of galectin-1, galectin-3, galectin-7, and galectin-9 was semiquantitatively analyzed in 65 cases of actinic cheilitis graded as low risk (n = 40) or high risk (n = 25) of malignant transformation. Association between the location of the galectins in the cellular compartments and histopathological grading was analyzed. Galectin-1 was mainly observed in the cell cytoplasm, and was elevated (score 3) in 60% of cases, regardless of the histopathological grade (P > 0.05). Galectin-3 expression was higher in high-risk group than in the low-risk group (P < 0.05), with a predominant expression in the cytoplasm and nucleus of low-risk (67.5%), and only in the cytoplasm of high-risk cases (60%) (P < 0.05). Galectin-7 expression did not show significant differences between low-risk and high-risk groups (P > 0.05). With respect to galectin-9, 89.2% of cases were positive, showing decrease in median of scores as there was an increase in histological grade (P < 0.001), with predominant expression in the nucleus and cytoplasm. This study is the first indication of galectins involvement in the pathogenesis and morphologic progression of actinic cheilitis, particularly galectin-3 and galectin-9. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Multicentre study of allergic contact cheilitis from toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Francalanci, S; Sertoli, A; Giorgini, S; Pigatto, P; Santucci, B; Valsecchi, R

    2000-10-01

    The present work reports the results of a multicentre study of toothpaste allergic contact cheilitis (TACC) conducted by GIRDCA (Gruppo Italiano Ricerca Dermatiti da Contatto e Ambientali). The study examined 54 patients with eczematous lesions on the lips, the possible cause of which was suspected to be the use of toothpastes. Patch tests were conducted with a standard series, a specially-targeted series (toothpaste cheilitis series, TCS), and with suspected toothpaste(s). A stop-restart test (SRT) was carried out with these, together with a use test to identify possible alternative products. The TCS produced 17 positive reactions in 13 patients, the most frequent being to spearmint oil. Of the 54 patients, 5 displayed positive reactions only to the TCS. The patch tests with toothpaste produced positive reactions in 11/32 patients, the SRT a positive response in 10/12 cases. The diagnosis of TACC was confirmed in 15/54 patients. Alternative products were identified for 5 patients. In conclusion, the allergens most frequently responsible for TACC were the flavourings, and the additional series proved to be useful in many cases (together with patch tests with toothpastes and the SRT) for correct diagnosis and to initiate effective prevention.

  13. Actinic cheilitis and squamous cell carcinoma of the lip: clinical, histopathological and immunogenetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Renata Aparecida Martinez Antunes Ribeiro; Minicucci, Eliana Maria; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2012-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis is the main precancerous lesion of the lip. Squamous cell carcinoma of the lip is reported together with oral carcinomas in the Brazilian official statistics. Overall, they account for 40% of the head and neck carcinomas. In general, physicians and dentists know little about what causes oral tumor development and progression. Tumor suppressor genes and cell proliferation regulatory proteins play a role in the progression of actinic cheilitis to squamous cell carcinoma and in its biological behavior. Knowledge on prognostic and diagnostic markers has a positive impact on the follow-up of these patients.

  14. Boron Nitride Nanoribbons from Exfoliation of Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Hurst, Janet; Santiago, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Two types of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were exfoliated into boron nitride nanoribbons (BNNR), which were identified using transmission electron microscopy: (1) commercial BNNTs with thin tube walls and small diameters. Tube unzipping was indicated by a large decrease of the sample's surface area and volume for pores less than 2 nm in diameter. (2) BNNTs with large diameters and thick walls synthesized at NASA Glenn Research Center. Here, tube unraveling was indicated by a large increase in external surface area and pore volume. For both, the exfoliation process was similar to the previous reported method to exfoliate commercial hexagonal boron nitride (hBN): Mixtures of BNNT, FeCl3, and NaF (or KF) were sequentially treated in 250 to 350 C nitrogen for intercalation, 500 to 750 C air for exfoliation, and finally HCl for purification. Property changes of the nanosized boron nitride throughout this process were also similar to the previously observed changes of commercial hBN during the exfoliation process: Both crystal structure (x-ray diffraction data) and chemical properties (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy data) of the original reactant changed after intercalation and exfoliation, but most (not all) of these changes revert back to those of the reactant once the final, purified products are obtained.

  15. A systematic review of the literature of the three related disease entities cheilitis granulomatosa, orofacial granulomatosis and Melkersson - Rosenthal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wehl, Goetz; Rauchenzauner, Markus

    2018-05-14

    Melkersson Rosenthal syndrome (MRS) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology and comprises the triad: orofacial edema, recurrent facial paralysis and lingua plicata. In the current literature confusing heterogeneity exists, mixing together the historically grown terms cheilitis granulomatosa or granulomatous cheilitis, Melkersson Rosenthal syndrome and the umbrella term orofacial granulomatosis (OFG). We provide a systematic review comprising all three disease entities of orofacial granulomatosis using the computerized database "Pubmed Medline" entering the key words "orofacial granulomatosis" (141 references), "Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome" (207 references), "granulomatous cheilitis" or "cheilitis granulomatosa" (102 references) back to 1956. Full text journals and case studies were included, and data synthesis was performed individually. Etiology remains unclear for all three disease entities. Etiological relatedness to chronic inflammatory bowel disease is under discussion and effectiveness was found for different treatments, e.g. local triamcinolone injections, antibiotics, surgical interventions, TNF alpha blockers or exclusive enteral nutrition. No randomized controlled trial concerning the therapy of orofacial granulomatosis was found. As a consequence, therapeutic conclusions are drawn mainly from small case series, thus limiting the evidence of therapeutic interventions. OFG with the sub-entities MRS and cheilitis granulomatosa is an etiological obscure disease process with various possible therapeutic interventions potentially alleviating the disease course but to broaden treatment knowledge further study in randomized controlled trials are needed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Angular cheilitis, part 2: nutritional, systemic, and drug-related causes and treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Kelly K; Brodell, Robert T; Helms, Stephen E

    2011-07-01

    Angular cheilitis (AC) is associated with a variety of nutritional, systemic, and drug-related factors that may act exclusively or in combination with local factors. Establishing the underlying etiology of AC is required to appropriately focus treatment efforts.

  17. Oral candidiasis and angular cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Victoria; Fazel, Nasim

    2010-01-01

    Candidiasis, an often encountered oral disease, has been increasing in frequency. Most commonly caused by the overgrowth of Candida albicans, oral candidiasis can be divided into several categories including acute and chronic forms, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors for the development of oral candidiasis include immunosuppression, wearing of dentures, pharmacotherapeutics, smoking, infancy and old age, endocrine dysfunction, and decreased salivation. Oral candidiasis may be asymptomatic. More frequently, however, it is physically uncomfortable, and the patient may complain of burning mouth, dysgeusia, dysphagia, anorexia, and weight loss, leading to nutritional deficiency and impaired quality of life. A plethora of antifungal treatments are available. The overall prognosis of oral candidiasis is good, and rarely is the condition life threatening with invasive or recalcitrant disease.

  18. Photodynamic therapy in actinic cheilitis: clinical and anatomopathological evaluation of 19 patients.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Camila Ferrari; Souza, Fernanda Homem de Mello de; Jordão, Juliana Merheb; Haendchen, Letícia Cortes; Mesquita, Lismary; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Faucz, Luciana Lisboa

    2012-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis, a common disease caused by chronic solar exposure and tobacco use, is considered a premalignant lesion with potential to develop into squamous cell carcinoma. Some of the available treatments are invasive, have unaesthetic results and require multiple sessions. To assess the efficacy of a therapy and its cosmetic results. In this uncontrolled clinical trial a single photodynamic therapy (PDT) session using 16% methyl-aminolevulinate was performed on actinic cheilitis of the lower lip. A standardized questionnaire was applied in order to assess the clinical improvement from the patients' point of view and the satisfaction with the treatment. Anatomopathological evaluation was performed before the treatment and two months afterwards. The sample was composed of 19 patients (10 males and 9 females), phototypes I to III, with average age of 62 years. Main adverse effects were: sudden pain, scabs, herpes flare-up, and edema. The average score of pain during the procedure was 5,8+2,9. At the final assessment the patients reported improvement of 80% and satisfaction of 85% (p<0.01). Anatomopathological analysis showed a significant decrease of dysplasia (p=0.03) in spite of its presence in 84% of cases. There was no significant correlation between the level of dysplasia with either the subjective impression of clinical improvement (p=0.82) or with the patients' final satisfaction (p=0.96). PDT is effective in the treatment of actinic cheilitis, but it is associated with a significant level of pain. Due to the persistence of dysplasia, more research needs to be done in order to define the ideal number of sessions for the effective treatment of these lesions.

  19. Value of videoroscopy in the detection of alterations of  Actinic Cheilitis and the selection of biopsy areas

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Ana-Maria; Ferrari, Thiago; Domingos, Tabata; Cunha, Karin; Dias, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Background To demonstrate the value of videoroscopy in identifying lesions and alterations not seen by oroscopy and to select the area for biopsy. Material and Methods Eighty patients were subjected to anamnesis, physical exam, videoroscopy exam, toluidine blue test and biopsy. A diagram of the lips was created to record the exact location where the lesion was found. Results Physical exam identified 287 lesions, and videoroscopy identified 587 lesions; erythema and white lesions were the most common lesions associated with actinic cheilitis. Of the 59 performed biopsies, 32 (52.4%) cases were identified by videoroscopy that showed lesions that were not detected during physical examination. Conclusions The establishment of a diagram of the lip permitted registration of the precise location of the lesion. Videoroscopy was effective in locating lesions not seen by oroscopy. Both videoroscopy and the diagram of the lips allowed for better and earlier diagnosis and better patient follow-up for those with actinic cheilitis. Key words: Actinic cheilitis, potentially malignant disorder, videoroscopy, dermatoscopy, lip. oroscopy, diagram of lip. PMID:25662549

  20. Link between immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins and clinical-epidemiological aspects of actinic cheilitis*

    PubMed Central

    Sarmento, Dmitry José de Santana; Godoy, Gustavo Pina; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Background The studies found in the literature associate the immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins with histologic aspects, but do not correlate it with clinical and epidemiological data. Objective To evaluate the immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 in actinic cheilitis, correlating it with clinical characteristics. Methods We analyzed 40 cases. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. The following clinical variables were evaluated: gender, age range, ethnicity, clinical aspect and occupational sunlight exposure. Statistical evaluation included the Student t-test, while the significance level was set at 5%. Results Greater immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 was observed in females, individuals aged over 40, and mixed-race/black patients. Furthermore, the immunoexpression of these proteins was greater in actinic cheilitis with a white-colored appearance and in patients without occupational sunlight exposure. No statistical differences were observed for the variables studied. Conclusion This study uncovered variations of hMLH1 and hMSH2 protein expression upon evaluation of clinical aspects in actinic cheilitis. PMID:27579741

  1. Link between immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins and clinical-epidemiological aspects of actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Dmitry José de Santana; Godoy, Gustavo Pina; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa; Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas da

    2016-01-01

    The studies found in the literature associate the immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins with histologic aspects, but do not correlate it with clinical and epidemiological data. To evaluate the immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 in actinic cheilitis, correlating it with clinical characteristics. We analyzed 40 cases. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. The following clinical variables were evaluated: gender, age range, ethnicity, clinical aspect and occupational sunlight exposure. Statistical evaluation included the Student t-test, while the significance level was set at 5%. Greater immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 was observed in females, individuals aged over 40, and mixed-race/black patients. Furthermore, the immunoexpression of these proteins was greater in actinic cheilitis with a white-colored appearance and in patients without occupational sunlight exposure. No statistical differences were observed for the variables studied. This study uncovered variations of hMLH1 and hMSH2 protein expression upon evaluation of clinical aspects in actinic cheilitis.

  2. Management of actinic cheilitis using ingenol mebutate gel: A report of seven cases.

    PubMed

    Flórez, Ángeles; Batalla, Ana; de la Torre, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) can precede the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the lip, a location with high risk of invasiveness and metastasis. We communicate the good results that we obtained when treating seven patients suffering from AC with ingenol mebutate (IM) 0,015% concentration gel on three consecutive days. Three patients achieved complete clearance and four significant improvement. IM is a topical field treatment approved for actinic keratosis. To our knowledge, reported experience in the management of AC with IM is very limited. Local skin responses grade 3 were the main adverse event observed and they resolved in all patients without specific therapy within 1 to 2 weeks. IM is characterized by its rapid clinical effect, its favorable safety profile and its dosing period of only 3 days, shorter than with other field therapies. All these facts make it an attractive new therapy for AC, with need for further study.

  3. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy evaluation of cheilitis glandularis: a report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Silvia V; Kos, Eliana; Borguezan Nunes, Thais; Bologna, Sheyla B; Sangueza, Martin; Nico, Marcello M S

    2015-03-01

    Cheilitis glandularis (CG) is an uncommon condition of unknown origin; it is clinically characterized by variable degrees of macrocheilia associated with red dilated ostia of minor salivary glands on the vermilion area, which secrete viscous saliva. Histopathological characteristics of CG are comprised of chronic sialadenitis with engorged acinar lobules and dilated ducts; CG also features chronic sun damage (actinic cheilitis and squamous cell carcinoma). These changes may be localized, and a punch biopsy specimen might fail to reveal enough criteria to support the diagnosis of CG. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a noninvasive imaging technique that enables an in vivo en face visualization of tissues with a resolution close to conventional histopathology. Its use allows analysis of the entire lip, without excision. We reported the evaluation of 5 cases of CG based on clinical RCM and histopathological correlation. RCM examination of the lip vermilion mainly revealed a bright aspect of the superficial epithelial layers, which corresponded to labial keratosis. Alteration of the classical epithelial honeycomb pattern was observed in RCM, which corresponded to epithelial changes in actinic cheilitis at histopathology. Round, dark empty spaces intermingling the epithelium, corresponded to the ectopic excretory salivary gland ducts that open their ostia within the lip vermilion. In the lamina propria, the most striking feature was superficial salivary gland lobules, seen as dark gray lobular structures. Our study, demonstrated the use of RCM in the evaluation of CG, showing that a correlation between the clinical, digital RCM images and histopathology improved the diagnostic skills in CG evaluation.

  4. Toward Single Atom Chains with Exfoliated Tellurium.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Hugh O H; Salamo, Gregory J; Yu, Shui-Qing; Hironaka, Takayuki; Hu, Xian; Stacy, Jeb; Shih, Ishiang

    2017-08-10

    We demonstrate that the atom chain structure of Te allows it to be exfoliated as ultra-thin flakes and nanowires. Atomic force microscopy of exfoliated Te shows that thicknesses of 1-2 nm and widths below 100 nm can be exfoliated with this method. The Raman modes of exfoliated Te match those of bulk Te, with a slight shift (4 cm -1 ) due to a hardening of the A 1 and E modes. Polarized Raman spectroscopy is used to determine the crystal orientation of exfoliated Te flakes. These experiments establish exfoliation as a route to achieve nanoscale trigonal Te while also demonstrating the potential for fabrication of single atom chains of Te.

  5. Thermal influences on spontaneous rock dome exfoliation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.; Eppes, Martha C.; Lewis, Scott W.; Corbett, Skye C.; Smith, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Rock domes, with their onion-skin layers of exfoliation sheets, are among the most captivating landforms on Earth. Long recognized as integral in shaping domes, the exact mechanism(s) by which exfoliation occurs remains enigmatic, mainly due to the lack of direct observations of natural events. In August 2014, during the hottest days of summer, a granitic dome in California, USA, spontaneously exfoliated; witnesses observed extensive cracking, including a ~8000 kg sheet popping into the air. Subsequent exfoliation episodes during the following two summers were recorded by instrumentation that captured—for the first time—exfoliation deformation and stress conditions. Here we show that thermal cycling and cumulative dome surface heating can induce subcritical cracking that culminates in seemingly spontaneous exfoliation. Our results indicate that thermal stresses—largely discounted in dome formation literature—can play a key role in triggering exfoliation and therefore may be an important control for shaping domes worldwide.

  6. Thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A modified graphite oxide material contains a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide displays no signature of the original graphite and/or graphite oxide, as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  7. Actinic cheilitis: proposition and reproducibility of a clinical criterion.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Nádia Antunes; Rodrigues, Mariana Sudati; Weigert, Karen Loureiro; Macedo, Carmen Lúcia Rodrigues; Dos Santos, Rubem Beraldo

    2017-01-01

    The actinic cheilitis (AC) is a precancerous lip lesion seen as a consequence of chronic sun exposure. Clinically, the border between the lip's skin and the semimucosa could be blurred; in the more aggressive cases, leucoplakia and ulcers also represent its clinical feature. It seems that no clinical criterion is universally accepted for this disease yet. Therefore, this study was carried out to make a proposition of a clinical score to actinic cheilitis (Grade I starting from dryness of vermilion to endured ulcers representing Grade IV) and to assess its reproducibility. Fifty subjects were assessed, most of whom were male, Caucasian farmers, with an average age of 46.12 (18-74) years. The obtained data were analysed by means of descriptive statistics and by Kappa test to assess the inter-examiners and the clinical Golden-Pattern concordance (95% CI). During calibration, 15 patients were examined three times a week by each examiner (4) until Kappa test observed k =0.8 or more. In the main experiment, the inter-examiner concordance was classified between good ( k =0.779; P <0.05) and very good ( k =0.925; P <0.05) from the 35 examined subjects. With the Golden-Pattern, it was considered very good ( k =0.812; P <0.05 to k =0.925; P <0.05). Four examiners with different experiences could strongly suggest that after adequate calibration, it could be well applied by examiners with as much experience as a dental student. The authors concluded that the proposed classification was easily applied and had a very good reproducibility.

  8. Cheilitis granulomatosa associated with allergic contact dermatitis to betel quid.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Cheng-Sheng; Tsai, Yi-Lun

    2008-04-01

    Cheilitis granulomatosa (CG) is a rare disorder of unknown origin, which is characterized clinically by painless, recurrent or persistent swelling of 1 or both lips. Betel quids, composed of betel nuts (seeds of the Areca catechu), slake lime, and Piper betel leaf/or Piper betel inflorescence, are widely used in Asia and strongly associated with oral mucosal disease. It has also been found to be a cause of contact leukomelanosis because of its ingredients of various chemicals. We describe a case of CG induced by betel quid chewing.

  9. Ingenol mebutate gel treatment for actinic cheilitis: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Barrado Solís, Nerea; Molés Poveda, Paula; Lloret Ruiz, César; Pont Sanjuan, Virginia; Velasco Pastor, Manel; Quecedo Estébanez, Esther; Miquel Miquel, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) are premalignant lesions that have an increased risk of malignant transformation. Their treatment, therefore, is essential to prevent carcinogenesis. However, optimal therapy is not well established and different modalities yield variable results. Ingenol mebutate gel has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for topical treatment of actinic keratosis, with high clearance rates. On the basis of these findings, we report our experience with this drug for the treatment of AC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Actinic cheilitis: proposition and reproducibility of a clinical criterion

    PubMed Central

    Poitevin, Nádia Antunes; Rodrigues, Mariana Sudati; Weigert, Karen Loureiro; Macedo, Carmen Lúcia Rodrigues; dos Santos, Rubem Beraldo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives/Aims: The actinic cheilitis (AC) is a precancerous lip lesion seen as a consequence of chronic sun exposure. Clinically, the border between the lip’s skin and the semimucosa could be blurred; in the more aggressive cases, leucoplakia and ulcers also represent its clinical feature. It seems that no clinical criterion is universally accepted for this disease yet. Therefore, this study was carried out to make a proposition of a clinical score to actinic cheilitis (Grade I starting from dryness of vermilion to endured ulcers representing Grade IV) and to assess its reproducibility. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects were assessed, most of whom were male, Caucasian farmers, with an average age of 46.12 (18–74) years. The obtained data were analysed by means of descriptive statistics and by Kappa test to assess the inter-examiners and the clinical Golden-Pattern concordance (95% CI). Results: During calibration, 15 patients were examined three times a week by each examiner (4) until Kappa test observed k=0.8 or more. In the main experiment, the inter-examiner concordance was classified between good (k=0.779; P<0.05) and very good (k=0.925; P<0.05) from the 35 examined subjects. With the Golden-Pattern, it was considered very good (k=0.812; P<0.05 to k=0.925; P<0.05). Discussion: Four examiners with different experiences could strongly suggest that after adequate calibration, it could be well applied by examiners with as much experience as a dental student. Conclusions: The authors concluded that the proposed classification was easily applied and had a very good reproducibility. PMID:29607086

  11. Altered β-catenin expression related to cancer progression on actinic cheilitis and squamous cell carcinoma of the lip.

    PubMed

    Schussel, Juliana L; Pinto, Décio Dos Santos; Martins, Marília Trierveiler

    2011-02-01

    β-Catenin is a bifunctional protein related to cell adhesion and gene transcription when activated by Wnt pathway. Altered expression of β-catenin was related to loss of differentiation, more aggressive phenotype, increase of tumor invasion, and poor prognosis in a number of different cancers. Actinic cheilitis is caused by excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation and has a high potential to suffer malignant transformation into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lip, the most frequent oral malignancy. Studies of oral cancer have shown the correlation of β-catenin expression and oral SCC prognosis, and loss of membrane expression may be considered as a potential marker for early tumor recurrence. Thirty-five cases of actinic cheilitis and 12 cases of SCC of the lip were select and submitted to immunohistochemical staining using β-catenin antibody. β-Catenin was positive on the membrane for all cases. Eighty-five percent of actinic cheilitis cases showed cytoplasmatic staining, and 22% nuclear staining. Eighty-three percent of SCC was positive for β-catenin, and none of them had nuclear staining. Cytoplasmatic and nuclear staining of β-catenin on studied cases point to pathway alterations. Results demonstrated that β-catenin expression is altered on epithelial dysplasia, and it is related to degree of alterations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of actinic cheilitis by photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid and blue light activation.

    PubMed

    Zaiac, Martin; Clement, Annabelle

    2011-11-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC), a common disorder of the lower lip, should be treated early to prevent progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) activated by blue light for the treatment of AC. Fifteen patients with clinically evident or biopsy-proven AC received two treatments with ALA PDT with blue light activation. Treatments were spaced three to five weeks apart. Most patients achieved 65% to 75% clearance three to five weeks after the first treatment and all achieved more than 75% clearance one month after the second treatment. Three patients achieved complete clearance. Pain and burning during irradiation were absent or mild. All patients said they would repeat the procedure. ALA PDT with 417 nm blue light is a promising option for the treatment of AC of the lower lip.

  13. Cheilitis Granulomatosa: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Vibhute, Nupura A; Vibhute, Aniket H; Daule, Nilima R

    2013-01-01

    Cheilitis granulomatosa (CG) is a chronic swelling of the lip due to granulomatous inflammation. It is a rare inflammatory disorder first described by Miescher in 1945. It is a monosymptomatic form or an incomplete variant of Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome; a triad of recurrent orofacial edema, recurrent facial nerve palsy and fissuring of the tongue. As the etiology remains unknown, treatment of CG is challenging. We present a case of CG in a 43-year-old female patient secondary to allergy to certain food items. The present case highlights the importance of thorough investigations in the diagnosis of this lesion as the findings mimic many other granulomatous conditions. PMID:23723497

  14. Orofacial pain and headaches associated with exfoliation glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Noma, Noboru; Iwasa, Mayumi; Young, Andrew; Ikeda, Mariko; Hsu, Yung-Chu; Yamamoto, Maasa; Inoue, Kenji; Imamura, Yoshiki

    2017-12-01

    Exfoliation syndrome is the most common identifiable cause of open-angle glaucoma. The authors report a case of exfoliation glaucoma in a patient who had orofacial pain. A 77-year-old woman was treated at the orofacial pain clinic for left-sided facial pain and headaches of 7 months' duration. Her cataracts and open-angle glaucoma had been diagnosed approximately 3 years earlier. Her main symptoms were orofacial pain, eye redness, inflammation of the eyelids, and eyelid edema. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no evidence of intracranial or extracranial pathology. Hemicrania continua was considered as a possible diagnosis. Indomethacin was prescribed but did not affect her headaches. She then went to an ophthalmologist to rule out secondary headaches. Intraocular pressure was 13 millimeters of mercury in the right eye and 67 mm Hg in the left eye. The ophthalmologist made a diagnosis of exfoliation glaucoma, and the patient underwent surgical treatment for the glaucoma and cataracts. After surgery, she was free of symptoms, and intraocular pressure was 15 mm Hg in the left eye. During differential diagnosis, dentists need to consider intraoral and systemic conditions that can mimic odontogenic or orofacial pain disorders in the patient's medical history and that have a higher incidence associated with the patient's age. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Edge orientations of mechanically exfoliated anisotropic two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Juntan; Wang, Yi; Li, Yinfeng; Gao, Huajian; Chai, Yang; Yao, Haimin

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical exfoliation is an approach widely applied to prepare high-quality two-dimensional (2D) materials for investigating their intrinsic physical properties. During mechanical exfoliation, in-plane cleavage results in new edges whose orientations play an important role in determining the properties of the as-exfoliated 2D materials especially those with high anisotropy. Here, we systematically investigate the factors affecting the edge orientation of 2D materials obtained by mechanical exfoliation. Our theoretical study manifests that the fractured direction during mechanical exfoliation is determined synergistically by the tearing direction and material anisotropy of fracture energy. For a specific 2D material, our theory enables us to predict the possible edge orientations of the exfoliated flakes as well as their occurring probabilities. The theoretical prediction is experimentally verified by examining the inter-edge angles of the exfoliated flakes of four typical 2D materials including graphene, MoS2, PtS2, and black phosphorus. This work not only sheds light on the mechanics of exfoliation of the 2D materials but also provides a new approach to deriving information of edge orientations of mechanically exfoliated 2D materials by data mining of their macroscopic geometric features.

  16. Value of videoroscopy in the detection of alterations of actinic cheilitis and the selection of biopsy areas.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana-Maria; Ferrari, Thiago; Leite, Taiana; Domingos, Tabata; Cunha, Karin; Dias, Eliane

    2015-05-01

    To demonstrate the value of videoroscopy in identifying lesions and alterations not seen by oroscopy and to select the area for biopsy. Eighty patients were subjected to anamnesis, physical exam, videoroscopy exam, toluidine blue test and biopsy. A diagram of the lips was created to record the exact location where the lesion was found. Physical exam identified 287 lesions, and videoroscopy identified 587 lesions; erythema and white lesions were the most common lesions associated with actinic cheilitis. Of the 59 performed biopsies, 32 (52.4%) cases were identified by videoroscopy that showed lesions that were not detected during physical examination. The establishment of a diagram of the lip permitted registration of the precise location of the lesion. Videoroscopy was effective in locating lesions not seen by oroscopy. Both videoroscopy and the diagram of the lips allowed for better and earlier diagnosis and better patient follow-up for those with actinic cheilitis.

  17. Granite Exfoliation, Cosumnes River Watershed, Somerset, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, I. Q.; Neiss-Cortez, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Sierra Nevada foothills of California there are many exposed granite plutons within the greater Sierra Nevada batholith. As with most exposed parts of the batholith, these granite slabs exfoliate. It is important to understand exfoliation for issues of public safety as it can cause rock slides near homes, roads, and recreation areas. Through observation, measuring, and mapping we characterize exfoliation in our Cosumnes River watershed community.

  18. Immunogold localisation of laminin in normal and exfoliative iris.

    PubMed Central

    Konstas, A. G.; Marshall, G. E.; Lee, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    Immunoelectron microscopic studies of exfoliative iris tissue (seven specimens) revealed the presence of laminin in the fibrillar component of exfoliation material. The immunogold label was uniformly distributed on the exfoliation fibres. Deposition of laminin labelled exfoliation material in the dilator muscle was a noteworthy feature, as was an apparent depletion of laminin in the basement membranes of ostensibly unaffected vessels. In control iris tissue (five enucleated eyes) laminin was identified in the basement membrane round vascular contractile cells, but not beneath the endothelium. Images PMID:2390517

  19. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity ultrasound exfoliation of a bulk-layered material is an attractive route for large-scale preparation of monolayers. The monolayer slices could potentially be prepared with a high yield (up to 100%) in a few minutes. Exfoliation of natural minerals (such as tungstenite and molybdenite) or bulk synthetic materials (including hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), hexagonal boron carbon nitride (h-BCN), and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)) in liquids leads to the breakdown of the 3D graphitic structure into a 2D structure; the efficiency of this process is highly dependent upon the physical effects of the ultrasound. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were employed to verify the quality of the exfoliation. Herein, this new method of exfoliation with ultrasound assistance for application to mono- and bilayered materials in hydrophobic and hydrophilic environments is presented. PMID:24708572

  20. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene.

    PubMed

    Stengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Ecorchard, Petra

    2014-04-05

    High-intensity ultrasound exfoliation of a bulk-layered material is an attractive route for large-scale preparation of monolayers. The monolayer slices could potentially be prepared with a high yield (up to 100%) in a few minutes. Exfoliation of natural minerals (such as tungstenite and molybdenite) or bulk synthetic materials (including hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), hexagonal boron carbon nitride (h-BCN), and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)) in liquids leads to the breakdown of the 3D graphitic structure into a 2D structure; the efficiency of this process is highly dependent upon the physical effects of the ultrasound. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were employed to verify the quality of the exfoliation. Herein, this new method of exfoliation with ultrasound assistance for application to mono- and bilayered materials in hydrophobic and hydrophilic environments is presented.

  1. A retrospective study of a modified 1-minute formocresol pulpotomy technique part 2: effect on exfoliation times and successors.

    PubMed

    Kurji, Zahra A; Sigal, Michael J; Andrews, Paul; Titley, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the: effect of a 1-minute application of full-strength Buckley's formocresol with concur- rent hemostasis using the medicated cotton pledget in human primary teeth on their successors; and exfoliation times compared to the contralateral nonpulpotomized tooth. Using a retrospective chart review, clinical and radiographic data were available for 557 primary molars in 320 patients. There was no difference between treated and control teeth in the number of enamel defects of succedaneous teeth (P<.45). Approximately 66% exfoliated at the same time as their contralateral counterpart and approximately 29% exfoliated earlier (P<.001). This 1-minute technique showed a tendency toward early exfoliation, but no effect on clinical management, and no increase in incidence of defects on succedaneous teeth was observed. The 1-minute full-strength formocresol technique may be considered an acceptable alternative to the 5-minute formocresol pulpotomy.

  2. Liquid phase exfoliated graphene for electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukumaran, Sheena S.; Jinesh, K. B.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2017-09-01

    Graphene dispersions were prepared using the liquid phase exfoliation method with three different surfactants. One surfactant was used from each of the surfactant types, anionic, cationic, and non-ionic; those used, were sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), respectively. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the number of layers and the nature of any defects present in the exfoliated graphene. The yield of graphene was found to be less with the non-ionic surfactant, PVP. The deconvolution of 2D peaks at ~2700 cm-1 indicated that graphene prepared using these surfactants resulted in sheets consisting of few-layer graphene. The ratio of intensity of the D and G bands in the Raman spectra showed that edge defect density is high for samples prepared with SDBS compared to the other two, and is attributed to the smaller size of the graphene sheets, as shown in the electron micrographs. In the case of the dispersion in PVP, it is found that the sizes of the graphene sheets are highly sensitive to the concentration of the surfactant used. Here, we have made an attempt to investigate the local density of states in the graphene sheets by measuring the tunnelling current-voltage characteristics. Graphene layers have shown consistent p-type behaviour when exfoliated with SDBS and n-type behaviour when exfoliated with CTAB, with a larger band gap for graphene exfoliated using CTAB. Hence, in addition to the known advantages of liquid phase exfoliation, we found that by selecting suitable surfactants, to a certain extent it is possible to tune the band gap and determine the type of majority carriers.

  3. Study of MDM2 and SUMO-1 expression in actinic cheilitis and lip cancer.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Alves, Mônica Ghislaine; da Mota Delgado, Adriana; Balducci, Ivan; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Cavalcante, Ana Sueli Rodrigues; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2014-11-01

    Actinic cheilitis exhibits a potential of malignant transformation in 10-20 % of cases. The objective of this study was to compare the expression of MDM2 and SUMO-1 proteins between actinic cheilitis (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lip. The sample consisted of lower lip mucosa specimens obtained from cases with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of AC (n = 26) and SCC (n = 25) and specimens of labial semi-mucosa (n = 15) without clinical alterations or inflammation. The tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and anti-MDM2 and anti-SUMO-1 antibodies. Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests (5 %). The median expression of MDM2 (kW = 36.8565; df = 3-1 = 2; p = 0.0001) and SUMO-1 (kW = 32.7080; df = 3-1 = 2; p = 0.0001) was similar in cases of AC and SCC of the lip, but differed significantly from that observed for normal labial semi-mucosa. Despite the limitations of the present study, immunohistochemistry demonstrated the overexpression of important proteins (MDM2 and SUMO-1) related to regulatory mechanisms of apoptosis in AC and SCC of the lip, but further studies are needed.

  4. Exfoliated YBCO filaments for second-generation superconducting cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Farrell, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The second-generation high temperature superconductor (2G HTS) wire is the most promising conductor for high-field magnets such as accelerator dipoles and compact fusion devices. The key element of the wire is a thin Y1Ba2Cu3O7 (YBCO) layer deposited on a flexible metal substrate. The substrate, which becomes incorporated in the 2G conductor, reduces the electrical and mechanical performance of the wire. This is a process that exfoliates the YBCO layer from the substrate while retaining the critical current density of the superconductor. Ten-centimeter long coupons of exfoliated YBCO layers were manufactured, and detailed structural, electrical, and mechanical characterization were reported. After exfoliation, the YBCO layer was supported by a 75 μm thick stainless steel foil, which makes for a compact, mechanically stronger, and inexpensive conductor. The critical current density of the filaments was measured at both 77 K and 4.2 K. The exfoliated YBCO retained 90% of the original critical current. Similarly, tests in an external magnetic field at 4.2 K confirmed that the pinning strength of the YBCO layer was also retained following exfoliation.

  5. New approach to elaborate exfoliated starch-based nanobiocomposites.

    PubMed

    Chivrac, Frédéric; Pollet, Eric; Schmutz, Marc; Avérous, Luc

    2008-03-01

    The present paper reports the successful elaboration of exfoliated plasticized starch-based nanobiocomposites. This was made possible by using cationic starch as a new clay organomodifier to better match the polarity of the matrix and thus to facilitate the clay exfoliation process. To demonstrate the efficiency of this new approach, either natural (MMT-Na) or organomodified (OMMT-CS) montmorillonite were incorporated into the starch nanobiocomposites by a melt blending process. The morphological analyses (SAXD and TEM) showed that MMT-Na leads to the formation of intercalated nanobiocomposites. On the contrary, OMMT-CS allowed the elaboration of well-exfoliated nanobiocomposites. Tensile tests performed on the obtained nanobiocomposites showed that exfoliated nanobiocomposites display enhanced mechanical properties compared to those of the intercalated nanobiocomposites and neat matrix. These results clearly highlight the great interest in using OMMT-CS to obtain starch-based nanobiocomposites with improved properties.

  6. Separation medium containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A separation medium, such as a chromatography filling or packing, containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide has a surface that has been at least partially functionalized.

  7. Triangular Black Phosphorus Atomic Layers by Liquid Exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Soonjoo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Soon Chang; Kim, Yooseok; Kim, Hyeran; Bang, Junhyeok; Won, Jonghan; Kim, Youngjun; Park, Byoungnam; Lee, Jouhahn

    2016-03-30

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) is the most promising material among the two-dimensional materials due to its layered structure and the excellent semiconductor properties. Currently, thin BP atomic layers are obtained mostly by mechanical exfoliation of bulk BP, which limits applications in thin-film based electronics due to a scaling process. Here we report highly crystalline few-layer black phosphorus thin films produced by liquid exfoliation. We demonstrate that the liquid-exfoliated BP forms a triangular crystalline structure on SiO2/Si (001) and amorphous carbon. The highly crystalline BP layers are faceted with a preferred orientation of the (010) plane on the sharp edge, which is an energetically most favorable facet according to the density functional theory calculations. Our results can be useful in understanding the triangular BP structure for large-area applications in electronic devices using two-dimensional materials. The sensitivity and selectivity of liquid-exfoliated BP to gas vapor demonstrate great potential for practical applications as sensors.

  8. Triangular Black Phosphorus Atomic Layers by Liquid Exfoliation

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Soonjoo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Soon Chang; Kim, Yooseok; Kim, Hyeran; Bang, Junhyeok; Won, Jonghan; Kim, Youngjun; Park, Byoungnam; Lee, Jouhahn

    2016-01-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) is the most promising material among the two-dimensional materials due to its layered structure and the excellent semiconductor properties. Currently, thin BP atomic layers are obtained mostly by mechanical exfoliation of bulk BP, which limits applications in thin-film based electronics due to a scaling process. Here we report highly crystalline few-layer black phosphorus thin films produced by liquid exfoliation. We demonstrate that the liquid-exfoliated BP forms a triangular crystalline structure on SiO2/Si (001) and amorphous carbon. The highly crystalline BP layers are faceted with a preferred orientation of the (010) plane on the sharp edge, which is an energetically most favorable facet according to the density functional theory calculations. Our results can be useful in understanding the triangular BP structure for large-area applications in electronic devices using two-dimensional materials. The sensitivity and selectivity of liquid-exfoliated BP to gas vapor demonstrate great potential for practical applications as sensors. PMID:27026070

  9. Cheilitis Glandularis of Both Lips: Successful Treatment with a Combination of an Intralesional Steroid Injection and Tacrolimus Ointment

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Cheilitis glandularis (CG) is an inflammatory condition of unknown cause that predominantly affects the minor salivary glands of the lips. Although a diagnosis of CG is not difficult, its treatment is a challenge. This article highlights the clinical presentation of the disease together with a case of successful management of this disease using a combination of a steroid injection followed by a topical immunosuppressor. PMID:29744227

  10. Preparation of Graphene Sheets by Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite in Confined Space and Their Application in Transparent Conductive Films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Wei, Can; Zhu, Kaiyi; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Chunhong; Guo, Jianhui; Zhang, Jiwei; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Jingwei

    2017-10-04

    A novel electrochemical exfoliation mode was established to prepare graphene sheets efficiently with potential applications in transparent conductive films. The graphite electrode was coated with paraffin to keep the electrochemical exfoliation in confined space in the presence of concentrated sodium hydroxide as the electrolyte, yielding ∼100% low-defect (the D band to G band intensity ratio, I D /I G = 0.26) graphene sheets. Furthermore, ozone was first detected with ozone test strips, and the effect of ozone on the exfoliation of graphite foil and the microstructure of the as-prepared graphene sheets was investigated. Findings indicate that upon applying a low voltage (3 V) on the graphite foil partially coated with paraffin wax that the coating can prevent the insufficiently intercalated graphite sheets from prematurely peeling off from the graphite electrode thereby affording few-layer (<5 layers) holey graphene sheets in a yield of as much as 60%. Besides, the ozone generated during the electrochemical exfoliation process plays a crucial role in the exfoliation of graphite, and the amount of defect in the as-prepared graphene sheets is dependent on electrolytic potential and electrode distance. Moreover, the graphene-based transparent conductive films prepared by simple modified vacuum filtration exhibit an excellent transparency and a low sheet resistance after being treated with NH 4 NO 3 and annealing (∼1.21 kΩ/□ at ∼72.4% transmittance).

  11. Chemically exfoliating large sheets of phosphorene via choline chloride urea viscosity-tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, A.; Sutto, T. E.; Matis, B. R.; Deng, Y.; Ye, P. D.; Stroud, R. M.; Brintlinger, T. H.; Bassim, N. D.

    2017-04-01

    Exfoliation of two-dimensional phosphorene from bulk black phosphorous through chemical means is demonstrated where the solvent system of choice (choline chloride urea diluted with ethanol) has the ability to successfully exfoliate large-area multi-layer phosphorene sheets and further protect the flakes from ambient degradation. The intercalant solvent molecules, aided by low-powered sonication, diffuse between the layers of the bulk black phosphorus, allowing for the exfoliation of the multi-layer phosphorene through breaking of the interlayer van der Waals bonds. Through viscosity tuning, the optimal parameters (1:1 ratio between the intercalant and the diluting solvent) at which the exfoliation takes place is determined. Our exfoliation technique is shown to produce multi-layer phosphorene flakes with surface areas greater than 3 μm2 (a factor of three larger than what has previously been reported for a similar exfoliation method) while limiting exposure to the ambient environment, thereby protecting the flakes from degradation. Characterization techniques such as optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and (scanning) transmission electron microscopy are used to investigate the quality, quantity, and thickness of the exfoliated flakes.

  12. Management of exfoliative glaucoma: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Holló, Gábor; Katsanos, Andreas; Konstas, Anastasios Gp

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliative glaucoma is the most common type of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide. It is characterized by high intraocular pressure (IOP) and worse 24-hour IOP characteristics. In order to minimize progression, treatment of exfoliative glaucoma has to provide a low long-term mean IOP and good 24-hour IOP control. To achieve these goals, fixed-dose combination eye drops, argon and selective laser trabeculoplasty, and various forms of surgery (trabeculectomy, deep sclerectomy, viscocanalostomy, ab interno trabeculotomy, trabecular aspiration, and cataract surgery) all need to be considered during the long-term management of the disease. Since exfoliative glaucoma is a disease of the elderly, and is frequently associated with systemic vascular disease, interdisciplinary consultations are of great clinical importance. These management aspects and the current medical, laser, and surgical results are covered in this review, with a special focus on the needs of the general ophthalmologist.

  13. Management of exfoliative glaucoma: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Holló, Gábor; Katsanos, Andreas; Konstas, Anastasios GP

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliative glaucoma is the most common type of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide. It is characterized by high intraocular pressure (IOP) and worse 24-hour IOP characteristics. In order to minimize progression, treatment of exfoliative glaucoma has to provide a low long-term mean IOP and good 24-hour IOP control. To achieve these goals, fixed-dose combination eye drops, argon and selective laser trabeculoplasty, and various forms of surgery (trabeculectomy, deep sclerectomy, viscocanalostomy, ab interno trabeculotomy, trabecular aspiration, and cataract surgery) all need to be considered during the long-term management of the disease. Since exfoliative glaucoma is a disease of the elderly, and is frequently associated with systemic vascular disease, interdisciplinary consultations are of great clinical importance. These management aspects and the current medical, laser, and surgical results are covered in this review, with a special focus on the needs of the general ophthalmologist. PMID:26045655

  14. Simultaneous Graphite Exfoliation and N Doping in Supercritical Ammonia.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Huang, Kai; Giroire, Baptiste; Prabhakaran, Prem; Henry, Lucile; Penicaud, Alain; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2016-11-16

    We report the exfoliation of graphite and simultaneous N doping of graphene by two methods: supercritical ammonia treatment and liquid-phase exfoliation with NH 4 OH. While the supercritical ammonia allowed N doping at a level of 6.4 atom % in 2 h, the liquid-phase exfoliation with NH 4 OH allowed N doping at a level of 2.7 atom % in 6 h. The N doped graphene obtained via the supercritical ammonia route had few layers (<5) and showed large lateral flake size (∼8 μm) and low defect density (I D /I G < 0.6) in spite of their high level of N doping. This work is the first demonstration of supercritical ammonia as an exfoliation agent and N doping precursor for graphene. Notably, the N doped graphene showed electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction with high durability and good methanol tolerance compared to those of commercial Pt/C catalyst.

  15. Apparently spontaneous fracture of a granitic exfoliation dome: observations and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.; Stock, G. M.; Eppes, M. C.; Lewis, S. W.; Corbett, S.; Smith, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    Exfoliation sheet formation has attracted scientific attention for more than two centuries. Although a number of theories have been proposed, firm understanding of the cause of exfoliation has proved elusive, partly because observations of their formation are scarce. The 2014-2016 spontaneous exfoliation of Twain Harte Dome, located in the western foothills of California's Sierra Nevada Mesozoic granitic batholith, provides an unprecedented opportunity to study this phenomenon. Understanding such events can offer direct insight into similar exfoliating environments where spontaneous rock fracturing generates related geohazards such as rock falls. Twain Harte Dome fractured energetically on at least 5 occasions in August and September 2014, with slabs of rock thrust into the air 40 cm in a few seconds time and surficial fracture of rock occurring over a total area of 2,800 m2. Several of these events were witnessed first-hand and recorded by video. Additional (but non-energetic) cracking occurred during August 2015, followed by another energetic fracturing event in June 2016 over a much smaller (16 m2) area that again sent granite slabs airborne. No previous spontaneous exfoliation had been recorded here over the past 90 years and no obvious trigger (e.g., earthquake) occurred prior to the recent events. Using high-resolution topographic and fracture mapping, acoustic emission monitoring, and environmental monitoring, we show that these fracture events are correlated with hot summer periods - an indication that thermal stresses likely have an important role in causing exfoliation. Surface crackmeter, and subsurface borehole extensometer and rock bolt force measurements strengthen this relationship, with stresses and deformations spiking during hot summer afternoons. Our instrumentation data captured one of the exfoliation events and show that cumulative stress and deformation increases may have acted as precursor signals to the apparently spontaneous rock

  16. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  17. Mechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Enlai; Lin, Shao-Zhen; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Xu, Zhiping

    2018-06-01

    Two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides have been identified and drawn much attention over the last few years for their unique structural and electronic properties. However, their rise begins only after these materials are successfully isolated from their layered assemblies or adhesive substrates into individual monolayers. Mechanical exfoliation and transfer are the most successful techniques to obtain high-quality single- or few-layer nanocrystals from their native multi-layer structures or their substrate for growth, which involves interfacial peeling and intralayer tearing processes that are controlled by material properties, geometry and the kinetics of exfoliation. This procedure is rationalized in this work through theoretical analysis and atomistic simulations. We propose a criterion to assess the feasibility for the exfoliation of two-dimensional sheets from an adhesive substrate without fracturing itself, and explore the effects of material and interface properties, as well as the geometrical, kinetic factors on the peeling behaviors and the torn morphology. This multi-scale approach elucidates the microscopic mechanism of the mechanical processes, offering predictive models and tools for the design of experimental procedures to obtain single- or few-layer two-dimensional materials and structures.

  18. Evaluation of Nanoclay Exfoliation Strategies for Thermoset Polyimide Nanocomposite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginter, Michael J.; Jana, Sadhan C.; Miller, Sandi G.

    2007-01-01

    Prior works show exfoliated layered silicate reinforcement improves polymer composite properties. However, achieving full clay exfoliation in high performance thermoset polyimides remains a challenge. This study explores a new method of clay exfoliation, which includes clay intercalation by lower molecular weight PMR monomer under conditions of low and high shear and sonication, clay treatments by aliphatic and aromatic surfactants, and clay dispersion in primary, higher molecular weight PMR resin. Clay spacing, thermal, and mechanical properties were evaluated and compared with the best results available in literature for PMR polyimide systems.

  19. Method for exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A new method is disclosed for the exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride into mono- and few-layered nanosheets (or nanoplatelets, nanomesh, nanoribbons). The method does not necessarily require high temperature or vacuum, but uses commercially available h-BN powders (or those derived from these materials, bulk crystals) and only requires wet chemical processing. The method is facile, cost efficient, and scalable. The resultant exfoliated h-BN is dispersible in an organic solvent or water thus amenable for solution processing for unique microelectronic or composite applications.

  20. Cheilitis Glandularis: Two Case Reports of Asian-Japanese Men and Literature Review of Japanese Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Toru; Yamaguchi, Akira; Harada, Hiroyuki; Yamagata, Kenji; Ishibashi, Naomi; Noguchi, Masayuki; Onizawa, Kojiro; Bukawa, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    Cheilitis glandularis (CG) is a rare disorder characterized by swelling of the lip with hyperplasia of the labial salivary glands. CG is most frequently encountered in the lower lip, in middle-aged to older Caucasian men; however Asian cases were rarely reported. In this paper we present two cases of CG in Asian-Japanese men. One was a 23-year-old male with CG of the superficial suppurative type. The other was a 54-year-old male with deep suppurative type. We also reviewed the Japanese cases of CG in the literature and discussed about clinical feature of Japanese CG. PMID:21991474

  1. Recompressed exfoliated graphite articles

    DOEpatents

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2013-08-06

    This invention provides an electrically conductive, less anisotropic, recompressed exfoliated graphite article comprising a mixture of (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite flakes; and (b) particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon, wherein the non-expandable graphite or carbon particles are in the amount of between about 3% and about 70% by weight based on the total weight of the particles and the expanded graphite flakes combined; wherein the mixture is compressed to form the article having an apparent bulk density of from about 0.1 g/cm.sup.3 to about 2.0 g/cm.sup.3. The article exhibits a thickness-direction conductivity typically greater than 50 S/cm, more typically greater than 100 S/cm, and most typically greater than 200 S/cm. The article, when used in a thin foil or sheet form, can be a useful component in a sheet molding compound plate used as a fuel cell separator or flow field plate. The article may also be used as a current collector for a battery, supercapacitor, or any other electrochemical cell.

  2. Intercalation Pseudocapacitance of Exfoliated Molybdenum Disulfide for Ultrafast Energy Storage

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Hyun Deog; Li, Yifei; Liang, Yanliang; ...

    2016-05-23

    In this study, we report intercalation pseudocapacitance of 250 F g -1 for exfoliated molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2) in non-aqueous electrolytes that contain lithium ions. The exfoliated MoS 2 shows surface-limited reaction kinetics with high rate capability up to 3 min of charge or discharge. The intercalation pseudocapacitance originates from the extremely fast kinetics due to the enhanced ionic and electronic transport enabled by the slightly expanded layer structure as well as the metallic 1T-phase. The exfoliated MoS 2 could be also used in a Li-Mg-ion hybrid capacitor, which shows full cell specific capacitance of 240 F g -1.

  3. Immunoexpression of HDAC1, HDAC2, and HAT1 in actinic cheilitis and lip squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chrun, E S; Modolo, F; Vieira, Dsc; Borges-Júnior, Áls; Castro, R G; Daniel, F I

    2017-05-01

    Acetylation and deacetylation are the most studied covalent histone modifications resulting in transcriptional regulation with histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT) as the main associated enzymes. These enzymes overexpression induces abnormal transcription of key genes that regulate important cellular functions, such as proliferation, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis. Thus, the expression of different HATs and HDACs has been evaluated in various cancers. To investigate HDAC1, HDAC2 and HAT1 expression in lip squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and actinic cheilitis (AC) and to demonstrate their correlation with DNA metyltransferases (DNMTs). Thirty cases of lip squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), thirty cases of actinic cheilitis (AC), and 28 cases of non-neoplastic epithelium as control were selected for immunohistochemical investigation. Nuclear HDAC2 immunopositivity was significantly higher in AC (75.07% ± 29.70) when compared with LSCC (51.06% ± 39.02). HDAC1 and HAT1 nuclear immunostaining were higher in AC, with no statistical significance. When comparing data with our previous study, we found a positive correlation between HDAC1 X DNMT1/DNMT3b, HDAC2 X DNMT3b, and HAT1 X DNMT1/DNMT3b for certain studied groups. This study showed higher levels of nuclear HDAC2 immunopositivity in AC, possibly indicating that this enzyme plays a key role in lip photocarcinogenesis early stages. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Allergic contact cheilitis from a lipstick misdiagnosed as herpes labialis: Subsequent worsening due to Zovirax contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Esen; Topkarci, Zeynep; Ozarmağan, Güzin

    2007-08-01

    A 29-year-old Turkish woman with allergic contact cheilitis from a lipstick was misdiagnosed as herpes labialis and subsequently worsened with the application of Zovirax cream. Patch tests were positive to Zovirax cream, propylene glycol, the patient's favourite lipstick and propyl gallate. No reaction was seen with Zovirax ophthalmic ointment and Zovirax tablet. The propylene glycol component of the Zovirax cream and the propyl gallate component of the lipstick were regarded as the responsible contact sensitizers. The differential diagnosis was challenging due to concomitant contact sensitization with these agents.

  5. Thermal Exfoliation of Natural Cellulosic Material for Graphene Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Chatterjee, Somenath; Singh, Jitendra Kumar; Bapari, Himangshu

    2015-01-01

    Hibiscus flower petals have been used as a cheap natural resource precursor for cost-effective synthesis of high quality graphene by thermal exfoliation process. In order to compare the quality of graphene obtained from the flower petals directly with the flower petals pretreated with nickel(II) chloride, Raman spectroscopic technique has been used as the structural probe. The role of temperature and the effect of nickel on thermal exfoliation process have been examined. It has been observed that graphene obtained via nickel incorporation is of better quality because NI2+ ions that get dispersed in the layered-structured cellulose at elevated temperatures get reduced to the metallic state, which in turn push the graphitic layers during thermal exfoliation to produce good quality graphene. In contrast, no such driving force is present in cellulose and hemi-cellulose of flower petals that contain lignin.

  6. Covalent functionalization and passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus via aryl diazonium chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Christopher R; Wood, Joshua D; Wells, Spencer A; Yang, Yang; Jariwala, Deep; Marks, Tobin J; Schatz, George C; Hersam, Mark C

    2016-06-01

    Functionalization of atomically thin nanomaterials enables the tailoring of their chemical, optical and electronic properties. Exfoliated black phosphorus (BP)-a layered two-dimensional semiconductor-exhibits favourable charge-carrier mobility, tunable bandgap and highly anisotropic properties, but it is chemically reactive and degrades rapidly in ambient conditions. Here we show that covalent aryl diazonium functionalization suppresses the chemical degradation of exfoliated BP even after three weeks of ambient exposure. This chemical modification scheme spontaneously forms phosphorus-carbon bonds, has a reaction rate sensitive to the aryl diazonium substituent and alters the electronic properties of exfoliated BP, ultimately yielding a strong, tunable p-type doping that simultaneously improves the field-effect transistor mobility and on/off current ratio. This chemical functionalization pathway controllably modifies the properties of exfoliated BP, and thus improves its prospects for nanoelectronic applications.

  7. Prevalence of actinic cheilitis in a population of agricultural sugarcane workers.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana M O; Soares, Léo G; Ferrari, Thiago M; Silva, Denise G; Falabella, Márcio E V; Tinoco, Eduardo M B

    2012-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a pre-malignant inflammatory reaction of the lips caused by continuous exposure to solar rays. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of AC in a population of sugarcane workers in Brazil. 1,539 individuals who were exposed to the sun during working hours and 150 individuals who were not exposed were screened for clinical signs of AC. The sample was classified according to years of exposure to the sun, ethnicity, gender smoking and severity of the lesion. A 9.16% (n= 141) prevalence of AC was observed among the population which had been exposed to the sun. The prevalence of AC lesions was significantly higher among individuals who had been exposed to the sun for more than 10 years than among those who had been exposed for less than 10 years, and among Caucasians and males than non-Caucasians and females. It was concluded that the severity of the lesions was associated with time of exposure to the sun.

  8. Efficient fluorescence quenching in electrochemically exfoliated graphene decorated with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado-Morales, M.; Ortiz, M.; Acuña, C.; Nerl, H. C.; Nicolosi, V.; Hernández, Y.

    2016-07-01

    High surface area graphene sheets were obtained by electrochemical exfoliation of graphite in an acid medium under constant potential conditions. Filtration and centrifugation processes played an important role in order to obtain stable dispersions in water. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy imaging revealed highly exfoliated crystalline samples of ∼5 μm. Raman, Fourier transform infrared and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy further confirmed the high quality of the exfoliated material. The electrochemically exfoliated graphene (EEG) was decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using sodium cholate as a buffer layer. This approach allowed for a non-covalent functionalization without altering the desirable electronic properties of the EEG. The AuNP-EEG samples were characterized with various techniques including absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy. These samples displayed a fluorescence signal using an excitation wavelength of 290 nm. The calculated quantum yield (Φ) for these samples was 40.04%, a high efficiency compared to previous studies using solution processable graphene.

  9. Note: Mechanical in situ exfoliation of van der Waals materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, Á.; Scarfato, A.; Renner, Ch.

    2017-07-01

    Exfoliation, namely, the peeling of layered materials down to a single unit-cell thin foil, opens promising avenues to fabricate novel electronic materials. New properties and original functionalities emerge in the single and few layer configurations of a number of layered compounds, in particular in transition metal dichalcogenides. However, many of these thin exfoliated materials are very sensitive to ambient conditions impeding the exploration of this new and fascinating parameter space. Here we describe a method of mechanical exfoliation in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). This technique is easily adaptable to any UHV system and allows preparing and studying air sensitive nanoflakes in situ. We present the basic design and proof-of-concept scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of VSe2 nanoflakes.

  10. Regulatory T cells in the actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Gasparoto, Thaís Helena; de Souza Malaspina, Tatiana Salles; Damante, José Humberto; de Mello, Edgard Franco; Ikoma, Maura Rosane Valério; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Costa, Maria Renata Sales Nogueira; Cavassani, Karen Angélica; da Silva, João Santana; Campanelli, Ana Paula

    2014-11-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is an oral potentially malignant lesion which is the counterpart of actinic keratosis of the skin and has potential to develop into squamous cell carcinoma. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have a critical role in modulating the antitumor immune responses. The presence of regulatory T cells in potentially malignant lesions has not been described. We chose investigate the involvement of regulatory T cells in potentially malignant lesions. The frequency, phenotype, and activity of CD4+CD25+ T cells isolated from blood and lesion of AC patients were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Data were compared with samples from healthy subjects. The frequency and suppressor activity of circulating CD4+CD25+ T cells was similar in AC patients and control subjects. However, the frequencies of IL-10-positive Tregs were higher in AC patients, and these cells inhibited interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and increased interleukin (IL)-10 productions in co-cultures. Furthermore, CD4+CD25+ T cells accumulate in AC lesions. Lesions-derived regulatory T cells suppressed lymphocyte proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Moreover, high levels of IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and low IFN-γ were detected in the potentially malignant lesions. Therefore, our data show that Tregs accumulate in AC lesions, and these cells could be suppressing immune responses in a potentially malignant microenvironment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Graphene via Molecule-Assisted Ultrasound-Induced Liquid-Phase Exfoliation: A Supramolecular Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eredia, Matilde; Ciesielski, Artur; Samorì, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional (2D) material holding unique optical, mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. The combination of these exceptional characteristics makes graphene an ideal model system for fundamental physical and chemical studies as well as technologically ground breaking material for a large range of applications. Graphene can be produced either following a bottom-up or top-down method. The former is based on the formation of covalent networks suitably engineered molecular building blocks undergoing chemical reaction. The latter takes place through the exfoliation of bulk graphite into individual graphene sheets. Among them, ultrasound-induced liquid-phase exfoliation (UILPE) is an appealing method, being very versatile and applicable to different environments and on various substrate types. In this chapter, we describe the recently reported methods to produce graphene via molecule-assisted UILPE of graphite, aiming at the generation of high-quality graphene. In particular, we will focus on the supramolecular approach, which consists in the use of suitably designed organic molecules during the UILPE of graphite. These molecules act as graphene dispersion-stabilizing agents during the exfoliation. This method relying on the joint effect of a solvent and ad hoc molecules to foster the exfoliation of graphite into graphene in liquid environment represents a promising and modular method toward the improvement of the process of UILPE in terms of the concentration and quality of the exfoliated material. Furthermore, exfoliations in aqueous and organic solutions are presented and discussed separately.

  12. Covalent functionalization and passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus via aryl diazonium chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, Christopher R.; Wood, Joshua D.; Wells, Spencer A.; Yang, Yang; Jariwala, Deep; Marks, Tobin J.; Schatz, George C.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2016-06-01

    Functionalization of atomically thin nanomaterials enables the tailoring of their chemical, optical and electronic properties. Exfoliated black phosphorus (BP)—a layered two-dimensional semiconductor—exhibits favourable charge-carrier mobility, tunable bandgap and highly anisotropic properties, but it is chemically reactive and degrades rapidly in ambient conditions. Here we show that covalent aryl diazonium functionalization suppresses the chemical degradation of exfoliated BP even after three weeks of ambient exposure. This chemical modification scheme spontaneously forms phosphorus-carbon bonds, has a reaction rate sensitive to the aryl diazonium substituent and alters the electronic properties of exfoliated BP, ultimately yielding a strong, tunable p-type doping that simultaneously improves the field-effect transistor mobility and on/off current ratio. This chemical functionalization pathway controllably modifies the properties of exfoliated BP, and thus improves its prospects for nanoelectronic applications.

  13. Controlled Gas Exfoliation of Boron Nitride into Few-Layered Nanosheets

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Wenshuai; Gao, Xiang; Li, Qian; ...

    2016-07-22

    The controlled exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) into single- or few-layered nanosheets remains a grand challenge and becomes the bottleneck to essential studies and applications of h-BN. Here, we present an efficient strategy for the scalable synthesis of few-layered h-BN nanosheets (BNNS) via a novel gas exfoliation of bulk h-BN in liquid N 2 (L-N 2). The essence of this strategy lies in the combination of a high temperature triggered expansion of bulk h-BN and the cryogenic L-N 2 gasification to exfoliate the h-BN. The produced BNNS after ten cycles (BNNS-10) consisted primarily of fewer than five atomic layersmore » with high a mass yield of 16~20%. N 2 sorption and desorption isotherms show that the BNNS-10 exhibited a much higher specific surface area of 278 m 2/g –1 than that of bulk BN (10 m 2/g –1). Through the investigation of the exfoliated intermediates combined with a theoretical calculation, we found that the huge temperature variation initiates the expansion and curling of the bulk h-BN. Subseqently, the L-N 2 penetrates into the interlayers of h-BN along the curling edge, followed by an immediate drastic gasification of L-N 2, further peeling off h-BN. In conclusion, this novel gas exfoliation of high surface area BNNS not only opens up potential opportunities for wide applications, but also can be extended to produce other layered materials with high yeilds.« less

  14. Acetone improves the topographical homogeneity of liquid phase exfoliated few-layer black phosphorus flakes.

    PubMed

    Gomez Perez, Juan; Konya, Zoltan; Kukovecz, Akos

    2018-06-12

    Liquid phase exfoliation of 2D materials has issues related to the sorption of the solvent, the oxidation of the sample during storage, and the topographical inhomogeneity of the exfoliated material. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), a common solvent for black phosphorus (BP) exfoliation, has additional drawbacks like the formation of by-products during sonication and poor solvent volatility. Here we demonstrate an improvement in the topographical homogeneity (i.e. thickness and lateral dimensions) of NMP-exfoliated BP flakes after resuspension in acetone. The typical size of monolayers and bilayers stabilised in acetone was 99.8±27.4 nm and 159.1±57 nm, respectively. These standard deviations represent a threefold improvement over those of the NMP-exfoliated originals. Phosphorene can also be exfoliated directly in acetone by very long ultrasonication. The product suspension enjoys the same dimensional homogeneity benefits, which confirms that this effect is an intrinsic property of the acetone-BP system. The quality and stability of the exfoliated flakes was checked by XRD, TEM, electron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Thermal expansion coefficients of the A1g, B2g and A2g Raman modes were calculated for drop-casted samples as -0.01828 cm-1/K, -0.03056 cm-1/K and -0.03219 cm-1/K, respectively. The flakes withstand 20 minutes in O2 flow at 373 K without lattice distortion. . © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Exfoliation syndrome: assembling the puzzle pieces.

    PubMed

    Pasquale, Louis R; Borrás, Terete; Fingert, John H; Wiggs, Janey L; Ritch, Robert

    2016-09-01

    To summarize various topics and the cutting edge approaches to refine XFS pathogenesis that were discussed at the 21st annual Glaucoma Foundation Think Tank meeting in New York City, Sept. 19-20, 2014. The highlights of three categories of talks on cutting edge research in the field were summarized. Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a systemic disorder with a substantial ocular burden, including high rates of cataract, cataract surgery complications, glaucoma and retinal vein occlusion. New information about XFS is akin to puzzle pieces that do not quite join together to reveal a clear picture regarding how exfoliation material (XFM) forms. Meeting participants concluded that it is unclear how the mild homocysteinemia seen in XFS might contribute to the disarrayed extracellular aggregates characteristic of this syndrome. Lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) variants are unequivocally genetic risk factors for XFS but exactly how these variants contribute to the assembly of exfoliation material (XFM) remains unclear. Variants in a new genomic region, CACNA1A associated with XFS, may alter calcium concentrations at the cell surface and facilitate XFM formation but much more work is needed before we can place this new finding in proper context. It is hoped that various animal model and ex vivo systems will emerge that will allow for proper assembly of the puzzle pieces into a coherent picture of XFS pathogenesis. A clear understanding of XFS pathogenesis may lead to 'upstream solutions' to reduce the ocular morbidity produced by XFS. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Reliable Exfoliation of Large-Area High-Quality Flakes of Graphene and Other Two-Dimensional Materials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuan; Sutter, Eli; Shi, Norman N; Zheng, Jiabao; Yang, Tianzhong; Englund, Dirk; Gao, Hong-Jun; Sutter, Peter

    2015-11-24

    Mechanical exfoliation has been a key enabler of the exploration of the properties of two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, by providing routine access to high-quality material. The original exfoliation method, which remained largely unchanged during the past decade, provides relatively small flakes with moderate yield. Here, we report a modified approach for exfoliating thin monolayer and few-layer flakes from layered crystals. Our method introduces two process steps that enhance and homogenize the adhesion force between the outermost sheet in contact with a substrate: Prior to exfoliation, ambient adsorbates are effectively removed from the substrate by oxygen plasma cleaning, and an additional heat treatment maximizes the uniform contact area at the interface between the source crystal and the substrate. For graphene exfoliation, these simple process steps increased the yield and the area of the transferred flakes by more than 50 times compared to the established exfoliation methods. Raman and AFM characterization shows that the graphene flakes are of similar high quality as those obtained in previous reports. Graphene field-effect devices were fabricated and measured with back-gating and solution top-gating, yielding mobilities of ∼4000 and 12,000 cm(2)/(V s), respectively, and thus demonstrating excellent electrical properties. Experiments with other layered crystals, e.g., a bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide (BSCCO) superconductor, show enhancements in exfoliation yield and flake area similar to those for graphene, suggesting that our modified exfoliation method provides an effective way for producing large area, high-quality flakes of a wide range of 2D materials.

  17. Usefulness of tissue autofluorescence imaging in actinic cheilitis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Takahama Junior, Ademar; Kurachi, Cristina; Cosci, Alessandro; Pereira Faustino, Isabel Schausltz; Camisasca, Danielle Resende; da Costa Fontes, Karla Bianca Fernandes; Pires, Fábio Ramôa; Azevedo, Rebeca Souza

    2013-07-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a potentially malignant disorder of the lips. Because of its heterogeneous clinical aspect, it is difficult to indicate representative biopsy area. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of tissue autofluorescence in AC diagnosis. The system was composed of a 405-nm light-emitting diode, sent to the sample by a dichroic, that allows the fluorescence signal to reach a camera directly plugged in the system. Fifty-seven patients with clinical diagnosis of AC and 45 normal volunteers were selected. According to clinical and fluorescence features, one or more areas were selected for biopsies in the AC group and epithelial dysplasia (ED) grades were established. The autofluorescence images were processed by a clustering algorithm for AC automated diagnosis. The tissue autofluorescence image revealed a heterogeneous pattern of loss and increase of fluorescence in patients with AC. ED was found in 93% of the cases, and most of the areas graded as moderate or severe ED were chosen with the aid of autofluorescence. The processed autofluorescence images from AC patients showed a higher number of spots in an irregular pattern. Tissue autofluorescence image system is a useful technique in association with clinical examination for AC diagnosis.

  18. Immunohistochemical expression of DNA methyltransferases 1, 3a, and 3b in actinic cheilitis and lip squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Filipe I; Alves, Soraia R; Vieira, Daniella S C; Biz, Michelle T; Daniel, Inah W B S; Modolo, Filipe

    2016-11-01

    Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes carried out by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), are important events in carcinogenesis. Although there are studies concerning to its expression in several cancer types, DNMTs expression pattern is not known in photoinduced lip carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunoexpression of DNMTs 1, 3a, and 3b in lip precancerous lesion (actinic cheilitis) and cancer. Thirty cases of actinic cheilitis (AC), thirty cases of lip squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), and twenty cases of non-neoplastic tissue (NNT) were selected for immunohistochemical investigation of DNMTs 1, 3a, and 3b. Nuclear DNMT 1 immunoreactivity was significantly higher in the LSCC group (68.6%) compared with NNT (47%), and nuclear DNMT 3b was higher in LSCC (70.9%) than in NNT (37.9%) and in AC (44%). Only DNMT 3a showed both higher nuclear and cytoplasmic expression in AC (35.9% and 35.5%, respectively) than in NNT (4.4% and 16.1%, respectively) and LSCC (8.8% and 13.2%, respectively) (P < 0.05). The results suggested that DNMT 3a could play a key role in the methylation process of initial steps of UV carcinogenesis present in AC while DNMT 3b could be responsible for de novo methylation in already established lip cancer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Daylight photodynamic therapy with methyl-aminolevulinate for the treatment of actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Fai, Dario; Romanello, Eugenio; Brumana, Marta Benedetta; Fai, Carlotta; Vena, Gino Antonio; Cassano, Nicoletta; Piaserico, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a common premalignant condition that requires an effective treatment to reduce the risk of malignant transformation. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been recently added to the armamentarium available for AC treatment. Daylight PDT (D-PDT) is a novel PDT modality in which the activation of the topical photosensitizer is induced by the exposure to natural daylight instead of artificial light sources without preliminary occlusion. This simplified procedure was found to be more tolerated as compared to conventional PDT. We report our preliminary experience on the use of D-PDT using methyl-aminolevulinate cream in 10 patients with refractory AC of the lower lip. Patients received two consecutive D-PDT sessions with an interval of 7-14 days. At 3 months after therapy, a complete response was observed in seven patients, with sustained results in five patients over an observational period of 6-12 months. Treatment was well tolerated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. High-efficiency exfoliation of large-area mono-layer graphene oxide with controlled dimension.

    PubMed

    Park, Won Kyu; Yoon, Yeojoon; Song, Young Hyun; Choi, Su Yeon; Kim, Seungdu; Do, Youngjin; Lee, Junghyun; Park, Hyesung; Yoon, Dae Ho; Yang, Woo Seok

    2017-11-27

    In this work, we introduce a novel and facile method of exfoliating large-area, single-layer graphene oxide using a shearing stress. The shearing stress reactor consists of two concentric cylinders, where the inner cylinder rotates at controlled speed while the outer cylinder is kept stationary. We found that the formation of Taylor vortex flow with shearing stress can effectively exfoliate the graphite oxide, resulting in large-area single- or few-layer graphene oxide (GO) platelets with high yields (>90%) within 60 min of reaction time. Moreover, the lateral size of exfoliated GO sheets was readily tunable by simply controlling the rotational speed of the reactor and reaction time. Our approach for high-efficiency exfoliation of GO with controlled dimension may find its utility in numerous industrial applications including energy storage, conducting composite, electronic device, and supporting frameworks of catalyst.

  1. Clinicopathological profile and management of 161 cases of actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Maria Luiza Diniz de Sousa; Silva Júnior, Francisco Leonardo da; Lima, Kenio Costa; Oliveira, Patrícia Teixeira de; Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas da

    2015-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a potentially malignant disorder of the lip caused by chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun. To evaluate the clinical, demographic, morphological and therapeutic management in AC cases data associating to the histopathological grading. Demographic, clinical and management data of 161 patients with AC were analyzed. In biopsied cases, two calibrated examiners performed histopathological grading by binary system. There was a prevalence of males (79.5%), aged 40 years or older (77.5%), light-skinned (85.7%), experiencing occupational exposure to sunlight (80.3%), with AC presenting clinically as white lesions (33.6%). Conservative treatment was adopted in 78 cases and biopsy in 83 cases (60.2% graded as low-risk AC). There were no significant associations between histopathological grading and gender (p= 0.509), age (p=0.416), ethnicity (p=0.388), occupational exposure to sunlight (p=1.000) or clinical presentation (p=0.803). This study reinforces the hypothesis that demographic and clinical characteristics of AC are not related to histopathological grading. Advice on protection from sun exposure should be encouraged to avoid progression of AC and invasive therapies.

  2. Clinicopathological profile and management of 161 cases of actinic cheilitis*

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Maria Luiza Diniz de Sousa; da Silva Júnior, Francisco Leonardo; Lima, Kenio Costa; de Oliveira, Patrícia Teixeira; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a potentially malignant disorder of the lip caused by chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical, demographic, morphological and therapeutic management in AC cases data associating to the histopathological grading. METHODS Demographic, clinical and management data of 161 patients with AC were analyzed. In biopsied cases, two calibrated examiners performed histopathological grading by binary system. RESULTS There was a prevalence of males (79.5%), aged 40 years or older (77.5%), light-skinned (85.7%), experiencing occupational exposure to sunlight (80.3%), with AC presenting clinically as white lesions (33.6%). Conservative treatment was adopted in 78 cases and biopsy in 83 cases (60.2% graded as low-risk AC). There were no significant associations between histopathological grading and gender (p= 0.509), age (p=0.416), ethnicity (p=0.388), occupational exposure to sunlight (p=1.000) or clinical presentation (p=0.803). CONCLUSION This study reinforces the hypothesis that demographic and clinical characteristics of AC are not related to histopathological grading. Advice on protection from sun exposure should be encouraged to avoid progression of AC and invasive therapies. PMID:26375219

  3. Two-dimensional materials from high-throughput computational exfoliation of experimentally known compounds.

    PubMed

    Mounet, Nicolas; Gibertini, Marco; Schwaller, Philippe; Campi, Davide; Merkys, Andrius; Marrazzo, Antimo; Sohier, Thibault; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Cepellotti, Andrea; Pizzi, Giovanni; Marzari, Nicola

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have emerged as promising candidates for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic applications. Yet, only a few dozen 2D materials have been successfully synthesized or exfoliated. Here, we search for 2D materials that can be easily exfoliated from their parent compounds. Starting from 108,423 unique, experimentally known 3D compounds, we identify a subset of 5,619 compounds that appear layered according to robust geometric and bonding criteria. High-throughput calculations using van der Waals density functional theory, validated against experimental structural data and calculated random phase approximation binding energies, further allowed the identification of 1,825 compounds that are either easily or potentially exfoliable. In particular, the subset of 1,036 easily exfoliable cases provides novel structural prototypes and simple ternary compounds as well as a large portfolio of materials to search from for optimal properties. For a subset of 258 compounds, we explore vibrational, electronic, magnetic and topological properties, identifying 56 ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems, including half-metals and half-semiconductors.

  4. Two-dimensional materials from high-throughput computational exfoliation of experimentally known compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounet, Nicolas; Gibertini, Marco; Schwaller, Philippe; Campi, Davide; Merkys, Andrius; Marrazzo, Antimo; Sohier, Thibault; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Cepellotti, Andrea; Pizzi, Giovanni; Marzari, Nicola

    2018-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have emerged as promising candidates for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic applications. Yet, only a few dozen 2D materials have been successfully synthesized or exfoliated. Here, we search for 2D materials that can be easily exfoliated from their parent compounds. Starting from 108,423 unique, experimentally known 3D compounds, we identify a subset of 5,619 compounds that appear layered according to robust geometric and bonding criteria. High-throughput calculations using van der Waals density functional theory, validated against experimental structural data and calculated random phase approximation binding energies, further allowed the identification of 1,825 compounds that are either easily or potentially exfoliable. In particular, the subset of 1,036 easily exfoliable cases provides novel structural prototypes and simple ternary compounds as well as a large portfolio of materials to search from for optimal properties. For a subset of 258 compounds, we explore vibrational, electronic, magnetic and topological properties, identifying 56 ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems, including half-metals and half-semiconductors.

  5. Aqueous Dispersions of Graphene from Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphite.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Marta; Ferrero, Guillermo A; Fuertes, Antonio B

    2016-11-21

    A facile and environmentally friendly synthetic strategy for the production of stable and easily processable dispersions of graphene in water is presented. This strategy represents an alternative to classical chemical exfoliation methods (for example the Hummers method) that are more complex, harmful, and dangerous. The process is based on the electrochemical exfoliation of graphite and includes three simple steps: 1) the anodic exfoliation of graphite in (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , 2) sonication to separate the oxidized graphene sheets, and 3) reduction of oxidized graphene to graphene. The procedure makes it possible to convert around 30 wt % of the initial graphite into graphene with short processing times and high yields. The graphene sheets are well dispersed in water, have a carbon/oxygen atomic ratio of 11.7, a lateral size of about 0.5-1 μm, and contain only a few graphene layers, most of which are bilayer sheets. The processability of this type of aqueous dispersion has been demonstrated in the fabrication of macroscopic graphene structures, such as graphene aerogels and graphene films, which have been successfully employed as absorbents or as electrodes in supercapacitors, respectively. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Cheilitis as a variation of Candida-associated lesions.

    PubMed

    Terai, H; Shimahara, M

    2006-05-01

    Occasionally, the clinical diagnosis of Candida-associated lesion is difficult because of a variety of its clinical manifestations. There have been a few reports on Candida-associated lip lesion except angular cheilitis. In this paper, we investigate the relation of Candida in persistent lesions of the lip. The present study includes consecutive nine patients with persistent erosive lip lesion. For each patient the age at presentation, gender, duration of the disease, other symptoms or signs, complete medical history and prior treatment or medications for the symptom were obtained. Then, mycological examination and the direct cytologic examination were performed. The reported average duration of the disease was 7 months. Six of nine patients had received prior treatments with topical steroids at the other clinic, which failed to resolve their symptoms. Six of nine patients had a predisposing factor for candidiasis. In the culture examination, Candida albicans were isolated in seven patients (77.8%). Five of nine patients received the direct cytologic examination, and four of them revealed pseudohyphae of fungi. The anti-fungal treatment was miconazol gel 25 mg four times per day, and average duration of the treatment was 2 weeks. The outcome was as follows: complete remission in five, remarkable response in two and no response in two. Our results suggested that one form of the varieties of Candida-associated lesions might be considered in the case of lip lesion with unknown origin that was persistent and ineffective to the topical steroids treatment.

  7. Epoxy based nanocomposites with fully exfoliated unmodified clay: mechanical and thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Binghai; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gao, Jianming; Song, Zhihai; Qi, Guicun; Liu, Yiqun; Qiao, Jinliang

    2010-09-01

    The unmodified clay has been fully exfoliated in epoxy resin with the aid of a novel ultrafine full-vulcanized powdered rubber. Epoxy/rubber/clay nanocomposites with exfoliated morphology have been successfully prepared. The microstructures of the nanocomposites were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the unmodified clay was fully exfoliated and uniformly dispersed in the resulting nanocomposite. Characterizations of mechanical properties revealed that the impact strength of this special epoxy/rubber/clay nanocomposite increased up 107% over the neat epoxy resin. Thermal analyses showed that thermal stability of the nanocomposite was much better than that of epoxy nanocomposite based on organically modified clay.

  8. Raman exfoliative cytology for oral precancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi; Gera, Poonam; Pai, Venkatesh; Dubey, Abhishek; Tyagi, Gunjan; Waghmare, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Mahimkar, Manoj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2017-11-01

    Oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) such as leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis, often precede oral cancer. Screening and management of these premalignant conditions can improve prognosis. Raman spectroscopy has previously demonstrated potential in the diagnosis of oral premalignant conditions (in vivo), detected viral infection, and identified cancer in both oral and cervical exfoliated cells (ex vivo). The potential of Raman exfoliative cytology (REC) in identifying premalignant conditions was investigated. Oral exfoliated samples were collected from healthy volunteers (n=20), healthy volunteers with tobacco habits (n=20), and oral premalignant conditions (n=27, OPL) using Cytobrush. Spectra were acquired using Raman microprobe. Spectral acquisition parameters were: λex: 785 nm, laser power: 40 mW, acquisition time: 15 s, and average: 3. Postspectral acquisition, cell pellet was subjected to Pap staining. Multivariate analysis was carried out using principal component analysis and principal component-linear discriminant analysis using both spectra- and patient-wise approaches in three- and two-group models. OPLs could be identified with ˜77% (spectra-wise) and ˜70% (patient-wise) sensitivity in the three-group model while with 86% (spectra-wise) and 83% (patient-wise) in the two-group model. Use of histopathologically confirmed premalignant cases and better sampling devices may help in development of improved standard models and also enhance the sensitivity of the method. Future longitudinal studies can help validate potential of REC in screening and monitoring high-risk populations and prognosis prediction of premalignant lesions.

  9. Mechanisms of nanoclay-enhanced plastic foaming processes: effects of nanoclay intercalation and exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Anson; Wijnands, Stephan F. L.; Kuboki, Takashi; Park, Chul B.

    2013-08-01

    The foaming behaviors of high-density polypropylene-nanoclay composites with intercalated and exfoliated nanoclay particles blown with carbon dioxide were examined via in situ observation of the foaming processes in a high-temperature/high-pressure view-cell. The intercalated nanoclay particles were 300-600 nm in length and 50-200 nm in thickness, while the exfoliated nanoclay particles were 100-200 nm in length and 1 nm in thickness. Contrary to common belief, it was discovered that intercalated nanoclay yielded higher cell density than exfoliated nanoclay despite its lower particle density. This was attributed to the higher tensile stresses generated around the larger and stiffer intercalated nanoclay particles, which led to increase in supersaturation level for cell nucleation. Also, the coupling agent used to exfoliate nanoclay would increase the affinity between polymer and surface of nanoclay particles. Consequently, the critical work needed for cell nucleation would be increased; pre-existing microvoids, which could act as seeds for cell nucleation, were also less likely to exist. Meanwhile, exfoliated nanoclay had better cell stabilization ability to prevent cell coalescence and cell coarsening. This investigation clarifies the roles of nanoclay in plastic foaming processes and provides guidance for the advancement of polymer nanocomposite foaming technology.

  10. On the exfoliating polymeric cellular dosage forms for immediate drug release.

    PubMed

    Blaesi, Aron H; Saka, Nannaji

    2016-06-01

    The most prevalent pharmaceutical dosage forms at present-the oral immediate-release tablets and capsules-are granular solids. Though effective in releasing drug rapidly, development and manufacture of such dosage forms are fraught with difficulties inherent to particulate processing. Predictable dosage form manufacture could be achieved by liquid-based processing, but cast solid dosage forms are not suitable for immediate drug release due to their resistance to fluid percolation. To overcome this limitation, we have recently introduced cellular dosage forms that can be readily prepared from polymeric melts. It has been shown that open-cell structures comprising polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG 8k) excipient and a drug exfoliate upon immersion in a dissolution medium. The drug is then released rapidly due to the large specific surface area of the exfoliations. In this work, we vary the molecular weight of the PEG excipient and investigate its effect on the drug release kinetics of structures with predominantly open-cell topology. We demonstrate that the exfoliation rate decreases substantially if the excipient molecular weight is increased from 12 to 100kg/mol, which causes the drug dissolution time to increase by more than a factor of ten. A model is then developed to elucidate the exfoliation behavior of cellular structures. Diverse transport processes are considered: percolation due to capillarity, diffusion of dissolution medium through the cell walls, and viscous flow of the saturated excipient. It is found that the lower exfoliation rate and the longer dissolution time of the dosage forms with higher excipient molecular weight are primarily due to the greater viscosity of the cell walls after fluid penetration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Challenges in Liquid-Phase Exfoliation, Processing, and Assembly of Pristine Graphene.

    PubMed

    Parviz, Dorsa; Irin, Fahmida; Shah, Smit A; Das, Sriya; Sweeney, Charles B; Green, Micah J

    2016-10-01

    Recent developments in the exfoliation, dispersion, and processing of pristine graphene (i.e., non-oxidized graphene) are described. General metrics are outlined that can be used to assess the quality and processability of various "graphene" products, as well as metrics that determine the potential for industrial scale-up. The pristine graphene production process is categorized from a chemical engineering point of view with three key steps: i) pretreatment, ii) exfoliation, and iii) separation. How pristine graphene colloidal stability is distinct from the exfoliation step and is dependent upon graphene interactions with solvents and dispersants are extensively reviewed. Finally, the challenges and opportunities of using pristine graphene as nanofillers in polymer composites, as well as as building blocks for macrostructure assemblies are summarized in the context of large-scale production. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  13. Structure, temperature and frequency dependent electrical conductivity of oxidized and reduced electrochemically exfoliated graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radoń, Adrian; Włodarczyk, Patryk; Łukowiec, Dariusz

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the influence of reduction by hydrogen in statu nascendi and modification by hydrogen peroxide on the structure and electrical conductivity of electrochemically exfoliated graphite. It was confirmed that the electrochemical exfoliation can be used to produce oxidized nanographite with an average number of 25 graphene layers. The modified electrochemical exfoliated graphite and reduced electrochemical exfoliated graphite were characterized by high thermal stability, what was associated with removing of labile oxygen-containing groups. The presence of oxygen-containing groups was confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Influence of chemical modification by hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide on the electrical conductivity was determined in wide frequency (0.1 Hz-10 kHz) and temperature range (-50 °C-100 °C). Material modified by hydrogen peroxide (0.29 mS/cm at 0 °C) had the lowest electrical conductivity. This can be associated with oxidation of unstable functional groups and was also confirmed by analysis of Raman spectra. The removal of oxygen-containing functional groups by hydrogen in statu nascendi resulted in a 1000-fold increase in the electrical conductivity compared to the electrochemical exfoliated graphite.

  14. Solar Exposure and Residential Geographic History in Relation to Exfoliation Syndrome in the United States and Israel

    PubMed Central

    Pasquale, Louis R.; Jiwani, Aliya Z.; Zehavi-Dorin, Tzukit; Majd, Arow; Rhee, Douglas J.; Chen, Teresa; Turalba, Angela; Shen, Lucy; Brauner, Stacey; Grosskreutz, Cynthia; Gardiner, Matthew; Chen, Sherleen; Borboli-Gerogiannis, Sheila; Greenstein, Scott H.; Chang, Kenneth; Ritch, Robert; Loomis, Stephanie; Kang, Jae H.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Levkovitch-Verbin, Hani

    2014-01-01

    Importance Residential (geographic) history and extent of solar exposure may be important risk factors for exfoliation syndrome, but detailed lifetime solar exposure has not been previously evaluated in exfoliation syndrome. Objective To assess the relation between residential history, solar exposure and exfoliation syndrome. Design Clinic-based, case control studies. Setting A clinical center in the United States and in Israel. Participants Exfoliation syndrome cases and controls (all 60+ years old Caucasians) enrolled from 2010 to 2012 (United States: 118 cases and 106 controls; Israel: 67 cases and 72 controls). Main Outcomes and Measures Weighted lifetime average latitude of residence and average number of hours per week spent outdoors as determined by validated questionnaires. Results In multivariable analyses, each degree of weighted lifetime average residential latitude away from the equator was associated with an 11% increased odds of exfoliation syndrome (pooled odds ratio = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.05-1.17; p < .001). Furthermore, every hour per week spent outdoors during the summer, averaged over a lifetime, was associated with a 4% increased odds of exfoliation syndrome (pooled odds ratio = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.07; p = .03). For every 1% of average lifetime summer time between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. that sunglasses were worn, the odds of exfoliation syndrome decreased by 2% (odds ratio = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-0.99; p < .001) in the United States, but not in Israel (odds ratio = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99-1.01; p = .92; p for heterogeneity = .005). In the United States, after controlling for important environmental covariates, history of work over water or snow was associated with increased odds of exfoliation syndrome (odds ratio = 3.86; 95% CI: 1.36-10.9); in Israel, there were too few people with such history for analysis. We did not identify an association between brimmed hat wear and exfoliation syndrome (p>.57). Conclusion and Relevance Lifetime outdoor activities may

  15. Detecting hidden exfoliation corrosion in aircraft wing skins using thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prati, John

    2000-03-01

    A thermal wave (pulse) thermography inspection technique demonstrated the ability to detect hidden subsurface exfoliation corrosion adjacent to countersunk fasteners in aircraft wing skins. In the wing skin, exfoliation corrosion is the result of the interaction between the steel fastener and the aluminum skin material in the presence of moisture. This interaction results in corrosion cracks that tend to grow parallel to the skin surface. The inspection technique developed allows rapid detection and evaluation of hidden (not visible on the surface) corrosion, which extends beyond the head of fastener countersinks in the aluminum skins.

  16. Considerations for spectroscopy of liquid-exfoliated 2D materials: emerging photoluminescence of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Sean P; Large, Matthew J; Fratta, Giuseppe; Meloni, Manuela; Canton-Vitoria, Ruben; Tagmatarchis, Nikos; Massuyeau, Florian; Ewels, Christopher P; King, Alice A K; Dalton, Alan B

    2017-12-01

    N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) has been shown to be the most effective solvent for liquid phase exfoliation and dispersion of a range of 2D materials including graphene, molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2 ) and black phosphorus. However, NMP is also known to be susceptible to sonochemical degradation during exfoliation. We report that this degradation gives rise to strong visible photoluminescence of NMP. Sonochemical modification is shown to influence exfoliation of layered materials in NMP and the optical absorbance of the solvent in the dispersion. The emerging optical properties of the degraded solvent present challenges for spectroscopy of nanomaterial dispersions; most notably the possibility of observing solvent photoluminescence in the spectra of 2D materials such as MoS 2 , highlighting the need for stable solvents and exfoliation processes to minimise the influence of solvent degradation on the properties of liquid-exfoliated 2D materials.

  17. Large Area Atomically Flat Surfaces via Exfoliation of Bulk Bi 2Se 3 Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Melamed, Celeste L.; Ortiz, Brenden R.; Gorai, Prashun

    In this paper, we present an exfoliation method that produces cm 2-area atomically flat surfaces from bulk layered single crystals, with broad applications such as for the formation of lateral heterostructures and for use as substrates for van der Waals epitaxy. Single crystals of Bi 2Se 3 were grown using the Bridgman method and examined with X-ray reciprocal space maps, Auger spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An indium-bonding exfoliation technique was developed that produces multiple ~100 um thick atomically flat, macroscopic (>1 cm 2) slabs from each Bi 2Se 3 source crystal. Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction and reciprocalmore » space maps confirm the high crystalline quality of the exfoliated surfaces. Atomic force microscopy reveals that the exfoliated surfaces have an average root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of ~0.04 nm across 400 μm 2 scans and an average terrace width of 70 um between step edges. First-principles calculations reveal exfoliation energies of Bi 2Se 3 and a number of other layered compounds, which demonstrate relevance of our method across the field of 2D materials. While many potential applications exist, excellent lattice matching with the III-V alloy space suggests immediate potential for the use of these exfoliated layered materials as epitaxial substrates for photovoltaic development.« less

  18. Large Area Atomically Flat Surfaces via Exfoliation of Bulk Bi 2Se 3 Single Crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Melamed, Celeste L.; Ortiz, Brenden R.; Gorai, Prashun; ...

    2017-09-12

    In this paper, we present an exfoliation method that produces cm 2-area atomically flat surfaces from bulk layered single crystals, with broad applications such as for the formation of lateral heterostructures and for use as substrates for van der Waals epitaxy. Single crystals of Bi 2Se 3 were grown using the Bridgman method and examined with X-ray reciprocal space maps, Auger spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An indium-bonding exfoliation technique was developed that produces multiple ~100 um thick atomically flat, macroscopic (>1 cm 2) slabs from each Bi 2Se 3 source crystal. Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction and reciprocalmore » space maps confirm the high crystalline quality of the exfoliated surfaces. Atomic force microscopy reveals that the exfoliated surfaces have an average root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of ~0.04 nm across 400 μm 2 scans and an average terrace width of 70 um between step edges. First-principles calculations reveal exfoliation energies of Bi 2Se 3 and a number of other layered compounds, which demonstrate relevance of our method across the field of 2D materials. While many potential applications exist, excellent lattice matching with the III-V alloy space suggests immediate potential for the use of these exfoliated layered materials as epitaxial substrates for photovoltaic development.« less

  19. Topology-Scaling Identification of Layered Solids and Stable Exfoliated 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Michael; Paul, Joshua; Sinnott, Susan B; Hennig, Richard G

    2017-03-10

    The Materials Project crystal structure database has been searched for materials possessing layered motifs in their crystal structures using a topology-scaling algorithm. The algorithm identifies and measures the sizes of bonded atomic clusters in a structure's unit cell, and determines their scaling with cell size. The search yielded 826 stable layered materials that are considered as candidates for the formation of two-dimensional monolayers via exfoliation. Density-functional theory was used to calculate the exfoliation energy of each material and 680 monolayers emerge with exfoliation energies below those of already-existent two-dimensional materials. The crystal structures of these two-dimensional materials provide templates for future theoretical searches of stable two-dimensional materials. The optimized structures and other calculated data for all 826 monolayers are provided at our database (https://materialsweb.org).

  20. Optical diagnosis of actinic cheilitis by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    das Chagas E Silva de Carvalho, Luis Felipe; Pereira, Thiago Martini; Magrini, Taciana Depra; Cavalcante, Ana Sueli Rodrigues; da Silva Martinho, Herculano; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2016-12-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is considered a potentially malignant disorder of the lip. Biomolecular markers study is important to understand malignant transformation into squamous cell carcinoma. Fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to analyze AC in this study. The aim of the study was to evaluate if FT-IR spectral regions of nucleic acids and collagen can help in early diagnosis of malignant transformation. Tissues biopsies of 14 patients diagnosed with AC and 14 normal tissues were obtained. FT-IR spectra were measured at five different points resulting in 70 spectra of each. Analysis of Principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discrimination analysis (LDA) model were also used. In order to verify the statistical difference in the spectra, Mann-Whitney U test was performed in each variable (wavenumber) with p-value <0.05. After the Mann-Whitney U test the vibrational modes of CO (Collagen 1), PO2 (Nucleic Acids) and CO asymmetric (Triglycerides/Lipids) were observed as a possible spectral biomarker. These bands were chosen because they represent the vibrational modes related to collagen and DNA, which are supposed to be changed in AC samples. Based on the PCA-LDA results, the predictive model corresponding to the area under the curve was 0.91 for the fingerprint region and 0.83 for the high wavenumber region, showing the greater accuracy of the test. FT-IR changes in collagen and nucleic acids could be used as molecular biomarkers for malignant transformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Actinic cheilitis among agricultural workers in Campinas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, J L R; Bönecker, M; Furuse, C; Morais, P de Camargo; Flório, F M; Cury, P R; Araújo, V C

    2011-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of Actinic Cheilitis (AC) among agricultural workers and analyze its risk factors. A cross sectional epidemiological study. A lip lesion was defined as an abnormal change on the lip mucosa surface, such as erythematous pigmented, ulcerative or swelling (Cataldo and Doku, 1981). Data were gathered according to age group, gender, ethnicity-time and frequency of occupational sunlight exposure, smoking habits, drinking habits and socio-economic status. Sugar-cane plantation farms in Brazil. Full-time workers of both genders employed at sugar-cane plantation farms for at least six months. Correlations between AC prevalence, demographic and socioeconomic risk factors. 202 people were examined and the prevalence of AC was 39.6%. Results revealed that being black (0.15-0.88- 95% CI; OR = 0.36; p = 0.025) or mulatto (0.21-0.82- 95% CI; OR = 0.42; p =0.011) decreased the risk for AC, while age and gender sex had no effect. In relation to socioeconomic variables, formal education and more than four years of education (0.07-0.68- 95% CI; OR = 0.22; p = 0.009) decreased the risk for AC. Moreover, drinking alcohol was a risk for AC (1.05-3.37- 95% CI; OR = 1.88; p = 0.034), while tobacco smoking was not (0.60-2.02- 95% CI; OR = 1.10; p = 0.763). The prevalence of AC is high in agricultural workers who were fairskinned, had low education and high alcohol intake. Prevention and early diagnosis are required for workers exposed to sunlight.

  2. Raman spectroscopic studies on exfoliated cells of oral and cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, Arti; Sahu, Aditi; Shaikh, Rubina; Tyagi, Gunjan; Murali Krishna, C.

    2018-01-01

    Visual inspection followed by biopsy is the standard procedure for cancer diagnosis. Due to invasive nature of the current diagnostic methods, patients are often non-compliant. Hence, it is necessary to explore less invasive and rapid methods for early detection. Exfoliative cytology is a simple, rapid, and less invasive technique. It is thus well accepted by patients and is suitable for routine applications in population screening programs. Raman spectroscopy (RS) has been increasingly explored for disease diagnosis in the recent past. In vivo RS has previously shown promise in management of both oral and cervix cancers. In vivo applications require on-site instrumentation and stringent experimental conditions. Hence, RS of less invasive samples like exfoliated cells has been explored, as this facilitates collection at multiple screening centers followed by analysis at a centralized facility. In the present study, efficacy of Raman spectroscopy in classification of 15 normal and 29 abnormal oral exfoliated cells specimens and 28 normal and 38 abnormal cervix specimens were explored. Spectra were acquired by Raman microprobe (HE 785, Horiba-Jobin-Yvon, France) from several areas to span the pellet. Spectral acquisition parameters were: microscopic objective: 40X, power: 40 mW, acquisition time: 15 s and average: 3. PCA and PC-LDA of pre-processed spectra was carried out on a 4-model system of normal and tumor of both cervix and oral specimens. Leave-one-out-cross-validation findings indicate 73 % correct classification. Findings suggest RS of exfoliated cells may serve as a patient-friendly, non-invasive, rapid and objective method for management of cervix and oral cancers.

  3. Sequential structural and optical evolution of MoS2 by chemical synthesis and exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Jungkil; Oh, Si Duck; Kim, Sung; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Various types of MoS2 structures are successfully obtained by using economical and facile sequential synthesis and exfoliation methods. Spherically-shaped lumps of multilayer (ML) MoS2 are prepared by using a conventional hydrothermal method and were subsequently 1st-exfoliated in hydrazine while being kept in autoclave to be unrolled and separated into five-to-six-layer MoS2 pieces of several-hundred nm in size. The MoS2 MLs are 2nd-exfoliated in sodium naphthalenide under an Ar ambient to finally produce bilayer MoS2 crystals of ~100 nm. The sequential exfoliation processes downsize MoS2 laterally and reduce its number of layers. The three types of MoS2 allotropes exhibit particular optical properties corresponding to their structural differences. These results suggest that two-dimensional MoS2 crystals can be prepared by employing only chemical techniques without starting from high-pressure-synthesized bulk MoS2 crystals.

  4. New insight of high temperature oxidation on self-exfoliation capability of graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhang; Zeng, Jie; Han, Di; Wu, Kai; Yu, Bowen; Chai, Songgang; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2018-05-04

    The preparation of graphene oxide (GO) via Hummers method is usually divided into two steps: low temperature oxidation at 35 °C (step I oxidation) and high temperature oxidation at 98 °C (step II oxidation). However, the effects of these two steps on the exfoliation capability and chemical structure of graphite oxide remain unclear. In this study, both the functional group content of graphite oxide and the entire evolution of interlayer spacing were investigated during the two steps. Step I oxidation is a slowly inhomogeneous oxidation step to remove unoxidized graphite flakes. The prepared graphite oxide can be easily self-exfoliated but contains a lot of organic sulfur. During the first 20 min of step II oxidation, the majority of organic sulfur can be efficiently removed and graphite oxide still remains a good exfoliation capability due to sharp increasing of carboxyl groups. However, with a longer oxidation time at step II oxidation, the decrease of organic sulfur content is slowed down apparently but without any carboxyl groups forming, then graphite oxide finally loses self-exfoliation capability. It is concluded that a short time of step II oxidation can produce purer and ultralarge GO sheets via self-exfoliation. The pure GO is possessed with better thermal stability and liquid crystal behavior. Besides, reduced GO films prepared from step II oxidation show better mechanical and electric properties after reducing compared with that obtained only via step I oxidation.

  5. New insight of high temperature oxidation on self-exfoliation capability of graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuhang; Zeng, Jie; Han, Di; Wu, Kai; Yu, Bowen; Chai, Songgang; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    The preparation of graphene oxide (GO) via Hummers method is usually divided into two steps: low temperature oxidation at 35 °C (step I oxidation) and high temperature oxidation at 98 °C (step II oxidation). However, the effects of these two steps on the exfoliation capability and chemical structure of graphite oxide remain unclear. In this study, both the functional group content of graphite oxide and the entire evolution of interlayer spacing were investigated during the two steps. Step I oxidation is a slowly inhomogeneous oxidation step to remove unoxidized graphite flakes. The prepared graphite oxide can be easily self-exfoliated but contains a lot of organic sulfur. During the first 20 min of step II oxidation, the majority of organic sulfur can be efficiently removed and graphite oxide still remains a good exfoliation capability due to sharp increasing of carboxyl groups. However, with a longer oxidation time at step II oxidation, the decrease of organic sulfur content is slowed down apparently but without any carboxyl groups forming, then graphite oxide finally loses self-exfoliation capability. It is concluded that a short time of step II oxidation can produce purer and ultralarge GO sheets via self-exfoliation. The pure GO is possessed with better thermal stability and liquid crystal behavior. Besides, reduced GO films prepared from step II oxidation show better mechanical and electric properties after reducing compared with that obtained only via step I oxidation.

  6. One-Pot Exfoliation of Graphite and Synthesis of Nanographene/Dimesitylporphyrin Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, M. Mar; Pérez, Emilio M.

    2015-01-01

    A simple one-pot process to exfoliate graphite and synthesize nanographene-dimesitylporphyrin hybrids has been developed. Despite the bulky mesityl groups, which are expected to hinder the efficient π–π stacking between the porphyrin core and graphene, the liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite is significantly favored by the presence of the porphyrins. Metallation of the porphyrin further enhances this effect. The resulting graphene/porphyrin hybrids were characterized by spectroscopy (UV-visible, fluorescence, and Raman) and microscopy (STEM, scanning transmission electron microscopy). PMID:25984598

  7. Synthesis and Thermal Conductivity of Exfoliated Hexagonal Boron Nitride/Alumina Ceramic Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-cheh; Hurst, Janet; Santiago, Diana; Lizcano, Maricela; Kelly, Marisabel

    2017-01-01

    Exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)/alumina composite can be fabricated by following the process of (1) heating a mixture of hBN, AlCl3, and NaF in nitrogen for intercalation; (2) heating the intercalated product in air for exfoliation and at the same time converting the intercalate (AlCl3) into Al2O3, (3) rinsing the oxidized product, (4) coating individual exfoliated hBN platelets that contain Al2O3 with new layers of aluminum oxide, and finally, (5) hot pressing the product into the composite. The composite thus obtained has a composition of approximately 60 percent by weight hBN and 40 percent by weight alumina. Its in-plane and through-plane thermal conductivity were measured to be 86 and 18 watts per meter Kelvin, respectively, at room temperature.

  8. Detecting thermally driven cyclic deformation of an exfoliation sheet with lidar and radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.

    2014-01-01

    Rock falls from steep, exfoliating cliffs are common in many landscapes. Of the many mechanisms known to trigger rock falls, thermally driven deformation is among the least quantified, despite potentially being a prevalent trigger due to its occurrence at all times of year. Here we present the results of a field-based monitoring program using instrumentation, ground-based lidar, and ground-based radar to investigate the process of thermally driven deformation of an exfoliation sheet, and the ability of remote sensing tools to capture cyclic expansion and contraction patterns. Our results indicate that thermally driven exfoliation occurs on diurnal cycles and can be measured at the submillimeter to centimeter scale using high-resolution strain gauges, short-range (2 km) radar interfer-ometry.

  9. Ultrasound coupled with supercritical carbon dioxide for exfoliation of graphene: Simulation and experiment.

    PubMed

    Gai, Yanzhe; Wang, Wucong; Xiao, Ding; Zhao, Yaping

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasound coupled with supercritical CO 2 has become an important method for exfoliation of graphene, but behind which a peeling mechanism is unclear. In this work, CFD simulation and experiment were both investigated to elucidate the mechanism and the effects of the process parameters on the exfoliation yield. The experiments and the CFD simulation were conducted under pressure ranging from 8MPa to 16MPa, the ultrasonic power ranging from 12W to 240W and the frequency of 20kHz. The numerical analysis of fluid flow patterns and pressure distributions revealed that the fluid shear stress and the periodical pressure fluctuation generated by ultrasound were primary factors in exfoliating graphene. The distribution of the fluid shear stress decided the effective exfoliation area, which, in turn, affected the yield. The effective area increased from 5.339cm 3 to 8.074cm 3 with increasing ultrasonic power from 12W to 240W, corresponding to the yield increasing from 5.2% to 21.5%. The pressure fluctuation would cause the expansion of the interlayers of graphite. The degree of the expansion increased with the increase of the operating pressure but decreased beyond 12MPa. Thus, the maximum yield was obtained at 12MPa. The cavitation might be generated by ultrasound in supercritical CO 2 . But it is too weak to exfoliate graphite into graphene. These results provide a strategy in optimizing and scaling up the ultrasound-assisted supercritical CO 2 technique for producing graphene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Neisseria gonorrhoeae infects the human endocervix by activating non-muscle myosin II-mediated epithelial exfoliation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qian; Lin, Brian; Qiu, Jessica; Stein, Daniel C.

    2017-01-01

    Colonization and disruption of the epithelium is a major infection mechanism of mucosal pathogens. The epithelium counteracts infection by exfoliating damaged cells while maintaining the mucosal barrier function. The sexually transmitted bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) infects the female reproductive tract primarily from the endocervix, causing gonorrhea. However, the mechanism by which GC overcome the mucosal barrier remains elusive. Using a new human tissue model, we demonstrate that GC can penetrate into the human endocervix by inducing the exfoliation of columnar epithelial cells. We found that GC colonization causes endocervical epithelial cells to shed. The shedding results from the disassembly of the apical junctions that seal the epithelial barrier. Apical junction disruption and epithelial exfoliation increase GC penetration into the endocervical epithelium without reducing bacterial adherence to and invasion into epithelial cells. Both epithelial exfoliation and junction disruption require the activation and accumulation of non-muscle myosin II (NMII) at the apical surface and GC adherent sites. GC inoculation activates NMII by elevating the levels of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ and NMII regulatory light chain phosphorylation. Piliation of GC promotes, but the expression of a GC opacity-associated protein variant, OpaH that binds to the host surface proteins CEACAMs, inhibits GC-induced NMII activation and reorganization and Ca2+ flux. The inhibitory effects of OpaH lead to reductions in junction disruption, epithelial exfoliation, and GC penetration. Therefore, GC phase variation can modulate infection in the human endocervix by manipulating the activity of NMII and epithelial exfoliation. PMID:28406994

  11. Decolorizing of azo dye Reactive red 24 aqueous solution using exfoliated graphite and H2O2 under ultrasound irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Li, Ji-Tai; Sun, Han-Wen

    2008-07-01

    At its natural pH (6.95), the decolorization of Reactive red 24 in ultrasound, ultrasound/H2O2, exfoliated graphite, ultrasound/exfoliated graphite, exfoliated graphite/H2O2 and ultrasound/exfoliated graphite/H2O2 systems were compared. An enhancement was observed for the decolorization in ultrasound/exfoliated graphite/H2O2 system. The effect of solution pH, H2O2 and exfoliated graphite dosages, and temperature on the decolorization of Reactive red 24 was investigated. The sonochemical treatment in combination with exfoliated graphite/H2O2 showed a synergistic effect for the decolorization of Reactive red 24. The results indicated that under proper conditions, there was a possibility to remove Reactive red 24 very efficient from aqueous solution. The decolorization of other azo dyes (Reactive red 2, Methyl orange, Acid red 1, Acid red 73, Acid red 249, Acid orange 7, Acid blue 113, Acid brown 75, Acid green 20, Acid yellow 42, Acid mordant brown 33, Acid mordant yellow 10 and Direct green 1) was also investigated, at their natural pH.

  12. Prevalence and factors associated to actinic cheilitis in beach workers.

    PubMed

    de Souza Lucena, E E; Costa, D C B; da Silveira, E J D; Lima, K C

    2012-09-01

    Assess the prevalence and potential factors associated to actinic cheilitis (AC) in workers exposed to the sun. Workers assigned to urban beaches in a city in Northeastern Brazil completed a questionnaire containing personal and health data. Lips were examined to identify AC. A total of 362 workers, of which 15.5% exhibited AC, were examined. Among those with AC, there was a prevalence of males (86%), aged 37years or older (61.4%) and light-skinned (52.6%). They were undocumented (96.5%), exposed to the sun (84.2%), worked up to 6h daily (57.9%), five or more times per week (52.6%), and for more than 8years (54.4%). Photoprotection was used by 89.5%, including sunscreen (42.0%), lip protector (17.5%), and cap/hat (87.7%). Approximately 30% smoked and 29.8% consumed alcohol, 56.2% over two standard shots per day. Most (91.2%) ate healthy food five or more times per week. Being male, aged 37years or older, having up to 6years of schooling, being light-skinned, wearing a cap/hat, and using sunscreen were factors associated to AC. A high prevalence of actinic AC was observed. Special attention should be given to individuals chronically exposed to UV radiation, with the institution of educational, preventive, and curative measures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Exfoliation of Hexagonal Boron Nitride via Ferric Chloride Intercalation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-cheh; Hurst, Janet; Santiago, Diana; Rogers, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) was used as an activation agent to successfully intercalate ferric chloride (FeCl3) into hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). This reaction caused the hBN mass to increase by approx.100 percent, the lattice parameter c to decrease from 6.6585 to between 6.6565 and 6.6569 ?, the x-ray diffraction (XRD) (002) peak to widen from 0.01deg to 0.05deg of the full width half maximum value, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum's broad band (1277/cm peak) to change shape, and new FTIR bands to emerge at 3700 to 2700 and 1600/cm. This indicates hBN's structural and chemical properties are significantly changed. The intercalated product was hygroscopic and interacted with moisture in the air to cause further structural and chemical changes (from XRD and FTIR). During a 24-h hold at room temperature in air with 100 percent relative humidity, the mass increased another 141 percent. The intercalated product, hydrated or not, can be heated to 750 C in air to cause exfoliation. Exfoliation becomes significant after two intercalation-air heating cycles, when 20-nm nanosheets are commonly found. Structural and chemical changes indicated by XRD and FTIR data were nearly reversed after the product was placed in hydrochloric acid (HCl), resulting in purified, exfoliated, thin hBN products.

  14. High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Yenny; Nicolosi, Valeria; Lotya, Mustafa; Blighe, Fiona M; Sun, Zhenyu; De, Sukanta; McGovern, I T; Holland, Brendan; Byrne, Michele; Gun'Ko, Yurii K; Boland, John J; Niraj, Peter; Duesberg, Georg; Krishnamurthy, Satheesh; Goodhue, Robbie; Hutchison, John; Scardaci, Vittorio; Ferrari, Andrea C; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2008-09-01

    Fully exploiting the properties of graphene will require a method for the mass production of this remarkable material. Two main routes are possible: large-scale growth or large-scale exfoliation. Here, we demonstrate graphene dispersions with concentrations up to approximately 0.01 mg ml(-1), produced by dispersion and exfoliation of graphite in organic solvents such as N-methyl-pyrrolidone. This is possible because the energy required to exfoliate graphene is balanced by the solvent-graphene interaction for solvents whose surface energies match that of graphene. We confirm the presence of individual graphene sheets by Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Our method results in a monolayer yield of approximately 1 wt%, which could potentially be improved to 7-12 wt% with further processing. The absence of defects or oxides is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron, infrared and Raman spectroscopies. We are able to produce semi-transparent conducting films and conducting composites. Solution processing of graphene opens up a range of potential large-area applications, from device and sensor fabrication to liquid-phase chemistry.

  15. High-yield exfoliation of tungsten disulphide nanosheets by rational mixing of low-boiling-point solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajedi-Moghaddam, Ali; Saievar-Iranizad, Esmaiel

    2018-01-01

    Developing high-throughput, reliable, and facile approaches for producing atomically thin sheets of transition metal dichalcogenides is of great importance to pave the way for their use in real applications. Here, we report a highly promising route for exfoliating two-dimensional tungsten disulphide sheets by using binary combination of low-boiling-point solvents. Experimental results show significant dependence of exfoliation yield on the type of solvents as well as relative volume fraction of each solvent. The highest yield was found for appropriate combination of isopropanol/water (20 vol% isopropanol and 80 vol% water) which is approximately 7 times higher than that in pure isopropanol and 4 times higher than that in pure water. The dramatic increase in exfoliation yield can be attributed to perfect match between the surface tension of tungsten disulphide and binary solvent system. Furthermore, solvent molecular size also has a profound impact on the exfoliation efficiency, due to the steric repulsion.

  16. Prevalence of and risk factors for actinic cheilitis in Brazilian fishermen and women.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Ribeiro, Artur; da Silva, Luiz Carlos Ferreira; Martins-Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for actinic cheilitis (AC) in Brazilian fishermen and women. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sample (n = 210) of fishermen and women. Data related to age, skin color, cumulative and daily exposure to solar radiation, smoking, sun protection measures, and the presence of AC were collected. A Poisson regression model was created to estimate the prevalence ratio of variables. The prevalence of AC was 11.4% (95% confidence interval 7.8-16.4%). The disease was more prevalent in fishermen and women with fair skin and in those aged >50 years, those with cumulative exposure to solar radiation of >30 years, those with daily exposure of >4 hours, and those who did not use sunscreen. Brazilian fishermen and women constitute a population at risk for lip cancer. Public health programs that encourage the use of sunscreens and a lower daily exposure to solar radiation should be established. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Role of imprint/exfoliative cytology in ulcerated skin neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala; Babu, Ravindra; Pai, Dinker; Verma, Surendra Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Imprint cytology is a method of studying cells by taking an imprint from the cut surface of a wedge biopsy specimen or from the resected margins of a surgical specimen. It is rapid, simple and fairly accurate. Exfoliative cytology is an offshoot from the imprint cytology where in cells obtained from the surface of ulcers, either by scrape or brush, are analyzed for the presence of malignant cells. We undertook this study to see the role of imprint/exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of ulcerated skin neoplasm and to check the adequacy of resected margins intra-operatively. This was a prospective investigative study conducted from September 2003 to July 2005. All patients presenting to surgical clinic with ulcerated skin and soft tissue tumours were included in the study. A wedge biopsy obtained from the ulcer and imprint smears were taken from the cut surface. Exfoliative cytology was analyzed from the surface smears. Wedge biopsy specimen was sent for histopathological (HPE) examination. The cytology and HPE were analyzed by a separate pathologist. Imprint cytology was also used to check the adequacy of resected margins in case of wide excision. This was compared with final HPE. Total of 107 patients was included in the present study and 474 imprint smears were done, with an average of 4.43 slides per lesion. Out of 59 wide excision samples, 132 imprint smears were prepared for assessing resected margins accounting for an average of 2.24 slides per each excised lesion. On combining imprint cytology with exfoliative cytology the overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were 90.38 %, 100 % and 90.38 % respectively. Only one out of 59 cases had a positive resected margin which was not picked by imprint cytology. Imprint cytology can be used for rapid and accurate diagnosis of various skin malignancies. It can also be used to check the adequacy of the resected margin intraoperatively.

  18. Exfoliation of graphene sheets via high energy wet milling of graphite in 2-ethylhexanol and kerosene.

    PubMed

    Al-Sherbini, Al-Sayed; Bakr, Mona; Ghoneim, Iman; Saad, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Graphene sheets have been exfoliated from bulk graphite using high energy wet milling in two different solvents that were 2-ethylhexanol and kerosene. The milling process was performed for 60 h using a planetary ball mill. Morphological characteristics were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). On the other hand, the structural characterization was performed using X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) and Raman spectrometry. The exfoliated graphene sheets have represented good morphological and structural characteristics with a valuable amount of defects and a good graphitic structure. The graphene sheets exfoliated in the presence of 2-ethylhexanol have represented many layers, large crystal size and low level of defects, while the graphene sheets exfoliated in the presence of kerosene have represented fewer number of layers, smaller crystal size and higher level of defects.

  19. Automotive body panel containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Adamson, Douglas (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An automotive body panel containing a polymer composite formed of at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

  20. Histopathologic features in actinic cheilitis by the comparison of grading dysplasia systems.

    PubMed

    Pilati, Sfm; Bianco, B C; Vieira, Dsc; Modolo, F

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the histopathologic findings in actinic cheilitis (AC) and lip squamous cell carcinomas (LSCC) diagnosed at Federal University of Santa Catarina in order to attempt to predict the evolution from AC to LSCC based on the comparison of two dysplasia classification systems. Histopathologic features were evaluated according to the World Health Organization classification of dysplasia and binary system of classification. Also, in LSCC, pattern, stage of invasion, and degree of keratinization were evaluated. A total of 58 cases of AC and 70 cases of LSCC were studied, and data correlation was performed using statistical analysis. The presence of dyskeratosis and keratin pearls was found to be strongly associated with severe dysplasia and could represent higher proximity between the severe dysplasia in AC and LSCC. Also, changes related to the nuclei, such as hyperchromasia, nuclear pleomorphism, anisonucleosis, increase in the number and size of nucleoli, increased number of mitoses, and atypical mitoses, indicate progression in dysplasia spectrum. Knowledge of clinical and histological features of AC and LSCC leads to better understanding of factors possibly associated with malignant transformation of epithelial dysplasia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Exfoliation Propensity of Oxide Scale in Heat Exchangers Used for Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Shingledecker, John P.; Kung, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton cycle systems offer the possibility of improved efficiency in future fossil energy power generation plants operating at temperatures of 650 C and above. As there are few data on the oxidation/corrosion behavior of structural alloys in sCO2 at these temperatures, modeling to predict the propensity for oxide exfoliation is not well developed, thus hindering materials selection for these novel cycles. The ultimate goal of this effort is to provide needed data on scale exfoliation behavior in sCO2 for confident alloy selection. To date, a model developed by ORNL and EPRI for the exfoliation of oxide scalesmore » formed on boiler tubes in high-temperature, high-pressure steam has proven useful for managing exfoliation in conventional steam plants. A major input provided by the model is the ability to predict the likelihood of scale failure and loss based on understanding of the evolution of the oxide morphologies and the conditions that result in susceptibility to exfoliation. This paper describes initial steps taken to extend the existing model for exfoliation of steam-side oxide scales to sCO2 conditions. The main differences between high-temperature, high-pressure steam and sCO2 that impact the model involve (i) significant geometrical differences in the heat exchangers, ranging from standard pressurized tubes seen typically in steam-producing boilers to designs for sCO2 that employ variously-curved thin walls to create shaped flow paths for extended heat transfer area and small channel cross-sections to promote thermal convection and support pressure loads; (ii) changed operating characteristics with sCO2 due to the differences in physical and thermal properties compared to steam; and (iii) possible modification of the scale morphologies, hence properties that influence exfoliation behavior, due to reaction with carbon species from sCO2. The numerical simulations conducted were based on an assumed sCO2 operating schedule and

  2. Major review: Exfoliation syndrome; advances in disease genetics, molecular biology, and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Aboobakar, Inas F; Johnson, William M; Stamer, W Daniel; Hauser, Michael A; Allingham, R Rand

    2017-01-01

    Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a common age-related disorder that leads to deposition of extracellular fibrillar material throughout the body. The most recognized disease manifestation is exfoliation glaucoma (XFG), which is a common cause of blindness worldwide. Recent developments in XFS genetics, cell biology and epidemiology have greatly improved our understanding of the etiology of this complex inherited disease. This review summarizes current knowledge of XFS pathogenesis, identifies gaps in knowledge, and discusses areas for future research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Production of Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials via Liquid-Based Direct Exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Niu, Liyong; Coleman, Jonathan N; Zhang, Hua; Shin, Hyeonsuk; Chhowalla, Manish; Zheng, Zijian

    2016-01-20

    Tremendous efforts have been devoted to the synthesis and application of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials due to their extraordinary and unique properties in electronics, photonics, catalysis, etc., upon exfoliation from their bulk counterparts. One of the greatest challenges that scientists are confronted with is how to produce large quantities of 2D nanomaterials of high quality in a commercially viable way. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art of the production of 2D nanomaterials using liquid-based direct exfoliation (LBE), a very promising and highly scalable wet approach for synthesizing high quality 2D nanomaterials in mild conditions. LBE is a collection of methods that directly exfoliates bulk layered materials into thin flakes of 2D nanomaterials in liquid media without any, or with a minimum degree of, chemical reactions, so as to maintain the high crystallinity of 2D nanomaterials. Different synthetic methods are categorized in the following, in which material characteristics including dispersion concentration, flake thickness, flake size and some applications are discussed in detail. At the end, we provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of such synthetic methods of LBE and propose future perspectives. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Atomically thin gallium layers from solid-melt exfoliation

    PubMed Central

    Kochat, Vidya; Samanta, Atanu; Zhang, Yuan; Bhowmick, Sanjit; Manimunda, Praveena; Asif, Syed Asif S.; Stender, Anthony S.; Vajtai, Robert; Singh, Abhishek K.; Tiwary, Chandra S.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2018-01-01

    Among the large number of promising two-dimensional (2D) atomic layer crystals, true metallic layers are rare. Using combined theoretical and experimental approaches, we report on the stability and successful exfoliation of atomically thin “gallenene” sheets on a silicon substrate, which has two distinct atomic arrangements along crystallographic twin directions of the parent α-gallium. With a weak interface between solid and molten phases of gallium, a solid-melt interface exfoliation technique is developed to extract these layers. Phonon dispersion calculations show that gallenene can be stabilized with bulk gallium lattice parameters. The electronic band structure of gallenene shows a combination of partially filled Dirac cone and the nonlinear dispersive band near the Fermi level, suggesting that gallenene should behave as a metallic layer. Furthermore, it is observed that the strong interaction of gallenene with other 2D semiconductors induces semiconducting to metallic phase transitions in the latter, paving the way for using gallenene as promising metallic contacts in 2D devices. PMID:29536039

  5. Exfoliation and Reassembly of Cobalt Oxide Nanosheets into a Reversible Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    REPORT Exfoliation and Reassembly of Cobalt Oxide Nanosheets into a Reversible Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...battery fabrication, cobalt oxide Owen C. Compton, Ali Abouimrane, Zhi An, Marc J. Palmeri, L. Catherine Brinson, Khalil Amine, SonBinh T. Nguyen...Exfoliation and Reassembly of Cobalt Oxide Nanosheets into a Reversible Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Report Title ABSTRACT An exfoliation–reassembly

  6. Properties of spray-deposited liquid-phase exfoliated graphene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, Maria Gabriela C.; Dela Vega, Ma. Shanlene D. C.; Vasquez, Magdaleno R., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of spray-depositing exfoliated graphene on flexible polyimide (PI) and rigid (soda lime glass) substrates for optoelectronic applications. The water contact angles of the substrates increased by 13% (for PI) and 49% (for glass) when the surfaces are pretreated with hexamethyldisiloxane, which significantly improved the adhesion of the films. Raman spectral analyses confirmed a minimum of 15 and a maximum of 23 layers of exfoliated graphene deposited on the substrates. After deposition, the films were exposed to 13.56 MHz radio-frequency plasma containing an admixture of argon and nitrogen gases. Plasma treatment modified the electrical properties with a response analogous to that of a rectifier. A 39% increase in transmittance in the visible region was also observed especially for glass substrates after plasma treatment without a significant change in film electrical conductivity.

  7. Exfoliation of graphite into graphene in aqueous solutions of inorganic salts.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Khaled; Wu, Zhong-Shuai; Li, Rongjin; Liu, Xianjie; Graf, Robert; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2014-04-23

    Mass production of high-quality graphene sheets is essential for their practical application in electronics, optoelectronics, composite materials, and energy-storage devices. Here we report a prompt electrochemical exfoliation of graphene sheets into aqueous solutions of different inorganic salts ((NH4)2SO4, Na2SO4, K2SO4, etc.). Exfoliation in these electrolytes leads to graphene with a high yield (>85%, ≤3 layers), large lateral size (up to 44 μm), low oxidation degree (a C/O ratio of 17.2), and a remarkable hole mobility of 310 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Further, highly conductive graphene films (11 Ω sq(-1)) are readily fabricated on an A4-size paper by applying brush painting of a concentrated graphene ink (10 mg mL(-1), in N,N'-dimethylformamide). All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors manufactured on the basis of such graphene films deliver a high area capacitance of 11.3 mF cm(-2) and an excellent rate capability of 5000 mV s(-1). The described electrochemical exfoliation shows great promise for the industrial-scale synthesis of high-quality graphene for numerous advanced applications.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic performance of chemically exfoliated MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar Vattikuti, S. V.; Shim, Jaesool

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered structure transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) has gained huge attention and importance for photocatalytic energy conversion because of their unique properties. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets were synthesized via one-pot method and exfoliated in (dimethylformamide) DMF solution. Subsequent exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets (e-MoS2) were used as photocatalysts for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) pollutant under solar light irradiation. The e-MoS2 nanosheets exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity than that of pristine MoS2, owing to high specific surface area with enormous active sites and light absorption capacity. In addition, e-MoS2 demonstrated remarkable photocatalytic stability.

  9. Magnesium and zinc borate enhance osteoblastic differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao-Jen; Su, Wen-Ta; Chen, Po-Hung

    2018-01-01

    Various biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds blended with biochemical signal molecules with adequate osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties have attracted significant interest in hard tissue engineering regeneration. We evaluated the distinct effects of magnesium borate, zinc borate, and boric acid blended into chitosan scaffold for osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth. Stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth cells are a potential source of functional osteoblasts for applications in bone tissue engineering, but the efficiency of osteoblastic differentiation is low, thereby significantly limiting their clinical applications. Divalent metal borates have potential function in bone remodeling because they can simulate bone formation and decrease bone resorption. These magnesium, zinc, and B ions can gradually be released into the culture medium from the scaffold and induce advanced osteoblastic differentiation from stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth. Stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth with magnesium borate or zinc borate as inducer demonstrated more osteoblastic differentiation after 21 days of culture. Differentiated cells exhibited activity of alkaline phosphatase, bone-related gene expression of collagen type I, runt-related transcription factor 2, osteopontin, osteocalcin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and angiopoietin-1, as noted via real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, as well as significant deposits of calcium minerals. Divalent mental magnesium and zinc and nonmetal boron can be an effective inducer of osteogenesis for stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth. This experiment might provide useful inducers for osteoblastic differentiation of stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth for tissue engineering and bone repair.

  10. Mast cells and matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression in actinic cheilitis and lip squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Souza Freitas, Valéria; de Andrade Santos, Pedro Paulo; de Almeida Freitas, Roseana; Pereira Pinto, Leão; de Souza, Lélia Batista

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate mast cell (MC) density and migration and their association with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and actinic cheilitis (AC). Tryptase, c-Kit, and MMP-9 expression was evaluated in 20 cases of SCC, 20 cases of AC, and 7 cases of normal lip (control samples) by immunohistochemistry techniques. Tryptase(+) and c-Kit(+) MC densities were significantly higher in SCCs than in ACs and control samples (P < .001). However, no significant difference was found when comparing tryptase(+) and c-Kit(+) MC densities between ACs and control samples (P values .185 and .516, respectively). MMP-9 was strongly expressed in SCCs and moderately expressed in ACs and control samples. A highly significant association was found between tryptase(+) MC density and the expression of MMP-9 (P < .001). The increase in MC density associated with the strong expression of MMP-9 may favor SCC progression. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exfoliation and Air Stability of Germanane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Standard Form 298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 614-247-7438 W911NF-12-1-0481 62249-MS.12 MS Thesis a . REPORT 14. ABSTRACT 16...Germanane Exfoliation of graphene has shown that it is not only possible to create stable, singleatom- thick sheets from a crystalline solid, but that...however, contains the sp3 hybridization needed for functionalization. This functionalization could lead to a tunable band gap necessary for

  12. Climatic droplet keratopathy, exfoliation syndrome, and cataract.

    PubMed Central

    Resnikoff, S; Filliard, G; Dell'Aquila, B

    1991-01-01

    During a countrywide survey we assessed the prevalence of climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK) in a randomised sample of 2446 subjects representative of the population of the Republic of Djibouti. The investigation of the relationship between CDK and two diseases considered to be related to exposure to ultra-violet light--namely, exfoliation syndrome and cataract--was planned as a case control study. In the rural area prevalence of CDK was five times higher than in the urban one (2.8% vs 0.5%) and varied according to districts. The highest rates were observed where the inhabitants' activities were related to the sea. The case control study revealed that the opacification of the lens was about three times commoner in patients with CDK than in patients without CDK (p = 0.03) and that the exfoliation syndrome was about six times commoner in patients with CDK than in controls of similar age, sex, climatic conditions, and lens status (p = 0.02). Moreover, we noticed that the sequelae of corneal perforations were about 30 times commoner in patients with CDK than in controls of similar age (p less than 0.00001). PMID:1768663

  13. Actinic cheilitis: clinicopathologic profile and association with degree of dysplasia.

    PubMed

    de Santana Sarmento, Dmitry José; da Costa Miguel, Márcia Cristina; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes; Godoy, Gustavo Pina; da Silveira, Ericka Janine Dantas

    2014-04-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a potentially malignant disorder of the lip caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinicopathologic profile of cases of AC and to verify associations with the degree of dysplasia. This retrospective study analyzed data for 40 patients with AC. Demographic, clinical, and histopathologic data were evaluated. Sections measuring 5 μm in thickness were cut, deparaffinized, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic examination. The degree of epithelial dysplasia was graded using the criteria defined by the World Health Organization. Two calibrated oral pathologists analyzed the slides. Analysis of the AC patients sampled showed that 75.0% were male (P=0.002), 80.0% were aged≥40 years (P<0.001), 74.3% were Caucasian (P=0.004), and 68.6% had occupational exposure to sunlight (P=0.028). The most common clinical manifestation was white lesions (55.0%), and 40.0% of patients had no dysplasia. No significant associations emerged between the histologic grading of AC and gender (P=1.000), age (P=1.000), ethnicity (P=0.416), occupational exposure to sunlight (P=1.000), and clinical presentation (P=0.467). The degree of dysplasia in AC was not statistically associated with gender, age, ethnicity, occupational exposure to sunlight, or clinical appearance. This study provides some support for the hypothesis that clinicopathologic features are not related to the degree of dysplasia in AC. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Malignant transformation of actinic cheilitis: A systematic review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Dancyger, Alex; Heard, Victoria; Huang, Baikai; Suley, Cameron; Tang, Dorothy; Ariyawardana, Anura

    2018-06-04

    The aim of the present systematic review was to determine the malignant transformation rate of actinic cheilitis (AC). A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Medline/PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, OvidSP, and Google Scholar. The inclusion criteria comprised of observational human studies involving the malignant transformation of AC and publications in English. Studies included in this review were clinical follow-up, cohort, retrospective, or prospective investigations. The search yielded 1126 articles, and after exclusion, 34 full-text articles were eligible for full-text analysis. Only one article met the inclusion criteria. Based on the included article, it was determined that the malignant transformation rate of AC to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was 3.07%. Excluded articles focused on the clinicopathological characteristics and treatment efficacies of AC, and no malignant transformation rate was assessed. There is a need for more clinical studies on the malignant transformation of AC, as lip cancer is a public health concern. High-risk populations, including those living in tropical regions, have excessive exposure to UV radiation, and have older aged males, fair-skinned people, and smokers should be identified to prevent AC and its malignant change. Health practitioners should facilitate early intervention to prevent the progression of AC to SCC of the lip. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Urea-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation of natural graphite into few-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Dandan; Liu, Qinfu; Wang, Xianshuai; Qiao, Zhichuan; Wu, Yingke; Xu, Bohui; Ding, Shuli

    2018-05-01

    The mass production of graphene with high quality is desirable for its wide applications. Here, we demonstrated a facile method to exfoliate natural graphite into graphene in organic solvent by assisting of urea. The exfoliation of graphite may originate from the "molecular wedge" effect of urea, which can intercalate into the edge of natural graphite, thus facilitating the production of graphene dispersion with a high concentration up to 1.2 mg/mL. The obtained graphene is non-oxidized with negligible defects. Therefore, this approach has great promise in bulk production of graphene with superior quality for a variety of applications.

  16. Non-invasive imaging of actinic cheilitis and squamous cell carcinoma of the lip.

    PubMed

    Lupu, Mihai; Caruntu, Ana; Caruntu, Constantin; Boda, Daniel; Moraru, Liliana; Voiculescu, Vlad; Bastian, Alexandra

    2018-05-01

    An early diagnosis is of overwhelming importance for the management and prognosis of mucocutaneous cancer. Actinic cheilitis (AC), defined by the clonal expansion of genomically unstable keratinocytes, is the most common potentially malignant lesion affecting the lips. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most frequent oral malignancy, and there is strong evidence that the majority of the SCCs of the lip originate from AC. There is considerable difficulty in discerning between dysplasia and invasive carcinomas solely on a clinical basis. Although dermoscopy has become an essential tool for skin tumor evaluation, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a non-invasive imaging technology that has proved itself extremely useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of several skin diseases, including AC and SCC. The present study aimed to re-emphasize the usefulness of RCM in the early detection of malignant transformation, using AC and SCC of the lips as working examples. Due to the apparent innocuousness of AC for numerous patients, it is not possible to overstress the importance of a correct and early diagnosis, proper treatment and long-term patient follow-up as being essential for preventing the progression to lip SCC, or for its timely diagnosis.

  17. Non-invasive imaging of actinic cheilitis and squamous cell carcinoma of the lip

    PubMed Central

    Lupu, Mihai; Caruntu, Ana; Caruntu, Constantin; Boda, Daniel; Moraru, Liliana; Voiculescu, Vlad; Bastian, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    An early diagnosis is of overwhelming importance for the management and prognosis of mucocutaneous cancer. Actinic cheilitis (AC), defined by the clonal expansion of genomically unstable keratinocytes, is the most common potentially malignant lesion affecting the lips. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most frequent oral malignancy, and there is strong evidence that the majority of the SCCs of the lip originate from AC. There is considerable difficulty in discerning between dysplasia and invasive carcinomas solely on a clinical basis. Although dermoscopy has become an essential tool for skin tumor evaluation, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a non-invasive imaging technology that has proved itself extremely useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of several skin diseases, including AC and SCC. The present study aimed to re-emphasize the usefulness of RCM in the early detection of malignant transformation, using AC and SCC of the lips as working examples. Due to the apparent innocuousness of AC for numerous patients, it is not possible to overstress the importance of a correct and early diagnosis, proper treatment and long-term patient follow-up as being essential for preventing the progression to lip SCC, or for its timely diagnosis. PMID:29725529

  18. Exfoliation restacking route to Au nanoparticle-clay nanohybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paek, Seung-Min; Jang, Jae-Up; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2006-05-01

    A novel gold-pillared aluminosilicate (Au-PILC) were synthesized with positively charged gold nanoparticles capped by mercaptoammonium and exfoliated silicate layers. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by NaBH4 reduction of AuCl4- in the presence of N,N,N-Trimethyl (11-mercaptoundecyl)ammonium (HS(CH2)11NMe3+) protecting ligand in an aqueous solution, and purified by dialysis. The resulting positively charged and water-soluble gold nanoparticles were hybridized with exfoliated silicate sheets by electrostatic interaction. The formation of Au clay hybrids could be easily confirmed by the powder X-ray diffraction with the increased basal spacing of clay upon insertion of Au nanoparticles. TEM image clearly revealed that the Au particles with an average size of 4 nm maintain their structure even after intercalation. The Au nanoparticles supported by clay matrix were found to be thermally more stable, suggesting that the Au nanoparticles were homogeneously protected with clay nanoplates. The present synthetic route could be further applicable to various hybrid systems between metal nanoparticles and clays.

  19. Nanoimprint-Assisted Shear Exfoliation (NASE) for Producing Multilayer MoS2 Structures as Field-Effect Transistor Channel Arrays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mikai; Nam, Hongsuk; Rokni, Hossein; Wi, Sungjin; Yoon, Jeong Seop; Chen, Pengyu; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Lu, Wei; Liang, Xiaogan

    2015-09-22

    MoS2 and other semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are of great interest due to their excellent physical properties and versatile chemistry. Although many recent research efforts have been directed to explore attractive properties associated with MoS2 monolayers, multilayer/few-layer MoS2 structures are indeed demanded by many practical scale-up device applications, because multilayer structures can provide sizable electronic/photonic state densities for driving upscalable electrical/optical signals. Currently there is a lack of processes capable of producing ordered, pristine multilayer structures of MoS2 (or other relevant TMDCs) with manufacturing-grade uniformity of thicknesses and electronic/photonic properties. In this article, we present a nanoimprint-based approach toward addressing this challenge. In this approach, termed as nanoimprint-assisted shear exfoliation (NASE), a prepatterned bulk MoS2 stamp is pressed into a polymeric fixing layer, and the imprinted MoS2 features are exfoliated along a shear direction. This shear exfoliation can significantly enhance the exfoliation efficiency and thickness uniformity of exfoliated flakes in comparison with previously reported exfoliation processes. Furthermore, we have preliminarily demonstrated the fabrication of multiple transistors and biosensors exhibiting excellent device-to-device performance consistency. Finally, we present a molecular dynamics modeling analysis of the scaling behavior of NASE. This work holds significant potential to leverage the superior properties of MoS2 and other emerging TMDCs for practical scale-up device applications.

  20. A rare case report and appraisal of the literature on spontaneous tooth exfoliation associated with trigeminal herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rupinder; Rani, Pooja; Malhotra, Divye; Kaur, Rajwant; Dass, Praveen Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Reports of post herpetic maxillofacial complications have been very rarely documented in the literature that includes periapical lesions, calcified and devitalized pulps, resorption of roots, osteonecrosis, and spontaneous exfoliation of teeth. The atypical feature of the case of concern to the dental surgeon is the rare complication of spontaneous tooth exfoliation following herpes zoster. This case reports a male patient of age 47 years who reported to the Department of Periodontology with the chief complaint of mobility in the left upper central incisor. Patient history revealed herpes zoster infection that began 11 days earlier along with underlying diabetes mellitus condition. We hereby report a known diabetic patient with history of herpes zoster infection who presented with rare complication of spontaneous tooth exfoliation involving the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. Limited number of cases has been reported in the literature regarding spontaneous teeth exfoliation secondary to herpes zoster. The exact pathogenesis regarding the spontaneous exfoliation of teeth in herpes zoster patient is still controversial. Thus, an oral health care provider should be aware of this rare complication while managing a case of tooth mobility with the previous history of herpes zoster of trigeminal nerve.

  1. Direct synthesis of hydrophobic graphene-based nanosheets via chemical modification of exfoliated graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jigang; Wang, Yongsheng; He, Dawei; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Hongpeng; Wang, Haiteng; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bingyang; Xu, Haiteng; Fu, Ming

    2012-08-01

    Hydrophobic graphene-based material at the nanoscale was prepared by treatment of exfoliated graphene oxide with organic isocyanates. The lipophilic modified graphene oxide (LMGO) can then be exfoliated into the functionalized graphene nanoplatelets that can form a stable dispersion in polar aprotic solvents. AFM image shows the thickness of LMGO is approximately 1 nm. Characterization of LMGO by elemental analysis suggested that the chemical treatment results in the functionalization of the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in GO via formation of amides and carbamate esters, respectively. The degree of GO functionalization can be controlled via either the reactivity of the isocyanate or the reaction time. Then we investigated the thermal properties of the SPFGraphene by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the TGA curve shows a greater weight loss of approximately 20% occurred indicating removal of functional groups from the LMGO sheets and an obvious exothermic peak at 176 degrees can be observed from 150 to 250 degrees. We also compared the structure of graphene oxide with the structure of chemical treated graphene oxide by FT-IR spectroscopy. The morphology and microstructure of the LMGO nanosheets were also characterized by SEM and XRD. Graphene can be used to fabricate a wide range of simple electronic devices such as field-effect transistors, resonators, quantum dots and some other extensive industrial manufacture such as super capacitor, li ion battery, solar cells and even transparent electrodes in device applications.

  2. Exfoliation of the tungsten fibreform nanostructure by unipolar arcing in the LHD divertor plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokitani, M.; Kajita, S.; Masuzaki, S.; Hirahata, Y.; Ohno, N.; Tanabe, T.; LHD Experiment Group

    2011-10-01

    The tungsten nanostructure (W-fuzz) created in the linear divertor simulator (NAGDIS) was exposed to the Large Helical Device (LHD) divertor plasma for only 2 s (1 shot) to study exfoliation/erosion and microscopic modifications due to the high heat/particle loading under high magnetic field conditions. Very fine and randomly moved unipolar arc trails were clearly observed on about half of the W-fuzz area (6 × 10 mm2). The fuzzy surface was exfoliated by continuously moving arc spots even for the very short exposure time. This is the first observation of unipolar arcing and exfoliation of some areas of the W-fuzz structure itself in a large plasma confinement device with a high magnetic field. The typical width and depth of each arc trail were about 8 µm and 1 µm, respectively, and the arc spots moved randomly on the micrometre scale. The fractality of the arc trails was analysed using a box-counting method, and the fractal dimension (D) of the arc trails was estimated to be D ≈ 1.922. This value indicated that the arc spots moved in Brownian motion, and were scarcely influenced by the magnetic field. One should note that such a large scale exfoliation due to unipolar arcing may enhance the surface erosion of the tungsten armour and act as a serious impurity source for fusion plasmas.

  3. Methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic cheilitis: a retrospective evaluation of 29 patients.

    PubMed

    Fai, D; Romano, I; Cassano, N; Vena, G A

    2012-02-01

    Multiple treatment modalities have been proposed for actinic cheilitis (AC), and topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) has recently been included among these modalities. We report our experience with PDT using methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) in AC. We performed a retrospective analysis of 29 patients who had undergone MAL-PDT for treatment of AC: 4 patients received one single session and 25 patients two consecutive weekly sessions. At 3 months, 21 patients (72%) obtained a complete clinical response, which was sustained over a follow-up period of 6-36 months (mean, 20 months) in 20 patients. Cosmetic outcome was generally rated as good or very good. Transient local adverse events related to the procedure were common and mild to moderate in the majority of cases. Our preliminary experience suggests that MAL-PDT may be considered a valid modality for the treatment of AC, although long-term follow-up studies in large patient series are required to obtain precise data about clinical and histological recurrences.

  4. One-pot exfoliation, functionalization, and size manipulation of graphene sheets: efficient system for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Bani, Farhad; Bodaghi, Ali; Dadkhah, Abbas; Movahedi, Soodabeh; Bodaghabadi, Narges; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Adeli, Mohsen

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we reported a facile method to produce stable aqueous graphene dispersion through direct exfoliation of graphite by modified hyperbranched polyglycerol. Size of graphene sheets was manipulated by simultaneous exfoliation and sonication of graphite, and functionalized graphene sheets with narrow size distribution were obtained. The polyglycerol-functionalized graphene sheets exhibited highly efficient cellular uptake and photothermal conversion, enabling it to serve as a photothermal agent for cancer therapy.

  5. Applications of the oral scraped (exfoliative) cytology in oral cancer and precancer.

    PubMed

    Acha, Amelia; Ruesga, María T; Rodríguez, María J; Martínez de Pancorbo, María A; Aguirre, José M

    2005-01-01

    Scraped (exfoliative) cytology is a simple and harmless procedure, which has been a controversial technique according to its real validity in oral pathology. Lately it has re-emerged due to its application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. New diagnostic techniques have been developed, such as "brush biopsy" and multiple molecular studies using the cells collected. In this review we are going to analyse the more novel aspects related with the applications of the scraped or exfoliative cytology in oral precancerous and cancerous pathology, specially focusing on molecular studies and their diagnostic and prognostic implications.

  6. Strongly luminescent monolayered MoS2 prepared by effective ultrasound exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří

    2013-04-21

    Intense ultrasound in a pressurized batch reactor was used for preparation of monolayered MoS2 nanosheets from natural mineral molybdenite. Exfoliation of bulk MoS2 using ultrasound is an attractive route to large-scale preparation of monolayered crystals. To evaluate the quality of delamination, methods like X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and microscopic techniques (TEM and AFM) were employed. From single- or few-layered products obtained from intense sonication, MoS2 quantum dots (MoSQDs) were prepared by a one-pot reaction by refluxing exfoliated nanosheets of MoS2 in ethylene glycol under atmospheric pressure. The synthesised MoSQDs were characterised by photoluminescence spectroscopy and laser-scattering particle size analysis. Our easy preparation leads to very strongly green luminescing quantum dots.

  7. Exfoliation of graphene with an industrial dye: teaching an old dog new tricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlierf, Andrea; Cha, Kitty; Schwab, Matthias Georg; Samorı, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    We describe the exfoliation, processing and inclusion in polymer composites of few-layers graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) by using the molecule indanthrone blue sulphonic acid sodium salt (IBS), a very common industrial dyestuff and intermediate for liquid crystal preparation. We show how IBS can be used to successfully exfoliate graphite into few-layers graphene yielding highly stable dispersions in water. To demonstrate that the method is suitable for applications in composites, these graphene-organic hybrids are processed into a commercial commodity polymer (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA), enhancing its electrical bulk conductivity by ten orders of magnitude by adding as few as 3% of GNP. We attribute the good performance of IBS in dispersing GNPs in water to its amphiphilic nature and the tendency to self-assemble through π-π interaction of its large aromatic core with the graphene surface. The molecule studied here, unlike many specialty organic surfactants or solvents commonly known to exfoliate graphene, is already used as a blue pigment dispersant additive in the industrial production of polymers and thus does not need to be removed from the final product.

  8. Stable aqueous dispersions of functionalized multi-layer graphene by pulsed underwater plasma exfoliation of graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Plath, Asmus; Beckert, Fabian; Tölle, Folke J.; Sturm, Heinz; Mülhaupt, Rolf

    2016-02-01

    A process was developed for graphite particle exfoliation in water to stably dispersed multi-layer graphene. It uses electrohydraulic shockwaves and the functionalizing effect of solution plasma discharges in water. The discharges were excited by 100 ns high voltage pulsing of graphite particle chains that bridge an electrode gap. The underwater discharges allow simultaneous exfoliation and chemical functionalization of graphite particles to partially oxidized multi-layer graphene. Exfoliation is caused by shockwaves that result from rapid evaporation of carbon and water to plasma-excited gas species. Depending on discharge energy and locus of ignition, the shockwaves cause stirring, erosion, exfoliation and/or expansion of graphite flakes. The process was optimized to produce long-term stable aqueous dispersions of multi-layer graphene from graphite in a single process step without requiring addition of intercalants, surfactants, binders or special solvents. A setup was developed that allows continuous production of aqueous dispersions of flake size-selected multi-layer graphenes. Due to the well-preserved sp2-carbon structure, thin films made from the dispersed graphene exhibited high electrical conductivity. Underwater plasma discharge processing exhibits high innovation potential for morphological and chemical modifications of carbonaceous materials and surfaces, especially for the generation of stable dispersions of two-dimensional, layered materials.

  9. Multilayer Black Phosphorus Exfoliated with the Aid of Sodium Hydroxide: An Improvement in Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wanying; Zhu, Yabo; Chen, Zhiyan; Lei, Jia; Feng, Peizhong

    2018-05-01

    We generated multilayer black phosphorus (MBP) as a precipitate in centrifugation under 3000 rpm for 25 min, preceded by liquid exfoliation, in which saturated sodium hydroxide (NaOH(s)) was added as an exfoliation auxiliary. The MBP exfoliated with NaOH(s) was characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive x-ray detector, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Its electrochemical performance was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the appropriate amount of NaOH(s) can make MBP present a ladder-shaped structure or plackets on the layer edge, which may provide more active sites and channels for charge storage to improve its electrochemical performance. The specific capacitance of MBP samples exfoliated with appropriate amounts of NaOH(s) can quickly enter a relatively stable range of 110-90 F/g after the 75th cycle, and finally stabilize at about 90 F/g after thousands of cycles under the current density of 2 A/g, which demonstrates their good stability in the range of long charge/discharge cycles. MBP exhibits double-layer capacitance properties.

  10. Lignin-assisted exfoliation of molybdenum disulfide in aqueous media and its application in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wanshuang; Zhao, Chenyang; Zhou, Rui; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Zhaolin; Lu, Xuehong

    2015-05-01

    In this article, alkali lignin (AL)-assisted direct exfoliation of MoS2 mineral into single-layer and few-layer nanosheets in water is reported for the first time. Under optimized conditions, the concentration of MoS2 nanosheets in the obtained dispersion can be as high as 1.75 +/- 0.08 mg mL-1, which is much higher than the typical reported concentrations (<1.0 mg mL-1) using synthetic polymers or compounds as surfactants. The stabilizing mechanism primarily lies in the electrostatic repulsion between negative charged AL, as suggested by zeta-potential measurements. When the exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets are applied as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries, they show much improved electrochemical performance compared with the pristine MoS2 mineral because of the enhanced ion and electron transfer kinetics. This facile, scalable and eco-friendly aqueous-based process in combination with renewable and ultra-low-cost lignin opens up possibilities for large-scale fabrication of MoS2-based nanocomposites and devices. Moreover, herein we demonstrate that AL is also an excellent surfactant for exfoliation of many other types of layered materials, including graphene, tungsten disulfide and boron nitride, in water, providing rich opportunities for a wider range of applications.In this article, alkali lignin (AL)-assisted direct exfoliation of MoS2 mineral into single-layer and few-layer nanosheets in water is reported for the first time. Under optimized conditions, the concentration of MoS2 nanosheets in the obtained dispersion can be as high as 1.75 +/- 0.08 mg mL-1, which is much higher than the typical reported concentrations (<1.0 mg mL-1) using synthetic polymers or compounds as surfactants. The stabilizing mechanism primarily lies in the electrostatic repulsion between negative charged AL, as suggested by zeta-potential measurements. When the exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets are applied as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries, they show much improved

  11. Electrolytic exfoliation of graphite in water with multifunctional electrolytes: en route towards high quality, oxide-free graphene flakes.

    PubMed

    Munuera, J M; Paredes, J I; Villar-Rodil, S; Ayán-Varela, M; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2016-02-07

    Electrolytic--usually referred to as electrochemical--exfoliation of graphite in water under anodic potential holds enormous promise as a simple, green and high-yield method for the mass production of graphene, but currently suffers from several drawbacks that hinder its widespread adoption, one of the most critical being the oxidation and subsequent structural degradation of the carbon lattice that is usually associated with such a production process. To overcome this and other limitations, we introduce and implement the concept of multifunctional electrolytes. The latter are amphiphilic anions (mostly polyaromatic hydrocarbons appended with sulfonate groups) that play different relevant roles as (1) an intercalating electrolyte to trigger exfoliation of graphite into graphene flakes, (2) a dispersant to afford stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of the flakes suitable for further use, (3) a sacrificial agent to prevent graphene oxidation during exfoliation and (4) a linker to promote nanoparticle anchoring on the graphene flakes, yielding functional hybrids. The implementation of this strategy with some selected amphiphiles even furnishes anodically exfoliated graphenes of a quality similar to that of flakes produced by direct, ultrasound- or shear-induced exfoliation of graphite in the liquid phase (i.e., almost oxide- and defect-free). These high quality materials were used for the preparation of catalytically efficient graphene-Pt nanoparticle hybrids, as demonstrated by model reactions (reduction of nitroarenes). The multifunctional performance of these electrolytes is also discussed and rationalized, and a mechanistic picture of their oxidation-preventing ability is proposed. Overall, the present results open the prospect of anodic exfoliation as a competitive method for the production of very high quality graphene flakes.

  12. Rockfall triggering by cyclic thermal stressing of exfoliation fractures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    Exfoliation of rock deteriorates cliffs through the formation and subsequent opening of fractures, which in turn can lead to potentially hazardous rockfalls. Although a number of mechanisms are known to trigger rockfalls, many rockfalls occur during periods when likely triggers such as precipitation, seismic activity and freezing conditions are absent. It has been suggested that these enigmatic rockfalls may occur due to solar heating of rock surfaces, which can cause outward expansion. Here we use data from 3.5 years of field monitoring of an exfoliating granite cliff in Yosemite National Park in California, USA, to assess the magnitude and temporal pattern of thermally induced rock deformation. From a thermodynamic analysis, we find that daily, seasonal and annual temperature variations are sufficient to drive cyclic and cumulative opening of fractures. Application of fracture theory suggests that these changes can lead to further fracture propagation and the consequent detachment of rock. Our data indicate that the warmest times of the day and year are particularly conducive to triggering rockfalls, and that cyclic thermal forcing may enhance the efficacy of other, more typical rockfall triggers.

  13. Comparison on exfoliated graphene nano-sheets and triturated graphite nano-particles for mode-locking the Erbium-doped fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-Yu; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Wu, Chung-Lun; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Tsai, Din-Ping; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2018-06-01

    Comparisons on exfoliated graphene nano-sheets and triturated graphite nano-particles for mode-locking the Erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFLs) are performed. As opposed to the graphite nano-particles obtained by physically triturating the graphite foil, the tri-layer graphene nano-sheets is obtained by electrochemically exfoliating the graphite foil. To precisely control the size dispersion and the layer number of the exfoliated graphene nano-sheet, both the bias of electrochemical exfoliation and the speed of centrifugation are optimized. Under a threshold exfoliation bias of 3 volts and a centrifugation at 1000 rpm, graphene nano-sheets with an average diameter of 100  ±  40 nm can be obtained. The graphene nano-sheets with an area density of 15 #/µm2 are directly imprinted onto the end-face of a single-mode fiber made patchcord connector inside the EDFL cavity. Such electrochemically exfoliated graphene nano-sheets show comparable saturable absorption with standard single-graphene and perform the self-amplitude modulation better than physically triturated graphite nano-particles. The linear transmittance and modulation depth of the inserted graphene nano-sheets are 92.5% and 53%, respectively. Under the operation with a power gain of 21.5 dB, the EDFL can be passively mode-locked to deliver a pulsewidth of 454.5 fs with a spectral linewidth of 5.6 nm. The time-bandwidth product of 0.31 is close to the transform limit. The Kelly sideband frequency spacing of 1.34 THz is used to calculate the chirp coefficient as  ‑0.0015.

  14. The effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug choline magnesium trisalicylate on gastric mucosal cell exfoliation.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, K G; Hearns, J; Crean, G P

    1984-01-01

    Gastric mucosal cell exfoliation was measured in 10 normal subjects taking choline magnesium trisalicylate (CMT), aspirin and placebo. Both drugs resulted in significantly elevated rates of exfoliation although the serum salicylate levels achieved with aspirin were lower than those achieved by CMT. Side-effects of tinnitus, nausea and increased faecal blood loss were more common while subjects were taking CMT. PMID:6691886

  15. The effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug choline magnesium trisalicylate on gastric mucosal cell exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, K G; Hearns, J; Crean, G P

    1984-01-01

    Gastric mucosal cell exfoliation was measured in 10 normal subjects taking choline magnesium trisalicylate (CMT), aspirin and placebo. Both drugs resulted in significantly elevated rates of exfoliation although the serum salicylate levels achieved with aspirin were lower than those achieved by CMT. Side-effects of tinnitus, nausea and increased faecal blood loss were more common while subjects were taking CMT.

  16. Black tea assisted exfoliation using a kitchen mixer allowing one-step production of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Zulhelmi; Farhana Abu Kassim, Nurul; Hannifa Abdullah, Abu; Sakinah Zainal Abidin, Anis; Sameha Ismail, Fadwa; Yusoh, Kamal

    2017-07-01

    A kitchen mixer is one of the possible tools for the exfoliation of graphene. While organic solvents such as NMP or DMF are suitable for the exfoliation of graphite, the majority are toxic and dangerously harmful when exposed to humans and the environment. Therefore, an alternative solvent must be proposed for green and sustainable production of graphene. In this initial work, we have developed a new synthesis method for graphene through the direct exfoliation of graphite in commercial black tea. We found that our maximum yield concentration of graphene is Y  =  0.032 mg ml-l after 15 min of mixing. From the data of Raman, the level of defects in our produced graphene is suggested as being very minor (I D/I G  =  0.17), despite possible graphene functionalization by oxygen groups in tea. Incorporation of our graphene into PMMA results in shifting the onset temperature from 300 °C to 326 °C, which impressively validates the potential of the produced graphene as a thermal reinforcement material for polymer composites.

  17. Influence of laser wavelength on two-dimensional carbon nanosheet formation from laser-induced exfoliation of naphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Min; Niu, Yue Ping; Gong, Shang Qing

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed Nd:YAG (532 nm) and Excimer (248 nm) lasers were employed to produce freestanding, two-dimensional (2D), carbon nanosheets (CNSs) from naphthalene, through laser-induced exfoliation. The polymer-to-carbon transition was investigated in terms of laser wavelengths, fluences, as well as target preparations. Continuous and porous CNSs of several nanometers in thickness and micrometers in size were obtained from 532 and 248 nm pulsed laser exfoliation of spin-coated naphthalene films, respectively. The porous morphology is ascribed to the photon-induced dissociation of chemical bonds dominated in 248 nm laser interaction with ablated naphthalene. With the increase of laser fluences from 1 to 5 J cm-2, amorphous carbon and ultrathin CNS structures were obtained in sequence. This work revealed a general mechanism of producing 2D structured carbon materials from pulsed laser exfoliation.

  18. Packaging material and flexible medical tubing containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A packaging material or flexible medical tubing containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

  19. Luminescent monolayer MoS2 quantum dots produced by multi-exfoliation based on lithium intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Wen; Yan, Shiming; Song, Xueyin; Zhang, Xing; He, Xueming; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2015-12-01

    An effective multi-exfoliation method based on lithium (Li) intercalation has been demonstrated for preparing monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) quantum dots (QDs). The cutting mechanism of MoS2 QDs may involve the complete breakup around the defects and edges during the reaction of LixMoS2 with water and its following ultrasonication process. The multiply exfoliation make the MoS2 fragile and easier to break up. After the third exfoliation, a large number of monolayer MoS2 QDs is formed. The as-prepared MoS2 QDs show photoluminescence (PL) inactive due to the existence of 1T phase. After heating treatment, the PL intensity excited at 300 nm is enhanced by five times. The MoS2 QDs solution has an excitation-dependent luminescence emission which shifts to longer wavelengths when the excitation wavelength changes from 280 nm to 370 nm. The optical properties are explored based on the quantum confinement and edge effect.

  20. Effective NaBH4-exfoliated ultrathin multilayer Co(OH)2 nanosheets arrays and sulfidation for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wanjun; Qu, Gan; Chen, Mingyue; Ma, Wenhao; Li, Wenhui; Tang, Yiwen

    2018-07-01

    Facile engineering ultrathin nano structural materials is still a huge challenge for material science. Thereinto, the strategy of exfoliating shows great advantages. In this work, we develop a convenient approach to exfoliate Co(OH)2 nanosheets into ultrathin Co(OH)2 nanoflakes through NaBH4-exfoliation method. Moreover, the microstructures of the Co(OH)2 nanosheets are conveniently controlled by varying the exfoliation time. As a result, the obtained ultrathin Co(OH)2-72 h nanosheets deliver the excellent electrochemical performance. In order to improve the energy storage properties, the obtained ultrathin Co(OH)2 nanosheets are further modified to enhance the conductivity via sulfidation. Consequently, the synthesized Co(OH)2-72 h/CoS2 composites exhibit a specific capacitance of 2536 F g‑1 at 1 A g‑1, which is more outstanding than that of Co(OH)2-72 h. What’s more, the Co(OH)2-72 h/CoS2 composites show a capacitance retention of 83.3% after 10 000 cycles. Besides, the assembled asymmetric supercapacitor displays a power density of 482 W kg‑1 at an energy density of 36 Wh kg‑1, demonstrating a large potential for application.

  1. Effective NaBH4-exfoliated ultrathin multilayer Co(OH)2 nanosheets arrays and sulfidation for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanjun; Qu, Gan; Chen, Mingyue; Ma, Wenhao; Li, Wenhui; Tang, Yiwen

    2018-07-20

    Facile engineering ultrathin nano structural materials is still a huge challenge for material science. Thereinto, the strategy of exfoliating shows great advantages. In this work, we develop a convenient approach to exfoliate Co(OH) 2 nanosheets into ultrathin Co(OH) 2 nanoflakes through NaBH 4 -exfoliation method. Moreover, the microstructures of the Co(OH) 2 nanosheets are conveniently controlled by varying the exfoliation time. As a result, the obtained ultrathin Co(OH) 2 -72 h nanosheets deliver the excellent electrochemical performance. In order to improve the energy storage properties, the obtained ultrathin Co(OH) 2 nanosheets are further modified to enhance the conductivity via sulfidation. Consequently, the synthesized Co(OH) 2 -72 h/CoS 2 composites exhibit a specific capacitance of 2536 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 , which is more outstanding than that of Co(OH) 2 -72 h. What's more, the Co(OH) 2 -72 h/CoS 2 composites show a capacitance retention of 83.3% after 10 000 cycles. Besides, the assembled asymmetric supercapacitor displays a power density of 482 W kg -1 at an energy density of 36 Wh kg -1 , demonstrating a large potential for application.

  2. High-efficiency exfoliation of layered materials into 2D nanosheets in switchable CO2/Surfactant/H2O system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Xu, Qun; Xu, Shanshan; Qi, Yuhang; Chen, Meng; Li, Hongxiang; Han, Buxing

    2015-11-16

    Layered materials present attractive and important properties due to their two-dimensional (2D) structure, allowing potential applications including electronics, optoelectronics, and catalysis. However, fully exploiting the outstanding properties will require a method for their efficient exfoliation. Here we present that a series of layered materials can be successfully exfoliated into single- and few-layer nanosheets using the driving forces coming from the phase inversion, i.e., from micelles to reverse micelles in the emulsion microenvironment built by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2). The effect of variable experimental parameters including CO2 pressure, ethanol/water ratio, and initial concentration of bulk materials on the exfoliation yield have been investigated. Moreover, we demonstrate that the exfoliated 2D nanosheets have their worthwhile applications, for example, graphene can be used to prepare conductive paper, MoS2 can be used as fluorescent label to perform cellular labelling, and BN can effectively reinforce polymers leading to the promising mechanical properties.

  3. High-efficiency exfoliation of layered materials into 2D nanosheets in switchable CO2/Surfactant/H2O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; Xu, Qun; Xu, Shanshan; Qi, Yuhang; Chen, Meng; Li, Hongxiang; Han, Buxing

    2015-11-01

    Layered materials present attractive and important properties due to their two-dimensional (2D) structure, allowing potential applications including electronics, optoelectronics, and catalysis. However, fully exploiting the outstanding properties will require a method for their efficient exfoliation. Here we present that a series of layered materials can be successfully exfoliated into single- and few-layer nanosheets using the driving forces coming from the phase inversion, i.e., from micelles to reverse micelles in the emulsion microenvironment built by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2). The effect of variable experimental parameters including CO2 pressure, ethanol/water ratio, and initial concentration of bulk materials on the exfoliation yield have been investigated. Moreover, we demonstrate that the exfoliated 2D nanosheets have their worthwhile applications, for example, graphene can be used to prepare conductive paper, MoS2 can be used as fluorescent label to perform cellular labelling, and BN can effectively reinforce polymers leading to the promising mechanical properties.

  4. Synthesis of ZnO Nanocrystal-Graphene Composite by Mechanical Milling and Sonication-Assisted Exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Sweety; Srivastava, Chandan

    2017-02-01

    A ZnO nanocrystal-graphene composite was synthesized by a two-step method involving mechanical milling and sonication-assisted exfoliation. Zn metal powder was first ball-milled with graphite powder for 30 h in water medium. This ball-milled mixture was then subjected to exfoliation by sonication in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate surfactant to produce graphene decorated with spherical agglomerates of ultrafine nanocrystalline ZnO. The presence of a few layers of graphene was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements. The size, phase identity and composition of the ZnO nanocrystals was determined by transmission electron microscopy measurements.

  5. A flexible and transparent graphene/ZnO nanorod hybrid structure fabricated by exfoliating a graphite substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Gwang-Hee; Baek, Seong-Ho; Cho, Chang-Hee; Park, Il-Kyu

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a graphene/ZnO nanorod (NR) hybrid structure by mechanical exfoliation of ZnO NRs grown on a graphite substrate. We confirmed the existence of graphene sheets on the hybrid structure by analyzing the Raman spectra and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The Raman spectra of the exfoliated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show G and 2D band peaks that are shifted to lower wavenumbers, indicating that the exfoliated graphene layer exists under a significant amount of strain. The I-V characteristics of the graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show current flow through the graphene layer, while no current flow is observed on the ZnO NR/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite without graphene, thereby indicating that the few-layer graphene was successfully transferred onto the hybrid structure. A piezoelectric nanogenerator is demonstrated by using the fabricated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure. The nanogenerator exhibits stable output voltage up to 3.04 V with alternating current output characteristics.We demonstrate the fabrication of a graphene/ZnO nanorod (NR) hybrid structure by mechanical exfoliation of ZnO NRs grown on a graphite substrate. We confirmed the existence of graphene sheets on the hybrid structure by analyzing the Raman spectra and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The Raman spectra of the exfoliated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show G and 2D band peaks that are shifted to lower wavenumbers, indicating that the exfoliated graphene layer exists under a significant amount of strain. The I-V characteristics of the graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show current flow through the graphene layer, while no current flow is observed on the ZnO NR/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite without graphene, thereby indicating that the few-layer graphene was successfully transferred onto the hybrid structure. A piezoelectric nanogenerator is demonstrated by using the fabricated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure. The nanogenerator

  6. Large-area few-layer hexagonal boron nitride prepared by quadrupole field aided exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lun Lu, Han; Zhi Rong, Min; Qiu Zhang, Ming

    2018-03-01

    A quadrupole electric field-mediated exfoliation method is proposed to convert micron-sized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) powder into few-layer hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (h-BNNS). Under optimum conditions (400 Hz, 40 V, 32 μg ml-1, sodium deoxycholate, TAE medium), the h-BN powders (thickness >200 nm, horizontal scale ˜10 μm) are successfully exfoliated into 0.5-4 nm (1-10 layers) thick h-BNNS with the same horizontal scale. Dynamic laser scattering and atomic force microscope data show that the yield is 47.6% (for the portion with the thickness of 0.5-6 nm), and all of the vertical sizes are reduced to smaller than 18 nm (45 layers).

  7. Design of amine modified polymer dispersants for liquid-phase exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets and their photodetective nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jinseong; Hahnkee Kim, Richard; Yu, Seunggun; Babu Velusamy, Dhinesh; Lee, Hyeokjung; Park, Chanho; Cho, Suk Man; Jeong, Beomjin; Sol Kang, Han; Park, Cheolmin

    2017-12-01

    Liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanosheets is a facile, cost-effective approach to large-area photoelectric devices including photodetectors and non-volatile memories. Non-destructive exfoliation of nanosheets using macromolecular dispersing agents is beneficial in rendering the TMD nanocomposite films suitable for mechanically flexible devices. Here, an efficient LPE of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) with an amine modified poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) co-polymer (AM-PSMA) is demonstrated, wherein the maleic anhydrides were converted into maleic imides with primary amines using N-Boc-(CH2) n -NH2. The exfoliation of nanosheets was facilitated through Lewis acid-base interaction between the primary amine and transition metal. The results demonstrate that the exfoliation depends upon both the fraction of primary amines in the polymer chain and their distance from the polymer backbone. Under optimized conditions of primary amine content and its distance from the backbone, AM-PSMA gave rise to a highly concentrated MoS2 nanosheet suspension that was stable for over 10 d. Exfoliation of several other TMDs was also achieved using the optimized AM-PSMA, indicating the scope of AM-PSMA applications. Furthermore, a flexible composite film of AM-PSMA and MoS2 nanosheets fabricated by vacuum-assisted filtration showed excellent photoconductive performances including a high I on/I off ratio of 102 and a fast photocurrent switching of 300 ms.

  8. Ionic Liquid-Modified Thermosets and Their Nanocomposites: Dispersion, Exfoliation, Degradation, and Cure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throckmorton, James A.

    This dissertation explores the application of a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) to problems in the chemistry, processing, and modification of thermosetting polymers. In particular, the solution properties and reaction chemistry of 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium dicyanamide (EMIM-DCN) are applied to problems of nanoparticle dispersion and processing, graphite exfoliation, cyanate ester (CE) cure, and the environmental degradation of CEs. Nanoparticle Dispersion: Nanocomposite processing can be simplified by using the same compound as both a nanoparticle solvent and an initiator for polymerization. This dual-function molecule can be designed both for solvent potential and reaction chemistry. EMIM-DCN, previously shown by our lab to act as an epoxy initiator, is used in the synthesis of silica and acid expanded graphite composites. These composites are then characterized for particle dispersion and physical properties. Individual particle dispersion of silica nanocomposites is shown, and silica nanocomposites at low loading show individual particle dispersion and improved modulus and fracture toughness. GNP nanocomposites show a 70% increase in modulus along with a 10-order of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity at 6.5 vol%, and an electrical percolation threshold of 1.7 vol%. Direct Graphite Exfoliation By Laminar Shear: This work presents a laminar-shear alternative to chemical processing and chaotic flow-fields for the direct exfoliation of graphite and the single-pot preparation of nanocomposites. Additionally, we develop the theory of laminar flow through a 3-roll mill, and apply that theory to the latest developments in the theory of graphite interlayer shear. The resulting nanocomposite shows low electrical percolation (0.5 vol%) and low thickness (1-3 layer) graphite/graphene flakes. Additionally, the effect of processing conditions by rheometry and comparison with solvent-free conditions reveal the interactions between processing and matrix

  9. Correlation between cell cycle proteins and hMSH2 in actinic cheilitis and lip cancer.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Maria Luiza Diniz de Sousa; de Oliveira, Denise Hélen Imaculada Pereira; Sarmento, Dmitry José de Santana; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate and verify the relationship between the immunoexpression of hMSH2, p53 and p21 in actinic cheilitis (AC) and lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases. Forty AC and 40 SCC cases were submitted to immunoperoxidase method and quantitatively analyzed. Expression was compared by Mann-Whitney test, Student t test or one-way ANOVA. To correlate the variables, Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated. The expression of p53 and p21 showed no significant differences between histopathological grades of AC or lower lip SCC (p > 0.05). Immunoexpression of p53 was higher in SCC than in AC (p < 0.001), while p21 expression was more observed in AC when compared to SCC group (p = 0.006). The AC group revealed an inverse correlation between p53 and hMSH2 expression (r = -0.30, p = 0.006). Alterations in p53 and p21 expression suggest that these proteins are involved in lower lip carcinogenesis. Moreover, p53 and hMSH2 seem to be interrelated in early events of this process.

  10. Levels of salivary thiocyanate and its relation with occurrence of micronuclei using exfoliative cytology in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Baldawa, Prachi Shrigopal; Kulkarni, Venkatesh V; Koshy, Ajit V; Shaikh, Sabeer S; Varu, Rucha; Srivastava, Garima

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the levels of salivary thiocyanate and its relation with the occurrence of micronuclei (MN) using exfoliative cytology in smokers and nonsmokers. One hundred and twenty patients were divided into 3 groups: nonsmoker group 1 (control), smokers group 2, and smokers group 3. Their saliva was collected and analyzed for thiocyanate levels, and exfoliative cytology was evaluated for the presence of MN. Fisher's exact test and ANOVA test were used. It was seen that as the grade of smoking increased, the levels of salivary thiocyanate and occurrence of MN increased. Detection and quantification of "biomarkers" such as salivary thiocyanate and MN in noninvasive and painless procedures such as oral exfoliative cytology can be an upcoming research domain in the field of cancer prevention and therapeutics.

  11. Behaviour of the surface hydroxide groups of exfoliated kaolinite in the gas phase and during water adsorption.

    PubMed

    Táborosi, Attila; Szilágyi, Róbert K

    2016-02-14

    The chemical and physical properties, and thus the reactivity of phylloaluminosilicates can be tailored by intercalation, delamination, and exfoliation processes. In going from the periodic crystalline to the molecular exfoliated phase, surface defects and modifications gain importance as each face of the phylloaluminosilicate comes in direct contact with the external chemical environment. In this work, we extend our earlier studies on the molecular cluster modelling of exfoliated kaolinite sheets by evaluating the positions and orientations of surface hydroxide groups and bridging oxide anions, as the sites of reactivity. The previous focus on the inner chemical environment of a single kaolinite layer is shifted to the surface exposed octahedral aluminium-hydroxide and tetrahedral silicon-oxide sheets. The combination of semi-empirical, ab initio wave function, and density functional calculations unanimously support the amphoteric nature of the surface hydroxide groups with respect to H-bonding donor/acceptor capabilities. To a lesser extent, we observe the same for the bridging oxide anions. This is in contrast to the crystalline phase, which manifests only donor orientation for maintaining an inter-layer H-bond network. These results suggest that both electrophilic and nucleophilic characteristics of the octahedral and tetrahedral sheets need to be considered during intercalation and concomitant exfoliation of the kaolinite sheets.

  12. Paying more than lip service to lip lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Janna M.; Barankin, Benjamin; Lauzon, Gilles J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of the most common, potentially lethal, lip lesions: leukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE: was searched from 1966 to 2002 for English-language articles on prevalence of lip lesions. No articles for a family physician audience were found. MEDLINE was searched again using the terms "leukoplakia," "actinic cheilitis," and "squamous cell carcinoma." Randomized, controlled trials were selected; non-blinded trials, population-based studies, and systematic reviews were also used. MAIN MESSAGE: Leukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, and SCC of the lips are relatively common presentations that can cause substantial morbidity and, more rarely, mortality. Any abnormality of the lips can be an embarrassment. Because of the seriousness and frequency of lip disease, it is important to look for, diagnose, and treat lip lesions to prevent morbidity and mortality and also to maintain social acceptance and self-esteem. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of leukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, and SCC of the lips will aid family physicians in diagnosing and managing these lesions and in preventing associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:14526863

  13. Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite in Aqueous Sodium Halide Electrolytes toward Low Oxygen Content Graphene for Energy and Environmental Applications.

    PubMed

    Munuera, J M; Paredes, J I; Enterría, M; Pagán, A; Villar-Rodil, S; Pereira, M F R; Martins, J I; Figueiredo, J L; Cenis, J L; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2017-07-19

    Graphene and graphene-based materials have shown great promise in many technological applications, but their large-scale production and processing by simple and cost-effective means still constitute significant issues in the path of their widespread implementation. Here, we investigate a straightforward method for the preparation of a ready-to-use and low oxygen content graphene material that is based on electrochemical (anodic) delamination of graphite in aqueous medium with sodium halides as the electrolyte. Contrary to previous conflicting reports on the ability of halide anions to act as efficient exfoliating electrolytes in electrochemical graphene exfoliation, we show that proper choice of both graphite electrode (e.g., graphite foil) and sodium halide concentration readily leads to the generation of large quantities of single-/few-layer graphene nanosheets possessing a degree of oxidation (O/C ratio down to ∼0.06) lower than that typical of anodically exfoliated graphenes obtained with commonly used electrolytes. The halide anions are thought to play a role in mitigating the oxidation of the graphene lattice during exfoliation, which is also discussed and rationalized. The as-exfoliated graphene materials exhibited a three-dimensional morphology that was suitable for their practical use without the need to resort to any kind of postproduction processing. When tested as dye adsorbents, they outperformed many previously reported graphene-based materials (e.g., they adsorbed ∼920 mg g -1 for methyl orange) and were useful sorbents for oils and nonpolar organic solvents. Supercapacitor cells assembled directly from the as-exfoliated products delivered energy and power density values (up to 15.3 Wh kg -1 and 3220 W kg -1 , respectively) competitive with those of many other graphene-based devices but with the additional advantage of extreme simplicity of preparation.

  14. Electrical bistabilities and memory mechanisms of nonvolatile organic bistable devices based on exfoliated muscovite-type mica nanoparticle/poly(methylmethacrylate) nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Won Gyu; Lee, Dea Uk; Na, Han Gil; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Tae Whan

    2018-02-01

    Organic bistable devices (OBDs) with exfoliated mica nanoparticles (NPs) embedded into an insulating poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated by using a spin-coating method. Current-voltage (I-V) curves for the Al/PMMA/exfoliated mica NP/PMMA/indium-tin-oxide/glass devices at 300 K showed a clockwise current hysteresis behavior due to the existence of the exfoliated muscovite-type mica NPs, which is an essential feature for bistable devices. Write-read-erase-read data showed that the OBDs had rewritable nonvolatile memories and an endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the OBDs of 102 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 103 was maintained for retention times larger than 1 × 104 s. The memory mechanisms of the fabricated OBDs were described by using the trapping and the tunneling processes within a PMMA active layer containing exfoliated muscovite-type mica NPs on the basis of the energy band diagram and the I-V curves.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF NOVEL FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 3 GENE MUTATIONS IN ACTINIC CHEILITIS

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Annie; Dekker, Nusi; Jordan, Richard C.K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Activating mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene are responsible for several craniosynostosis and chondrodysplasia syndromes as well as some human cancers including bladder and cervical carcinoma. Despite a high frequency in some benign skin disorders, FGFR3 mutations have not been reported in cutaneous malignancies. Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a sun-induced premalignancy affecting the lower lip that frequently progresses to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The objective of this study was to determine if FGFR3 gene mutations are present in AC and SCC of the lip. Study Design DNA was extracted and purified from micro-dissected, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 20 cases of AC and SCC arising in AC. Exons 7, 15, and 17 were PCR amplified and direct sequenced. Results Four novel somatic mutations in the FGFR3 gene were identified: exon 7 mutation 742C→T (amino acid change R248C), exon 15 mutations 1850A→G (D617G) and 1888G→A (V630M), and exon 17 mutation 2056G→A (E686K). Grade of dysplasia did not correlate with presence of mutations. Conclusion The frequency of FGFR3 receptor mutations suggests a functional role for the FGFR3 receptor in the development of epithelial disorders and perhaps a change may contribute to the pathogenesis of some AC and SCC. PMID:19327639

  16. Exfoliation of gastric pit-parietal cells into the gastric lumen associated with a stimulation of isolated rat gastric mucosa in vitro: a morphological study by the application of cryotechniques.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Fumiyo; Sawaguchi, Akira; Ide, Soyuki; Kitamura, Kazuo; Suganuma, Tatsuo

    2008-06-01

    It is clinicopathologically important to elucidate the cell kinetics for the maintenance of normal gastric epithelium. In a rat gastric mucosa isolated after stimulation, a number of cells were exfoliated into the gastric lumen of the pit region. The present study was undertaken to clarify the origin of exfoliated cells and their histochemical profiles by taking the advantages of cryotechniques. As results, most of the exfoliated cells were identified as pit-parietal cells labeled with both peanut-lectin and anti-H+/K+-ATPase antibody. Quantitative analysis verified a time-dependent increase in the number of exfoliated cells in the gastric mucosa isolated after stimulation. The exfoliated cells exhibited a diffuse intracellular staining for E-cadherin, suggesting a dissociation of the adhesion molecule prior to the cell exfoliation. It should be noted that most of the exfoliated cells were negative to the apoptotic markers (TUNEL staining and caspase-3). Ultrastructurally, autophagosome-like structures consisting of H+/K+-ATPase positive membranes were frequently seen in the exfoliated pit-parietal cells. In addition, the pit-parietal cell exfoliation was accompanied by sealing of their basal portion with the cytoplasmic processes of adjacent surface mucous cells. The present morphological findings provide a new insight into the cell kinetics in the gastric epithelium in vitro.

  17. Mechanistic examination of pre-exfoliating confinement of surface-active polystyrene nanobeads within pristine clay.

    PubMed

    Khvan, Svetlana; Kim, Junkyung; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2007-02-01

    Hydrophobic polymer (PS) nanoparticles preformed through an emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization method were successfully incorporated into a gallery of pristine sodium montmorillonite via interfacial cation exchange. The polymer beads confined between clay nanosheets were capable of (1) preventing the silicate layers from restacking and (2) maintaining the exfoliated state of clay. The increase in the abundance of surface groups promoted adsorption of the nanobeads onto the silicate surface and eventually led to the establishment of strong polymer-clay interactions. These findings suggest that, on the basis of the obtained pre-exfoliated clay masterbatch, the presence of strong polymer-clay interactions could improve the mechanical performance of nanocomposites.

  18. Supercritical fluid extraction of bi & multi-layer graphene sheets from graphite by using exfoliation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, Gauravi; Dave, Bhoomi; Khanna, Sakshum

    2018-05-01

    In recent times, researchers have turned to explore the possibility of using Supercritical Fluid (SCFs) system to penetrate into the inert-gaping of graphite and exfoliate it into a number of layer graphene sheets. The supercritical fluid holds excellent wetting surfaces with low interfacial tension and high diffusion coefficients. Although SCFs exfoliation approach looks promising to developed large scale & low-cost graphene sheet but has not received much attention. To arouse interest and reflection on this approach, this review is organized to summarize the recent progress in graphene production by SCF technology. Here we present the simplest route to obtained layers of graphene sheets by intercalating and exfoliating graphite using supercritical CO2 processing. The layers graphene nano-sheets were collected in dichloromethane (DCM) solution which prevents the restocking of sheets. The obtained graphene sheets show the desired characteristics and thus can be used in physical, chemical and biological sciences. Thus this method provides an effortless and eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of layers of graphene sheets.

  19. Exfoliation and van der Waals heterostructure assembly of intercalated ferromagnet Cr1/3TaS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Yuji; Moriya, Rai; Arai, Miho; Masubuchi, Satoru; Pyon, Sunseng; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi; Ueno, Keiji; Machida, Tomoki

    2017-12-01

    Ferromagnetic van der Waals (vdW) materials are in demand for spintronic devices with all-two-dimensional-materials heterostructures. Here, we demonstrate mechanical exfoliation of magnetic-atom-intercalated transition metal dichalcogenide Cr1/3TaS2 from its bulk crystal; previously such intercalated materials were thought difficult to exfoliate. Magnetotransport in exfoliated tens-of-nanometres-thick flakes revealed ferromagnetic ordering below its Curie temperature T C ~ 110 K as well as strong in-plane magnetic anisotropy; these are identical to its bulk properties. Further, van der Waals heterostructure assembly of Cr1/3TaS2 with another intercalated ferromagnet Fe1/4TaS2 is demonstrated using a dry-transfer method. The fabricated heterojunction composed of Cr1/3TaS2 and Fe1/4TaS2 with a native Ta2O5 oxide tunnel barrier in between exhibits tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), revealing possible spin injection and detection with these exfoliatable ferromagnetic materials through the vdW junction.

  20. A flexible and transparent graphene/ZnO nanorod hybrid structure fabricated by exfoliating a graphite substrate.

    PubMed

    Nam, Gwang-Hee; Baek, Seong-Ho; Cho, Chang-Hee; Park, Il-Kyu

    2014-10-21

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a graphene/ZnO nanorod (NR) hybrid structure by mechanical exfoliation of ZnO NRs grown on a graphite substrate. We confirmed the existence of graphene sheets on the hybrid structure by analyzing the Raman spectra and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The Raman spectra of the exfoliated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show G and 2D band peaks that are shifted to lower wavenumbers, indicating that the exfoliated graphene layer exists under a significant amount of strain. The I-V characteristics of the graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show current flow through the graphene layer, while no current flow is observed on the ZnO NR/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite without graphene, thereby indicating that the few-layer graphene was successfully transferred onto the hybrid structure. A piezoelectric nanogenerator is demonstrated by using the fabricated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure. The nanogenerator exhibits stable output voltage up to 3.04 V with alternating current output characteristics.

  1. High-quality graphene flakes exfoliated on a flat hydrophobic polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrinazzi, Paolo; Caridad, José M.; Mackenzie, David M. A.; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Gammelgaard, Lene; Jessen, Bjarke S.; Sordan, Roman; Booth, Timothy J.; Bøggild, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We show that graphene supported on a hydrophobic and flat polymer surface results in flakes with extremely low doping and strain as assessed by their Raman spectroscopic characteristics. We exemplify this technique by micromechanical exfoliation of graphene on flat poly(methylmethacrylate) layers and demonstrate Raman peak intensity ratios I(2D)/I(G) approaching 10, similar to pristine freestanding graphene. We verify that these features are not an artifact of optical interference effects occurring at the substrate: they are similarly observed when varying the substrate thickness and are maintained when the environment of the graphene flake is completely changed, by encapsulating preselected flakes between hexagonal boron nitride layers. The exfoliation of clean, pristine graphene layers directly on flat polymer substrates enables high performance, supported, and non-encapsulated graphene devices for flexible and transparent optoelectronic studies. We additionally show that the access to a clean and supported graphene source leads to high-quality van der Waals heterostructures and devices with reproducible carrier mobilities exceeding 50 000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature.

  2. Large Area Few Layers Hexagonal Boron Nitride Prepared by Quadrupole Field Aided Exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Hanlun, Lu; Rong, Min Zhi; Zhang, Ming Qiu

    2018-01-16

    A quadrupole electric field mediated exfoliation method is proposed to convert micron sized hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) powders into few layers hexagonal boron nitride nano-sheets (h-BNNS). Under the optimum conditions (400 Hz, 40 V, 32μg/mL, sodium deoxycholate, TAE medium), the hBN powders (thickness > 200 nm, horizontal scale ~ 10 μm) are successfully exfoliated into 0.5-4 nm (1-10 layers) thick h-BNNS with the same horizontal scale. Dynamic laser scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscope (AFM) statistics show that the yield is 47.6 % (for the portion with the thickness of 0.5-6 nm), and all of the vertical sizes are reduced to smaller than 18 nm (45 layers). © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Sulfuric acid intercalated-mechanical exfoliation of reduced graphene oxide from old coconut shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islamiyah, Wildatun; Nashirudin, Luthfi; Baqiya, Malik A.; Cahyono, Yoyok; Darminto

    2018-04-01

    We report a fecile preparation of reduced grapheme oxide (rGO) from an old coconut shell by rapid reduction of heating at 400°C, chemical exfoliation using H2SO4 and HCl intercalating and mechanical exfoliation using ultrasonication. The produced samples consist of random stacks of nanometer-sized sheets. The dispersions prepared from H2SO4 had broader size distributions and larger particle sizes than the that from HCl. An average size of rGO in H2SO4 and HCl is respectively 23.62 nm and 570.4 nm. Furthermore, sample prepared in H2SO4 exhibited a high electronical conductivity of 1.1 × 10-3 S/m with a low energy gap of 0.11 eV.

  4. Lichenoid drug reaction to isoniazid presenting as exfoliative dermatitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thakur, B K; Verma, S; Mishra, J

    2015-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients are at increased risk of drug reactions because of immune dysregulation and multiple drug intake. Lichenoid drug reactions to isoniazid have been reported previously in the literature. However, for lichenoid drug reaction to isoniazid to be so extensive to present as exfoliative dermatitis is rare. We report here a rare case of lichenoid drug reaction to isoniazid presenting as exfoliative dermatitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Thermal monitoring of a granitic exfoliation sheet and cliff in Yosemite Valley, California (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerin, Antoine; Matasci, Battista; Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, new remote sensing techniques such as Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Infrared Thermography (IRT) have been used in parallel for rock weathering and weakness detection in slope stability analysis. Nevertheless, the effects of thermal stresses on rock face deformation are still poorly quantified, especially for steep and inaccessible cliffs. To better understand how daily temperature fluctuations influence the behavior of exfoliation joints (i.e., fractures separating exfoliation sheets), we monitored a granitic exfoliation sheet in detail using TLS and IRT over a several day period and also compiled a single TLS-IRT thermal panorama of a larger nearby granitic cliff composed of hundreds to thousands of similar exfoliation sheets. The exfoliation sheet had been previously instrumented for 3.5 years beginning in May 2010 using crackmeters and temperature sensors (Collins and Stock, 2010 and 2012), thereby providing an important baseline to compare our IRT measurements. For several consecutive days, a series of infrared thermal images (collected every 20 min.) of the exfoliation flake (19 m by 4 m by 0.1 m) was taken with a long range IRISYS IRI 4040 thermal imager, as well as several ground-based LiDAR scans, collected at 4 mm point spacing. These pictures were draped on the TLS triangular meshes to quantify the lateral propagation of temperature during the warming and cooling periods. The evolution of vertical and horizontal temperature profiles was also investigated. Results show that the sheet edge undergoes the most significant temperature changes and that warming takes place from the inside part to the border of the flake; conversely cooling takes place from the outside-inwards. Furthermore, the comparison of point clouds indicates a maximum crack aperture of over 1 cm occurring in the afternoon (12:00 to 15:00), when temperatures are at their maximum. The thermal panoramic image of the cliff (600 m wide by 300 m tall) was created using over

  6. Quantification of thickness and wrinkling of exfoliated two-dimensional zeolite nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Prashant; Agrawal, Kumar Varoon; Tsapatsis, Michael

    Some two-dimensional (2D) exfoliated zeolites are single- or near single-unit cell thick silicates that can function as molecular sieves. Although they have already found uses as catalysts, adsorbents and membranes precise determination of their thickness and wrinkling is critical as these properties influence their functionality. Here we demonstrate a method to accurately determine the thickness and wrinkles of a 2D zeolite nanosheet by comprehensive 3D mapping of its reciprocal lattice. Since the intensity modulation of a diffraction spot on tilting is a fingerprint of the thickness, and changes in the spot shape are a measure of wrinkling, this mapping ismore » achieved using a large-angle tilt-series of electron diffraction patterns. As a result, application of the method to a 2D zeolite with MFI structure reveals that the exfoliated MFI nanosheet is 1.5 unit cells (3.0 nm) thick and wrinkled anisotropically with up to 0.8 nm average surface roughness.« less

  7. Quantification of thickness and wrinkling of exfoliated two-dimensional zeolite nanosheets

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, Prashant; Agrawal, Kumar Varoon; Tsapatsis, Michael; ...

    2015-05-11

    Some two-dimensional (2D) exfoliated zeolites are single- or near single-unit cell thick silicates that can function as molecular sieves. Although they have already found uses as catalysts, adsorbents and membranes precise determination of their thickness and wrinkling is critical as these properties influence their functionality. Here we demonstrate a method to accurately determine the thickness and wrinkles of a 2D zeolite nanosheet by comprehensive 3D mapping of its reciprocal lattice. Since the intensity modulation of a diffraction spot on tilting is a fingerprint of the thickness, and changes in the spot shape are a measure of wrinkling, this mapping ismore » achieved using a large-angle tilt-series of electron diffraction patterns. As a result, application of the method to a 2D zeolite with MFI structure reveals that the exfoliated MFI nanosheet is 1.5 unit cells (3.0 nm) thick and wrinkled anisotropically with up to 0.8 nm average surface roughness.« less

  8. Micronucleus Assay in Exfoliated Buccal Epithelial Cells Using Liquid Based Cytology Preparations in Building Construction Workers.

    PubMed

    Arul, P; Smitha, Shetty; Masilamani, Suresh; Akshatha, C

    2018-01-01

    Cytogenetic damage in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells due to environmental and occupational exposure is often monitored by micronucleus (MN) assay using liquid based cytology (LBC) preparations. This study was performed to evaluate MN in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of building construction workers using LBC preparations. LBC preparations of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells from 100 subjects [50 building construction workers (cases) and 50 administrative staffs (controls)] was evaluated by May-Grunwald Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin and Papanicolaou stains. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis and a P value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The mean frequencies of MN for cases were significantly higher than controls regardless of staining methods used. There were statistically significant differences between smokers and non-smokers of the controls as well as duration of working exposure (<5 and >5 years) and smokers and non-smokers of cases (P=0.001). However, there were meaningful differences regarding mean frequencies of MN between smokers, non-smokers, those with alcohol consumption or not in cases and controls using various stains (P=0.001). There was an increased risk of cytogenetic damage in building construction workers. However, evaluation of MN of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in building construction workers serve as a minimally invasive biomarker for cytogenetic damage. LBC preparations can be applied for MN assay as it improves the quality of smears and cell morphology, decreases the confounding factors and reduces false positive results.

  9. Shear-Assisted Production of Few-Layer Boron Nitride Nanosheets by Supercritical CO2 Exfoliation and Its Use for Thermally Conductive Epoxy Composites.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaojuan; Li, Yun; Chen, Zhuo; Li, Qi; Hou, Liqiang; Wu, Jiaye; Tang, Yushu; Li, Yongfeng

    2017-12-19

    Boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) hold the similar two-dimensional structure as graphene and unique properties complementary to graphene, which makes it attractive in application ranging from electronics to energy storage. The exfoliation of boron nitride (BN) still remains challenge and hinders the applications of BNNS. In this work, the preparation of BNNS has been realized by a shear-assisted supercritical CO 2 exfoliation process, during which supercritical CO 2 intercalates and diffuses between boron nitride layers, and then the exfoliation of BN layers is obtained in the rapid depressurization process by overcoming the van der Waals forces. Our results indicate that the bulk boron nitride has been successfully exfoliated into thin nanosheets with an average 6 layers. It is found that the produced BNNS is well-dispersed in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with a higher extinction coefficient compared with the bulk BN. Moreover, the BNNS/epoxy composite used as thermal interface materials has been prepared. The introduction of BNNS results in a 313% enhancement in thermal conductivity. Our results demonstrate that BNNS produced by supercritical CO 2 exfoliation show great potential applications for heat dissipation of high efficiency electronics.

  10. EFFECTS OF INGESTED ARSENIC ON DNA AND CHROMOSOME IN HUMAN EXFOLIATED EPITHELIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Ingested Arsenic on DNA and Chromosome in Human Exfoliated Epithelia

    Judy L. Mumford, Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

    Arsenic...

  11. Studies on the bioavailability of the provitamin A carotenoid, beta-carotene, using human exfoliated colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gireesh, T; Nair, P P; Sudhakaran, P R

    2004-08-01

    The possibility of using exfoliated colonic epithelial cells for assessing the bioavailability of beta-carotene was examined. Analysis of exfoliated colonic epithelial cells showed the presence of beta-carotene and vitamin A. The beta-carotene content was significantly lower in cells from stool samples of subjects on a beta-carotene-poor diet than those receiving a single dose of a beta-carotene supplement. Colonic epithelial cells isolated from stool samples collected daily during a wash-out period while the subjects were on a beta-carotene-poor diet showed a steady decrease in beta-carotene content, reaching the lowest value on day 7. Kinetic analysis showed that a single dose of a beta-carotene supplement in the form of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) or agathi (Sesbania grandiflora) after the wash-out period caused an increase in the beta-carotene content after a lag period of 5-7 d, but the vitamin A levels during these periods were not significantly affected. Analysis of plasma beta-carotene concentration also showed similar changes, which correlated with those of exfoliated colonic cells. A relationship between the beta-carotene content of the diet and that of the colonic epithelial cells suggests that analysis of the beta-carotene content in exfoliated human colonic epithelial cells is a useful non-invasive method to assess the bioavailability of provitamin A beta-carotene.

  12. Turbulence-assisted shear exfoliation of graphene using household detergent and a kitchen blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varrla, Eswaraiah; Paton, Keith R.; Backes, Claudia; Harvey, Andrew; Smith, Ronan J.; McCauley, Joe; Coleman, Jonathan N.

    2014-09-01

    To facilitate progression from the lab to commercial applications, it will be necessary to develop simple, scalable methods to produce high quality graphene. Here we demonstrate the production of large quantities of defect-free graphene using a kitchen blender and household detergent. We have characterised the scaling of both graphene concentration and production rate with the mixing parameters: mixing time, initial graphite concentration, rotor speed and liquid volume. We find the production rate to be invariant with mixing time and to increase strongly with mixing volume, results which are important for scale-up. Even in this simple system, concentrations of up to 1 mg ml-1 and graphene masses of >500 mg can be achieved after a few hours mixing. The maximum production rate was ~0.15 g h-1, much higher than for standard sonication-based exfoliation methods. We demonstrate that graphene production occurs because the mean turbulent shear rate in the blender exceeds the critical shear rate for exfoliation.To facilitate progression from the lab to commercial applications, it will be necessary to develop simple, scalable methods to produce high quality graphene. Here we demonstrate the production of large quantities of defect-free graphene using a kitchen blender and household detergent. We have characterised the scaling of both graphene concentration and production rate with the mixing parameters: mixing time, initial graphite concentration, rotor speed and liquid volume. We find the production rate to be invariant with mixing time and to increase strongly with mixing volume, results which are important for scale-up. Even in this simple system, concentrations of up to 1 mg ml-1 and graphene masses of >500 mg can be achieved after a few hours mixing. The maximum production rate was ~0.15 g h-1, much higher than for standard sonication-based exfoliation methods. We demonstrate that graphene production occurs because the mean turbulent shear rate in the blender exceeds

  13. A Nanoporous Carbon/Exfoliated Graphite Composite For Supercapacitor Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosi, Memoria; Ekaputra, Muhamad P.; Iskandar, Ferry; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal

    2010-12-01

    Nanoporous carbon was prepared from coconut shells using a simple heating method. The nanoporous carbon is subjected to different treatments: without activation, activation with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and activation with sodium hydroxide (NaOH)-PEG. The exfoliated graphite was synthesized from graphite powder oxidized with zinc acetate (ZnAc) and intercalated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and NaOH. A composite was made by mixing the nanoporous carbon with NaOH-PEG activation, the exfoliated graphite and a binder of PVA solution, grinding the mixture, and annealing it using ultrasonic bath for 1 hour. All of as-synthesized materials were characterized by employing a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a MATLAB's image processing toolbox, and an x-ray diffractometer (XRD). It was confirmed that the composite is crystalline with (002) and (004) orientations. In addition, it was also found that the composite has a high surface area, a high distribution of pore sizes less than 40 nm, and a high porosity (67%). Noting that the pore sizes less than 20 nm are significant for ionic species storage and those in the range of 20 to 40 nm are very accessible for ionic clusters mobility across the pores, the composite is a promising material for the application as supercapacitor electrodes.

  14. Gas storage cylinder formed from a composition containing thermally exfoliated graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A gas storage cylinder or gas storage cylinder liner, formed from a polymer composite, containing at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m(exp 2)/g to 2600 m(exp 2)2/g.

  15. Polymerization method for formation of thermally exfoliated graphite oxide containing polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Adamson, Douglas (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A process for polymerization of at least one monomer including polymerizing the at least one monomer in the presence of a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m(esp 2)/g to 2600 m(esp 2/g.

  16. Clinical, Microbial, and Biochemical Aspects of the Exfoliative Toxins Causing Staphylococcal Scalded-Skin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ladhani, Shamez; Joannou, Christopher L.; Lochrie, Denise P.; Evans, Robert W.; Poston, Susan M.

    1999-01-01

    The exfoliative (epidermolytic) toxins of Staphylococcus aureus are the causative agents of the staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome (SSSS), a blistering skin disorder that predominantly affects children. Clinical features of SSSS vary along a spectrum, ranging from a few localized blisters to generalized exfoliation covering almost the entire body. The toxins act specifically at the zona granulosa of the epidermis to produce the characteristic exfoliation, although the mechanism by which this is achieved is still poorly understood. Despite the availability of antibiotics, SSSS carries a significant mortality rate, particularly among neonates with secondary complications of epidermal loss and among adults with underlying diseases. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the literature spanning more than a century and to cover all aspects of the disease. The epidemiology, clinical features, potential complications, risk factors, susceptibility, diagnosis, differential diagnoses, investigations currently available, treatment options, and preventive measures are all discussed in detail. Recent crystallographic data on the toxins has provided us with a clearer and more defined approach to studying the disease. Understanding their mode of action has important implications in future treatment and prevention of SSSS and other diseases, and knowledge of their specific site of action may provide a useful tool for physiologists, dermatologists, and pharmacologists. PMID:10194458

  17. In silico free energy predictions for ionic liquid-assisted exfoliation of a graphene bilayer into individual graphene nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Ganesh; Baker, Gary A

    2012-06-14

    Free energies for graphene exfoliation from bilayer graphene using ionic liquids based on various cations paired with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion were determined from adaptive bias force-molecular dynamics (ABF-MD) simulation and fall in excellent qualitative agreement with experiment. This method has notable potential as an a priori screening tool for performance based rank order prediction of novel ionic liquids for the dispersion and exfoliation of various nanocarbons and inorganic graphene analogues.

  18. Performance of Liquid Phase Exfoliated Graphene As Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffstutler, Jacob; Wasala, Milinda; Richie, Julianna; Winchester, Andrew; Ghosh, Sujoy; Kar, Swastik; Talapatra, Saikat

    2014-03-01

    We will present the results of our investigations of electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) or supercapacitors (SC) fabricated using liquid-phase exfoliated graphene. Several electrolytes, such as aqueous potassium hydroxide KOH (6M), ionic 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF6], and ionic 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate[BMP][FAP] were used. These EDLC's show good performance compared to other carbon nanomaterials based EDLC's devices. We found that the liquid phase exfoliated graphene based devices possess specific capacitance values as high as 262 F/g, when used with ionic liquid electrolyte[BMP][FAP], with power densities (~ 454 W/kg) and energy densities (~ 0.38Wh/kg). Further, these devices indicated rapid charge transfer response even without the use of any binders or specially prepared current collectors. A detailed electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis in order to understand the phenomenon of charge storage in these materials will be presented.

  19. Ultrahigh-throughput exfoliation of graphite into pristine 'single-layer' graphene using microwaves and molecularly engineered ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Michio; Saito, Yusuke; Park, Chiyoung; Fukushima, Takanori; Aida, Takuzo

    2015-09-01

    Graphene has shown much promise as an organic electronic material but, despite recent achievements in the production of few-layer graphene, the quantitative exfoliation of graphite into pristine single-layer graphene has remained one of the main challenges in developing practical devices. Recently, reduced graphene oxide has been recognized as a non-feasible alternative to graphene owing to variable defect types and levels, and attention is turning towards reliable methods for the high-throughput exfoliation of graphite. Here we report that microwave irradiation of graphite suspended in molecularly engineered oligomeric ionic liquids allows for ultrahigh-efficiency exfoliation (93% yield) with a high selectivity (95%) towards 'single-layer' graphene (that is, with thicknesses <1 nm) in a short processing time (30 minutes). The isolated graphene sheets show negligible structural deterioration. They are also readily redispersible in oligomeric ionic liquids up to ~100 mg ml(-1), and form physical gels in which an anisotropic orientation of graphene sheets, once induced by a magnetic field, is maintained.

  20. Single-Nanoflake Photo-Electrochemistry Reveals Champion and Spectator Flakes in Exfoliated MoSe 2 Films

    DOE PAGES

    Todt, Michael A.; Isenberg, Allan E.; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; ...

    2018-03-06

    Semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanoflake thin films are promising large-area electrodes for photo-electrochemical solar energy conversion applications. However, their energy conversion efficiencies are typically much lower than those of bulk electrodes. It is unclear to what extent this efficiency gap stems from differences among nanoflakes (e.g., area, thickness, and surface structural features). It is also unclear whether individual exfoliated nanoflakes can achieve energy conversion efficiencies similar to those of bulk crystals. Here, we use a single-nanoflake photo-electrochemical approach to show that there are both highly active and completely inactive nanoflakes within a film. For the exfoliated MoSe 2 samples studiedmore » herein, 7% of nanoflakes are highly active champions, whose photocurrent efficiency exceeds that of the bulk crystal. However, 66% of nanoflakes are inactive spectators, which are mostly responsible for the overall lower photocurrent efficiency compared to the bulk crystal. The photocurrent collection efficiency increases with nanoflake area and decreases more at perimeter edges than at interior step edges. These observations, which are hidden in ensemble-level measurements, reveal the underlying performance issues of exfoliated TMD electrodes for photo-electrochemical energy conversion applications.« less

  1. Environmental Synthesis of Few Layers Graphene Sheets Using Ultrasonic Exfoliation with Enhanced Electrical and Thermal Properties.

    PubMed

    Noroozi, Monir; Zakaria, Azmi; Radiman, Shahidan; Abdul Wahab, Zaidan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report how few layers graphene that can be produced in large quantity with low defect ratio from exfoliation of graphite by using a high intensity probe sonication in water containing liquid hand soap and PVP. It was founded that the graphene powder obtained by this simple exfoliation method after the heat treatment had an excellent exfoliation into a single or layered graphene sheets. The UV-visible spectroscopy, FESEM, TEM, X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy was used to analyse the graphene product. The thermal diffusivity of the samples was analysed using a highly accurate thermal-wave cavity photothermal technique. The data obtained showed excellent enhancement in the thermal diffusivity of the graphene dispersion. This well-dispersed graphene was then used to fabricate an electrically conductive polymer-graphene film composite. The results demonstrated that this low cost and environmental friendly technique allowed to the production of high quality layered graphene sheets, improved the thermal and electrical properties. This may find use in the wide range of applications based on graphene.

  2. Environmental Synthesis of Few Layers Graphene Sheets Using Ultrasonic Exfoliation with Enhanced Electrical and Thermal Properties

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Monir; Zakaria, Azmi; Radiman, Shahidan; Abdul Wahab, Zaidan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report how few layers graphene that can be produced in large quantity with low defect ratio from exfoliation of graphite by using a high intensity probe sonication in water containing liquid hand soap and PVP. It was founded that the graphene powder obtained by this simple exfoliation method after the heat treatment had an excellent exfoliation into a single or layered graphene sheets. The UV-visible spectroscopy, FESEM, TEM, X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy was used to analyse the graphene product. The thermal diffusivity of the samples was analysed using a highly accurate thermal-wave cavity photothermal technique. The data obtained showed excellent enhancement in the thermal diffusivity of the graphene dispersion. This well-dispersed graphene was then used to fabricate an electrically conductive polymer-graphene film composite. The results demonstrated that this low cost and environmental friendly technique allowed to the production of high quality layered graphene sheets, improved the thermal and electrical properties. This may find use in the wide range of applications based on graphene. PMID:27064575

  3. A comparative study for selectivity of micronuclei in oral exfoliated epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Grover, S; Mujib, ABR; Jahagirdar, A; Telagi, N; Kulkarni, PG

    2012-01-01

    Background: Micronucleus (MN) represents small, additional nuclei formed by the exclusion of chromosome fragments or whole chromosomes lagging at mitosis. MN rates, therefore, indirectly reflect chromosome breakage or impairment of the mitotic apparatus. During the last few decades, micronuclei (“MNi”) in oral exfoliated epithelial cells are widely used as biomarkers of chromosomal damage, genome instability and cancer risk in humans. However, until now only little attention has been given to the effect of different staining procedures on the results of these MN assays. Aim: To compare the MNi frequencies in oral exfoliated epithelial cells using three different stains, i.e.,Feulgen stain, Papanicolaou stain (Pap) and hemotoxylin and eosin stain (H and E). Materials and Methods: Oral exfoliated cells from 45 cases of potentially malignant disorders (15 oral submucous fibrosis, 15 lichen planus and 15 leukoplakia) and 15 controls with healthy mucosa, were taken and MNi frequencies (No. of MNi/1000 cells) were compared using three different stains. Results: Mean MNi frequency in cases was found to be 3.8 with Feulgen stain, 16.8 with PAP and 25.9 with H and E. In controls, mean MNi frequency was 1.6 with Feulgen stain, 7.7 with PAP and 9.6 with H and E stain. Statistically significant value (P < 0.01) were observed when the three stains were compared together using Kruskal Walli's ANOVA test. Conclusion: Feulgen being a DNA-specific stain gave the least counts, although statistically significant results from the comparison of MNi frequency between cases and controls were obtained with all the three stains. PMID:23326025

  4. A comparative study for selectivity of micronuclei in oral exfoliated epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Grover, S; Mujib, Abr; Jahagirdar, A; Telagi, N; Kulkarni, Pg

    2012-10-01

    Micronucleus (MN) represents small, additional nuclei formed by the exclusion of chromosome fragments or whole chromosomes lagging at mitosis. MN rates, therefore, indirectly reflect chromosome breakage or impairment of the mitotic apparatus. During the last few decades, micronuclei ("MNi") in oral exfoliated epithelial cells are widely used as biomarkers of chromosomal damage, genome instability and cancer risk in humans. However, until now only little attention has been given to the effect of different staining procedures on the results of these MN assays. To compare the MNi frequencies in oral exfoliated epithelial cells using three different stains, i.e.,Feulgen stain, Papanicolaou stain (Pap) and hemotoxylin and eosin stain (H and E). Oral exfoliated cells from 45 cases of potentially malignant disorders (15 oral submucous fibrosis, 15 lichen planus and 15 leukoplakia) and 15 controls with healthy mucosa, were taken and MNi frequencies (No. of MNi/1000 cells) were compared using three different stains. Mean MNi frequency in cases was found to be 3.8 with Feulgen stain, 16.8 with PAP and 25.9 with H and E. In controls, mean MNi frequency was 1.6 with Feulgen stain, 7.7 with PAP and 9.6 with H and E stain. Statistically significant value (P < 0.01) were observed when the three stains were compared together using Kruskal Walli's ANOVA test. Feulgen being a DNA-specific stain gave the least counts, although statistically significant results from the comparison of MNi frequency between cases and controls were obtained with all the three stains.

  5. Gastric washing by distilled water can reduce free gastric cancer cells exfoliated into the stomach lumen.

    PubMed

    Ohki, Atsuko; Abe, Nobutsugu; Yoshimoto, Eri; Hashimoto, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Hirohisa; Nagao, Gen; Masaki, Tadahiko; Mori, Toshiyuki; Ohkura, Yasuo; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2018-04-25

    Intragastric free cancer cells in patients with gastric cancer have rarely been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detection rate of intragastric free cancer cells in gastric washes using two types of solutions during endoscopic examination. We further clarified risk factors affecting the presence of exfoliated free cancer cells. A total of 175 patients with gastric cancer were enrolled. Lactated Ringer's solution (N = 89) or distilled water (DW; N = 86) via endoscopic working channel was sprayed onto the tumor surface, and the resultant fluid was collected for cytological examination. We compared the cancer-cell positivity rate between the two (Ringer and DW) groups. We also tested the correlation between cancer-cell positivity and clinicopathological factors in the Ringer group to identify risk factors for the presence of exfoliated cancer cells. The cancer-cell positivity rate was significantly higher in the Ringer group than that in the DW group (58 vs 6%). Cytomorphology in the Ringer group was well maintained, but not in the DW group. The larger tumor size (≥ 20 mm) and positive lymphatic involvement were significant risk factors of exfoliated free cancer cells. Cancer cells can be highly exfoliated from the tumor surface into the gastric lumen by endoscopic irrigation in large gastric cancer with lymphatic involvement. Gastric washing by DW can lead to cytoclasis of free cancer cells; therefore, it may minimize the possibility of cancer-cell seeding in procedures carrying potential risks of tumor-cell seeding upon transluminal communication, such as endoscopic full-thickness resection and laparoscopy-endoscopy cooperative surgery.

  6. Characterization of the deformation and thermal behavior of granitic exfoliation sheets with LiDAR and infrared thermography (Yosemite Valley, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerin, Antoine; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.

    2017-04-01

    Yosemite Valley is a long (11 km) and deep ( 1 km) glacier-carved valley, bounded by steep granitic cliffs cutting the western slope of the central Sierra Nevada mountain range (California, USA). These cliffs produce numerous rockfalls every year (925 events reported between 1857 and 2011) and this rockfall activity is often linked to the presence of sheeting joints (Stock et al., 2013), also called exfoliation joints, formed in response to stress changes associated with changes in the topography (Martel, 2011). Furthermore, the historical rockfall inventory indicates that many events occurred without recognized triggers (Austin et al., 2014), in summer time, and on sunny days in particular. This suggests that thermal stress changes are involved in triggering of rockfalls (Collins and Stock, 2016). To further characterize the relationship between thermal stresses and rock face deformation, we carried out three experiments in Yosemite Valley during October 2015: (i) monitoring of a sub-vertical granodiorite exfoliation sheet on the Rhombus Wall for 24 consecutive hours (from 8:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m.) using terrestrial LiDAR, crackmeters and infrared thermal sensors; (ii) monitoring the El Capitan rockwall composed of tens of exfoliation sheets for 8 consecutive hours (from 5:30 p.m. to 1:30 a.m.) with terrestrial LiDAR and thermal imaging; (iii) collecting several sequences of thermal GigaPan panoramas during periods of rock cooling on both cliffs (Rhombus Wall and El Capitan). In parallel to these experiments, we also developed a method for calibrating and correcting the raw apparent temperature measured by our thermal imager (a FLIR T660 infrared camera) from thermoresistances, reflective and black papers and by using some information given by the LiDAR point clouds (range, dip and dip direction). LiDAR monitoring of experiments (i) and (ii) allowed us to detect millimetric deformations for the exfoliations sheets whose crack aperture is persistent, deep and greater

  7. Oral exfoliative cytology as a rapid diagnostic tool for paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Talhari, Carolina; de Souza, João Vicente Braga; Parreira, Vilmar José; Reinel, Dieter; Talhari, Sinésio

    2008-03-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a common deep mycosis in South America. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We report a case of a 47-year-old Brazilian man with oral lesions due to paracoccidioidomycosis, which was diagnosed by exfoliative cytology without any special staining. We highlight this diagnostic tool as a simple, low-cost, painless, non-invasive and fast method for the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis.

  8. A supramolecular strategy to leverage the liquid-phase exfoliation of graphene in the presence of surfactants: unraveling the role of the length of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Haar, Sébastien; Ciesielski, Artur; Clough, Joseph; Yang, Huafeng; Mazzaro, Raffaello; Richard, Fanny; Conti, Simone; Merstorf, Nicolas; Cecchini, Marco; Morandi, Vittorio; Casiraghi, Cinzia; Samorì, Paolo

    2015-04-08

    Achieving the full control over the production as well as processability of high-quality graphene represents a major challenge with potential interest in the field of fabrication of multifunctional devices. The outstanding effort dedicated to tackle this challenge in the last decade revealed that certain organic molecules are capable of leveraging the exfoliation of graphite with different efficiencies. Here, a fundamental understanding on a straightforward supramolecular approach for producing homogenous dispersions of unfunctionalized and non-oxidized graphene nanosheets in four different solvents is attained, namely N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, N,N-dimethylformamide, ortho-dichlorobenzene, and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. In particular, a comparative study on the liquid-phase exfoliation of graphene in the presence of linear alkanes of different lengths terminated by a carboxylic-acid head group is performed. These molecules act as graphene dispersion-stabilizing agents during the exfoliation process. The efficiency of the exfoliation in terms of concentration of exfoliated graphene is found to be proportional to the length of the employed fatty acid. Importantly, a high percentage of single-layer graphene flakes is revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy analyses. A simple yet effective thermodynamic model is developed to interpret the chain-length dependence of the exfoliation yield. This approach relying on the synergistic effect of a ad-hoc solvent and molecules to promote the exfoliation of graphene in liquid media represents a promising and modular strategy towards the rational design of improved dispersion-stabilizing agents. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. BioGraphene: Direct Exfoliation of Graphite in a Kitchen Blender for Enzymology Applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C V; Pattammattel, A

    2016-01-01

    A high yielding method for the aqueous exfoliation of graphite crystals to produce high quality graphene nanosheets in a kitchen blender is described here. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), β-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin, lysozyme, and hemoglobin as well as calf serum were used for the exfoliation of graphene. Among these, BSA gave the maximum exfoliation efficiency, exceeding 4mgmL(-1)h(-1) of graphene. Quality of graphene produced was examined by Raman spectroscopy, which indicated 3-5 layer graphene of very high quality and very low levels of defects. Transmission electron microscopy indicated an average size of ~0.5μm flakes. The graphene/BSA dispersions were stable over pH 3.0-11, and at 5°C or 50°C, for more than 2 months. Current approach gave higher rates of BSA/graphene (BioGraphene) in better yields than other methods. Calf serum, when used in place of BSA, also gave high yields of good quality BioGraphene and these preparations may be of direct use for cell culture studies. A simple example of BioGraphene preparation is described that can be adapted in most laboratories, and graphene-adsorbed glucose oxidase is nearly as active as the free enzyme. Current approach may facilitate large-scale production of graphene in most laboratories around the world and it may open new opportunities for biological applications of graphene. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exfoliative cytology of buccal squames: A quantitative cytomorphometric analysis of patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sankhla, Bharat; Sharma, Abhishek; Shetty, Raju Singam; Bolla, Sheetal Chowdary; Gantha, Naga Sribala; Reddy, Prasun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a third leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders and its prevalence has been increasing worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology may be a more appropriate adjunctive diagnostic tool in conditions like diabetes mellitus, where the invasive techniques lose viability. Aims: The purpose of this study is to analyze the cytomorphometric changes in the exfoliated cells of the oral mucosa, as an adjunct to the diagnosis of diabetes. Materials and Methods: Smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of 30 diabetes patients (study group) and 30 healthy individuals (control group). All the smears were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain (PAP). In the PAP smears, the nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA), and cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) were evaluated for 50 cells in each smear, using the Image Analysis Software (Magnus Pro™) and research microscope (Lawrence and Mayo™). Results: The results showed that the mean NA was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the study group, whereas, the mean CA did not exhibit a statistically significant difference (P > 0.001). The mean CNR was significantly lower in the study group (P < 0.001). Interpretation and Conclusion: The results associated with the clinical observations suggest that diabetes can produce morphological and functional alterations in the oral epithelial cells, detectable by microscopic and cytomorphometric analysis using exfoliative cytology, which can be used in the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:25374837

  11. Two-Dimensional Fullerene Assembly from an Exfoliated van der Waals Template.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kihong; Choi, Bonnie; Plante, Ilan Jen-La; Paley, Maria V; Zhong, Xinjue; Crowther, Andrew C; Owen, Jonathan S; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Roy, Xavier

    2018-05-22

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are commonly prepared by exfoliating bulk layered van der Waals crystals. The creation of synthetic 2D materials from bottom-up methods is an important challenge as their structural flexibility will enable chemists to tune the materials properties. A 2D material was assembled using C 60 as a polymerizable monomer. The C 60 building blocks are first assembled into a layered solid using a molecular cluster as structure director. The resulting hierarchical crystal is used as a template to polymerize its C 60 monolayers, which can be exfoliated down to 2D crystalline nanosheets. Derived from the parent template, the 2D structure is composed of a layer of inorganic cluster, sandwiched between two monolayers of polymerized C 60 . The nanosheets can be transferred onto solid substrates and depolymerized by heating. Electronic absorption spectroscopy reveals an optical gap of 0.25 eV, narrower than that of the bulk parent crystalline solid. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Facile and Green Production of Impurity-Free Aqueous Solutions of WS2 Nanosheets by Direct Exfoliation in Water.

    PubMed

    Pan, Long; Liu, Yi-Tao; Xie, Xu-Ming; Ye, Xiong-Ying

    2016-12-01

    To obtain 2D materials with large quantity, low cost, and little pollution, liquid-phase exfoliation of their bulk form in water is a particularly fascinating concept. However, the current strategies for water-borne exfoliation exclusively employ stabilizers, such as surfactants, polymers, or inorganic salts, to minimize the extremely high surface energy of these nanosheets and stabilize them by steric repulsion. It is worth noting, however, that the remaining impurities inevitably bring about adverse effects to the ultimate performances of 2D materials. Here, a facile and green route to large-scale production of impurity-free aqueous solutions of WS 2 nanosheets is reported by direct exfoliation in water. Crucial parameters such as initial concentration, sonication time, centrifugation speed, and centrifugation time are systematically evaluated to screen out an optimized condition for scaling up. Statistics based on morphological characterization prove that substantial fraction (66%) of the obtained WS 2 nanosheets are one to five layers. X-ray diffraction and Raman characterizations reveal a high quality with few, if any, structural distortions. The water-borne exfoliation route opens up new opportunities for easy, clean processing of WS 2 -based film devices that may shine in the fields of, e.g., energy storage and functional nanocomposites owing to their excellent electrochemical, mechanical, and thermal properties. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Synthesis and Exfoliation of Discotic Zirconium Phosphates to Obtain Colloidal Liquid Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-Hsien; Wang, Xuezhen; Shinde, Abhijeet; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their abundance in natural clay and potential applications in advanced materials, discotic nanoparticles are of interest to scientists and engineers. Growth of such anisotropic nanocrystals through a simple chemical method is a challenging task. In this study, we fabricate discotic nanodisks of zirconium phosphate [Zr(HPO4)2·H2O] as a model material using hydrothermal, reflux and microwave-assisted methods. Growth of crystals is controlled by duration time, temperature, and concentration of reacting species. The novelty of the adopted methods is that discotic crystals of size ranging from hundred nanometers to few micrometers can be obtained while keeping the polydispersity well within control. The layered discotic crystals are converted to monolayers by exfoliation with tetra-(n)-butyl ammonium hydroxide [(C4H9)4NOH, TBAOH]. Exfoliated disks show isotropic and nematic liquid crystal phases. Size and polydispersity of disk suspensions is highly important in deciding their phase behavior. PMID:27284765

  14. Exfoliation rate of mammary epithelial cells in milk on bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is associated with bacterial load.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Yuya; Kiku, Yoshio; Sugawara, Kazue; Tanabe, Fuyuko; Hayashi, Tomohito

    2018-01-01

    The exfoliation rate of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in milk is affected by physiological, breeding and environmental factors. Little is known about the relationship between the MEC exfoliation into milk and mammary-infected Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) load on bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between S. aureus load and the proportion of MEC exfoliation in milk using five substantial bovine mastitis models. In 64 randomly extracted milk samples from udders at 3-21 days after S. aureus infusion, there were various samples with different numbers of S. aureus counts and somatic cell counts. No significant correlations were found between the S. aureus counts and somatic cell count (r = 0.338). In contrast, a significant correlation was noted between S. aureus counts and the proportion of cytokeratin-positive cells in the milk from the infused udders (r = 0.734, P < 0.01). In conclusion, the increasing MEC exfoliation rate in milk from mastitis udders caused by S. aureus may contribute to reduced milk yield. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. An ultrahigh pressure homogenization technique for easily exfoliating few-layer phosphorene from bulk black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Qing-Qing; Zhou, Hua-Jing; Ning, Ping; Lian, Pei-Chao; Wang, Bo; He, Liang; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    We have developed an easy and efficient method for exfoliating few-layer sheets of black phosphorus (BP) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, using ultra-high pressure homogenization (UPH). The BP was first exfoliated into sheets that were a few atomic layers thick, using a homogenizer for only 30 min. Next, a double centrifugation procedure was used to separate the material into few-layer nanosheets that were examined by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The results show that the products are specimens of phosphorene that are only a few-layer thick.

  16. Ultrahigh-throughput exfoliation of graphite into pristine ‘single-layer’ graphene using microwaves and molecularly engineered ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Michio; Saito, Yusuke; Park, Chiyoung; Fukushima, Takanori; Aida, Takuzo

    2015-09-01

    Graphene has shown much promise as an organic electronic material but, despite recent achievements in the production of few-layer graphene, the quantitative exfoliation of graphite into pristine single-layer graphene has remained one of the main challenges in developing practical devices. Recently, reduced graphene oxide has been recognized as a non-feasible alternative to graphene owing to variable defect types and levels, and attention is turning towards reliable methods for the high-throughput exfoliation of graphite. Here we report that microwave irradiation of graphite suspended in molecularly engineered oligomeric ionic liquids allows for ultrahigh-efficiency exfoliation (93% yield) with a high selectivity (95%) towards ‘single-layer’ graphene (that is, with thicknesses <1 nm) in a short processing time (30 minutes). The isolated graphene sheets show negligible structural deterioration. They are also readily redispersible in oligomeric ionic liquids up to ~100 mg ml-1, and form physical gels in which an anisotropic orientation of graphene sheets, once induced by a magnetic field, is maintained.

  17. Electrochemically exfoliated graphene anodes with enhanced biocurrent production in single-chamber air-breathing microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Najafabadi, Amin Taheri; Ng, Norvin; Gyenge, Előd

    2016-07-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) present promising options for environmentally sustainable power generation especially in conjunction with waste water treatment. However, major challenges remain including low power density, difficult scale-up, and durability of the cell components. This study reports enhanced biocurrent production in a membrane-free MFC, using graphene microsheets (GNs) as anode and MnOx catalyzed air cathode. The GNs are produced by ionic liquid assisted simultaneous anodic and cathodic electrochemical exfoliation of iso-molded graphite electrodes. The GNs produced by anodic exfoliation increase the MFC peak power density by over 300% compared to plain carbon cloth (i.e., 2.85Wm(-2) vs 0.66Wm(-2), respectively), and by 90% compared to conventional carbon black (i.e., Vulcan XC-72) anode. These results exceed previously reported power densities for graphene-containing MFC anodes. The fuel cell polarization results are corroborated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicating three times lower charge transfer resistance for the GN anode. Material characterizations suggest that the best performing GN samples were of relatively smaller size (~500nm), with higher levels of ionic liquid induced surface functionalization during the electrochemical exfoliation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tunable UV-visible absorption of SnS2 layered quantum dots produced by liquid phase exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao; Ilanchezhiyan, P; Mohan Kumar, G; Cho, Hak Dong; Zhang, Lei; Chan, A Sattar; Lee, Dong J; Panin, Gennady N; Kang, Tae Won

    2017-02-02

    4H-SnS 2 layered crystals synthesized by a hydrothermal method were used to obtain via liquid phase exfoliation quantum dots (QDs), consisting of a single layer (SLQDs) or multiple layers (MLQDs). Systematic downshift of the peaks in the Raman spectra of crystals with a decrease in size was observed. The bandgap of layered QDs, estimated by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and the tunneling current measurements using graphene probes, increases from 2.25 eV to 3.50 eV with decreasing size. 2-4 nm SLQDs, which are transparent in the visible region, show selective absorption and photosensitivity at wavelengths in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum while larger MLQDs (5-90 nm) exhibit a broad band absorption in the visible spectral region and the photoresponse under white light. The results show that the layered quantum dots obtained by liquid phase exfoliation exhibit well-controlled and regulated bandgap absorption in a wide tunable wavelength range. These novel layered quantum dots prepared using an inexpensive method of exfoliation and deposition from solution onto various substrates at room temperature can be used to create highly efficient visible-blind ultraviolet photodetectors and multiple bandgap solar cells.

  19. Graphene fixed-end beam arrays based on mechanical exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; You, Zheng; Haugstad, Greg; Cui, Tianhong

    2011-06-01

    A low-cost mechanical exfoliation method is presented to transfer graphite to graphene for free-standing beam arrays. Nickel film or photoresist is used to peel off and transfer patterned single-layer or multilayer graphene onto substrates with macroscopic continuity. Free-standing graphene beam arrays are fabricated on both silicon and polymer substrates. Their mechanical properties are studied by atomic force microscopy. Finally, a graphene based radio frequency switch is demonstrated, with its pull-in voltage and graphene-silicon junction investigated.

  20. Experimental observation of low threshold optical bistability in exfoliated graphene with low oxidation degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, Morteza A.; Majles Ara, M. H.; Ghafary, Bijan; Salmani, Somayeh; Mohajer, Salman

    2016-03-01

    We have experimentally investigated low threshold Optical Bistability (OB) and multi-stability in exfoliated graphene ink with low oxidation degree. Theoretical predictions of N-layer problem and the resonator feedback problem show good agreement with the experimental observation. In contrary to the other graphene oxide samples, we have indicated that the absorbance does not restrict OB process. We have concluded from the experimental results and Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation (NLSE) that the nonlinear dispersion - rather than absorption - is the main nonlinear mechanism of OB. In addition to the enhanced nonlinearity, exfoliated graphene with low oxidation degree possesses semiconductors group III-V equivalent band gap energy, high charge carrier mobility and thus, ultra-fast optical response which makes it a unique optical material for application in all optical switching, especially in THz frequency range.

  1. Environmentally benign graphite intercalation compound composition for exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    DOEpatents

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

    2014-06-17

    A carboxylic-intercalated graphite compound composition for the production of exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, or nano-scaled graphene platelets. The composition comprises a layered graphite with interlayer spaces or interstices and a carboxylic acid residing in at least one of the interstices, wherein the composition is prepared by a chemical oxidation reaction which uses a combination of a carboxylic acid and hydrogen peroxide as an intercalate source. Alternatively, the composition may be prepared by an electrochemical reaction, which uses a carboxylic acid as both an electrolyte and an intercalate source. Exfoliation of the invented composition does not release undesirable chemical contaminants into air or drainage.

  2. Large scale production of highly-qualified graphene by ultrasonic exfoliation of expanded graphite under the promotion of (NH4)2CO3 decomposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunwei; Tong, Xili; Guo, Xiaoning; Wang, Yingyong; Jin, Guoqiang; Guo, Xiangyun

    2013-11-29

    Highly-qualified graphene was prepared by the ultrasonic exfoliation of commercial expanded graphite (EG) under the promotion of (NH4)2CO3 decomposition. The yield of graphene from the first exfoliation is 7 wt%, and it can be increased to more than 65 wt% by repeated exfoliations. Atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman analysis show that the as-prepared graphene only has a few defects or oxides, and more than 95% of the graphene flakes have a thickness of ~1 nm. The electrochemical performance of the as-prepared graphene is comparable to reduced graphene oxide in the determination of dopamine (DA) from the mixed solution of ascorbic acid, uric acid and DA. These results show that the decomposition of (NH4)2CO3 molecules in the EG layers under ultrasonication promotes the exfoliation of graphite and provides a low-priced route for large scale production of highly-quality graphene.

  3. Large scale production of highly-qualified graphene by ultrasonic exfoliation of expanded graphite under the promotion of (NH4)2CO3 decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunwei; Tong, Xili; Guo, Xiaoning; Wang, Yingyong; Jin, Guoqiang; Guo, Xiangyun

    2013-11-01

    Highly-qualified graphene was prepared by the ultrasonic exfoliation of commercial expanded graphite (EG) under the promotion of (NH4)2CO3 decomposition. The yield of graphene from the first exfoliation is 7 wt%, and it can be increased to more than 65 wt% by repeated exfoliations. Atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman analysis show that the as-prepared graphene only has a few defects or oxides, and more than 95% of the graphene flakes have a thickness of ˜1 nm. The electrochemical performance of the as-prepared graphene is comparable to reduced graphene oxide in the determination of dopamine (DA) from the mixed solution of ascorbic acid, uric acid and DA. These results show that the decomposition of (NH4)2CO3 molecules in the EG layers under ultrasonication promotes the exfoliation of graphite and provides a low-priced route for large scale production of highly-quality graphene.

  4. Cryo-mediated exfoliation and fracturing of layered materials into 2D quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jianfang; Wu, Jingjie; Xu, Hui; Wen, Xiewen; Zhang, Xiang; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Yang, Wei; Vajtai, Robert; Zhang, Yong; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab Nizar; Wu, Yucheng; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2017-01-01

    Atomically thin quantum dots from layered materials promise new science and applications, but their scalable synthesis and separation have been challenging. We demonstrate a universal approach for the preparation of quantum dots from a series of materials, such as graphite, MoS2, WS2, h-BN, TiS2, NbS2, Bi2Se3, MoTe2, Sb2Te3, etc., using a cryo-mediated liquid-phase exfoliation and fracturing process. The method relies on liquid nitrogen pretreatment of bulk layered materials before exfoliation and breakdown into atomically thin two-dimensional quantum dots of few-nanometer lateral dimensions, exhibiting size-confined optical properties. This process is efficient for a variety of common solvents with a wide range of surface tension parameters and eliminates the use of surfactants, resulting in pristine quantum dots without surfactant covering or chemical modification. PMID:29250597

  5. Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Damien; Backes, Claudia; Doherty, Evie; Cucinotta, Clotilde S.; Berner, Nina C.; Boland, Conor; Lee, Kangho; Harvey, Andrew; Lynch, Peter; Gholamvand, Zahra; Zhang, Saifeng; Wang, Kangpeng; Moynihan, Glenn; Pokle, Anuj; Ramasse, Quentin M.; McEvoy, Niall; Blau, Werner J.; Wang, Jun; Abellan, Gonzalo; Hauke, Frank; Hirsch, Andreas; Sanvito, Stefano; O'Regan, David D.; Duesberg, Georg S.; Nicolosi, Valeria; Coleman, Jonathan N.

    2015-01-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) is a new two-dimensional material which is of great interest for applications, mainly in electronics. However, its lack of environmental stability severely limits its synthesis and processing. Here we demonstrate that high-quality, few-layer BP nanosheets, with controllable size and observable photoluminescence, can be produced in large quantities by liquid phase exfoliation under ambient conditions in solvents such as N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP). Nanosheets are surprisingly stable in CHP, probably due to the solvation shell protecting the nanosheets from reacting with water or oxygen. Experiments, supported by simulations, show reactions to occur only at the nanosheet edge, with the rate and extent of the reaction dependent on the water/oxygen content. We demonstrate that liquid-exfoliated BP nanosheets are potentially useful in a range of applications from ultrafast saturable absorbers to gas sensors to fillers for composite reinforcement. PMID:26469634

  6. Effective photoconductivity of exfoliated black phosphorus for optoelectronic switching under 1.55 μm optical excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Penillard, A., E-mail: anne.penillard@espci.fr; Tripon-Canseliet, C.; Maksimovic, I.

    2016-01-14

    We present a microwave photoconductive switch based on exfoliated black phosphorus and strongly responding to a 1.55 μm optical excitation. According to its number of atomic layers, exfoliated black phosphorus presents unique properties for optoelectronic applications, like a tunable direct bandgap from 0.3 eV to 2 eV, strong mobilities, and strong conductivities. The switch shows a maximum ON/OFF ratio of 17 dB at 1 GHz, and 2.2 dB at 20 GHz under 1.55-μm laser excitation at 50 mW, never achieved with bidimensional materials.

  7. A study on the physicochemical properties of hydroalcoholic solutions to improve the direct exfoliation of natural graphite down to few-layers graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, Filippo; Miglietta, Maria Lucia; Polichetti, Tiziana; Ricciardella, Filiberto; Massera, Ettore; Ninno, Domenico; Di Francia, Girolamo

    2015-03-01

    Straightforward methods to produce pristine graphene flakes in large quantities are based on the liquid-phase exfoliation processes. These one-step physical transformations of graphite into graphene offer many unique advantages. To date, a large number of liquids have been employed as exfoliation media exploiting their thermodynamic and chemical features as compared to those of graphene. Here, we pursued the goal of realizing water based mixtures to exfoliate graphite and disperse graphene without the aid of surfactants. To this aim, aqueous mixtures with suitable values of surface tension and Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs), were specifically designed and used. The very high water surface tension was decreased by the addition of solvents with lower surface tensions such as alcohols, obtaining, in this way, more favourable HSP distances. The specific role of each of these thermodynamic features was finally investigated. The results showed that the designed hydroalcoholic solutions were effective in both the graphite exfoliation and dispersion without the addition of any surfactants or other stabilizing agents. Stable graphene suspensions were obtained at concentration comparable to those produced with low-boiling solvents and water/surfactants.

  8. Widefield fluorescence imaging as an auxiliary tool to select the biopsy site for actinic cheilitis diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurachi, C.; Cosci, A.; Takahama, A.; Fontes, K. B. F. C.; Azevedo, R. S.

    2014-03-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is considered a potentially malignant disorder that mainly affects the lower lip, and it is caused by prolonged sun exposure. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual inspection by a trained clinician, when suspected of dysplasia changes, a biopsy is required. The heteregenous characteristics of the AC, makes the choice of the biopsy site a difficult task. Fluorescence detection has been presented as a useful tool to to detect biochemical and morphological tissue features related to cancer diagnosis, but still its effectiveness to discriminate premalignant lesion is not completely defined. In this clinical study, 57 AC patients were investigated using widefield fluorescence imaging (WFI) to evaluate the efficacy of this technique as an auxiliary tool to biopsy site location. A handheld fluorescence system based on 400-450 nm LED illumination Distinct trained clinicians evaluate the patient either with the conventional examination or the WFI, and were blinded to the other evaluation. A biopsy site was chosen based on the clinical examination, and another site was chosen using the fluorescence visualization. A total of 114 punch biopsies were performed, and 93% of the tissue samples presented epithelial dysplasia. The majority of the sites that presented moderate or severe dysplasia were sites chosen by WFI, showing its efficiency to improve the diagnosis of AC.

  9. Cheilitis glandularis: immunohistochemical expression of protein water channels (aquaporins) in minor labial salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nico, M M S; Melo, J N; Lourenço, S V

    2014-03-01

    Cheilitis glandularis (CG) is a rare condition in which thick saliva is secreted from dilated ostia of swollen minor salivary glands from the lips. Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins that exhibit channel activity specific for water and small solutes. AQPs are essential for corporal homeostasis, and are widely expressed through human tissues. Most AQPs studies are based on renal and nervous pathophysiology; few involve salivary glands. Some previous investigators hypothesized that minor salivary gland structure and function is normal on CG. To study possible salivary synthesis alterations in CG, we compared the expression of AQPs present in minor salivary glands in specimens with CG and controls by using immunohistochemistry.   Seven cases of CG and three normal controls were studied. Intensity and patterns of expression of AQP 1, 2 and 8 differed in CG compared with controls. AQP 4 and 5 (the most important AQP in salivary function) showed identical patterns in CG and controls. Our findings suggest that the expression and arguably, function of some of the AQPs may be altered in CG; consequently, water flow mechanism abnormalities with possible alteration in salivary composition seem to occur. External factors (mainly UV rays) seem to play an important role in CG; nonetheless, our findings suggest that there might be some degree of alteration on water transportation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. Exfoliation of the epidermal cells and defecation by amphibian larvae in response to coelomic fluid and lysenin from the earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hideshi; Suzuki, Hirohumi; Ohta, Naoshi

    2006-08-01

    Coelomic fluid (CF) and lysenin from the earthworm Eisenia foetida induced heavy epidermal exfoliation in the larvae of Bufo japonicus formosus at developmental stages from hatching (stage 22) to operculum completion (stage 34). In experiments with Xenopus laevis, we observed that exfoliated cells were not stained by trypan blue. Thus, it appeared that these cells were still alive. It is likely, therefore, that both CF and lysenin might disrupt the adhesion between epidermal cells of larvae prior to stage 34. Since it is known that lysenin exerts its toxic effects through its specific binding to sphingomyelin (SM), SM might be involved in such adhesion. This hypothesis was supported by the observations that CF and lysenin which had been incubated with SM-liposomes lost their exfoliative activity. In larvae after stage 34, the mechanism of adhesion between epidermal cells seemed to change and the adhesion was no longer disrupted by CF and lysenin. In larvae at around stage 34, a collagen layer started to form beneath the basement membrane of the epidermis. Furthermore, larvae at around this stage started to eat solid food. The developing collagen layer and food intake might be related indirectly to the chemical change in epidermal adhesion. The induction of exfoliation by CF and lysenin was also observed in other amphibian species. In Bufo larvae, defecation was induced both by CF and by lysenin but this effect was independent of exfoliation.

  11. Two-stage preparation of magnetic sorbent based on exfoliated graphite with ferrite phases for sorption of oil and liquid hydrocarbons from the water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, Julia A.; Ivanov, Andrei V.; Maksimova, Natalia V.; Pokholok, Konstantin V.; Vasiliev, Alexander V.; Malakho, Artem P.; Avdeev, Victor V.

    2018-05-01

    Due to the macropore structure and the hydrophobic properties, exfoliated graphite (EG) is considered as a perspective sorbent for oil and liquid hydrocarbons from the water surface. However, there is the problem of EG collection from the water surface. One of the solutions is the modification of EG by a magnetic compound and the collection of EG with sorbed oil using the magnetic field. In this work, the method of the two-stage preparation of exfoliated graphite with ferrite phases is proposed. This method includes the impregnation of expandable graphite in the mixed solution of iron (III) chloride and cobalt (II) or nickel (II) nitrate in the first stage and the thermal exfoliation of impregnated expandable graphite with the formation of exfoliated graphite containing cobalt and nickel ferrites in the second stage. Such two-stage method makes it possible to obtain the sorbent based on EG modified by ferrimagnetic phases with high sorption capacity toward oil (up to 45-51 g/g) and high saturation magnetization (up to 42 emu/g). On the other hand, this method allows to produce the magnetic sorbent in a short period of time (up to 10 s) during which the thermal exfoliation is carried out in the air atmosphere.

  12. Fabrication of single phase 2D homologous perovskite microplates by mechanical exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junze; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yingjun; Wang, Haizhen; Lin, Gaoming; Xiong, Xuan; Zhou, Weihang; Luo, Hongmei; Li, Dehui

    2018-04-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) Ruddlesden-Popper type perovskites have attracted intensive interest for their great environmental stability and various potential optoelectronic applications. Fundamental understanding of the photophysical and electronic properties of the 2D perovskites with pure single phase is essential for improving the performance of the optoelectronic devices and designing devices with new architectures. Investigating the optical and electronic properties of these materials with pure single phase is required to obtain pure single phase 2D perovskites. Here, we report on an alternative approach to fabricate (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3) n-1Pb n I3n+1 microplates with pure single n-number perovskite phase for n  >  2 by mechanical exfoliation. Micro-photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy studies reveal that the as-synthesized 2D perovskite plates for n  >  2 are comprised by dominant n-number phase and small inclusions of hybrid perovskite phases with different n values, which is supported by excitation power dependent photoluminescence. By mechanical exfoliation method, 2D perovskite microplates with the thickness of around 20 nm are obtained, which surprisingly have single n-number perovskite phase for n  =  2-5. In addition, we have demonstrated that the exfoliated 2D perovskite microplates can be integrated with other 2D layered materials such as boron nitride, and are able to be transferred to prefabricated electrodes for photodetections. Our studies not only provide a strategy to prepare 2D perovskites with a single n-number perovskite phase allowing us to extract the basic optical and electronic parameters of pure phase perovskites, but also demonstrate the possibility to integrate the 2D perovskites with other 2D layered materials to extend the device’s functionalities.

  13. Multi-band magnetotransport in exfoliated thin films of Cu x Bi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander-Webber, J. A.; Huang, J.; Beilsten-Edmands, J.; Čermák, P.; Drašar, Č.; Nicholas, R. J.; Coldea, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    We report magnetotransport studies in thin (<100 nm) exfoliated films of Cu x Bi2Se3 and we detect an unusual electronic transition at low temperatures. Bulk crystals show weak superconductivity with T_c∼3.5 K and a possible electronic phase transition around 200 K. Following exfoliation, superconductivity is supressed and a strongly temperature dependent multi-band conductivity is observed for T  <  30 K. This transition between competing conducting channels may be enhanced due to the presence of electronic ordering, and could be affected by the presence of an effective internal stress due to Cu intercalation. By fitting to the weak antilocalisation conductivity correction at low magnetic fields we confirm that the low temperature regime maintains a quantum phase coherence length Lφ> 100 nm indicating the presence of topologically protected surface states.

  14. Exfoliative cytology of oral epithelial cells from patients with type 2 diabetes: cytomorphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Rivera, César; Núñez-de-Mendoza, Camila

    2013-01-01

    This research objective is to identify cytomorphometrical changes using exfoliative cytology (EC) and later Papanicolaou (Pap) staining, for oral epithelial cells of patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2) (n = 30), while being compared to patients without the disease (n = 30). Additionally, we investigated an association between cellular changes and salivary flow levels; relationship that until now has not been reported. Results show that the cell diameter and the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio was significantly higher compared to those patients without the disease (p ≤ 0.001 Student and Welch test). Decreased salivary flow was significantly associated with increased cell diameter and nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio (p ≤ 0.001 ANOVA with Tukey test). Evidence and clinical observations show that DM2 and decreased salivary flow are related to detectable cytomorphometrical changes in exfoliated cells, which may extend the horizon of this cytological technique.

  15. Comparative study on the microbiological features of angular cheilitis in HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative patients from South India

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, P Anitha; Kannan, Ranganathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to compare the microbiological features of angular cheilitis (AC) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive and HIV seronegative individuals, in a group of south Indians. Materials and Methods: Swabs from oral commissures of 46 patients were obtained and inoculated on to Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) supplemented with chloramphenicol, blood agar (BA) and MacConkey's agar (MCA) plates and cultured. α-hemolytic Streptococci, Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida species, Klebsiella species and Pseudomonas species were cultured. Candidal colonies were further speciated by the conventional biotyping technique. Results: In AC of HIV seropositive patients Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus were more prevalent than that in HIV seronegative patients. Incidentally in patients with CD4 cell count less than 200 there was an increase in the incidence of Candidal and Staphylococcus aureus colonization when compared to patients with CD4 cell count higher than 200. Conclusion: The present study suggests a definite difference in the microbial flora of AC in HIV seropositive patients than that of HIV seronegative population. PMID:24574650

  16. Ultrahigh performance heat spreader based on gas-liquid exfoliation boron nitride nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiheng; Zhao, Hongran; Wang, Qiaolei; Peng, Wanjun; Yu, Haibin

    2017-11-24

    Due to their high thermal conductivity and insulation performance, boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) have great promise to fabricate thermal management equipment for application in power electronics. The liquid-phase exfoliation route has been regarded as the most commonly used approach to produce single and few-layered BNNS for many research fields. However, this process takes a long time, and the production yield is extremely low. In this work, an efficient technique to obtain few-layered (mostly < 5 layers), high-yield (∼33%), and plane-defect-free BNNS by the combination of liquid N 2 (L-N 2 ) gasification and liquid exfoliation was developed. The as-obtained BNNS suspensions could be vacuum filtered to make a thermal conductive film named a BNNS heat spreader which possessed a superior thermal conductivity of 61.2 W m -1 K -1 at room temperature. In addition, we also proved that the thermal conductivity of the BNNS heat spreader increased with the increase of density, creating an approach for fine tuning the thermal property of this heat spreader.

  17. Self-surface charge exfoliation and electrostatically coordinated 2D hetero-layered hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min-Quan; Xu, Yi-Jun; Lu, Wanheng; Zeng, Kaiyang; Zhu, Hai; Xu, Qing-Hua; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2017-01-01

    At present, the technological groundwork of atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) hetero-layered structures realized by successive thin film epitaxial growth is in principle constrained by lattice matching prerequisite as well as low yield and expensive production. Here, we artificially coordinate ultrathin 2D hetero-layered metal chalcogenides via a highly scalable self-surface charge exfoliation and electrostatic coupling approach. Specifically, bulk metal chalcogenides are spontaneously exfoliated into ultrathin layers in a surfactant/intercalator-free medium, followed by unconstrained electrostatic coupling with a dissimilar transition metal dichalcogenide, MoSe2, into scalable hetero-layered hybrids. Accordingly, surface and interfacial-dominated photocatalysis reactivity is used as an ideal testbed to verify the reliability of diverse 2D ultrathin hetero-layered materials that reveal high visible-light photoreactivity, efficient charge transfer and intimate contact interface for stable cycling and storage purposes. Such a synthetic approach renders independent thickness and composition control anticipated to advance the development of ‘design-and-build' 2D layered heterojunctions for large-scale exploration and applications. PMID:28146147

  18. Single-layered graphene oxide nanosheet/polyaniline hybrids fabricated through direct molecular exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Liang; Shau, Shi-Min; Juang, Tzong-Yuan; Lee, Rong-Ho; Chen, Chih-Ping; Suen, Shing-Yi; Jeng, Ru-Jong

    2011-12-06

    In this study, we used direct molecular exfoliation for the rapid, facile, large-scale fabrication of single-layered graphene oxide nanosheets (GOSs). Using macromolecular polyaniline (PANI) as a layered space enlarger, we readily and rapidly synthesized individual GOSs at room temperature through the in situ polymerization of aniline on the 2D GOS platform. The chemically modified GOS platelets formed unique 2D-layered GOS/PANI hybrids, with the PANI nanorods embedded between the GO interlayers and extended over the GO surface. X-ray diffraction revealed that intergallery expansion occurred in the GO basal spacing after the PANI nanorods had anchored and grown onto the surface of the GO layer. Transparent folding GOSs were, therefore, observed in transmission electron microscopy images. GOS/PANI nanohybrids possessing high conductivities and large work functions have the potential for application as electrode materials in optoelectronic devices. Our dispersion/exfoliation methodology is a facile means of preparing individual GOS platelets with high throughput, potentially expanding the applicability of nanographene oxide materials. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. Ultrahigh performance heat spreader based on gas-liquid exfoliation boron nitride nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jiheng; Zhao, Hongran; Wang, Qiaolei; Peng, Wanjun; Yu, Haibin

    2017-11-01

    Due to their high thermal conductivity and insulation performance, boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) have great promise to fabricate thermal management equipment for application in power electronics. The liquid-phase exfoliation route has been regarded as the most commonly used approach to produce single and few-layered BNNS for many research fields. However, this process takes a long time, and the production yield is extremely low. In this work, an efficient technique to obtain few-layered (mostly < 5 layers), high-yield (˜33%), and plane-defect-free BNNS by the combination of liquid N2 (L-N2) gasification and liquid exfoliation was developed. The as-obtained BNNS suspensions could be vacuum filtered to make a thermal conductive film named a BNNS heat spreader which possessed a superior thermal conductivity of 61.2 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature. In addition, we also proved that the thermal conductivity of the BNNS heat spreader increased with the increase of density, creating an approach for fine tuning the thermal property of this heat spreader.

  20. Cracking and Exfoliation of TiO2 Film Irradiated with Excimer Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, H. X.; Zhou, W.; Zheng, H. Y.

    TiO2 film deposited on glass was irradiated in air with single-shot KrF excimer laser pulse. The surface roughened as the result of the laser ablation. It is further noted that single-pulse irradiation with fluence ranging from 400 to 1200 mJ/cm2 gave rise to protrusion of the irradiated surface above the original surface, which is in contrast to usual expectation that irradiated surface is below the unirradiated surface. The surface protrusion is mainly attributed to the effect of surface tension. At the laser fluence of 1000 mJ/cm2, cracks were formed in the irradiated area and severe film exfoliation was observed at the periphery of the irradiated area due to the release of internal stress. With higher laser fluence above 1000 mJ/cm2, patches of film were observed to peel off within the irradiated areas. Hydrodynamic ablation is proposed to account for film exfoliation. The observed phenomenon is useful for further understanding how TiO2 film reacts to strong UV laser irradiation.

  1. Covalent modification and exfoliation of graphene oxide using ferrocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avinash, M. B.; Subrahmanyam, K. S.; Sundarayya, Y.; Govindaraju, T.

    2010-09-01

    Large scale preparation of single-layer graphene and graphene oxide is of great importance due to their potential applications. We report a simple room temperature method for the exfoliation of graphene oxide using covalent modification of graphene oxide with ferrocene to obtain single-layer graphene oxide sheets. The samples were characterized by FESEM, HRTEM, AFM, EDAX, FT-IR, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies. HRTEM micrograph of the covalently modified graphene oxide showed increased interlayer spacing of ~2.4 nm due to ferrocene intercalation. The presence of single-layer graphene oxide sheets were confirmed by AFM studies. The covalently modified ferrocene-graphene oxide composite showed interesting magnetic behavior.Large scale preparation of single-layer graphene and graphene oxide is of great importance due to their potential applications. We report a simple room temperature method for the exfoliation of graphene oxide using covalent modification of graphene oxide with ferrocene to obtain single-layer graphene oxide sheets. The samples were characterized by FESEM, HRTEM, AFM, EDAX, FT-IR, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies. HRTEM micrograph of the covalently modified graphene oxide showed increased interlayer spacing of ~2.4 nm due to ferrocene intercalation. The presence of single-layer graphene oxide sheets were confirmed by AFM studies. The covalently modified ferrocene-graphene oxide composite showed interesting magnetic behavior. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Magnetic data; AFM images; TEM micrographs; and Mössbauer spectroscopic data. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00024h

  2. Chemically exfoliated Mo S2 layers: Spectroscopic evidence for the semiconducting nature of the dominant trigonal metastable phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Banabir; Singh, Anjali; Sharada, G.; Mahale, Pratibha; Kumar, Abhinav; Thirupathaiah, S.; Sezen, H.; Amati, M.; Gregoratti, Luca; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Sarma, D. D.

    2017-11-01

    A metastable trigonal phase, existing only as small patches on a chemically exfoliated few-layered, thermodynamically stable 1 H phase of Mo S2 , is believed to critically influence the properties of Mo S2 -based devices. The electronic structure of this metastable phase is little understood in the absence of a direct experimental investigation of its electronic properties, complicated further by conflicting claims from theoretical investigations. We address this issue by investigating the electronic structure of this minority phase in chemically exfoliated Mo S2 few-layered systems by enhancing its contributions with the use of highly spatially resolved (≤120 nm resolution) photoemission spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations. Based on these results, we establish that the ground state of this phase, arrived at by the chemical exfoliation of Mo S2 using the usual Li intercalation technique, is a small gap (˜90 ±40 meV ) semiconductor in contrast to most claims in the literature; we also identify the specific trigonal structure it has among many suggested ones.

  3. Lignin-assisted exfoliation of molybdenum disulfide in aqueous media and its application in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanshuang; Zhao, Chenyang; Zhou, Rui; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Zhaolin; Lu, Xuehong

    2015-06-07

    In this article, alkali lignin (AL)-assisted direct exfoliation of MoS2 mineral into single-layer and few-layer nanosheets in water is reported for the first time. Under optimized conditions, the concentration of MoS2 nanosheets in the obtained dispersion can be as high as 1.75 ± 0.08 mg mL(-1), which is much higher than the typical reported concentrations (<1.0 mg mL(-1)) using synthetic polymers or compounds as surfactants. The stabilizing mechanism primarily lies in the electrostatic repulsion between negative charged AL, as suggested by zeta-potential measurements. When the exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets are applied as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries, they show much improved electrochemical performance compared with the pristine MoS2 mineral because of the enhanced ion and electron transfer kinetics. This facile, scalable and eco-friendly aqueous-based process in combination with renewable and ultra-low-cost lignin opens up possibilities for large-scale fabrication of MoS2-based nanocomposites and devices. Moreover, herein we demonstrate that AL is also an excellent surfactant for exfoliation of many other types of layered materials, including graphene, tungsten disulfide and boron nitride, in water, providing rich opportunities for a wider range of applications.

  4. High-Yield Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Few-Layer MoS2 Nanosheets by Exfoliating Natural Molybdenite Powders Directly via a Coupled Ultrasonication-Milling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Huina; Chen, Deliang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Cost-effective and scalable preparation of two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been the bottleneck that limits their applications. This paper reports a novel coupled ultrasonication-milling (CUM) process to exfoliate natural molybdenite powders to achieve few-layer MoS2 (FL-MoS2) nanosheets in the solvent of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules. The synergistic effect of ultrasonication and sand milling highly enhanced the exfoliation efficiency, and the precursor of natural molybdenite powders minimizes the synthetic cost of FL-MoS2 nanosheets. The exfoliation of natural molybdenite powders was conducted in a home-made CUM system, mainly consisting of an ultrasonic cell disruptor and a ceramic sand mill. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectra, Raman spectra, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, AFM, and N2 adsorption-desorption. The factors that influence the exfoliation in the CUM process, including the initial concentration of natural molybdenite powders ( C in, 15-55 g L-1), ultrasonic power ( P u, 200-350 W), rotation speed of sand mill ( ω s, 1500-2250 r.p.m), exfoliation time ( t ex, 0.5-6 h), and the molar ratio of PVP unit to MoS2 ( R pm, 0-1), were systematically investigated. Under the optimal CUM conditions (i.e., C in = 45 g L-1, P u = 280 W, ω s = 2250 r.p.m and R pm = 0.5), the yield at t ex = 6 h reaches 21.6 %, and the corresponding exfoliation rate is as high as 1.42 g L-1 h-1. The exfoliation efficiency of the CUM mode is much higher than that of either the ultrasonication (U) mode or the milling (M) mode. The synergistic mechanism and influencing rules of the CUM process in exfoliating natural molybdenite powders were elaborated. The as-obtained FL-MoS2 nanosheets have a high specific surface area of 924 m2 g-1 and show highly enhanced electrocatalytic performance in hydrogen evolution reaction and good electrochemical sensing property in detecting ascorbic acid. The CUM process

  5. Direct exfoliation of graphite to graphene in aqueous media with diazaperopyrenium dications.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Srinivasan; Basuray, Ashish N; Hartlieb, Karel J; Aytun, Taner; Stupp, Samuel I; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2013-05-21

    The 2,9-dimethyldiazaperopyrenium dication can be made from a ubiquitous and inexpensive feedstock in three simple steps as its chloride salt. When mixed with powdered graphite at 23 °C, this behemoth of a molecular compound exfoliates graphite to graphene in water under mild conditions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Anion-exchange membranes derived from quaternized polysulfone and exfoliated layered double hydroxide for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wan; Liang, Na; Peng, Pai

    2017-02-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are prepared by controlling urea assisted homogeneous precipitation conditions. Morphology and crystallinity of LDHs are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. After LDHs are incorporated into quaternized polysulfone membranes, transmission electron microscope is used to observe the exfoliated morphology of LDH sheets in the membranes. The properties of the nanocomposite membranes, including water uptake, swelling ratio, mechanical property and ionic conductivity are investigated. The nanocomposite membrane containing 5% LDH sheets shows more balanced performances, exhibiting an ionic conductivity of 2.36×10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at 60 °C. - Graphical abstract: Anion-exchange membrane based onmore » quaternized polysulfone and exfoliated layered double hydroxide is optically transparent and has good ionic properties.« less

  7. CD8+ and FoxP3+ T-cell infiltration in actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Isolde G; Spencer, Maria L; Zapata, Paulina A; Martínez, Alejandra; Alarcón, Rosario; Marchesani, Francisco J; Tezal, Mine

    2017-01-01

    Differences in immune profile between actinic cheilitis (AC), a precursor of lip squamous cell carcinoma, and normal lip vermillion (NL) have not been elucidated. To compare density, distribution, and ratios of CD8+ and FoxP3+ cells between AC and NL and assess their associations with clinicopathologic variables. Samples of AC and NL obtained between 2001 and 2013 at the College of Dentistry of the University of Concepcion, Chile, were retrospectively analyzed for immunohistochemical detection of CD8+ and FoxP3+ cells. Differences between groups were tested by Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests. Independent effects of cell densities and CD8/FoxP3 ratio with AC were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis after adjustment for potential confounding. A total of 62 AC and 24 NL biopsies were included. Densities of CD8+ and FoxP3+ cells in AC were significantly higher than in NL. Conversely, the CD8+/FoxP3+ ratio was significantly lower in AC as compared to NL. After adjustment for sun exposure, age, gender, and smoking status, a stromal FoxP3+ cell density higher than 0.35 cells/field was significantly associated with increased odds of AC (odds ratio [OR] = 5.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-21.31), while a stromal CD8+/FoxP3+ ratio higher than 5.91 was associated with decreased odds of AC (OR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.08-1.08). AC is characterized by increased FoxP3+ cell infiltration and a reduced CD8/FoxP3 ratio as compared to NL. Therefore, increased infiltration of FoxP3+ cells relative to CD8+ cells may contribute to the transition from normal to preneoplastic stages in lip carcinogenesis. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Effect of Cu content on exfoliation corrosion and electrochemical corrosion of A7N01 aluminum alloy in EXCO solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yaling; Wang, Xiaomin; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Qiang; Chen, Hui

    2017-07-01

    The exfoliation corrosion (EXCO) sensitivities and electrochemical corrosions of A7N01 aluminum (Al) alloys with 0.074% and 0.136% Cu contents were investigated in EXCO solution. The exfoliation corrosion developed more rapidly for the alloy with 0.136% Cu by expressing higher exfoliation rate and deeper corrosion pits as observed by SEM and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM). In EXCO solution, the alloy with 0.136% Cu content showed lower open-circuit potential (OCP) than the alloy with 0.074% Cu content. The alloy with 0.136% Cu content had bigger “hysteresis loop” in cyclic polarization curve which meant lower self-passivation ability. In electrochemical impedance spectroscopy plot, its curvature radius and capacitance index were lower. The electrochemical test results revealed that the alloy with 0.136% Cu content showed more severe electrochemical corrosion than the alloy with 0.074% Cu content, consistent with the exfoliation corrosion results. The microstructures of two alloys were observed through optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The continuous distribution of the equilibrium precipitate η-MgZn2 on grain boundaries, the decreasing of the width of precipitate-free zone (PFZ) and the coarse Cu-Fe-Si-rich phase were responsible for the higher corrosion sensitivity of the Al alloy with 0.136% Cu than that of Al alloy with 0.074% Cu content in EXCO solution.

  9. Homogeneously dispersed CeO2 nanoparticles on exfoliated hexaniobate nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Thalles M. F.; Strayer, Megan E.; Ghosh, Anupama; Silva, Alexandre; Ferreira, Odair P.; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Alves da Cunha, Jose R.; Abreu, Guilherme J. P.; Terrones, Mauricio; Mallouk, Thomas E.; Viana, Bartolomeu C.

    2017-12-01

    Hexaniobate nanosheets derived from the parent compound K4Nb6O17 have been decorated with CeO2 nanoparticles by ion exchange with aqueous cerium (IV) solution. Very homogeneous CeO2 nanoparticle decoration of the hexaniobate sheets can be achieved by this method and the resulting composites may absorb visible light. HRTEM images show that ∼3.0 nm diameter CeO2 nanoparticles adhere to hexaniobate nanosheets that are exfoliated and then restacked prior to Ce deposition. The interfacial interaction between CeO2 nanoparticles and nanosheets would be due to an electrostatic attraction mechanism. Raman and XRD measurements have given strong evidence that CeO2 nanoparticles have fluorite structure. EDS, FTIR and XPS results suggest almost complete exchange of TBA+ and K+ by Ce4+. Cerium ion exchange on the acid exchanged parent compound, H2.9K1.1Nb6O17, revealed that the extent of Ce ion exchange is much greater in case of nanosheets, which may be rationalized by the larger surface area available after exfoliation. XPS measurements show that the ratio of Ce4+/Ce3+ is around 4.4, in agreement with the formation of fluorite structure (CeO2). Thus, these CeO2 nanoparticle/nanosheet composites may be useful for catalytic processes.

  10. Exfoliative cytology of oral epithelial cells from patients with type 2 diabetes: cytomorphometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César; Núñez-de-Mendoza, Camila

    2013-01-01

    This research objective is to identify cytomorphometrical changes using exfoliative cytology (EC) and later Papanicolaou (Pap) staining, for oral epithelial cells of patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2) (n = 30), while being compared to patients without the disease (n = 30). Additionally, we investigated an association between cellular changes and salivary flow levels; relationship that until now has not been reported. Results show that the cell diameter and the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio was significantly higher compared to those patients without the disease (p ≤ 0.001 Student and Welch test). Decreased salivary flow was significantly associated with increased cell diameter and nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio (p ≤ 0.001 ANOVA with Tukey test). Evidence and clinical observations show that DM2 and decreased salivary flow are related to detectable cytomorphometrical changes in exfoliated cells, which may extend the horizon of this cytological technique. PMID:24040475

  11. Biomolecule-assisted exfoliation and dispersion of graphene and other two-dimensional materials: a review of recent progress and applications.

    PubMed

    Paredes, J I; Villar-Rodil, S

    2016-08-25

    Direct liquid-phase exfoliation of layered materials by means of ultrasound, shear forces or electrochemical intercalation holds enormous promise as a convenient, cost-effective approach to the mass production of two-dimensional (2D) materials, particularly in the form of colloidal suspensions of high quality and micrometer- and submicrometer-sized flakes. Of special relevance due to environmental and practical reasons is the production of 2D materials in aqueous medium, which generally requires the use of certain additives (surfactants and other types of dispersants) to assist in the exfoliation and colloidal stabilization processes. In this context, biomolecules have received, in recent years, increasing attention as dispersants for 2D materials, as they provide a number of advantages over more conventional, synthetic surfactants. Here, we review research progress in the use of biomolecules as exfoliating and dispersing agents for the production of 2D materials. Although most efforts in this area have focused on graphene, significant advances have also been reported with transition metal dichalcogenides (MoS2, WS2, etc.) or hexagonal boron nitride. Particular emphasis is placed on the specific merits of different types of biomolecules, including proteins and peptides, nucleotides and nucleic acids (RNA, DNA), polysaccharides, plant extracts and bile salts, on their role as efficient colloidal dispersants of 2D materials, as well as on the potential applications that have been explored for such biomolecule-exfoliated materials. These applications are wide-ranging and encompass the fields of biomedicine (photothermal and photodynamic therapy, bioimaging, biosensing, etc.), energy storage (Li- and Na-ion batteries), catalysis (e.g., catalyst supports for the oxygen reduction reaction or electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction), or composite materials. As an incipient area of research, a number of knowledge gaps, unresolved issues and novel future

  12. Electrospray painted article containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide and method for their manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A painted polymer part containing a conductive polymer composition containing at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the painted polymer part has been electrospray painted.

  13. Loss-of-Function Mutations in CAST Cause Peeling Skin, Leukonychia, Acral Punctate Keratoses, Cheilitis, and Knuckle Pads

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhimiao; Zhao, Jiahui; Nitoiu, Daniela; Scott, Claire A.; Plagnol, Vincent; Smith, Frances J.D.; Wilson, Neil J.; Cole, Christian; Schwartz, Mary E.; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Wang, Huijun; Feng, Cheng; Duo, Lina; Zhou, Eray Yihui; Ren, Yali; Dai, Lanlan; Chen, Yulan; Zhang, Jianguo; Xu, Xun; O’Toole, Edel A.; Kelsell, David P.; Yang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Calpastatin is an endogenous specific inhibitor of calpain, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease. Here we show that loss-of-function mutations in calpastatin (CAST) are the genetic causes of an autosomal-recessive condition characterized by generalized peeling skin, leukonychia, acral punctate keratoses, cheilitis, and knuckle pads, which we propose to be given the acronym PLACK syndrome. In affected individuals with PLACK syndrome from three families of different ethnicities, we identified homozygous mutations (c.607dup, c.424A>T, and c.1750delG) in CAST, all of which were predicted to encode truncated proteins (p.Ile203Asnfs∗8, p.Lys142∗, and p.Val584Trpfs∗37). Immunohistochemistry shows that staining of calpastatin is reduced in skin from affected individuals. Transmission electron microscopy revealed widening of intercellular spaces with chromatin condensation and margination in the upper stratum spinosum in lesional skin, suggesting impaired intercellular adhesion as well as keratinocyte apoptosis. A significant increase of apoptotic keratinocytes was also observed in TUNEL assays. In vitro studies utilizing siRNA-mediated CAST knockdown revealed a role for calpastatin in keratinocyte adhesion. In summary, we describe PLACK syndrome, as a clinical entity of defective epidermal adhesion, caused by loss-of-function mutations in CAST. PMID:25683118

  14. Salt-assisted direct exfoliation of graphite into high-quality, large-size, few-layer graphene sheets.

    PubMed

    Niu, Liyong; Li, Mingjian; Tao, Xiaoming; Xie, Zhuang; Zhou, Xuechang; Raju, Arun P A; Young, Robert J; Zheng, Zijian

    2013-08-21

    We report a facile and low-cost method to directly exfoliate graphite powders into large-size, high-quality, and solution-dispersible few-layer graphene sheets. In this method, aqueous mixtures of graphite and inorganic salts such as NaCl and CuCl2 are stirred, and subsequently dried by evaporation. Finally, the mixture powders are dispersed into an orthogonal organic solvent solution of the salt by low-power and short-time ultrasonication, which exfoliates graphite into few-layer graphene sheets. We find that the as-made graphene sheets contain little oxygen, and 86% of them are 1-5 layers with lateral sizes as large as 210 μm(2). Importantly, the as-made graphene can be readily dispersed into aqueous solution in the presence of surfactant and thus is compatible with various solution-processing techniques towards graphene-based thin film devices.

  15. High-Yield Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Few-Layer MoS2 Nanosheets by Exfoliating Natural Molybdenite Powders Directly via a Coupled Ultrasonication-Milling Process.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huina; Chen, Deliang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Rui

    2016-12-01

    Cost-effective and scalable preparation of two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been the bottleneck that limits their applications. This paper reports a novel coupled ultrasonication-milling (CUM) process to exfoliate natural molybdenite powders to achieve few-layer MoS2 (FL-MoS2) nanosheets in the solvent of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules. The synergistic effect of ultrasonication and sand milling highly enhanced the exfoliation efficiency, and the precursor of natural molybdenite powders minimizes the synthetic cost of FL-MoS2 nanosheets. The exfoliation of natural molybdenite powders was conducted in a home-made CUM system, mainly consisting of an ultrasonic cell disruptor and a ceramic sand mill. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectra, Raman spectra, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, AFM, and N2 adsorption-desorption. The factors that influence the exfoliation in the CUM process, including the initial concentration of natural molybdenite powders (C in, 15-55 g L(-1)), ultrasonic power (P u, 200-350 W), rotation speed of sand mill (ω s, 1500-2250 r.p.m), exfoliation time (t ex, 0.5-6 h), and the molar ratio of PVP unit to MoS2 (R pm, 0-1), were systematically investigated. Under the optimal CUM conditions (i.e., C in = 45 g L(-1), P u = 280 W, ω s = 2250 r.p.m and R pm = 0.5), the yield at t ex = 6 h reaches 21.6 %, and the corresponding exfoliation rate is as high as 1.42 g L(-1) h(-1). The exfoliation efficiency of the CUM mode is much higher than that of either the ultrasonication (U) mode or the milling (M) mode. The synergistic mechanism and influencing rules of the CUM process in exfoliating natural molybdenite powders were elaborated. The as-obtained FL-MoS2 nanosheets have a high specific surface area of 924 m(2) g(-1) and show highly enhanced electrocatalytic performance in hydrogen evolution reaction and good electrochemical sensing property in

  16. Surface Characterization of Mechanochemically Modified Exfoliated Halloysite Nanoscrolls.

    PubMed

    Zsirka, Balázs; Táborosi, Attila; Szabó, Péter; Szilágyi, Róbert K; Horváth, Erzsébet; Juzsakova, Tatjána; Fertig, Dávid; Kristóf, János

    2017-04-11

    Surface modifications fundamentally influence the morphology of kaolinite nanostructures as a function of crystallinity and the presence of contaminants. Besides morphology, the catalytic properties of 1:1-type exfoliated aluminosilicates are also influenced by the presence of defect sites that can be generated in a controlled manner by mechanochemical activation. In this work, we investigated exfoliated halloysite nanoparticles with a quasi-homogeneous, scroll-type secondary structure toward developing structural/functional relationships for composition, atomic structure, and morphology. The surface properties of thin-walled nanoscrolls were studied as a function of mechanochemical activation expressed by the duration of dry-grinding. The surface characterizations were carried out using N 2 , NH 3 , and CO 2 adsorption measurements. The effects of grinding on the nanohalloysite structure were followed using thermoanalytical thermogravimetric/derivative thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) and infrared spectroscopic [Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflection (FTIR/ATR)] techniques. Grinding results in partial dehydroxylation with similar changes as those observed for heat treatment above 300 °C. Mechanochemical activation shows a decrease in the dehydroxylation mass loss and the DTG peak temperature, a decrease in the specific surface area and the number of mesopores, an increase in the surface acidity, blue shift of surface hydroxide bands, and a decrease in the intensity of FTIR/ATR bands as a function of the grinding time. The experimental observations were used to guide atomic-scale structural and energetic simulations using realistic molecular cluster models for a nanohalloysite particle. A full potential energy surface description was developed for the mechanochemical activation and/or heating toward nanometahalloysite formation that aids the interpretation of experimental results. The calculated differences upon dehydroxylation show a remarkable

  17. Scanning laser polarimetry in eyes with exfoliation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulos, Antonios T; Katsanos, Andreas; Mikropoulos, Dimitrios G; Giannopoulos, Theodoros; Empeslidis, Theodoros; Teus, Miguel A; Holló, Gábor; Konstas, Anastasios G P

    2013-01-01

    To compare retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) of normotensive eyes with exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and healthy eyes.
 Sixty-four consecutive individuals with XFS and normal office-time intraocular pressure (IOP) and 72 consecutive healthy controls were prospectively enrolled for a cross-sectional analysis in this hospital-based observational study. The GDx-VCC parameters (temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal [TSNIT] average, superior average, inferior average, TSNIT standard deviation (SD), and nerve fiber indicator [NFI]) were compared between groups. Correlation between various clinical parameters and RNFLT parameters was investigated with Spearman coefficient. 
 The NFI, although within normal limits for both groups, was significantly greater in the XFS group compared to controls: the respective median and interquartile range (IQR) values were 25.1 (22.0-29.0) vs 15.0 (12.0-20.0), p<0.001. In the XFS group, all RNFLT values were significantly lower compared to controls (p<0.001). However, they were all within the normal clinical ranges for both groups: TSNIT average median (IQR): 52.8 (49.7-55.7) vs 56.0 (53.0-59.3) µm; superior average mean (SD): 62.3 (6.7) vs 68.8 (8.2) µm; inferior average mean (SD): 58.0 (7.2) vs 64.8 (7.7) µm, respectively. TSNIT SD was significantly lower in the XFS group, median (IQR): 18.1 (15.4-20.4) vs 21.0 (18.4-23.8), p<0.001. There was no systematic relationship between RNFLT and visual acuity, cup-to-disc ratio, IOP, central corneal thickness, Humphrey mean deviation, and pattern standard deviation in either group. 
 Compared to control eyes, polarimetry-determined RNFLT was lower in XFS eyes with normal IOP. Therefore, close monitoring of RNFLT may facilitate early identification of those XFS eyes that convert to exfoliative glaucoma.

  18. Raman spectral signatures of cervical exfoliated cells from liquid-based cytology samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Padraig; Traynor, Damien; Bonnier, Franck; Lyng, Fiona M.; O'Leary, John J.; Martin, Cara M.

    2017-10-01

    It is widely accepted that cervical screening has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer worldwide. The primary screening test for cervical cancer is the Papanicolaou (Pap) test, which has extremely variable specificity and sensitivity. There is an unmet clinical need for methods to aid clinicians in the early detection of cervical precancer. Raman spectroscopy is a label-free objective method that can provide a biochemical fingerprint of a given sample. Compared with studies on infrared spectroscopy, relatively few Raman spectroscopy studies have been carried out to date on cervical cytology. The aim of this study was to define the Raman spectral signatures of cervical exfoliated cells present in liquid-based cytology Pap test specimens and to compare the signature of high-grade dysplastic cells to each of the normal cell types. Raman spectra were recorded from single exfoliated cells and subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. The study demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy can identify biochemical signatures associated with the most common cell types seen in liquid-based cytology samples; superficial, intermediate, and parabasal cells. In addition, biochemical changes associated with high-grade dysplasia could be identified suggesting that Raman spectroscopy could be used to aid current cervical screening tests.

  19. Synthesis, anion exchange, and delamination of Co-Al layered double hydroxide: assembly of the exfoliated nanosheet/polyanion composite films and magneto-optical studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoping; Ma, Renzhi; Osada, Minoru; Iyi, Nobuo; Ebina, Yasuo; Takada, Kazunori; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2006-04-12

    This paper describes a systematic study on the synthesis, anion exchange, and delamination of Co-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH), with the aim of achieving fabrication and clarifying the properties of LDH nanosheet/polyanion composite films. Co-Al-CO3 LDH hexagonal platelets of 4 mum in lateral size were synthesized by the urea method under optimized reaction conditions. The as-prepared CO3(2-)-LDH was converted to Cl- -LDH by treating with a NaCl-HCl mixed solution, retaining its high crystallinity and hexagonal platelike morphology. LDHs intercalated with a variety of anions (such as NO3-, ClO4-, acetate, lactate, dodecyl sulfate, and oleate) were further prepared from Cl- -LDH via an anion-exchange process employing corresponding salts. Exchanged products in various anion forms were found to show different delamination behaviors in formamide. Among them, best results were observed for NO3- -LDH in terms of the exfoliating degree and the quality of the exfoliated nanosheets. The delamination gave a pink transparent suspension containing well-defined nanosheets with lateral sizes of up to 2 microm. The resulting nanosheets were assembled layer-by-layer with an anionic polymer, poly(sodium styrene 4-sulfonate) (PSS), onto quartz glass substrates to produce composite films. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements revealed that the assembled multilayer films exhibited an interesting magneto-optical response.

  20. A study on amphiphilic fluorinated block copolymer in graphite exfoliation using supercritical CO2 for stable graphene dispersion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Hyun; Lee, Hyang Moo; Choi, Sung Wook; Cheong, In Woo

    2018-01-15

    In this study, poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PTFEMA-b-PVP) was synthesized by stepwise reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization for the preparation of graphene by the exfoliation of graphite nanoplatelets (GPs) in supercritical CO 2 (SCCO 2 ). Two different block copolymers (low and high molecular weights) were prepared with the same block ratio and used at different concentrations in the SCCO 2 process. The amount of PTFEMA-b-PVP adsorbed on the GPs and the electrical conductivity of the SCCO 2 -treated GP samples were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and four-point probe method, respectively. All GP samples treated with SCCO 2 were then dispersed in methanol and the dispersion stability was investigated using online turbidity measurements. The concentration and morphology of few-layer graphene stabilized with PTFEMA-b-PVP in the supernatant solution were investigated by gravimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Destabilization study of the graphene dispersions revealed that the longer block copolymer exhibited better affinity for graphene, resulting in a higher yield of stable graphene with minimal defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct exfoliation and dispersion of two-dimensional materials in pure water via temperature control.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinseon; Kwon, Sanghyuk; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Kang, Byunggil; Kwon, Hyukjoon; Kim, Youngchan; Park, Sung O; Jung, Gwan Yeong; Shin, Eunhye; Kim, Wan-Gu; Lee, Hyungdong; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Choi, Minseok; Kim, Tae Hyeong; Oh, Junghoon; Park, Sungjin; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Yoon, Suk Wang; Byun, Doyoung; Lee, Zonghoon; Lee, Changgu

    2015-09-15

    The high-volume synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) materials in the form of platelets is desirable for various applications. While water is considered an ideal dispersion medium, due to its abundance and low cost, the hydrophobicity of platelet surfaces has prohibited its widespread use. Here we exfoliate 2D materials directly in pure water without using any chemicals or surfactants. In order to exfoliate and disperse the materials in water, we elevate the temperature of the sonication bath, and introduce energy via the dissipation of sonic waves. Storage stability greater than one month is achieved through the maintenance of high temperatures, and through atomic and molecular level simulations, we further discover that good solubility in water is maintained due to the presence of platelet surface charges as a result of edge functionalization or intrinsic polarity. Finally, we demonstrate inkjet printing on hard and flexible substrates as a potential application of water-dispersed 2D materials.

  2. Exfoliation and reassembly of cobalt oxide nanosheets into a reversible lithium-ion battery cathode.

    PubMed

    Compton, Owen C; Abouimrane, Ali; An, Zhi; Palmeri, Marc J; Brinson, L Catherine; Amine, Khalil; Nguyen, SonBinh T

    2012-04-10

    An exfoliation-reassembly-activation (ERA) approach to lithium-ion battery cathode fabrication is introduced, demonstrating that inactive HCoO(2) powder can be converted into a reversible Li(1-x) H(x) CoO(2) thin-film cathode. This strategy circumvents the inherent difficulties often associated with the powder processing of the layered solids typically employed as cathode materials. The delamination of HCoO(2) via a combination of chemical and mechanical exfoliation generates a highly processable aqueous dispersion of [CoO(2) ](-) nanosheets that is critical to the ERA approach. Following vacuum-assisted self-assembly to yield a thin-film cathode and ion exchange to activate this material, the generated cathodes exhibit excellent cyclability and discharge capacities approaching that of low-temperature-prepared LiCoO(2) (~83 mAh g(-1) ), with this good electrochemical performance attributable to the high degree of order in the reassembled cathode. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A comparative study using WHO and binary oral epithelial dysplasia grading systems in actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Câmara, P R; Dutra, S N; Takahama Júnior, A; Fontes, Kbfc; Azevedo, R S

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate comparatively the influence of histopathological features on epithelial dysplasia (ED) and the effectiveness in usage of WHO and binary grading systems in actinic cheilitis (AC). Cytological and architectural alterations established by WHO for ED were evaluated in 107 cases of AC. Epithelial dysplasia was graded using WHO and binary systems. The comparisons were performed using kappa, chi-square, and phi coefficient tests (P < 0.05). Most cases were classified as mild ED (44.5%) in the WHO system and as low risk for malignant transformation (64.5%) in the binary system. There was a positive correlation between WHO and binary systems (k = 0.33; P < 0.0002). Loss of basal cell polarity (P < 0.001) was associated with severity of ED grade in the WHO system. Anisonucleosis (P < 0.0001), nuclear pleomorphism (P < 0.0001), anisocytosis (P = 0.03), cell pleomorphism (P = 0.002) increased nuclear/cytoplasm ratio (P < 0.0001), increased nuclear size (P < 0.0001), increased number of mitotic figures (P = 0.0006), and dyskeratosis (P = 0.008) were associated with severity of ED grade in the binary system. It seems that usage of binary ED grading system in AC may be more precise because there is correlation between many of cytological and some of architectural microscopic alterations with increased grade of ED. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The prevalence of actinic cheilitis in farmers in a semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins-Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete; Da Silva, Luiz Carlos Ferreira; Piva, Marta Rabello

    2011-09-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a potentially malignant disorder of the lip caused by chronic exposure to solar radiation. Despite being a relatively common lesion in tropical countries, the data related to AC prevalence in Brazil are sparse, particularly in regions with high levels of ultraviolet radiation. To estimate AC prevalence among farmers in a semiarid northeastern Brazil. Cross-sectional study was carried out involving a representative sample (n = 240) of the farm workers. Sociodemographic, clinical, and histopathological variables were analyzed. AC prevalence was 16.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 12.0% to 21.4%]. The disease was more prevalent in males [prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.52-4.90], fair-skinned farmers (PR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.00-4.30), age over 50 years (PR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.40-6.04), daily exposure time more than eight hours (PR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.03-3.27), and among smokers/ex-smokers (PR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.22-3.87). Mantel-Haenszel test showed a positive relationship between cumulative exposure time and development of AC (P < 0.001). Two cases were diagnosed as microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma. Our results suggest that farmers in this semiarid area have a high risk of lip cancer and indicate the need for health public programs in the early detection of AC and education to teach the population about precautions to be taken during sun exposure. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Oral exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, M S; Mesquita, R A; Corrêa, L; de Sousa, S O

    2001-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of conventional oral exfoliative cytology as a diagnostic tool in paracoccidioidomycosis. Cytologic smears and incisional biopsies were obtained from 10 patients with a clinical suspicion and oral manifestations of paracoccidioidomycosis. Cytologic smears and sections of the incisional biopsy underwent methenamine silver staining for fungi according to the Gomori-Grocott method. The dry glass slides were examined at 400 or 1,000 x magnification, and the presence and shape of yeasts of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were investigated. Yeasts of the fungus P brasiliensis were clearly identified in cytologic smears and sections from incisional biopsies in all cases analyzed (100.0%). Cytology of oral samples proved an effective diagnostic method for the detection of paracoccidioidomycosis in humans.

  6. Intraday monitoring of granitic exfoliation sheets with LiDAR and thermal imaging (Yosemite Valley, California, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerin, Antoine; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Abellán, Antonio; Dubas, Olivier; Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.

    2016-04-01

    Rockfall activity in Yosemite Valley is often linked to the presence of exfoliation sheets associated with other structures such as faults, joints or geological contacts. Daily and seasonal temperature variations or freeze-thaw cycles may strongly promote crack propagation along discontinuities, ultimately leading to rockfalls (Stock et al., 2013). However, little is known concerning the impact of thermal variations on rock face deformation, despite its occurrence at all times of year. To understand the influence of daily temperature fluctuations on the behavior of exfoliation joints (i.e., fractures separating exfoliation sheets), we carried out two different experiments in October 2015: (a) We first monitored a sub-vertical granodiorite flake (19 m by 4 m by 0.1 m ; Collins and Stock, 2014) for 24 consecutive hours using LiDAR and infrared thermal sensors; (b) We monitored a rock cliff (60 m by 45 m) composed of tens of exfoliation sheets located on the southeast face of El Capitan (an ~1000-m-tall cliff located in western Yosemite Valley) for several hours (from 05:30 pm to 01:30 am) to investigate the diurnal cooling effect on rocks of different lithologies. To calibrate the raw apparent temperature measured by the thermal imager (FLIR T660 infrared camera), we fixed pieces of reflective paper (aluminum foil) and black duct tape on both monitored cliffs to measure the reflected temperature and the emissivity of the different rocks. In addition, ambient temperature and relative humidity readings were performed for each acquisition. We then compared the calibrated temperatures to the values registered by resistance temperature detectors (Pt100 sensors), also attached to the rock. Finally, we compared the millimeter scale deformations observed with LiDAR to the values measured by manual crackmeters (standard analog comparators with springs) installed beforehand in the fractures. For the first experiment (24-hour monitoring), a series of measurements were carried

  7. Polymer-Based Black Phosphorus (bP) Hybrid Materials by in Situ Radical Polymerization: An Effective Tool To Exfoliate bP and Stabilize bP Nanoflakes

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Black phosphorus (bP) has been recently investigated for next generation nanoelectronic multifunctional devices. However, the intrinsic instability of exfoliated bP (the bP nanoflakes) toward both moisture and air has so far overshadowed its practical implementation. In order to contribute to fill this gap, we report here the preparation of new hybrid polymer-based materials where bP nanoflakes (bPn) exhibit a significantly improved stability. The new materials have been prepared by different synthetic paths including: (i) the mixing of conventionally liquid-phase exfoliated bP (in dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO) with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solution; (ii) the direct exfoliation of bP in a polymeric solution; (iii) the in situ radical polymerization after exfoliating bP in the liquid monomer (methyl methacrylate, MMA). This last methodology concerns the preparation of stable suspensions of bPn–MMA by sonication-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) of bP in the presence of MMA followed by radical polymerization. The hybrids characteristics have been compared in order to evaluate the bP dispersion and the effectiveness of the bPn interfacial interactions with polymer chains aimed at their long-term environmental stabilization. The passivation of the bPn is particularly effective when the hybrid material is prepared by in situ polymerization. By using this synthetic methodology, the nanoflakes, even if with a gradient of dispersion (size of aggregates), preserve their chemical structure from oxidation (as proved by both Raman and 31P-solid state NMR studies) and are particularly stable to air and UV light exposure. The feasibility of this approach, capable of efficiently exfoliating bP while protecting the bPn, has been then verified by using different vinyl monomers (styrene and N-vinylpyrrolidone), thus obtaining hybrids where the nanoflakes are embedded in polymer matrices with a variety of intriguing thermal, mechanical, and solubility characteristics.

  8. Boron nitride colloidal solutions, ultralight aerogels and freestanding membranes through one-step exfoliation and functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Weiwei; Mochalin, Vadym N.; Liu, Dan; Qin, Si; Gogotsi, Yury; Chen, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing of aerogels and membranes from hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is much more difficult than from graphene or graphene oxides because of the poor dispersibility of h-BN in water, which limits its exfoliation and preparation of colloidal solutions. Here, a simple, one-step mechano-chemical process to exfoliate and functionalize h-BN into highly water-dispersible, few-layer h-BN containing amino groups is presented. The colloidal solutions of few-layer h-BN can have unprecedentedly high concentrations, up to 30 mg ml−1, and are stable for up to several months. They can be used to produce ultralight aerogels with a density of 1.4 mg cm−3, which is ∼1,500 times less than bulk h-BN, and freestanding membranes simply by cryodrying and filtration, respectively. The material shows strong blue light emission under ultraviolet excitation, in both dispersed and dry state. PMID:26611437

  9. Mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on liquid phase exfoliated Sb2Te3 topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguslawski, J.; Sotor, J.; Sobon, G.; Tarka, J.; Jagiello, J.; Macherzynski, W.; Lipinska, L.; Abramski, K. M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, femtosecond pulse generation in an Er-doped fiber laser is reported. The laser is passively mode-locked by an antimony telluride (Sb2Te3) topological insulator (TI) saturable absorber (SA) placed on a side-polished fiber. The Sb2Te3/chitosan suspension used to prepare the SA was obtained via liquid phase exfoliation from bulk Sb2Te3.Ultra-short 449 fs soliton pulses were generated due to the interaction between the evanescent field propagated in the fiber cladding and the Sb2Te3 layers. The optical spectrum is centered at 1556 nm with 6 nm of full-width at half maximum bandwidth. The presented method benefits from a much better repeatability compared to mechanical exfoliation.

  10. A "Tandem" Strategy to Fabricate Flexible Graphene/Polypyrrole Nanofiber Film Using the Surfactant-Exfoliated Graphene for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Shu, Kewei; Chao, Yunfeng; Chou, Shulei; Wang, Caiyun; Zheng, Tian; Gambhir, Sanjeev; Wallace, Gordon G

    2018-06-19

    The surfactant-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation of expanded graphite can produce graphene sheets in large quantities with minimal defects. However, it is difficult to completely remove the surfactant from the final product, thus affecting the electrochemical properties of the produced graphene. In this article, a novel approach to fabricate flexible graphene/polypyrrole film was developed: using surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a template for growth of polypyrrole nanofibers (PPyNFs) instead of removal after the exfoliation process; followed by a simple filtration method. The introduction of PPyNF not only increases the electrochemical performance, but also ensures flexibility. This composite film electrode offers a capacitance up to 161 F g -1 along with a capacitance retention rate of over 80% after 5000 cycles.

  11. Comparison of Promoter Hypermethylation Pattern in Salivary Rinses Collected with and without an Exfoliating Brush from Patients with HNSCC

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenyue; Zaboli, David; Liu, Yan; Arnaoutakis, Demetri; Khan, Tanbir; Wang, Hao; Koch, Wayne; Khan, Zubair; Califano, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Salivary rinses have been recently proposed as a valuable resource for the development of epigenetic biomarkers for detection and monitoring of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Both salivary rinses collected with and without an exfoliating brush from patients with HNSCC are used in detection of promoter hypermethylation, yet their correlation of promoter hypermethylation has not been evaluated. This study was to evaluate the concordance of promoter hypermethylation between salivary rinses collected with and without an exfoliating brush from patients with HNSCC. Methodolgy 57 paired salivary rinses collected with or without an exfoliating brush from identical HNSCC patients were evaluated for promoter hypermethylation status using Quantitative Methylation-Specific PCR. Target tumor suppressor gene promoter regions were selected based on our previous studies describing a panel for HNSCC screening and surveillance, including P16, CCNA1, DCC, TIMP3, MGMT, DAPK and MINT31. Principal Findings In salivary rinses collected with and without brush, frequent methylation was detected in P16 (8.8% vs. 5.2%), CCNA1 (26.3% vs. 22.8%), DCC (33.3% vs. 29.8%), TIMP3 (31.6% vs. 36.8%), MGMT (29.8% vs. 38.6%), DAPK (14.0% vs. 19.2%), and MINT31 (10.5% vs. 8.8%). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient showed a positive correlation between salivary rinses collected with and without brush for P16 (ρ = 0.79), CCNA1 (ρ = 0.61), DCC (ρ = 0.58), TIMP3 (ρ = 0.10), MGMT (ρ = 0.70), DAPK (ρ = 0.51) and MINT31 (ρ = 0.72) (P<0.01). The percent agreement of promoter methylation between salivary rinses with brush and without brush were 96.5% for P16, 82.5% for CCNA1, 78.9% for DCC, 59.7% for TIMP3, 84.2% for MGMT, 84.2% for DAPK, and 94.7% for MINT31. Conclusions Our study demonstrated strong correlations of gene promoter hypermethylation between salivary rinses collected with and without an exfoliating brush. Salivary rinse collection

  12. Surface Tension Components Based Selection of Cosolvents for Efficient Liquid Phase Exfoliation of 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianfeng; Wu, Jingjie; Wang, Man; Dong, Pei; Xu, Jingxuan; Li, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xiang; Yuan, Junhua; Wang, Xifan; Ye, Mingxin; Vajtai, Robert; Lou, Jun; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2016-05-01

    A proper design of direct liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) for 2D materials as graphene, MoS2 , WS2 , h-BN, Bi2 Se3 , MoSe2 , SnS2 , and TaS2 with common cosolvents is carried out based on considering the polar and dispersive components of surface tensions of various cosolvents and 2D materials. It has been found that the exfoliation efficiency is enhanced by matching the ratio of surface tension components of cosolvents to that of the targeted 2D materials, based on which common cosolvents composed of IPA/water, THF/water, and acetone/water can be designed for sufficient LPE process. In this context, the library of low-toxic and low-cost solvents with low boiling points for LPE is infinitely enlarged when extending to common cosolvents. Polymer-based composites reinforced with a series of different 2D materials are compared with each other. It is demonstrated that the incorporation of cosolvents-exfoliated 2D materials can substantially improve the mechanical and thermal properties of polymer matrices. Typically, with the addition of 0.5 wt% of such 2D material as MoS2 nanosheets, the tensile strength and Young's modulus increased up to 74.85% and 136.97%, respectively. The different enhancement effect of 2D materials is corresponded to the intrinsic properties and LPE capacity of 2D materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. High-volumetric performance aligned nano-porous microwave exfoliated graphite oxide-based electrochemical capacitors.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Mehdi; Zhou, Yue; Xu, Haiping; Lin, Minren; Kim, Tae Young; Ruoff, Rodney S; Zhang, Q M

    2013-09-20

    Ultra-high volumetric performance electrochemical double layer capacitors based on high density aligned nano-porous microwave exfoliated graphite oxide have been studied. Elimination of macro-, meso-, and larger micro-pores from electrodes and controlling the nano-morphology results in very high volumetric capacitance, energy, and power density values. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Direct Fabrication of the Graphene-Based Composite for Cancer Phototherapy through Graphite Exfoliation with a Photosensitizer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Qin, Hongmei; Amano, Tsukuru; Murakami, Takashi; Komatsu, Naoki

    2015-10-28

    We report on the application of pristine graphene as a drug carrier for phototherapy (PT). The loading of a photosensitizer, chlorin e6 (Ce6), was achieved simply by sonication of Ce6 and graphite in an aqueous solution. During the loading process, graphite was gradually exfoliated to graphene to give its composite with Ce6 (G-Ce6). This one-step approach is considered to be superior to the graphene oxide (GO)-based composites, which required pretreatment of graphite by strong oxidation. Additionally, the directly exfoliated graphene ensured a high drug loading capacity, 160 wt %, which is about 10 times larger than that of the functionalized GO. Furthermore, the Ce6 concentration for killing cells by G-Ce6 is 6-75 times less than that of the other Ce6 composites including GO-Ce6.

  15. In Situ Exfoliation of Graphene in Epoxy Resins: A Facile Strategy to Efficient and Large Scale Graphene Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Han; Crespo, Maria; Porwal, Harshit; Picot, Olivier; Santagiuliana, Giovanni; Huang, Zhaohui; Barbieri, Ettore; Pugno, Nicola M; Peijs, Ton; Bilotti, Emiliano

    2016-09-14

    Any industrial application aiming at exploiting the exceptional properties of graphene in composites or coatings is currently limited by finding viable production methods for large volumes of good quality and high aspect ratio graphene, few layer graphene (FLG) or graphite nanoplatelets (GNP). Final properties of the resulting composites are inherently related to those of the initial graphitic nanoparticles, which typically depend on time-consuming, resource-demanding and/or low yield liquid exfoliation processes. In addition, efficient dispersion of these nanofillers in polymer matrices, and their interaction, is of paramount importance. Here we show that it is possible to produce graphene/epoxy nanocomposites in situ and with high conversion of graphite to FLG/GNP through the process of three-roll milling (TRM), without the need of any additives, solvents, compatibilisers or chemical treatments. This readily scalable production method allows for more than 5 wt % of natural graphite (NG) to be directly exfoliated into FLG/GNP and dispersed in an epoxy resin. The in situ exfoliated graphitic nanoplatelets, with average aspect ratios of 300-1000 and thicknesses of 5-17 nm, were demonstrated to conferee exceptional enhancements in mechanical and electrical properties to the epoxy resin. The above conclusions are discussed and interpreted in terms of simple analytical models.

  16. Application of liquid-based cytology preparation in micronucleus assay of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in road construction workers.

    PubMed

    Arul, P

    2017-01-01

    Asphalts are bitumens that consist of complex of hydrocarbon mixtures and it is used mainly in road construction and maintenance. This study was undertaken to evaluate the micronucleus (MN) assay of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in road construction workers using liquid-based cytology (LBC) preparation. Three different stains (May-Grunwald Giemsa, hematoxylin and eosin, and Papanicolaou) were used to evaluate the frequency of MN in exfoliated buccal epithelial of 100 participants (fifty road construction workers and fifty administrative staff) using LBC preparation. Statistical analysis was performed with Student's t-test, and P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean frequency of MN for cases was significantly higher than that of controls (P = 0.001) regardless of staining method used and also cases with exposure period of more than 5 years had statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) than cases with Conclusion: The present study concluded that workers exposed to asphalts during road construction exhibit a higher frequency of MN in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells and they are under the significant risk of cytogenetic damage. LBC preparation has potential application for the evaluation of frequency of MN. This technique may be advocated in those who are occupationally exposed to potentially carcinogenic agents in view of improvement in the smear quality and visualization of cell morphology.

  17. Engineering New Layered Solids from Exfoliated Inorganics: a Periodically Alternating Hydrotalcite – Montmorillonite Layered Hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Rajesh; Gupta, Amit; Vasudevan, Sukumaran

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets obtained by exfoliating inorganic layered crystals have emerged as a new class of materials with unique attributes. One of the critical challenges is to develop robust and versatile methods for creating new nanostructures from these 2D-nanosheets. Here we report the delamination of layered materials that belonging to two different classes - the cationic clay, montmorillonite, and the anionic clay, hydrotalcite - by intercalation of appropriate ionic surfactants followed by dispersion in a non-polar solvent. The solids are delaminated to single layers of atomic thickness with the ionic surfactants remaining tethered to the inorganic and consequently the nanosheets are electrically neutral. We then show that when dispersions of the two solids are mixed the exfoliated sheets self-assemble as a new layered solid with periodically alternating hydrotalcite and montmorillonite layers. The procedure outlined here is easily extended to other layered solids for creating new superstructures from 2D-nanosheets by self-assembly. PMID:24336682

  18. Controllable Edge Oxidation and Bubbling Exfoliation Enable the Fabrication of High Quality Water Dispersible Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Suyun; Sun, Jing; Yang, Siwei; He, Peng; Wang, Gang; Di, Zengfeng; Ding, Guqiao; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant progresses made on mass production of chemically exfoliated graphene, the quality, cost and environmental friendliness remain major challenges for its market penetration. Here, we present a fast and green exfoliation strategy for large scale production of high quality water dispersible few layer graphene through a controllable edge oxidation and localized gas bubbling process. Mild edge oxidation guarantees that the pristine sp2 lattice is largely intact and the edges are functionalized with hydrophilic groups, giving rise to high conductivity and good water dispersibility at the same time. The aqueous concentration can be as high as 5.0 mg mL−1, which is an order of magnitude higher than previously reports. The water soluble graphene can be directly spray-coated on various substrates, and the back-gated field effect transistor give hole and electron mobility of ~496 and ~676 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively. These results achieved are expected to expedite various applications of graphene. PMID:27666869

  19. Controllable Edge Oxidation and Bubbling Exfoliation Enable the Fabrication of High Quality Water Dispersible Graphene.

    PubMed

    Tian, Suyun; Sun, Jing; Yang, Siwei; He, Peng; Wang, Gang; Di, Zengfeng; Ding, Guqiao; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2016-09-26

    Despite significant progresses made on mass production of chemically exfoliated graphene, the quality, cost and environmental friendliness remain major challenges for its market penetration. Here, we present a fast and green exfoliation strategy for large scale production of high quality water dispersible few layer graphene through a controllable edge oxidation and localized gas bubbling process. Mild edge oxidation guarantees that the pristine sp 2 lattice is largely intact and the edges are functionalized with hydrophilic groups, giving rise to high conductivity and good water dispersibility at the same time. The aqueous concentration can be as high as 5.0 mg mL -1 , which is an order of magnitude higher than previously reports. The water soluble graphene can be directly spray-coated on various substrates, and the back-gated field effect transistor give hole and electron mobility of ~496 and ~676 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , respectively. These results achieved are expected to expedite various applications of graphene.

  20. Controllable Edge Oxidation and Bubbling Exfoliation Enable the Fabrication of High Quality Water Dispersible Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Suyun; Sun, Jing; Yang, Siwei; He, Peng; Wang, Gang; di, Zengfeng; Ding, Guqiao; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2016-09-01

    Despite significant progresses made on mass production of chemically exfoliated graphene, the quality, cost and environmental friendliness remain major challenges for its market penetration. Here, we present a fast and green exfoliation strategy for large scale production of high quality water dispersible few layer graphene through a controllable edge oxidation and localized gas bubbling process. Mild edge oxidation guarantees that the pristine sp2 lattice is largely intact and the edges are functionalized with hydrophilic groups, giving rise to high conductivity and good water dispersibility at the same time. The aqueous concentration can be as high as 5.0 mg mL-1, which is an order of magnitude higher than previously reports. The water soluble graphene can be directly spray-coated on various substrates, and the back-gated field effect transistor give hole and electron mobility of ~496 and ~676 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. These results achieved are expected to expedite various applications of graphene.

  1. Assessing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anisotropic potential with application to the exfoliation energy of graphite.

    PubMed

    Totton, Tim S; Misquitta, Alston J; Kraft, Markus

    2011-11-24

    In this work we assess a recently published anisotropic potential for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2010, 6, 683-695). Comparison to recent high-level symmetry-adapted perturbation theory based on density functional theory (SAPT(DFT)) results for coronene (C(24)H(12)) demonstrate the transferability of the potential while highlighting some limitations with simple point charge descriptions of the electrostatic interaction. The potential is also shown to reproduce second virial coefficients of benzene (C(6)H(6)) with high accuracy, and this is enhanced by using a distributed multipole model for the electrostatic interaction. The graphene dimer interaction energy and the exfoliation energy of graphite have been estimated by extrapolation of PAH interaction energies. The contribution of nonlocal fluctuations in the π electron density in graphite have also been estimated which increases the exfoliation energy by 3.0 meV atom(-1) to 47.6 meV atom(-1), which compares well to recent theoretical and experimental results.

  2. Loss-of-function mutations in CAST cause peeling skin, leukonychia, acral punctate keratoses, cheilitis, and knuckle pads.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhimiao; Zhao, Jiahui; Nitoiu, Daniela; Scott, Claire A; Plagnol, Vincent; Smith, Frances J D; Wilson, Neil J; Cole, Christian; Schwartz, Mary E; McLean, W H Irwin; Wang, Huijun; Feng, Cheng; Duo, Lina; Zhou, Eray Yihui; Ren, Yali; Dai, Lanlan; Chen, Yulan; Zhang, Jianguo; Xu, Xun; O'Toole, Edel A; Kelsell, David P; Yang, Yong

    2015-03-05

    Calpastatin is an endogenous specific inhibitor of calpain, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease. Here we show that loss-of-function mutations in calpastatin (CAST) are the genetic causes of an autosomal-recessive condition characterized by generalized peeling skin, leukonychia, acral punctate keratoses, cheilitis, and knuckle pads, which we propose to be given the acronym PLACK syndrome. In affected individuals with PLACK syndrome from three families of different ethnicities, we identified homozygous mutations (c.607dup, c.424A>T, and c.1750delG) in CAST, all of which were predicted to encode truncated proteins (p.Ile203Asnfs∗8, p.Lys142∗, and p.Val584Trpfs∗37). Immunohistochemistry shows that staining of calpastatin is reduced in skin from affected individuals. Transmission electron microscopy revealed widening of intercellular spaces with chromatin condensation and margination in the upper stratum spinosum in lesional skin, suggesting impaired intercellular adhesion as well as keratinocyte apoptosis. A significant increase of apoptotic keratinocytes was also observed in TUNEL assays. In vitro studies utilizing siRNA-mediated CAST knockdown revealed a role for calpastatin in keratinocyte adhesion. In summary, we describe PLACK syndrome, as a clinical entity of defective epidermal adhesion, caused by loss-of-function mutations in CAST. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation of niobium based oxynitride nanosheets by exfoliation of Ruddlesden-Popper phase precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Maia, Ary; Cheviré, François; Demange, Valérie; Bouquet, Valérie; Pasturel, Mathieu; Députier, Stéphanie; Lebullenger, Ronan; Guilloux-Viry, Marylline; Tessier, Franck

    2016-04-01

    A new oxynitride Ruddlesden-Popper phase K1.6Ca2Nb3O9.4N0.6.1.1H2O was synthesized by the topochemical ammonolysis reaction at 700 °C from the oxide Dion-Jacobson phase KCa2Nb3O10 in the presence of K2CO3. The oxynitride showed good stability with a little loss of nitrogen, even after a few months of exposure to air. Its crystal structure was solved by Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data in space group P4/mmm and considering a two-phase mixture, due to the difference in the degree of hydration, with a = 3.894(2) Å and c = 17.90(8) Å for the most hydrated phase and a = 3.927(6) Å and c = 17.09(2) Å for the less one. Optical band gaps were measured by diffuse reflectance in the UV-Visible range indicating a red shift of Eg to the visible region. The oxynitride layered perovskite was then protonated and exfoliated into nanosheets. TEM images and SAED patterns of the nanosheets proved that exfoliation was successful, showing lattice parameters quite compatible with the Rietveld refinement.

  4. Synchronous exfoliation and assembly of graphene on 3D Ni(OH)2 for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liguo; Zheng, Maojun; Liu, Shaohua; Li, Qiang; You, Yuxiu; Wang, Faze; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-11-08

    Nowadays, new approaches to fabricate high-performance electrode materials are of vital importance in the renewable energy field. Here, we present a facile synthesis procedure of 3D Ni(OH) 2 /graphene hybrids for supercapacitors via synchronous electrochemical-assisted exfoliation and assembly of graphene on 3D Ni(OH) 2 networks. With the assistance of an electric field, the electrochemically exfoliated high-quality graphene can be readily, uniformly assembled on the surfaces of 3D Ni(OH) 2 . When serving as electrode materials for supercapacitors, the resulting 3D Ni(OH) 2 /graphene composites exhibited excellent specific capacitance (263 mF cm -2 at 2 mA cm -2 ), remarkable rate capability and super-long cycle life (retention of 94.1% even after 10 000 continuous charge-discharge cycles), which may be attributed to their highly porous, stable 3D architecture as well as uniform, firm anchoring of ultrathin graphene on their surfaces. Therefore, our approach provides a facile strategy for the large-scale synthesis of high-quality graphene based composites towards various applications.

  5. Liquid-phase exfoliated graphene self-assembled films: Low-frequency noise and thermal-electric characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubon Usca, G.; Hernandez-Ambato, J.; Pace, C.; Caputi, L. S.; Tavolaro, A.

    2016-09-01

    In few years, graphene has become a revolutionary material, leading not only to applications in various fields such as electronics, medicine and environment, but also to the production of new types of 2D materials. In this work, Liquid Phase Exfoliation (LPE) was applied to natural graphite by brief sonication or mixer treatment in suitable solvents, in order to produce Few Layers Graphene (FLG) suspensions. Additionally, zeolite 4A (Z4A) was added during the production of FLG flakes-based inks, with the aim of aiding the exfoliation process. Conductive films were obtained by drop casting three types of suspensions over Al2O3 substrates with interdigitated electrodes, with total channel surface of 1.39 mm2. The morphology characterization resulted in the verification of the presence of thin self-assembled flakes. Raman studies gave evidence of 4 to 10 layers graphene flakes. Electrical measurements were performed to state the Low-Frequency Noise and Thermal-Electric characteristics of the samples. We observe interesting relations between sample preparation procedures and electrical properties.

  6. Micronuclei frequencies and nuclear abnormalities in oral exfoliated cells of nuclear power plant workers.

    PubMed

    Sagari, Shitalkumar G; Babannavar, Roopa; Lohra, Abhishek; Kodgi, Ashwin; Bapure, Sunil; Rao, Yogesh; J, Arun; Malghan, Manjunath

    2014-12-01

    Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of Micronuclei (MN) and other Nuclear abnormalities (NA) from exfoliated oral mucosal cells in Nuclear Power Station (NPS) workers. Micronucleus frequencies in oral exfoliated cells were done from individuals not known to be exposed to either environmental or occupational carcinogens (Group I). Similarly samples were obtained from full-time Nuclear Power Station (NPS) workers with absence of Leukemia and any malignancy (Group II) and workers diagnosed as leukemic patients and undergoing treatment (Group III). There was statistically significant difference between Group I, Group II & Group III. MN and NA frequencies in Leukemic Patients were significantly higher than those in exposed workers &control groups (p < 0.05). MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with malignancies. Therefore, there is a need to educate those who work in NPS about the potential hazard of occupational exposure and the importance of using protective measures.

  7. Micronuclei Frequencies and Nuclear Abnormalities in Oral Exfoliated Cells of Nuclear Power Plant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Babannavar, Roopa; Lohra, Abhishek; Kodgi, Ashwin; Bapure, Sunil; Rao, Yogesh; J., Arun; Malghan, Manjunath

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of Micronuclei (MN) and other Nuclear abnormalities (NA) from exfoliated oral mucosal cells in Nuclear Power Station (NPS) workers. Materials and Methods: Micronucleus frequencies in oral exfoliated cells were done from individuals not known to be exposed to either environmental or occupational carcinogens (Group I). Similarly samples were obtained from full-time Nuclear Power Station (NPS) workers with absence of Leukemia and any malignancy (Group II) and workers diagnosed as leukemic patients and undergoing treatment (Group III). Results: There was statistically significant difference between Group I, Group II & Group III. MN and NA frequencies in Leukemic Patients were significantly higher than those in exposed workers &control groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with malignancies. Therefore, there is a need to educate those who work in NPS about the potential hazard of occupational exposure and the importance of using protective measures. PMID:25654022

  8. Stabilization of antioxidant gallate in layered double hydroxide by exfoliation and reassembling reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansy, Kanakappan Mickel; Lee, Ji-Hee; Piao, Huiyan; Choi, Goeun; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2018-06-01

    As for the stabilization of chemically sensitive bioactive molecule in this study, gallic acid (GA) with antioxidant property was intercalated into interlayer space of layered double hydroxide (LDH), which was realized by exfoliation and reassembling reaction. At first, the pristine nitrate-type Zn2Al-LDH in solid state was synthesized via co-precipitation followed by the hydrothermal treatment at 80 °C for 6 h, and then exfoliated in formamide to form a colloidal solution of exfoliated LDH nanosheets, and finally reassembled in the presence of GA to prepare GA intercalated LDH (GA-LDH) desired, where the pH was adjusted to 8.0 in order to deprotonate GA to form gallate anion. According to the XRD analysis, GA-LDH showed well-developed (00l) diffraction peaks with a basal spacing of 1.15 nm, which was estimated to be larger than that of the pristine LDH (0.88 nm), indicating that gallate molecules were incorporated into LDH layers with perpendicular orientation. From the FT-IR spectra it was found that gallic acid was completely deprotonated into gallate, and stabilized in between LDH lattices via electrostatic interaction. The content of GA in GA-LDH was determined to be around 23 wt% by UV-vis spectroscopic study, which was also confirmed by HPLC analysis. According to the in-vitro release of GA out of GA-LDH in PBS solution (pH 7.4) at 4 °C, GA was sustainably released from GA-LDH nanohybrid up to 86% within 72 h. The antioxidant property of GA-LDH was almost the same with that of intact GA which was examined by DPPH. The photostability of GA-LDH under UV light irradiation was immensely enhanced compared to intact GA. It is, therefore, concluded that the present GA-LDH nanohybrid can be considered as an excellent antioxidant material with high chemical- and photo-stabilities, and controlled release property.

  9. Liquid-Phase Exfoliation into Monolayered BiOBr Nanosheets for Photocatalytic Oxidation and Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hongjian; Huang, Hongwei; Xu, Kang

    2017-09-26

    Monolayered photocatalytic materials have attracted huge research interests in terms of their large specific surface area and ample active sites. Sillén-structured layered BiOX (X = Cl, Br, I) casts great prospects owing to their strong photo-oxidation ability and high stability. Fabrication of monolayered BiOX by a facile, low-cost, and scalable approach is highly challenging and anticipated. Herein, we describe the large-scale preparation of monolayered BiOBr nanosheets with a thickness of ~0.85 nm via a readily achievable liquid-phase exfoliation strategy with assistance of formamide at ambient conditions. The as-obtained monolayered BiOBr nanosheets are allowed diverse superiorities, such as enhanced specific surfacemore » area, promoted band structure, and strengthened charge separation. Profiting from these benefits, the advanced BiOBr monolayers not only show excellent adsorption and photodegradation performance for treating contaminants, but also demonstrate a greatly promoted photocatalytic activity for CO2 reduction into CO and CH4. Additionally, monolayered BiOI nanosheets have also been obtained by the same synthetic approach. Our work offers a mild and general approach for preparation of monolayered BiOX, and may have huge potential to be extended to the synthesis of other single-layer two-dimensional materials.« less

  10. Exfoliation syndrome and exfoliation glaucoma-associated LOXL1 variations are not involved in pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kollu Nageswara; Ritch, Robert; Dorairaj, Syril K; Kaur, Inderjeet; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Thomas, Ravi; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata

    2008-07-09

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LOXL1 gene have been implicated in exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG). We have shown that these SNPs are not associated with the primary glaucomas such as primary open-angle (POAG) glaucoma and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). To further establish the specificity of LOXL1 SNPs for XFS and XFG, we determined whether these SNPs were involved in pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) and pigmentary glaucoma (PG). Three SNPs of LOXL1 (rs1048661, rs3825942, and rs2165241) were screened in a cohort of 78 unrelated and clinically well characterized glaucoma cases comprising of PG (n=44) and PDS (n=34) patients as well as 108 ethnically matched normal controls of Caucasian origin. The criteria for diagnosis of PDS/PG were Krukenberg spindle, hyperpigmentation of the trabecular meshwork, and wide open angle. Transillumination defects were detected by infrared pupillography, and the presence of a Zentmayer ring was considered as a confirmatory sign. All three SNPs were genotyped in cases and controls by resequencing the genomic region of LOXL1 harboring these variants and were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction digestions. Haplotypes were generated from the genotype data, and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype analysis were done with Haploview software that uses the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. The LOXL1 SNPs showed no significant association with PDS or PG. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of the risk alleles of rs1048661 ('G' allele; p=0.309), rs3825942 ('G' allele' p=0.461), and rs2165241 ('T' allele; p=0.432) between PG/PDS cases and controls. Similarly, there was no involvement of the XFS/XFG-associated haplotypes, 'G-G' (p=0.643; [OR=1.08, 95%CI, 0.59-1.97]) and 'T-G' (p=0.266; [OR=1.35, 95%CI, 0.70-2.60]), with the PDS/PG phenotypes. The risk haplotype 'G-G' was observed in ~55% of the normal controls. There was no

  11. Clinical, histopathological and immunological characteristics of exfoliative cutaneous lupus erythematosus in 25 German short-haired pointers.

    PubMed

    Bryden, Sharon L; White, Stephen D; Dunston, Stanley M; Burrows, Amanda K; Olivry, Thierry

    2005-08-01

    Clinical, histopathological and immunological features of exfoliative cutaneous lupus erythematosus, an uncommon generalized exfoliative dermatitis occurring exclusively in German short-haired pointers, were characterized in 25 dogs. The disease affects young adult dogs and its familial incidence strongly suggests a hereditary origin. Lesions were characterized by scaling and alopecia affecting 100 (25/25) and 76% (19/25) of dogs, respectively. Follicular casts were present in 28% (7/25) of dogs. The muzzle, pinnae and dorsum were typically affected. Generalized skin lesions were described in 52% (13/25) of dogs. Systemic signs of pain and lameness affected several dogs. Anaemia and thrombocytopenia were detected in several dogs with a more severe clinical phenotype. The most common histopathological features were hyperkeratosis and a lymphocytic interface dermatitis. Direct immunostaining revealed IgG deposition in the epidermal and follicular basement membrane of 100 (19/19) and 41% (7/17) of dogs, respectively. Circulating antifollicular and antisebaceous gland IgG antibodies were demonstrated by indirect immunostaining in 57% (4/7) of dogs. This disease usually responds poorly to immunosuppressive therapy and it has a guarded prognosis. Where outcome was recorded, 85% (10/12) of dogs were euthanased due to either a failure to respond to, or complications associated with, immunomodulatory therapy. Two affected dogs are in remission and maintained on immunomodulatory dosages of prednisolone. This study demonstrates the existence of a cellular and humoral immune response directed against the epidermal basement membrane of dogs with exfoliative cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Additional studies are required to further characterize the immunological pathogenesis of this disease.

  12. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Reis Campos, Lízia Maria Franco dos; Luz Dias, Francisca da; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2008-11-01

    Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON). Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners), age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9% saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 +/- 7.8) and passive (7.2 +/- 10.6) smoking versus no smoking (3.7 +/- 5.1); with/without alcoholism (7.8 +/- 1.4 and 6.9 +/- 10.1); with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 +/- 10.5 and 1.3 +/- 1.7); and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 +/- 4.3, 10.6 +/- 5.3, 22.7 +/- 11.9 and 1.3 +/- 1.4) found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05). We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.

  13. Abnormal Multiple Charge Memory States in Exfoliated Few-Layer WSe2 Transistors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mikai; Wang, Yifan; Shepherd, Nathan; Huard, Chad; Zhou, Jiantao; Guo, L J; Lu, Wei; Liang, Xiaogan

    2017-01-24

    To construct reliable nanoelectronic devices based on emerging 2D layered semiconductors, we need to understand the charge-trapping processes in such devices. Additionally, the identified charge-trapping schemes in such layered materials could be further exploited to make multibit (or highly desirable analog-tunable) memory devices. Here, we present a study on the abnormal charge-trapping or memory characteristics of few-layer WSe 2 transistors. This work shows that multiple charge-trapping states with large extrema spacing, long retention time, and analog tunability can be excited in the transistors made from mechanically exfoliated few-layer WSe 2 flakes, whereas they cannot be generated in widely studied few-layer MoS 2 transistors. Such charge-trapping characteristics of WSe 2 transistors are attributed to the exfoliation-induced interlayer deformation on the cleaved surfaces of few-layer WSe 2 flakes, which can spontaneously form ambipolar charge-trapping sites. Our additional results from surface characterization, charge-retention characterization at different temperatures, and density functional theory computation strongly support this explanation. Furthermore, our research also demonstrates that the charge-trapping states excited in multiple transistors can be calibrated into consistent multibit data storage levels. This work advances the understanding of the charge memory mechanisms in layered semiconductors, and the observed charge-trapping states could be further studied for enabling ultralow-cost multibit analog memory devices.

  14. Electrical and photovoltaic properties of residue-free MoS2 thin films by liquid exfoliation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyo Lee, Seung; Chu, Dongil; Song, Da Ye; Pak, Sang Woo; Kim, Eun Kyu

    2017-05-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) film fabricated by a liquid exfoliation method has significant potential for various applications, because of its advantages of mass production and low-temperature processes. In this study, residue-free MoS2 thin films were formed during the liquid exfoliation process and their electrical properties were characterized with an interdigitated electrode. Then, the MoS2 film thickness could be controlled by centrifuge condition in the range of 20 ˜ 40 nm, and its carrier concentration and mobility were measured at about 7.36 × 1016 cm-3 and 4.67 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. Detailed analysis on the films was done by atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements for verifying the film quality. For application of the photovoltaic device, a Au/MoS2/silicon/In junction structure was fabricated, which then showed power conversion efficiency of 1.01% under illumination of 100 mW cm-2.

  15. Exfoliated Human Olfactory Neuroepithelium: A Source of Neural Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Vaca, Ana L; Benitez-King, Gloria; Ruiz, Víctor; Ramírez-Rodríguez, Gerardo B; Hernández-de la Cruz, Beatriz; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio A; González-Márquez, Humberto; Ramírez-Sánchez, Israel; Ortíz-López, Leonardo; Vélez-Del Valle, Cristina; Ordoñez-Razo, Rosa Ma

    2018-03-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPC) contained in the human adult olfactory neuroepithelium (ONE) possess an undifferentiated state, the capability of self-renewal, the ability to generate neural and glial cells as well as being kept as neurospheres in cell culture conditions. Recently, NPC have been isolated from human or animal models using high-risk surgical methods. Therefore, it was necessary to improve methodologies to obtain and maintain human NPC as well as to achieve better knowledge of brain disorders. In this study, we propose the establishment and characterization of NPC cultures derived from the human olfactory neuroepithelium, using non-invasive procedures. Twenty-two healthy individuals (29.7 ± 4.5 years of age) were subjected to nasal exfoliation. Cells were recovered and kept as neurospheres under serum-free conditions. The neural progenitor origin of these neurospheres was determined by immunocytochemistry and qPCR. Their ability for self-renewal and multipotency was analyzed by clonogenic and differentiation assays, respectively. In the cultures, the ONE cells preserved the phenotype of the neurospheres. The expression levels of Nestin, Musashi, Sox2, and βIII-tubulin demonstrated the neural origin of the neurospheres; 48% of the cells separated could generate neurospheres, determining that they retained their self-renewal capacity. Neurospheres were differentiated in the absence of growth factors (EGF and FGF), and their multipotency ability was maintained as well. We were also able to isolate and grow human neural progenitor cells (neurospheres) through nasal exfoliates (non-invasive method) of the ONE from healthy adults, which is an extremely important contribution for the study of brain disorders and for the development of new therapies.

  16. Expression of laminin-5 and integrins in actinic cheilitis and superficially invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the lip.

    PubMed

    Peixoto da-Silva, Janaína; Lourenço, Silvia; Nico, Marcello; Silva, Filomena H; Martins, Marília Trierveiler; Costa-Neves, Adriana

    2012-10-15

    The progression of carcinogenesis entails the detachment of cells, invasion and migration of neoplastic cells. Alterations in epithelial adhesion and basement membrane proteins might mediate the early stages of carcinogenesis. This study investigated the expression of adhesion molecules and the basement membrane protein laminin-5 in actinic cheilitis (AC) and incipient squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip to understand early photocarcinogenesis. Ln-5γ2 chain as well as α3, β1 subunits of α3β1 heterodimer and β4 subunit of integrin α6β4 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 16 cases of AC and 16 cases of superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SISCC). Most AC cases showed reduced expression of β1, β4 and α3 integrins, and SISCCs lacked β1, β4 and α3 integrins in the invasive front. AC cases were negative for the Ln-5γ2 chain. Five cases of SISCC (31%) showed heterogeneous Ln-5γ2 chain expression in the invasive front of the tumor. Integrin β1, β4 and α3 expression is lost during the early stages of lip carcinogenesis. Expression of Ln-5γ2 in the invasive front in cases and its correlation with tumor progression suggest that it mediates the acquisition of the migrating and invading epithelial cell phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Micronuclei: An essential biomarker in oral exfoliated cells for grading of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Kiran; Gupta, Nidhi; Ahmed, Mujib Br

    2011-01-01

    Micronuclei in exfoliated oral epithelial cells have been shown in some studies to correlate with severity of this genotoxic damage. This severity can be measured in terms of grading of the lesions. To correlate frequency of micronuclei (MN) in oral exfoliated cells in clinically diagnosed cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) followed by a histopathological grading. The study subjects consisted of clinically diagnosed cases of OSCC. Healthy subjects without any tobacco consumption habits formed the control group. The cytosmears from both groups were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain. MN were identified according to the criteria given by Countryman and Heddle with some modifications. The frequency of MN was three to four times higher in patients with OSCC as compared to patients in the control group and the difference was found to be highly significant. In 75% cases, the cytological grade as determined by the frequency of micronuclei correlated with the histopathological grade and this observation was statistically significant. MN can be a candidate to serve as a biomarker for prediction of the grade of OSCC.

  18. Hydrogen generation via photoelectrochemical water splitting using chemically exfoliated MoS{sub 2} layers

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, R. K., E-mail: r.joshi@unsw.edu.au, E-mail: alwarappan@cecri.res.in; Sahajwalla, V.; Shukla, S.

    2016-01-15

    Study on hydrogen generation has been of huge interest due to increasing demand for new energy sources. Photoelectrochemical reaction by catalysts was proposed as a promising technique for hydrogen generation. Herein, we report the hydrogen generation via photoelectrochecmial reaction using films of exfoliated 2-dimensional (2D) MoS{sub 2}, which acts as an efficient photocatalyst. The film of chemically exfoliated MoS{sub 2} layers was employed for water splitting, leading to hydrogen generation. The amount of hydrogen was qualitatively monitored by observing overpressure of a water container. The high photo-current generated by MoS{sub 2} film resulted in hydrogen evolution. Our work shows thatmore » 2D MoS{sub 2} is one of the promising candidates as a photocatalyst for light-induced hydrogen generation. High photoelectrocatalytic efficiency of the 2D MoS{sub 2} shows a new way toward hydrogen generation, which is one of the renewable energy sources. The efficient photoelectrocatalytic property of the 2D MoS{sub 2} is possibly due to availability of catalytically active edge sites together with minimal stacking that favors the electron transfer.« less

  19. Pioneers of exfoliative cytology in the 19th century: the predecessors of George Papanicolaou.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, A; Magiorkinis, E

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to summarize the knowledge on exfoliative cytology during the 19th century and to track down Papanicolaou's predecessors. A thorough study of texts, medical books and reports, together with a review of the available literature in PubMed, was undertaken. The study of cytological preparations as a diagnostic procedure can be traced back to the work of the famous French microscopist Alfred François Donné. However, the systematic study and the criteria for the diagnosis of malignant cells should be attributed to Johannes Müller. The increasing interest in the cytological examination of various fluids of the human body can be confirmed by a plethora of studies published during this period. By the end of the 19th century, the invention of new techniques in pathology, such as the introduction of cell block techniques, tissue sections and new staining methods which provided the opportunity to study surgical specimens in three dimensions, led to a decrease in the interest in exfoliative cytology, which was re-discovered by George Papanicolaou almost three decades later. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Actinic cheilitis: epithelial expression of COX-2 and its association with mast cell tryptase and PAR-2.

    PubMed

    Rojas, I Gina; Martínez, Alejandra; Brethauer, Ursula; Grez, Patricia; Yefi, Roger; Luza, Sandra; Marchesani, Francisco J

    2009-03-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in various types of human malignancies, including oral cancers. Recent studies have shown that mast cell-derived protease tryptase can induce COX-2 expression by the cleavage of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a premalignant form of lip cancer characterized by an increased density of tryptase-positive mast cells. To investigate the possible contribution of tryptase to COX-2 overexpression during early lip carcinogenesis, normal lip (n=24) and AC (n=45) biopsies were processed for COX-2, PAR-2 and tryptase detection, using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Expression scores were obtained for each marker and tested for statistical significance using Mann-Whitney and Spearmann's correlation tests as well as multivariate logistic regression analysis. Increased epithelial co-expression of COX-2 and PAR-2, as well as, elevated subepithelial density of tryptase-positive mast cells were found in AC as compared to normal lip (P<0.001). COX-2 overexpression was found to be a significant predictor of AC (P<0.034, forward stepwise, Wald), and to be correlated with both tryptase-positive mast cells and PAR-2 expression (P<0.01). The results suggest that epithelial COX-2 overexpression is a key event in AC, which is associated with increased tryptase-positive mast cells and PAR-2. Therefore, tryptase may contribute to COX-2 up-regulation by epithelial PAR-2 activation during early lip carcinogenesis.

  1. Conductive ink containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide and method a conductive circuit using the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A conductive ink containing a conductive polymer, wherein the conductive polymer contains at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, and it use in a method for making a conductive circuit.

  2. Actinic lesions in fishermen’s lower lip: clinical, cytopathological and histopathologic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Piñera-Marques, Karine; Lorenço, Silvia Vanessa; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Sotto, Mirian Nacagami; Carneiro, Paulo Campos

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Actinic cheilitis (AC) is considered to be a pre-malignant lesion or an incipient and superficial form of lip squamous cell carcinoma. It is commonly found in individuals whose occupational activities are related to chronic sun exposure and the definitive diagnosis is performed with biopsy. Althoug Exfoliative cytology has been used as a screening procedure to evaluate cancer of the oral cavity no studies have proposed the use of exfoliative cytologic analysis to evaluate and diagnose AC. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate lower lip lesions on fishermen related to chronic solar exposure using clinical, cytologic and histopathologic analyses. PATIENTS AND METHODS Smears taken from the vermilion of the lower lips of 125 fishermen and 30 control individuals were subjected to cytologic analysis. RESULTS The harvested cells were sufficient for cytologic analysis in 83.2% of the samples. Sixteen fishermen exhibited prominent lower lip lesions that justified biopsy and histological studies. In total, 4 specimens were malignant (3.2%), and 12 displayed epithelial dysplasia, demonstrating that the prevalence of epithelial dysplasia and malignant lesions was high among the fishermen population. These conditions were strongly associated with infiltration and blurring of the vermilion margin of the lower lip. CONCLUSION The cytologic analysis was not useful for detecting epithelial dysplasia or malignant alterations. PMID:20454492

  3. Powder, paper and foam of few-layer graphene prepared in high yield by electrochemical intercalation exfoliation of expanded graphite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liqiong; Li, Weiwei; Li, Peng; Liao, Shutian; Qiu, Shengqiang; Chen, Mingliang; Guo, Yufen; Li, Qi; Zhu, Chao; Liu, Liwei

    2014-04-09

    A facile and high-yield approach to the preparation of few-layer graphene (FLG) by electrochemical intercalation exfoliation (EIE) of expanded graphite in sulfuric acid electrolyte is reported. Stage-1 H2SO4-graphite intercalation compound is used as a key intermediate in EIE to realize the efficient exfoliation. The yield of the FLG sheets (<7 layers) with large lateral sizes (tens of microns) is more than 75% relative to the total amount of starting expanded graphite. A low degree of oxygen functionalization existing in the prepared FLG flakes enables them to disperse effectively, which contributes to the film-forming characteristics of the FLG flakes. These electrochemically exfoliated FLG flakes are integrated into several kinds of macroscopic graphene structures. Flexible and freestanding graphene papers made of the FLG flakes retain excellent conductivity (≈24,500 S m(-1)). Three-dimensional (3D) graphene foams with light weight are fabricated from the FLG flakes by the use of Ni foams as self-sacrifice templates. Furthermore, 3D graphene/Ni foams without any binders, which are used as supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolyte, provide the specific capacitance of 113.2 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1), retaining 90% capacitance after 1000 cycles. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Creating high yield water soluble luminescent graphene quantum dots via exfoliating and disintegrating carbon nanotubes and graphite flakes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liangxu; Zhang, Shaowei

    2012-10-21

    We have developed an effective method to exfoliate and disintegrate multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphite flakes. With this technique, high yield production of luminescent graphene quantum dots with high quantum yield and low oxidization can be achieved.

  5. Severe Skin Toxicity in Pediatric Oncology Patients Treated with Voriconazole and Concomitant Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    van Eijkelenburg, Natasha K. A.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N.

    2013-01-01

    We report the occurrence of skin toxicities in pediatric oncology patients on concomitant treatment with voriconazole and methotrexate (MTX). Of 23 patients who received this combination, 11 patients suffered from cheilitis and/or photosensitivity. In contrast, only in 1 of 9 patients who received voriconazole without MTX was photosensitivity observed. A mechanism of action was not able to be identified. We describe two cases with severe skin toxicities. Caution is warranted when using voriconazole and concomitant MTX. PMID:23571545

  6. Ion-beam-induced planarization, densification, and exfoliation of low-density nanoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucheyev, S. O.; Shin, S. J.

    2017-09-01

    Planarization of low-density nanoporous solids is challenging. Here, we demonstrate that ion bombardment to doses of ˜1015 cm-2 results in significant smoothing of silica aerogels, yielding mirror-like surfaces after metallization. The surface smoothing efficiency scales with the ion energy loss component leading to local lattice heating. Planarization is accompanied by sub-surface monolith densification, resulting in surface exfoliation with increasing ion dose. These findings have implications for the fabrication of graded-density nanofoams, aerogel-based lightweight optical components, and meso-origami.

  7. Preparation and applications of mechanically exfoliated single-layer and multilayer MoS₂ and WSe₂ nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai; Wu, Jumiati; Yin, Zongyou; Zhang, Hua

    2014-04-15

    Although great progress has been achieved in the study of graphene, the small current ON/OFF ratio in graphene-based field-effect transistors (FETs) limits its application in the fields of conventional transistors or logic circuits for low-power electronic switching. Recently, layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials, especially MoS2, have attracted increasing attention. In contrast to its bulk material with an indirect band gap, a single-layer (1L) MoS2 nanosheet is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of ~1.8 eV, which makes it a promising candidate for optoelectronic applications due to the enhancement of photoluminescence and high current ON/OFF ratio. Compared with TMD nanosheets prepared by chemical vapor deposition and liquid exfoliation, mechanically exfoliated ones possess pristine, clean, and high-quality structures, which are suitable for the fundamental study and potential applications based on their intrinsic thickness-dependent properties. In this Account, we summarize our recent research on the preparation, characterization, and applications of 1L and multilayer MoS2 and WSe2 nanosheets produced by mechanical exfoliation. During the preparation of nanosheets, we proposed a simple optical identification method to distinguish 1L and multilayer MoS2 and WSe2 nanosheets on a Si substrate coated with 90 and 300 nm SiO2. In addition, we used Raman spectroscopy to characterize mechanically exfoliated 1L and multilayer WSe2 nanosheets. For the first time, a new Raman peak at 308 cm(-1) was observed in the spectra of WSe2 nanosheets except for the 1L WSe2 nanosheet. Importantly, we found that the 1L WSe2 nanosheet is very sensitive to the laser power during characterization. The high power laser-induced local oxidation of WSe2 nanosheets and single crystals was monitored by Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hexagonal and monoclinic structured WO3 thin films were obtained from the local oxidization of single- to triple

  8. Interconnecting Carbon Fibers with the In-situ Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene as Advanced Binder-free Electrode Materials for Flexible Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Shuangyin

    2015-07-07

    Flexible energy storage devices are highly demanded for various applications. Carbon cloth (CC) woven by carbon fibers (CFs) is typically used as electrode or current collector for flexible devices. The low surface area of CC and the presence of big gaps (ca. micro-size) between individual CFs lead to poor performance. Herein, we interconnect individual CFs through the in-situ exfoliated graphene with high surface area by the electrochemical intercalation method. The interconnected CFs are used as both current collector and electrode materials for flexible supercapacitors, in which the in-situ exfoliated graphene act as active materials and conductive "binders". The in-situ electrochemical intercalation technique ensures the low contact resistance between electrode (graphene) and current collector (carbon cloth) with enhanced conductivity. The as-prepared electrode materials show significantly improved performance for flexible supercapacitors.

  9. Method of producing exfoliated graphite composite compositions for fuel cell flow field plates

    DOEpatents

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-04-08

    A method of producing an electrically conductive composite composition, which is particularly useful for fuel cell bipolar plate applications. The method comprises: (a) providing a supply of expandable graphite powder; (b) providing a supply of a non-expandable powder component comprising a binder or matrix material; (c) blending the expandable graphite with the non-expandable powder component to form a powder mixture wherein the non-expandable powder component is in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the powder mixture; (d) exposing the powder mixture to a temperature sufficient for exfoliating the expandable graphite to obtain a compressible mixture comprising expanded graphite worms and the non-expandable component; (e) compressing the compressible mixture at a pressure within the range of from about 5 psi to about 50,000 psi in predetermined directions into predetermined forms of cohered graphite composite compact; and (f) treating the so-formed cohered graphite composite to activate the binder or matrix material thereby promoting adhesion within the compact to produce the desired composite composition. Preferably, the non-expandable powder component further comprises an isotropy-promoting agent such as non-expandable graphite particles. Further preferably, step (e) comprises compressing the mixture in at least two directions. The method leads to composite plates with exceptionally high thickness-direction electrical conductivity.

  10. Soft exfoliation of 2D SnO with size-dependent optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mandeep; Della Gaspera, Enrico; Ahmed, Taimur; Walia, Sumeet; Ramanathan, Rajesh; van Embden, Joel; Mayes, Edwin; Bansal, Vipul

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have recently gained unprecedented attention as potential candidates for next-generation (opto)electronic devices due to their fascinating optical and electrical properties. Tin monoxide, SnO, is an important p-type semiconductor with applications across photocatalysis (water splitting) and electronics (transistors). However, despite its potential in several important technological applications, SnO remains underexplored in its 2D form. Here we present a soft exfoliation strategy to produce 2D SnO nanosheets with tunable optical and electrical properties. Our approach involves the initial synthesis of layered SnO microspheres, which are readily exfoliated through a low-power sonication step to form high quality SnO nanosheets. We demonstrate that the properties of 2D SnO are strongly dependent on its dimensions. As verified through optical absorption and photoluminescence studies, a strong size-dependent quantum confinement effect in 2D SnO leads to substantial variation in its optical and electrical properties. This results in a remarkable (>1 eV) band gap widening in atomically thin SnO. Through photoconductivity measurements, we further validate a strong correlation between the quantum-confined properties of 2D SnO and the selective photoresponse of atomically thin sheets in the high energy UV light. Such tunable semiconducting properties of 2D SnO could be exploited for a variety of applications including photocatalysis, photovoltaics and optoelectronics in general.

  11. Morphological and electrical properties of epoxy-based composites reinforced with exfoliated graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberti, Patrizia; Spinelli, Giovanni, E-mail: gspinelli@unisa.it; Tucci, Vincenzo

    An experimental study has been carried out to prepare and characterize epoxy/amine-based composites filled with different percentages of partially exfoliated graphite (i.e. pEG) particles having an exfoliation degree of 56% in order to analyze the effect of the filler amounts on the electrical properties of the resulting nanocomposites. Moreover, in order to fully investigate the direct relationship between the physical properties of the employed filler and the results of the electrical characterization, a structural and morphological characterization of the pEG samples is carried out by means of various type of analysis such as X-ray diffraction patterns, micro-Raman and Scanning Electronmore » Microscopy (SEM) images. The DC electrical characterization reveals a percolation thresholds (EPT) that falls in the range [2–3] wt% and an electrical conductivity of about 0.66 S/m at the highest filler loading (6.5 wt%). From the analysis of the percolative curve it is possible to derive the percolation law parameters and in particular the critical exponent t, whose value (i.e. 1.2) reflects an effective 2D organization of the percolating structure consistent with the type of filler used (2-dimensional). Finally, an extensive analysis concerning the electrical properties in the frequency domain has been carried out in order to evaluate the effectiveness of pEG-loaded composites in terms of electromagnetic interference compatibility (EMC) and their applicability as radar absorbers materials (RAMs).« less

  12. Conductive Circuit Containing a Polymer Composition Containing Thermally Exfoliated Graphite Oxide and Method of Making the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A conductive circuit containing a polymer composite, which contains at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide having a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, and a method of making the same.

  13. Conductive Circuit Containing a Polymer Composition Containing Thermally Exfoliated Graphite Oxide and Method of Making the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A conductive circuit containing a polymer composite, which contains at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide having a surface area of from about 300 m(sup.2)/g to 2600 m(sup.2)/g, and a method of making the same.

  14. Correction to: Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth Modulate Early Astrocyte Response after Spinal Cord Contusion.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Fabrício; Marques, Marília Rossato; Odorcyk, Felipe; Petenuzzo, Letícia; Aristimunha, Dirceu; Vizuete, Adriana; Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Pereira, Daniela Pavulack; Maurmann, Natasha; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto; Pranke, Patricia; Netto, Carlos Alexandre

    2018-06-16

    The authors hereby declare that the Figure 4 in page eight of the paper "Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth modulate early astrocyte response after spinal cord contusion" authored by Fabrício Nicola and colleagues (DOI: 10.1007/s12035-018-1127-4) was mistakenly included.

  15. Correlation of changes of (non)exfoliated endometrial organelles and expressions of Musashi-1 and β-catenin with endometriosis in menstrual period.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cong-Xiang; Song, Jing-Hui; Liang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the correlation of structural changes of endometrial organelles and expressions of Musashi-1 (Msi-1) and β-catenin with the endometriosis (EMs) in the menstrual period. The structural changes of exfoliated and nonexfoliated endometrial organelles in the experimental group and the control group were observed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on the first and fifth day of menstruation. (1) TEM: compared with the control group, the exfoliated endometrial organelles in the experimental group on the first day were rich, with irregular nucleus, the bi-nucleolus could be seen, with rich chromatin; while the shapes of epithelial secretory cells in the nonexfoliated endometrial gland were irregular, with abundant organelles, the basal film varied in width, with abnormal curvature, and a lot of intercellular collagen fibers could be seen. (2) The expressions of Msi-1 and β-catenin in the exfoliated and nonexfoliated endometrium of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group and exhibited positively correlation, while no correlation could be found within the control group. (1) The organelles' structural changes might cause the changes of endometrial cellular functions. (2) Msi-1 might participate in the formation of EMs through activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  16. Electrochemical deposition of honeycomb magnetite on partially exfoliated graphite as anode for capacitive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhen; Cai, Xiang; Song, Yu; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2017-08-01

    Research on anode materials with high capacitive performance is lagging behind that of cathode materials, which has severely hindered the development of high-efficient energy storage devices. Compared with other anode materials, Fe3O4 exhibits highly desirable advantages due to its low cost, high theoretical capacity and preferable electronic conductivity of ∼102 S cm-1. Herein, hierarchical honeycomb Fe3O4 is integrated on functionalized exfoliated graphite through electrochemical deposition and the following chemical conversion. The hierarchical honeycomb Fe3O4 is constructed by the oxide nanorods, which are assembled by a number of nanoparticles. This unique porous structure not only ensures fast ion diffusion in the electrode, but also provides large amount of active sites for electrochemical reactions. The exfoliated graphene atop the graphite base can act as 3D conductive scaffold to facilitate the electron transport of the electrode. Therefore, FEG/Fe3O4 exhibits large specific capacitances of 327 F g-1@1 A g-1 and 275 F g-1@10 A g-1. Good cycling stability is also achieved due to the flexibility of the graphene substrate. The assembled asymmetric device using FEG/Fe3O4 as anode can deliver a high energy density of 54 Wh kg-1.

  17. Enhancing the Liquid-Phase Exfoliation of Graphene in Organic Solvents upon Addition of n-Octylbenzene

    PubMed Central

    Haar, Sébastien; El Gemayel, Mirella; Shin, Yuyoung; Melinte, Georgian; Squillaci, Marco A.; Ersen, Ovidiu; Casiraghi, Cinzia; Ciesielski, Artur; Samorì, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Due to a unique combination of electrical and thermal conductivity, mechanical stiffness, strength and elasticity, graphene became a rising star on the horizon of materials science. This two-dimensional material has found applications in many areas of science ranging from electronics to composites. Making use of different approaches, unfunctionalized and non-oxidized graphene sheets can be produced; among them an inexpensive and scalable method based on liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite (LPE) holds potential for applications in opto-electronics and nanocomposites. Here we have used n-octylbenzene molecules as graphene dispersion-stabilizing agents during the graphite LPE process. We have demonstrated that by tuning the ratio between organic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or ortho-dichlorobenzene, and n-octylbenzene molecules, the concentration of exfoliated graphene can be enhanced by 230% as a result of the high affinity of the latter molecules for the basal plane of graphene. The LPE processed graphene dispersions were further deposited onto solid substrates by exploiting a new deposition technique called spin-controlled drop casting, which was shown to produce uniform highly conductive and transparent graphene films. PMID:26573383

  18. Micronuclei: An essential biomarker in oral exfoliated cells for grading of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Kiran; Gupta, Nidhi; Ahmed, Mujib BR

    2011-01-01

    Background: Micronuclei in exfoliated oral epithelial cells have been shown in some studies to correlate with severity of this genotoxic damage. This severity can be measured in terms of grading of the lesions. Aim: To correlate frequency of micronuclei (MN) in oral exfoliated cells in clinically diagnosed cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) followed by a histopathological grading. Materials and Methods: The study subjects consisted of clinically diagnosed cases of OSCC. Healthy subjects without any tobacco consumption habits formed the control group. The cytosmears from both groups were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain. MN were identified according to the criteria given by Countryman and Heddle with some modifications. Results: The frequency of MN was three to four times higher in patients with OSCC as compared to patients in the control group and the difference was found to be highly significant. In 75% cases, the cytological grade as determined by the frequency of micronuclei correlated with the histopathological grade and this observation was statistically significant. Conclusions: MN can be a candidate to serve as a biomarker for prediction of the grade of OSCC. PMID:21552400

  19. Graphene Oxide-Assisted Liquid Phase Exfoliation of Graphite into Graphene for Highly Conductive Film and Electromechanical Sensors.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tran Thanh; Yoo, Jeongha; Alotaibi, Faisal K; Nine, Md J; Karunagaran, Ramesh; Krebsz, Melinda; Nguyen, Giang T; Tran, Diana N H; Feller, Jean-Francois; Losic, Dusan

    2016-06-29

    Here, we report a new method to prepare graphene from graphite by the liquid phase exfoliation process with sonication using graphene oxide (GO) as a dispersant. It was found that GO nanosheets act a as surfactant to the mediated exfoliation of graphite into a GO-adsorbed graphene complex in the aqueous solution, from which graphene was separated by an additional process. The preparation of isolated graphene from a single to a few layers is routinely achieved with an exfoliation yield of up to higher than 40% from the initial graphite material. The prepared graphene sheets showed a high quality (C/O ∼ 21.5), low defect (ID/IG ∼ 0.12), and high conductivity (6.2 × 10(4) S/m). Moreover, the large lateral size ranging from 5 to 10 μm of graphene, which is believed to be due to the shielding effect of GO avoiding damage under ultrasonic jets and cavitation formed by the sonication process. The thin graphene film prepared by the spray-coating technique showed a sheet resistance of 668 Ω/sq with a transmittance of 80% at 550 nm after annealing at 350 °C for 3 h. The transparent electrode was even greater with the resistance only 66.02 Ω when graphene is deposited on an interdigitated electrode (1 mm gap). Finally, a flexible sensor based on a graphene spray-coating polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is demonstrated showing excellent performance working under human touch pressure (<10 kPa). The graphene prepared by this method has some distinct properties showing it as a promising material for applications in electronics including thin film coatings, transparent electrodes, wearable electronics, human monitoring sensors, and RFID tags.

  20. Cryopreserved Dental Pulp Tissues of Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth Is a Feasible Stem Cell Resource for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Akiyama, Kentaro; Hoshino, Yoshihiro; Song, Guangtai; Kukita, Toshio; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Shi, Songtao; Yamaza, Takayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Human exfoliated deciduous teeth have been considered to be a promising source for regenerative therapy because they contain unique postnatal stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) with self-renewal capacity, multipotency and immunomodulatory function. However preservation technique of deciduous teeth has not been developed. This study aimed to evaluate that cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of human exfoliated deciduous teeth is a retrievable and practical SHED source for cell-based therapy. SHED isolated from the cryopreserved deciduous pulp tissues for over 2 years (25–30 months) (SHED-Cryo) owned similar stem cell properties including clonogenicity, self-renew, stem cell marker expression, multipotency, in vivo tissue regenerative capacity and in vitro immunomodulatory function to SHED isolated from the fresh tissues (SHED-Fresh). To examine the therapeutic efficacy of SHED-Cryo on immune diseases, SHED-Cryo were intravenously transplanted into systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) model MRL/lpr mice. Systemic SHED-Cryo-transplantation improved SLE-like disorders including short lifespan, elevated autoantibody levels and nephritis-like renal dysfunction. SHED-Cryo amended increased interleukin 17-secreting helper T cells in MRL/lpr mice systemically and locally. SHED-Cryo-transplantation was also able to recover osteoporosis bone reduction in long bones of MRL/lpr mice. Furthermore, SHED-Cryo-mediated tissue engineering induced bone regeneration in critical calvarial bone-defect sites of immunocompromised mice. The therapeutic efficacy of SHED-Cryo transplantation on immune and skeletal disorders was similar to that of SHED-Fresh. These data suggest that cryopreservation of dental pulp tissues of deciduous teeth provide a suitable and desirable approach for stem cell-based immune therapy and tissue engineering in regenerative medicine. PMID:23251621

  1. Sulfur-doped graphene via thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide in H2S, SO2, or CS2 gas.

    PubMed

    Poh, Hwee Ling; Šimek, Petr; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2013-06-25

    Doping of graphene with heteroatoms is an effective way to tailor its properties. Here we describe a simple and scalable method of doping graphene lattice with sulfur atoms during the thermal exfoliation process of graphite oxides. The graphite oxides were first prepared by Staudenmaier, Hofmann, and Hummers methods followed by treatments in hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, or carbon disulfide. The doped materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, combustible elemental analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. The ζ-potential and conductivity of sulfur-doped graphenes were also investigated in this paper. It was found that the level of doping is more dramatically influenced by the type of graphite oxide used rather than the type of sulfur-containing gas used during exfoliation. Resulting sulfur-doped graphenes act as metal-free electrocatalysts for an oxygen reduction reaction.

  2. Ferroelectric field-effect transistors based on solution-processed electrochemically exfoliated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidler, Jonas; Yang, Sheng; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Asadi, Kamal

    2018-06-01

    Memories based on graphene that could be mass produced using low-cost methods have not yet received much attention. Here we demonstrate graphene ferroelectric (dual-gate) field effect transistors. The graphene has been obtained using electrochemical exfoliation of graphite. Field-effect transistors are realized using a monolayer of graphene flakes deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett protocol. Ferroelectric field effect transistor memories are realized using a random ferroelectric copolymer poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) in a top gated geometry. The memory transistors reveal ambipolar behaviour with both electron and hole accumulation channels. We show that the non-ferroelectric bottom gate can be advantageously used to tune the on/off ratio.

  3. Cytotoxicity assessment of polyhydroxybutyrate/chitosan/nano- bioglass nanofiber scaffolds by stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth stem cells from dental pulp of exfoliated deciduous tooth.

    PubMed

    Hashemi-Beni, Batool; Khoroushi, Maryam; Foroughi, Mohammad Reza; Karbasi, Saeed; Khademi, Abbas Ali

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity and the biocompatibility of three different nanofibers scaffolds after seeding of stem cells harvested from human deciduous dental pulp. Given the importance of scaffold and its features in tissue engineering, this study demonstrated the construction of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)/chitosan/nano-bioglass (nBG) nanocomposite scaffold using electrospinning method. This experimental study was conducted on normal exfoliated deciduous incisors obtained from 6-year-old to 11-year-old healthy children. The dental pulp was extracted from primary incisor teeth which are falling aseptically. After digesting the tissue with 4 mg/ml of type I collagenase, the cells were cultured in medium solution. Identification of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth was performed by flowcytometry using CD19, CD14, CD146, and CD90 markers. Then, 1 × 10 4 stem cells were seeded on the scaffold with a diameter of 10 mm × 0.3 mm. Cell viability was evaluated on days 3, 5, and 7 through methyl thiazol tetrazolium techniques ( P < 0.05) on different groups that they are groups included (1) PHB scaffold (G1), (2) PHB/chitosan scaffold (G2), (3) the optimal PHB/chitosan/nBG scaffold (G3), (4) mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and (5) the G3 + MTA scaffold (G3 + MTA). Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA at significance level of P < 0.05. The results indicated that the PHB/chitosan/nBG scaffold and PHB/chitosan/nBG scaffold + MTA groups showed significant difference compared with the PHB/chitosan scaffold and PHB scaffold groups on the 7 th day ( P < 0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the scaffold with nBG nanoparticles is more biocompatible than the other scaffolds and can be considered as a suitable scaffold for growth and proliferation of stem cells.

  4. An investigation into graphene exfoliation and potential graphene application in MEMS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fercana, George; Kletetschka, Gunther; Mikula, Vilem; Li, Mary

    2011-02-01

    The design of microelectromecanical systems (MEMS) and micro-opto-electromechanical systems (MOEMS) are often materials-limited with respect to the efficiency and capability of the material. Graphene, a one atom thick honeycomb lattice of carbon, is a highly desired material for MEMS applications. Relevant properties of graphene include the material's optical transparency, mechanical strength, energy efficiency, and electrical and thermal conductivity due to its electron mobility. Aforementioned properties make graphene a strong candidate to supplant existing transparent electrode technology and replace the conventionally used material, indium-tin oxide. In this paper we present preliminary results on work toward integration of graphene with MEMS structures. We are studying mechanical exfoliation of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystals by repeatedly applying and separating adhesive materials from the HOPG surface. The resulting graphene sheets are then transferred to silicon oxide substrate using the previously applied adhesive material. We explored different adhesive options, particularly the use of Kapton tape, to improve the yield of graphene isolation along with chemical cross-linking agents which operate on a mechanism of photoinsertion of disassociated nitrene groups. These perfluorophenyl nitrenes participate in C=C addition reactions with graphene monolayers creating a covalent binding between the substrate and graphene. We are focusing on maximizing the size of isolated graphene sheets and comparing to conventional exfoliation. Preliminary results allow isolation of few layer graphene (FLG) sheets (n<3) of approximately 10μm x 44μm. Photolithography could possibly be utilized to tailor designs for microshutter technology to be used in future deep space telescopes.

  5. Production and stability of mechanochemically exfoliated graphene in water and culture media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, V.; González-Domínguez, J. M.; Fierro, J. L. G.; Prato, M.; Vázquez, E.

    2016-07-01

    The preparation of graphene suspensions in water, without detergents or any other additives is achieved using freeze-dried graphene powders, produced by mechanochemical exfoliation of graphite. These powders of graphene can be safely stored or shipped, and promptly dissolved in aqueous media. The suspensions are relatively stable in terms of time, with a maximum loss of ~25% of the initial concentration at 2 h. This work provides an easy and general access to aqueous graphene suspensions of chemically non-modified graphene samples, an otherwise (almost) impossible task to achieve by other means. A detailed study of the stability of the relative dispersions is also reported.The preparation of graphene suspensions in water, without detergents or any other additives is achieved using freeze-dried graphene powders, produced by mechanochemical exfoliation of graphite. These powders of graphene can be safely stored or shipped, and promptly dissolved in aqueous media. The suspensions are relatively stable in terms of time, with a maximum loss of ~25% of the initial concentration at 2 h. This work provides an easy and general access to aqueous graphene suspensions of chemically non-modified graphene samples, an otherwise (almost) impossible task to achieve by other means. A detailed study of the stability of the relative dispersions is also reported. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A video showing the dispersion process, the N 1s XPS spectrum of BMG, image of the graphite test in CCM, and the characterization of the GO employed. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03246j

  6. Potential drug delivery approaches for XFS-associated and XFS-associated glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shreya S; Kompella, Uday B

    2014-01-01

    Key tissue targets in treating exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and the associated glaucoma include lens, iris, and ciliary body, which produce the exfoliative material, and the trabecular meshwork, which may be impaired by the exfoliative material. In addition to antiglaucoma drug therapy, strategies for treating the disease include approaches for preventing formation of exfoliative material as well as those aimed at digesting exfoliative material. A variety of drug molecules including small molecules, protein drugs, and nucleic acids are potential candidates for treating XFS. Potential drug classes include antioxidants, lysyl oxidase-like 1 enhancers, antifibrotics, anti-inflammatory agents, proteases, and chaperones. However, the delivery of these agents to the target tissues in the anterior segment is hindered by protective static and dynamic barriers of the eye. Thus, unique drug delivery approaches are needed for each drug type (small molecules, proteins, and nucleic acids). In addition, there is a need for sustaining drug therapy for treating XFS, which can potentially be addressed by using nanoparticles, microparticles, implants, and contact lens delivery systems. This article provides an overview of drug delivery challenges and opportunities in treating XFS with the focus being on nanomedicines.

  7. Engineering monolayer poration for rapid exfoliation of microbial membranes.

    PubMed

    Pyne, Alice; Pfeil, Marc-Philipp; Bennett, Isabel; Ravi, Jascindra; Iavicoli, Patrizia; Lamarre, Baptiste; Roethke, Anita; Ray, Santanu; Jiang, Haibo; Bella, Angelo; Reisinger, Bernd; Yin, Daniel; Little, Benjamin; Muñoz-García, Juan C; Cerasoli, Eleonora; Judge, Peter J; Faruqui, Nilofar; Calzolai, Luigi; Henrion, Andre; Martyna, Glenn J; Grovenor, Chris R M; Crain, Jason; Hoogenboom, Bart W; Watts, Anthony; Ryadnov, Maxim G

    2017-02-01

    The spread of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics continues to stimulate the search for alternative antimicrobial strategies. All forms of life, from bacteria to humans, are postulated to rely on a fundamental host defense mechanism, which exploits the formation of open pores in microbial phospholipid bilayers. Here we predict that transmembrane poration is not necessary for antimicrobial activity and reveal a distinct poration mechanism that targets the outer leaflet of phospholipid bilayers. Using a combination of molecular-scale and real-time imaging, spectroscopy and spectrometry approaches, we introduce a structural motif with a universal insertion mode in reconstituted membranes and live bacteria. We demonstrate that this motif rapidly assembles into monolayer pits that coalesce during progressive membrane exfoliation, leading to bacterial cell death within minutes. The findings offer a new physical basis for designing effective antibiotics.

  8. Excellent electrical conductivity of the exfoliated and fluorinated hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yafang; Liu, Qian; He, Guanjie; Xu, Kaibing; Jiang, Lin; Hu, Xianghua; Hu, Junqing

    2013-01-24

    The insulator characteristic of hexagonal boron nitride limits its applications in microelectronics. In this paper, the fluorinated hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets were prepared by doping fluorine into the boron nitride nanosheets exfoliated from the bulk boron nitride in isopropanol via a facile chemical solution method with fluoboric acid; interestingly, these boron nitride nanosheets demonstrate a typical semiconductor characteristic which were studied on a new scanning tunneling microscope-transmission electron microscope holder. Since this property changes from an insulator to a semiconductor of the boron nitride, these nanosheets will be able to extend their applications in designing and fabricating electronic nanodevices.

  9. Colloidal 2D nanosheets of MoS2 and other transition metal dichalcogenides through liquid-phase exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Grayfer, Ekaterina D; Kozlova, Mariia N; Fedorov, Vladimir E

    2017-07-01

    This review focuses on the exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenides MQ 2 (TMD, M=Mo, W, etc., Q=S, Se, Te) in liquid media, leading to the formation of 2D nanosheets dispersed in colloids. Nowadays, colloidal dispersions of MoS 2 , MoSe 2 , WS 2 and other related materials are considered for a wide range of applications, including electronic and optoelectronic devices, energy storage and conversion, sensors for gases, catalysts and catalyst supports, biomedicine, etc. We address various methods developed so far for transferring these materials from bulk to nanoscale thickness, and discuss their stabilization and factors influencing it. Long-time known exfoliation through Li intercalation has received renewed attention in recent years, and is recognized as a method yielding highest dispersed concentrations of single-layer MoS 2 and related materials. Latest trends in the intercalation/exfoliation approach include electrochemical lithium intercalation, experimenting with various intercalating agents, multi-step intercalation, etc. On the other hand, direct sonication in solvents is a much simpler technique that allows one to avoid dangerous reagents, long reaction times and purifying steps. The influence of the solvent characteristics on the colloid formation was closely investigated in numerous recent studies. Moreover, it is being recognized that, besides solvent properties, sonication parameters and solvent transformations may affect the process in a crucial way. The latest data on the interaction of MoS 2 with solvents evidence that not only solution thermodynamics should be employed to understand the formation and stabilization of such colloids, but also general and organic chemistry. It appears that due to the sonolysis of the solvents and cutting of the MoS 2 layers in various directions, the reactive edges of the colloidal nanosheets may bear various functionalities, which participate in their stabilization in the colloidal state. In most cases, direct

  10. [Clinical significance of HPV L1 capsid protein detection in cervical exfoliated cells in high-risk HPV positive women].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiajian; Tian, Qifang; Zhang, Su; Lyu, Liping; Dong, Jie; Lyu, Weiguo

    2015-04-01

    To explore the clinical significance of human papillomavirus L1 capsid protein detection in cervical exfoliated cells in high-risk HPV positive women. From November 2012 to June 2013, 386 high-risk HPV positive (detected by hybrid capture II) cases were enrolled as eligible women from Huzhou Maternity & Child Care Hospital and Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University. All eligible women underwent liquid-based cytology (ThinPrep) followed by colposcopy. Biopsies were taken if indicated. Cervical exfoliated cells were collected for HPV L1 capsid protein detection by immunocytochemistry. Expression of HPV L1 capsid protein in groups with different histological diagnosis were compared, and the role of HPV L1 capsid protein detection in cervical exfoliated cells in cervical lesions screening was accessed. Total 386 enrolled eligible women were finally diagnosed histologically as follwed: 162 normal cervix, 94 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 128 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 2 squamous cervical cancer (SCC). The positive expression rate of HPV L1 in HSIL+ (HSIL or worse) group was significantly lower than that in LSIL- (LSIL or better) group (19.2% vs 66.4%, P=0.000). While identifying HSIL+ in HPV positive cases and compared with cytology, HPV L1 detection resulted in significant higher sensitivity (80.77% vs 50.77%, P=0.000) and negative predictive value (NPV; 87.18% vs 76.47%, P=0.004), significant lower specificity (66.41% vs 81.25%, P=0.000), and comparable positive predictive value (PPV; 54.97% vs 57.89%, P=0.619). To identify HSIL+ in HPV-positive/cytology-negative women, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of HPV L1 detection were 87.50%, 61.54%, 41.18%, and 94.12% respectively, while 80.00%, 86.36%, 80.00% and 86.36% respectively in HPV-positive/atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS) women. HPV L1 capsid detection in cervical exfoliated cells have a role in cervical lesions

  11. Atom-Thin SnS2-xSex with Adjustable Compositions by Direct Liquid Exfoliation from Single Crystals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhanhai; Liang, Hui; Wang, Xusheng; Ma, Xinlei; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Yanlian; Xie, Liming; Chen, Dong; Long, Yujia; Chen, Jitao; Chang, Yunjie; Yan, Chunhua; Zhang, Xinxiang; Zhang, Xueji; Ge, Binghui; Ren, Zhian; Xue, Mianqi; Chen, Genfu

    2016-01-26

    Two-dimensional (2D) chalcogenide materials are fundamentally and technologically fascinating for their suitable band gap energy and carrier type relevant to their adjustable composition, structure, and dimensionality. Here, we demonstrate the exfoliation of single-crystal SnS2-xSex (SSS) with S/Se vacancies into an atom-thin layer by simple sonication in ethanol without additive. The introduction of vacancies at the S/Se site, the conflicting atomic radius of sulfur in selenium layers, and easy incorporation with an ethanol molecule lead to high ion accessibility; therefore, atom-thin SSS flakes can be effectively prepared by exfoliating the single crystal via sonication. The in situ pyrolysis of such materials can further adjust their compositions, representing tunable activation energy, band gap, and also tunable response to analytes of such materials. As the most basic and crucial step of the 2D material field, the successful synthesis of an uncontaminated and atom-thin sample will further push ahead the large-scale applications of 2D materials, including, but not limited to, electronics, sensing, catalysis, and energy storage fields.

  12. Use of exfoliative cytology for diagnosis of transmissible venereal tumour and controlling the recovery period in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Erünal-Maral, N; Findik, M; Aslan, S

    2000-05-01

    Transmissible venereal tumour (TVT) is a rare vaginal tumour that can be treated surgically or cryosurgically as well as by radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Vincristine has been found to be very effective for treating TVT. Since vaginal secretion or discharge may contain neoplastic cells, the cytological identification of TVT cells is possible. The present study was carried out in 12 bitches. Vaginal smears were obtained with cotton swab from the anterior vagina and TVT suspected structures. The smears were stained according to Papanicolaou and assessed by light microscopy. Additionally the general condition of the patients was evaluated by haematological and radiographic examinations. In bitches with TVT vincristine sulphate was administered intravenously at weekly intervals. The total treatment period was three to six weeks until no atypical cells were found in the smear. This was the case after an average of 3.2 +/- 1.3 applications. Tumour masses became smaller and by this non-visible from the rima vulva after 4.2 +/- 0.7 applications. During the treatment, two of the 12 bitches (16.7%) suffered from vomiting and diarrhoea while three (25%) showed neutropenia. Twelve months after completion of treatment, the bitches were examined again and vaginal smears were taken in order to control the recovery process or a possible recurrence of TVT. No atypical cells were found in any vaginal smear. By this exfoliative cytology has proved to be a safe and easy method for TVT diagnosis and for observing the recovery process.

  13. Rate capability improvement of Co-Ni double hydroxides integrated in cathodically partially exfoliated graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiang; Song, Yu; Sun, Zhen; Guo, Di; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2017-10-01

    In-situ growing of energy storage materials on graphene-based substrates/current collectors with low defect is a good way to boost electron transport and so enhance rate capability for the obtained electrode. Herein, high-quality graphene-like nanopetals are partially exfoliated from graphite foil (GF) through a facile and fast cathodic process. Three-dimensional porous structure is established for the afforded cathodically-exfoliated graphite foil (CEG), with many graphene-like nanopetals vertically anchoring on the graphite substrate. A hierarchical structure is constructed by the following electrochemical growth of Co-Ni double hydroxide nanopetals on the graphene atop CEG. The double hydroxide in the obtained electrode with the optimized Co2+/Ni2+ molar ratio, Co0.75Ni0.25(OH)2-CEG, displays much improved rate capability and so can deliver a high specific capacitance of 1460 F g-1 at an ultra-high current density of 100 A g-1. An asymmetric device is assembled by using Co0.75Ni0.25(OH)2-CEG as cathode, which demonstrates a high energy density of 31.6 Wh kg-1 at an ultra-high power density of 21.5 kW kg-1, showing the potential of the hierarchical composite electrode for high power application. The device also displays good stability, it can retain more than 90% of its capacitance after 10000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles.

  14. Exfoliated graphite with graphene flakes as potential candidates for TL dosimeters at high gamma doses.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Morales, A; López-González, E; Rueda-Morales, G; Ortega-Cervantez, G; Ortiz-Lopez, J

    2018-06-06

    Graphite powder (GP) subjected to microwave radiation (MWG) results in exfoliation of graphite particles into few-layered graphene flakes (GF) intermixed with partially exfoliated graphite particles (PEG). Characterization of MWG by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy reveal few-layer GF with sizes ranging from 0.2 to 5 µm. Raman D, G, and 2D (G') bands characteristic of graphitic structures include evidence of the presence of bilayered graphene. The thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetric properties of MWG are evaluated and can be characterized as a gamma-ray sensitive and dose-resistant material with kinetic parameters (activation energy for the main peak located at 400 and 408 K is 0.69 and 0.72 eV) and threshold dose (~1 kGy and 5 kGy respectively). MWG is a low-Z material (Z eff = 6) with a wide linear range of TL dose-response (0.170-2.5 kGy) tested at doses in the 1-20 kGy range with promising results for applications in gamma-ray dosimetry. Results obtained in gamma irradiated MWG are compared with those obtained in graphite powder samples (GP) without microwave treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Amorphous Mixed-Valence Vanadium Oxide/Exfoliated Carbon Cloth Structure Shows a Record High Cycling Stability.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Liu, Tian-Yu; Yao, Bin; Kou, Tian-Yi; Feng, Dong-Yang; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Yat

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies show that vanadium oxides suffer from severe capacity loss during cycling in the liquid electrolyte, which has hindered their applications in electrochemical energy storage. The electrochemical instability is mainly due to chemical dissolution and structural pulverization of vanadium oxides during charge/discharge cyclings. In this study the authors demonstrate that amorphous mixed-valence vanadium oxide deposited on exfoliated carbon cloth (CC) can address these two limitations simultaneously. The results suggest that tuning the V 4+ /V 5+ ratio of vanadium oxide can efficiently suppress the dissolution of the active materials. The oxygen-functionalized carbon shell on exfoliated CC can bind strongly with VO x via the formation of COV bonding, which retains the electrode integrity and suppresses the structural degradation of the oxide during charging/discharging. The uptake of structural water during charging and discharging processes also plays an important role in activating the electrode material. The amorphous mixed-valence vanadium oxide without any protective coating exhibits record-high cycling stability in the aqueous electrolyte with no capacitive decay in 100 000 cycles. This work provides new insights on stabilizing vanadium oxide, which is critical for the development of vanadium oxide based energy storage devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Exfoliative cytology of the oral mucosa in burning mouth syndrome: a cytomorphological and cytomorphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wandeur, Talita; de Moura, Sérgio Adriane Bezerra; de Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; Alanis, Luciana Reis de Azevedo; Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; de Lima, Antonio Adilson Soares

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oral epithelial cells by exfoliative cytology in burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Oral smears were collected from clinically normal-appearing mucosa by liquid-based exfoliative cytology in 40 individuals (20 BMS patients and 20 healthy controls matched for age and gender) and analysed for cytological and cytomorphometric techniques. Mean values of nuclear area (NA) for experimental and control groups were, respectively, 67.52 and 55.64 μm² (p < 0.05). Cytoplasmic area (CA) showed the following mean values: 1258.0 (experimental) and 2069.0 μm² (control). Nucleus-to-cytoplasm area ratio for the experimental group was 0.07, besides the control group was 0.03 (p < 0.05). Morphologically, oral smears exhibited normal epithelial cells in both experimental and control groups. There was a significant predominance of nucleated cells of the superficial layer in the smears of BMS patients (p = 0.00001). This study revealed that oral mucosa of BMS patients exhibited significant cytomorphometric changes in the oral epithelial cells. These changes probably are associated with epithelial atrophy and a deregulated maturation process that may contribute to the oral symptoms of pain and discomfort in BMS. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. How to get between the sheets: a review of recent works on the electrochemical exfoliation of graphene materials from bulk graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelkader, A. M.; Cooper, A. J.; Dryfe, R. A. W.; Kinloch, I. A.

    2015-04-01

    Since the beginning of the `graphene era' post-2004, there has been significant interest in developing a high purity, high yield, and scalable fabrication route toward graphene materials for both primary research purposes and industrial production. One suitable approach to graphene production lies in the realm of electrochemical exfoliation, in which a potential difference is applied between a graphite anode/cathode in the presence of an electrolyte-containing medium. Herein we review various works on the electrochemical fabrication of graphene materials specifically through the use of electrochemical intercalation and exfoliation of a graphite source electrode, focusing on the quality and purity of products formed. We categorise the most significant works in terms of anodic and cathodic control, highlighting the merits of the respective approaches, as well as indicating the challenges associated with both procedures.

  18. Osteogenic differentiation of stem cells derived from human periodontal ligaments and pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth.

    PubMed

    Chadipiralla, Kiranmai; Yochim, Ji Min; Bahuleyan, Bindu; Huang, Chun-Yuh Charles; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Murray, Peter E; Stelnicki, Eric J

    2010-05-01

    Multipotent stem cells derived from periodontal ligaments (PDLSC) and pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) represent promising cell sources for bone regeneration. Recent studies have demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA) and dexamethasone (Dex) induce osteogenesis of postnatal stem cells. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of RA and Dex on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of SHED and PDLSC and to compare the osteogenic characteristics of SHED and PDLSC under RA treatment. SHED and PDLSC were treated with serum-free medium either alone or supplemented with RA or Dex for 21 days. The proliferation of SHED and PDLSC was significantly inhibited by both RA and Dex. RA significantly upregulated gene expression and the activity of alkaline phosphatase in SHED and PDLSC. Positive Alizarin red and von Kossa staining of calcium deposition was seen on the RA-treated SHED and PDLSC after 21 days of culture. The influences of RA on the osteogenic differentiation of SHED and PDLSC were significantly stronger than with Dex. Supplementation with insulin enhanced RA-induced osteogenic differentiation of SHED. Thus, RA is an effective inducer of osteogenic differentiation of SHED and PDLSC, whereas RA treatment in combination with insulin supplementation might be a better option for inducing osteogenic differentiation. Significantly higher cell proliferation of PDLSC results in greater calcium deposition after 3-week culture, suggesting that PDLSC is a better osteogenic stem cell source. This study provides valuable information for efficiently producing osteogenically differentiated SHED or PDLSC for in vivo bone regeneration.

  19. Graphene prepared by thermal reduction–exfoliation of graphite oxide: Effect of raw graphite particle size on the properties of graphite oxide and graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Dao, Trung Dung; Jeong, Han Mo, E-mail: hmjeong@mail.ulsan.ac.kr

    Highlights: • Effect of raw graphite particle size on properties of GO and graphene is reported. • Size of raw graphite affects oxidation degree and chemical structure of GO. • Highly oxidized GO results in small-sized but well-exfoliated graphene. • GO properties affect reduction degree, structure, and conductivity of graphene. - Abstract: We report the effect of raw graphite size on the properties of graphite oxide and graphene prepared by thermal reduction–exfoliation of graphite oxide. Transmission electron microscope analysis shows that the lateral size of graphene becomes smaller when smaller size graphite is used. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that graphitemore » with smaller size is more effectively oxidized, resulting in a more effective subsequent exfoliation of the obtained graphite oxide toward graphene. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that reduction of the graphite oxide derived from smaller size graphite into graphene is more efficient. However, Raman analysis suggests that the average size of the in-plane sp{sup 2}-carbon domains on graphene is smaller when smaller size graphite is used. The enhanced reduction degree and the reduced size of sp{sup 2}-carbon domains contribute contradictively to the electrical conductivity of graphene when the particle size of raw graphite reduces.« less

  20. The location and extent of exfoliation of clay on the fracture mechanisms in nylon 66-based ternary nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Dasari, Aravind; Yu, Zhong-Zhen; Mai, Yiu-Wing; Yang, Mingshu

    2008-04-01

    The primary focus of this work is to elucidate the location and extent of exfoliation of clay on fracture (under both static and dynamic loading conditions) of melt-compounded nylon 66/clay/SEBS-g-MA ternary nanocomposites fabricated by different blending sequences. Distinct microstructures are obtained depending on the blending protocol employed. The state of exfoliation and dispersion of clay in nylon 66 matrix and SEBS-g-MA phase are quantified and the presence of clay in rubber is shown to have a negative effect on the toughness of the nanocomposites. The level of toughness enhancement of ternary nanocomposites depends on the blending protocol and the capability of different fillers to activate the plastic deformation mechanisms in the matrix. These mechanisms include: cavitation of SEBS-g-MA phase, stretching of voided matrix material, interfacial debonding of SEBS-g-MA particles, debonding of intercalated clay embedded inside the SEBS-g-MA phase, and delamination of intercalated clay platelets. Based on these results, new insights and approaches for the processing of better toughened polymer ternary nanocomposites are discussed.

  1. Liftoff process for exfoliation of thin film photovoltaic devices and back contact formation

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, Richard A.; Hannon, James B.; Oida, Satoshi

    A method for forming a back contact on an absorber layer in a photovoltaic device includes forming a two dimensional material on a first substrate. An absorber layer including Cu--Zn--Sn--S(Se) (CZTSSe) is grown over the first substrate on the two dimensional material. A buffer layer is grown on the absorber layer on a side opposite the two dimensional material. The absorber layer is exfoliated from the two dimensional material to remove the first substrate from a backside of the absorber layer opposite the buffer layer. A back contact is deposited on the absorber layer.

  2. Dispersible Exfoliated Zeolite Nanosheets and Their Application as a Selective Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Varoon, Kumar; Zhang, Xueyi; Elyassi, Bahman

    2011-10-06

    Thin zeolite films are attractive for a wide range of applications, including molecular sieve membranes, catalytic membrane reactors, permeation barriers, and low-dielectric-constant materials. Synthesis of thin zeolite films using high-aspect-ratio zeolite nanosheets is desirable because of the packing and processing advantages of the nanosheets over isotropic zeolite nanoparticles. Attempts to obtain a dispersed suspension of zeolite nanosheets via exfoliation of their lamellar precursors have been hampered because of their structure deterioration and morphological damage (fragmentation, curling, and aggregation). We demonstrated the synthesis and structure determination of highly crystalline nanosheets of zeolite frameworks MWW and MFI. The purity and morphological integritymore » of these nanosheets allow them to pack well on porous supports, facilitating the fabrication of molecular sieve membranes.« less

  3. Structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of graphene nanosheets synthesized from microwave-assisted exfoliated graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamoli, Pankaj; Das, Malay K.; Kar, Kamal K.

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, low defect density graphene nanosheets (GNs) have been synthesized via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite (EG) in the presence of a green reducing agent, oxalic acid. EG has been synthesized via chemical intercalation of natural flake graphite followed by exfoliation through microwave irradiation at 800 W for 50 s. 50 mg/mL concentration of oxalic acid helps to extract low defect density GNs from EG. As-synthesized GNs have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photon spectroscopy. Raman analysis confirms the removal of oxygen functional groups from EG and achieved an ID/IG ratio of ˜0.10 with low defect density (˜1.12 × 1010 cm-2). Elemental analysis supports the Raman signature of the removal of oxygen functionalities from EG, and a high C/O ratio of ˜15.97 is obtained. Further, transparent conducting films (TCFs) have been fabricated by spray coating. The optical and electrical properties of fabricated TCFs have been measured after thermal graphitization. Thermal graphitization helps to improve the optical and electrical properties of TCFs by tuning the optical bandgap in a controlled way. TCF shows best performance when the film is annealed at 900 °C for 1 h in vacuum. It shows a sheet resistance of ˜1.10 kΩ/◻ and a transmittance of ˜71.56% at 550 nm.

  4. Cytotoxicity assessment of polyhydroxybutyrate/chitosan/nano- bioglass nanofiber scaffolds by stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth stem cells from dental pulp of exfoliated deciduous tooth

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi-Beni, Batool; Khoroushi, Maryam; Foroughi, Mohammad Reza; Karbasi, Saeed; Khademi, Abbas Ali

    2018-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity and the biocompatibility of three different nanofibers scaffolds after seeding of stem cells harvested from human deciduous dental pulp. Given the importance of scaffold and its features in tissue engineering, this study demonstrated the construction of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)/chitosan/nano-bioglass (nBG) nanocomposite scaffold using electrospinning method. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on normal exfoliated deciduous incisors obtained from 6-year-old to 11-year-old healthy children. The dental pulp was extracted from primary incisor teeth which are falling aseptically. After digesting the tissue with 4 mg/ml of type I collagenase, the cells were cultured in medium solution. Identification of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth was performed by flowcytometry using CD19, CD14, CD146, and CD90 markers. Then, 1 × 104 stem cells were seeded on the scaffold with a diameter of 10 mm × 0.3 mm. Cell viability was evaluated on days 3, 5, and 7 through methyl thiazol tetrazolium techniques (P < 0.05) on different groups that they are groups included (1) PHB scaffold (G1), (2) PHB/chitosan scaffold (G2), (3) the optimal PHB/chitosan/nBG scaffold (G3), (4) mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and (5) the G3 + MTA scaffold (G3 + MTA). Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The results indicated that the PHB/chitosan/nBG scaffold and PHB/chitosan/nBG scaffold + MTA groups showed significant difference compared with the PHB/chitosan scaffold and PHB scaffold groups on the 7th day (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that the scaffold with nBG nanoparticles is more biocompatible than the other scaffolds and can be considered as a suitable scaffold for growth and proliferation of stem cells. PMID:29576778

  5. Ambipolar thermoelectric power of chemically-exfoliated RuO2 nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeongmin; Yoo, Somi; Moon, Hongjae; Kim, Se Yun; Ko, Dong-Su; Roh, Jong Wook; Lee, Wooyoung

    2018-01-01

    The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of RuO2 nanosheets are enhanced by metal nanoparticle doping using Ag-acetate solutions. In this study, RuO2 monolayer and bilayer nanosheets exfoliated from layered alkali metal ruthenates are transferred to Si substrates for device fabrication, and the temperature dependence of their conductivity and Seebeck coefficients is investigated. For pristine RuO2 nanosheets, the sign of the Seebeck coefficient changes with temperature from 350-450 K. This indicates that the dominant type of charge carrier is dependent on the temperature, and the RuO2 nanosheets show ambipolar carrier transport behavior. By contrast, the sign of the Seebeck coefficient for Ag nanoparticle-doped RuO2 nanosheets does not change with temperature, indicating that the extra charge carriers from metal nanoparticles promote n-type semiconductor behavior.

  6. Serum albumin level during intestinal exfoliative rejection: a potential predictor of graft recovery and patient outcome.

    PubMed

    Zambernardi, Agustina; Gondolesi, Gabriel; Cabanne, Ana; Martinez, María I; Solar, Héctor; Rumbo, Martín; Rumbo, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Exfoliative rejection is a severe complication after intestinal transplant. The assessment of mucosa histology is restricted to the area reached by endoscopy. We aim to evaluate the serum albumin (SA) value as a parameter of graft damage and clinical prognosis in intestinal exfoliative rejection (ExR). The present study is a retrospective analysis of 11 episodes of ExR occurred in a cohort of 26 patients. SA levels were measured 24 h after diagnosis and twice a week thereafter and then correlated with parameters of clinical and graft histological recovery (HR). During ExR, all patients had very low SA levels, reaching a minimum average of 1.9 ± 0.3 g/dL. According to the value of albumin levels at ExR diagnosis, the patients were grouped finding a correlation with their clinical evolution. Six ExR episodes presented with severe hipoalbuminemia (<2.2 g/dL; p < 0.05) that correlated with worse patient and graft outcome, ranging from graft loss and need for re-transplantation to delayed clinical and HR. SA at ExR diagnosis may be an indicator of the severity of the ExR process, and it could also be used as an early predictor of patient and graft outcome. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Hydrazine-Assisted Liquid Exfoliation of MoS2 for Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of 4-Methylphenol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoliang; Ma, Hualong; Teixeira, Ivo; Sun, Zhenyu; Xia, Qineng; Hong, Xinlin; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2016-02-24

    A simple but effective method to exfoliate bulk MoS2 in a range of solvents is presented for the preparation of colloid flakes consisted of one to a few molecular layers by application of ultrasonic treatment in N2 H4 . Their high yield in solution and exposure of more active surface sites allows the synthesis of corresponding solid catalysts with remarkably high activity in hydrodeoxygenation of 4-methylphenol and this method can also be applied to other two dimensional materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Allogeneic stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) for the management of periapical lesions in permanent teeth: Two case reports of a novel biologic alternative treatment

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Madu Ghana Shyam; Ramakrishna, Juvva; Babu, Duvvi Naveen

    2017-01-01

    Stem cells are the pluripotent cells that have the capacity to differentiate into other specialized cells. Recently, many experiments have been conducted to study the potentiality of stem cells in the tissue regeneration. We report two cases treated utilizing stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) in the management of periapical lesions in permanent teeth. Two normal human deciduous teeth from children, 7‒8 years of age, were collected to isolate stem cells. Two patients, one with periapical pathology alone and the other with periapical lesion along with an open apex in young permanent teeth, were selected for the study. After initial debridement of the root canals, homing of SHED was carried out and the access cavity was sealed using glass-ionomer cement. Clinical examination after 7 days, 30 days, 90 days, 180 days and 365 days revealed no symptoms. Closure of open apex and periapical tissue healing were observed radiographically at one-month review and maintained until 365-day review. Positive response to electric pulp testing was recorded for the treated teeth from the 3- to 12-month follow-ups. The treated cases demonstrated complete resolution of periapical radiolucency in a span of 30 days, which was faster than the conventional methods. SHED could be considred effective in treating the periapical lesions and open apex in permanent teeth. PMID:28748053

  9. Gas-exfoliated porous monolayer boron nitride for enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization performance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingcheng; Wu, Peiwen; Chao, Yanhong; He, Jing; Li, Hongping; Lu, Linjie; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Huaming; Zhu, Wenshuai

    2018-01-12

    Hexagonal boron nitride has been regarded to be an efficient catalyst in aerobic oxidation fields, but limited by the less-exposed active sites. In this contribution, we proposed a simple green liquid nitrogen gas exfoliation strategy for preparation of porous monolayer nanosheets (BN-1). Owing to the reduced layer numbers, decreased lateral sizes and artificially-constructed pores, increased exposure of active sites was expected, further contributed to an enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) performance up to ∼98% of sulfur removal, achieving ultra-deep desulfurization. This work not only introduced an excellent catalyst for aerobic ODS, but also provided a strategy for construction of some other highly-efficient monolayer two-dimensional materials for enhanced catalytic performance.

  10. Gas-exfoliated porous monolayer boron nitride for enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingcheng; Wu, Peiwen; Chao, Yanhong; He, Jing; Li, Hongping; Lu, Linjie; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Huaming; Zhu, Wenshuai

    2018-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride has been regarded to be an efficient catalyst in aerobic oxidation fields, but limited by the less-exposed active sites. In this contribution, we proposed a simple green liquid nitrogen gas exfoliation strategy for preparation of porous monolayer nanosheets (BN-1). Owing to the reduced layer numbers, decreased lateral sizes and artificially-constructed pores, increased exposure of active sites was expected, further contributed to an enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) performance up to ˜98% of sulfur removal, achieving ultra-deep desulfurization. This work not only introduced an excellent catalyst for aerobic ODS, but also provided a strategy for construction of some other highly-efficient monolayer two-dimensional materials for enhanced catalytic performance.

  11. Cutaneous applications of lasers.

    PubMed

    Ries, W R; Speyer, M T

    1996-12-01

    The cutaneous application of lasers today includes more selective and less damaging devices. Carbon dioxide, neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet, potassium titanyl phosphate, argon, and yellow lasers are most prevalent in treating cutaneous lesions. Specific techniques in skin resurfacing, keloid excision, rhinophyma, actinic cheilitis ablation, and excision of superficial cutaneous tumors are discussed. Proper management of cutaneous vascular lesions is also presented.

  12. Phonon shift in chemically exfoliated WS2 nanosheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Abdus Salam; Pal, Suman Kalyan

    2018-04-01

    We have synthesized few layer WS2 nanosheets in a low boiling point solvent. Few layer of WS2 sheets are characterized by various techniques such as UV-visible and Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV-Vis absorption spectra confirm the well dispersed in isopropyl alcohol. SEM and TEM images indicate the sheet like morphology of WS2. Atomic force microscopy image and room temperature Raman spectroscopy confirm the exfoliation of few layer (4-5 layer) of WS2. Further, Raman spectroscopy was used as a meteorology tool to determine the temperature co-efficient. We have systematically investigated the temperature dependent Raman spectroscopic behavior of few layer WS2. Our results depict the softening of the Raman modes E12g in plane vibration and A1g out of plane vibration with increasing the temperature from 77 K to 300 K. Softening of the Raman modes could be explained in terms of the double resonance which is active in the layered materials. The observed temperature coefficients for two Raman peaks E12g and A1g, are - 0.022 cm-1 and -0.009 cm-1, respectively.

  13. Potentially malignant oral lesions: clinicopathological correlations

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Haline Cunha de Medeiros; Pinto, Najara Alcântara Sampaio; Pereira, Joabe dos Santos; de Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the incidence of potentially malignant oral lesions, and evaluate and correlate their clinical and pathological aspects. Methods The sample consisted of cases clinically diagnosed as oral leukoplakia, oral erythroplakia, erythroleukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, and oral lichen planus treated at a diagnostic center, between May 2012 and July 2013. Statistical tests were conducted adopting a significance level of 5% (p≤0.05). Results Out of 340 patients, 106 (31.2%) had potentially malignant oral lesions; and 61 of these (17.9%) were submitted to biopsy. Actinic cheilitis was the most frequent lesion (37.5%) and the lower lip was the most affected site (49.6%). Among 106 patients in the sample, 48 (45.3%) reported nicotine consumption, 35 (33%) reported alcohol intake and 34 (32.1%) sun exposure while working. When clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compared, oral erythroplakia and atypical ulcer were the lesions that exhibited greater compatibility (100% each). Conclusion In most cases, clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compatible. An association between the occurrence of erythroplakia, leukoplakia and erythroleukoplakia with smoking was observed. Similarly, an association between actinic cheilitis and sun exposure was noted. Erythroleukoplakia presented the highest malignancy grade in this study. Finally, dental surgeons should draw special attention to diagnosis of potentially malignant oral lesions, choose the best management, and control the lesions to avoid their malignant transformation. PMID:27074232

  14. Transplantation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth for bone regeneration in the dog mandibular defect

    PubMed Central

    Behnia, Ali; Haghighat, Abbas; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nourbakhsh, Nosrat; Heidari, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) transplanted for bone regeneration in the dog mandibular defect. METHODS: In this prospective comparative study, SHEDs had been isolated 5 years ago from human exfoliated deciduous teeth. The undifferentiated stem cells were seeded into mandibular bone through-and-through defects of 4 dogs. Similar defects in control group were filled with cell-free collagen scaffold. After 12 wk, biopsies were taken and morphometric analysis was performed. The percentage of new bone formation and foreign body reaction were measured in each case. The data were subject to statistical analysis using the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskalwalis statistical tests. Differences at P < 0.05 was considered as significant level. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between control and SHED-seeded groups in connective tissue (P = 0.248), woven bone (P = 0.248) and compact bone (P = 0.082). There were not any side effects in transplanted SHED group such as teratoma or malignancy and abnormalities in this period. CONCLUSION: SHEDs which had been isolated and characterized 5 years ago and stored with cryopreservation banking were capable of proliferation and osteogenesis after 5 years, and no immune response was observed after three months of seeded SHEDs. PMID:25258673

  15. Facile method for liquid-exfoliated graphene size prediction by UV-visible spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Zulhelmi, E-mail: helmie83@hotmail.com; Yusoh, Kamal, E-mail: kamal@ump.edu.my

    2016-07-19

    In this work, an application of UV spectroscopy for facile prediction of liquid –exfoliated graphene size is discussed. Dynamic light scattering method was used to estimate the graphene flake size ( whilst UV spectroscopy measurement was carried out for extinction coefficient value (ε) determination. It was found that the value of (ε) decreased gradually as the graphene size was further reduced after intense sonication time (7h). This observation showed the influence of sonication time on electronic structure of graphene. A mathematical equation was derived from log-log graph for correlation between () and (ε) value. Both values can be expressed inmore » a single equation as ( = (3.4 × 10{sup −2}) ε{sup 1.2}).« less

  16. Pluripotency of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Vinicius; Dubey, Nileshkumar; Islam, Intekhab; Min, Kyung-San; Nör, Jacques E.

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are highly proliferative pluripotent cells that can be retrieved from primary teeth. Although SHED are isolated from the dental pulp, their differentiation potential is not limited to odontoblasts only. In fact, SHED can differentiate into several cell types including neurons, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. The high plasticity makes SHED an interesting stem cell model for research in several biomedical areas. This review will discuss key findings about the characterization and differentiation of SHED into odontoblasts, neurons, and hormone secreting cells (e.g., hepatocytes and islet-like cell aggregates). The outcomes of the studies presented here support the multipotency of SHED and their potential to be used for tissue engineering-based therapies. PMID:27313627

  17. Method of producing exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    DOEpatents

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.

    2010-11-02

    The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of graphite, graphite oxide, or a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  18. Bevacizumab-associated Sudden Onset of Multiple Monomorphic Comedones on the Scalp Successfully Treated with 30% Salicylic Acid Peels.

    PubMed

    Platsidaki, Eftychia; Balamoti, Evgenia; Kouris, Anargyros; Katsarou, Alexandra; Mylonakis, Nikolaos; Vavouli, Charitomeni; Kontochristopoulos, Georgios

    2017-10-01

    Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial factor (VEGF) that targets tumor cell angiogenesis and proliferation. Although it is usually well tolerated, many side-effects have been reported. These include hypertension, bleeding, and thromboembolic events among others. Drug-associated cutaneous adverse effects are less common and include itching, exfoliative dermatitis, and acneiform eruptions. A man with bevacizumab-associated monomorphic skin eruption successfully was treated with 30% salicylic acid peels. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of open comedones with no further inflammatory acne lesions that developed in a patient treated with bevacizumab. Complete remission of the rash was achieved after performing 30% salicylic peels, and the patient continued the chemotherapy as planned with no need of either dose reduction or discontinuation of bevacizumab.

  19. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration by Secretomes of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth.

    PubMed

    Sugimura-Wakayama, Yukiko; Katagiri, Wataru; Osugi, Masashi; Kawai, Takamasa; Ogata, Kenichi; Sakaguchi, Kohei; Hibi, Hideharu

    2015-11-15

    Peripheral nerve regeneration across nerve gaps is often suboptimal, with poor functional recovery. Stem cell transplantation-based regenerative therapy is a promising approach for axon regeneration and functional recovery of peripheral nerve injury; however, the mechanisms remain controversial and unclear. Recent studies suggest that transplanted stem cells promote tissue regeneration through a paracrine mechanism. We investigated the effects of conditioned media derived from stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED-CM) on peripheral nerve regeneration. In vitro, SHED-CM-treated Schwann cells exhibited significantly increased proliferation, migration, and the expression of neuron-, extracellular matrix (ECM)-, and angiogenesis-related genes. SHED-CM stimulated neuritogenesis of dorsal root ganglia and increased cell viability. Similarly, SHED-CM enhanced tube formation in an angiogenesis assay. In vivo, a 10-mm rat sciatic nerve gap model was bridged by silicon conduits containing SHED-CM or serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. Light and electron microscopy confirmed that the number of myelinated axons and axon-to-fiber ratio (G-ratio) were significantly higher in the SHED-CM group at 12 weeks after nerve transection surgery. The sciatic functional index (SFI) and gastrocnemius (target muscle) wet weight ratio demonstrated functional recovery. Increased compound muscle action potentials and increased SFI in the SHED-CM group suggested sciatic nerve reinnervation of the target muscle and improved functional recovery. We also observed reduced muscle atrophy in the SHED-CM group. Thus, SHEDs may secrete various trophic factors that enhance peripheral nerve regeneration through multiple mechanisms. SHED-CM may therefore provide a novel therapy that creates a more desirable extracellular microenvironment for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  20. Continious production of exfoliated graphite composite compositions and flow field plates

    DOEpatents

    Shi, Jinjun; Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

    2010-07-20

    A process of continuously producing a more isotropic, electrically conductive composite composition is provided. The process comprises: (a) continuously supplying a compressible mixture comprising exfoliated graphite worms and a binder or matrix material, wherein the binder or matrix material is in an amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the mixture; (b) continuously compressing the compressible mixture at a pressure within the range of from about 5 psi or 0.035 MPa to about 50,000 psi or 350 MPa in at least a first direction into a cohered graphite composite compact; and (c) continuously compressing the composite compact in a second direction, different from the first direction, to form the composite composition in a sheet or plate form. The process leads to composite plates with exceptionally high thickness-direction electrical conductivity.

  1. Exfoliation of non-oxidized graphene flakes for scalable conductive film.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Bo Hyun; Song, Sung Ho; Kwon, Jiyoung; Kong, Byung Seon; Kang, Kisuk; Jeon, Seokwoo

    2012-06-13

    The increasing demand for graphene has required a new route for its mass production without causing extreme damages. Here we demonstrate a simple and cost-effective intercalation based exfoliation method for preparing high quality graphene flakes, which form a stable dispersion in organic solvents without any functionalization and surfactant. Successful intercalation of alkali metal between graphite interlayers through liquid-state diffusion from ternary KCl-NaCl-ZnCl(2) eutectic system is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy. Chemical composition and morphology analyses prove that the graphene flakes preserve their intrinsic properties without any degradation. The graphene flakes remain dispersed in a mixture of pyridine and salts for more than 6 months. We apply these results to produce transparent conducting (∼930 Ω/□ at ∼75% transmission) graphene films using the modified Langmuir-Blodgett method. The overall results suggest that our method can be a scalable (>1 g/batch) and economical route for the synthesis of nonoxidized graphene flakes.

  2. Exfoliated graphite/titanium dioxide nanocomposites for photodegradation of eosin yellow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndlovu, Thabile; Kuvarega, Alex T.; Arotiba, Omotayo A.; Sampath, Srinivasan; Krause, Rui W.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    2014-05-01

    An improved photocatalyst consisting of a nanocomposite of exfoliated graphite and titanium dioxide (EG-TiO2) was prepared. SEM and TEM micrographs showed that the spherical TiO2 nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of the EG sheets. A four times photocatalytic enhancement was observed for this floating nanocomposite compared to TiO2 and EG alone for the degradation of eosin yellow. For all the materials, the reactions followed first order kinetics where for EG-TiO2, the rate constant was much higher than for EG and TiO2 under visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of EG-TiO2 was ascribed to the capability of graphitic layers to accept and transport electrons from the excited TiO2, promoting charge separation. This indicates that carbon, a cheap and abundant material, can be a good candidate as an electron attracting reservoir for photocatalytic organic pollutant degradation.

  3. Ultrastructural analysis of oral exfoliated epithelial cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers: A scanning electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sameera Shamim; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Kamboj, Mala

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to correlate epithelial surface pattern changes of oral exfoliated cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers and also to compare them with patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy individuals. In this cross-sectional study, a total of fifty persons were included in the study, out of which thirty formed the study group (15 each tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers) and twenty formed the control group (ten each of OSCC patients - positive control and ten normal buccal mucosa - negative control). Their oral exfoliated cells were scraped, fixed, and studied under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The statistical analysis was determined using ANOVA, Tukey honestly significant difference, Chi-square test, and statistical SPASS software, P < 0.05. OSCC, Individual cell modifications, intercellular relationships and surface characteristics observed by scanning electron microscopy between OSCC, tobacco smokers, betel nut chewers compared to normal oral mucosa have been tabulated. In normal oral mucosa, cell surface morphology depends on the state of keratinization of the tissue. Thus, it could prove helpful in detecting any carcinomatous change at its incipient stage and also give an insight into the ultra-structural details of cellular differentiations in epithelial tissues.

  4. Survey of Genes Encoding Staphylococcal Enterotoxins, Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1, and Exfoliative Toxins in Members of the Staphylococcus sciuri Group

    PubMed Central

    Dakić, Ivana; Vuković, Dragana; Stepanović, Srdjan; Hauschild, Tomasz; Ježek, Petr; Petráš, Petr; Morrison, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins (sea to see, seg, and seh), toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (tst), and exfoliative toxins (eta and etb) were not detected in a large panel of 48 Staphylococcus sciuri group isolates tested. This strongly suggests that production of the staphylococcal exotoxins by these bacteria is highly unlikely. PMID:16145164

  5. Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Exfoliated From Carbon Fibers by Microwave Irradiation: Two Photoluminescence Centers and Self-Assembly Behavior.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Zhao, Rui; Wu, Zhen-Jun; Li, Wei; Yang, Xin-Guo

    2018-04-17

    Graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) attract great attention for their unique properties and promising application potential. The difficulty in the formation of a confined structure, and the numerous and diverse oxygen-containing functional groups results in a low emission yield to GOQDs. Here, GOQDs with a size of about 5 nm, exfoliated from carbon fibers by microwave irradiation, are detected and analyzed. The exfoliated GOQDs are deeply oxidized and induce large numbers of epoxy groups and ether bonds, but only a small amount of carbonyl groups and hydroxyl groups. The subdomains of sp 2 clusters, involving epoxy groups and ether bonds, are responsible for the two strong photoluminescence emissions of GOQDs under different excitation wavelengths. Moreover, GOQDs tend to self-assemble at the edges of their planes to form self-assembly films (SAFs) with the evaporation of water. SAFs can further assemble into different 3D patterns with unique microstructures such as sponge bulk, sponge ball, microsheet, sisal, and schistose coral, which are what applications such as supercapacitors, cells, catalysts, and electrochemical sensors need. This method for preparation of GOQDs is easy, quick, and environmentally friendly, and this work may open up new research interests about GOQDs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Performance of Partially Exfoliated Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes Wrapped with Hierarchical Porous Carbon in Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Mangisetti, Sandhya Rani; Pari, Baraneedharan; M, Kamaraj; Ramaprabhu, Sundara

    2018-05-25

    The preparation of highly conductive, high-surface-area, heteroatom-doped, porous carbon nanocomposite materials with enhanced electrochemical performance for sustainable energy-storage technologies, such as supercapacitors, is challenging. Herein, a route for the large-scale synthesis of nitrogen-doped porous carbon wrapped partially exfoliated carbon nanotubes (N-PPECNTs) with an interconnected hierarchical porous structure, as an advanced electrode material that can realize several potential applications for energy storage, is presented. Polypyrrole conductive polymer acts as both nitrogen and carbon sources that contribute to the pseudocapacitance. Partially exfoliated carbon nanotubes (PECNTs) provide a high specific surface area for ion and charge transportation and act as a conductive matrix. The derived porous N-PPECNT displays a nitrogen content of 6.95 at %, with a specific surface area of 2050 m 2  g -1 , and pore volume of 1.13 cm 3  g -1 . N-PPECNTs, as an electrode material for supercapacitors, exhibit an excellent specific capacitance of 781 F g -1 at 2 A g -1 , with a high cycling stability of 95.3 % over 10 000 cycles. Furthermore, the symmetric supercapacitor exhibits remarkable energy densities as high as 172.8, 62.7, and 53.55 Wh kg -1 in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BMIM][TFSI]), organic, and aqueous electrolytes, respectively. Also, biocompatible hydrogel and polymer gel electrolyte based, stable, flexible supercapacitors with excellent electrochemical performance could be demonstrated. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Immunocytochemistry associated with oral exfoliative cytology: methodological analysis..

    PubMed

    da Silva, Alessandra Dutra; Lima, Celina Faig; Maraschin, Bruna Jalfim; Laureano, Natália Koerich; Daroit, Natália Batista; Brochier, Fernanda; Sant'Ana Filho, Manoel; Visioli, Fernanda; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate different immunocytochemical protocol variations to find the most effective protocol for the analysis of involucrin, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and E-cadherin antibodies. Exfoliative cytology is a noninvasive method used to monitor and screen for early changes in the oral mucosa of patients exposed to carcinogens such as tobacco and alcohol. It has been postulated that its association with immunocytochemistry may improve the effectiveness of the screening process. Four graduate students from Porto Alegre in southern Brazil had oral smears collected from the border of the tongue using a cytobrush. The following variables were analyzed: cell membrane permeability, antigen retrieval method (microwave oven or water bath), antibody incubation time (overnight or 1 hour), detection system used (Envision or LSAB), and chromogen incubation time (10 seconds or 5 minutes). Best results were obtained with the following combinations: (1) for involucrin: water bath, 1-hour incubation for primary antibody, Envision, and chromogen incubation for 10 seconds; (2)for EGFR: microwave, overnight incubation, LSAB, and chromogen incubation for 5 minutes; and (3) for E-cadherin: water bath, over-night incubation, Envision, and chromogen incubation for 5 minutes. Our findings suggest that each antibody requires a specific immunocytochemical protocol to guarantee optimal results with oral smears.

  8. Mussel-inspired functionalization of electrochemically exfoliated graphene: Based on self-polymerization of dopamine and its suppression effect on the fire hazards and smoke toxicity of thermoplastic polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wei; Wang, Junling; Pan, Ying; Guo, Wenwen; Mu, Xiaowei; Feng, Xiaming; Yuan, Bihe; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yuan

    2018-06-15

    The suppression effect of graphene in the fire hazards and smoke toxicity of polymer composites has been seriously limited by both mass production and weak interfacial interaction. Though the electrochemical preparation provides an available approach for mass production, exfoliated graphene could not strongly bond with polar polymer chains. Herein, mussel-inspired functionalization of electrochemically exfoliated graphene was successfully processed and added into polar thermoplastic polyurethane matrix (TPU). As confirmed by SEM patterns of fracture surface, functionalized graphene possessing abundant hydroxyl could constitute a forceful chains interaction with TPU. By the incorporation of 2.0 wt % f-GNS, peak heat release rate (pHRR), total heat release (THR), specific extinction area (SEA), as well as smoke produce rate (SPR) of TPU composites were approximately decreased by 59.4%, 27.1%, 31.9%, and 26.7%, respectively. A probable mechanism of fire retardant was hypothesized: well-dispersed f-GNS constituted tortuous path and hindered the exchange process of degradation product with barrier function. Large quantities of degradation product gathered round f-GNS and reacted with flame retardant to produce the cross-linked and high-degree graphited residual char. The simple functionalization for electrochemically exfoliated graphene impels the application of graphene in the fields of flame retardant composites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tuning the thickness of exfoliated quasi-two-dimensional β-Ga2O3 flakes by plasma etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yongbeom; Lee, Geonyeop; Oh, Sooyeoun; Kim, Jihyun; Pearton, Stephen J.; Ren, Fan

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrated the thinning of exfoliated quasi-two-dimensional β-Ga2O3 flakes by using a reactive ion etching technique. Mechanical exfoliation of the bulk β-Ga2O3 by using an adhesive tape was followed by plasma etching to tune its thickness. Since β-Ga2O3 is not a van der Waals material, it is challenging to obtain ultra-thin flakes below a thickness of 100 nm. In this study, an etch rate of approximately 16 nm/min was achieved at a power of 200 W with a flow of 50 sccm of SF6, and under these conditions, thinning of β-Ga2O3 flakes from 300 nm down to ˜60 nm was achieved with smooth morphology. We believe that the reaction between SF6 and Ga2O3 results in oxygen and volatile oxygen fluoride compounds, and non-volatile compounds such as GaFX that can be removed by ion bombardment. The opto-electrical properties were also characterized by fabricating solar-blind photodetectors using the plasma-thinned β-Ga2O3 flakes; these detectors showed fast response and decay with excellent responsivity and selectivity. Our results pave the way for tuning the thickness of two-dimensional materials by using this scalable, industry-compatible dry etching technique.

  10. Spectromicroscopy measurements of surface morphology and band structure of exfoliated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Kevin; Locatelli, Andrea; Cvetko, Dean; Mentes, Tevfik; Nino, Miguel; Wang, Shancai; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kim, Philip; Osgood, Richard; Morgante, Alberto

    2011-03-01

    Monolayer-thick crystals, such as graphene, are an area of intense interest in condensed matter research. ~However, crystal deformations in these 2D systems are known to adversely affect conductivity and increase local chemical reactivity. Additionally, surface roughness in graphene complicates band-mapping and limits resolution in techniques such as angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), the theory of which was developed for atomically flat surfaces. Thus, an understanding of the surface morphology of graphene is essential to making high quality devices and important for interpreting ARPES results. In this talk, we will describe a non-invasive approach to examining the corrugation in exfoliated graphene using a combination of low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and micro-spot low energy electron diffraction (LEED). We will also describe how such knowledge of surface roughness can be used in the analysis of ARPES data to improve resolution and extract useful information about the band-structure.

  11. High Voltage Li-Ion Battery Using Exfoliated Graphite/Graphene Nanosheets Anode.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Marco; Brutti, Sergio; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-05-04

    The achievement of a new generation of lithium-ion battery, suitable for a continuously growing consumer electronic and sustainable electric vehicle markets, requires the development of new, low-cost, and highly performing materials. Herein, we propose a new and efficient lithium-ion battery obtained by coupling exfoliated graphite/graphene nanosheets (EGNs) anode and high-voltage, spinel-structure cathode. The anode shows a capacity exceeding by 40% that ascribed to commercial graphite in lithium half-cell, at very high C-rate, due to its particular structure and morphology as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Li-ion battery reveals excellent efficiency and cycle life, extending up to 150 cycles, as well as an estimated practical energy density of about 260 Wh kg(-1), that is, a value well exceeding the one associated with the present-state Li-ion battery.

  12. Anion-exchange membranes derived from quaternized polysulfone and exfoliated layered double hydroxide for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wan; Liang, Na; Peng, Pai; Qu, Rong; Chen, Dongzhi; Zhang, Hongwei

    2017-02-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are prepared by controlling urea assisted homogeneous precipitation conditions. Morphology and crystallinity of LDHs are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. After LDHs are incorporated into quaternized polysulfone membranes, transmission electron microscope is used to observe the exfoliated morphology of LDH sheets in the membranes. The properties of the nanocomposite membranes, including water uptake, swelling ratio, mechanical property and ionic conductivity are investigated. The nanocomposite membrane containing 5% LDH sheets shows more balanced performances, exhibiting an ionic conductivity of 2.36×10-2 S cm-1 at 60 °C.

  13. A Micro-Raman Study of Exfoliated Few-Layered n-Type Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-11-28

    filtering process. 15. SUBJECT TERMS thermoelectric (TE); bulk n-type Bi2Te2.7Se0.3; chemical or mechanical exfoliation; densification; restacking...enhanced TE properties via the energy filtering process. Bulk pristine (undoped) and doped Bi2Te3 are some of the most efficient room temperature...and charged defect scattering dominates. Puneet et al. attributed the increase in n to selective filtering of charge carriers by positively charged

  14. Immunomodulatory Role of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth on Periodontal Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xianling; Shen, Zongshan; Guan, Meiliang; Huang, Qiting; Chen, Lingling; Qin, Wei; Ge, Xiaohu; Chen, Haijia; Xiao, Yin; Lin, Zhengmei

    2018-05-09

    Periodontitis is initiated by the infection of periodontal bacteria and subsequent tissue inflammation due to immunoreaction, eventually leading to periodontal apparatus loss. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) have exhibited beneficial characteristics in dental tissue regeneration. However, the immunomodulatory functions of SHEDs have not been elucidated in the context of periodontitis treatment. In this study, we investigated the potential immunomodulatory effects of SHEDs on experimental periodontitis and demonstrated that multidose delivery of SHEDs led to periodontal tissue regeneration. SHEDs and monocytes/macrophages were cocultured in transwell systems and SHEDs were found to be capable of promoting monocyte/macrophage conversion to CD206 + M2-like phenotype. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was employed to assess the survival and distribution of SHEDs after delivery in periodontal tissues in an induced periodontitis model, and BLI revealed that SHEDs survived for ∼7 days in periodontal tissues with little tissue diffusion. Then, multidose SHED delivery was applied to treat periodontitis at 7-day intervals. Results showed that mutidose SHEDs altered the cytokine expression profile in gingival crevicular fluid, reduced gum bleeding, increased new attachment of periodontal ligament, and decreased osteoclast differentiation. Micro-computed tomography analysis showed SHED administration significantly increased periodontal regeneration and alveolar bone volume, and decreased distance of cementoenamel junction to alveolar bone crest. Furthermore, an increase in the number of CD206 + M2 macrophages was observed in periodontal tissues following the delivery of SHEDs, which aligned well with the promoted conversion to CD206 + M2-like cells from monocytes/macrophages in vitro after stimulation by SHEDs. This study demonstrated in a rat periodontitis model that local delivery of SHEDs attributed to the induction of M2 macrophage polarization

  15. Functionalization of liquid-exfoliated two-dimensional 2H-MoS2.

    PubMed

    Backes, Claudia; Berner, Nina C; Chen, Xin; Lafargue, Paul; LaPlace, Pierre; Freeley, Mark; Duesberg, Georg S; Coleman, Jonathan N; McDonald, Aidan R

    2015-02-23

    Layered two-dimensional (2D) inorganic transition-metal dichalchogenides (TMDs) have attracted great interest as a result of their potential application in optoelectronics, catalysis, and medicine. However, methods to functionalize and process such 2D TMDs remain scarce. We have established a facile route towards functionalized layered MoS2 . We found that the reaction of liquid-exfoliated 2D MoS2 , with M(OAc)2 salts (M=Ni, Cu, Zn; OAc=acetate) yielded functionalized MoS2 -M(OAc)2 materials. Importantly, this method furnished the 2H-polytype of MoS2 which is a semiconductor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT-IR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) provide strong evidence for the coordination of MoS2 surface sulfur atoms to the M(OAc)2 salt. Interestingly, functionalization of 2H-MoS2 allows for its dispersion/processing in more conventional laboratory solvents. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Preparation process and properties of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets filled Bisphthalonitrile nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yajie; Hu, Guo-Hua; Zhao, Rui; Guo, Heng; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiaobo

    2012-11-01

    Exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnP) filled 4,4'-Bis (3,4-dicyanophenoxy) biphenyl (BPh) nanocomposites were prepared by a resin transfer molding process. The rheological behavior of the BPh pre-polymer, and the morphology and electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of the xGnP/BPh nanocomposites were systematically investigated. The results showed that the xGnP/BPh pre-polymer possessed a higher complex viscosity and storage modulus than the pure BPh and that the xGnP could significantly enhance the mechanical and electrical properties of the resulted nanocomposites. The electrical percolation threshold of the xGnP/BPh nanocomposites was between 5 and 10 wt% xGnP. The flexural strength and modulus of the xGnP/BPh nanocomposites with 10 wt% xGnP exhibited maximum values and their thermal stabilities were greatly improved. Those novel xGnP/BPh nanocomposites could have advanced applications in areas like aerospace and military industry.

  17. Ultrathin layered double hydroxide nanosheets with Ni(III) active species obtained by exfoliation for highly efficient ethanol electrooxidation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Xu; Qu, Zongkai; Li, Feng; Yang, Wensheng

    2018-01-10

    The development of non-precious metal electrocatalysts for renewable energy conversion and storage is compelling but greatly challenging due to low activity of the existing catalysts. Herein, the ultrathin NiAl-layered double hydroxide nanosheets (NiAl-LDH-NSs) are prepared by simple liquid-exfoliation of bulk NiAl-LDHs and first used as ethanol electrooxidation catalysts. The ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) structure ensures that the LDH nanosheets expose a greater number of active sites. More importantly, much Ni(III) active species (NiOOH) in the ultrathin nanosheets are formed by the exfoliation process, which play an authentic catalytic role in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). The presence of NiOOH remarkably improves the reactivity and electrical conductivity of LDH nanosheets. These synergistic effects lead to strikingly more than 30 times enhanced EOR activity of NiAl-LDH-NSs compared to bulk NiAl-LDHs. The obtained electrocatalytic activity is also much better than those of most Ni- and LDH-based EOR catalysts reported to date. In addition, the ultrathin NiAl-LDH-NS electrocatalyst also exhibits good long-term stability (maintain 81.8% of the original value after 10000 s). This study not only provides a highly competitive EOR catalyst, but also opens new avenues toward the design of highly efficient electrode materials that have various potential applications in supercapacitor, Ni-MH battery and other electrocatalytic systems.

  18. Ultrathin layered double hydroxide nanosheets with Ni(III) active species obtained by exfoliation for highly efficient ethanol electrooxidation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Xu; Qu, Zongkai; Li, Feng; Yang, Wensheng

    2018-01-01

    The development of non-precious metal electrocatalysts for renewable energy conversion and storage is compelling but greatly challenging due to low activity of the existing catalysts. Herein, the ultrathin NiAl-layered double hydroxide nanosheets (NiAl-LDH-NSs) are prepared by simple liquid-exfoliation of bulk NiAl-LDHs and first used as ethanol electrooxidation catalysts. The ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) structure ensures that the LDH nanosheets expose a greater number of active sites. More importantly, much Ni(III) active species (NiOOH) in the ultrathin nanosheets are formed by the exfoliation process, which play an authentic catalytic role in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). The presence of NiOOH remarkably improves the reactivity and electrical conductivity of LDH nanosheets. These synergistic effects lead to strikingly more than 30 times enhanced EOR activity of NiAl-LDH-NSs compared to bulk NiAl-LDHs. The obtained electrocatalytic activity is also much better than those of most Ni- and LDH-based EOR catalysts reported to date. In addition, the ultrathin NiAl-LDH-NS electrocatalyst also exhibits good long-term stability (maintain 81.8% of the original value after 10000 s). This study not only provides a highly competitive EOR catalyst, but also opens new avenues toward the design of highly efficient electrode materials that have various potential applications in supercapacitor, Ni-MH battery and other electrocatalytic systems. PMID:29622818

  19. Liquid exfoliation of mechanochemically nanostructured tungsten disulfide to a graphene-like state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posudievsky, Oleg Yu; Khazieieva, Oleksandra A.; Kondratyuk, Andrii S.; Cherepanov, Vsevolod V.; Dovbeshko, Galina I.; Koshechko, Vyacheslav G.; Pokhodenko, Vitaly D.

    2018-02-01

    The possibility of the efficient preparation of graphene-like 1H-WS2 by the primary solventless nanostructuration of bulk 2H-WS2 by means of its mechanochemical treatment in the presence of a chemically inert agent (NaCl) and the subsequent liquid exfoliation of the nanostructured 2H-WS2 in an organic solvent is shown for the first time. The shear stresses generated during the grinding of the WS2/NaCl mixture caused the formation of WS2 particles with a reduced number of layers, while the stresses normal to their surface led to their cracking and a significant reduction in lateral size. The graphene-like morphology of the 1H-WS2 nanoparticles in the prepared dispersions is confirmed by atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The semiconducting character of 1Н-WS2 is supported by electron absorption and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data.

  20. Graphene nanosheets preparation using magnetic nanoparticle assisted liquid phase exfoliation of graphite: The coupled effect of ultrasound and wedging nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Alireza; Zahirifar, Jafar; Karimi-Sabet, Javad; Dastbaz, Abolfazl

    2018-06-01

    This study aims to investigate a novel technique to improve the yield of liquid phase exfoliation of graphite to graphene sheets. The method is based on the utilization of magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles as "particle wedge" to facilitate delamination of graphitic layers. Strong shear forces resulted from the collision of Fe 3 O 4 particles with graphite particles, and intense ultrasonic waves lead to enhanced exfoliation of graphite. High quality of graphene sheets along with the ease of Fe 3 O 4 particle separation from graphene solution which arises from the magnetic nature of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles are the unique features of this approach. Initial graphite flakes and produced graphene sheets were characterized by various methods including field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Zeta potential analysis. Moreover, the effect of process factors comprising initial graphite concentration, Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles concentration, sonication time, and sonication power were investigated. Results revealed that graphene preparation yield and the number of layers could be manipulated by the presence of magnetic nanoparticles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced Thermionic Emission and Low 1/f Noise in Exfoliated Graphene/GaN Schottky Barrier Diode.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Kashid, Ranjit; Ghosh, Arindam; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Temperature-dependent electrical transport characteristics of exfoliated graphene/GaN Schottky diodes are investigated and compared with conventional Ni/GaN Schottky diodes. The ideality factor of graphene/GaN and Ni/GaN diodes are measured to be 1.33 and 1.51, respectively, which is suggestive of comparatively higher thermionic emission current in graphene/GaN diode. The barrier height values for graphene/GaN diode obtained using thermionic emission model and Richardson plots are found to be 0.60 and 0.72 eV, respectively, which are higher than predicted barrier height ∼0.40 eV as per the Schottky-Mott model. The higher barrier height is attributed to hole doping of graphene due to graphene-Au interaction which shifts the Fermi level in graphene by ∼0.3 eV. The magnitude of flicker noise of graphene/GaN Schottky diode increases up to 175 K followed by its decrease at higher temperatures. This indicates that diffusion currents and barrier inhomogeneities dominate the electronic transport at lower and higher temperatures, respectively. The exfoliated graphene/GaN diode is found to have lower level of barrier inhomogeneities than conventional Ni/GaN diode, as well as earlier reported graphene/GaN diode fabricated using chemical vapor deposited graphene. The lesser barrier inhomogeneities in graphene/GaN diode results in lower flicker noise by 2 orders of magnitude as compared to Ni/GaN diode. Enhanced thermionic emission current, lower level of inhomogeneities, and reduced flicker noise suggests that graphene-GaN Schottky diodes may have the underlying trend for replacing metal-GaN Schottky diodes.

  2. Age estimation using exfoliative cytology and radiovisiography: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Nallamala, Shilpa; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Manchikatla, Praveen Kumar; Taneeru, Sravya

    2017-01-01

    Age estimation is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of an individual. Among various methods, exfoliative cytology (EC) is a unique, noninvasive technique, involving simple, and pain-free collection of intact cells from the oral cavity for microscopic examination. The study was undertaken with an aim to estimate the age of an individual from the average cell size of their buccal smears calculated using image analysis morphometric software and the pulp-tooth area ratio in mandibular canine of the same individual using radiovisiography (RVG). Buccal smears were collected from 100 apparently healthy individuals. After fixation in 95% alcohol, the smears were stained using Papanicolaou stain. The average cell size was measured using image analysis software (Image-Pro Insight 8.0). The RVG images of mandibular canines were obtained, pulp and tooth areas were traced using AutoCAD 2010 software, and area ratio was calculated. The estimated age was then calculated using regression analysis. The paired t -test between chronological age and estimated age by cell size and pulp-tooth area ratio was statistically nonsignificant ( P > 0.05). In the present study, age estimated by pulp-tooth area ratio and EC yielded good results.

  3. High Antibacterial Activity of Functionalized Chemically Exfoliated MoS2.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Subhendu; Karunakaran, Subbaraj; Boda, Sunil Kumar; Basu, Bikramjit; De, Mrinmoy

    2016-11-23

    In view of the implications of inherent resistance of pathogenic bacteria, especially ESKAPE pathogens toward most of the commercially available antibiotics and the importance of these bacteria-induced biofilm formation leading to chronic infection, it is important to develop new-generation synthetic materials with greater efficacy toward antibacterial property. In addressing this issue, this paper reports a proof-of-principle study to evaluate the potential of functionalized two-dimensional chemically exfoliated MoS 2 (ce-MoS 2 ) toward inhibitory and bactericidal property against two representative ESKAPE pathogenic strain-a Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and a Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa. More significantly, the mechanistic study establishes a different extent of oxidative stress together with rapid membrane depolarization in contact with ce-MoS 2 having ligands of varied charge and hydrophobicity. The implication of our results is discussed in the light of the lack of survivability of planktonic bacteria and biofilm destruction in vitro. A comparison with widely used small molecules and other nanomaterial-based therapeutics conclusively establishes a better efficacy of 2D ce-MoS 2 as a new class of antibiotics.

  4. The effect of exfoliated graphite on carbon fiber reinforced composites for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Adam Michael

    It is desirable to lighten cryogenic fuel tanks through the use of composites for the development of a reusable single stage launch vehicle. Conventional composites fall victim to microcracking due to the cyclic loading and temperature change experienced during launch and re-entry conditions. Also, the strength of a composite is generally limited by the properties of the matrix. The introduction of the nanoplatelet, exfoliated graphite or graphene, to the matrix shows promise of increasing both the microcracking resistivity and the mechanical characteristics. Several carbon fiber composite plates were manufactured with varying concentrations of graphene and tested under both room and cryogenic conditions to characterize graphene's effect on the composite. Results from tensile and fracture testing indicate that the ideal concentration of graphene in our carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites for cryogenic applications is 0.08% mass graphene.

  5. Comparative Study of Genotoxicity in Different Tobacco Related Habits using Micronucleus Assay in Exfoliated Buccal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Jose, Maji; Saxena, Kartikay; K, Deepa; Prabhu, Vishnudas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer is one of the most debilitating diseases afflicting mankind. Consumption of tobacco in various forms constitutes one of the most important etiological factors in initiation of oral cancer. When the focus of today’s research is to determine early genotoxic changes in human cells, micronucleus (MN) assay provides a simple, yet reliable indicator of genotoxic damage. Aims and Objectives: To identify and quantify micronuclei in the exfoliated cells of oral mucosa in individuals with different tobacco related habits and control group, to compare the genotoxicity of different tobacco related habits between each group and also with that of control group. Patients and Methods: In the present study buccal smears of 135 individuals with different tobacco related habits & buccal smears of 45 age and sex matched controls were obtained, stained using Giemsa stain and then observed under 100X magnification in order to identify and quantify micronuclei in the exfoliated cells of oral mucosa. Results: The mean Micronucleus (MN) count in individuals having smoking habit were 3.11 while the count was 0.50, 2.13, and 1.67 in normal control, smoking with beetle quid and smokeless tobacco habit respectively. MN count in smokers group was 2.6 times more compared to normal controls. MN count was more even in other groups when compared to normal control but to a lesser extent. Conclusion: From our study we concluded that tobacco in any form is genotoxic especially smokers are of higher risk and micronucleus assay can be used as a simple yet reliable marker for genotoxic evaluation. PMID:24995238

  6. Oral exfoliative cytology for the diagnosis of paracoccidoidomycosis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimarães; Lima, Celina Faig; Coutinho de Oliveira, Maria Lucia; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2010-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is not the most common fungal disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), except for endemic regions in Latin America countries. A 33-year-old man with HIV presented with mulberry-like lesions on the palate. The diagnosis was made by exfoliative cytology and Papanicolaou staining. Microscopic analysis revealed fungal structures with birefringent walls and exosporulation conferring an airplane radial motor appearance, or even bowel-like or goblet-like forms compatible with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. This process spares the immunosuppressed patient from undergoing invasive biopsy procedures.

  7. Surfactant exfoliated 2D hexagonal Boron Nitride (2D-hBN) explored as a potential electrochemical sensor for dopamine: surfactants significantly influence sensor capabilities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aamar F; Brownson, Dale A C; Foster, Christopher W; Smith, Graham C; Banks, Craig E

    2017-05-21

    Surfactant exfoliated 2D hexagonal Boron Nitride (2D-hBN) nanosheets are explored as a potential electrochemical sensing platform and evaluated towards the electroanalytical sensing of dopamine (DA) in the presence of the common interferents, ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). Surfactant exfoliated 2D-hBN nanosheets (2-4 layers) fabricated using sodium cholate in aqueous media are electrically wired via a drop-casting modification process onto disposable screen-printed graphite electrodes (SPEs). We critically evaluate the performance of these 2D-hBN modified SPEs and demonstrate the effect of 'mass coverage' towards the detection of DA, AA and UA. Previous studies utilising surfactant-free (pristine) 2D-hBN modified SPEs have shown a beneficial effect towards the detection of DA, AA and UA when compared to the underlying/unmodified graphite-based electrode. We show that the fabrication route utilised to prepare 2D-hBN is a vital experimental consideration, such that the beneficial effect previously reported is considerably reduced when surfactant exfoliated 2D-hBN is utilised. We demonstrate for the first time, through implementation of control experiments in the form of surfactant modified graphite electrodes, that sodium cholate is a major contributing factor to the aforementioned detrimental behaviour. The significance here is not in the material per se, but the fundamental knowledge of the surfactant and surface coverage changing the electrochemical properties of the material under investigation. Given the wide variety of ionic and non-ionic surfactants that are utilised in the manufacture of novel 2D materials, the control experiments reported herein need to be performed in order to de-convolute the electrochemical response and effectively evaluate the 'underlying surface/surfactant/2D materials' electrocatalytic contribution.

  8. Exfoliation of graphite into graphene in polar solvents mediated by amphiphilic hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene.

    PubMed

    Kabe, Ryota; Feng, Xinliang; Adachi, Chihaya; Müllen, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    A water-soluble surfactant consisting of hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) as hydrophobic aromatic core and hydrophilic carboxy substituents was synthesized. It exhibited a self-assembled nanofiber structure in the solid state. Profiting from the π interactions between the large aromatic core of HBC and graphene, the surfactant mediated the exfoliation of graphite into graphene in polar solvents, which was further stabilized by the bulky hydrophilic carboxylic groups. A graphene dispersion with a concentration as high as 1.1 mg L(-1) containing 2-6 multilayer nanosheets was obtained. The lateral size of the graphene sheets was in the range of 100-500 nm based on atomic force microscope (AFM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Increased fibroblast density in actinic cheilitis: association with tryptase-positive mast cells, actinic elastosis and epithelial p53 and COX-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Isolde G; Boza, Yadira V; Spencer, Maria Loreto; Flores, Maritza; Martínez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is characterized by epithelial and connective tissue alterations caused by ultraviolet sunlight overexposure known as photodamage. Fibroblasts have been linked to photodamage and tumor progression during skin carcinogenesis; however, their role in early lip carcinogenesis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the density of fibroblasts in AC and normal lip (NL) samples and determine their association with markers of lip photodamage. Fibroblasts, mast cells, p53, COX-2, and elastin were detected in NL (n = 20) and AC (n = 28) biopsies using immunohistochemistry/histochemistry. Mast cell and fibroblast density and epithelial p53 and COX-2 expression scores were then obtained. Elastosis was scored 1-4 according to elastin fiber density and tortuosity. Fibroblasts, mast cells, p53, COX-2, and elastosis were increased in AC as compared to NL (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed an association between fibroblast and mast cell density at the papillary and reticular areas of AC and NL (P < 0.05). Papillary fibroblast density was also associated with epithelial p53 and COX-2 expression (P < 0.05). Increased fibroblast density, both papillary and reticular, was found in the high elastosis group (scores 3-4) as compared to the low elastosis group (scores 1-2) (P < 0.01). Increased reticular mast cell density was detected only in the high elastosis group (P < 0.01). Fibroblasts are increased in AC, and they are associated with mast cell density, epithelial p53 and COX-2 expression, and actinic elastosis. Therefore, fibroblasts may contribute to lip photodamage and could be considered useful markers of early lip carcinogenesis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Percolation transition in carbon composite on the basis of fullerenes and exfoliated graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezkin, V. I.; Popov, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of a carbon composite on the basis of C60 fullerenes and exfoliated graphite is investigated in the range of relative contents of components from 0 to 100%. The samples are obtained by the thermal treatment of the initial dispersed mixtures in vacuum in the diffusion-adsorption process and their further cold pressing. The resistivity of the samples gradually increases with an increase in the fraction of fullerenes, and a sharp transition from the conductive state to the dielectric one is observed after achieving certain concentrations of C60. The interpretation of the results within the percolation theory makes it possible to evaluate the percolation threshold (expressed as a relative content of graphite) as equal to 4.45 wt % and the critical conductivity index as equal to 1.85 (which is typical for three-dimensional twocomponent disordered media including those having pores).

  11. Exfoliated β-Ga2O3 nano-belt field-effect transistors for air-stable high power and high temperature electronics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Janghyuk; Oh, Sooyeoun; Mastro, Michael A; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-06-21

    This study demonstrated the exfoliation of a two-dimensional (2D) β-Ga2O3 nano-belt and subsequent processing into a thin film transistor structure. This mechanical exfoliation and transfer method produces β-Ga2O3 nano-belts with a pristine surface as well as a continuous defect-free interface with the SiO2/Si substrate. This β-Ga2O3 nano-belt based transistor displayed an on/off ratio that increased from approximately 10(4) to 10(7) over the operating temperature range of 20 °C to 250 °C. No electrical breakdown was observed in our measurements up to VDS = +40 V and VGS = -60 V between 25 °C and 250 °C. Additionally, the electrical characteristics were not degraded after a month-long storage in ambient air. The demonstration of high-temperature/high-voltage operation of quasi-2D β-Ga2O3 nano-belts contrasts with traditional 2D materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides that intrinsically have limited temperature and power operational envelopes owing to their narrow bandgap. This work motivates the application of 2D β-Ga2O3 to high power nano-electronic devices for harsh environments such as high temperature chemical sensors and photodetectors as well as the miniaturization of power circuits and cooling systems in nano-electronics.

  12. Aqueous Exfoliation of Graphite into Graphene Assisted by Sulfonyl Graphene Quantum Dots for Photonic Crystal Applications.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Minxiang; Shah, Smit A; Huang, Dali; Parviz, Dorsa; Yu, Yi-Hsien; Wang, Xuezhen; Green, Micah J; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2017-09-13

    We investigate the π-π stacking of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with graphene surfaces, showing that such interactions are general across a wide range of PAH sizes and species, including graphene quantum dots. We synthesized a series of graphene quantum dots with sulfonyl, amino, and carboxylic functional groups and employed them to exfoliate and disperse pristine graphene in water. We observed that sulfonyl-functionalized graphene quantum dots were able to stabilize the highest concentration of graphene in comparison to other functional groups; this is consistent with prior findings by pyrene. The graphene nanosheets prepared showed excellent colloidal stability, indicating great potential for applications in electronics, solar cells, and photonic displays which was demonstrated in this work.

  13. Age estimation using exfoliative cytology and radiovisiography: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Nallamala, Shilpa; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Manchikatla, Praveen Kumar; Taneeru, Sravya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Age estimation is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of an individual. Among various methods, exfoliative cytology (EC) is a unique, noninvasive technique, involving simple, and pain-free collection of intact cells from the oral cavity for microscopic examination. Objective: The study was undertaken with an aim to estimate the age of an individual from the average cell size of their buccal smears calculated using image analysis morphometric software and the pulp–tooth area ratio in mandibular canine of the same individual using radiovisiography (RVG). Materials and Methods: Buccal smears were collected from 100 apparently healthy individuals. After fixation in 95% alcohol, the smears were stained using Papanicolaou stain. The average cell size was measured using image analysis software (Image-Pro Insight 8.0). The RVG images of mandibular canines were obtained, pulp and tooth areas were traced using AutoCAD 2010 software, and area ratio was calculated. The estimated age was then calculated using regression analysis. Results: The paired t-test between chronological age and estimated age by cell size and pulp–tooth area ratio was statistically nonsignificant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: In the present study, age estimated by pulp–tooth area ratio and EC yielded good results. PMID:29657491

  14. Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joshua D; Wells, Spencer A; Jariwala, Deep; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Cho, EunKyung; Sangwan, Vinod K; Liu, Xiaolong; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2014-12-10

    Unencapsulated, exfoliated black phosphorus (BP) flakes are found to chemically degrade upon exposure to ambient conditions. Atomic force microscopy, electrostatic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are employed to characterize the structure and chemistry of the degradation process, suggesting that O2 saturated H2O irreversibly reacts with BP to form oxidized phosphorus species. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that BP degradation occurs more rapidly on hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers and on H-Si(111) versus hydrophilic SiO2. For unencapsulated BP field-effect transistors, the ambient degradation causes large increases in threshold voltage after 6 h in ambient, followed by a ∼ 10(3) decrease in FET current on/off ratio and mobility after 48 h. Atomic layer deposited AlOx overlayers effectively suppress ambient degradation, allowing encapsulated BP FETs to maintain high on/off ratios of ∼ 10(3) and mobilities of ∼ 100 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for over 2 weeks in ambient conditions. This work shows that the ambient degradation of BP can be managed effectively when the flakes are sufficiently passivated. In turn, our strategy for enhancing BP environmental stability will accelerate efforts to implement BP in electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  15. Studies on Synthesis of Electrochemically Exfoliated Functionalized Graphene and Polylactic Acid/Ferric Phytate Functionalized Graphene Nanocomposites as New Fire Hazard Suppression Materials.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaming; Wang, Xin; Cai, Wei; Qiu, Shuilai; Hu, Yuan; Liew, Kim Meow

    2016-09-28

    Practical application of functionalized graphene in polymeric nanocomposites is hampered by the lack of cost-effective and eco-friendly methods for its production. Here, we reported a facile and green electrochemical approach for preparing ferric phytate functionalized graphene (f-GNS) by simultaneously utilizing biobased phytic acid as electrolyte and modifier for the first time. Due to the presence of phytic acid, electrochemical exfoliation leads to low oxidized graphene sheets (a C/O ratio of 14.8) that are tens of micrometers large. Successful functionalization of graphene was confirmed by the appearance of phosphorus and iron peaks in the X-ray photoelectron spectrum. Further, high-performance polylactic acid/f-GNS nanocomposites are readily fabricated by a convenient masterbatch strategy. Notably, inclusion of well-dispersed f-GNS resulted in dramatic suppression on fire hazards of polylactic acid in terms of reduced peak heat-release rate (decreased by 40%), low CO yield, and formation of a high graphitized protective char layer. Moreover, obviously improvements in crystallization rate and thermal conductivities of polylactic acid nanocomposites were observed, highlighting its promising potential in practical application. This novel strategy toward the simultaneous exfoliation and functionalization for graphene demonstrates a simple yet very effective approach for fabricating graphene-based flame retardants.

  16. Large-Scale Production of Nanographite by Tube-Shear Exfoliation in Water

    PubMed Central

    Engström, Ann-Christine; Hummelgård, Magnus; Andres, Britta; Forsberg, Sven; Olin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The number of applications based on graphene, few-layer graphene, and nanographite is rapidly increasing. A large-scale process for production of these materials is critically needed to achieve cost-effective commercial products. Here, we present a novel process to mechanically exfoliate industrial quantities of nanographite from graphite in an aqueous environment with low energy consumption and at controlled shear conditions. This process, based on hydrodynamic tube shearing, produced nanometer-thick and micrometer-wide flakes of nanographite with a production rate exceeding 500 gh-1 with an energy consumption about 10 Whg-1. In addition, to facilitate large-area coating, we show that the nanographite can be mixed with nanofibrillated cellulose in the process to form highly conductive, robust and environmentally friendly composites. This composite has a sheet resistance below 1.75 Ω/sq and an electrical resistivity of 1.39×10-4 Ωm and may find use in several applications, from supercapacitors and batteries to printed electronics and solar cells. A batch of 100 liter was processed in less than 4 hours. The design of the process allow scaling to even larger volumes and the low energy consumption indicates a low-cost process. PMID:27128841

  17. Chromosomal Damage and Apoptosis in Exfoliated Buccal Cells from Individuals with Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dórea, Lavínia Tércia Magalhães; Meireles, José Roberto Cardoso; Lessa, Júlia Paula Ramos; Oliveira, Márcio Campos; de Bragança Pereira, Carlos Alberto; Polpo de Campos, Adriano; Cerqueira, Eneida de Moraes Macílio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate cytological abnormalities indicative of chromosome damage (micronuclei) and apoptosis (karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and condensed chromatin) in exfoliated cells from the buccal mucosa of patients with oral cancer and control subjects. The sample included twenty individuals with oral cancer and forty individuals with normal buccal mucosa. Material was collected from the cheek epithelium in areas with lesions and areas without abnormalities. A minimum of one thousand cells was analyzed. Micronuclei were found significantly more frequently in cells collected from lesions than in cells from normal areas, independent of the presence/absence of cancer (P < 0.0001). They were also significantly more frequent in smokers and in mouthwash users (P < 0.0001). Apoptosis occurred significantly less frequently in individuals with oral cancer (P < 0.0001). These results show that oral cancer is associated with higher frequency of chromosomal damage and suggest that apoptosis is compromised in the buccal cells of individuals with this kind of neoplasia. PMID:22315605

  18. In situ TEM visualization of superior nanomechanical flexibility of shear-exfoliated phosphorene

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Feng; Ma, Hongyu; Lei, Shuangying; ...

    2016-06-20

    Recently discovered atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise for applications in flexible nanoelectronic devices. Experimentally identifying and characterizing nanomechanical properties of phosphorene are challenging, but also potentially rewarding. Our work combines for the first time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and an in situ micro-manipulation system to directly visualize the nanomechanical behaviour of individual phosphorene nanoflakes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the phosphorene nanoflakes can be easily bent, scrolled, and stretched, showing remarkable mechanical flexibility rather than fracturing. An out-of-plane plate-like bending mechanism and in-plane tensile strain of up to 34% were observed. Moreover, a facilemore » liquid-phase shear exfoliation route has been developed to produce such mono-layer and few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes in organic solvents using only a household kitchen blender. The effects of surface tensions of the applied solvents on the ratio of average length and thickness (L/T) of the nanoflakes were studied systematically. These results reported here will pave the way for potential industrial-scale applications of flexible phosphorene nanoelectronic devices.« less

  19. Electrostatic Functionalization and Passivation of Water-Exfoliated Few-Layer Black Phosphorus by Poly Dimethyldiallyl Ammonium Chloride and Its Ultrafast Laser Application.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qingliang; Liu, Hongyan; Zhu, Meijie; Shang, Jing; Liu, Dan; Cui, Xiaoqi; Shen, Diqin; Kou, Liangzhi; Mao, Dong; Zheng, Jianbang; Li, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Hua; Zhao, Jianlin

    2018-03-21

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) which exhibits excellent optical and electronic properties, has great potential applications in nanodevices. However, BP inevitably suffers from the rapid degradation in ambient air because of the high reactivity of P atoms with oxygen and water, which greatly hinders its wide applications. Herein, we demonstrate the electrostatic functionalization as an effective way to simultaneously enhance the stability and dispersity of aqueous phase exfoliated few-layer BP. The poly dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride (PDDA) is selected to spontaneously and uniformly adsorb on the surface of few-layer BP via electrostatic interaction. The positive charge-center of the N atom of PDDA, which passivates the lone-pair electrons of P, plays a critical role in stabilizing the BP. Meanwhile, the PDDA could serve as hydrophilic ligands to improve the dispersity of exfoliated BP in water. The thinner PDDA-BP nanosheets can stabilize in both air and water even after 15 days of exposure. Finally, the uniform PDDA-BP-polymer film was used as a saturable absorber to realize passive mode-locking operations in a fiber laser, delivering a train of ultrafast pulses with the duration of 1.2 ps at 1557.8 nm. This work provides a new way to obtain highly stable few-layer BP, which shows great promise in ultrafast optics application.

  20. Facile and Scalable Synthesis Method for High-Quality Few-Layer Graphene through Solution-Based Exfoliation of Graphite.

    PubMed

    Wee, Boon-Hong; Wu, Tong-Fei; Hong, Jong-Dal

    2017-02-08

    Here we describe a facile and scalable method for preparing defect-free graphene sheets exfoliated from graphite using the positively charged polyelectrolyte precursor poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV-pre) as a stabilizer in an aqueous solution. The graphene exfoliated by PPV-pre was apparently stabilized in the solution as a form of graphene/PPV-pre (denoted to GPPV-pre), which remains in a homogeneous dispersion over a year. The thickness values of 300 selected 76% GPPV-pre flakes ranged from 1 to 10 nm, corresponding to between one and a few layers of graphene in the lateral dimensions of 1 to 2 μm. Furthermore, this approach was expected to yield a marked decrease in the density of defects in the electronic conjugation of graphene compared to that of graphene oxide (GO) obtained by Hummers' method. The positively charged GPPV-pre was employed to fabricate a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) electrode layer-by-layer with negatively charged GO, yielding (GPPV-pre/GO) n film electrode. The PPV-pre and GO in the (GPPV-pre/GO) n films were simultaneously converted using hydroiodic acid vapor to fully conjugated PPV and reduced graphene oxide (RGO), respectively. The electrical conductivity of (GPPV/RGO) 23 multilayer films was 483 S/cm, about three times greater than that of the (PPV/RGO) 23 multilayer films (166 S/cm) comprising RGO (prepared by Hummers method). Furthermore, the superior electrical properties of GPPV were made evident, when comparing the capacitive performances of two supercapacitor systems; (polyaniline PANi/RGO) 30 /(GPPV/RGO) 23 /PET (volumetric capacitance = 216 F/cm 3 ; energy density = 19 mWh/cm 3 ; maximum power density = 498 W/cm 3 ) and (PANi/RGO) 30 /(PPV/RGO) 23 /PET (152 F/cm 3 ; 9 mWh/cm 3 ; 80 W/cm 3 ).

  1. Phototherapy up-regulates dentin matrix proteins expression and synthesis by stem cells from human-exfoliated deciduous teeth.

    PubMed

    Turrioni, Ana Paula S; Basso, Fernanda G; Montoro, Liege A; Almeida, Leopoldina de Fátima D de; Costa, Carlos A de Souza; Hebling, Josimeri

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of infrared LED (850nm) irradiation on dentin matrix proteins expression and synthesis by cultured stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). Near-exfoliation primary teeth were extracted (n=3), and SHED cultures were characterized by immunofluorescence using STRO-1, CD44, CD146, Nanog and OCT3/4 antibodies, before experimental protocol. The SHEDs were seeded (3×10(4) cells/cm(2)) with DMEM containing 10% FBS. After 24-h incubation, the culture medium was replaced by osteogenic differentiation medium, and the cells were irradiated with LED light at energy densities (EDs) of 0 (control), 2, or 4J/cm(2) (n=8). The irradiated SHEDs were then evaluated for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, total protein (TP) production, and collagen synthesis (SIRCOL™ Assay), as well as ALP, collagen type I (Col I), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein (DMP-1) gene expression (qPCR). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). Increased ALP activity and collagen synthesis, as well as gene expression of DSPP and ALP, were observed for both EDs compared with non-irradiated cells. The ED of 4J/cm(2) also increased gene expression of COL I and DMP-1. In conclusion, infrared LED irradiation was capable of biostimulating SHEDs by increasing the expression and synthesis of proteins related with mineralized tissue formation, with overall better results for the energy dose of 4J/cm(2). Phototherapy is an additional approach for the clinical application of LED in Restorative Dentistry. Infrared LED irradiation of the cavity's floor could biostimulate subjacent pulp cells, improving local tissue healing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on exfoliated mica nanosheets to form highly conductive nanohybrid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Chih-Wei; Ou, Gang-Bo; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Jiang-Jen

    2015-11-01

    Highly electrically conductive films were prepared by coating organic/inorganic nanohybrid solutions with a polymeric dispersant and exfoliated mica nanosheets (Mica) on which silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) had been dispersed in various components. Transmission electronic microscopy showed that the synthesized AgNPs had a narrow size distribution and a diameter of approximately 20 nm. Furthermore, a 60 μm thick film with a sheet resistance as low as 4.5 × 10-2 Ω/sq could be prepared by controlling the heating temperature and by using AgNPs/POE-imide/Mica in a weight ratio of 20:20:1. During the heating process, the surface color of the hybrid film changed from dark golden to white, suggesting the accumulation of the AgNPs through surface migration and their melting to form an interconnected network. These nanohybrid films have potential for use in various electrically conductive devices.

  3. Prediction the concentration of graphite direct exfoliation by liquid solution with solubility parameters map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ko-Yuan; Yang, Wein-Duo

    2018-01-01

    This study is to discuss solvent selection with graphene dispersion concentration of directly exfoliation graphite. That limiting boundaries of fractional cohesion parameters will be draw on the triangular diagram to prediction and estimate. It is based on the literature of data and check with experimental or other literature results, include organic solution, aqueous solution and ionic liquid. In this work, we found that estimated the graphene dispersion concentration by distance (Ra) of Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) between graphene and solvent, the lower Ra; the higher concentration, some case the lower Ra; the lower dispersion concentration (such as acetone). It is compatible with the graphene dispersion concentration on the Hansen space or Triangular fractional cohesion parameters dispersion diagram. From Triangular fractional cohesion parameters dispersion diagram, 2D maps are more convenient for researchers than 3D maps of Hansen space and quickly to find the appropriate combination of solvents for different application.

  4. Immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9, myofibroblasts and Ki-67 in actinic cheilitis and lip squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Bianca C; Scotti, Fernanda M; Vieira, Daniella S C; Biz, Michelle T; Castro, Renata G; Modolo, Filipe

    2015-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), myofibroblasts (MFs) and epithelial proliferation have key roles in neoplastic progression. In this study immunoexpression of MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9, presence of MFs and the epithelial proliferation index were investigated in actinic cheilitis (AC), lip squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and mucocele (MUC). Thirty cases of AC, thirty cases of LSCC and twenty cases of MUC were selected for immunohistochemical investigation of the proteins MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Ki-67. The MMP-1 expression in the epithelial component was higher in the AC than the MUC and LSCC. In the connective tissue, the expression was higher in the LSCC. MMP-2 showed lower epithelial and stromal immunostaining in the LSCC when compared to the AC and MUC. The epithelial staining for MMP-9 was higher in the AC when compared to the LSCC. However, in the connective tissue, the expression was lower in the AC compared to other lesions. The cell proliferation rate was increased in proportion to the severity of dysplasia in the AC, while in the LSCC it was higher in well-differentiated lesions compared to moderately differentiated. There were no statistically significant differences in number of MFs present in the lesions studied. The results suggest that MMPs could affect the biological behaviour of ACs and LSCCs inasmuch as they could participate in the development and progression from premalignant lesions to malignant lesions. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2015 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  5. Electrochemical exfoliation of graphite to stage-III graphite bisulfate flakes in low concentration sulfuric acid solution: A novel synthesis route to completely trilayer graphene suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, Afkham; Shukla, Anupam

    2018-06-01

    Graphene produced from electrochemical exfoliation of graphite show a scatter in the number of layers. This scatter is a serious drawback for sensor and opto-electronic applications since the electronic properties of graphene change with number of layers. The scatter in the layer number of graphene is caused by formation of the intermediate graphite intercalation compounds (GIC) of different stage numbers as well as simultaneous cleaving of the GICs in the dispersion-unsuitable aqueous environment. In this work, we show the synthesis of stage-III graphite bisulfate (GB) enriched flakes by electrochemical exfoliation of graphite in low concentration (0.1 M) sulfuric acid from two different routes. We further show that the intercalated bisulfate planes provide sites for selective cleaving of the GB particles to trilayer graphene in DMF, a solvent favorable for graphene dispersion. Morphological characterizations show that while GB particles from one of the routes give graphene with a small scatter in the layer numbers, the other route provides a completely trilayer graphene dispersion. TEM and optical micrographs show graphene flakes have linear dimensions of several micrometers and a low aspect ratio suitable for use in sensor applications.

  6. Reversible hydration and aqueous exfoliation of the acetate-intercalated layered double hydroxide of Ni and Al: Observation of an ordered interstratified phase

    SciTech Connect

    Manohara, G.V.; Vishnu Kamath, P., E-mail: vishnukamath8@hotmail.com; Milius, Wolfgang

    2012-12-15

    Acetate-intercalated layered double hydroxides (LDHs) of Ni and Al undergo reversible hydration in the solid state in response to the ambient humidity. The LDH with a high layer charge (0.33/formula unit) undergoes facile hydration in a single step, whereas the LDH with a lower layer charge (0.24/formula unit) exhibits an ordered interstratified intermediate, comprising the hydrated and dehydrated layers stacked alternatively. This phase, also known as the staged S-2 phase, coexists with the end members suggesting the existence of a solution-type equilibrium between the S-2 phase and the end members of the hydration cycle. These LDHs also undergo facile aqueousmore » exfoliation into 2-5 nm-thick tactoids with a radial dimension of 0.2-0.5 {mu}m. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the hydrated, dehydrated and interstratified phases observed during the hydration-dehydration of Ni/Al-CH{sub 3}COO LDH. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni/Al-acetate LDHs were synthesized by HPFS method by hydrolysis of acetamide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intercalated acetate ion shows reversible hydration with variation in humidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An ordered interstratified phase was observed during hydration/dehydration cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A solution type equilibrium is observed between hydration-dehydration phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These LDHs undergo facile aqueous exfoliation.« less

  7. Free-standing, flexible β-Ni(OH)2/electrochemically-exfoliated graphene film electrode for efficient oxygen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanlan; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Weitao; Zhao, Hong; Liu, Hongzhong

    2018-03-01

    The oxidation of water into molecular oxygen (oxygen evolution reaction, OER) is a pivotal reaction in many energy conversion devices. The high cost of IrO2, however, seriously hinder its large-scale applications in water oxidation. Here, we have at first reported a free-standing and flexible film electrode consisting of 2D β-Ni(OH)2/electrochemically-exfoliated graphene hybrid nanosheets (NiG-2), which is synthesized by a solvothermal reaction and an assembly process. The as-obtained NiG-2 film electrode exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic OER activity with an extremely low OER onset overpotential of ∼250 mV in a 1 M KOH aqueous solution, which is lower than these of the commercial Ir/C (370 mV at 10 mA cm-2) catalyst.

  8. Highly exfoliated eco-friendly thermoplastic starch (TPS)/poly (lactic acid)(PLA)/clay nanocomposites using unmodified nanoclay.

    PubMed

    B, Ayana; Suin, Supratim; Khatua, B B

    2014-09-22

    Highly exfoliated, biodegradable thermoplastic starch (TPS)/polylactic acid (PLA)/sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT) nanocomposites were prepared by an eco-friendly approach, involving in-situ gelatinization of potato starch in presence of dispersed nanoclay followed by melt mixing with PLA. The morphological analysis revealed that the NaMMT was selectively dispersed into the TPS in a highly delaminated manner. An increase in mechanical as well as thermomechanical properties was evident in the presence of PLA and more influenced in the presence of clay. The water absorption was significantly decreased in the presence of PLA (∼8%) itself and both PLA and clay (∼8-12%) in the nanocomposites. The improved mechanical properties along with its biodegradability might lead to a new green material in the area of packaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reducing microplastics from facial exfoliating cleansers in wastewater through treatment versus consumer product decisions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Michelle

    2015-12-15

    Microplastics (<5mm) have been discovered in fresh and saltwater ecosystems, sediments, and wastewater effluent around the world. Their ability to persist and accumulate up food chains should be a concern as research is still experimenting with techniques to assess their long-term effects on the environment. I sought to characterize the microbeads found in facial exfoliating cleansers so as to better understand how to reduce this source of pollution through consumer use and wastewater treatment solutions. By sampling products from national-grossing cosmetic personal care brands, I was able to gather information on the size, color, volume, mass, and concentration of polyethylene beads in the cleansers. From that data, I modeled onto a consumer survey the estimated volume of microplastics entering a wastewater stream. Through inquiry, I learned the practices of two local wastewater treatment facilities. My findings show that consumer decisions and treatment protocols both play crucial parts in minimizing microplastic pollution. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Metal-assisted exfoliation (MAE): green process for transferring graphene to flexible substrates and templating of sub-nanometer plasmonic gaps (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaretski, Aliaksandr V.; Marin, Brandon C.; Moetazedi, Herad; Dill, Tyler J.; Jibril, Liban; Kong, Casey; Tao, Andrea R.; Lipomi, Darren J.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a new technique, termed "metal-assisted exfoliation," for the scalable transfer of graphene from catalytic copper foils to flexible polymeric supports. The process is amenable to roll-to-roll manufacturing, and the copper substrate can be recycled. We then demonstrate the use of single-layer graphene as a template for the formation of sub-nanometer plasmonic gaps using a scalable fabrication process called "nanoskiving." These gaps are formed between parallel gold nanowires in a process that first produces three-layer thin films with the architecture gold/single-layer graphene/gold, and then sections the composite films with an ultramicrotome. The structures produced can be treated as two gold nanowires separated along their entire lengths by an atomically thin graphene nanoribbon. Oxygen plasma etches the sandwiched graphene to a finite depth; this action produces a sub-nanometer gap near the top surface of the junction between the wires that is capable of supporting highly confined optical fields. The confinement of light is confirmed by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy measurements, which indicate that the enhancement of the electric field arises from the junction between the gold nanowires. These experiments demonstrate nanoskiving as a unique and easy-to-implement fabrication technique that is capable of forming sub-nanometer plasmonic gaps between parallel metallic nanostructures over long, macroscopic distances. These structures could be valuable for fundamental investigations as well as applications in plasmonics and molecular electronics.

  11. Loss-of-Function Mutations in SERPINB8 Linked to Exfoliative Ichthyosis with Impaired Mechanical Stability of Intercellular Adhesions.

    PubMed

    Pigors, Manuela; Sarig, Ofer; Heinz, Lisa; Plagnol, Vincent; Fischer, Judith; Mohamad, Janan; Malchin, Natalia; Rajpopat, Shefali; Kharfi, Monia; Lestringant, Giles G; Sprecher, Eli; Kelsell, David P; Blaydon, Diana C

    2016-08-04

    SERPINS comprise a large and functionally diverse family of serine protease inhibitors. Here, we report three unrelated families with loss-of-function mutations in SERPINB8 in association with an autosomal-recessive form of exfoliative ichthyosis. Whole-exome sequencing of affected individuals from a consanguineous Tunisian family and a large Israeli family revealed a homozygous frameshift mutation, c.947delA (p.Lys316Serfs(∗)90), and a nonsense mutation, c.850C>T (p.Arg284(∗)), respectively. These two mutations are located in the last exon of SERPINB8 and, hence, would not be expected to lead to nonsense-mediated decay of the mRNA; nonetheless, both mutations are predicted to lead to loss of the reactive site loop of SERPINB8, which is crucial for forming the SERPINB8-protease complex. Using Sanger sequencing, a homozygous missense mutation, c.2T>C (p.Met1?), predicted to result in an N-terminal truncated protein, was identified in an additional family from UAE. Histological analysis of a skin biopsy from an individual homozygous for the variant p.Arg284(∗) showed disadhesion of keratinocytes in the lower epidermal layers plus decreased SERPINB8 levels compared to control. In vitro studies utilizing siRNA-mediated knockdown of SERPINB8 in keratinocytes demonstrated that in the absence of the protein, there is a cell-cell adhesion defect, particularly when cells are subjected to mechanical stress. In addition, immunoblotting and immunostaining revealed an upregulation of desmosomal proteins. In conclusion, we report mutations in SERPINB8 that are associated with exfoliative ichthyosis and provide evidence that SERPINB8 contributes to the mechanical stability of intercellular adhesions in the epidermis. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative testing of HPV L1 protein monoclonal antibody panel for the detection of HPV in cervical exfoliated cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Hu, Yu-Chang; Xiao, Chang-Yi; Wang, Fei; Liu, Yu-Fei; Tang, Li-Hua; Xiao, Rong-Shuang

    2018-07-01

    To determine the value of a monoclonal antibody panel against a C-terminal conserved sequence polypeptide of human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 (a major capsid protein) for the detection of HPV in cervical exfoliated cells, as well as the potential of this antibody panel to be developed into an assay kit for the clinical screening of cervical cancer. Cervical exfoliated cells were collected at a gynecology clinic. One part of each sample was sent to the Department of Pathology for HPV genotyping, and the other part was sent to the Department of Pathology for cytologic testing and then to the laboratory for immunological histological chemistry (IHC) assay in which an HPV L1 C-terminal conserved sequence polypeptide-induced mouse monoclonal antibody panel was used to detect HPV L1. Cervical cell samples were collected from 514 patients at the gynecology clinic; of these, 339 samples were sent for HPV genotyping, and 220 were HPV positive (64.90%, 220/339). Moreover, the duplicate samples from these 339 patients were sent for IHC assay, and 229 samples were positive (67.55%, 229/339). The IHC result was concordant with that obtained by HPV genotyping (Kappa = 0.743, p < 0.001). This study showed that use of the HPV L1 C-terminal conserved sequence polypeptide-induced mouse monoclonal antibody panel was of great value for the detection of HPV in cervical cells; the resulting detection rate was comparable to that obtained using the commercial HPV genotyping kit that is currently in use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In situ growth of capping-free magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on liquid-phase exfoliated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoufis, T.; Syrgiannis, Z.; Akhtar, N.; Prato, M.; Katsaros, F.; Sideratou, Z.; Kouloumpis, A.; Gournis, D.; Rudolf, P.

    2015-05-01

    We report a facile approach for the in situ synthesis of very small iron oxide nanoparticles on the surface of high-quality graphene sheets. Our synthetic strategy involved the direct, liquid-phase exfoliation of highly crystalline graphite (avoiding any oxidation treatment) and the subsequent chemical functionalization of the graphene sheets via the well-established 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The resulting graphene derivatives were employed for the immobilization of the nanoparticle precursor (Fe cations) at the introduced organic groups by a modified wet-impregnation method, followed by interaction with acetic acid vapours. The final graphene-iron oxide hybrid material was achieved by heating (calcination) in an inert atmosphere. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron and atomic force microscopy, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy gave evidence for the formation of rather small (<12 nm), spherical, magnetite-rich nanoparticles which were evenly distributed on the surface of few-layer (<1.2 nm thick) graphene. Due to the presence of the iron oxide nanoparticles, the hybrid material showed a superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature.We report a facile approach for the in situ synthesis of very small iron oxide nanoparticles on the surface of high-quality graphene sheets. Our synthetic strategy involved the direct, liquid-phase exfoliation of highly crystalline graphite (avoiding any oxidation treatment) and the subsequent chemical functionalization of the graphene sheets via the well-established 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The resulting graphene derivatives were employed for the immobilization of the nanoparticle precursor (Fe cations) at the introduced organic groups by a modified wet-impregnation method, followed by interaction with acetic acid vapours. The final graphene-iron oxide hybrid material was achieved by heating (calcination) in an inert atmosphere. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, transmission

  14. Oral mucosal lesions in Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and EDNOS.

    PubMed

    Panico, Rene; Piemonte, Eduardo; Lazos, Jerónimo; Gilligan, Gerardo; Zampini, Anibal; Lanfranchi, Héctor

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe oral lesions in patients with eating disorders (ED), including Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). A prospective case-control study was carried out from April 2003 to May 2004. Inclusion criteria for the study group were individuals with a diagnosis of ED; age and sex-matched individuals without ED were included as controls. Clinical data regarding ED, medical complications and oral examination were performed by previously calibrated professionals. Study group (n = 65) presented 46 cases of BN (71%), 13 of EDNOS (20%) and 6 of AN (9%); also, 94% (n = 61) showed oral lesions. The most common were: labial erythema, exfoliative cheilitis, orange-yellow palate, hemorrhagic lesions, lip-cheek biting and non-specific oral atrophies. Only two patients of the study group had dental erosions, and no case of major salivary gland swelling was found. ED display a wide array of oral mucosal lesions that can be regarded as their early manifestations. The dentist could be the first professional to detect symptoms of eating disorders, potentially improving early detection and treatment of ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Polyelectrolyte-induced reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide: a facile route to synthesis of soluble graphene nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Liao, Honggang; Engelhard, Mark H; Yin, Geping; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-03-22

    Here we report that poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) acts as both a reducing agent and a stabilizer to prepare soluble graphene nanosheets from graphite oxide. The results of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared indicated that graphite oxide was successfully reduced to graphene nanosheets which exhibited single-layer structure and high dispersion in various solvents. The reaction mechanism for PDDA-induced reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide was proposed. Furthermore, PDDA facilitated the in situ growth of highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles on the surface of graphene nanosheets to form Pt/graphene nanocomposites, which exhibited excellent catalytic activity toward formic acid oxidation. This work presents a facile and environmentally friendly approach to the synthesis of graphene nanosheets and opens up a new possibility for preparing graphene and graphene-based nanomaterials for large-scale applications.

  16. Uniaxial Drawing of Graphene-PVA Nanocomposites: Improvement in Mechanical Characteristics via Strain-Induced Exfoliation of Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Rahim; Habib, Amir; Akram, Muhammad Aftab; Zia, Tanveer-ul-Haq; Khan, Ahmad Nawaz

    2016-08-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-stabilized graphene nanosheets (GNS) of lateral dimension ( L) ~1 μm are obtained via liquid phase exfoliation technique to prepare its composites in the PVA matrix. These composites show low levels of reinforcements due to poor alignment of GNS within the matrix as predicted by the modified Halpin-Tsai model. Drawing these composites up to 200 % strain, a significant improvement in mechanical properties is observed. Maximum values for Young's modulus and strength are ~×4 and ~×2 higher respectively than that of neat PVA. Moreover, the rate of increase of the modulus with GNS volume fraction is up to 700 GPa, higher than the values predicted using the Halpin-Tsai theory. However, alignment along with strain-induced de-aggregation of GNS within composites accounts well for the obtained results as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization.

  17. Wavelength-switchable passively mode-locked fiber laser with mechanically exfoliated molybdenum ditelluride on side-polished fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guomei

    2017-11-01

    We experimentally investigated the nonlinear saturable absorption characteristics of molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) and demonstrated a wavelength-switchable mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) by using MoTe2 thin film on side-polished fiber (SPF) as saturable absorber. Here, the MoTe2 thin film was efficiently fabricated via mechanical exfoliation method and transferred onto the SPF with the assistance of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). MoTe2-covered SPF (MSPF) exhibits the nonlinear saturable absorption for pulses with different polarization states. Optical solitons with spectral bandwidth of 1.06 (1.31) nm centered at ∼1559 (∼1528) nm and pulse duration of 2.46 (2.04) ps can be obtained from the EDFL by adjusting the polarization controller (PC) properly. The time-bandwidth product (TBP) of the pulses was calculated as 0.322 (0.344).

  18. Na 2 Ti 3 O 7 Nanoplatelets and Nanosheets Derived from a Modified Exfoliation Process for Use as a High-Capacity Sodium-Ion Negative Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Jesse S.; Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V. T.; Kim, Hyung-Seok

    2017-01-18

    The increasing interest in Na-ion batteries (NIBs) can be traced to sodium abundance, its low cost compared to lithium, and its intercalation chemistry being similar to that of lithium. We report that the electrochemical properties of a promising negative electrode material, Na2Ti3O7, are improved by exfoliating its layered structure and forming 2D nanoscale morphologies, nanoplatelets, and nanosheets. Exfoliation of Na2Ti3O7 was carried out by controlling the amount of proton exchange for Na+ and then proceeding with the intercalation of larger cations such as methylammonium and propylammonium. An optimized mixture of nanoplatelets and nanosheets exhibited the best electrochemical performance in termsmore » of high capacities in the range of 100–150 mA h g–1 at high rates with stable cycling over several hundred cycles. These properties far exceed those of the corresponding bulk material, which is characterized by slow charge-storage kinetics and poor long-term stability. The results reported in this study demonstrate that charge-storage processes directed at 2D morphologies of surfaces and few layers of sheets are an exciting direction for improving the energy and power density of electrode materials for NIBs.« less

  19. Exfoliated cells of the oral mucosa for HPV typing by SPF10 in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Morbini, Patrizia; Dal Bello, Barbara; Alberizzi, Paola; Mannarini, Laura; Mevio, Niccolò; Bertino, Giulia; Benazzo, Marco

    2012-12-01

    HPV infection in the superficial cells of the oral mucosa could reflect the presence of HPV in head and neck cancer cells. Due mostly to the use of heterogeneous analytical methods, discordant data exist in the literature regarding the agreement between the presence of HPV in non-neoplastic oral mucosa and in tumour tissue from the same patient. The presence of HPV DNA and viral types were compared in paired cytological and biopsy samples from 56 patients with head and neck neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions using the highly sensitive SPF10 LiPA Extra assay, which has been validated recently for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue using paired cervical cytology and biopsy samples. Kappa statistics were used to measure the inter-rater agreement. The overall agreement with respect to HPV infection was 96.43% (kappa=0.8367). For 76.79% of subjects (kappa=0.6937), the same number of HPV types was detected in cytological and biopsy specimens. The overall positive typing agreement was 90.90%, comprising 130 out of 143 individual HPV type analyses. The agreement shown was good for HPV 18, 44, 45, 54 and 66 (kappa=0.6585-0. 7321), excellent for HPV 6, 16, 40, and 54 (kappa=0.8108-0.8679), and absolute for HPV 11, 31, 33, 35, 39, 51, 52, 53, 59, 74, and 69-71 (kappa=1.0000). The high sensitivity of the SPF10 LiPA and its excellent performance both for recognising HPV infection and for identifying the viral types present in tumour tissue and in oral exfoliated cells make it a useful method for the assessment of HPV infection in patients with head and neck cancer. The excellent agreement for HPV infection and genotyping in paired samples suggests that oral exfoliated cells can be used for HPV detection in the head and neck region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Toward Exploring the Structure of Monolayer to Few-layer TaS2 by Efficient Ultrasound-free Exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yiwei; Hao, Qiaoyan; Zhu, Baichuan; Li, Biao; Gao, Zhan; Wang, Yan; Tang, Kaibin

    2018-01-01

    Tantalum disulfide nanosheets have attracted great interest due to its electronic properties and device applications. Traditional solution-ased ultrasonic process is limited by ultrasound which may cause the disintegration into submicron-sized flake. Here, an efficient multi-step intercalation and ultrasound-free process has been successfully used to exfoliate 1T-TaS2. The obtained TaS2 nanosheets reveal an average thickness of 3 nm and several micrometers in size. The formation of few-layer TaS2 nanosheets as well as monolayer TaS2 sheets is further confirmed by atomic force microscopy images. The few-layer TaS2 nanosheets remain the 1T structure, whereas monolayer TaS2 sheets show lattice distortion and may adopt the 1H-like structure with trigonal prism coordination.

  1. Assisted deposition of nano-hydroxyapatite onto exfoliated carbon nanotube oxide scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zanin, H; Rosa, C M R; Eliaz, N; May, P W; Marciano, F R; Lobo, A O

    2015-06-14

    Electrodeposited nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) is more similar to biological apatite in terms of microstructure and dimension than apatites prepared by other processes. Reinforcement with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) enhances its mechanical properties and increases adhesion of osteoblasts. Here, we carefully studied nHAp deposited onto vertically aligned multi-walled CNT (VAMWCNT) scaffolds by electrodeposition and soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF). VAMWCNTs are porous biocompatible scaffolds with nanometric porosity and exceptional mechanical and chemical properties. The VAMWCNT films were prepared on a Ti substrate by a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition method, and then oxidized and exfoliated by oxygen plasma etching (OPE) to produce graphene oxide (GO) at the VAMWCNT tips. The attachment of oxygen functional groups was found to be crucial for nHAp nucleation during electrodeposition. A thin layer of plate-like and needle-like nHAp with high crystallinity was formed without any need for thermal treatment. This composite (henceforth referred to as nHAp-VAMWCNT-GO) served as the scaffold for in vitro biomineralization when soaked in the SBF, resulting in the formation of both carbonate-rich and carbonate-poor globular-like nHAp. Different steps in the deposition of biological apatite onto VAMWCNT-GO and during the short-term biomineralization process were analysed. Due to their unique structure and properties, such nano-bio-composites may become useful in accelerating in vivo bone regeneration processes.

  2. Assisted deposition of nano-hydroxyapatite onto exfoliated carbon nanotube oxide scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, H.; Rosa, C. M. R.; Eliaz, N.; May, P. W.; Marciano, F. R.; Lobo, A. O.

    2015-05-01

    Electrodeposited nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) is more similar to biological apatite in terms of microstructure and dimension than apatites prepared by other processes. Reinforcement with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) enhances its mechanical properties and increases adhesion of osteoblasts. Here, we carefully studied nHAp deposited onto vertically aligned multi-walled CNT (VAMWCNT) scaffolds by electrodeposition and soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF). VAMWCNTs are porous biocompatible scaffolds with nanometric porosity and exceptional mechanical and chemical properties. The VAMWCNT films were prepared on a Ti substrate by a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition method, and then oxidized and exfoliated by oxygen plasma etching (OPE) to produce graphene oxide (GO) at the VAMWCNT tips. The attachment of oxygen functional groups was found to be crucial for nHAp nucleation during electrodeposition. A thin layer of plate-like and needle-like nHAp with high crystallinity was formed without any need for thermal treatment. This composite (henceforth referred to as nHAp-VAMWCNT-GO) served as the scaffold for in vitro biomineralization when soaked in the SBF, resulting in the formation of both carbonate-rich and carbonate-poor globular-like nHAp. Different steps in the deposition of biological apatite onto VAMWCNT-GO and during the short-term biomineralization process were analysed. Due to their unique structure and properties, such nano-bio-composites may become useful in accelerating in vivo bone regeneration processes.

  3. The Relationship between caffeine and coffee consumption and exfoliation glaucoma or glaucoma suspect: a prospective study in two cohorts.

    PubMed

    Pasquale, Louis R; Wiggs, Janey L; Willett, Walter C; Kang, Jae H

    2012-09-21

    We examined the association between caffeine and caffeinated beverage consumption in relation to the risk of exfoliation glaucoma or exfoliation glaucoma suspect (EG/EGS). We followed 78,977 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 41,202 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) who were at least 40 years of age, did not have glaucoma, and reported undergoing eye examinations from 1980 (NHS) or 1986 (HPFS) to 2008. Information on consumption of caffeine-containing beverages and potential confounders were repeatedly ascertained in validated follow-up questionnaires. Confirmation with medical record review revealed 360 incident EG/EGS cases. Multivariate rate ratios (RRs) for EG/EGS were calculated in each cohort and then pooled using meta-analytic techniques. Compared with participants whose cumulatively updated total caffeine consumption was <125 mg/day, participants who consumed ≥ 500 mg/day had a trend toward increased risk of EG/EGS that was not statistically significant (RR = 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98-2.08); P trend = 0.06). Compared to abstainers, those who drank ≥ 3 cups of caffeinated coffee daily were at increased risk of EG/EGS (RR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.09-2.54; P trend = 0.02). These results were not materially altered after adjustment for total fluid intake. Associations were stronger among women with a family history of glaucoma (P interaction = 0.06 for coffee; P interaction = 0.03 for caffeine). We did not find associations with consumption of other caffeinated products (caffeinated soda, caffeinated tea, decaffeinated coffee or chocolate) and risk of EG/EGS (P trend ≥ 0.31). We observed a positive association between heavier coffee consumption with risk of EG/EGS in this large prospective study.

  4. The Relationship between Caffeine and Coffee Consumption and Exfoliation Glaucoma or Glaucoma Suspect: A Prospective Study in Two Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Pasquale, Louis R.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Willett, Walter C.; Kang, Jae H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. We examined the association between caffeine and caffeinated beverage consumption in relation to the risk of exfoliation glaucoma or exfoliation glaucoma suspect (EG/EGS). Methods. We followed 78,977 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 41,202 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) who were at least 40 years of age, did not have glaucoma, and reported undergoing eye examinations from 1980 (NHS) or 1986 (HPFS) to 2008. Information on consumption of caffeine-containing beverages and potential confounders were repeatedly ascertained in validated follow-up questionnaires. Confirmation with medical record review revealed 360 incident EG/EGS cases. Multivariate rate ratios (RRs) for EG/EGS were calculated in each cohort and then pooled using meta-analytic techniques. Results. Compared with participants whose cumulatively updated total caffeine consumption was <125 mg/day, participants who consumed ≥500 mg/day had a trend toward increased risk of EG/EGS that was not statistically significant (RR = 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98–2.08); P trend = 0.06). Compared to abstainers, those who drank ≥3 cups of caffeinated coffee daily were at increased risk of EG/EGS (RR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.09–2.54; P trend = 0.02). These results were not materially altered after adjustment for total fluid intake. Associations were stronger among women with a family history of glaucoma (P interaction = 0.06 for coffee; P interaction = 0.03 for caffeine). We did not find associations with consumption of other caffeinated products (caffeinated soda, caffeinated tea, decaffeinated coffee or chocolate) and risk of EG/EGS (P trend ≥0.31). Conclusions. We observed a positive association between heavier coffee consumption with risk of EG/EGS in this large prospective study. PMID:22918628

  5. Controlling exfoliation in order to minimize damage during dispersion of long SWCNTs for advanced composites

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Howon; Yamashita, Motoi; Ata, Seisuke; Futaba, Don N.; Yamada, Takeo; Hata, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We propose an approach to disperse long single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a manner that is most suitable for the fabrication of high-performance composites. We compare three general classes of dispersion mechanisms, which encompass 11 different dispersion methods, and we have dispersed long SWCNTs, short multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and short SWCNTs in order to understand the most appropriate dispersion methods for the different types of CNTs. From this study, we have found that the turbulent flow methods, as represented by the Nanomizer and high-pressure jet mill methods, produced unique and superior dispersibility of long SWCNTs, which was advantageous for the fabrication of highly conductive composites. The results were interpreted to imply that the biaxial shearing force caused an exfoliation effect to disperse the long SWCNTs homogeneously while suppressing damage. A conceptual model was developed to explain this dispersion mechanism, which is important for future work on advanced CNT composites. PMID:24469607

  6. Local carrier distribution imaging on few-layer MoS2 exfoliated on SiO2 by scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasue, Kohei; Cho, Yasuo

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate that scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) can be used for the nanoscale characterization of dominant carrier distribution on atomically thin MoS2 mechanically exfoliated on SiO2. For stable imaging without damaging microscopy tips and samples, SNDM was combined with peak-force tapping mode atomic force microscopy. The identification of dominant carriers and their spatial distribution becomes possible even for single and few-layer MoS2 on SiO2 using the proposed method allowing differential capacitance (dC/dV) imaging. We can expect that SNDM can also be applied to the evaluation of other two-dimensional semiconductors and devices.

  7. Preparation of pH-Responsive Hollow Capsules via Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Exfoliated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets and Polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Kiyofumi; Shishijima, Yoshinori; Koumoto, Kunihito; Inumaru, Kei

    2018-01-01

    pH-Responsive smart capsules were developed by the layer-by-layer assembly with a colloidtemplating technique. Polystyrene (PS) particles were employed as core templates. Acid-soluble inorganic nanosheets were prepared from Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) by an exfoliation technique. LDH nanosheets and anionic polyelectrolytes were alternatively deposited on PS core particles by the layer-by-layer assembly using electrostatic interaction. Hollow capsules were obtained by the removal of the PS core particles. The hollow capsules obtained thus were collapsed at acidic conditions by dissolution of LDH nanosheets in the hollow shells. The dissolution rate, i.e., the responsiveness of capsule, is tunable according to the strength of acids.

  8. The power of power: electrokinetic control of PAH interactions with exfoliated graphite.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jinyi; Moustafa, Ahmed; Harms, Hauke; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal; Wick, Lukas Y

    2015-05-15

    Exfoliated graphite (EG) exhibits exceptional sorption capacity for petroleum and dissolved hydrocarbons owing to its highly hydrophobic surface and wide pore size distribution. The high price of preparing EG, however, restricts its application. Methods which increase the rate or extent of sorption to EG even further are thus longed for. Here, we assess the effects of weak direct current (DC) fields on the sorption of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene (PHE) to EG. DC applied to an ionic solution in a solid matrix invokes electroosmotic flow (EOF), i.e., the surface charge-induced movement of the solution. EG was exposed to weak DC fields in the presence of dissolved PHE to test if EOF increases transport of PHE to poorly accessible sorption sites. DC fields increased PHE sorption rates in EG sevenfold and reduced the desorption rate of sorbed PHE by >99%. EOF thus appeared to be highly effective in translocating PHE into pores, which contribute most of the sorption sites, but are difficult to access in the absence of EOF by molecular diffusion only. The observed 'power of power' may be used to kinetically regulate the interaction of sorbates with EG or other porous sorbents in environmental (bio-) technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pressure-induced exfoliation of inorganic fullerene-like WS2 particles in a Hertzian contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly-Pottuz, L.; Martin, J. M.; Dassenoy, F.; Belin, M.; Montagnac, G.; Reynard, B.; Fleischer, N.

    2006-01-01

    Nanoparticles are potential additives for the improvement of lubricant properties, because of the structural modifications they undergo under high pressures in mechanical contacts. The behavior of inorganic fullerene-like WS2 nanoparticles (IF-WS2) under high isotropic pressures of up to 20 GPa generated in a diamond anvil cell was studied and compared to the response of the lamellar 2H phase of WS2. The same materials were then subjected to static uniaxial pressures in a Hertzian contact in the GPa range. The evolution of the particles as a function of pressure was studied by in situ Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy at the end of the test. Data analysis shows that IF-WS2 particles resist high hydrostatic pressures well, but they are totally exfoliated by uniaxial compression in a Hertzian contact under low pressure. These results explain the excellent tribological properties at ambient temperature of IF-WS2 nanolubricant that have previously been attributed to the nested nanospheres during the friction process but whose origin had not been clearly identified.

  10. Understanding the Growth Mechanism of GaN Epitaxial Layers on Mechanically Exfoliated Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianbao; Liu, Chenyang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Bin; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Wei; Jia, Zhigang; Yu, Chunyan; Gan, Lin; Xu, Bingshe; Jiang, Haiwei

    2018-04-01

    The growth mechanism of GaN epitaxial layers on mechanically exfoliated graphite is explained in detail based on classic nucleation theory. The number of defects on the graphite surface can be increased via O-plasma treatment, leading to increased nucleation density on the graphite surface. The addition of elemental Al can effectively improve the nucleation rate, which can promote the formation of dense nucleation layers and the lateral growth of GaN epitaxial layers. The surface morphologies of the nucleation layers, annealed layers and epitaxial layers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, where the evolution of the surface morphology coincided with a 3D-to-2D growth mechanism. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of GaN. Fast Fourier transform diffraction patterns showed that cubic phase (zinc-blend structure) GaN grains were obtained using conventional GaN nucleation layers, while the hexagonal phase (wurtzite structure) GaN films were formed using AlGaN nucleation layers. Our work opens new avenues for using highly oriented pyrolytic graphite as a substrate to fabricate transferable optoelectronic devices.

  11. Understanding the Growth Mechanism of GaN Epitaxial Layers on Mechanically Exfoliated Graphite.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianbao; Liu, Chenyang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Bin; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Wei; Jia, Zhigang; Yu, Chunyan; Gan, Lin; Xu, Bingshe; Jiang, Haiwei

    2018-04-27

    The growth mechanism of GaN epitaxial layers on mechanically exfoliated graphite is explained in detail based on classic nucleation theory. The number of defects on the graphite surface can be increased via O-plasma treatment, leading to increased nucleation density on the graphite surface. The addition of elemental Al can effectively improve the nucleation rate, which can promote the formation of dense nucleation layers and the lateral growth of GaN epitaxial layers. The surface morphologies of the nucleation layers, annealed layers and epitaxial layers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, where the evolution of the surface morphology coincided with a 3D-to-2D growth mechanism. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of GaN. Fast Fourier transform diffraction patterns showed that cubic phase (zinc-blend structure) GaN grains were obtained using conventional GaN nucleation layers, while the hexagonal phase (wurtzite structure) GaN films were formed using AlGaN nucleation layers. Our work opens new avenues for using highly oriented pyrolytic graphite as a substrate to fabricate transferable optoelectronic devices.

  12. Edge-induced Schottky barrier modulation at metal contacts to exfoliated molybdenum disulfide flakes

    SciTech Connect

    Nouchi, Ryo, E-mail: r-nouchi@21c.osakafu-u.ac.jp

    2016-08-14

    Ultrathin two-dimensional semiconductors obtained from layered transition-metal dichalcogenides such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) are promising for ultimately scaled transistors beyond Si. Although the shortening of the semiconductor channel is widely studied, the narrowing of the channel, which should also be important for scaling down the transistor, has been examined to a lesser degree thus far. In this study, the impact of narrowing on mechanically exfoliated MoS{sub 2} flakes was investigated according to the channel-width-dependent Schottky barrier heights at Cr/Au contacts. Narrower channels were found to possess a higher Schottky barrier height, which is ascribed to the edge-induced band bendingmore » in MoS{sub 2}. The higher barrier heights degrade the transistor performance as a higher electrode-contact resistance. Theoretical analyses based on Poisson's equation showed that the edge-induced effect can be alleviated by a high dopant impurity concentration, but this strategy should be limited to channel widths of roughly 0.7 μm because of the impurity-induced charge-carrier mobility degradation. Therefore, proper termination of the dangling bonds at the edges should be necessary for aggressive scaling with layered semiconductors.« less

  13. Achieving significantly enhanced visible-light photocatalytic efficiency using a polyelectrolyte: the composites of exfoliated titania nanosheets, graphene, and poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; An, Qi; Luan, Xinglong; Huang, Hongwei; Li, Xiaowei; Meng, Zilin; Tong, Wangshu; Chen, Xiaodong; Chu, Paul K.; Zhang, Yihe

    2015-08-01

    A high-performance visible-light-active photocatalyst is prepared using the polyelectrolyte/exfoliated titania nanosheet/graphene oxide (GO) precursor by flocculation followed by calcination. The polyelectrolyte poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) serves not only as an effective binder to precipitate GO and titania nanosheets, but also boosts the overall performance of the catalyst significantly. Unlike most titania nanosheet-based catalysts reported in the literature, the composite absorbs light in the UV-Vis-NIR range. Its decomposition rate of methylene blue is 98% under visible light. This novel strategy of using a polymer to enhance the catalytic performance of titania nanosheet-based catalysts affords immense potential in designing and fabricating next-generation photocatalysts with high efficiency.A high-performance visible-light-active photocatalyst is prepared using the polyelectrolyte/exfoliated titania nanosheet/graphene oxide (GO) precursor by flocculation followed by calcination. The polyelectrolyte poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) serves not only as an effective binder to precipitate GO and titania nanosheets, but also boosts the overall performance of the catalyst significantly. Unlike most titania nanosheet-based catalysts reported in the literature, the composite absorbs light in the UV-Vis-NIR range. Its decomposition rate of methylene blue is 98% under visible light. This novel strategy of using a polymer to enhance the catalytic performance of titania nanosheet-based catalysts affords immense potential in designing and fabricating next-generation photocatalysts with high efficiency. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03256c

  14. Uniaxial Drawing of Graphene-PVA Nanocomposites: Improvement in Mechanical Characteristics via Strain-Induced Exfoliation of Graphene.

    PubMed

    Jan, Rahim; Habib, Amir; Akram, Muhammad Aftab; Zia, Tanveer-Ul-Haq; Khan, Ahmad Nawaz

    2016-12-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-stabilized graphene nanosheets (GNS) of lateral dimension (L) ~1 μm are obtained via liquid phase exfoliation technique to prepare its composites in the PVA matrix. These composites show low levels of reinforcements due to poor alignment of GNS within the matrix as predicted by the modified Halpin-Tsai model. Drawing these composites up to 200 % strain, a significant improvement in mechanical properties is observed. Maximum values for Young's modulus and strength are ~×4 and ~×2 higher respectively than that of neat PVA. Moreover, the rate of increase of the modulus with GNS volume fraction is up to 700 GPa, higher than the values predicted using the Halpin-Tsai theory. However, alignment along with strain-induced de-aggregation of GNS within composites accounts well for the obtained results as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization.

  15. Efficacy of ablative fractional laser-assisted photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic cheilitis: 12-month follow-up results of a prospective, randomized, comparative trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, S H; Kim, K H; Song, K-H

    2015-07-01

    Early identification and treatment of actinic cheilitis (AC) is recommended. Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive therapeutic option for AC, PDT for AC does not result in the same satisfactory outcomes as in actinic keratosis (AK). The aim of our study was to compare efficacy, recurrence rate, cosmetic outcome and safety between erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet ablative fractional laser-assisted methyl aminolaevulinate-PDT (Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT) and standard MAL-PDT. Thirty-three patients with histologically confirmed AC randomly received either one session of Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT or two sessions of MAL-PDT. In the MAL-PDT group, the second session of MAL-PDT was administered 7 days later. Patients were followed up at 1 week and 3 and 12 months, and biopsies were taken from all patients at 3 and 12 months after the last treatment session. At the final 12-month follow-up, cosmetic outcomes were assessed. Adverse events were assessed at week 1 of the treatment phase and every subsequent follow-up visit. In the per-protocol (PP) population, Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT was significantly more effective (92% complete response rate) than MAL-PDT (59%; P = 0.040) at the 3-month follow-up, and differences in efficacy remained significant at the 12-month follow-up (85% in Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT and 29% in MAL-PDT). The recurrence rate was significantly lower for Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT (8%) than for MAL-PDT (50%) group at 12 months (P = 0.029). No significant difference in cosmetic outcome or safety was observed between Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT and MAL-PDT. Ablative fractional laser pretreatment has significant benefit for the treatment of AC with PDT. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Electrochemically exfoliated graphene as a novel microwave susceptor: the ultrafast microwave-assisted synthesis of carbon-coated silicon-graphene film as a lithium-ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Min; Ko, Dongjin; Oh, Jiseop; Lee, Jeongyeon; Hwang, Taejin; Jeon, Youngmoo; Hooch Antink, Wytse; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2017-10-19

    Graphene nanocomposites have attracted much attention in many applications due to their superior properties. However, preparing graphene nanocomposites requires a time-consuming thermal treatment to reduce the graphene or synthesize nanomaterials, in most cases. We present an ultrafast synthesis of a carbon-coated silicon-graphene nanocomposite using a commercial microwave system. Electrochemically exfoliated graphene is used as a novel microwave susceptor to deliver efficient microwave energy conversion. Unlike graphene oxide, it does not require a time-consuming pre-thermal reduction or toxic chemical reduction to absorb microwave radiation efficiently. A carbon-coated silicon nanoparticle-electrochemically exfoliated graphene nanocomposite film was prepared by a few seconds' microwave irradiation. The sp 2 domains of graphene absorb microwave radiation and generate heat to simultaneously reduce the graphene and carbonize the polydopamine carbon precursor. The as-prepared N-doped carbon-coated silicon-graphene film was used as a lithium-ion battery anode. The N-doped carbon coating decreases the contact resistance between silicon nanoparticles and graphene provides a wide range conductive network. Consequently, it exhibited a reversible capacity of 1744 mA h g -1 at a current density of 0.1 A g -1 and 662 mA h g -1 at 1.0 A g -1 after 200 cycles. This method can potentially be a general approach to prepare various graphene nanocomposites in an extremely short time.

  17. The pristine graphene produced by liquid exfoliation of graphite in mixed solvent and its application to determination of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Xu, Liao; Zhou, Bo; Zhu, Yinyan; Jiang, Xiaoqing

    2018-03-01

    The pristine graphene can be easily prepared in isopropanol-water mixture with salts as assistant via liquid-phase exfoliation method. The concentration of graphene dispersion reaches as high as 0.565 mg/mL. The graphene film prepared by drop-casting method shows an excellent electrical conductivity (7.095 × 10 4  S/m). Furthermore, an electrochemical biosensor based on the pristine graphene shows high selectivity and sensitivity for the determination of dopamine. The linear detection range for dopamine is 2.5-1500 μM with detection limit of 1.5 μM. This method provides a potential process for preparing high-quality graphene ready-to-use in low-boiling point solvent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of Thickness on the Electrical Transport Properties of Exfoliated Bi2Te3 Ultrathin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, D. L.; Wang, W. B.; Cai, Q.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the mechanical exfoliation method has been utilized to fabricate Bi2Te3 ultrathin films. The thickness of the ultrathin films is revealed to be several tens of nanometers. Weak antilocalization effects and Shubnikov de Haas oscillations have been observed in the magneto-transport measurements on individual films with different thickness, and the two-dimensional surface conduction plays a dominant role. The Fermi level is found to be 81 meV above the Dirac point, and the carrier mobility can reach ~6030 cm2/(Vs) for the 10-nm film. When the film thickness decreases from 30 to 10 nm, the Fermi level will move 8 meV far from the bulk valence band. The coefficient α in the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka equation is shown to be ~0.5, manifesting that only the bottom surface of the Bi2Te3 ultrathin films takes part in transport conductions. These will pave the way for understanding thoroughly the surface transport properties of topological insulators.

  19. Reconfigurable p-n junction diodes and the photovoltaic effect in exfoliated MoS{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Sutar, Surajit; Agnihotri, Pratik; Comfort, Everett

    2014-03-24

    Realizing basic semiconductor devices such as p-n junctions are necessary for developing thin-film and optoelectronic technologies in emerging planar materials such as MoS{sub 2}. In this work, electrostatic doping by buried gates is used to study the electronic and optoelectronic properties of p-n junctions in exfoliated MoS{sub 2} flakes. Creating a controllable doping gradient across the device leads to the observation of the photovoltaic effect in monolayer and bilayer MoS{sub 2} flakes. For thicker flakes, strong ambipolar conduction enables realization of fully reconfigurable p-n junction diodes with rectifying current-voltage characteristics, and diode ideality factors as low as 1.6. The spectralmore » response of the photovoltaic effect shows signatures of the predicted band gap transitions. For the first excitonic transition, a shift of >4{sub kB}T is observed between monolayer and bulk devices, indicating a thickness-dependence of the excitonic coulomb interaction.« less

  20. Effect of pre-strain on precipitation and exfoliation corrosion resistance in an Al-Zn-Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xianghan; Du, Zhiwei; Han, Xiaolei; Li, Ting; Wang, Guojun; Lu, Liying; Bai, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Tietao

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of pre-strain on behaviors in a specially developed Al-4.5Zn-1.2Mg alloy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) bright field (BF) imaging combined with select area electron diffraction (SAED), Vickers-hardness tests and electrical conductivity tests was conducted for insight into precipitation in aluminum (Al) matrix during two step ageing, and standard exfoliation corrosion (EXCO) test combined with high-angle angular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out for corrosion behavior. Results showed that pre-strain accelerated precipitation during two step ageing as the sequence of: (i) supersaturated solid solution (SSS), GPI zones precipitations, GPI dissolution; (ii) SSS, fcc precipitates, η’ phases or η phases. And the precipitation hardening of the fcc precipitates was not effective as GPI zones. Pre-strain also accelerated EXCO developing, which was mainly attributed to the coverage ratio of η phases on high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) increasing as pre-strain increase.

  1. Effect of Polyhydroxybutyrate/Chitosan/Bioglass nanofiber scaffold on proliferation and differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth into odontoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Foroughi, Mohammad Reza; Karbasi, Saeed; Hashemibeni, Batool; Khademi, Abbas Ali

    2018-08-01

    Scaffolds and their characteristics play a central role in tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)/Chitosan/nano-bioglass (nBG) nanofiber scaffold made using the electrospinning method, on the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells obtained from human exfoliated deciduous teeth into odontoblast-like cells. In this experimental study, the pulps of the molten deciduous teeth were isolated, thereafter, the stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) were extracted and then the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the cell viability percentage. The expression of some stem cell genes was studied by flowcytometry. These cells were then subjected to odontoblast by using the bone morphogenetic proteins-2 (BMP2) growth factor in the differentiation medium and for the expression of their specific genes. Primers of collagen type-I, dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were used and the percentage of differentiation to odontoblast cells in induction scaffolds was investigated using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry methods. The results revealed a 6-fold increase in the expression of DSPP genes and collagen type-I, and a 2-fold increase in the expression of ALP in scaffold with BMP2 group compared to the scaffold as control group which according to the immunohistochemical test results, showed the extracted SHED to have been differentiated into dentin odontoblast-like cells. As a result, this scaffold can be used as a suitable substrate to apply in dentin tissue engineering. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A common variant mapping to CACNA1A is associated with susceptibility to Exfoliation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Tin; Ozaki, Mineo; Mizoguchi, Takanori; Allingham, R Rand; Li, Zheng; Haripriya, Aravind; Nakano, Satoko; Uebe, Steffen; Harder, Jeffrey M.; Chan, Anita S.Y.; Lee, Mei Chin; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Astakhov, Yury S.; Abu-Amero, Khaled K.; Zenteno, Juan C.; Nilgün, Yildirim; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Pakravan, Mohammad; Safieh, Leen Abu; Jia, Liyun; Wang, Ya Xing; Williams, Susan; Paoli, Daniela; Schlottmann, Patricio G; Huang, Lulin; Sim, Kar Seng; Foo, Jia Nee; Nakano, Masakazu; Ikeda, Yoko; Kumar, Rajesh S; Ueno, Morio; Manabe, Shin-ichi; Hayashi, Ken; Kazama, Shigeyasu; Ideta, Ryuichi; Mori, Yosai; Miyata, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa; Higashide, Tomomi; Chihara, Etsuo; Inoue, Kenji; Ishiko, Satoshi; Yoshida, Akitoshi; Yanagi, Masahide; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Aihara, Makoto; Ohashi, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Toshiya; Sugimoto, Takako; Chuman, Hideki; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamashiro, Kenji; Gotoh, Norimoto; Miyake, Masahiro; Astakhov, Sergei Y.; Osman, Essam A.; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A.; Owaidhah, Ohoud; Al-Jasim, Leyla; Al Shahwan, Sami; Fogarty, Rhys A.; Leo, Paul; Yetkin, Yaz; Oğuz, Çilingir; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Beni, Afsaneh Naderi; Yazdani, Shahin; Akopov, Evgeny L.; Toh, Kai-Yee; Howell, Gareth R; Orr, Andrew C.; Goh, Yufen; Meah, Wee Yang; Peh, Su Qin; Kosior-Jarecka, Ewa; Lukasik, Urszula; Krumbiegel, Mandy; Vithana, Eranga N; Wong, Tien Yin; Liu, Yutao; Ashley Koch, Allison E.; Challa, Pratap; Rautenbach, Robyn M; Mackey, David A.; Hewitt, Alex W; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Ziskind, Ari; Carmichael, Trevor; Ramakrishnan, Rangappa; Narendran, Kalpana; Venkatesh, Rangaraj; Vijayan, Saravanan; Zhao, Peiquan; Chen, Xueyi; Guadarrama-Vallejo, Dalia; Cheng, Ching Yu; Perera, Shamira A; Husain, Rahat; Ho, Su-Ling; Welge-Luessen, Ulrich-Christoph; Mardin, Christian; Schloetzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Hillmer, Axel M.; Herms, Stefan; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M.; Weisschuh, Nicole; Shetty, Rohit; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Teo, Yik Ying; Brown, Matthew A; Lischinsky, Ignacio; Crowston, Jonathan G; Coote, Michael; Zhao, Bowen; Sang, Jinghong; Zhang, Nihong; You, Qisheng; Vysochinskaya, Vera; Founti, Panayiota; Chatzikyriakidou, Anthoula; Lambropoulos, Alexandros; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Coleman, Anne L; Wilson, M Roy; Rhee, Douglas J; Kang, Jae Hee; May-Bolchakova, Inna; Heegaard, Steffen; Mori, Kazuhiko; Alward, Wallace L.M.; Jonas, Jost B; Xu, Liang; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Chowbay, Balram; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias; Lerner, Fabian; Wang, Ningli; Yang, Zhenglin; Frezzotti, Paolo; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Fingert, John H.; Inatani, Masaru; Tashiro, Kei; Reis, André; Edward, Deepak P.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Kubota, Toshiaki; Wiggs, Janey L.; Pasutto, Francesca; Topouzis, Fotis; Dubina, Michael; Craig, Jamie E.; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Sundaresan, Periasamy; John, Simon W.M.; Ritch, Robert; Hauser, Michael A; Khor, Chiea-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is the commonest recognizable cause of open angle glaucoma world-wide. To better understand the etiology of XFS, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 1,484 patients and 1,188 controls from Japan, and followed up the most significant findings on a further 6,901 patients and 20,727 controls from 17 countries across 6 continents. We discovered a significant association between a new locus (CACNA1A rs4926244) and increased susceptibility to XFS (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.16, P = 3.36 × 10−11). Although overwhelming association at the LOXL1 locus was confirmed, the key SNP marker (LOXL1 rs4886776) demonstrated allelic reversal depending on ethnic grouping (In Japanese: ORA-allele= 9.87, P = 2.13 × 10−217; In non-Japanese: ORA-allele= 0.49, P = 2.35 × 10−31). Our findings represent the first genetic locus outside of LOXL1 which surpasses genome-wide significance for XFS, and provides insight into the biology and pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:25706626

  3. A common variant mapping to CACNA1A is associated with susceptibility to exfoliation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aung, Tin; Ozaki, Mineo; Mizoguchi, Takanori; Allingham, R Rand; Li, Zheng; Haripriya, Aravind; Nakano, Satoko; Uebe, Steffen; Harder, Jeffrey M; Chan, Anita S Y; Lee, Mei Chin; Burdon, Kathryn P; Astakhov, Yury S; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Zenteno, Juan C; Nilgün, Yildirim; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Pakravan, Mohammad; Safieh, Leen Abu; Jia, Liyun; Wang, Ya Xing; Williams, Susan; Paoli, Daniela; Schlottmann, Patricio G; Huang, Lulin; Sim, Kar Seng; Foo, Jia Nee; Nakano, Masakazu; Ikeda, Yoko; Kumar, Rajesh S; Ueno, Morio; Manabe, Shin-ichi; Hayashi, Ken; Kazama, Shigeyasu; Ideta, Ryuichi; Mori, Yosai; Miyata, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa; Higashide, Tomomi; Chihara, Etsuo; Inoue, Kenji; Ishiko, Satoshi; Yoshida, Akitoshi; Yanagi, Masahide; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Aihara, Makoto; Ohashi, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Toshiya; Sugimoto, Takako; Chuman, Hideki; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamashiro, Kenji; Gotoh, Norimoto; Miyake, Masahiro; Astakhov, Sergei Y; Osman, Essam A; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A; Owaidhah, Ohoud; Al-Jasim, Leyla; Al Shahwan, Sami; Fogarty, Rhys A; Leo, Paul; Yetkin, Yaz; Oğuz, Çilingir; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Beni, Afsaneh Nederi; Yazdani, Shahin; Akopov, Evgeny L; Toh, Kai-Yee; Howell, Gareth R; Orr, Andrew C; Goh, Yufen; Meah, Wee Yang; Peh, Su Qin; Kosior-Jarecka, Ewa; Lukasik, Urszula; Krumbiegel, Mandy; Vithana, Eranga N; Wong, Tien Yin; Liu, Yutao; Koch, Allison E Ashley; Challa, Pratap; Rautenbach, Robyn M; Mackey, David A; Hewitt, Alex W; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Ziskind, Ari; Carmichael, Trevor; Ramakrishnan, Rangappa; Narendran, Kalpana; Venkatesh, Rangaraj; Vijayan, Saravanan; Zhao, Peiquan; Chen, Xueyi; Guadarrama-Vallejo, Dalia; Cheng, Ching Yu; Perera, Shamira A; Husain, Rahat; Ho, Su-Ling; Welge-Luessen, Ulrich-Christoph; Mardin, Christian; Schloetzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Hillmer, Axel M; Herms, Stefan; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M; Weisschuh, Nicole; Shetty, Rohit; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Teo, Yik Ying; Brown, Matthew A; Lischinsky, Ignacio; Crowston, Jonathan G; Coote, Michael; Zhao, Bowen; Sang, Jinghong; Zhang, Nihong; You, Qisheng; Vysochinskaya, Vera; Founti, Panayiota; Chatzikyriakidou, Anthoula; Lambropoulos, Alexandros; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Coleman, Anne L; Wilson, M Roy; Rhee, Douglas J; Kang, Jae Hee; May-Bolchakova, Inna; Heegaard, Steffen; Mori, Kazuhiko; Alward, Wallace L M; Jonas, Jost B; Xu, Liang; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Chowbay, Balram; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias; Lerner, Fabian; Wang, Ningli; Yang, Zhenglin; Frezzotti, Paolo; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Fingert, John H; Inatani, Masaru; Tashiro, Kei; Reis, André; Edward, Deepak P; Pasquale, Louis R; Kubota, Toshiaki; Wiggs, Janey L; Pasutto, Francesca; Topouzis, Fotis; Dubina, Michael; Craig, Jamie E; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Sundaresan, Periasamy; John, Simon W M; Ritch, Robert; Hauser, Michael A; Khor, Chiea-Chuen

    2015-04-01

    Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is the most common recognizable cause of open-angle glaucoma worldwide. To better understand the etiology of XFS, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1,484 cases and 1,188 controls from Japan and followed up the most significant findings in a further 6,901 cases and 20,727 controls from 17 countries across 6 continents. We discovered a genome-wide significant association between a new locus (CACNA1A rs4926244) and increased susceptibility to XFS (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, P = 3.36 × 10(-11)). Although we also confirmed overwhelming association at the LOXL1 locus, the key SNP marker (LOXL1 rs4886776) demonstrated allelic reversal depending on the ancestry group (Japanese: OR(A allele) = 9.87, P = 2.13 × 10(-217); non-Japanese: OR(A allele) = 0.49, P = 2.35 × 10(-31)). Our findings represent the first genetic locus outside of LOXL1 surpassing genome-wide significance for XFS and provide insight into the biology and pathogenesis of the disease.

  4. The application of exfoliated graphite electrode in the electrochemical degradation of p-nitrophenol in water.

    PubMed

    Ntsendwana, Bulelwa; Peleyeju, Moses G; Arotiba, Omotayo A

    2016-01-01

    We report the application of exfoliated graphite (EG) as an electrode material in the electrochemical degradation of p-nitrophenol in water. Bulk electrolysis (degradation) of p-nitrophenol was carried out at a potential of 2.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in the presence of 0.1 M Na2SO4 supporting electrolyte, while UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used to monitor the degradation efficiency. An initial p-nitrophenol load concentration of 0.2 mM for 3 h electrolysis time was studied under the optimized conditions of pH 7, and 10 mAcm(-2) current density. The electro-degradation reaction displayed a pseudo-first-order kinetic behavior with a rate constant (k(r)) of 11×10(-3) min(-1). The removal efficiency was found to be 91.5%. Chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry revealed p-benzoquinone as a major intermediate product. These results demonstrate the potential and viability of electrochemical technology as an alternative approach to water treatment using a low cost graphite electrode.

  5. In vivo cleansing efficacy of biodegradable exfoliating beads assessed by skin bioengineering techniques.

    PubMed

    Kitsongsermthon, J; Duangweang, K; Kreepoke, J; Tansirikongkol, A

    2017-11-01

    The plastic microbeads, used in many cleansers, will be banned in cosmetic and personal care products within 2017 since they are non-degradable and can disturb the living organisms in water reservoirs. Various choices of biodegradable beads are commercially available, but their efficacy has not been proven yet. This study aimed to compare the cleansing efficacy in dirt and sebum removal aspects of three types of exfoliating beads. The gel scrubs with polyethylene (PE) beads, mannan beads or wax beads, were formulated and evaluated for their stability. The in vivo evaluation was done in 38 healthy volunteers and the skin irritation, efficacy for dirt and sebum removal were measured by Mexameter ® , Colorimeter ® , and Sebumeter ® , respectively. The selected gel scrubs did not cause an irritation in any volunteers. The differences in dirt residues between before and after scrubbing were not statistically significant among three gel scrubs and the similar result was also reported in the sebum removal study. All gel scrubs demonstrated the comparable cleansing efficacy in term of dirt and sebum removal. Thus, mannan beads and wax beads may be replaced non-biodegradable PE beads to achieve the similar cleansing effect. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Enhanced electrical properties in sub-10-nm WO3 nanoflakes prepared via a two-step sol-gel-exfoliation method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The morphology and electrical properties of orthorhombic β-WO3 nanoflakes with thickness of ~7 to 9 nm were investigated at the nanoscale with a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), current sensing force spectroscopy atomic force microscopy (CSFS-AFM, or PeakForce TUNA™), Fourier transform infra-red absorption spectroscopy (FTIR), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. CSFS-AFM analysis established good correlation between the topography of the developed nanostructures and various features of WO3 nanoflakes synthesized via a two-step sol-gel-exfoliation method. It was determined that β-WO3 nanoflakes annealed at 550°C possess distinguished and exceptional thickness-dependent properties in comparison with the bulk, micro and nanostructured WO3 synthesized at alternative temperatures. PMID:25221453

  7. Oxidative stress in dry age-related macular degeneration and exfoliation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chiras, Dimitrios; Kitsos, George; Petersen, Michael B; Skalidakis, Iosif; Kroupis, Christos

    2015-02-01

    Oxidative stress refers to cellular or molecular damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which especially occurs in age-related conditions as a result of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the antioxidant defense response. Dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and exfoliation syndrome (XFS) are two common and complex age-related conditions that can cause irreversible vision loss. Two subtypes of AMD, which is the leading cause of blindness in the Western world, exist: the most prevalent dry type and the most severe wet type. Early dry AMD is characterized by formation of drusen, which are sub-retinal deposits, in the macular area and may progress to geographic atrophy with more dramatic manifestation. XFS is a systemic disorder of the extracellular matrix characterized by the accumulation of elastic fibrils that leads, in most cases, to glaucoma development with progressive and irreversible vision loss. Due to the aging population, the prevalence of these already-widespread conditions is increasing and is resulting in significant economic and psychological costs for individuals and for society. The exact composition of the abnormal drusen and XFS material as well as the mechanisms responsible for their production and accumulation still remain elusive, and consequently treatment for both diseases is lacking. However, recent epidemiologic, genetic and molecular studies support a major role for oxidative stress in both dry AMD and XFS development. Understanding the early molecular events in their pathogenesis and the exact role of oxidative stress may provide novel opportunities for therapeutic intervention for the prevention of progression to advanced disease.

  8. Anticancer Activity of Ferulic Acid-Inorganic Nanohybrids Synthesized via Two Different Hybridization Routes, Reconstruction and Exfoliation-Reassembly

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ae-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully prepared nanohybrids of biofunctional ferulic acid and layered double hydroxide nanomaterials through reconstruction and exfoliation-reassembly routes. From X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, both nanohybrids were determined to incorporate ferulic acid molecules in anionic form. Micrsocopic results showed that the nanohybrids had average particle size of 150 nm with plate-like morphology. As the two nanohybridization routes involved crystal disorder and random stacking of layers, the nanohybrids showed slight alteration in z-axis crystallinity and particle size. The zeta potential values of pristine and nanohybrids in deionized water were determined to be positive, while those in cell culture media shifted to negative values. According to the in vitro anticancer activity test on human cervical cancer HeLa cells, it was revealed that nanohybrids showed twice anticancer activity compared with ferulic acid itself. Therefore we could conclude that the nanohybrids of ferulic acid and layered double hydroxide had cellular delivery property of intercalated molecules on cancer cell lines. PMID:24453848

  9. Anticancer activity of ferulic acid-inorganic nanohybrids synthesized via two different hybridization routes, reconstruction and exfoliation-reassembly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Ryu, Kitae; Kang, Joo-Hee; Choi, Ae-Jin; Kim, Tae-il; Oh, Jae-Min

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully prepared nanohybrids of biofunctional ferulic acid and layered double hydroxide nanomaterials through reconstruction and exfoliation-reassembly routes. From X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, both nanohybrids were determined to incorporate ferulic acid molecules in anionic form. Microscopic results showed that the nanohybrids had average particle size of 150 nm with plate-like morphology. As the two nanohybridization routes involved crystal disorder and random stacking of layers, the nanohybrids showed slight alteration in z-axis crystallinity and particle size. The zeta potential values of pristine and nanohybrids in deionized water were determined to be positive, while those in cell culture media shifted to negative values. According to the in vitro anticancer activity test on human cervical cancer HeLa cells, it was revealed that nanohybrids showed twice anticancer activity compared with ferulic acid itself. Therefore we could conclude that the nanohybrids of ferulic acid and layered double hydroxide had cellular delivery property of intercalated molecules on cancer cell lines.

  10. Evidence for the presence of mutagenic arylamines in human breast milk and DNA adducts in exfoliated breast ductal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Patricia A; DeMarini, David M; Kadlubar, Fred F; McClure, Gail Y; Brooks, Lance R; Green, Bridgett L; Fares, Manal Y; Stone, Angie; Josephy, P David; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2002-01-01

    Aromatic and heterocyclic amines are ubiquitous environmental mutagens present in combustion emissions, fried meats, and tobacco smoke, and are suspect human mammary carcinogens. To determine the presence of arylamines in breast tissue and fluid, we examined exfoliated breast ductal epithelial cells for DNA adducts and matched human milk samples for mutagenicity. Breast milk was obtained from 50 women who were 4-6 weeks postpartum, and exfoliated epithelial-cell DNA was evaluated for bulky, nonpolar DNA adducts by (32)P-postlabeling and thin-layer chromatography. Milk was processed by acid hydrolysis, and the extracted organics were examined in the standard plate-incorporation Ames Salmonella assay using primarily strain YG1024, which detects frameshift mutations and overexpresses aryl amine N-acetyltransferase. DNA adducts were identified in 66% of the specimens, and bulky adducts migrated in a pattern similar to that of 4-aminobiphenyl standards. The distribution of adducts did not vary by NAT2 genotype status. Of whole milk samples, 88% (22/25) had mutagenic activity. Among the samples for which we had both DNA adduct and mutagenicity data, 58% (14/19) of the samples with adducts were also mutagenic, and 85% (11/13) of the mutagenic samples had adducts. Quantitatively, no correlation was observed between the levels of adducts and the levels of mutagenicity. Separation of the milk showed that mutagenic activity was found in 69% of skimmed milk samples but in only 29% of the corresponding milk fat samples, suggesting that the breast milk mutagens were moderately polar molecules. Chemical fractionation showed that mutagenic activity was found in 67% (4/6) of the basic fractions but in only 33% (2/6) of acidic samples, indicating that the mutagens were primarily basic compounds, such as arylamines. Although pilot in nature, this study corroborates previous findings of significant levels of DNA adducts in breast tissue and mutagenicity in human breast milk and

  11. Detection of intracellular bacteria in exfoliated urothelial cells from women with urge incontinence.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ying; Chen, Zhuoran; Gawthorne, Jayde A; Mukerjee, Chinmoy; Varettas, Kerry; Mansfield, Kylie J; Schembri, Mark A; Moore, Kate H

    2016-10-01

    The role of subclinical infection in patients with urge incontinence has been largely ignored. The aim of this study was to test for the presence of intracellular bacteria in exfoliated urothelial cells obtained from the urine of patients with detrusor overactivity or mixed incontinence +/- a history of UTI, and compare this to a control group of patients with stress incontinence and no history of infection. Bacterial cystitis was assessed by routine microbiology and compared to microscopic analysis of urine by Wright staining. Subsequent analysis of urothelial cells by confocal microscopy was performed to determine the existence of intracellular bacteria. Bacterial cystitis was seen in 13% of patients based on routine microbiology. Wright staining of concentrated urothelial cells demonstrated the presence of bacteria in 72% of samples. Filamentous bacterial cells were observed in 51% of patients and were significantly more common in patients with detrusor overactivity. Intracellular Escherichia coli were observed by confocal microscopy. This study supports the possibility that a subset of patients with urge incontinence may have unrecognised chronic bacterial colonisation, maintained via an intracellular reservoir. In patients with negative routine microbiology, application of the techniques used in this study revealed evidence of infection, providing further insights into the aetiology of urge incontinence. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Application of graphene from exfoliation in kitchen mixer allows mechanical reinforcement of PVA/graphene film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Zulhelmi; Abdullah, Abu Hannifa; Zainal Abidin, Anis Sakinah; Yusoh, Kamal

    2017-08-01

    Mechanical properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) can be reinforced from the addition of graphene into its matrix. However, pristine graphene lacks solubility in water and thus makes dispersion a challenging task. Notably, functionalisation of graphene is required to accommodate graphene presence in the water. In this work, we have used a kitchen mixer to produce gum Arabic-graphene (GGA) for the first time as filler for mechanical reinforcement of PVA. For the characterisation of exfoliated graphene, mean lateral size of GGA was measured from the imaging by transmission electron microscopy while the mean thickness of graphene was predicted from the obtained spectra by Raman spectroscopy. During the preparation of PVA/graphene film by solution casting, GGA was varied between 0, 0.05, 0.075, 0.10 and 0.15 wt% in concentration. We found that the presence of GGA in PVA improves the tensile stress and elastic modulus about 72-200 and 19-187% from the original values. The data from Halpin-Tsai meanwhile suggested that the mechanical reinforcement of PVA/graphene film is due to the random distribution network of GGA in PVA.

  13. Few-layer bismuth selenides exfoliated by hemin inhibit amyloid-β1–42 fibril formation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jian; Xiong, Yunjing; Lin, Zhiqin; Sun, Liping; Weng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Inhibiting amyloid-β (Aβ) fibril formation is the primary therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer’s disease. Several small molecules and nanomaterials have been used to inhibit Aβ fibril formation. However, insufficient inhibition efficiency or poor metabolization limits their further applications. Here, we used hemin to exfoliate few-layer Bi2Se3 in aqueous solution. Then we separated few-layer Bi2Se3 with different sizes and thicknesses by fractional centrifugation, and used them to attempt to inhibit Aβ1-42 aggregation. The results show that smaller and thinner few-layer Bi2Se3 had the highest inhibition efficiency. We further investigated the interaction between few-layer Bi2Se3 and Aβ1-42 monomers. The results indicate that the inhibition effect may be due to the high adsorption capacity of few-layer Bi2Se3 for Aβ1−42 monomers. Few-layer Bi2Se3 also decreased Aβ-mediated peroxidase-like activity and cytotoxicity according to in vitro neurotoxicity studies under physiological conditions. Therefore, our work shows the potential for applications of few-layer Bi2Se3 in the biomedical field. PMID:26018135

  14. Is mobile phone radiation genotoxic? An analysis of micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal cells.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, F M; Carmona, A M; Ladeira, C

    2017-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are classified as "possibly carcinogenic" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some publications have reported associations between EMF exposure and DNA damage, but many other studies contradict such findings. Cytomorphological changes, such as micronuclei (MN), indicative of genomic damage, are biomarkers of genotoxicity. To test whether mobile phone-associated EMF exposure affects the MN frequency in exfoliated buccal cells, we obtained cells smears from the left and right inner cheeks of healthy mobile phone users, aged 18-30 (n=86), who also completed a characterization survey. MN frequencies were tested for potential confounding factors and for duration of phone use and preferential side of mobile phone use. No relationship was observed between MN frequency and duration of mobile phone use in daily calls. Cells ipsilateral to mobile phone use did not present a statistically significantly higher MN frequency, compared to cells contralateral to exposure. A highly statistically significant (p<0.0001) increase in MN frequency was found in subjects reporting regular exposure to genotoxic agents. Therefore, our results suggest that mobile phone-associated EMF do not to induce MN formation in buccal cells at the observed exposure levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Binary gaseous mixture and single component adsorption of methane and argon on exfoliated graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Brice Adam

    Exfoliated graphite was used as a substrate for adsorption of argon and methane. Adsorption experiments were conducted for both equal parts mixtures of argon and methane and for each gas species independently. The purpose of this was to compare mixture adsorption to single component adsorption and to investigate theoretical predictions concerning the kinetics of adsorption made by Burde and Calbi.6 In particular, time to reach pressure equilibrium of a single dose at a constant temperature for the equal parts mixture was compared to time of adsorption for each species by itself. It was shown that mixture adsorption is a much more complex and time consuming process than single component adsorption and requires a much longer amount of time to reach equilibrium. Information about the composition evolution of the mixture during the times when pressure was going toward equilibrium was obtained using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Evidence for initial higher rate of adsorption for the weaker binding energy species (argon) was found as well as overall composition change which clearly indicated a higher coverage of methane on the graphite sample by the time equilibration was reached. Effective specific surface area of graphite for both argon and methane was also determined using the Point-B method.2

  16. Associations between Arsenic Species in Exfoliated Urothelial Cells and Prevalence of Diabetes among Residents of Chihuahua, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Currier, Jenna M.; Ishida, María C.; González-Horta, Carmen; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Gutiérrez-Torres, Daniela S.; Cerón, Roberto Hernández; Morales, Damián Viniegra; Terrazas, Francisco A. Baeza; Del Razo, Luz M.; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Saunders, R. Jesse; Drobná, Zuzana; Fry, Rebecca C.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Buse, John B.; Mendez, Michelle A.; Loomis, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Background: A growing number of studies link chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with the risk of diabetes. Many of these studies assessed iAs exposure by measuring arsenic (As) species in urine. However, this approach has been criticized because of uncertainties associated with renal function and urine dilution in diabetic individuals. Objectives: Our goal was to examine associations between the prevalence of diabetes and concentrations of As species in exfoliated urothelial cells (EUC) as an alternative to the measures of As in urine. Methods: We measured concentrations of trivalent and pentavalent iAs methyl-As (MAs) and dimethyl-As (DMAs) species in EUC from 374 residents of Chihuahua, Mexico, who were exposed to iAs in drinking water. We used fasting plasma glucose, glucose tolerance tests, and self-reported diabetes diagnoses or medication to identify diabetic participants. Associations between As species in EUC and diabetes were estimated using logistic and linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. Results: Interquartile-range increases in trivalent, but not pentavalent, As species in EUC were positively and significantly associated with diabetes, with ORs of 1.57 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.07) for iAsIII, 1.63 (1.24, 2.15) for MAsIII, and 1.31 (0.96, 1.84) for DMAsIII. DMAs/MAs and DMAs/iAs ratios were negatively associated with diabetes (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.83 and OR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.96, respectively). Conclusions: Our data suggest that uncertainties associated with measures of As species in urine may be avoided by using As species in EUC as markers of iAs exposure and metabolism. Our results provide additional support to previous findings suggesting that trivalent As species may be responsible for associations between diabetes and chronic iAs exposure. Citation: Currier JM, Ishida MC, González-Horta C, Sánchez-Ramírez B, Ballinas-Casarrubias L, Gutiérrez-Torres DS, Hernández Cerón R, Viniegra Morales D, Baeza

  17. Comparison of the Nanostructure and Mechanical Performance of Highly Exfoliated Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites Prepared by Three Different Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Shiravand, Fatemeh; Hutchinson, John M.; Calventus, Yolanda; Ferrando, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Three different protocols for the preparation of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites based upon a tri-functional epoxy resin, triglycidyl para-amino phenol (TGAP), have been compared in respect of the cure kinetics, the nanostructure and their mechanical properties. The three preparation procedures involve 2 wt% and 5 wt% of organically modified montmorillonite (MMT), and are: isothermal cure at selected temperatures; pre-conditioning of the resin-clay mixture before isothermal cure; incorporation of an initiator of cationic homopolymerisation, a boron tri-fluoride methyl amine complex, BF3·MEA, within the clay galleries. It was found that features of the cure kinetics and of the nanostructure correlate with the measured impact strength of the cured nanocomposites, which increases as the degree of exfoliation of the MMT is improved. The best protocol for toughening the TGAP/MMT nanocomposites is by the incorporation of 1 wt% BF3·MEA into the clay galleries of nanocomposites containing 2 wt% MMT. PMID:28788672

  18. Comparison of the Nanostructure and Mechanical Performance of Highly Exfoliated Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites Prepared by Three Different Protocols.

    PubMed

    Shiravand, Fatemeh; Hutchinson, John M; Calventus, Yolanda; Ferrando, Francesc

    2014-05-30

    Three different protocols for the preparation of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites based upon a tri-functional epoxy resin, triglycidyl para -amino phenol (TGAP), have been compared in respect of the cure kinetics, the nanostructure and their mechanical properties. The three preparation procedures involve 2 wt% and 5 wt% of organically modified montmorillonite (MMT), and are: isothermal cure at selected temperatures; pre-conditioning of the resin-clay mixture before isothermal cure; incorporation of an initiator of cationic homopolymerisation, a boron tri-fluoride methyl amine complex, BF₃·MEA, within the clay galleries. It was found that features of the cure kinetics and of the nanostructure correlate with the measured impact strength of the cured nanocomposites, which increases as the degree of exfoliation of the MMT is improved. The best protocol for toughening the TGAP/MMT nanocomposites is by the incorporation of 1 wt% BF₃·MEA into the clay galleries of nanocomposites containing 2 wt% MMT.

  19. Studies on the effect of divalent metal ions on exfoliative toxins from Staphylococcus hyicus: indications of ExhA and ExhB being metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Andresen, L O

    1999-04-01

    The exfoliative toxins ExhA and ExhB produced by Staphylococcus hyicus strains NCTC10350 and 1289D-88, respectively, were investigated with regard to the effect of divalent metal ions on toxin production as measured in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies. Data were obtained as endpoint titer values and used as semiquantitative measures for the amount of exfoliative toxin detected in culture supernatants. It was shown that the endpoint titers of ExhA in supernatants from cultures of strain NCTC10350 grown in the presence of 0.5 mM CaCl2, Cu(NO3)2 or ZnSO4 were higher compared to titers obtained by growth in medium supplemented with a number of other divalent metal salts. The titer of ExhB as determined in the indirect ELISA was increased by addition of 0.5 mM CoCl2, Cu(NO3)2 or CuSO4 to the growth medium. When ExhA or ExhB, prepared without addition of metal salt to the liquid growth medium, was subsequently incubated with 25 mM of Co2+, Cu2+ or Zn2+, the endpoint titers of the toxins were increased. Dialysis of ExhA and ExhB prepared with Zn2+ and Co2+, respectively, against certain metal chelators, resulted in a reduction of the titer determined in ELISA. Other metal chelators had varied effect in the detection of the toxins in ELISA. It was, however, not possible to restore the recognition of toxins by the monoclonal antibodies by incubation of EDDHA-dialyzed toxin preparations with Co2+, Cu2+ or Zn2+. The results of this study suggest that ExhA and ExhB are metalloproteins.

  20. Oral mucosal lesions and their association with sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status factors.

    PubMed

    Gheno, José Nicolau; Martins, Marco Antonio Trevizani; Munerato, Maria Cristina; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Sant'ana Filho, Manoel; Weissheimer, Camila; Carrard, Vinicius Coelho; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of oral mucosal lesions and their associations with sociodemographic, health, and behavioral factors in a southern Brazilian population. Information was collected from participants (n = 801) using a structured questionnaire during an oral cancer screening campaign held at an agribusiness show in southern Brazil in 2009. Data were described using frequency distributions or means and standard deviations. Associations between independent variables and outcomes were assessed using the Chi-squared test. A total of 465 lesions were detected (actinic cheilitis: n = 204, 25.5%; candidiasis: n = 50, 6.2%; fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia: n = 42, 5.2%; ulceration, n = 33, 4.1%; hemangioma: n = 14, 1.7%; leukoplakia: n = 11, 1.4%). Candidiasis, actinic cheilitis, and fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia were associated significantly with literacy. Actinic cheilitis was also associated significantly with sun exposure and hat use, and leukoplakia was associated with smoking. The high frequency of oral mucosal lesions observed highlights the importance of education about risk factors. Additionally, training of health professionals, mainly those from public health services, in the use of preventive and community education strategies is needed.