Sample records for tree nut oils

  1. Tree nut oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  2. Tree Nut Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Tree Nut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Learn about tree nut allergy, how ... a Tree Nut Label card . Allergic Reactions to Tree Nuts Tree nuts can cause a severe and ...

  3. Tree nut allergens.

    PubMed

    Geiselhart, Sabine; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bublin, Merima

    2018-04-18

    Tree nuts are considered as part of a healthy diet due to their high nutritional quality. However, they are also a potent source of allergenic proteins inducing IgE mediated hypersensitivity often causing serious, life-threatening reactions. The reported prevalence of tree nut allergy is up to 4.9% worldwide. The general term "tree nuts" comprises a number of nuts, seeds, and drupes, derived from trees from different botanical families. For hazelnut and walnut several allergens have been identified which are already partly applied in component resolved diagnosis, while for other tree nuts such as macadamia, coconut, and Brazil nut only individual allergens were identified and data on additional allergenic proteins are missing. This review summarizes the current knowledge on tree nut allergens and describes their physicochemical and immunological characterization and clinical relevance. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Single-tree nut immunotherapy attenuates allergic reactions in mice with hypersensitivity to multiple tree nuts.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Mike; Li, Yifan; Lane, Hannah; Pons, Laurent; Burks, Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts are often severe and are outgrown in less than 10% of diagnosed patients. To determine whether treatment of underlying tree nut sensitization will prevent allergic reactions to cross-reacting tree nuts and to determine the effects of single-tree nut immunotherapy on true multi-tree nut sensitization. Cross-reactivity model: Cashew-sensitized mice underwent immunotherapy with cashew and were subsequently challenged with cashew and pistachio. Multisensitization model: Cashew plus walnut-sensitized mice were treated with cashew alone, walnut alone, or both cashew and walnut and then underwent challenges to cashew and walnut. Challenges were assessed on the basis of symptoms, changes in body temperature, and mouse mast cell protease-1 release. In the cross-reactivity model, cashew immunotherapy completely prevented allergic reactions on challenges with cashew or the cross-reactive pistachio. In the multisensitization model, mice with cashew plus walnut allergy were significantly protected from anaphylactic reactions on cashew challenge in both the cashew-alone and walnut-alone immunotherapy groups. Results from the walnut challenge demonstrated significantly decreased allergic responses in the walnut immunotherapy group, whereas mice in the cashew immunotherapy group experienced significantly lower symptoms. In the cross-reactivity model, immunotherapy effectively decreased IL-4 and IL-5 production and increased IL-12 relative to placebo while also inducing a 5-fold increase in specific IgG(1). Single-tree nut immunotherapy can effectively decrease allergic responses in both the cross-reactivity and multisensitization mouse models. Further studies are needed to determine which single-tree nut immunotherapies will be most effective for specific multi-tree nut allergy profiles. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of tree nut and coconut sensitizations.

    PubMed

    Polk, Brooke I; Dinakarpandian, Deendayal; Nanda, Maya; Barnes, Charles; Dinakar, Chitra

    2016-10-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera), despite being a drupe, was added to the US Food and Drug Administration list of tree nuts in 2006, causing potential confusion regarding the prevalence of coconut allergy among tree nut allergic patients. To determine whether sensitization to tree nuts is associated with increased odds of coconut sensitization. A single-center retrospective analysis of serum specific IgE levels to coconut, tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, chestnut, hazelnut, macadamia, pecan, pistachio, and walnut), and controls (milk and peanut) was performed using deidentified data from January 2000 to August 2012. Spearman correlation (ρ) between coconut and each tree nut was determined, followed by hierarchical clustering. Sensitization was defined as a nut specific IgE level of 0.35 kU/L or higher. Unadjusted and adjusted associations between coconut and tree nut sensitization were tested by logistic regression. Of 298 coconut IgE values, 90 (30%) were considered positive results, with a mean (SD) of 1.70 (8.28) kU/L. Macadamia had the strongest correlation (ρ = 0.77), whereas most other tree nuts had significant (P < .05) but low correlation (ρ < 0.5) with coconut. The adjusted odds ratio between coconut and macadamia was 7.39 (95% confidence interval, 2.60-21.02; P < .001) and 5.32 (95% confidence interval, 2.18-12.95; P < .001) between coconut and almond, with other nuts not being statistically significant. Our findings suggest that although sensitization to most tree nuts appears to correlate with coconut, this is largely explained by sensitization to almond and macadamia. This finding has not previously been reported in the literature. Further study correlating these results with clinical symptoms is planned. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Production and analysis of recombinant tree nut allergens.

    PubMed

    Willison, Leanna N; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2014-03-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts are a growing global concern as the number of affected individuals continues to rise. Unlike some food allergies, tree nuts can cause severe reactions that persist throughout life. The tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions: cashew, almond, hazelnut, walnut, pecan, Brazil nut, pistachio, and chestnut. The native allergenic proteins derived from tree nuts are frequently difficult to isolate and purify and may not be adequately represented in aqueous nut protein extracts. Consequently, defined recombinant allergens have become useful reagents in a variety of immunoassays aimed at the diagnosis of tree nut allergy, assessing cross-reactivity between various nuts and other seeds, mapping of IgE binding epitopes, and analyzing the effects of the food matrix, food processing, and gastric digestion on allergenicity. This review describes the approaches that can be used for the production of recombinant tree nut allergens and addresses key issues associated with their production and downstream applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of peanuts and tree nuts: are allergists smarter than their patients?

    PubMed

    Kao, Leon; Bhangoo, Parmbir S; Roy, Lonnie; Bird, J Andrew

    2013-10-01

    It has been reported that peanut- or tree nut-allergic individuals and their guardians are poorly capable of differentiating various tree nuts and peanuts. No information exists on the ability of allergists to differentiate peanuts and tree nuts. To measure the ability of allergists and other specialists within the allergy and immunology field to identify various types of tree nuts and peanuts. A nut box with a clear cover was constructed and contained various tree nuts and peanuts in shelled and unshelled forms. Attendees at the 2012 national meeting of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology were offered participation by viewing the nut box and filling in their responses to a questionnaire. A similar procedure was conducted in the Food Allergy Center at Children's Medical Center (Dallas, TX) for guardians of children with and without peanut or tree nut allergies. Allergists were better able to identify and differentiate tree nuts and peanuts than guardians of peanut- or tree nut-allergic children, guardians of children without food allergies, and allergy and immunology fellows in training. It is important for allergists to educate peanut- and tree nut-allergic individuals and their guardians on the proper avoidance of peanuts and tree nuts. This includes education in the ability to identify peanuts and tree nuts. In addition, allergy and immunology fellows in training may benefit from education in proper peanut and tree nut identification. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant actions of tree nuts

    PubMed Central

    Bolling, Bradley W; McKay, Diane L; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2016-01-01

    In addition to being a rich source of several essential vitamins and minerals, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and fiber, most tree nuts provide an array of phytochemicals that may contribute to the health benefits attributed to this whole food. Although many of these constituents remain to be fully identified and characterized, broad classes include the carotenoids, hydrolyzable tannins, lignans, naphthoquinones, phenolic acids, phytosterols, polyphenols, and tocopherols. These phytochemicals have been shown to possess a range of bioactivity, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and hypocholesterolemic properties. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the carotenoid, phenolic, and tocopherol content of tree nuts and associated studies of their antioxidant actions in vitro and in human studies. Tree nuts are a rich source of tocopherols and total phenols and contain a wide variety of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. In contrast, most tree nuts are not good dietary sources of carotenoids and stilbenes. Phenolic acids are present in tree nuts but a systematic survey of the content and profile of these compounds is lacking. A limited number of human studies indicate these nut phytochemicals are bioaccessible and bioavailable and have antioxidant actions in vivo. PMID:20199996

  9. The ability of adults and children to visually identify peanuts and tree nuts.

    PubMed

    Hostetler, Todd L; Hostetler, Sarah G; Phillips, Gary; Martin, Bryan L

    2012-01-01

    Peanuts and tree nuts are common food allergens and are the leading cause of fatalities from food-induced anaphylaxis. Dietary avoidance is the primary management of these allergies and requires the ability to identify peanuts or tree nuts. To investigate the ability of adults and children to visually identify peanuts and tree nuts. A nut display was assembled that held peanuts and 9 tree nuts in a total of 19 different forms. Persons 6 years or older completed a worksheet to name the items. One-thousand one-hundred five subjects completed the study. The mean number of peanuts and tree nuts identified by all subjects was 8.4 (44.2%) out of a possible 19. The mean for children ages 6 to 18 was 4.6 (24.2%), compared with 11.1 (58.4%) for adults older than 18 (P < .001). The most commonly identified items were peanut in the shell and without the shell. The least identified was hazelnut (filbert) in the shell and without the shell. No difference was seen in the performance of peanut- or tree nut-allergic subjects compared with nonallergic subjects. Fifty percent of subjects with a peanut or tree nut allergy correctly identified all forms of peanuts or tree nuts to which they are allergic. Parents of peanut- or tree nut-allergic children did no better than parents of children without such allergy. Overall, both children and adults are unreliable at visually identifying most nuts. Treatment of nut allergies with dietary avoidance should include education for both adults and children on identification of peanuts and tree nuts. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hyposensitization to poison ivy after working in a cashew nut shell oil processing factory.

    PubMed

    Reginella, R F; Fairfield, J C; Marks, J G

    1989-04-01

    19 adults were patch tested to urushiol, the allergen in poison ivy/oak, to determine their sensitivity to this allergen after working in a cashew nut shell oil (CNSO) processing plant. The cashew nut tree and poison ivy/oak are in the same botanical family. Anacardiaceae, and they share similar chemicals which cause allergic contact dermatitis. 13 of the 19 workers had a preemployment history of poison ivy sensitivity, with 10 developing CNSO dermatitis. After working in this factory for several months, 9 of the 13 noticed a decreased sensitivity or no sensitivity to poison ivy/oak. When tested to urushiol extract, only 3 reacted positively, 2 minimally. These results imply that hyposensitization to poison ivy/oak occurred in these employees after development of hardening to cashew nut shell oil.

  11. [Fifth Jesús Culebras Lecture; Tree nuts: effects on health, obesity and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-11-30

    Several epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of tree nuts is associated with lower cardiovascular risk, specific cause of mortality and total mortality. Clinical feeding trials have demonstrated that tree nuts protect from cardiovascular disease risk through different mechanisms: regulating inflammatory processes, oxidative stress and endothelial function, thereby improving various cardiovascular risk factors. In the context of meals high in carbohydrates, tree nuts reduce the postprandial glucose peaks, improving insulin resistance. Frequent consumption of nuts has been associated with a lower risk of diabetes in women, but the effect was not yet elucidated in men. Although tree nuts are energetically dense and they are high in fat, nut consumption does not imply appreciable weight gain nor has been associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity. Tree nut consumption reduces LDL cholesterol levels, but its effects on atherogenic dyslipidemia associated to metabolic syndrome (MetS) are less clear. The effect of consumption of nuts on LDL cholesterol in subjects with MetS neither has been well established, but it seems that in these patients could lower plasma triglyceride levels. Some studies suggest an inverse association between tree nut consumption and blood pressure or endothelial function, especially in non-diabetic individuals. Nut consumption was inversely related to the prevalence and incidence of MetS. Including tree nuts in the context of a healthy dietary pattern way increase the health benefits. It has been observed a lower prevalence of MetS and a lower incidence of diabetes in people who adhered to a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts. Future nutrition intervention studies are needed on large samples of subjects and long follow-up to affirm that tree nut consumption has beneficial effects on the prevention and treatment of MetS. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Update on the healthful lipid constituents of commercially important tree nuts.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Katherine S; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Shewfelt, Robert L; Eitenmiller, Ronald R; Pegg, Ronald B

    2011-11-23

    Uncharacteristic of most whole foods, the major component of tree nuts is lipid; surprisingly, information on the lipid constituents in tree nuts has been sporadic and, for the most part, not well reported. Most published papers focus on only one nut type, or those that report a cultivar lack a quality control program, thus making data comparisons difficult. The present study was designed to quantify the healthful lipid constituents of 10 different types of commercially important tree nuts (i.e., almonds, black walnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, English walnuts, hazelnuts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, and pistachios) according to standardized, validated methods. The total lipid content of each nut type ranged from 44.4 ± 1.9% for cashews to 77.1 ± 1.7% for macadamias. As expected, the major fatty acids present in the tree nuts were unsaturated: oleic (18:1 ω9) and linoleic (18:2 ω6) acids. A majority of the lipid extracts contained <10% saturated fatty acids with the exceptions of Brazil nuts (24.5%), cashews (20.9%), macadamias (17.1%), and pistachios (13.3%). The total tocopherol (T) content ranged from 1.60 ± 1.27 mg/100 g nutmeat in macadamias to 32.99 ± 0.78 in black walnuts. The predominant T isomers in the nut types were α- and γ-T. Tocotrienols were also detected, but only in 6 of the 10 nut types (i.e., Brazil nut, cashews, English walnuts, macadamias, pine nuts, and pistachios). In most cases, total phytosterol contents were greater in the present study than reported in peer-reviewed journal papers and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, which is attributed to total lipid extraction and the inclusion of steryl glucosides in the analysis; the levels were highest for pistachios (301.8 ± 15.4 mg/100 g nutmeat) and pine nuts (271.7 ± 9.1 mg/100 g nutmeat). Minor sterols were also quantified and identified using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques.

  13. Tree nuts are inversely associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity: the Adventist health study-2.

    PubMed

    Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Haddad, Ella; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary E; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-01-01

    To examine the relationships of nut consumption, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and obesity in the Adventist Health Study-2, a relatively healthy population with a wide range of nut intake. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted on clinical, dietary, anthropometric, and demographic data of 803 adults. MetS was defined according to the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute diagnostic criteria. We assessed intake of total nuts, tree nuts and peanuts, and also classified subjects into low tree nut/low peanut (LT/LP), low tree/high peanut (LT/HP), high tree nut/high peanut (HT/HP), and high tree/low peanut (HT/LP) consumers. Odds ratios were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. 32% of subjects had MetS. Compared to LT/LP consumers, obesity was lower in LT/HP (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.53, 1.48), HT/HP (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.40, 0.99) and HT/LP (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.88) consumers, p for trend = 0.006. For MetS, odds ratios (95% CI) were 0.77 (0.47, 1.28), 0.65 (0.42, 1.00) and 0.68 (0.43, 1.07), respectively (p for trend = 0.056). Frequency of nut intake (once/week) had significant inverse associations with MetS (3% less for tree nuts and 2% less for total nuts) and obesity (7% less for tree nuts and 3% less for total nuts). Tree nuts appear to have strong inverse association with obesity, and favorable though weaker association with MetS independent of demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors.

  14. Toxicological evaluation of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut oil-based diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Oladiji, A T; Abodunrin, T P; Yakubu, M T

    2010-03-01

    The effects of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut oil-based diet on the growth performance and some biochemical constituents of rat tissues was investigated following a feeding period of 6 weeks. The results revealed that the volume of water taken, the amount of feed consumed and the weight gained by the animals maintained on the nut oil-based diet were not significantly (P>0.05) different from those fed on soybean oil-based diet. The reduction in the activities of ALP, GOT and GPT in the liver and heart of animals fed on the nut oil-based diet was accompanied by increase in the serum enzymes. The nut oil-based diet significantly reduced (P<0.05) serum concentrations of total cholesterol and HDL-C whereas triglycerides and atherogenic index increased. The serum LDL-C level of the nut oil-based diet fed animals compared well with those of soybean oil-based diet. These alterations suggested that adverse effects have occurred, possibly by altered membrane permeability of the hepatocytes and cardiac cells. Similar alterations in the serum lipids of animals maintained on nut oil-based diet also portends cardiovascular risk. Although, T. conophorum nut oil did not adversely affect growth performance and the feeding appetite of the animals, it is not completely 'safe' for consumption. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tree Nuts Are Inversely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: The Adventist Health Study-2

    PubMed Central

    Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Haddad, Ella; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary E.; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationships of nut consumption, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and obesity in the Adventist Health Study-2, a relatively healthy population with a wide range of nut intake. Research Design and Methods Cross-sectional analysis was conducted on clinical, dietary, anthropometric, and demographic data of 803 adults. MetS was defined according to the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute diagnostic criteria. We assessed intake of total nuts, tree nuts and peanuts, and also classified subjects into low tree nut/low peanut (LT/LP), low tree/high peanut (LT/HP), high tree nut/high peanut (HT/HP), and high tree/low peanut (HT/LP) consumers. Odds ratios were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results 32% of subjects had MetS. Compared to LT/LP consumers, obesity was lower in LT/HP (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.53, 1.48), HT/HP (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.40, 0.99) and HT/LP (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.88) consumers, p for trend = 0.006. For MetS, odds ratios (95% CI) were 0.77 (0.47, 1.28), 0.65 (0.42, 1.00) and 0.68 (0.43, 1.07), respectively (p for trend = 0.056). Frequency of nut intake (once/week) had significant inverse associations with MetS (3% less for tree nuts and 2% less for total nuts) and obesity (7% less for tree nuts and 3% less for total nuts). Conclusions Tree nuts appear to have strong inverse association with obesity, and favorable though weaker association with MetS independent of demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors. PMID:24416351

  16. Vicilin allergens of peanut and tree nuts (walnut, hazelnut and cashew nut) share structurally related IgE-binding epitopes.

    PubMed

    Barre, Annick; Sordet, Camille; Culerrier, Raphaël; Rancé, Fabienne; Didier, Alain; Rougé, Pierre

    2008-03-01

    Surface-exposed IgE-binding epitopes of close overall conformation were characterized on the molecular surface of three-dimensional models built for the vicilin allergens of peanut (Ara h 1), walnut (Jug r 2), hazelnut (Cor a 11) and cashew nut (Ana o 1). They correspond to linear stretches of conserved amino acid sequences mainly located along the C-terminus of the polypeptide chains. A glyco-epitope corresponding to an exposed N-glycosylation site could also interfere with the IgE-binding epitopes. All these epitopic regions should participate in the IgE-binding cross-reactivity commonly reported between tree nuts or between peanut and some tree nuts in sensitized individuals. Owing to this epitopic community which constitutes a risk of cross-sensitization, the avoidance or a restricted consumption of other tree nuts should be recommended to peanut-sensitized individuals.

  17. Modeling the survival kinetics of Salmonella in tree nuts for use in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Santillana Farakos, Sofia M; Pouillot, Régis; Anderson, Nathan; Johnson, Rhoma; Son, Insook; Van Doren, Jane

    2016-06-16

    Salmonella has been shown to survive in tree nuts over long periods of time. This survival capacity and its variability are key elements for risk assessment of Salmonella in tree nuts. The aim of this study was to develop a mathematical model to predict survival of Salmonella in tree nuts at ambient storage temperatures that considers variability and uncertainty separately and can easily be incorporated into a risk assessment model. Data on Salmonella survival on raw almonds, pecans, pistachios and walnuts were collected from the peer reviewed literature. The Weibull model was chosen as the baseline model and various fixed effect and mixed effect models were fit to the data. The best model identified through statistical analysis testing was then used to develop a hierarchical Bayesian model. Salmonella in tree nuts showed slow declines at temperatures ranging from 21°C to 24°C. A high degree of variability in survival was observed across tree nut studies reported in the literature. Statistical analysis results indicated that the best applicable model was a mixed effect model that included a fixed and random variation of δ per tree nut (which is the time it takes for the first log10 reduction) and a fixed variation of ρ per tree nut (parameter which defines the shape of the curve). Higher estimated survival rates (δ) were obtained for Salmonella on pistachios, followed in decreasing order by pecans, almonds and walnuts. The posterior distributions obtained from Bayesian inference were used to estimate the variability in the log10 decrease levels in survival for each tree nut, and the uncertainty of these estimates. These modeled uncertainty and variability distributions of the estimates can be used to obtain a complete exposure assessment of Salmonella in tree nuts when including time-temperature parameters for storage and consumption data. The statistical approach presented in this study may be applied to any studies that aim to develop predictive models to be

  18. The atopic dog as a model of peanut and tree nut food allergy.

    PubMed

    Teuber, Suzanne S; Del Val, Gregorio; Morigasaki, Susumu; Jung, Hye Rim; Eisele, Pamela H; Frick, Oscar L; Buchanan, Bob B

    2002-12-01

    Animal models are needed that mimic human IgE-mediated peanut and tree nut allergy. Atopic dogs have been previously used in a model of food allergy to cow's milk, beef, wheat, and soy, with the demonstration of specific IgE production and positive oral challenges similar to those seen in human subjects. We sought to sensitize dogs to peanut, walnut, and Brazil nut and to assess whether sensitization is accompanied by clinical reactions and whether there is cross-reactivity among the different preparations. Eleven dogs were sensitized subcutaneously by using an established protocol with 1 microg each of peanut, English walnut, or Brazil nut protein extracts in alum first at birth and then after modified live virus vaccinations at 3, 7, and 11 weeks of age. The dogs were sensitized to other allergens, including soy and either wheat or barley. Intradermal skin tests, IgE immunoblotting to nut proteins, and oral challenges were performed with ground nut preparations. At 6 months of age, the dogs' intradermal skin test responses were positive to the nut extracts. IgE immunoblotting to peanut, walnut, and Brazil nut showed strong recognition of proteins in the aqueous preparations. Each of the 4 peanut- and the 3 Brazil nut-sensitized dogs and 3 of the 4 walnut-sensitized dogs reacted on oral challenge with the corresponding primary immunogen at age 2 years. None of the peanut-sensitized dogs reacted clinically with walnut or Brazil nut challenges. One of the walnut-sensitized dogs had delayed (overnight) vomiting to Brazil nut. On the basis of measurements of the mean amount of allergen eliciting a skin test response in dogs, the hierarchy of reactivity by skin testing is similar to the clinical experience in human subjects (peanut > tree nuts > wheat > soy > barley). Cross-reactivity, which was not apparent between soy and peanut or tree nuts or between peanut and tree nuts, was slight between walnut and Brazil nut. The results give further support to the dog as a

  19. Impact of different types of tree nut, peanut, and soy nut consumption on serum C-reactive protein (CRP)

    PubMed Central

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Rezaie, Peyman; Ferns, Gordon A.; Gao, Hong-kai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The effects of different types of tree nut, peanut, and soy nut consumption on serum C - reactive protein (CRP) are not well established. we aimed to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the effect of nut consumption (tree nuts, peanuts, and soy nuts) on serum CRP. Method: PubMed-Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar databases were searched (up until April 20 2016) to identify prospective studies evaluating the impact of tree nut, peanut, and soy nut consumption on serum CRP. Random effects models meta-analysis was used for quantitative data synthesis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using the leave-one-out method. Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the I2 index. Systematic review registration: CRD42016038044. Results: From a total of 844 entries identified via searches, 20 studies were included in the final selection. The meta-analysis indicated a nonsignificant increase in serum CRP concentrations following nut consumption (weighted mean difference [WMD] 0.17 mg/L, (95% CI –0.67 to 0.33, I2 52.1%). The WMDs for IL6 was –0.06(ng/dL), (95% CI –0.69 to 0.56, I2 9.6%), –0.71(mg/dL), (95% CI –1.11 to –0.30, I2 6.3%), for leptin, and -0.60(mg/dL), (95% CI –1.88 to 0.68, I2 5.6%) for adiponectin, and −0.18(mg/dL), (95% CI –1.24 to 0.88, I2 9.3%) for IL10 and –0.37 (pg/mL), (95% CI –0.90 to 0.16, I2 7.9%) for TNF-α. These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that nut consumption significantly decrease leptin while have no significant effect on CRP, IL6, adiponectin, IL10, and TNF-α. PMID:27858850

  20. 78 FR 61365 - Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ...] Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts; Request for... Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts; Request for Comments, Scientific Data and... associated with the consumption of tree nuts. We are taking this action in response to requests for an...

  1. Cross-reactivity among peanuts and tree nuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Approximately 30% of peanut allergic individuals also have allergies to tree nuts and vise versa. Our previous work has shown that the structural data base for allergic proteins (SDAP) can identify similar IgE binding areas that may be important for cross-reactivity between allergens. Using SPOTs me...

  2. The effect of tree nut, peanut, and soy nut consumption on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Mohammadifard, Noushin; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Humphries, Karin; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2015-05-01

    Although several studies have assessed the effects of nut consumption (tree nuts, peanuts, and soy nuts) on blood pressure (BP), the results are conflicting. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to estimate the effect of nut consumption on BP. The databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for RCTs carried out between 1958 and October 2013 that reported the effect of consuming single or mixed nuts (including walnuts, almonds, pistachios, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, peanuts, and soy nuts) on systolic BP (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP) as primary or secondary outcomes in adult populations aged ≥18 y. Relevant articles were identified by screening the abstracts and titles and the full text. Studies that evaluated the effects for <2 wk or in which the control group ingested different healthy oils were excluded. Mean ± SD changes in SBP and DBP in each treatment group were recorded for meta-analysis. Twenty-one RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest that nut consumption leads to a significant reduction in SBP in participants without type 2 diabetes [mean difference (MD): -1.29; 95% CI: -2.35, -0.22; P = 0.02] but not in the total population. Subgroup analyses of different nut types suggest that pistachios, but not other nuts, significantly reduce SBP (MD: -1.82; 95% CI: -2.97, -0.67; P = 0.002). Our study suggests that pistachios (MD: -0.80; 95% CI: -1.43, -0.17; P = 0.01) and mixed nuts (MD: -1.19; 95% CI: -2.35, -0.03; P = 0.04) have a significant reducing effect on DBP. We found no significant changes in DBP after the consumption of other nuts. Total nut consumption lowered SBP in participants without type 2 diabetes. Pistachios seemed to have the strongest effect on reducing SBP and DBP. Mixed nuts also reduced DBP. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Preparation and physicochemical of microemulsion based on macadamia nut oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Xinghao; Chen, Hong; Du, Liqing

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the preparation, optimization and characteristic of nanostructured lipid carriers(NLCs) based on macadamia nut oil. NLC with various macadamia nut oil content were successfully prepared by an optimized microfluidization method using stearic acid as solid lipid and pluronic F68 as surfactant. As a result, NLC with particle size about 286nm were obtained, and the polydispersity index(PI) of all developed NLC were below 0.2 which indicate a narrow size distribution. Furthermore, the encapsulation efficiency and loading capability were investigated as well. Physical stability of NLC demonstrated that particles of system were stable at room temperature and low temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) investigation show that the inner structure and recrystallinity of lipid matrix within NLC were greatly influenced by the content of macadamia nut oil.

  4. Fungal Presence in Selected Tree Nuts and Dried Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Tournas, VH; Niazi, NS; Kohn, JS

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-four tree nut samples (almonds, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts) and 50 dried fruit samples (apricots, cranberries, papaya, pineapple, and raisins) were purchased from local supermarkets and analyzed for fungal contamination using conventional culture as well as molecular methods. The results of our study showed that the highest yeast and mold (YM) counts (5.34 log10 CFU g−1) were found in walnuts and the lowest in pecans. The most common mold in nuts was Aspergillus niger, relatively low numbers of A. flavus were found across the board, while Penicillium spp. were very common in pine nuts and walnuts. Low levels (2.00–2.84 log10 CFU g−1) of yeasts were recovered from only two pine nut samples. Fungal contamination in dried fruits was minimal (ranging from <2.00 to 3.86 log10 CFU g−1). The highest fungal levels were present in raisins. All papaya samples and the majority of cranberry, pineapple, and apricot samples were free of live fungi. The most common mold in dried fruits was A. niger followed by Penicillium spp. One apricot sample also contained low levels (2.00 log10 CFU g−1) of yeasts. PMID:26056470

  5. Fungal Presence in Selected Tree Nuts and Dried Fruits.

    PubMed

    Tournas, V H; Niazi, N S; Kohn, J S

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-four tree nut samples (almonds, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts) and 50 dried fruit samples (apricots, cranberries, papaya, pineapple, and raisins) were purchased from local supermarkets and analyzed for fungal contamination using conventional culture as well as molecular methods. The results of our study showed that the highest yeast and mold (YM) counts (5.34 log10 CFU g(-1)) were found in walnuts and the lowest in pecans. The most common mold in nuts was Aspergillus niger, relatively low numbers of A. flavus were found across the board, while Penicillium spp. were very common in pine nuts and walnuts. Low levels (2.00-2.84 log10 CFU g(-1)) of yeasts were recovered from only two pine nut samples. Fungal contamination in dried fruits was minimal (ranging from <2.00 to 3.86 log10 CFU g(-1)). The highest fungal levels were present in raisins. All papaya samples and the majority of cranberry, pineapple, and apricot samples were free of live fungi. The most common mold in dried fruits was A. niger followed by Penicillium spp. One apricot sample also contained low levels (2.00 log10 CFU g(-1)) of yeasts.

  6. Peanut and tree nut allergic reactions in restaurants and other food establishments.

    PubMed

    Furlong, T J; DeSimone, J; Sicherer, S H

    2001-11-01

    The clinical features of food-allergic reactions in restaurants and other food establishments have not been studied. Of the registrants in the United States Peanut and Tree Nut Allergy Registry (PAR), 13.7% have reported reactions associated with such establishments. The purpose of this study was to determine the features of allergic reactions to peanut and tree nut in restaurant foods and foods purchased at other private establishments (eg, ice cream shops and bakeries). Telephone interviews were conducted through use of a structured questionnaire. Subjects/parental surrogates were randomly selected from among the 706 PAR registrants who reported a reaction in a restaurant or other food establishment. Details were obtained for 156 episodes (29 first-time reactions) from 129 subjects/parental surrogates. Most reactions were caused by peanut (67%) or tree nut (24%); for some reactions (9%), the cause was a combination of peanut and another nut or was unknown. Symptoms began at a median of 5 minutes after exposure and were severe in 27% of reactions. Overall, 86% of reactions were treated (antihistamines, 86%; epinephrine, 40%). Establishments commonly cited were Asian food restaurants (19%), ice cream shops (14%), and bakeries/doughnut shops (13%). Among meal courses, desserts were a common cause (43%). Of 106 registrants with previously diagnosed allergy who ordered food specifically for ingestion by the allergic individual, only 45% gave prior notification about the allergy to the establishment. For 83 (78%) of these 106 reactions, someone in the establishment knew that the food contained peanut or tree nut as an ingredient; in 50% of these incidents, the food item was "hidden" (in sauces, dressings, egg rolls, etc), visual identification being prevented. In 23 (22%) of the 106 cases, exposures were reported from contamination caused primarily by shared cooking/serving supplies. In the remaining 21 subjects with previously diagnosed allergy, reactions resulted

  7. BSACI guideline for the diagnosis and management of peanut and tree nut allergy.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, G; Anagnostou, K; Boyle, R J; Brathwaite, N; Ewan, P; Fox, A T; Huber, P; Luyt, D; Till, S J; Venter, C; Clark, A T

    2017-06-01

    Peanut nut and tree nut allergy are characterised by IgE mediated reactions to nut proteins. Nut allergy is a global disease. Limited epidemiological data suggest varying prevalence in different geographical areas. Primary nut allergy affects over 2% of children and 0.5% of adults in the UK. Infants with severe eczema and/or egg allergy have a higher risk of peanut allergy. Primary nut allergy presents most commonly in the first five years of life, often after the first known ingestion with typical rapid onset IgE-mediated symptoms. The clinical diagnosis of primary nut allergy can be made by the combination of a typical clinical presentation and evidence of nut specifc IgE shown by a positive skin prick test (SPT) or specific IgE (sIgE) test. Pollen food syndrome is a distinct disorder, usually mild, with oral/pharyngeal symptoms, in the context of hay fever or pollen sensitisation, which can be triggered by nuts. It can usually be distinguish clinically from primary nut allergy. The magnitude of a SPT or sIgE relates to the probability of clinical allergy, but does not relate to clinical severity. SPT of ≥ 8 mm or sIgE ≥ 15 KU/L to peanut is highly predictive of clinical allergy. Cut off values are not available for tree nuts. Test results must be interpreted in the context of the clinical history. Diagnostic food challenges are usually not necessary but may be used to confirm or refute a conflicting history and test result. As nut allergy is likely to be a long-lived disease, nut avoidance advice is the cornerstone of management. Patients should be provided with a comprehensive management plan including avoidance advice, patient specific emergency medication and an emergency treatment plan and training in administration of emergency medication. Regular re-training is required. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Dietary management of peanut and tree nut allergy: what exactly should patients avoid?

    PubMed

    Brough, H A; Turner, P J; Wright, T; Fox, A T; Taylor, S L; Warner, J O; Lack, G

    2015-05-01

    Peanut and tree nut allergies are the commonest cause of life-threatening food-allergic reactions and significantly affect quality of life in children and their families. Dietary nut avoidance and provision of emergency medication is currently the mainstay of treatment. Nut avoidance has consequences on both quality of life and nutrition. We review the terminology that may cause confusion and lead to unnecessary dietary restrictions. In peanut or tree nut-allergic children, introduction of specific nuts to which the child is not allergic may improve quality of life and should be considered in patients with multiple foods allergies, vegan or ethnic-specific diets, in whom nuts are an important source of protein. Nut-allergic consumers do not just need to avoid foods containing nuts as an ingredient, but also contend with pre-packed foods which frequently have precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) referring to possible nut contamination. Although the published rate of peanut contamination in 'snack' foods with PAL (see Box ) ranges from 0.9-32.4%, peanut contamination in non-snack items with PAL is far less common. We propose that in some peanut-allergic patients (depending on history of reactivity to trace levels of peanut, reaction severity, other medical conditions, willingness to always carry adrenaline, etc.), consideration may be given to allow the consumption of non-snack foods containing PAL following discussion with the patient's (and their family's) specialist. More work is needed to provide consumers with clearer information on the risk of potential nut contamination in pre-packed food. We also draw attention to the change in legislation in December 2014 that require mandatory disclosure of allergens in non-pre-packed foods. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1071 Section 180... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a..., tree nuts, milk, soybeans, eggs (including putrescent eggs), fish, crustacea, and wheat are exempted...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1071 Section 180... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a..., tree nuts, milk, soybeans, eggs (including putrescent eggs), fish, crustacea, and wheat are exempted...

  11. 21 CFR 164.110 - Mixed nuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products... shelled tree nut ingredients, with or without one or more of the optional shelled peanut ingredients, of... is packed in transparent containers, three or more of the optional tree nut ingredients shall be...

  12. Current perspectives on tree nut allergy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Tamar; Sicherer, Scott

    2018-01-01

    Tree nut (TN) allergy is common and often severe. It has become an important health concern as availability and consumption have increased. Prevalence varies by age and geographic region and appears to have increased in children. Accidental ingestion of TNs is common. Unfortunately, there is a lower likelihood of resolution of TN allergy, roughly 10%. TN-specific skin tests and serum immunoglobulin E levels can help aid in the diagnosis of TN allergy, but a careful medical history is important because a positive test in isolation is not typically diagnostic. Component-resolved diagnostic tests are being increasingly utilized and may improve accuracy. Management consists of strict avoidance of the causal nut(s) and prompt treatment of symptoms upon accidental exposure. A specific consideration with regard to the management of TN allergy is the decision to avoid all TNs or only the TNs to which a patient is clinically allergic. There are currently no data on the primary or secondary prevention of TN allergy. Treatment strategies are being evaluated. PMID:29618933

  13. Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits - Diseases of Vegetable Crops - Diseases of Grapes - Diseases of Tree Nuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Donald H.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of four sections on plant disease recognition and control. The titles of these four sections are: (1) Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits; (2) Diseases of Vegetable Crops; (3) Diseases of Crops; and (4) Diseases of Tree Nuts. The first section discusses…

  14. [Consumption of nuts and vegetal oil in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Ferrer-García, Juan Carlos; Granell Vidal, Lina; Muñoz Izquierdo, Amparo; Sánchez Juan, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the cardiovascular benefits of the Mediterranean Diet, enriched with olive oil and nuts. People with diabetes, who have an increased risk of cardiovascular complications, could benefit greatly from following this type of eating pattern. Analysis of vegetable fats intake from nuts and olive oil in patients with 1 Diabetes Mellitus type (DM1). Transverse descriptive study comparing 60 people with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM1) with 60 healthy individuals. We collect the frequency of consumption of vegetable oils and nuts and calculate the contribution of these foods in mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid). For data collection we designed a food frequency questionnaire specifically. We also collect anthropometric variables, cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes-related variables. Vegetable fat intake from vegetable oils (3.02 ± 1.14 vs 3.07 ± 1.27 portions/day, P = 0.822) and nuts (1.35 ± 2.24 vs 1.60 ± 2.44 portions/week, P = 0.560), was similar in both groups. The DM1 group consumed fewer portions of olive oil daily than the control group (2.55 ± 1.17 vs 3.02 ± 1.34 portions/day, P = 0.046). We detected a significantly lower intake of α-linolenic acid in the control group (1.13 ± 2.06 versus 2.64 ± 4.37 g/day, p = 0.018) while there were not differences in the rest of fatty acids (oleic acid 28.30 ± 18.13 vs 29.53 ± 16.90 g/day, P = 0.703; linoleic 13.70 ± 16.80 vs 15.45 ± 19.90 g/day, P = 0.605). In DM1, it not demonstrated an influence of the intake of vegetable fats and oils from nuts in the anthropometric, metabolic and diabetes-specific variables. In people with DM1, total intake of vegetable oils and nuts do not differ from the general population. However, the consumption of olive oil and the contribution of α-linolenic fatty acid derived from such fats are slightly lower than the general population. Although intake of vegetable oils and nuts in people with DM1

  15. Response of postharvest tree nut lepidopteran pests to vacuum treatments.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A; Zettler, J L

    2009-10-01

    Industry concerns over insect resistance, regulatory action, and the needs of organic processors have renewed interest in nonchemical alternative postharvest treatments to fumigants used for California tree nuts. The development of inexpensive polyvinyl chloride containers capable of holding low pressures has increased the practicality of vacuum treatments for durable commodities such as tree nuts. To develop vacuum treatment protocols, we determined the relative tolerance to vacuum (50 mmHg) at 25 and 30 degrees C of different life stages of three postharvest pests of tree nuts: codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), and Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). At both temperatures, nondiapausing codling moth larvae were the least tolerant stage tested. LT95 values for diapausing Indianmeal moth larvae were similar to Indianmeal moth eggs at both temperatures. Indianmeal moth diapausing larvae and eggs were the most tolerant at 25 degrees C, whereas navel orangeworm eggs were most tolerant at 30 degrees C. Field tests using GrainPro Cocoons (GrainPro, Inc., Concord, MA) to treat shelled almonds, Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb, in bins at vacuum levels of 18-43 mmHg at average winter temperatures (6-10 degrees C) showed that diapausing codling moth larvae were the most tolerant under these conditions and that exposures of 7-13 d provided incomplete control. Summer field tests treating in-shell almonds in bags at average temperatures of 25-30 degrees C provided complete control with 48 h exposure to average vacuum levels of 50 mmHg, and navel orangeworm eggs were the most tolerant stage.

  16. Tree nut consumption improves nutrient intake and diet quality in US adults: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent epidemiologic studies assessing tree nut (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) consumption and the association with nutrient intake and diet quality are lacking. This study determined the association of tree nut consumption and ...

  17. Textural, Rheological and Sensory Properties and Oxidative Stability of Nut Spreads—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shakerardekani, Ahmad; Karim, Roselina; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd; Chin, Nyuk Ling

    2013-01-01

    Tree nuts are rich in macro and micronutrients, phytochemicals, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. The development of nut spreads would potentially increase the food uses of nuts and introduce consumers with a healthier, non-animal breakfast snack food. Nut spreads are spreadable products made from nuts that are ground into paste. Roasting and milling (particle size reduction) are two important stages for the production of nut spreads that affected the textural, rheological characteristic and overall quality of the nut spread. Textural, color, and flavor properties of nut spreads play a major role in consumer appeal, buying decisions and eventual consumption. Stability of nut spreads is influenced by its particle size. Proper combination of ingredients (nut paste, sweetener, vegetable oil and protein sources) is also required to ensure a stable nut spread product is produced. Most of the nut spreads behaved like a non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic fluid under yield stress which help the producers how to start pumping and stirring of the nut spreads. Similar to other high oil content products, nut spreads are susceptible to autoxidation. Their oxidation can be controlled by application of antioxidants, using processing techniques that minimize tocopherol and other natural antioxidant losses. PMID:23429239

  18. Effect of tree nuts on glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled dietary trials.

    PubMed

    Viguiliouk, Effie; Kendall, Cyril W C; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Cozma, Adrian I; Ha, Vanessa; Mirrahimi, Arash; Jayalath, Viranda H; Augustin, Livia S A; Chiavaroli, Laura; Leiter, Lawrence A; de Souza, Russell J; Jenkins, David J A; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-01-01

    Tree nut consumption has been associated with reduced diabetes risk, however, results from randomized trials on glycemic control have been inconsistent. To provide better evidence for diabetes guidelines development, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess the effects of tree nuts on markers of glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases through 6 April 2014. Randomized controlled trials ≥3 weeks conducted in individuals with diabetes that compare the effect of diets emphasizing tree nuts to isocaloric diets without tree nuts on HbA1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR. Two independent reviewer's extracted relevant data and assessed study quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% CI's. Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q-statistic) and quantified (I2). Twelve trials (n = 450) were included. Diets emphasizing tree nuts at a median dose of 56 g/d significantly lowered HbA1c (MD = -0.07% [95% CI:-0.10, -0.03%]; P = 0.0003) and fasting glucose (MD = -0.15 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.27, -0.02 mmol/L]; P = 0.03) compared with control diets. No significant treatment effects were observed for fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, however the direction of effect favoured tree nuts. Majority of trials were of short duration and poor quality. Pooled analyses show that tree nuts improve glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes, supporting their inclusion in a healthy diet. Owing to the uncertainties in our analyses there is a need for longer, higher quality trials with a focus on using nuts to displace high-glycemic index carbohydrates. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01630980.

  19. A protocol for a systematic review to identify allergenic tree nuts and the molecules responsible for their allergenic properties.

    PubMed

    Javed, Bushra; Padfield, Philip; Sperrin, Matthew; Simpson, Angela; Mills, E N Clare

    2017-08-01

    Food regulations require that tree nuts and derived ingredients are included on food labels in order to help individuals with IgE-mediated allergies to avoid them. However, there is no consensus regarding which tree nut species should be included in this definition and specified on food labels. Allergen detection methods used for monitoring foods target allergen molecules, but it not clear which are the most relevant molecules to choose. A modified population-exposure-comparators-outcome (PECO) approach has been developed to systematically review the evidence regarding (1) which allergenic tree nuts should be included in food allergen labelling lists and (2) which are the clinically relevant allergens which should be used as analytical targets. A search strategy and criteria against which the evidence will be evaluated have been developed. The resulting evidence will be used to rank tree nuts with regards their ability to cause IgE-mediated allergies, and allergen molecules regarding their capacity to elicit an allergic reaction. The results of the systematic review will enable risk assessors and managers to identify tree nut species that should be included in food allergen labelling lists and ensure analytical methods for determination of allergens in foods are targeting appropriate molecules. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'.

    PubMed

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Massi, Fernanda P; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype.

  1. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin’

    PubMed Central

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Massi, Fernanda P.; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype. PMID:26717519

  2. Effect of Tree Nuts on Glycemic Control in Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Dietary Trials

    PubMed Central

    Viguiliouk, Effie; Kendall, Cyril W. C.; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Cozma, Adrian I.; Ha, Vanessa; Mirrahimi, Arash; Jayalath, Viranda H.; Augustin, Livia S. A.; Chiavaroli, Laura; Leiter, Lawrence A.; de Souza, Russell J.; Jenkins, David J. A.; Sievenpiper, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tree nut consumption has been associated with reduced diabetes risk, however, results from randomized trials on glycemic control have been inconsistent. Objective To provide better evidence for diabetes guidelines development, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess the effects of tree nuts on markers of glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases through 6 April 2014. Study Selection Randomized controlled trials ≥3 weeks conducted in individuals with diabetes that compare the effect of diets emphasizing tree nuts to isocaloric diets without tree nuts on HbA1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR. Data Extraction and Synthesis Two independent reviewer’s extracted relevant data and assessed study quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% CI’s. Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q-statistic) and quantified (I2). Results Twelve trials (n = 450) were included. Diets emphasizing tree nuts at a median dose of 56 g/d significantly lowered HbA1c (MD = −0.07% [95% CI:−0.10, −0.03%]; P = 0.0003) and fasting glucose (MD = −0.15 mmol/L [95% CI: −0.27, −0.02 mmol/L]; P = 0.03) compared with control diets. No significant treatment effects were observed for fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, however the direction of effect favoured tree nuts. Limitations Majority of trials were of short duration and poor quality. Conclusions Pooled analyses show that tree nuts improve glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes, supporting their inclusion in a healthy diet. Owing to the uncertainties in our analyses there is a need for longer, higher quality trials with a focus on using nuts to displace high-glycemic index carbohydrates. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01630980 PMID:25076495

  3. Cross-reactivity profiles of legumes and tree nuts using the xMAP® multiplex food allergen detection assay.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chung Y; Oles, Carolyn; Nowatzke, William; Oliver, Kerry; Garber, Eric A E

    2017-10-01

    The homology between proteins in legumes and tree nuts makes it common for individuals with food allergies to be allergic to multiple legumes and tree nuts. This propensity for allergenic and antigenic cross-reactivity means that commonly employed commercial immunodiagnostic assays (e.g., dipsticks) for the detection of food allergens may not always accurately detect, identify, and quantitate legumes and tree nuts unless additional orthogonal analytical methods or secondary measures of analysis are employed. The xMAP ® Multiplex Food Allergen Detection Assay (FADA) was used to determine the cross-reactivity patterns and the utility of multi-antibody antigenic profiling to distinguish between legumes and tree nuts. Pure legumes and tree nuts extracted using buffered detergent displayed a high level of cross-reactivity that decreased upon dilution or by using a buffer (UD buffer) designed to increase the stringency of binding conditions and reduce the occurrence of false positives due to plant-derived lectins. Testing for unexpected food allergens or the screening for multiple food allergens often involves not knowing the identity of the allergen present, its concentration, or the degree of modification during processing. As such, the analytical response measured may represent multiple antigens of varying antigenicity (cross-reactivity). This problem of multiple potential analytes is usually unresolved and the focus becomes the primary analyte, the antigen the antibody was raised against, or quantitative interpretation of the content of the analytical sample problematic. The alternative solution offered here to this problem is the use of an antigenic profile as generated by the xMAP FADA using multiple antibodies (bead sets). By comparing the antigenic profile to standards, the allergen may be identified along with an estimate of the concentration present. Cluster analysis of the xMAP FADA data was also performed and agreed with the known phylogeny of the legumes

  4. Near infrared spectroscopy for high-throughput characterization of Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) nut fat profiles.

    PubMed

    Davrieux, Fabrice; Allal, François; Piombo, Georges; Kelly, Bokary; Okulo, John B; Thiam, Massamba; Diallo, Ousmane B; Bouvet, Jean-Marc

    2010-07-14

    The Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) is a major tree species in African agroforestry systems. Butter extracted from its nuts offers an opportunity for sustainable development in Sudanian countries and an attractive potential for the food and cosmetics industries. The purpose of this study was to develop near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations to characterize Shea nut fat profiles. Powders prepared from nuts collected from 624 trees in five African countries (Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana and Uganda) were analyzed for moisture content, fat content using solvent extraction, and fatty acid profiles using gas chromatography. Results confirmed the differences between East and West African Shea nut fat composition: eastern nuts had significantly higher fat and oleic acid contents. Near infrared reflectance spectra were recorded for each sample. Ten percent of the samples were randomly selected for validation and the remaining samples used for calibration. For each constituent, calibration equations were developed using modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression. The equation performances were evaluated using the ratio performance to deviation (RPD(p)) and R(p)(2) parameters, obtained by comparison of the validation set NIR predictions and corresponding laboratory values. Moisture (RPD(p) = 4.45; R(p)(2) = 0.95) and fat (RPD(p) = 5.6; R(p)(2) = 0.97) calibrations enabled accurate determination of these traits. NIR models for stearic (RPD(p) = 6.26; R(p)(2) = 0.98) and oleic (RPD(p) = 7.91; R(p)(2) = 0.99) acids were highly efficient and enabled sharp characterization of these two major Shea butter fatty acids. This study demonstrated the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy for high-throughput phenotyping of Shea nuts.

  5. Cleaning oil refining drainage waters out of emulsified oil products with thermic treated cedar nut shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyatanova, P. A.; Adeeva, L. N.

    2017-08-01

    It was elaborated the ability of the sorbent produced by thermic treatment of cedar nut shell to destruct model and real first kind (direct) emulsions in static and dynamic conditions. In static conditions optimal ratio sorbent-emulsion with the original concentration of oil products 800 mg/l was in the range of 2.0 g per 100 ml of emulsion which corresponds to the level of treatment 94.9%. The time of emulsion destruction was 40 minutes. This sorbent is highly active in dynamic processes of oil-contaminated water treatment, the level of treatment 96.0% is being achieved. Full dynamic sorptive capacity of the sorbent is 0.85 g/g. Sorbent based on the thermic treated cedar nut shell can be elaborated as sorptive filter element of local treatment facilities of oil refining and petrochemical processes. After the treatment with this sorbent of drainage waters of oil refinery in dynamic conditions the concentration of oil products became less than mpc on oil products for waste waters coming to biological treatment.

  6. Toxic and essential elements in five tree nuts from Hangzhou market, China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhanglin; Tang, Fubin; Yu, Qing; Liu, Yihua

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a total of 35 tree nut samples of walnut, pecan, pine seed, hickory nut and torreya were obtained from 5 farm product markets in Hangzhou, China, and investigated for essential (Cr, Mn, Fe, Mo, Cu, Zn, Se and Sr) and toxic (Al, As, Cd and Pb) elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. Mean elemental concentrations of different tree nuts were in the following ranges: Cr 0.26-0.78 mg kg -1 , Mn 42.1-174 mg kg -1 , Fe 33.7-43.9 mg kg -1 , Mo 0.11-0.48 mg kg -1 , Cu 10.3-17.6 mg kg -1 , Zn 21.6-56.1 mg kg -1 , Se 0.015-0.051 mg kg -1 , Al 1.44-37.6 mg kg -1 , As 0.0062-0.047 mg kg -1 , Cd 0.016-0.18 mg kg -1 and Pb 0.0069-0.029 mg kg -1 . The estimated provisional tolerable daily intake of Al, As, Cd and Pb was much lower than the provisional tolerable daily intake.

  7. Impact of different types of tree nut, peanut, and soy nut consumption on serum C-reactive protein (CRP): A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Rezaie, Peyman; Ferns, Gordon A; Gao, Hong-Kai

    2016-11-01

    The effects of different types of tree nut, peanut, and soy nut consumption on serum C - reactive protein (CRP) are not well established. we aimed to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the effect of nut consumption (tree nuts, peanuts, and soy nuts) on serum CRP. PubMed-Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar databases were searched (up until April 20 2016) to identify prospective studies evaluating the impact of tree nut, peanut, and soy nut consumption on serum CRP. Random effects models meta-analysis was used for quantitative data synthesis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using the leave-one-out method. Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the I index. Systematic review registration: CRD42016038044. From a total of 844 entries identified via searches, 20 studies were included in the final selection. The meta-analysis indicated a nonsignificant increase in serum CRP concentrations following nut consumption (weighted mean difference [WMD] 0.17 mg/L, (95% CI -0.67 to 0.33, I 52.1%). The WMDs for IL6 was -0.06(ng/dL), (95% CI -0.69 to 0.56, I 9.6%), -0.71(mg/dL), (95% CI -1.11 to -0.30, I 6.3%), for leptin, and -0.60(mg/dL), (95% CI -1.88 to 0.68, I 5.6%) for adiponectin, and -0.18(mg/dL), (95% CI -1.24 to 0.88, I 9.3%) for IL10 and -0.37 (pg/mL), (95% CI -0.90 to 0.16, I 7.9%) for TNF-α. These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. This meta-analysis suggests that nut consumption significantly decrease leptin while have no significant effect on CRP, IL6, adiponectin, IL10, and TNF-α.

  8. The epitopes that cause cross-reactions between peanuts and tree nuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many peanut allergic individuals also have allergies to tree nuts. Our previous work has shown that there are epitopes with different amino acid sequences, but similar physical and chemical properties are recognized by the same IgE molecule. Anti-Ara h 2 monoclonal antibodies were produced. They we...

  9. 21 CFR 164.110 - Mixed nuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Almonds, black walnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, English... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixed nuts. 164.110 Section 164.110 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products...

  10. 21 CFR 164.110 - Mixed nuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Almonds, black walnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, English... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixed nuts. 164.110 Section 164.110 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products...

  11. 21 CFR 164.110 - Mixed nuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Almonds, black walnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, English... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixed nuts. 164.110 Section 164.110 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products...

  12. 21 CFR 164.110 - Mixed nuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Almonds, black walnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, English... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixed nuts. 164.110 Section 164.110 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products...

  13. Effect of tree nuts on metabolic syndrome criteria: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Kendall, Cyril W C; Viguiliouk, Effie; Augustin, Livia S; Ha, Vanessa; Cozma, Adrian I; Mirrahimi, Arash; Maroleanu, Adriana; Chiavaroli, Laura; Leiter, Lawrence A; de Souza, Russell J; Jenkins, David J A; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-07-29

    To provide a broader evidence summary to inform dietary guidelines of the effect of tree nuts on criteria of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of tree nuts on criteria of the MetS. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (through 4 April 2014). We included relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of ≥3 weeks reporting at least one criterion of the MetS. Two or more independent reviewers extracted all relevant data. Data were pooled using the generic inverse variance method using random effects models and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran Q statistic and quantified by the I(2) statistic. Study quality and risk of bias were assessed. Eligibility criteria were met by 49 RCTs including 2226 participants who were otherwise healthy or had dyslipidaemia, MetS or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Tree nut interventions lowered triglycerides (MD=-0.06 mmol/L (95% CI -0.09 to -0.03 mmol/L)) and fasting blood glucose (MD=-0.08 mmol/L (95% CI -0.16 to -0.01 mmol/L)) compared with control diet interventions. There was no effect on waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or blood pressure with the direction of effect favouring tree nuts for waist circumference. There was evidence of significant unexplained heterogeneity in all analyses (p<0.05). Pooled analyses show a MetS benefit of tree nuts through modest decreases in triglycerides and fasting blood glucose with no adverse effects on other criteria across nut types. As our conclusions are limited by the short duration and poor quality of the majority of trials, as well as significant unexplained between-study heterogeneity, there remains a need for larger, longer, high-quality trials. NCT01630980. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Effect of tree nuts on metabolic syndrome criteria: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Kendall, Cyril W C; Viguiliouk, Effie; Augustin, Livia S; Ha, Vanessa; Cozma, Adrian I; Mirrahimi, Arash; Maroleanu, Adriana; Chiavaroli, Laura; Leiter, Lawrence A; de Souza, Russell J; Jenkins, David J A; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide a broader evidence summary to inform dietary guidelines of the effect of tree nuts on criteria of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Design We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of tree nuts on criteria of the MetS. Data sources We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (through 4 April 2014). Eligibility criteria for selecting studies We included relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of ≥3 weeks reporting at least one criterion of the MetS. Data extraction Two or more independent reviewers extracted all relevant data. Data were pooled using the generic inverse variance method using random effects models and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran Q statistic and quantified by the I2 statistic. Study quality and risk of bias were assessed. Results Eligibility criteria were met by 49 RCTs including 2226 participants who were otherwise healthy or had dyslipidaemia, MetS or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Tree nut interventions lowered triglycerides (MD=−0.06 mmol/L (95% CI −0.09 to −0.03 mmol/L)) and fasting blood glucose (MD=−0.08 mmol/L (95% CI −0.16 to −0.01 mmol/L)) compared with control diet interventions. There was no effect on waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or blood pressure with the direction of effect favouring tree nuts for waist circumference. There was evidence of significant unexplained heterogeneity in all analyses (p<0.05). Conclusions Pooled analyses show a MetS benefit of tree nuts through modest decreases in triglycerides and fasting blood glucose with no adverse effects on other criteria across nut types. As our conclusions are limited by the short duration and poor quality of the majority of trials, as well as significant unexplained between-study heterogeneity, there remains a need for larger, longer, high-quality trials. Trial registration number NCT01630980. PMID:25074070

  15. Replacing American snacks with tree nuts increases consumption of key nutrients among US children and adults: results of an NHANES modeling study.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-03-07

    Replacing typical American snacks with tree nuts may be an effective way to improve diet quality and compliance with the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). To assess and quantify the impact of replacing typical snacks with composite tree nuts or almonds on diet metrics, including empty calories (i.e., added sugars and solid fats), individual fatty acids, macronutrients, nutrients of public health concern, including sodium, fiber and potassium, and summary measures of diet quality. Food pattern modeling was implemented in the nationally representative 2009-2012 National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) in a population of 17,444 children and adults. All between-meal snacks, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis with a weighted tree nut composite, reflecting consumption patterns in the population. Model 1 replaced all snacks with tree nuts, while Model 2 exempted whole fruits, non-starchy vegetables, and whole grains (>50% of total grain content). Additional analyses were conducted using almonds only. Outcomes of interest were empty calories (i.e., solid fats and added sugars), saturated and mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, fiber, protein, sodium, potassium and magnesium. The Healthy Eating Index-2010, which measures adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, was used as a summary measure of diet quality. Compared to observed diets, modeled food patterns were significantly lower in empty calories (-20.1% and -18.7% in Model 1 and Model 2, respectively), added sugars (-17.8% and -16.9%), solid fats (-21.0% and -19.3%), saturated fat (-6.6% and -7.1%)., and sodium (-12.3% and -11.2%). Modeled patterns were higher in oils (65.3% and 55.2%), monounsaturated (35.4% and 26.9%) and polyunsaturated fats (42.0% and 35.7%), plant omega 3 s (53.1% and 44.7%), dietary fiber (11.1% and 14.8%), and magnesium (29.9% and 27.0%), and were modestly higher in potassium (1.5% and 2.9%). HEI-2010 scores were significantly

  16. Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding patterns in macadamia nut in Hawaii: nut maturity and cultivar effects.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Wright, Mark G; Golden, Mary

    2009-08-01

    Nezara viridula L. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a serious pest of macadamia nuts, Macadamia integrifolia, in Hawaii. Using ruthenium red dye to stain stink bug feeding probes, feeding activity was determined for nuts of various maturity levels harvested from the tree and off the ground throughout the growing season in five commercial cultivars. Damage occurred in the tree and on the ground during all nut growth stages. Damage on the ground was often higher than in the tree. Cultivar 246 was more susceptible to attack than cultivars 333 and 800. It was previously thought that cultivar susceptibility was related to husk and shell thickness, but cultivar 246 showed higher damage than other cultivars even during early nut development when the nuts are small and before the shell has formed. This suggests that shell and husk thickness may play a secondary role in susceptibility to feeding by N. viridula. Monitoring N. viridula feeding activity during early nut development may help alert growers to potential problems later in the season, but early-season probing activity in immature nuts was not a good predictor of damage levels in mature nuts later in the season in our study.

  17. International study of risk-mitigating factors and in-flight allergic reactions to peanut and tree nut.

    PubMed

    Greenhawt, Matthew; MacGillivray, Fiona; Batty, Geraldine; Said, Maria; Weiss, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Three studies have analyzed in-flight peanut/tree nut reactions, although the studies were conducted exclusively among Americans. We studied the international in-flight experience and determined the efficacy of certain risk-mitigation strategies. A 47-question on-line survey was distributed through the websites and social media outlets of the member organizations of the Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Alliance. Both persons reporting an in-flight reaction and nonreactors were surveyed to assess details of air travel preparation and any reported reaction. Data were analyzed to determine the association among flying behaviors, reported reactions, and nationality. We found that 349 reactions were reported among 3273 respondents from 11 countries; 13.3% received epinephrine as treatment. Flight crews were notified about 50.1% of reactions. Sixty-nine percent of all respondents reported making a preflight accommodation request, although just 55% of reactors did so compared with 71.6% of nonreactors (P < .001). Adjusted odds of epinephrine use were increased with reported gastrointestinal or cardiovascular symptoms or with notifying the crew. Passengers who requested any accommodation, requested a peanut/tree nut-free meal, wiped their tray table, avoided airline pillows or blankets, requested a buffer zone, requested other passengers not consume peanut/tree nut-containing products, or reported not consuming airline-provided food had significantly lower adjusted odds of reporting a reaction. In-flight peanut and tree nut reactions occur internationally. Epinephrine was sparsely used to treat reactions. We identified 8 risk-mitigating behaviors associated with lower odds of a reported reaction. Future study is necessary to further validate the effectiveness of these passenger-initiated risk-mitigating behaviors. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Growing black walnut for nut production

    Treesearch

    William Reid; Mark Coggeshall; H.E. Garrett; Jerry. Van Sambeek

    2009-01-01

    Eastern black walnut trees (Juglans nigra) produce high-value, hardwood products and distinctively flavored, edible nuts. The potential for producting two valuable products from the same tree has captured the imagination of tree planters for years. Both large and small black walnut plantations have been established with the intent to harvest huge nut...

  19. Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acids Profile of Western Schley, Wichita, and Native Pecan Nuts Cultured in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Rangel, L R; Aguilera-Campos, K I; García-Triana, A; Ayala-Soto, J G; Chavez-Flores, D; Hernández-Ochoa, L

    2018-01-01

    Two different extraction processes, Soxhlet and ultrasound, were used to obtain the oil extracts of Western Schley, Wichita, and Native pecan nuts cultured in Chihuahua, Mexico. The aspects evaluated in this study were the extraction yield of the processes and fatty acids' profile of the resulting extracts. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify and determine the composition percentage of fatty acids present in pecan nuts oils extracted. The results obtained show that higher oil extraction yields were obtained by Soxhlet method with hexane (69.90%) in Wichita varieties. Wichita, Western Schley, and Native pecan nuts from Chihuahua are rich in PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) and MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids) and have low levels of SFA (saturated fatty acids). The predominant fatty acid present in all pecan nuts oils was linoleic acid followed by oleic acid. Myristic acid, palmitic acid, and linolenic acid were also identified in representative quantities. The results from this study suggest that there are statistically significant differences in the chemical composition of the pecan nuts oils extracted from the varieties cultured in Chihuahua, Mexico, and those cultivated in other regions of the world.

  20. Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acids Profile of Western Schley, Wichita, and Native Pecan Nuts Cultured in Chihuahua, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Rangel, L. R.; Aguilera-Campos, K. I.; García-Triana, A.; Ayala-Soto, J. G.; Chavez-Flores, D.

    2018-01-01

    Two different extraction processes, Soxhlet and ultrasound, were used to obtain the oil extracts of Western Schley, Wichita, and Native pecan nuts cultured in Chihuahua, Mexico. The aspects evaluated in this study were the extraction yield of the processes and fatty acids' profile of the resulting extracts. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify and determine the composition percentage of fatty acids present in pecan nuts oils extracted. The results obtained show that higher oil extraction yields were obtained by Soxhlet method with hexane (69.90%) in Wichita varieties. Wichita, Western Schley, and Native pecan nuts from Chihuahua are rich in PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) and MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids) and have low levels of SFA (saturated fatty acids). The predominant fatty acid present in all pecan nuts oils was linoleic acid followed by oleic acid. Myristic acid, palmitic acid, and linolenic acid were also identified in representative quantities. The results from this study suggest that there are statistically significant differences in the chemical composition of the pecan nuts oils extracted from the varieties cultured in Chihuahua, Mexico, and those cultivated in other regions of the world. PMID:29610686

  1. Tree Nut Consumption Is Associated with Better Nutrient Adequacy and Diet Quality in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Carol E.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient adequacy of tree nut consumers has not been examined. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010 data were used to assess the association of tree nut consumption by adults 19+ years (n = 14,386) with nutrient adequacy and diet quality. Covariate adjusted usual intake was determined using two 24-h dietary recalls and the National Cancer Institute method. Percentages of the consumption groups below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI) score. Usual intake data showed consumers of tree nuts had a lower percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population below the EAR for vitamins A (22 ± 5 vs. 49 ± 1), E (38 ± 4 vs. 94 ± 0.4) and C (17 ± 4 vs. 44 ± 1); folate (2.5 ± 1.5 vs. 12 ± 0.6); calcium (26 ± 3 vs. 44 ± 1); iron (3 ± 0.6 vs. 9 ± 0.4); magnesium (8 ± 1 vs. 60 ± 1); and zinc (1.5 ± 1 vs. 13 ± 1). Tree nut consumers had a higher percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population above the AI for fiber (33 ± 3 vs. 4 ± 0.3) and potassium (12 ± 3 mg vs. 2 ± 0.2 mg). HEI-2005 total score was higher (p < 0.0001) in tree nut consumers (61 ± 0.7 vs. 52 ± 0.3) than non-consumers. Health professionals should encourage the use of tree nuts as part of a dietary approach to healthy eating. PMID:25599274

  2. In-vitro activity of essential oils, in particular Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and tea tree oil products, against Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    1998-11-01

    The in-vitro activity of a range of essential oils, including tea tree oil, against the yeast candida was examined. Of the 24 essential oils tested by the agar dilution method against Candida albicans ATCC 10231, three did not inhibit C. albicans at the highest concentration tested, which was 2.0% (v/v) oil. Sandalwood oil had the lowest MIC, inhibiting C. albicans at 0.06%. Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil was investigated for activity against 81 C. albicans isolates and 33 non-albicans Candida isolates. By the broth microdilution method, the minimum concentration of oil inhibiting 90% of isolates for both C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species was 0.25% (v/v). The minimum concentration of oil killing 90% of isolates was 0.25% for C. albicans and 0.5% for non-albicans Candida species. Fifty-seven Candida isolates were tested for sensitivity to tea tree oil by the agar dilution method; the minimum concentration of oil inhibiting 90% of isolates was 0.5%. Tests on three intra-vaginal tea tree oil products showed these products to have MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations comparable to those of non-formulated tea tree oil, indicating that the tea tree oil contained in these products has retained its anticandidal activity. These data indicate that some essential oils are active against Candida spp., suggesting that they may be useful in the topical treatment of superficial candida infections.

  3. NTFP harvesters as citizen scientists: Validating traditional and crowdsourced knowledge on seed production of Brazil nut trees in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Evert; Valdivia, Jheyson; Alcázar Caicedo, Carolina; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Wadt, Lucia Helena O; Corvera, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors that underlie the production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), as well as regularly monitoring production levels, are key to allow sustainability assessments of NTFP extractive economies. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) seed harvesting from natural forests is one of the cornerstone NTFP economies in Amazonia. In the Peruvian Amazon it is organized in a concession system. Drawing on seed production estimates of >135,000 individual Brazil nut trees from >400 concessions and ethno-ecological interviews with >80 concession holders, here we aimed to (i) assess the accuracy of seed production estimates by Brazil nut seed harvesters, and (ii) validate their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) about the variables that influence Brazil nut production. We compared productivity estimates with actual field measurements carried out in the study area and found a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we compared the relationships between seed production and a number of phenotypic, phytosanitary and environmental variables described in literature with those obtained for the seed production estimates and found high consistency between them, justifying the use of the dataset for validating TEK and innovative hypothesis testing. As expected, nearly all TEK on Brazil nut productivity was corroborated by our data. This is reassuring as Brazil nut concession holders, and NTFP harvesters at large, rely on their knowledge to guide the management of the trees upon which their extractive economies are based. Our findings suggest that productivity estimates of Brazil nut trees and possibly other NTFP-producing species could replace or complement actual measurements, which are very expensive and labour intensive, at least in areas where harvesters have a tradition of collecting NTFPs from the same trees over multiple years or decades. Productivity estimates might even be sourced from harvesters through registers on an annual basis

  4. NTFP harvesters as citizen scientists: Validating traditional and crowdsourced knowledge on seed production of Brazil nut trees in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Evert; Valdivia, Jheyson; Alcázar Caicedo, Carolina; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Wadt, Lucia Helena O.; Corvera, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors that underlie the production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), as well as regularly monitoring production levels, are key to allow sustainability assessments of NTFP extractive economies. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) seed harvesting from natural forests is one of the cornerstone NTFP economies in Amazonia. In the Peruvian Amazon it is organized in a concession system. Drawing on seed production estimates of >135,000 individual Brazil nut trees from >400 concessions and ethno-ecological interviews with >80 concession holders, here we aimed to (i) assess the accuracy of seed production estimates by Brazil nut seed harvesters, and (ii) validate their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) about the variables that influence Brazil nut production. We compared productivity estimates with actual field measurements carried out in the study area and found a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we compared the relationships between seed production and a number of phenotypic, phytosanitary and environmental variables described in literature with those obtained for the seed production estimates and found high consistency between them, justifying the use of the dataset for validating TEK and innovative hypothesis testing. As expected, nearly all TEK on Brazil nut productivity was corroborated by our data. This is reassuring as Brazil nut concession holders, and NTFP harvesters at large, rely on their knowledge to guide the management of the trees upon which their extractive economies are based. Our findings suggest that productivity estimates of Brazil nut trees and possibly other NTFP-producing species could replace or complement actual measurements, which are very expensive and labour intensive, at least in areas where harvesters have a tradition of collecting NTFPs from the same trees over multiple years or decades. Productivity estimates might even be sourced from harvesters through registers on an annual basis

  5. Tree nut phytochemicals: composition, antioxidant capacity, bioactivity, impact factors. A systematic review of almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tree nuts contain an array of phytochemicals including carotenoids, phenolic acids, phytosterols and polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids, proanthocyanidins (PAC) and stilbenes, all of which are included in nutrient databases, as well as phytates, sphingolipids, alkylphenols and lignans, which ...

  6. Should we go nuts about nuts?

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Faeh, David

    2013-07-16

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, increasing evidence supports beneficial effects of nut consumption on health. A new analysis of the Spanish PREDIMED trial, published in BMC Medicine, has expanded our knowledge. The study showed that individuals eating nuts more than three times per week died less often from cardiovascular disease and cancer than non-consumers. The study also adds an important finding that previous epidemiological studies could not provide: a protective effect on premature mortality was only seen in the intervention group in which nut consumption increased during the 4.8 years of follow-up, not in the intervention group with additional olive oil consumption or in the control group. Nut consumption actually decreased during follow-up in the latter two groups. Questions remain to be answered on the quantity of nuts to be consumed for health benefits, on possible mechanisms of action, and on whether some types of nuts should be favored.Please see related research: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/164.

  7. Tree nut consumption is associated with better adiposity measures and cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome health risk factors in U.S adults: NHANES 2005-2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research has shown inconsistencies in the association of tree nut consumption with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). To determine the association of tree nut consumption with risk factors for CVD and for MetS in adults. NHANES 2005-2010 data were u...

  8. Storage stability and composition changes of three cold-pressed nut oils under refrigeration and room temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Rabadán, Adrián; Álvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Pardo, José Emilio; Alvarruiz, Andrés

    2018-09-01

    Chemical composition and stability parameters of three cold-pressed nut oils (almond, walnut and pistachio) were monitored for up to 16 months of storage at 5 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C and room temperature. Freshly pressed pistachio oil had lower peroxide value than almond oil and higher induction period than almond and walnut oils, indicating a higher stability. The peroxide values increased faster at room temperature than at lower temperatures during the storage time, and the highest increase was for pistachio oil stored at room temperature exposed to daylight. The induction period decreased for all three nut oils during the storage time, regardless of the storage conditions. Pistachio oil remained the most stable oil at the end of the storage time, followed by almond oil. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased slightly throughout the storage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Demographic predictors of peanut, tree nut, fish, shellfish, and sesame allergy in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shoshan, M; Harrington, D W; Soller, L; Fragapane, J; Joseph, L; Pierre, Y St; Godefroy, S B; Elliott, S J; Clarke, A E

    2012-01-01

    Background. Studies suggest that the rising prevalence of food allergy during recent decades may have stabilized. Although genetics undoubtedly contribute to the emergence of food allergy, it is likely that other factors play a crucial role in mediating such short-term changes. Objective. To identify potential demographic predictors of food allergies. Methods. We performed a cross-Canada, random telephone survey. Criteria for food allergy were self-report of convincing symptoms and/or physician diagnosis of allergy. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess potential determinants. Results. Of 10,596 households surveyed in 2008/2009, 3666 responded, representing 9667 individuals. Peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy were more common in children (odds ratio (OR) 2.24 (95% CI, 1.40, 3.59), 1.73 (95% CI, 1.11, 2.68), and 5.63 (95% CI, 1.39, 22.87), resp.) while fish and shellfish allergy were less common in children (OR 0.17 (95% CI, 0.04, 0.72) and 0.29 (95% CI, 0.14, 0.61)). Tree nut and shellfish allergy were less common in males (OR 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36, 0.83) and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.43, 0.91)). Shellfish allergy was more common in urban settings (OR 1.55 (95% CI, 1.04, 2.31)). There was a trend for most food allergies to be more prevalent in the more educated (tree nut OR 1.90 (95% CI, 1.18, 3.04)) and less prevalent in immigrants (shellfish OR 0.49 (95% CI, 0.26, 0.95)), but wide CIs preclude definitive conclusions for most foods. Conclusions. Our results reveal that in addition to age and sex, place of residence, socioeconomic status, and birth place may influence the development of food allergy.

  10. Activated carbons from end-products of tree nut and tree fruit production as sorbents for removing methyl bromide in ventilation effluent from postharvest chamber fumigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    End-products of tree nuts and tree fruits grown in California, USA were evaluated for the ability to remove methyl bromide from the ventilation effluent of postharvest chamber fumigations. Activated carbon sorbents from walnut and almond shells as well as peach and prune pits were prepared using dif...

  11. Chromatographic techniques for the determination of alkyl-phenols, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds in raw and roasted cold pressed cashew nut oils.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2010-11-19

    Anacardium occidentale belongs to the family Anacardiaceae and is principally grown in tropical America (Mexico, Peru, Brazil, etc.) and India. Cashew nuts contain low amounts of hydroxy alkyl phenols that come from an oily liquid present in their shell and that is known as cashew-nut shell liquid. This paper reports the alkyl phenols composition of cold pressed raw and roasted cashew nut oil. First of all, cashew nut shell liquid was used for a basic fractionation of the alkyl phenol classes by preparative TLC and definitively identified by GC-MS and GC-FID. Anacardic acids were the major alkylphenols contained in both oils followed by cardol, cardanol and 2-methylcardol compounds, respectively. Raw and roasted oils did not show different compositions except for cardanols. The oil produced from roasted cashew nut reported a higher concentration of cardanols. Furthermore, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds were determined by HPLC-FLD and HPLC-DAD-MS, respectively. Tocopherol content varied in a range of 171.48-29.56mg/100g from raw to roasted cashew nut oil, being β-tocopherol the one which presented a higher decrease (93.68%). Also minor polar compounds in cashew oil decreased after roasting from 346.52 to 262.83mg/kg. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Should we go nuts about nuts?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, increasing evidence supports beneficial effects of nut consumption on health. A new analysis of the Spanish PREDIMED trial, published in BMC Medicine, has expanded our knowledge. The study showed that individuals eating nuts more than three times per week died less often from cardiovascular disease and cancer than non-consumers. The study also adds an important finding that previous epidemiological studies could not provide: a protective effect on premature mortality was only seen in the intervention group in which nut consumption increased during the 4.8 years of follow-up, not in the intervention group with additional olive oil consumption or in the control group. Nut consumption actually decreased during follow-up in the latter two groups. Questions remain to be answered on the quantity of nuts to be consumed for health benefits, on possible mechanisms of action, and on whether some types of nuts should be favored. Please see related research: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/164. PMID:23866107

  13. Clinical signs associated with ingestion of black walnut tree (Juglans nigra) wood, nuts, and hulls in dogs: 93 cases (2001-2012).

    PubMed

    Coleman, Adrienne E; Merola, Valentina

    2016-01-15

    To identify clinical signs associated with oral exposure to black walnut tree (Juglans nigra) wood, nuts, or nut hulls in dogs and to compare clinical syndromes between dogs that ingested wood and dogs that ingested the walnuts or nut hulls. Retrospective case series. 93 dogs. Records of dogs with oral exposure to black walnut wood, nuts, or nut hulls between November 2001 and December 2012 were retrieved from the Animal Poison Control Center database. Records were reviewed, and data regarding signalment; exposure; time of onset, type, and duration of clinical signs; serum biochemical abnormalities; treatment; and response to treatment were collected. Results were compared statistically between dogs that ingested wood and those that ingested nut components. 28 cases involved exposure to wood, and 65 involved exposure to nuts or hulls. Spontaneous vomiting was commonly observed (13/28 [46%] and 31/65 [48%] dogs that ingested wood and nut components, respectively). Neurologic or musculoskeletal signs were significantly more common in dogs that ingested wood (26/28 [93%]) than in those that ingested nuts or hulls (15/65 [23%]). Relative risk of developing neurologic signs after ingestion of wood was approximately 4 times that after ingestion of nuts or hulls. Ingestion of black walnut wood by dogs resulted in a clinical syndrome in which neurologic or musculoskeletal signs were most frequently reported, whereas ingestion of black walnuts or their hulls was most commonly associated with vomiting. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing 2 different clinical syndromes associated with exposure to black walnut tree components in dogs.

  14. 21 CFR 164.120 - Shelled nuts in rigid or semirigid containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.120 Shelled nuts in rigid or semirigid containers. (a)-(b...

  15. 21 CFR 164.120 - Shelled nuts in rigid or semirigid containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.120 Shelled nuts in rigid or semirigid containers. (a)-(b...

  16. 21 CFR 164.120 - Shelled nuts in rigid or semirigid containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.120 Shelled nuts in rigid or semirigid containers. (a)-(b...

  17. 21 CFR 164.120 - Shelled nuts in rigid or semirigid containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.120 Shelled nuts in rigid or semirigid containers. (a)-(b...

  18. 21 CFR 164.120 - Shelled nuts in rigid or semirigid containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.120 Shelled nuts in rigid or semirigid containers. (a)-(b...

  19. Modulation of antioxidant potential in liver of mice by kernel oil of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) and its lack of tumour promoting ability in DMBA induced skin papillomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bimala; Kale, R K; Rao, A R

    2004-04-01

    Cashew nut shell oil has been reported to possess tumour promoting property. Therefore an attempt has been made to study the modulatory effect of cashew nut (Anlacardium occidentale) kernel oil on antioxidant potential in liver of Swiss albino mice and also to see whether it has tumour promoting ability like the shell oil. The animals were treated orally with two doses (50 and 100 microl/animal/day) of kernel oil of cashew nut for 10 days. The kernel oil was found to enhance the specific activities of SOD, catalase, GST, methylglyoxalase I and levels of GSH. These results suggested that cashew nut kernel oil had an ability to increase the antioxidant status of animals. The decreased level of lipid peroxidation supported this possibility. The tumour promoting property of the kernel oil was also examined and found that cashew nut kernel oil did not exhibit any solitary carcinogenic activity.

  20. Climate Change Affects Winter Chill for Temperate Fruit and Nut Trees

    PubMed Central

    Luedeling, Eike; Girvetz, Evan H.; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Brown, Patrick H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Temperate fruit and nut trees require adequate winter chill to produce economically viable yields. Global warming has the potential to reduce available winter chill and greatly impact crop yields. Methodology/Principal Findings We estimated winter chill for two past (1975 and 2000) and 18 future scenarios (mid and end 21st century; 3 Global Climate Models [GCMs]; 3 greenhouse gas emissions [GHG] scenarios). For 4,293 weather stations around the world and GCM projections, Safe Winter Chill (SWC), the amount of winter chill that is exceeded in 90% of all years, was estimated for all scenarios using the “Dynamic Model” and interpolated globally. We found that SWC ranged between 0 and about 170 Chill Portions (CP) for all climate scenarios, but that the global distribution varied across scenarios. Warm regions are likely to experience severe reductions in available winter chill, potentially threatening production there. In contrast, SWC in most temperate growing regions is likely to remain relatively unchanged, and cold regions may even see an increase in SWC. Climate change impacts on SWC differed quantitatively among GCMs and GHG scenarios, with the highest GHG leading to losses up to 40 CP in warm regions, compared to 20 CP for the lowest GHG. Conclusions/Significance The extent of projected changes in winter chill in many major growing regions of fruits and nuts indicates that growers of these commodities will likely experience problems in the future. Mitigation of climate change through reductions in greenhouse gas emissions can help reduce the impacts, however, adaption to changes will have to occur. To better prepare for likely impacts of climate change, efforts should be undertaken to breed tree cultivars for lower chilling requirements, to develop tools to cope with insufficient winter chill, and to better understand the temperature responses of tree crops. PMID:21629649

  1. Climate change affects winter chill for temperate fruit and nut trees.

    PubMed

    Luedeling, Eike; Girvetz, Evan H; Semenov, Mikhail A; Brown, Patrick H

    2011-01-01

    Temperate fruit and nut trees require adequate winter chill to produce economically viable yields. Global warming has the potential to reduce available winter chill and greatly impact crop yields. We estimated winter chill for two past (1975 and 2000) and 18 future scenarios (mid and end 21st century; 3 Global Climate Models [GCMs]; 3 greenhouse gas emissions [GHG] scenarios). For 4,293 weather stations around the world and GCM projections, Safe Winter Chill (SWC), the amount of winter chill that is exceeded in 90% of all years, was estimated for all scenarios using the "Dynamic Model" and interpolated globally. We found that SWC ranged between 0 and about 170 Chill Portions (CP) for all climate scenarios, but that the global distribution varied across scenarios. Warm regions are likely to experience severe reductions in available winter chill, potentially threatening production there. In contrast, SWC in most temperate growing regions is likely to remain relatively unchanged, and cold regions may even see an increase in SWC. Climate change impacts on SWC differed quantitatively among GCMs and GHG scenarios, with the highest GHG leading to losses up to 40 CP in warm regions, compared to 20 CP for the lowest GHG. The extent of projected changes in winter chill in many major growing regions of fruits and nuts indicates that growers of these commodities will likely experience problems in the future. Mitigation of climate change through reductions in greenhouse gas emissions can help reduce the impacts, however, adaption to changes will have to occur. To better prepare for likely impacts of climate change, efforts should be undertaken to breed tree cultivars for lower chilling requirements, to develop tools to cope with insufficient winter chill, and to better understand the temperature responses of tree crops.

  2. Quick-Connect Nut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a specially-designed nut, called the Quick-Connect Nut, for quick and easy assembly of components in the harsh environment of space, as in assembly of International Space Station. The design permits nuts to be installed simply by pushing them onto standard bolts, then giving a quick twist. To remove, they are unscrewed like conventional nuts. Possible applications include the mining industry for erecting support barriers, assembling underwater oil drilling platforms, fire-fighting equipment, scaffolding, assembly-line machinery, industrial cranes, and even changing lug nuts on race cars. The speed of assembly can make the difference between life and death in different aspects of life on Earth.

  3. Effects of heat and ultraviolet radiation on the oxidative stability of pine nut oil supplemented with carnosic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Zu, Ge; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhong-hua; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Hong-zheng

    2011-12-28

    The effects of carnosic acid (CA) of different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/g) and two common antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene and α-tocopherol) on oxidative stability in pine nut oil at different accelerated conditions (heating and ultraviolet radiation) were compared. The investigation focused on the increase in peroxide and conjugated diene values, as well as free fatty acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. The changes in trans fatty acid and aldehyde compound contents were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while the changes in pinolenic acid content were monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that CA was more effective in restraining pine nut oil oxidation under heating, UV-A and UV-B radiation, in which a dose-response relationship was observed. The antioxidant activity of CA was stronger than that of α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene. Pine nut oil supplemented with 0.2 mg/g CA exhibited favorable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation.

  4. Pairing nuts and dried fruit for cardiometabolic health.

    PubMed

    Carughi, Arianna; Feeney, Mary Jo; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Fulgoni, Victor; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bulló, Mònica; Webb, Densie

    2016-03-05

    Certain dietary patterns, in which fruits and nuts are featured prominently, reduce risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, estimated fruit consumption historically in the U.S. has been lower than recommendations. Dried fruit intake is even lower with only about 6.9 % of the adult population reporting any consumption. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee identified a gap between recommended fruit and vegetable intakes and the amount the population consumes. Even fewer Americans consume tree nuts, which are a nutrient-dense food, rich in bioactive compounds and healthy fatty acids. Consumption of fruits and nuts has been associated with reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease. An estimated 5.5 to 8.4 % of U.S. adults consume tree nuts and/or tree nut butter. This review examines the potential of pairing nuts and dried fruit to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors and focuses on emerging data on raisins and pistachios as representative of each food category. Evidence suggests that increasing consumption of both could help improve Americans' nutritional status and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

  5. Ana o 1 and Ana o 2 cashew allergens share cross-reactive CD4+ T-cell epitopes with other tree nuts

    PubMed Central

    Archila, Luis Diego; Chow, I-Ting; McGinty, John W.; Renand, Amedee; Jeong, David; Robinson, David; Farrington, Mary L.; Kwok, William.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Allergies to cashew are increasing in prevalence, with clinical symptoms ranging from oral pruritus to fatal anaphylactic reaction. Yet, cashew-specific T-cell epitopes and T-cell cross-reactivity amongst cashew and other tree nut allergens in humans remain uncharacterized. Objectives In this study, we characterized cashew specific T-cell responses in cashew allergic subjects and examined cross-reactivity of these cashew specific cells toward other tree nut allergens. Methods CD154 up-regulation assay was used to determine immunodominance hierarchy among cashew major allergens at the T cell level. The phenotype, magnitude and functionality of cashew-specific T-cells was determined by utilizing ex vivo staining with MHC class II tetramers. Dual tetramer staining and proliferation experiments were used to determine cross-reactivity to other tree nuts. Results CD4+ T-cell responses were directed towards cashew allergens Ana o 1 and Ana o 2. Multiple Ana o 1 and Ana o 2 T-cell epitopes were then identified. These epitopes elicited either TH2 or TH2/TH17 responses in allergic subjects, which were either cashew unique epitope or cross-reactive epitopes. For clones that recognized the cross-reactive epitope, T-cell clones responded robustly to cashew, hazelnut and/or pistachio but not to walnut. Conclusions Phylogenetically diverse tree nut allergens can activate cashew reactive T-cells and elicit a TH2 type response at an epitope specific level. Clinical relevance Lack of cross-reactivity between walnut and cashew suggest that cashew peptide immunotherapy approach may not be most effective for walnut. PMID:27129138

  6. Ana o 1 and Ana o 2 cashew allergens share cross-reactive CD4(+) T cell epitopes with other tree nuts.

    PubMed

    Archila, L D; Chow, I-T; McGinty, J W; Renand, A; Jeong, D; Robinson, D; Farrington, M L; Kwok, W W

    2016-06-01

    Allergies to cashew are increasing in prevalence, with clinical symptoms ranging from oral pruritus to fatal anaphylactic reaction. Yet, cashew-specific T cell epitopes and T cell cross-reactivity amongst cashew and other tree nut allergens in humans remain uncharacterized. In this study, we characterized cashew-specific T cell responses in cashew-allergic subjects and examined cross-reactivity of these cashew-specific cells towards other tree nut allergens. CD154 up-regulation assay was used to determine immunodominance hierarchy among cashew major allergens at the T cell level. The phenotype, magnitude and functionality of cashew-specific T cells were determined by utilizing ex vivo staining with MHC class II tetramers. Dual tetramer staining and proliferation experiments were used to determine cross-reactivity to other tree nuts. CD4(+) T cell responses were directed towards cashew allergens Ana o 1 and Ana o 2. Multiple Ana o 1 and Ana o 2 T cell epitopes were then identified. These epitopes elicited either TH 2 or TH 2/TH 17 responses in allergic subjects, which were either cashew unique epitope or cross-reactive epitopes. For clones that recognized the cross-reactive epitope, T cell clones responded robustly to cashew, hazelnut and/or pistachio but not to walnut. Phylogenetically diverse tree nut allergens can activate cashew-reactive T cells and elicit a TH 2-type response at an epitope-specific level. Lack of cross-reactivity between walnut and cashew suggests that cashew peptide immunotherapy approach may not be most effective for walnut. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Relationship of tree nut, peanut and peanut butter intake with total and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van den Brandt, Piet A; Schouten, Leo J

    2015-06-01

    Nut intake has been associated with lower mortality, but few studies have investigated causes of death other than cardiovascular disease, and dose-response relationships remain unclear. We investigated the relationship of nut (tree nut, peanut) and peanut butter intake with overall and cause-specific mortality. In the Netherlands Cohort Study, 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years provided information on dietary and lifestyle habits in 1986. Mortality follow-up until 1996 consisted of linkage to Statistics Netherlands. Multivariate case-cohort analyses were based on 8823 deaths and 3202 subcohort members with complete data on nuts and potential confounders. We also conducted meta-analyses of our results with those published from other cohort studies. Total nut intake was related to lower overall and cause-specific mortality (cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, neurodegenerative diseases, other causes) in men and women. When comparing those consuming 0.1-<5, 5-<10 and 10+ g nuts/day with non-consumers, multivariable hazard ratios for total mortality were 0.88, 0.74 and 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66-0.89], respectively (Ptrend = 0.003). Cause-specific hazard ratios comparing 10+ vs 0 g/day varied from 0.56 for neurodegenerative to 0.83 for cardiovascular disease mortality. Restricted cubic splines showed nonlinear dose-response relationships with mortality. Peanuts and tree nuts were inversely related to mortality, whereas peanut butter was not. In meta-analyses, summary hazard ratios for highest vs lowest nut consumption were 0.85 for cancer, and 0.71 for respiratory mortality. Nut intake was related to lower overall and cause-specific mortality, with evidence for nonlinear dose-response relationships. Peanut butter was not related to mortality. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  8. Prevalence of Salmonella in Cashews, Hazelnuts, Macadamia Nuts, Pecans, Pine Nuts, and Walnuts in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Hu, Lijun; Melka, David; Wang, Hua; Laasri, Anna; Brown, Eric W; Strain, Errol; Allard, Marc; Bunning, Vincent K; Musser, Steven M; Johnson, Rhoma; Santillana Farakos, Sofia; Scott, Virginia N; Pouillot, Régis; Doren, Jane M Van; Hammack, Thomas S

    2017-03-01

    Nuts have been identified as a vector for salmonellosis. The objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence and contamination level of Salmonella in raw tree nuts (cashews, pecans, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts) at retail markets in the United States. A total of 3,656 samples of six types of tree nuts were collected from different types of retail stores and markets nationwide between October 2014 and October 2015. These samples were analyzed using a modified version of the Salmonella culture method from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Of the 3,656 samples collected and tested, 32 were culturally confirmed as containing Salmonella. These isolates represented 25 serotypes. Salmonella was not detected in pecans and in-shell hazelnuts. Salmonella prevalence estimates (and 95% confidence intervals) in cashews, shelled hazelnuts, pine nuts, walnuts, and macadamia nuts were 0.55% [0.15, 1.40], 0.35% [0.04, 1.20], 0.48% [0.10, 1.40], 1.20% [0.53, 2.40], and 4.20% [2.40, 6.90], respectively. The rates of Salmonella isolation from major or big chain supermarkets, small chain supermarkets, discount, variety, or drug stores, and online were 0.64% [0.38, 1.00], 1.60% [0.80, 2.90], 0.00% [0.00, 2.40], and 13.64% [2.90, 35.00], respectively (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test: P = 0.02). The rates of Salmonella isolation for conventional and organic nuts were not significantly different. Of the samples containing Salmonella, 60.7% had levels less than 0.003 most probable number (MPN)/g. The highest contamination level observed was 0.092 MPN/g. The prevalence and levels of Salmonella in these tree nut samples were comparable to those previously reported for similar foods.

  9. Beliefs, benefits, barriers, attitude, intake and knowledge about peanuts and tree nuts among WIC participants in eastern North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Colby, Sarah; Herring, Julia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess beliefs (e.g. advantages, disadvantages, benefits, barriers) and knowledge about eating peanuts and tree nuts. Personal interviews based on the Theory of Planned Behavior were conducted to elicit beliefs about eating nuts. Then, a cross-sectional survey was administered to WIC participants from one county in North Carolina. One-hundred-twenty-four WIC participants (mean (SD) age=28.39 (8.09) completed the study. Most were Caucasian (51.6%) females (96%). About one third believed that eating nuts may help to lower cholesterol level. However, only about one forth believed that nuts can lower a risk of a heart attack or diabetes. More than one third believed that eating nuts will cause weight gain. The knowledge of respondents' about nutrient content of nuts was low with correct answers to most questions about 20% or below. The mean (SD) positive attitude, negative attitude, benefits and barriers scores, based on a range from 1 to 5, were 2.53 (0.91), 3.25 (0.89), 2.97 (0.85) and 2.90 (0.76), respectively. WIC participants' beliefs regarding the health effects of nuts are inconsistent with the most recent research findings. They are in a need to education about benefits of eating nuts. PMID:20090888

  10. Characterizing the Relationship Between Sesame, Coconut, and Nut Allergy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Stutius, Lisa M.; Sheehan, William J.; Rangsithienchai, Pitud; Bharmanee, Apinya; Scott, Jordan E.; Young, Michael C.; Dioun, Anahita; Schneider, Lynda C.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Sesame and coconut are emerging food allergens in the US. We sought to examine whether children allergic to peanuts and tree nuts are at increased risk of having an allergy to sesame or coconut. We performed a retrospective chart review of children who underwent skin prick testing (SPT) to sesame and coconut and identified 191 children who underwent SPT to sesame and 40 to coconut. Sensitization to sesame was more likely in children with positive SPT to peanuts (odds ratio [OR] = 6.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] [2.7–16.8], P<0.001) and tree nuts (OR = 10.5, 95% CI [4.0–27.7], P<0.001). Children with histories of both peanut and tree nut reaction were more likely to have a history of sesame reaction (OR = 10.2, 95% CI [2.7–38.7], P<0.001). Children with sensitization or allergy to peanuts or tree nuts were not more likely to be sensitized or allergic to coconut. In conclusion, children with peanut or tree nut sensitization were more likely to be sensitized to sesame but not coconut. Children with clinical histories of both peanut and tree nut allergy were more likely to be allergic to sesame. PMID:21073539

  11. A double row alley-cropping system for establishing nut orchards

    Treesearch

    Jerry Van Sambeek; William. Reid

    2017-01-01

    One of the greatest deterrents to establishing a new nut orchard is the long period of time it takes from tree planting to first commercial nut harvest. At the Pecan Experiment Field, a pecan or walnut must grow ten seasons or more and maybe a little less for Chinese chestnuts before the trees produces enough nuts to warrant mechanical harvesting.

  12. Advances in automated nut sorting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nuts in general, and tree nuts in particular, are a high value crop in many countries. Products with defects, contamination, insects or fungal damage can cause serious losses to producers, so almost all products are subjected to some level of sorting to remove these undesirable products. This chap...

  13. Use of standard area diagrams to improve assessment of scab on fruit of pecan: A nutraceutical tree nut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) contains the highest antioxidant levels of all tree nuts, particularly tocopherol and other phytochemicals, which are currently being studied for treatment of cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes, and nervous system disorders. The southeastern US supplies approxima...

  14. Bur and nut production on three chestnut cultivars

    Treesearch

    Michele Warmund; Darin J. Enderton; J.W. Van Sambeek

    2010-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize bur and nut development on shoots of young chestnut (Castanea sp.) trees over a two year period and to determine the effect of secondary (2°) bur removal on subsequent bur and nut production. Terminal shoots of 'Peach' trees with primary (1°) and 2° burs (PS) grew longer and...

  15. Aggravation of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants by tree nut-related foods and fermented foods in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Hisashi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Uehara, Masami

    2011-02-01

    Ninety-two exclusively breast-fed Japanese infants with atopic dermatitis were studied to see whether tree nut-related foods (chocolate and coffee) and fermented foods (cheese, yogurt, bread, soy sauce, miso soup and fermented soy beans) eaten by their mothers affected their skin condition. Of the 92 infants, 67 (73%) showed improvement of skin lesions when their mothers avoided these foods and showed aggravation of skin lesions when these foods were reintroduced. The predominant offending foods were chocolate, yogurt, soy sauce and miso soup. A long-term maternal exclusion of the trigger foods brought about progressive improvement of skin lesions in the majority of the infants. These findings suggest that tree nut-related foods and fermented foods are important offending foods of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  16. The pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) and its oil and polyphenolic fractions differentially modulate lipid metabolism and the antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Avila, Jesús A; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; López-Díaz, José A; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E; Gómez-García, María Del Consuelo; de la Rosa, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Tree nuts such as pecans (Carya illinoinensis) contain mostly oil but are also a source of polyphenols. Nut consumption has been linked to a reduction in serum lipid levels and oxidative stress. These effects have been attributed to the oil while overlooking the potential contribution of the polyphenols. Because the evidence regarding each fraction's bioactivity is scarce, we administered high-fat (HF) diets to male Wistar rats, supplementing them with pecan oil (HF+PO), pecan polyphenols (HF+PP) or whole pecans (HF+WP), and analysed the effects of each fraction. The HF diet increased the serum leptin and total cholesterol (TC) with respect to the control levels. The HF+WP diet prevented hyperleptinemia and decreased the TC compared with the control. The HF+WP diet upregulated the hepatic expression of apolipoprotein B and LDL receptor mRNAs with respect to the HF levels. The HF+PO diet reduced the level of triacylglycerols compared with the control. The HF+PP diet stimulated the hepatic expression of liver X receptor alpha mRNA. The HF+WP diet increased the activities of hepatic catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S transferase compared with the control, and decreased the degree of lipid peroxidation compared with the HF diet. The most bioactive diet was the WP diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Minc, Leah D.

    Transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants is one of the key mechanisms for long-term contamination of the human food chain. Nearly all computer models that address soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides use empirically-derived transfer factors to address this process. Essentially all available soil-to-plant transfer factors are based on measurements in annual crops. Because very few measurements are available for tree fruits, samples were taken of alfalfa and oats and the stems, leaves, and fruits and nuts of almond, apple, apricot, carob, fig, grape, nectarine, pecan, pistachio (natural and grafted), and pomegranate, along with local surface soil. The samples were dried,more » ground, weighed, and analyzed for trace constituents through a combination of induction-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for a wide range of naturally-occurring elements. Analysis results are presented and converted to soil-to-plant transfer factors. These are compared to commonly used and internationally recommended values. Those determined for annual crops are very similar to commonly-used values; those determined for tree fruits show interesting differences. Most macro- and micronutrients are slightly reduced in fruits; non-essential elements are reduced further. These findings may be used in existing computer models and may allow development of tree-fruit-specific transfer models.« less

  18. Pistachio allergy-prevalence and in vitro cross-reactivity with other nuts.

    PubMed

    Noorbakhsh, Reihaneh; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Sankian, Mojtaba; Shahidi, Fakhri; Tehrani, Mohsen; Azad, Farahzad Jabbari; Behmanesh, Fatemeh; Varasteh, AbdolReza

    2011-12-01

    Tree nut allergy is characterized by a high frequency of life-threatening reactions and is typically lifelong persistent. Some people with a pistachio nut allergy, which is common in the pistachio rich area of Iran, develop a hypersensitivity to other tree nuts as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pistachio nut allergy in Iran, the major pistachio cultivation region in the world. The study also addressed the presence of allergenic cross-reactivity between pistachio and other nuts, including almond, peanut, and cashew in pistachio allergic patients. A survey was conducted to determine whether the prevalence of pistachio allergy is affected by exposure to this nut in pistachio cultivation regions, as well as possible cross-reactivity between pistachio and other nuts including cashew, almond, and peanut. Inhibition Western blot and inhibition ELISA studies were conducted to assess the presence of allergenic cross-reactivity between pistachio and the other tree nuts. Our results revealed that the prevalence of pistachio allergy is twice as much in pistachio cultivation regions than other areas. Western blotting and inhibition ELISA presented high percentages of inhibition with pistachio and cashew, followed by almond and, to some degree, peanut which indicates different levels of allergenic cross-reactivity. The results indicate that exposure of people to pistachio significantly affects the prevalence of its allergic reactions. In addition, it was observed that, among pistachio allergic subjects, such exposure may affect the co-sensitivities with other nuts, including cashew and almond. The plant taxonomic classification of pistachio and other tree nuts does appear to predict allergenic cross-reactivity.

  19. Temporal expression of pecan allergens during nut development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pecan nuts and other tree nuts are among a group of eight foods that most commonly cause food allergy. The growth of pecan nuts is a highly complex process orchestrated by the temporal and spatial expression of specific genes. Three conserved seed-storage proteins from the prolamin and cupin super...

  20. Effects of tree nuts on blood lipids, apolipoproteins, and blood pressure: systematic review, meta-analysis, and dose-response of 61 controlled intervention trials.

    PubMed

    Del Gobbo, Liana C; Falk, Michael C; Feldman, Robin; Lewis, Kara; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-12-01

    The effects of nuts on major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including dose-responses and potential heterogeneity by nut type or phytosterol content, are not well established. We examined the effects of tree nuts (walnuts, pistachios, macadamia nuts, pecans, cashews, almonds, hazelnuts, and Brazil nuts) on blood lipids [total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides], lipoproteins [apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and apolipoprotein B100], blood pressure, and inflammation (C-reactive protein) in adults aged ≥18 y without prevalent CVD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Two investigators screened 1301 potentially eligible PubMed articles in duplicate. We calculated mean differences between nut intervention and control arms, dose-standardized to one 1-oz (28.4 g) serving/d, by using inverse-variance fixed-effects meta-analysis. Dose-response for nut intake was examined by using linear regression and fractional polynomial modeling. Heterogeneity by age, sex, background diet, baseline risk factors, nut type, disease condition, duration, and quality score was assessed with meta-regression. Publication bias was evaluated by using funnel plots and Egger's and Begg's tests. Sixty-one trials met eligibility criteria (n = 2582). Interventions ranged from 3 to 26 wk. Nut intake (per serving/d) lowered total cholesterol (-4.7 mg/dL; 95% CI: -5.3, -4.0 mg/dL), LDL cholesterol (-4.8 mg/dL; 95% CI: -5.5, -4.2 mg/dL), ApoB (-3.7 mg/dL; 95% CI: -5.2, -2.3 mg/dL), and triglycerides (-2.2 mg/dL; 95% CI: -3.8, -0.5 mg/dL) with no statistically significant effects on other outcomes. The dose-response between nut intake and total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was nonlinear (P-nonlinearity < 0.001 each); stronger effects were observed for ≥60 g nuts/d. Significant heterogeneity was not observed by

  1. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet Supplemented with Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts.

    PubMed

    Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Corella, Dolores; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Basora, Josep; Muñoz, Miguel A; Sorlí, José V; Martínez, J Alfredo; Fitó, Montserrat; Gea, Alfredo; Hernán, Miguel A; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2018-06-21

    Observational cohort studies and a secondary prevention trial have shown inverse associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk. In a multicenter trial in Spain, we assigned 7447 participants (55 to 80 years of age, 57% women) who were at high cardiovascular risk, but with no cardiovascular disease at enrollment, to one of three diets: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat). Participants received quarterly educational sessions and, depending on group assignment, free provision of extra-virgin olive oil, mixed nuts, or small nonfood gifts. The primary end point was a major cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). After a median follow-up of 4.8 years, the trial was stopped on the basis of a prespecified interim analysis. In 2013, we reported the results for the primary end point in the Journal. We subsequently identified protocol deviations, including enrollment of household members without randomization, assignment to a study group without randomization of some participants at 1 of 11 study sites, and apparent inconsistent use of randomization tables at another site. We have withdrawn our previously published report and now report revised effect estimates based on analyses that do not rely exclusively on the assumption that all the participants were randomly assigned. A primary end-point event occurred in 288 participants; there were 96 events in the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil (3.8%), 83 in the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with nuts (3.4%), and 109 in the control group (4.4%). In the intention-to-treat analysis including all the participants and adjusting for baseline characteristics and propensity scores, the hazard ratio was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 0.91) for a Mediterranean diet with extra

  2. Health Benefits of Nut Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets. PMID:22254047

  3. Phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soil using nut grass, Cyperus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Basumatary, Budhadev; Saikia, Rubul; Bordoloi, Sabitry

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Cyperus rotundus (nut grass), that could be effective in phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soil. A net house experiment was conducted with different concentrations (2.05, 4.08, 6.1, 8.15 and 10.2%) of crude oil-contaminated soil for 180 days. Plant growth, biomass, total oil and grease (TOG) degradation and microbial numbers were analyzed at different intervals i.e. 60,120 and 180 days in different percentages of crude oil contaminated soil. In presence of crude oil, plant biomass and heights reduced up to 26 and 21.9% respectively. Concerning TOG content in soil, C. rotundus could decrease up to 50.01, 46.1, 42.6, 38.8 and 32.6% in treatment I, II, III, IV and V respectively in vegetated pots during 180 days. In case of unvegetated pots, the reductions of TOG were 4.4, 5.6, 6.6, 7.6 and 9.6% in treatment A, B, C, D and E respectively. However, there was significant degradation (P = 0.05) of TOG in vegetated pots in comparison to unvegetated pots thereby proving the efficacy of this plant species for use in phytoremediation.

  4. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Nut production handbook for Eastern black walnut

    Treesearch

    James E. Jones; Rita Mueller; J.W. Van Sambeek

    1998-01-01

    Interest in the species of Eastern Black Walnut (Juglans nigra L.) for commercial nut production continues to increase. During the past several years interested growers have intensified tree care and evaluated several varieties and selections. It is believed that we have arrived at an economically viable threshold for commercial nut production. While we are...

  6. Effects of tree nuts on blood lipids, apolipoproteins, and blood pressure: systematic review, meta-analysis, and dose-response of 61 controlled intervention trials123

    PubMed Central

    Del Gobbo, Liana C; Falk, Michael C; Feldman, Robin; Lewis, Kara; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effects of nuts on major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including dose-responses and potential heterogeneity by nut type or phytosterol content, are not well established. Objectives: We examined the effects of tree nuts (walnuts, pistachios, macadamia nuts, pecans, cashews, almonds, hazelnuts, and Brazil nuts) on blood lipids [total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides], lipoproteins [apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and apolipoprotein B100], blood pressure, and inflammation (C-reactive protein) in adults aged ≥18 y without prevalent CVD. Design: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Two investigators screened 1301 potentially eligible PubMed articles in duplicate. We calculated mean differences between nut intervention and control arms, dose-standardized to one 1-oz (28.4 g) serving/d, by using inverse-variance fixed-effects meta-analysis. Dose-response for nut intake was examined by using linear regression and fractional polynomial modeling. Heterogeneity by age, sex, background diet, baseline risk factors, nut type, disease condition, duration, and quality score was assessed with meta-regression. Publication bias was evaluated by using funnel plots and Egger’s and Begg’s tests. Results: Sixty-one trials met eligibility criteria (n = 2582). Interventions ranged from 3 to 26 wk. Nut intake (per serving/d) lowered total cholesterol (−4.7 mg/dL; 95% CI: −5.3, −4.0 mg/dL), LDL cholesterol (−4.8 mg/dL; 95% CI: −5.5, −4.2 mg/dL), ApoB (−3.7 mg/dL; 95% CI: −5.2, −2.3 mg/dL), and triglycerides (−2.2 mg/dL; 95% CI: −3.8, −0.5 mg/dL) with no statistically significant effects on other outcomes. The dose-response between nut intake and total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was nonlinear (P-nonlinearity < 0.001 each); stronger effects were

  7. Allergic reactions to peanuts, tree nuts, and seeds aboard commercial airliners.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; DeMera, Rich; Vega, Laura C; Boren, Eric J; Deane, Sean; Haapanen, Lori A D; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2008-07-01

    Minimal data exist on the prevalence and characteristics of in-flight reactions to foods. To characterize reactions to foods experienced by passengers aboard commercial airplanes and to examine information about flying with a food allergy available from airlines. Telephone questionnaires were administered to individuals in a peanut, tree nut, and seed allergy database who self-reported reactions aboard aircraft. Airlines were contacted to obtain information on food allergy policies. Forty-one of 471 individuals reported allergic reactions to food while on airplanes, including 4 reporting more than 1 reaction. Peanuts accounted for most of the reactions. Twenty-one individuals (51%) treated their reactions during flight. Only 12 individuals (29%) reported the reaction to a flight attendant. Six individuals went to an emergency department after landing, including 1 after a flight diversion. Airline personnel were notified of only 3 of these severe reactions. Comparison of information given to 3 different investigators by airline customer service representatives showed that inconsistencies regarding important information occurred, such as whether the airline regularly serves peanuts. In this group of mainly adults with severe nut/seed allergy, approximately 9% reported experiencing an allergic reaction to food while on board an airplane. Some reactions were serious and potentially life-threatening. Individuals commonly did not inform airline personnel about their experiences. In addition, the quality of information about flying with food allergies available from customer service departments is highly variable and, in some cases, incomplete or inaccurate.

  8. Nut Growers Hear It Pays to Care for Black Walnut

    Treesearch

    Felix, Jr. Ponder; James E. Jones; Rita Mueller; Andrea Clark

    2003-01-01

    Careful attention to walnut trees could pay off in nut yields. Nutrient management and improved nut varieties can make a big difference in black walnut nut production. This was the theme of the 2002 American Black Walnut Conference in Springfield, MO. The conference was sponsored by the Center For Advancement of American Black Walnut and Southwest Missouri RC&D (...

  9. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2006-01-01

    Nuts contain bioactive constituents that elicit cardio-protective effects including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. The objective of the present study was to determine the total oil content, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and levels of tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols in oil extracted from freshly ground brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 40.4 to 60.8% (w/w) while the peroxide values ranged from 0.14 to 0.22 mEq O2/kg oil. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1), while linoleic acid (C18:2) was the most prevalent polyunsaturated fatty acid. The levels of total tocopherols ranged from 60.8 to 291.0 mg/g. Squalene ranged from 39.5 mg/g oil in the pine nut to 1377.8 mg/g oil in the brazil nut. beta-Sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 1325.4 to 4685.9 mg/g oil. In conclusion, the present data indicate that nuts are a good dietary source of unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols.

  10. Pistachio nut allergy: An updated overview.

    PubMed

    Costa, Joana; Silva, Isa; Vicente, António A; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2017-09-19

    Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera) is highly appreciated for its organoleptic characteristics and potential health benefits. However, this tree nut is also responsible for triggering moderate to severe IgE-mediated reactions in allergic individuals. Currently, pistachio nut allergy has gained some special attention, mainly due to its intrinsic relation with cashew nut allergy. Like for other nuts, the prevalence of pistachio nut allergy seems to be increasing at a global scale. Until now, there are five allergenic proteins officially listed for pistachio nut (Pis v 1, Pis v 2, Pis v 3, Pis v 4 and Pis v 5). Relevant data on their biochemical classification has become available, enabling establishing a correlation with the respective clinical symptoms. The establishment of an effective allergen risk assessment is a key issue for the food industry, policy makers and regulatory agencies. Thus, the availability of fast, specific and sensitive methods to detect trace amounts of allergens in processed foods is crucial. In the specific case of pistachio nut, there are some protein- and DNA-based methods for its detection/quantification in foods, which can aid to verify label information. Accordingly, all relevant research advances on this topic were summarised, updated and critically discussed in this review.

  11. Beyond the wild nut: moving toward profitable black walnut nut crops

    Treesearch

    Brian Hammons; Felix, Jr. Ponder; John Rickman

    2004-01-01

    Currently, about 2 million pounds of black walnut nutmeats are consumed annually, requiring about 26 million pounds of wild in-shell nuts (hulled, wet weight). Walnuts from wild trees are variable in quality, yield, and moisture, reducing the amount of good, salable nutmeats produced. Consequently, the price that can be paid to the harvester/producer is limited....

  12. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use

    PubMed Central

    Rockwell, Cara A.; Guariguata, Manuel R.; Menton, Mary; Arroyo Quispe, Eriks; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Fernandez Silva, Harol; Jurado Rojas, Edwin Eduardo; Kohagura Arrunátegui, José Andrés Hideki; Meza Vega, Luis Alberto; Revilla Vera, Olivia; Valera Tito, Jonatan Frank; Villarroel Panduro, Betxy Tabita; Yucra Salas, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Although many examples of multiple-use forest management may be found in tropical smallholder systems, few studies provide empirical support for the integration of selective timber harvesting with non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) is one of the world’s most economically-important NTFP species extracted almost entirely from natural forests across the Amazon Basin. An obligate out-crosser, Brazil nut flowers are pollinated by large-bodied bees, a process resulting in a hard round fruit that takes up to 14 months to mature. As many smallholders turn to the financial security provided by timber, Brazil nut fruits are increasingly being harvested in logged forests. We tested the influence of tree and stand-level covariates (distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity) on total nut production at the individual tree level in five recently logged Brazil nut concessions covering about 4000 ha of forest in Madre de Dios, Peru. Our field team accompanied Brazil nut harvesters during the traditional harvest period (January-April 2012 and January-April 2013) in order to collect data on fruit production. Three hundred and ninety-nine (approximately 80%) of the 499 trees included in this study were at least 100 m from the nearest cut stump, suggesting that concessionaires avoid logging near adult Brazil nut trees. Yet even for those trees on the edge of logging gaps, distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity did not have a statistically significant influence on Brazil nut production at the applied logging intensities (typically 1–2 timber trees removed per ha). In one concession where at least 4 trees ha-1 were removed, however, the logging intensity covariate resulted in a marginally significant (0.09) P value, highlighting a potential risk for a drop in nut production at higher intensities. While we do not suggest that logging activities should be completely avoided in Brazil nut rich

  13. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Cara A; Guariguata, Manuel R; Menton, Mary; Arroyo Quispe, Eriks; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Fernandez Silva, Harol; Jurado Rojas, Edwin Eduardo; Kohagura Arrunátegui, José Andrés Hideki; Meza Vega, Luis Alberto; Revilla Vera, Olivia; Quenta Hancco, Roger; Valera Tito, Jonatan Frank; Villarroel Panduro, Betxy Tabita; Yucra Salas, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Although many examples of multiple-use forest management may be found in tropical smallholder systems, few studies provide empirical support for the integration of selective timber harvesting with non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) is one of the world's most economically-important NTFP species extracted almost entirely from natural forests across the Amazon Basin. An obligate out-crosser, Brazil nut flowers are pollinated by large-bodied bees, a process resulting in a hard round fruit that takes up to 14 months to mature. As many smallholders turn to the financial security provided by timber, Brazil nut fruits are increasingly being harvested in logged forests. We tested the influence of tree and stand-level covariates (distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity) on total nut production at the individual tree level in five recently logged Brazil nut concessions covering about 4000 ha of forest in Madre de Dios, Peru. Our field team accompanied Brazil nut harvesters during the traditional harvest period (January-April 2012 and January-April 2013) in order to collect data on fruit production. Three hundred and ninety-nine (approximately 80%) of the 499 trees included in this study were at least 100 m from the nearest cut stump, suggesting that concessionaires avoid logging near adult Brazil nut trees. Yet even for those trees on the edge of logging gaps, distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity did not have a statistically significant influence on Brazil nut production at the applied logging intensities (typically 1-2 timber trees removed per ha). In one concession where at least 4 trees ha-1 were removed, however, the logging intensity covariate resulted in a marginally significant (0.09) P value, highlighting a potential risk for a drop in nut production at higher intensities. While we do not suggest that logging activities should be completely avoided in Brazil nut rich

  14. Natural variation of selenium in Brazil nuts and soils from the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Silva Junior, E C; Wadt, L H O; Silva, K E; Lima, R M B; Batista, K D; Guedes, M C; Carvalho, G S; Carvalho, T S; Reis, A R; Lopes, G; Guilherme, L R G

    2017-12-01

    Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) is native of the Amazon rainforest. Brazil nuts are consumed worldwide and are known as the richest food source of selenium (Se). Yet, the reasoning for such Se contents is not well stablished. We evaluated the variation in Se concentration of Brazil nuts from Brazilian Amazon basin, as well as soil properties, including total Se concentration, of the soils sampled directly underneath the trees crown, aiming to investigate which soil properties influence Se accumulation in the nuts. The median Se concentration in Brazil nuts varied from 2.07 mg kg - 1 (in Mato Grosso state) to 68.15 mg kg - 1 (in Amazonas state). Therefore, depending on its origin, a single Brazil nut could provide from 11% (in the Mato Grosso state) up to 288% (in the Amazonas state) of the daily Se requirement for an adult man (70 μg). The total Se concentration in the soil also varied considerably, ranging from <65.76 to 625.91 μg kg - 1 , with highest Se concentrations being observed in soil samples from the state of Amazonas. Se accumulation in Brazil nuts generally increased in soils with higher total Se content, but decreased under acidic conditions in the soil. This indicates that, besides total soil Se concentration, soil acidity plays a major role in Se uptake by Brazil nut trees, possibly due to the importance of this soil property to Se retention in the soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Online LC-GC-based analysis of minor lipids in various tree nuts and peanuts.

    PubMed

    Esche, Rebecca; Müller, Luisa; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2013-11-27

    As information on free sterols/stanols and steryl/stanyl esters in nuts is lacking, the compositions and contents of these lipid constituents in ten different nut types were analyzed. The applied approach was based on online liquid chromatography-gas chromatography and enabled the simultaneous analysis of free sterols/stanols and individual steryl/stanyl fatty acid esters, and additionally of tocopherols and squalene. Total contents of free sterols/stanols ranged from 0.62 mg/g nut in hazelnuts to 1.61 mg/g nut in pistachios, with sitosterol as the predominant compound. Total contents of steryl/stanyl fatty acid esters were in the range of 0.11-1.26 mg/g nut, being lowest in Brazil nuts and highest in pistachios. There were considerable differences between the various nut types not only regarding the contents, but also the compositions of both classes. The levels of tocopherols were highest in pine nuts (0.33 mg/g nut); those of squalene were remarkably high in Brazil nuts (1.11 mg/g nut).

  16. Demographic threats to the sustainability of Brazil nut exploitation.

    PubMed

    Peres, Carlos A; Baider, Claudia; Zuidema, Pieter A; Wadt, Lúcia H O; Kainer, Karen A; Gomes-Silva, Daisy A P; Salomão, Rafael P; Simões, Luciana L; Franciosi, Eduardo R N; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando; Gribel, Rogério; Shepard, Glenn H; Kanashiro, Milton; Coventry, Peter; Yu, Douglas W; Watkinson, Andrew R; Freckleton, Robert P

    2003-12-19

    A comparative analysis of 23 populations of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) across the Brazilian, Peruvian, and Bolivian Amazon shows that the history and intensity of Brazil nut exploitation are major determinants of population size structure. Populations subjected to persistent levels of harvest lack juvenile trees less than 60 centimeters in diameter at breast height; only populations with a history of either light or recent exploitation contain large numbers of juvenile trees. A harvesting model confirms that intensive exploitation levels over the past century are such that juvenile recruitment is insufficient to maintain populations over the long term. Without management, intensively harvested populations will succumb to a process of senescence and demographic collapse, threatening this cornerstone of the Amazonian extractive economy.

  17. [Oral allergy syndrome due to cashew nuts in the patient without pollinosis].

    PubMed

    Inomata, Naoko; Osuna, Hiroyuki; Ikezawa, Zenro

    2006-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman felt tingling on her tongue and itching both in the throat and on the face immediately after she put a cashew nut on her tongue. She had a history of atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma, but not of pollinosis. CAP-FEIA and skin prick test (SPT) were positive for cashew nuts. The results showed negative for peanuts and other tree nuts than cashew nuts. Consequently, she was diagnosed with oral allergy syndrome due to cashew nuts. In addition, the result of skin prick test with cashew nuts normalized one year after she began avoiding cashew nuts, indicating that cashew nuts allergy would be due to sensitization by itself rather than to cross-reactivity between cashew nuts and pollens in this case.

  18. Speciation of arsenic in different types of nuts by ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kannamkumarath, Sasi S; Wróbel, Kazimierz; Wróbel, Katarzyna; Caruso, Joseph A

    2004-03-24

    In this work the quantitative determination and analytical speciation of arsenic were undertaken in different types of nuts, randomly purchased from local markets. The hardness of the whole nuts and high lipid content made the preparation of this material difficult for analysis. The lack of sample homogeneity caused irreproducible results. To improve the precision of analysis, arsenic was determined separately in nut oil and in the defatted sample. The lipids were extracted from the ground sample with the two portions of a mixture of chloroform and methanol (2:1). The defatted material was dried and ground again, yielding a fine powder. The nut oil was obtained by combining the two organic extracts and by evaporating the solvents. The two nut fractions were microwave digested, and total arsenic was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results obtained for oils from different types of nuts showed element concentration in the range 2.9-16.9 ng g(-)(1). Lower levels of arsenic were found in defatted material (<0.1 ng g(-)(1) with the exception of Brazil nuts purchased with and without shells, 3.0 and 2.8 ng g(-)(1) respectively). For speciation analysis of arsenic in nut oils, elemental species were extracted from 2 g of oil with 12 mL of chloroform/methanol (2:1) and 8 mL of deionized water. The aqueous layer, containing polar arsenic species, was evaporated and the residue dissolved and analyzed by ion chromatography-ICP-MS. The anion exchange chromatography enabled separation of As(III), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAs(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAs(V)), and As(V) within 8 min. Several types of nuts were analyzed, including walnuts, Brazil nuts, almonds, cashews, pine nuts, peanuts, pistachio nuts, and sunflower seeds. The recovery for the speciation procedure was in the range 72.7-90.6%. The primary species found in the oil extracts were As(III) and As(V). The arsenic concentration levels in these two species were 0.7-12.7 and 0

  19. Ten-year review reveals changing trends and severity of allergic reactions to nuts and other foods.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jennifer; Malinovschi, Andrei; Alving, Kjell; Lidholm, Jonas; Borres, Magnus P; Nordvall, Lennart

    2014-08-01

    Over the past few decades, the incidence of food allergies has risen and Sweden has increased its import of peanuts and exotic nuts, such as cashew nuts, which may cause severe allergic reactions. This study aimed to retrospectively investigate paediatric emergency visits due to food reactions over a 10-year period, focusing on reactions to peanuts and tree nuts. Emergency visits to Uppsala University Children's Hospital, Sweden, between September 2001 and December 2010, were reviewed, and cases containing diagnostic codes for anaphylaxis, allergic reactions or allergy and hypersensitivity not caused by drugs or biological substances were retrieved. We analysed 703 emergency visits made by 578 individuals with food allergies. Peanuts and tree nuts accounted for 50% of the food allergies and were more frequently associated with adrenaline treatment and hospitalisation than other foods. Cashew nut reactions increased over the study period, and together with peanuts, they were responsible for more anaphylactic reactions than hazelnuts. Peanut and tree nut reactions were more likely to result in adrenaline treatment and hospitalisation than other food reactions. Peanut and cashew nut reactions were more likely to cause anaphylaxis than hazelnuts. Cashew nut reactions increased during the study period. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Areca nut and its role in oral submucous fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Rachana V; Prabhu, Vishnudas; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Shenai, Prashant; Suvarna, Nithin; Dandekeri, Savita

    2014-12-01

    Areca nut, commonly called as betel nut or supari, is a fruit of areca catechu palm tree, which is native of South Asia and Pacific Islands. The seed or endosperm is consumed fresh, boiled or after sun drying or curing. Chewing areca nut is thought to have central nervous system stimulating effect and along with this it is known to have salivary stimulating and digestive properties. According to the traditional Ayurvedic medicine, chewing areca nut and betel leaf is a good remedy against halitosis. It is also used for its deworming property. Along with these beneficial effects of areca nut one of its most harmful effects on the human body in general and oral cavity in particular is the development of potentially malignant disorder called Oral Submucous Fibrosis. The present paper discusses in detail the effects of the components of areca nut on pathogenesis of Oral Submucous Fibrosis. Key words:Areca nut, oral submucous fibrosis, potentially malignant disorder, supari.

  1. Use of pine nuts by grizzly and black bears in the Yellowstone area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, Katherine C.

    1983-01-01

    The large seeds (pine nuts) of whitebark pine are commonly eaten in the spring (March-May) and fall (September-November) by grizzly and black bears in Yellowstone National Park and adjacent areas (Craighead and Craighead 1972, Blanchard 1978, Mealey 1980) and western Montana (Tisch 1961; J. Sumner and J. J. Craighead, unpubl. rep., Montant Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, Univ. Montana, Missoula, 1973). Similar nuts from limber pine are eaten by grizzly bears on the east Rocky Mountain Front of northwestern Montana (Schallenberger and Jonkel, annual rep., Border Grizzly Project, Univ. Montana, Missoula, 1980). The nuts of the European stone pine (P. cembra) are an important food for brown bears (U. arctos) throughout the taiga zone in the Soviet Union (Pavlov and Zhdanov 1972, Ustinov 1972, Yazan 1972). Both the production of whitebark pine cones (Forcella 1977, Blanchard 1978, Mealey 1980) and the quantity of nuts consumed by bears vary annually (Mealey 1975, Blancard 1978). Pine nuts are also an important food for red squirrels in whitebark forests. In fall, squirrels remove cones from trees and cache them in middens. Bears as well as other mammalian and avian seed predators compete with squirrels for whitebark nuts (Forcella 1977, Tomback 1977). Confusion about the ripening process of whitebark pine cones has resulted in errors in the literature on the availability of pine nuts as a bear food. Whitebark cones are indehiscent and do not disintegrate (Tomback 1981). Vertebrate foraging probably leaves few, if any, seed-bearing cones on trees by late fall; the cones remaining abscise sometime thereafter (Tomback 1981). Because cones do not abscise or release their seed in fall, bears may obtain pine nuts in 2 ways. Black bears may climb whitebark pine trees and break off cone-bearing brnahces to feed on cones (Tisch 1961, Mealey 1975, Forcella 1977); or both black bears and grizzly bears may raid squirrel caches to feed on pine nuts (Tisch 1961, Craighead and Craighead 1972

  2. Toxicity, tunneling and feeding behavior of the termite, Coptotermes vastator, in sand treated with oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Acda, Menandro N

    2009-01-01

    Oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), was evaluated in the laboratory for its barrier and repellent activity against the Philippine milk termite Coptotermes vastator Light (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The study showed that J. curcas oil had anti-feeding effect, induced reduction in tunneling activity and increased mortality in C. vastator. Behavior of termites exposed to sand treated with J. curcas oil indicated that it is toxic or repellent to C. vastator. Toxicity and repellent thresholds, were higher than those reported for other naturally occurring compounds tested against the Formosan subterranean termite.

  3. Analysis of total oil and fatty acids composition by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy in edible nuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandala, Chari V.; Sundaram, Jaya

    2014-10-01

    Near Infrared (NIR) Reflectance spectroscopy has established itself as an important tool in quantifying water and oil present in various food materials. It is rapid and nondestructive, easier to use, and does not require processing the samples with corrosive chemicals that would render them non-edible. Earlier, the samples had to be ground into powder form before making any measurements. With the development of new soft ware packages, NIR techniques could now be used in the analysis of intact grain and nuts. While most of the commercial instruments presently available work well with small grain size materials such as wheat and corn, the method present here is suitable for large kernel size products such as shelled or in-shell peanuts. Absorbance spectra were collected from 400 nm to 2500 nm using a NIR instrument. Average values of total oil contents (TOC) of peanut samples were determined by standard extraction methods, and fatty acids were determined using gas chromatography. Partial least square (PLS) analysis was performed on the calibration set of absorption spectra, and models were developed for prediction of total oil and fatty acids. The best model was selected based on the coefficient of determination (R2), Standard error of prediction (SEP) and residual percent deviation (RPD) values. Peanut samples analyzed showed RPD values greater than 5.0 for both absorbance and reflectance models and thus could be used for quality control and analysis. Ability to rapidly and nondestructively measure the TOC, and analyze the fatty acid composition, will be immensely useful in peanut varietal improvement as well as in the grading process of grain and nuts.

  4. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils from coniferous trees.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Na, Ki-Jeung; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2004-06-01

    Essential oils have potential biological effects, i.e., antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, and sedative effects during stress. In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from the coniferous species Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, because their biological activities have not been yet elucidated. The essential oils were quantified using gas chromatography and identified in gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. Simultaneously, antibacterial and antifungal assays were performed using the essential oils distilled from the needles of coniferous trees. The major components and the percentage of each essential oil were: 19.33% beta-thujene in P. densiflora; 10.49% alpha-pinene in P. koraiensis; 10.88% bornyl acetate in C. obtusa. The essential oils from P. densiflora and C. obtusa have antibacterial effects, whereas essential oils from P. koraiensis and C. obtusa have antifungal effects. These results indicate that the essential oils from the three coniferous trees, which have mild antimicrobial properties, can inhibit the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi.

  5. A population-based study on peanut, tree nut, fish, shellfish, and sesame allergy prevalence in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Harrington, Daniel W; Soller, Lianne; Fragapane, Joseph; Joseph, Lawrence; St Pierre, Yvan; Godefroy, Samuel B; Elliott, Susan J; Elliot, Susan J; Clarke, Ann E

    2010-06-01

    Recent studies suggest an increased prevalence of food-induced allergy and an increased incidence of food-related anaphylaxis. However, prevalence estimates of food allergies vary considerably between studies. To determine the prevalence of peanut, tree nut, fish, shellfish, and sesame allergy in Canada. Using comparable methodology to Sicherer et al in the United States in 2002, we performed a cross-Canada, random telephone survey. Food allergy was defined as perceived (based on self-report), probable (based on convincing history or self-report of physician diagnosis), or confirmed (based on history and evidence of confirmatory tests). Of 10,596 households surveyed in 2008 and 2009, 3666 responded (34.6% participation rate), of which 3613 completed the entire interview, representing 9667 individuals. The prevalence of perceived peanut allergy was 1.00% (95% CI, 0.80%-1.20%); tree nut, 1.22% (95% CI, 1.00%-1.44%); fish, 0.51% (95% CI, 0.37%-0.65%); shellfish, 1.60% (95% CI, 1.35%-1.86%); and sesame, 0.10% (95% CI, 0.04%-0.17%). The prevalence of probable allergy was 0.93% (95% CI, 0.74%-1.12%); 1.14% (95% CI, 0.92%-1.35%); 0.48% (95% CI, 0.34%-0.61%); 1.42% (95% CI, 1.18%-1.66%); and 0.09% (95% CI, 0.03%-0.15%), respectively. Because of the infrequency of confirmatory tests and the difficulty in obtaining results if performed, the prevalence of confirmed allergy was much lower. This is the first nationwide Canadian study to determine the prevalence of severe food allergies. Our results indicate disparities between perceived and confirmed food allergy that might contribute to the wide range of published prevalence estimates. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxicity, Tunneling and Feeding Behavior of the Termite, Coptotermes vastator, in Sand Treated with Oil of the Physic Nut, Jatropha curcas

    PubMed Central

    Acda, Menandro N.

    2009-01-01

    Oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), was evaluated in the laboratory for its barrier and repellent activity against the Philippine milk termite Coptotermes vastator Light (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The study showed that J. curcas oil had anti-feeding effect, induced reduction in tunneling activity and increased mortality in C. vastator. Behavior of termites exposed to sand treated with J. curcas oil indicated that it is toxic or repellent to C. vastator. Toxicity and repellent thresholds, were higher than those reported for other naturally occurring compounds tested against the Formosan subterranean termite. PMID:20053119

  7. Estimation the Amount of Oil Palm Trees Production Using Remote Sensing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitrianto, A. C.; Tokimatsu, K.; Sufwandika, M.

    2017-12-01

    Currently, fossil fuels were used as the main source of power supply to generate energy including electricity. Depletion in the amount of fossil fuels has been causing the increasing price of crude petroleum and the demand for alternative energy which is renewable and environment-friendly and it is defined from vegetable oils such palm oil, rapeseed and soybean. Indonesia known as the big palm oil producer which is the largest agricultural industry with total harvested oil palm area which is estimated grew until 8.9 million ha in 2015. On the other hand, lack of information about the age of oil palm trees and changes also their spatial distribution is mainly problem for energy planning. This research conducted to estimate fresh fruit bunch (FFB) of oil palm and their distribution using remote sensing technique. Cimulang oil palm plantation was choose as study area. First step, estimated the age of oil palm trees based on their canopy density as the result from Landsat 8 OLI analysis and classified into five class. From this result, we correlated oil palm age with their average FFB production per six months and classified into seed (0-3 years, 0kg), young (4-8 years, 68.77kg), teen (9-14 years, 109.08kg), and mature (14-25 years, 73.91kg). The result from satellite image analysis shows if Cimulang plantation area consist of teen old oil palm trees that it is covers around 81.5% of that area, followed by mature oil palm trees with 18.5% or corresponding to 100 hectares and have total production of FFB every six months around 7,974,787.24 kg.

  8. The effect of Korean pine nut oil on in vitro CCK release, on appetite sensations and on gut hormones in post-menopausal overweight women.

    PubMed

    Pasman, Wilrike J; Heimerikx, Jos; Rubingh, Carina M; van den Berg, Robin; O'Shea, Marianne; Gambelli, Luisa; Hendriks, Henk F J; Einerhand, Alexandra W C; Scott, Corey; Keizer, Hiskias G; Mennen, Louise I

    2008-03-20

    Appetite suppressants may be one strategy in the fight against obesity. This study evaluated whether Korean pine nut free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG) work as an appetite suppressant. Korean pine nut FFA were evaluated in STC-1 cell culture for their ability to increase cholecystokinin (CCK-8) secretion vs. several other dietary fatty acids from Italian stone pine nut fatty acids, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and capric acid used as a control. At 50 muM concentration, Korean pine nut FFA produced the greatest amount of CCK-8 release (493 pg/ml) relative to the other fatty acids and control (46 pg/ml). A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial including 18 overweight post-menopausal women was performed. Subjects received capsules with 3 g Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) nut FFA, 3 g pine nut TG or 3 g placebo (olive oil) in combination with a light breakfast. At 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 minutes the gut hormones cholecystokinin (CCK-8), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin, and appetite sensations were measured. A wash-out period of one week separated each intervention day.CCK-8 was higher 30 min after pine nut FFA and 60 min after pine nut TG when compared to placebo (p < 0.01). GLP-1 was higher 60 min after pine nut FFA compared to placebo (p < 0.01). Over a period of 4 hours the total amount of plasma CCK-8 was 60% higher after pine nut FFA and 22% higher after pine nut TG than after placebo (p < 0.01). For GLP-1 this difference was 25% after pine nut FFA (P < 0.05). Ghrelin and PYY levels were not different between groups. The appetite sensation "prospective food intake" was 36% lower after pine nut FFA relative to placebo (P < 0.05). This study suggests that Korean pine nut may work as an appetite suppressant through an increasing effect on satiety hormones and a reduced prospective food intake.

  9. [Absorption of Uranium with Tea Oil Tree Sawdust Modified by Succinic Acid].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-feng; Chen, Di-yun; Peng, Yan; Liu, Yong-sheng; Xiong, Xue-ying

    2015-05-01

    In order to explore how the modification of succinic acid improves the adsorption of tea oil tree sawdust for uranium, the tea oil tree sawdust was modified by succinic acid, after the pretreatments of crushing, screening, alkalization and acidification. Infrared analysis indicated carboxylic acid groups and ester groups were added to the sawdust after modification, and scanning electron microscope demonstrated after modification the appearance of tea oil tree sawdust was transferred from the structure like compact and straight stripped into the structure like loose and wrinkled leaves, which meant modification increased its inner pores. By the static experiments, effects of reaction time between adsorbent and solvent, dosage of adsorbent, temperature, pH value and initial concentration of uranium were investigated. The results showed that after the modification by succinic acid, the absorption rate of tea oil tree sawdust for uranium increased significantly by about 20% in 12.5 mg · L(-1) initial concentration uranium solution. Adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 180 min, and the kinetic data can be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The experimental adsorption isotherm followed the Langmuir and Freundlich models. In addition, the maximum adsorption amounts of tea oil tree sawdust after modification calculated from Langmuir equation raised from 21.413 3 to 31.545 7 mg · g(-1) at 35°C and pH 4.0.

  10. Shea Nut Oil Triterpene Concentrate Attenuates Knee Osteoarthritis Development in Rats: Evidence from Knee Joint Histology.

    PubMed

    Kao, Jen-Hsin; Lin, Sheng-Hsiung; Lai, Chun-Fu; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Kong, Zwe-Ling; Wong, Chih-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Shea nut oil triterpene concentrate is considered to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Traditionally, it has been used to treat arthritic conditions in humans. This study aimed to investigate the effect of attenuating osteoarthritis (OA)-induced pain and joint destruction in rats by administering shea nut oil triterpene concentrate (SheaFlex75, which is more than 50% triterpenes). An anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) with medial meniscectomy (MMx) was used to induce OA in male Wistar rats. Different doses of SheaFlex75 (111.6 mg/kg, 223.2 mg/kg, and 446.4 mg/kg) were then intragastrically administered daily for 12 weeks after surgery. Body weight and the width of the knee joint were measured weekly. Additionally, incapacitance tests were performed at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 to measure the weight bearing of the hind limbs, and the morphology and histopathology of the medial femoral condyles were examined and were evaluated using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scoring system. This study showed that SheaFlex75 reduced the swelling of the knee joint with OA and rectified its weight bearing after ACLT plus MMx surgery in rats. Treatment with SheaFlex75 also decreased ACLT plus MMx surgery-induced knee joint matrix loss and cartilage degeneration. SheaFlex75 relieves the symptoms of OA and protects cartilage from degeneration. SheaFlex75 thus has the potential to be an ideal nutraceutical supplement for joint protection, particularly for injured knee joints.

  11. Matching nuts and bolts in O(n log n) time

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Komlos, J.; Ma, Yuan; Szemeredi, E.

    Given a set of n nuts of distinct widths and a set of n bolts such that each nut corresponds to a unique bolt of the same width, how should we match every nut with its corresponding bolt by comparing nuts with bolts (no comparison is allowed between two nuts or between two bolts)? The problem can be naturally viewed as a variant of the classic sorting problem as follows. Given two lists of n numbers each such that one list is a permutation of the other, how should we sort the lists by comparisons only between numbers in differentmore » lists? We give an O(n log n)-time deterministic algorithm for the problem. This is optimal up to a constant factor and answers an open question posed by Alon, Blum, Fiat, Kannan, Naor, and Ostrovsky. Moreover, when copies of nuts and bolts are allowed, our algorithm runs in optimal O(log n) time on n processors in Valiant`s parallel comparison tree model. Our algorithm is based on the AKS sorting algorithm with substantial modifications.« less

  12. Use of sulfur and nitrogen stable isotopes to determine the importance of whitebark pine nuts to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felicetti, L.A.; Schwartz, C.C.; Rye, R.O.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.A.; Phillips, D.L.; Robbins, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a masting species that produces relatively large, fat- and protein-rich nuts that are consumed by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Trees produce abundant nut crops in some years and poor crops in other years. Grizzly bear survival in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem is strongly linked to variation in pine-nut availability. Because whitebark pine trees are infected with blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), an exotic fungus that has killed the species throughout much of its range in the northern Rocky Mountains, we used stable isotopes to quantify the importance of this food resource to Yellowstone grizzly bears while healthy populations of the trees still exist. Whitebark pine nuts have a sulfur-isotope signature (9.2 ?? 1.3??? (mean ?? 1 SD)) that is distinctly different from those of all other grizzly bear foods (ranging from 1.9 ?? 1.7??? for all other plants to 3.1 ?? 2.6??? for ungulates). Feeding trials with captive grizzly bears were used to develop relationships between dietary sulfur-, carbon-, and nitrogen-isotope signatures and those of bear plasma. The sulfur and nitrogen relationships were used to estimate the importance of pine nuts to free-ranging grizzly bears from blood and hair samples collected between 1994 and 2001. During years of poor pine-nut availability, 72% of the bears made minimal use of pine nuts. During years of abundant cone availability, 8 ?? 10% of the bears made minimal use of pine nuts, while 67 ?? 19% derived over 51% of their assimilated sulfur and nitrogen (i.e., protein) from pine nuts. Pine nuts and meat are two critically important food resources for Yellowstone grizzly bears.

  13. Influence of cultivar and processing on the allergenicity of pistachio nut assessed in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is a tree nut that has been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. This study was undertaken to investigate the distinction between different cultivars of pistachio nut, and the influence of different processing on the IgE-binding capacity of whole pistachio pro...

  14. Oil Palm and Rubber Tree Water Use Patterns: Effects of Topography and Flooding

    PubMed Central

    Hardanto, Afik; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Meijide, Ana; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm and rubber plantations extend over large areas and encompass heterogeneous site conditions. In periods of high rainfall, plants in valleys and at riparian sites are more prone to flooding than plants at elevated topographic positions. We asked to what extent topographic position and flooding affect oil palm and rubber tree water use patterns and thereby influence spatial and temporal heterogeneity of transpiration. In an undulating terrain in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia, plantations of the two species were studied in plot pairs consisting of upland and adjacent valley plots. All upland plots were non-flooded, whereas the corresponding valley plots included non-flooded, long-term flooded, and short-term flooded conditions. Within each plot pair, sap flux densities in palms or trees were monitored simultaneously with thermal dissipation probes. In plot pairs with non-flooded valleys, sap flux densities of oil palms were only slightly different between the topographic positions, whereas sap flux densities of rubber trees were higher in the valley than at the according upland site. In pairs with long-term flooded valleys, sap flux densities in valleys were lower than at upland plots for both species, but the reduction was far less pronounced in oil palms than in rubber trees (-22 and -45% in maximum sap flux density, respectively). At these long-term flooded valley plots palm and tree water use also responded less sensitively to fluctuations in micrometeorological variables than at upland plots. In short-term flooded valley plots, sap flux densities of oil palm were hardly affected by flooding, but sap flux densities of rubber trees were reduced considerably. Topographic position and flooding thus affected water use patterns in both oil palms and rubber trees, but the changes in rubber trees were much more pronounced: compared to non-flooded upland sites, the different flooding conditions at valley sites amplified the observed heterogeneity of plot mean

  15. Mediterranean diets supplemented with virgin olive oil and nuts enhance plasmatic antioxidant capabilities and decrease xanthine oxidase activity in people with metabolic syndrome: The PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Antoni; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Martorell, Miquel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Marti, Amelia; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed plasmatic antioxidant capabilities and xanthine oxidase (XOX) activity in metabolic syndrome patients after 5 years intervention with Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or with nuts or with low-fat diet (the PREDIMED [PREvención con Dieta MEDiterránea] study). Seventy-five participants were randomly selected. Daily energy and nutrient intake were assessed with a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire, and adherence to the MeDiet was assessed using a 14-item questionnaire. Catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase, XOX activities and protein levels, and protein carbonyl derivatives, nitrotyrosine, nitrite and nitrate levels were determined in overnight fasting venous blood samples. The plasma activity and protein levels of SOD and catalase were significantly higher and XOX activity was lower in MeDiet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil and MeDiet supplemented with nuts than in the control group. Participants in both MeDiet groups showed higher plasma nitrate levels than in the control group. Adherence to the MeDiet showed a positive correlation with SOD and catalase plasma antioxidant activities. A MeDiet enriched with either virgin olive oil or nuts enhances the plasma antioxidant capabilities and decreases XOX activity in patients with the metabolic syndrome but we did not observe changes in myeloperoxidase or markers of oxidative damage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Shea Nut Oil Triterpene Concentrate Attenuates Knee Osteoarthritis Development in Rats: Evidence from Knee Joint Histology

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sheng-Hsiung; Lai, Chun-Fu; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Kong, Zwe-Ling; Wong, Chih-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Background Shea nut oil triterpene concentrate is considered to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Traditionally, it has been used to treat arthritic conditions in humans. This study aimed to investigate the effect of attenuating osteoarthritis (OA)-induced pain and joint destruction in rats by administering shea nut oil triterpene concentrate (SheaFlex75, which is more than 50% triterpenes). Methods An anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) with medial meniscectomy (MMx) was used to induce OA in male Wistar rats. Different doses of SheaFlex75 (111.6 mg/kg, 223.2 mg/kg, and 446.4 mg/kg) were then intragastrically administered daily for 12 weeks after surgery. Body weight and the width of the knee joint were measured weekly. Additionally, incapacitance tests were performed at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 to measure the weight bearing of the hind limbs, and the morphology and histopathology of the medial femoral condyles were examined and were evaluated using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scoring system. Results This study showed that SheaFlex75 reduced the swelling of the knee joint with OA and rectified its weight bearing after ACLT plus MMx surgery in rats. Treatment with SheaFlex75 also decreased ACLT plus MMx surgery-induced knee joint matrix loss and cartilage degeneration. Conclusion SheaFlex75 relieves the symptoms of OA and protects cartilage from degeneration. SheaFlex75 thus has the potential to be an ideal nutraceutical supplement for joint protection, particularly for injured knee joints. PMID:27583436

  17. Ethnopharmacological use of babassu (Orbignya phalerata Mart) in communities of babassu nut breakers in Maranhão, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Mércia H S L; Monteiro, Cristina A; Figueredo, Patricia M S; Nascimento, Flavia Raquel F; Guerra, Rosane N M

    2011-01-07

    Products derived from the palm tree Orbignya phalerata Mart, a species popularly known in Brazil as babassu, are used for the treatment of different diseases such as rheumatism, ulcers and inflammatory processes. The objective of this study was to perform a sociodemographic survey among communities of babassu nut breakers in the region of Médio Mearim, Esperantinópolis, Maranhão, Brazil, and to evaluate the frequency and main forms of therapeutic use of babassu products and subproducts. A semiquantitative method was used for the survey, with the application of semistructured interviews consisting of closed and semi-open questions. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 16.0 software for Windows (2007). The results showed that 82% of female nut breakers had a household income of less than US$ 280.00 and only 2% earned more than US$ 500.00. With respect to race and educational level, 61% of the interviewed women were mulattoes and 33% had a low educational level. The babassu-derived products most frequently used for medicinal purposes were the mesocarp, a residue called "borra", and oil. The mesocarp flour was used by 90% of nut breakers for the treatment of gastritis and inflammation and by 77% for leukorrhea. Babassu residue was mainly used for the treatment of wounds (60%) and the oil was used for woundhealing (16%) and leukorrhea (8%). In conclusion, the products derived from babassu are used for the treatment of gastritis, leukorrhea and wounds. In addition, most of the interviewed subjects apply these products topically. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuts and legume seeds for cardiovascular risk reduction: scientific evidence and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rávila G M; Gomes, Aline C; Naves, Maria M V; Mota, João F

    2015-06-01

    Consumption of tree nuts and legume seeds is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. The reduction in blood lipids and in inflammatory and oxidative processes exhibited by bioactive compounds such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, fibers, phenolic compounds, tocopherols, phospholipids, carotenoids, some minerals, and arginine, has stimulated research on the mechanisms of action of these substances through distinct experimental approaches. It is, therefore, important to know the metabolic effect of each nut and legume seed or the mixture of them to choose the most suitable nutritional interventions in clinical practice. The aim of this narrative bibliographic review was to investigate the effects of tree nuts and legume seeds on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk, as well as their mechanisms of action with regard to lipid profiles, insulin resistance, arterial pressure, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The findings indicate that a mixture of nuts and legume seeds optimizes the protective effect against cardiovascular risk. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Lubricating Holes for Corroded Nuts and Bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, B. G.; Clemons, J. M.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III

    1986-01-01

    Corroded fasteners taken apart more easily. Lubricating holes bored to thread from three of flats. Holes facilitate application of penetrating oil to help loosen nut when rusted onto bolt. Holes make it possible to apply lubricants and rust removers directly to more of thread than otherwise reachable.

  20. Estimating the age of oil palm trees using remote sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitrianto, A. C.; Darmawan, A.; Tokimatsu, K.; Sufwandika, M.

    2018-04-01

    One of renewable energy that can be converted into electricity is biomass. Biomass energy or bio energy is the largest source of domestic renewable energy in Indonesia. Since palm oil development is rapidly increasing, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Mesocarp Fiber (MF) are becoming the highest contributor of oil palm waste. Understanding biomass waste potential is very important for further utilization. Remote sensing technique can be used to detect oil palm trees age based on the canopy density and to estimate the amount of EFB in further analysis. In this research, the percentage of canopy density of oil palm trees/stands depends on their ages and the age is divided into four classes; seeds (<3 years old; <10%), young (3-8 years old; 10-40 %), teenage (9-14 years old; 41-80 %), and mature (15-25 years old; >80 %).

  1. Chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile of butterfly tree seed oil (Bauhinia purpurea L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soetjipto, H.; Riyanto, C. A.; Victoria, T.

    2018-04-01

    Butterfly tree (Kachnar) in Indonesia is only used as ornamental plants in garden, park, and roadsides. The seed of Butterfly tree was extracted with n-hexane and physicochemical properties were determined based on Standard Nasional Indonesia (SNI) 01-3555-1998 while the oil chemical composition was determined using GC-MS. The result showed that yield of the oil as 57.33±1.14 % (w/w) and the chemical characteristic of seed oil include acid value (13.7.8±0.23 mg KOH/g) saponification value (153.32±1.85 mg KOH/g), peroxide value (43.51±0.57. mg KOH/g). The butterfly tree seed oil showed that linoleic acid (28.11 %), palmitic acid (29.2%), oleic acid (19.82%) and stearic acid (10.7.4 %) were the main fatty acids in the crude seed oils. Minor amounts of neophytadiena and arachidic acid were also identified.

  2. Nut consumption is associated with decreased health risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in US adults: NHANES 1999-2004

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Few recent epidemiologic studies have assessed the effect that nut consumption (including tree nuts and peanuts) has on health risks, including metabolic syndrome. This study compared the health risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome of nut consumers with that of no...

  3. Mason’s equation application for prediction of voltage of oil shale treeing breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martemyanov, S. M.

    2017-05-01

    The application of the formula, which is used to calculate the maximum field at the tip of the pin-plane electrode system was proposed to describe the process of electrical treeing and treeing breakdown in an oil shale. An analytical expression for the calculation of the treeing breakdown voltage in the oil shale, as a function of the inter-electrode distance, was taken. A high accuracy of the correspondence of the model to the experimental data in the range of inter-electrode distances from 0.03 to 0.5 m was taken.

  4. Stereo and scanning electron microscopy of in-shell Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.): part two-surface sound nut fungi spoilage susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Scussel, Vildes M; Manfio, Daniel; Savi, Geovana D; Moecke, Elisa H S

    2014-11-01

    This work reports the in-shell Brazil nut spoilage susceptible morpho-histological characteristics and fungi infection (shell, edible part, and brown skin) through stereo and scanning electron microscopies (SEM). The following characteristics related to shell (a) morphology-that allow fungi and insects' entrance to inner nut, and (b) histology-that allow humidity absorption, improving environment conditions for living organisms development, were identified. (a.1) locule in testae-the nut navel, which is a cavity formed during nut detaching from pods (located at 1.0 to 2.0/4th of the shell B&C nut faces linkage). It allows the nut brown skin (between shell and edible part) first contact to the external environment, through the (a.2) nut channel-the locule prolongation path, which has the water/nutrients cambium function for their transport and distribution to the inner seed (while still on the tree/pod). Both, locule followed by the channel, are the main natural entrance of living organisms (fungi and insects), including moisture to the inner seed structures. In addition, the (a.3) nut shell surface-which has a crinkled and uneven surface morphology-allows water absorption, thus adding to the deterioration processes too. The main shell histological characteristic, which also allows water absorption (thus improving environment conditions for fungi proliferation), is the (b.1) cell wall porosity-the multilayered wall and porous rich cells that compose the shell faces double tissue layers and the (b.2) soft tissue-the mix of tissues 2 faces corner/linkage. This work also shows in details the SEM nut spoilage susceptible features highly fungi infected with hyphae and reproductive structures distribution. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Hydraulic Apparatus for Mechanical Testing of Nuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkel, Todd J.; Dean, Richard J.; Hacker, Scott C.; Harrington, Douglas W.; Salazar, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The figure depicts an apparatus for mechanical testing of nuts. In the original application for which the apparatus was developed, the nuts are of a frangible type designed for use with pyrotechnic devices in spacecraft applications in which there are requirements for rapid, one-time separations of structures that are bolted together. The apparatus can also be used to test nonfrangible nuts engaged without pyrotechnic devices. This apparatus was developed to replace prior testing systems that were extremely heavy and immobile and characterized by long setup times (of the order of an hour for each nut to be tested). This apparatus is mobile, and the setup for each test can now be completed in about five minutes. The apparatus can load a nut under test with a static axial force of as much as 6.8 x 10(exp 5) lb (3.0 MN) and a static moment of as much as 8.5 x 10(exp 4) lb in. (9.6 x 10(exp 3) N(raised dot)m) for a predetermined amount of time. In the case of a test of a frangible nut, the pyrotechnic devices can be exploded to break the nut while the load is applied, in which case the breakage of the nut relieves the load. The apparatus can be operated remotely for safety during an explosive test. The load-generating portion of the apparatus is driven by low-pressure compressed air; the remainder of the apparatus is driven by 110-Vac electricity. From its source, the compressed air is fed to the apparatus through a regulator and a manually operated valve. The regulated compressed air is fed to a pneumatically driven hydraulic pump, which pressurizes oil in a hydraulic cylinder, thereby causing a load to be applied via a hydraulic nut (not to be confused with the nut under test). During operation, the hydraulic pressure is correlated with the applied axial load, which is verified by use of a load cell. Prior to operation, one end of a test stud (which could be an ordinary threaded rod or bolt) is installed in the hydraulic nut. The other end of the test stud passes

  6. Callus Growth Kinetics of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.) and Content of Fatty Acids from Crude Oil Obtained In Vitro.

    PubMed

    da Luz Costa, Jefferson; da Silva, André Luís Lopes; Bier, Mário César Jucoski; Brondani, Gilvano Ebling; Gollo, André Luiz; Letti, Luiz Alberto Junior; Erasmo, Eduardo Andrea Lemus; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    The callus growth kinetics allows identifying the appropriate moment for callus pealing and monitoring the accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites. The physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant species used for biofuel production due to its high oil content; however, this plant presents a great amount of bioactive compounds which can be useful for industry. The aim of this research was to establish a calli growth curve and to evaluate the fatty acid profile of crude oil extracted from callus. The callus growth kinetics presented a sigmoid standard curve with six distinct phases: lag, exponential, linear, deceleration, stationary, and decline. Total soluble sugars were higher at the inoculation day. Reducing sugars were higher at the inoculation day and at the 80th day. The highest percentage of ethereal extract (oil content) was obtained at the 120th day of culture, reaching 18 % of crude oil from the callus. The calli produced medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids (from 10 to 18 carbon atoms). The palmitic acid was the fatty acid with the highest proportion in oil (55.4 %). The lipid profile obtained in callus oil was different from the seed oil profile.

  7. EVALUATION OF THE TEA TREE OIL ACTIVITY TO ANAEROBIC BACTERIA--IN VITRO STUDY.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska-Klinkosz, Marta; Kedzia, Anna; Meissner, Hhenry O; Kedzia, Andrzej W

    2016-01-01

    The study of the sensitivity to tea tree oil (Australian Company TTD International Pty. Ltd. Sydney) was carried out on 193 strains of anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients with various infections within the oral cavity and respiratory tracts. The susceptibility (MIC) of anaerobes was determined by means of plate dilution technique in Brucella agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated sheep blood, menadione and hemin. Inoculum contained 10(5) CFU per spot was cultured with Steers replicator upon the surface of agar with various tea tree oil concentrations or without oil (anaerobes growth control). Incubation the plates was performed in anaerobic jars under anaerobic conditions at 37 degrees C for 48 h. MIC was defined as the lowest concentrations of the essential oil completely inhibiting growth of anaerobic bacteria. Test results indicate, that among Gram-negative bacteria the most sensitive to essential oil were strains of Veillonella and Porphyromonas species. Essential oil in low concentrations (MIC in the range of = 0.12 - 0.5 mg/mL) inhibited growth of accordingly 80% and 68% strains. The least sensitive were strains of the genus Tannerella, Parabacteroides and Dialister (MIC 1.0 - 2.0 mg/mL). In the case of Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria the tea tree oil was the most active to strains of cocci of the genus Anaerococcus and Ruminococcus (MIC in range = 0.12 - 0.5 mg/mL) or strains of rods of the genus Eubacterium and Eggerthella (MIC = 0.25 mg/mL). Among Gram-positive rods the least sensitive were the strains of the genus Bifidobacterium ( MIC = 2.0 mg/mL). The tea tree oil was more active to Gram-positive than to Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria.

  8. In situ analysis of soybeans and nuts by probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Petroselli, Gabriela; Mandal, Mridul K; Chen, Lee C; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Nonami, Hiroshi; Erra-Balsells, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    The probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is an ESI-based ionization technique that generates electrospray from the tip of a solid metal needle. In the present work, we describe the PESI mass spectra obtained by in situ measurement of soybeans and several nuts (peanuts, walnuts, cashew nuts, macadamia nuts and almonds) using different solid needles as sampling probes. It was found that PESI-MS is a valuable approach for in situ lipid analysis of these seeds. The phospholipid and triacylglycerol PESI spectra of different nuts and soybean were compared by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA shows significant differences among the data of each family of seeds. Methanolic extracts of nuts and soybean were exposed to air and sunlight for several days. PESI mass spectra were recorded before and after the treatment. Along the aging of the oil (rancidification), the formation of oxidated species with variable number of hydroperoxide groups could be observed in the PESI spectra. The relative intensity of oxidated triacylglycerols signals increased with days of exposition. Monitoring sensitivity of PESI-MS was high. This method provides a fast, simple and sensitive technique for the analysis (detection and characterization) of lipids in seed tissue and degree of oxidation of the oil samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Detection of cashew nut DNA in spiked baked goods using a real-time polymerase chain reaction method.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Jennifer L

    2006-01-01

    The detection of potentially allergenic foods, such as tree nuts, in food products is a major concern for the food processing industry. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was designed to determine the presence of cashew DNA in food products. The PCR amplifies a 67 bp fragment of the cashew 2S albumin gene, which is detected with a cashew-specific, dual-labeled TaqMan probe. This reaction will not amplify DNA derived from other tree nut species, such as almond, Brazil nut, hazelnut, and walnut, as well as 4 varieties of peanut. This assay was sensitive enough to detect 5 pg purified cashew DNA as well as cashew DNA in a spiked chocolate cookie sample containing 0.01% (100 mg/kg) cashew.

  10. Chemical Relationship On Detection Of Ganoderma Disease On Oil Palm Tree System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, S. N. M.; Baharudin, F.; Ali, M. F.; Rahiman, M. H. F.

    2018-04-01

    Detection of fungal disease is the major issues in agricultural management and production. This disease would attack the plantation area and damaging the based root or the stem tissue of the trees. In oil palm industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) is the major disease in Malaysia that caused by a fungal named Ganoderma Boninense species. Since agricultural areas in Malaysia are the great factors that contribute in the economic sector, therefore the prevention and controlling this disease situation are needed to reduce the extent of the infection. These plant diseases are mostly being caused by the inflectional disease form such as viruses, viroids, bacteria, protozoa and even parasitic plants. It also could included mites and vertebrate or small insects that consume the plant tissues. Studies focused more on the breeding and relationship of the disease in the stumps, roots and soil system if oil palm trees by identifying the heavy metal; Phosphorus, copper, Iron, Manganese, Potassium and Zinc characteristic. Samples were taken from various types of physical appearance of the trees. It shows the relationship of the fungal disease breeding between oil palm trees and the heavy metals does affect the tree’s system.

  11. The effect of heat treatment on phenolic compounds and fatty acid composition of Brazilian nut and hazelnut.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Uslu, Nurhan

    2018-01-01

    Brazilian peanut oil content increased with oven heating (65.08%) and decreased with microwave heating process (61.00%). While the phenolic content of untreated Brazilian nut was the highest of 68.97 mg GAE/100 g. Hazelnut (Sivri) contained the highest antioxidant activity (86.52%, untreated). Results reflected significantly differences between the antioxidant effect and total phenol contents of Brazilian nut and hazelnut (Sivri) kernels heated in the oven and microwave. Microwave heating caused a decrease in antioxidant activity of hazelnut. Gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and (+)- and catechin were the main phenolic compounds of raw Brazilian nut with the value of 5.33, 4.33 and 4.88 mg/100 g, respectively, while the dominant phenolics of raw hazelnut (Sivri) kernels were gallic acid (4.81 mg/100 g), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (4.61 mg/100 g), (+)-catechin (6.96 mg/100 g) and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (4.14 mg/100 g). Both conventional and microwave heating caused minor reduction in phenolic compounds. The main fatty acids of Brazilian nut oil were linoleic (44.39-48.18%), oleic (27.74-31.74%), palmitic (13.09-13.70%) and stearic (8.20-8.91%) acids, while the dominant fatty acids of hazelnut (Sivri) oil were oleic acid (80.84%), respectively. The heating process caused noticeable change in fatty acid compositions of both nut oils.

  12. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  13. Coco Nut Meets the Gadget Maker. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, P.

    The adventures of Coco Nut, a coconut which has fallen from a palm tree in Florida, are illustrated in this booklet for elementary school students. His fall into a canal and ensuing encounters with dead and alive fish and a gadget maker (industry) are used to portray the effects of water pollution. What man can do to stop such pollution and…

  14. USE OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN STABLE ISOTOPES TO DETERMINE THE IMPORTANCE OF WHITEBARK PINE NUTS TO YELLOWSTONE GRIZZLY BEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a masting species that produces relatively large, fat and protein-rich nuts that are consumed by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Trees produce abundant nut crops in some years and poor crops in other years. Grizzly bear survival in ...

  15. Insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree and andiroba oils on flies associated with livestock.

    PubMed

    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C; Vaucher, R A; Baldissera, M D; Raffin, R; Boligon, A; Athayde, M; Baretta, D; Machado, G; DA Silva, A S

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), and andiroba, Carapa guianensis (Sapindales: Meliaceae), essential oils on two species of fly. For in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To evaluate the insecticidal effects of the oils, adult flies of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Musca domestica L. (both: Diptera: Muscidae) were separated by species in test cages (n = 10 per group), and subsequently tested with oils at concentrations of 1.0% and 5.0% using a negative control to validate the test. Both oils showed insecticidal activity. Tea tree oil at a concentration of 5.0% was able to kill M. domestica with 100.0% efficacy after 12 h of exposure. However, the effectiveness of andiroba oil at a concentration of 5.0% was only 67.0%. The insecticidal efficacy (100.0%) of both oils against H. irritans was observed at both concentrations for up to 4 h. The repellency effects of the oils at concentrations of 5.0% were tested in vivo on Holstein cows naturally infested by H. irritans. Both oils demonstrated repellency at 24 h, when the numbers of flies on cows treated with tea tree and andiroba oil were 61.6% and 57.7%, respectively, lower than the number of flies on control animals. It is possible to conclude that these essential oils have insecticidal and repellent effects against the species of fly used in this study. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. Internally Wrenching Nut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cortes, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    Less space needed for installation and removal. Nut for use with short bolts torqued with allen wrench. In contrast with standard hexagonal nuts, new nut requires no external wrench clearance on installation surface. Nut has many uses in assemblies where space is limited, especially in automotive and aircraft industries.

  17. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Vanhanen, Leo P.; Savage, Geoffrey P.

    2013-01-01

    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine (Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon (Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann’s pine (Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%–89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals. PMID:28239104

  18. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-04-03

    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine ( Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine ( Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon ( Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine ( Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann's pine ( Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine ( Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine ( Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%-89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  19. Sapucaia nut (Lecythis pisonis Cambess) and its by-products: A promising and underutilized source of bioactive compounds. Part I: Nutritional composition and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Demoliner, Fernanda; de Britto Policarpi, Priscila; Ramos, Juliano Carvalho; Bascuñan, Vera Lúcia Azzolin Frescura; Ferrari, Roseli Aparecida; Jachmanián, Iván; de Francisco de Casas, Alicia; Vasconcelos, Lúcio Flavo Lopes; Block, Jane Mara

    2018-06-01

    The nutritional composition of the sapucaia nut, cake and shell, the nut and cake minerals content and the lipid profile of the nut oil (fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and triacylglycerols) were determined. The nuts and cake exhibited a high content of lipid (47.9 to 60.8 mg 100 g -1 ), protein (15.8 to 19.5 mg 100 g -1 ), dietary fiber (16.5 to 22.6 mg 100 g -1 ) and provided an excellent source of selenium (26.4 to 46.94 μg g -1 ). The oil contained a high amount of unsaturated fatty acids (39.7 to 45.4% of oleic and 32.2 to 46.6% of linoleic acids) and presented a high Oxidative Stability Index (8.57-12.95 h) indicating the presence of antioxidant compounds in the oil. The major triacylglycerols in the sapucaia oil were LLO, PLO, LOO, POO, OOO, PLL and LLL. The main bioactive lipids identified in the oil were γ-tocopherol (19.2 to 28.5 mg 100 g -1 ) and β-sitosterol (92.8 to 194 mg 100 g -1 ). The results showed that the sapucaia nut and its by-products are a promising natural source of bioactive and nutritional compounds and when present in the diet can contribute to the maintenance of human health. In addition, the nut and by-product represents a promising raw material for the food industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutrient composition of raw, dry-roasted, and skin-on cashews

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cashew nuts are the second most popular tree nut and sales are growing at a rate of 7% per annum. The highest quality cashew nuts are traditionally whole, oil-roasted, and devoid of skins. The recent development of a technique to remove the caustic cashew nut shell liquid from cashews and leave th...

  1. Nuts and CVD.

    PubMed

    Ros, Emilio

    2015-04-01

    Nuts are nutrient-dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty acids and other bioactive compounds, such as l-arginine, fibre, healthful minerals, vitamin E, phytosterols and polyphenols. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially affect cardiovascular health. Epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of CHD in both sexes and of diabetes in women, but not in men. Feeding trials have clearly demonstrated that consumption of all kinds of nuts has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets. There is increasing evidence that nut consumption has a beneficial effect on oxidative stress, inflammation and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Contrary to expectations, epidemiological studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is not associated with undue weight gain. Recently, the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea randomised clinical trial of long-term nutrition intervention in subjects at high cardiovascular risk provided first-class evidence that regular nut consumption is associated with a 50 % reduction in incident diabetes and, more importantly, a 30 % reduction in CVD. Of note, incident stroke was reduced by nearly 50 % in participants allocated to a Mediterranean diet enriched with a daily serving of mixed nuts (15 g walnuts, 7.5 g almonds and 7.5 g hazelnuts). Thus, it is clear that frequent nut consumption has a beneficial effect on CVD risk that is likely to be mediated by salutary effects on intermediate risk factors.

  2. Influence of processing on the allergenic properties of pistachio nut assessed in vitro.

    PubMed

    Noorbakhsh, Reihaneh; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Sankian, Mojtaba; Shahidi, Fakhri; Maleki, Soheila J; Nasiraii, Leila Roozbeh; Falak, Reza; Sima, Hamid Reza; Varasteh, AbdolReza

    2010-09-22

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is a tree nut that has been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. This study was undertaken to investigate the distinctions between different cultivars of pistachio nut and the influence of different processing on the IgE-binding capacity of whole pistachio protein extracts. The influence of different processes on allergenicity was investigated using competitive inhibition ELISA and Western blotting assays. The Western blotting results of extracts from pistachio cultivars showed no marked difference among them. The IgE-binding capacity was significantly lower for the protein extract prepared from steam-roasted than from raw and dry-roasted pistachio nuts. The results of sensory evaluation analysis and hedonic rating proved no significant differences in color, taste, flavor, and overall quality of raw, roasted, and steam-roasted pistachio nut treatments. The most significant finding of the present study was the successful reduction of IgE-binding by pistachio extracts using steam-roast processing without any significant changes in sensory quality of product.

  3. Studies on crude oil removal from pebbles by the application of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wen-xiang; Xia, Yan; Li, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Dan-feng; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-02-15

    Oil residues along shorelines are hard to remove after an oil spill. The effect of biodiesel to eliminate crude oil from pebbles alone and in combination with petroleum degrading bacteria was investigated in simulated systems. Adding biodiesel made oil detach from pebbles and formed oil-biodiesel mixtures, most of which remained on top of seawater. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal efficiency increased with biodiesel quantities but the magnitude of augment decreased gradually. When used with petroleum degrading bacteria, the addition of biodiesel (BD), nutrients (NUT) and BD+NUT increased the dehydrogenase activity and decreased the biodegradation half lives. When BD and NUT were replenished at the same time, the TPH removal efficiency was 7.4% higher compared to the total improvement of efficiency when BD and NUT was added separately, indicating an additive effect of biodiesel and nutrients on oil biodegradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Channel nut tool

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Olson, Marvin

    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  5. Nuts, especially walnuts, have both antioxidant quantity and efficacy and exhibit significant potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Joe A; Cai, Yuxing

    2012-02-01

    Free and total (after basic hydrolysis) polyphenols in nine types of raw and roasted nuts and two types of peanut butter (54 commercial samples) were analyzed after methanol extraction by a single step Folin-Ciocalteu reagent using catechin as standard. Walnuts had the highest free and total polyphenols in both the combined raw and roasted samples. Total polyphenols in the nuts were significantly higher than free polyphenols. Roasting had little effect on either free or total polyphenols in nuts. Raw and roasted walnuts had the highest total polyphenols. The efficacy of raw and roasted nut antioxidants was assessed by measuring the ability of the free polyphenol nut extracts to inhibit the oxidation of lower density lipoproteins (LDL + VLDL). A nut polyphenol, catechin, was measured after binding of three nut extracts to lower density lipoproteins. Walnut polyphenols had the best efficacy among the nuts and also the highest lipoprotein-bound antioxidant activity. Based on USDA availability data, the per capita total polyphenols was 162 mg from nuts per day in 2008. This corresponds to 19% of the total polyphenols from fruits and vegetables, nuts, grains, oils and spices in the US diet. Nuts provided 158 mg of polyphenols per day to the European Union diet. Nuts are high in polyphenol antioxidants which by binding to lipoproteins would inhibit oxidative processes that lead to atherosclerosis in vivo. In human supplementation studies nuts have been shown to improve the lipid profile, increase endothelial function and reduce inflammation, all without causing weight gain. These qualities make nuts a nutritious healthy snack and food additive.

  6. Analysis of pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) unsaponifiable fraction. Effect of ripening stage on phytosterols and phytostanols composition.

    PubMed

    Bouali, Intidhar; Trabelsi, Hajer; Herchi, Wahid; Martine, Lucy; Albouchi, Ali; Bouzaien, Ghaith; Sifi, Samira; Boukhchina, Sadok; Berdeaux, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Changes in 4-desmethylsterol, 4-monomethylsterol, 4,4-dimethylsterol and phytostanol composition were quantitatively and qualitatively investigated during the ripening of three varieties of Tunisian-grown pecan nuts (Mahan, Moore and Burkett). These components have many health benefits, especially in lowering LDL-cholesterol and preventing heart disease. The phytosterol composition of whole pecan kernel was quantified by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionisation Detection (GC-FID) and identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifteen phytosterols and one phytostanol were quantified. The greatest amount of phytosterols (2852.5mg/100g of oil) was detected in Mahan variety at 20 weeks after the flowering date (WAFD). Moore had the highest level of phytostanols (7.3mg/100g of oil) at 20 WAFD. Phytosterol and phytostanol contents showed a steep decrease during pecan nut development. Results from the quantitative characterisation of pecan nut oils revealed that β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol, and campesterol were the most abundant phytosterol compounds at all ripening stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In-situ data collection for oil palm tree height determination using synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, C.; Loong, C. K.

    2016-04-01

    The oil palm is recognized as the “golden crop,” producing the highest oil yield among oil seed crops. Malaysia, the world's second largest producer of palm oil, has 16 per cent of its territory planted with oil palms. To cope with the increasing global demand on edible oil, additional areas of oil palm are forecast to increase globally by 12 to 19 million hectares by 2050. Due to the limited land bank in Malaysia, new strategies have to be developed to avoid unauthorized clearing of primary forest for the use of oil palm cultivation. Microwave remote sensing could play a part by providing relevant, timely and accurate information for a plantation monitoring system. The use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has the advantage of daylight- and weather-independence, a criterion that is very relevant in constantly cloud-covered tropical regions, such as Malaysia. Using interferometric SAR, (InSAR) topographical and tree height profiles of oil palm plantations can be created; such information is useful for mapping oil palm age profiles of the plantations in the country. This paper reports on the use of SAR and InSAR in a multisensory context to provide up-to-date information at plantation level. Remote sensing and in-situ data collection for tree height determination are described. Further research to be carried out over the next two years is outlined.

  8. Nut-cracking behaviour in wild-born, rehabilitated bonobos (Pan paniscus): a comprehensive study of hand-preference, hand grips and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Neufuss, Johanna; Humle, Tatyana; Cremaschi, Andrea; Kivell, Tracy L

    2017-02-01

    There has been an enduring interest in primate tool-use and manipulative abilities, most often with the goal of providing insight into the evolution of human manual dexterity, right-hand preference, and what behaviours make humans unique. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are arguably the most well-studied tool-users amongst non-human primates, and are particularly well-known for their complex nut-cracking behaviour, which has been documented in several West African populations. However, their sister-taxon, the bonobos (Pan paniscus), rarely engage in even simple tool-use and are not known to nut-crack in the wild. Only a few studies have reported tool-use in captive bonobos, including their ability to crack nuts, but details of this complex tool-use behaviour have not been documented before. Here, we fill this gap with the first comprehensive analysis of bonobo nut-cracking in a natural environment at the Lola ya Bonobo sanctuary, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Eighteen bonobos were studied as they cracked oil palm nuts using stone hammers. Individual bonobos showed exclusive laterality for using the hammerstone and there was a significant group-level right-hand bias. The study revealed 15 hand grips for holding differently sized and weighted hammerstones, 10 of which had not been previously described in the literature. Our findings also demonstrated that bonobos select the most effective hammerstones when nut-cracking. Bonobos are efficient nut-crackers and not that different from the renowned nut-cracking chimpanzees of Bossou, Guinea, which also crack oil palm nuts using stones. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Validating Efficacy of Shea Nut Oil Extract in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Sui-Foon; Wang, Yu-Chia; Chou, Tzu-Yi; Chang, Kang-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To examine and investigate the efficacy of shea nut oil extract (SheaFlex75) in relation to knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Thirty-three patients (age 63.6 ± 5.8 years) with knee OA were recruited. Real-time ultrasound imaging and surface electromyography were used to objectively assess the morphological changes and the activity of vastus medialis oblique (VMO) muscles during a 16-week intervention of SheaFlex75. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to examine the reliability of the interscans. A paired-sample t-test was used to compare the findings in different stages. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to examine the relationship between the relevant variables of OA and percentage of thickness change of VMO at different contraction levels. Results. The baseline findings showed strong correlation, suggesting that the reliability of interscans at pretest was high. The ability to contract the muscles of the knee to a 30% contraction level showed significant change between the baseline and after 16-week testing, both in terms of morphological changes and muscle activity. Pain scale reported a significant decrease at the 16th week. Conclusion. The results suggest that SheaFlex75 can relieve the symptoms of knee OA and can result in improvement of muscle control of the knee. PMID:24454485

  10. Pin p 1 is a major allergen from Pine nut and the first food allergen described in the plant group of Gymnosperms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prevalence of allergic reactions to tree nuts is increasing and can be particularly severe. Pine nuts from Pinus pinea have been consumed for over 2000 years in the Mediterranean region and today they are extensively consumed worldwide as a high nutrient ingredient. Of the reported cases of allergy ...

  11. Lavender, tea tree and lemon oils as antimicrobials in washing liquids and soft body balms.

    PubMed

    Kunicka-Styczyńska, A; Sikora, M; Kalemba, D

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of commercial essential oils: lavender, tea tree and lemon, antimicrobials in washing liquid and O/W soft body balm. The inhibition efficacy of essential oils in washing liquid (1% alone or in mixtures), in soft body balm (0.5% alone), as well as combined with the synthetic preservative DMDM hydantoin and 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate mixture (0.1 and 0.3%), was tested against S. aureus ATCC 6538, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida sp. ŁOCK 0008 and A. niger ATCC 16404 in compliance with the European Pharmacopoeia standards. The components of the system preserving soft body balm were supplemented with a solubilizer. Washing liquids containing only essential oils met Criterion A E.P. only for S. aureus, Candida sp. and A. niger. In soft body balm formulations, oils at a concentration of 0.5% did not reveal any preserving activity. The introduction of a solubilizer to a system containing 0.5% tea tree oil led to a substantial increase in the bacteriostatic activity of the formulation, but did not significantly affect its fungistatic properties. A combination of 0.5% tea tree oil, 5% solubilizer and 0.3% synthetic preservative ensured the microbiological stability of soft body balm in accordance with Criterion A E.P. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation. © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. The challenges for nut-allergic consumers of eating out.

    PubMed

    Leftwich, J; Barnett, J; Muncer, K; Shepherd, R; Raats, M M; Hazel Gowland, M; Lucas, J S

    2011-02-01

    For individuals with a nut allergy, the avoidance of allergens is particularly challenging in situations where they are not preparing their own food. Many allergic reactions occur when eating outside the home. To identify and explore the challenges faced by nut-allergic individuals (NAIs) when they are eating in restaurants and other eating establishments. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 32 adults with a clinical history of allergy to peanuts and/or tree nuts. The main strategies that participants adopted to manage the risk of allergic reactions when eating outside the home were avoidance and communication. They avoided types of restaurants, meal courses or particular foods. Seeking familiarity was a key strategy that enabled NAIs to reduce uncertainty and anxiety. Language differences were a major barrier to confident communication about food content. The need to check whether the food on offer may contain nuts was a source of social embarrassment for many participants and the desire to avoid this sometimes led to increased risk taking. Some did not disclose their allergy to restaurant staff as they feared a conservative reaction that would further constrain food choices. NAIs often have to plan where to eat out. The consequent lack of spontaneity was a source of regret to some. Communication patterns of nut-allergic adults are often grounded in legitimate everyday social considerations around embarrassment, choice and spontaneity. Education and training strategies are needed that recognize and take account of this. Focusing on communication deficits of NAIs may be unhelpful; responsibility for food safety must be shared with the food industry. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Low percentage of clinically relevant pistachio nut and mango co-sensitisation in cashew nut sensitised children.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, J P M; Bouche, R El; Gerth van Wijk, R; de Groot, H; Wichers, H J; Dubois, A E J; de Jong, N W

    2017-01-01

    Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The 'Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy assessment (IDEAL trial number NTR3572) study showed that cashew nut sensitised children were co-sensitised to pistachio nut in 98% of cases and to mango in 21% of cases. The aim of this follow-up study to IDEAL is to assess the clinical relevance of co-sensitisation to pistachio nut and mango in cashew nut sensitised children. Children were recruited from the study: 'Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy assessment (IDEAL trial number NTR3572). Inclusion criterion for the IDEAL study was sensitization to cashew nut as demonstrated by either SPT or sIgE, and a clinical history of reactions to cashew nuts or no previous (known) exposure. Sensitized children who were tolerant to cashew nuts were excluded. Inclusion criterion for this IDEAL follow-up study was co-sensitization to pistachio nut, regardless the result of the DBPCFC with cashew nut. In this follow-up study a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge with pistachio nut and an open food challenge with mango were performed. Twenty-nine children (mean age of 11.6 years, 62% male) were included. Pistachio nut sensitisation was clinically relevant in only 34% of cashew-sensitised children and only 31% of cashew challenge positive children. None of the children was challenge positive to mango. Although co-sensitisation between cashew nut and pistachio nut was observed in 98%, pistachio nut sensitisation was only clinically relevant in 34% of the children. Therefore, a challenge test with pistachio nut is recommended in children with cashew nut and pistachio nut sensitisation. Trial registration The study was registered in the Dutch trial register (registration number 3572) on 10 August 2012 (retrospectively registered).

  14. Detailed characterization of Act d 12 and Act d 13 from kiwi seeds: implication in IgE cross-reactivity with peanut and tree nuts.

    PubMed

    Sirvent, S; Cantó, B; Gómez, F; Blanca, N; Cuesta-Herranz, J; Canto, G; Blanca, M; Rodríguez, R; Villalba, M; Palomares, O

    2014-11-01

    Act d 12 (11S globulin) and Act d 13 (2S albumin) are two novel relevant allergens from kiwi seeds that might be useful to improve the diagnostic sensitivity and the management of kiwifruit-allergic patients. To perform a comprehensive structural and immunological characterization of purified Act d 12 and Act d 13 from kiwi seeds. Sera from 55 well-defined kiwifruit-allergic patients were used. Act d 12 and Act d 13 were purified by chromatographic procedures. Circular dichroism, mass spectrometry, concanavalin A detection, immunoblotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, basophil activation tests, and IgE-inhibition experiments were used. Act d 12 and Act d 13 were purified from kiwi seeds to homogeneity by combining size-exclusion, ion-exchange, and RP-HPLC chromatographies. Both purified allergens preserve the structural integrity and display typical features of their homologous counterparts from the 11S globulin and 2S albumin protein families, respectively. These allergens are released from kiwi seeds after oral and gastric digestion of whole kiwifruit, demonstrating their bioavailability after ingestion. The allergens retain the capacity to bind serum IgE from kiwifruit-allergic patients, induce IgE cross-linking in effector-circulating basophils, and display in vitro IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from peanut and tree nuts. Purified Act d 12 and Act d 13 from kiwi seeds are well-defined molecules involved in in vitro IgE cross-reactivity with peanut and tree nuts. Their inclusion in component-resolved diagnosis of kiwifruit allergy might well contribute to improve the diagnostic sensitivity and the management of kiwifruit-allergic patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Epicotyl dormancy of tree peony as an oil plant broken by cyanamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiajie; Gong, Mingfu; Liu, Fang; Wu, Sanlin; Liu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Ya; Xu, Gaoyu

    2018-04-01

    This test materials is `feng Dan', an oil peony, or tree peony as an oil plant, growing in Yangtze river basin. Impact of cyanamide on oil peony epicotyl dormancy was represented with germination rate of peony feeds, a-amylase activity, soluble sugar content, soluble protein content and peroxidase (POD) activity. Results showed that hypocotyls' dormancy of peony seeds was significant breaken by 0.3% cyanamide concentration. Alpha-amylase activity, soluble sugar content, soluble protein content and POD activity in 0.3% cyanamide concentration treatment was significantly higher than other treatments. There was no significant difference between the rest treatments.

  16. Identification and expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase genes and their relations to oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera, Co) provides a fine edible oil source in China. Tea oil from the seeds is very beneficial to human health. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) hydrolyzes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, two critical metab...

  17. Bioactive compounds in cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) kernels: effect of different shelling methods.

    PubMed

    Trox, Jennifer; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Vetter, Walter; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Scherbaum, Veronika; Gola, Ute; Nohr, Donatus; Biesalski, Hans Konrad

    2010-05-12

    In the present study, the effects of various conventional shelling methods (oil-bath roasting, direct steam roasting, drying, and open pan roasting) as well as a novel "Flores" hand-cracking method on the levels of bioactive compounds of cashew nut kernels were investigated. The raw cashew nut kernels were found to possess appreciable levels of certain bioactive compounds such as beta-carotene (9.57 microg/100 g of DM), lutein (30.29 microg/100 g of DM), zeaxanthin (0.56 microg/100 g of DM), alpha-tocopherol (0.29 mg/100 g of DM), gamma-tocopherol (1.10 mg/100 g of DM), thiamin (1.08 mg/100 g of DM), stearic acid (4.96 g/100 g of DM), oleic acid (21.87 g/100 g of DM), and linoleic acid (5.55 g/100 g of DM). All of the conventional shelling methods including oil-bath roasting, steam roasting, drying, and open pan roasting revealed a significant reduction, whereas the Flores hand-cracking method exhibited similar levels of carotenoids, thiamin, and unsaturated fatty acids in cashew nuts when compared to raw unprocessed samples.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of lavender, tea tree and lemon oils in cosmetic preservative systems.

    PubMed

    Kunicka-Styczyńska, A; Sikora, M; Kalemba, D

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study was to verify the antimicrobial activity of commercial essential oils: lavender, tea tree and lemon as the components of a preservative system in oil in water body milks. The inhibition efficacy of essential oils alone (0.5%), in mixtures (1%) as well as combined with the synthetic preservative 1,3-dimethylol-5,5-dimethylhydantoin and a 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate mixture (0.1% and 0.2%) was tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida sp. ŁOCK 0008 and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 in compliance with the standards of the European Pharmacopoeia Commission. The in vitro activity of oils determined by an impedimetric method was also compared with their activity in cosmetic preparations. Criterion A for bacteria (reduction in the inoculum by 3 logarithmic units within 7 days with no increase up to the 28th day) and fungi (reduction in the inoculum by 2 logarithmic units within 14 days with no increase up to the 28th day) was fulfilled for cosmetic formulations containing the tested essential oils with 0.2% of the synthetic preservative. The preservative concentration could be decreased to 0.1% (with preserving the same efficacy) in combination with lavender and tea tree oils at a concentration of 0.5% each. In all combinations of essential oils with the synthetic preservative, a synergistic effect of the preservative system components was observed, which made it possible to reduce the usable level of the synthetic preservative up to 8.5 times. To develop an effective preservative system in cosmetics in which a synthetic chemical preservative is replaced by natural essential oils.

  19. 29 CFR 780.216 - Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production... Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production. (a) The employees of a nursery who are engaged... fruit, nut, shade, vegetable, and ornamental plants or trees, and shrubs, vines, and flowers; (2...

  20. Frequency of nut consumption and mortality risk in the PREDIMED nutrition intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective studies in non-Mediterranean populations have consistently related increasing nut consumption to lower coronary heart disease mortality. A small protective effect on all-cause and cancer mortality has also been suggested. To examine the association between frequency of nut consumption and mortality in individuals at high cardiovascular risk from Spain, a Mediterranean country with a relatively high average nut intake per person. Methods We evaluated 7,216 men and women aged 55 to 80 years randomized to 1 of 3 interventions (Mediterranean diets supplemented with nuts or olive oil and control diet) in the PREDIMED (‘PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea’) study. Nut consumption was assessed at baseline and mortality was ascertained by medical records and linkage to the National Death Index. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression and multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the association between yearly repeated measurements of nut consumption and mortality. Results During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths and 130 cancer deaths occurred. Nut consumption was associated with a significantly reduced risk of all-cause mortality (P for trend <0.05, all). Compared to non-consumers, subjects consuming nuts >3 servings/week (32% of the cohort) had a 39% lower mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0.61; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.83). A similar protective effect against cardiovascular and cancer mortality was observed. Participants allocated to the Mediterranean diet with nuts group who consumed nuts >3 servings/week at baseline had the lowest total mortality risk (HR 0.37; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.66). Conclusions Increased frequency of nut consumption was associated with a significantly reduced risk of mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Please see related commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/165. Trial registration Clinicaltrials

  1. High-Temperature Captive Nut Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marke, M. L.; Charles, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    High-temperature captive-nut assembly consists of removable nut element that snaps into loose-fitting recesses in shell. Replacement of nut element is easily accomplished with simple handtools. Old nut is pried out and new one pushed into position. Removal is easily accomplished with help of U-shaped tool.

  2. What Is the "Areca" in "Areca Nuts"? Extraction and Neuroactive Bioassay of Arecoline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locock, Katherine; Bakas, Tim; Sanai, Farid; Allan, Robin; Hinton, Tina

    2016-01-01

    A series of three practical sessions are designed to give students firsthand experience with the preparation of natural product extracts and assay using a live tissue preparation. Areca or betel nuts are the seeds from the fruit of the "Areca catechu" palm tree that is known to contain a number of pharmacologically active alkaloids. The…

  3. In vitro repellent effect of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and andiroba (Carapa guianensis) oils on Haemotobia irritans and Chrysomya megacephala flies.

    PubMed

    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Radavelli, W M; Volpato, A; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C V; Vaucher, R A; Boligon, A A; Athayde, M L; Da Silva, A S

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the repellent effect of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and andiroba (Carapa guianensis) essential oils on two species of flies (Haemotobia irritans and Chrysomya megacephala). For the in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To verify the repellency effect, an apparatus was constructed where H. irritans and C. megacephala were exposed to andiroba and tea tree oils (5.0%), as well as to a known repellent (citronella, 5.0%) to validate the test. The study demonstrated that all three oils used showed in vitro repellent effect against both species of flies. It is possible to conclude that the essential oils (tea tree and andiroba) have repellent effect on these species of flies used in this study.

  4. Reversible Nut With Engagement Indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Jay M.

    1995-01-01

    Document describes nut allowing fastener inserted or removed from either side by simply sliding fastener in or out. Detents on each face of nut, when pushed in, ensure positive engagement of threads. Followed by conventional clockwise turning to lock and counterclockwise turning to unlock nut. Detents, when viewed, show whether nut in positive lock.

  5. Cooperative test plots produce some promising Chinese and hybrid chestnut trees

    Treesearch

    Jesse D. Diller; Russell B. Clapper; Richard A. Jaynes

    1964-01-01

    In attempts to find a chestnut tree that is resistant to the blight fungus Endothia parasitica, Asiatic chestnuts have been imported and grown in this country, and tree breeders have worked to produce hybrid trees that might be suitable substitutes for the blight-susceptible American chestnut, Castanea dentate, in timber and nut...

  6. Bacterial rhizosphere and endosphere populations associated with grasses and trees to be used for phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Kaneez; Afzal, Muhammad; Imran, Asma; Khan, Qaiser M

    2015-03-01

    Different grasses and trees were tested for their growth in a crude oil contaminated soil. Three grasses, Lolium perenne, Leptochloa fusca, Brachiaria mutica, and two trees, Lecucaena leucocephala and Acacia ampliceps, were selected to investigate the diversity of hydrocarbon-degrading rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria. We found a higher number of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria associated with grasses than trees and that the endophytic bacteria were taxonomically different from rhizosphere associated bacteria showing their spatial distribution with reference to plant compartment as well as genotype. The rhizospheric soil yielded 22 (59.45 %), root interior yielded 9 (24.32 %) and shoot interior yielded 6 (16.21 %) hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. These bacteria possessed genes encoding alkane hydroxylase and showed multiple plant growth-promoting activities. Bacillus (48.64 %) and Acinetobacter (18.91 %) were dominant genera found in this study. At 2 % crude oil concentration, all bacterial isolates exhibited 25 %-78 % oil degradation and Acinetobacter sp. strain BRSI56 degraded maximum. Our study suggests that for practical application, support of potential bacteria combined with the grasses is more effective approach than trees to remediate oil contaminated soils.

  7. Exposure to tea tree oil enhances the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aroma of various plant essential oils has been shown to enhance the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Laboratory observations revealed that male medflies show strong short-range attraction to tea tree oil (TTO hereafter) deri...

  8. The ultrastructure of shelled and unshelled cashew nuts.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Celli R; Freire, Francisco C O; Soares, Arlete Aparecida; Cooke, Peter H; Guedes, Maria I F

    2013-01-01

    Cashew nuts have many attributes, including sensory, nutritional and health appeal, which contribute to their worldwide acceptance. We demonstrate details of the microstructure of shelled and unshelled cashew kernels with regard to pericarp and cotyledon organization. This study also provides evidence of the colonization of these kernels by filamentous fungi. Nuts were examined by scanning electron and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Staining with acridine orange was performed. A tight lignified palisade layer adjacent to the exocarp surface explains the hardness of the shell's pericarp. The mesocarp contains large secretory cavities that confer a spongy property to this tissue. Papillose cells, which are responsible for secreting CNSL (cashew nutshell liquid), were observed to cover the inner wall of these cavities. Lipid components are readily released from the parenchyma and appear as oil droplets. The outer surface of the shelled samples exhibited a dense Aspergillus infestation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Simple methods for raising tree and shrub seedlings in Afghanistan

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna; George Hernandez

    2008-01-01

    Growing trees and shrubs in nurseries is rewarding. You may wish to grow trees and shrubs for many reasons: 1) reforestation; 2) land stabilization; 3) fire wood (energy); 4) improving water quality; 5) urban landscapes; 6) providing shade; 7) producing fruits or nuts. If you enjoy growing plants, you are more likely to produce better trees and shrubs (Figure 1.1). In...

  10. Basil, tea tree and clove essential oils as analgesics and anaesthetics in Amphiprion clarkii (Bennett, 1830).

    PubMed

    Correia, A M; Pedrazzani, A S; Mendonça, R C; Massucatto, A; Ozório, R A; Tsuzuki, M Y

    2017-11-27

    In this study were evaluated the anaesthesia and analgesic effects of clove Eugenia caryophyllata, tea tree Melaleuca alternifolia and basil Ocimum basilicum essential oils (EO) during handling of yellowtail clownfish Amphiprion clarkii. Juveniles (3.70 ± 0.75 cm and 1.03 ± 0.50 g; mean ± standard deviation) were submitted to concentrations of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 µl L-1 of clove, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 µl L-1 of basil and 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 µl L-1 of tea tree oils (n=10/concentration), previously defined in pilot tests. Individually and only once, fish from each treatment were placed in a glass recipient containing 1 L of seawater at a temperature of 25 °C, salinity of 35 g L-1 and the specific concentration of diluted EO (stock solution). Control (only seawater) and blank (seawater and ethanol at the highest concentration used to dilute the oils) treatments were also conducted. After reaching the stage of surgical anaesthesia, fish were submitted to biometry and a sensibility test. After that, they were transferred to clean seawater for anaesthesia recovery. The times of induction needed to reach each anaesthesia stage and anaesthesia recovery were recorded. Animals were observed for 72 hours after the procedures. All the EO provoked anaesthesia and analgesic effects in A. clarkii, but basil oil is not recommended because it caused involuntary muscle contractions and mortality in 100% and 12% of fish, respectively. The lower concentrations that promote suitable induction and recovery times are 50 µl L-1 of clove oil and 500 µl L-1 of tea tree oil. However, due to its complementary high analgesic efficiency, clove oil is recommended as the ideal anaesthetic for A. clarkii.

  11. Nuts, metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Cyril W C; Josse, Andrea R; Esfahani, Amin; Jenkins, David J A

    2010-08-01

    The ability of nuts to improve the blood lipid profile and reduce the risk of CHD is now well established. The interest that health effects of nuts have gained recently has brought the possible benefits of consuming nuts, such as improvement in the conditions of the metabolic syndrome, and their potential to prevent and control diabetes into focus. Results from cohort studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced risk of developing diabetes and CVD. However, few randomised controlled trials have assessed the effect of nuts on diabetes control, and those that have been undertaken have shown improvements in blood lipids but not in the glycaemic control. Diabetes agencies are increasingly recognising the importance of controlling postprandial glycaemia fluctuations. Acute feeding studies indicate that nuts have minimal effects on rising postprandial blood glucose levels when eaten alone, and diminish the postprandial glycaemic response when consumed with high-glycaemic index carbohydrate foods in both normoglycaemic and type 2 diabetic individuals. Nuts have a healthy nutritional profile, high in MUFA and PUFA, are a good source of vegetable protein and are rich in fibre, vitamins and minerals. Incorporation of nuts in the diet may therefore improve the overall nutritional quality of the diet. While more research is required to establish the ability of nuts to improve glycaemic control in the long run, early data indicate that the inclusion of nuts in the diets of individuals with diabetes and the metabolic syndrome is warranted, in view of their potential to reduce CHD risk.

  12. Nutritional potential, chemical profile and antioxidant activity of Chichá (Sterculia striata) nuts and its by-products.

    PubMed

    de Britto Policarpi, Priscila; Turcatto, Leticia; Demoliner, Fernanda; Ferrari, Roseli Aparecida; Bascuñan, Vera Lúcia Azzolin Frescura; Ramos, Juliano Carvalho; Jachmanián, Iván; Vitali, Luciano; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Block, Jane Mara

    2018-04-01

    The Sterculia striata nut commonly known as chichá is consumed raw or toasted inBrazil but information on its chemical composition and antioxidant activity are scarce in the literature. In this work, the nutritional composition, minerals profile, lipid composition and phenolic compounds profile of chichá nuts and its by-products (pellicle and shell) were determined. The results showed that the nuts and the cake contain considerable amount of fibers and proteins and are rich in minerals (Fe, Mn and Cu). Oleic acid was the main fatty acid (37.8%), and PPO (36.0%) and POP (15.6%) were the main triacylglycerides present in the chichá oil. The phytosterols β-sitosterol, stigmasteroland campesterol (1848.5μgg -1 , 542.2μgg -1 and 186.3μgg -1 , respectively), and the γ-, δ-, α- and β-tocopherol (8.85; 2.10; 1.64, and 0.11mg100g -1 , respectively) were identified in the oil. The antioxidant activity (ABTS and FRAP assays) followed the order pellicle>shell>nuts (13.25 and 84.65; 8.71 and 64.3; 5.85 and 36.79μmolTEACg -1 , respectively). The main phenolic compounds identified in the extracts were ellagic and ferulic acids; ellagic and protocatechuic acids; and protocatechuic, ellagic and methoxyphenylacetic acids for the nuts, shells and pellicle, respectively. A strong positive correlation was observed between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity determined by ABTS and FRAP assays (r=0.9067, p<0.01; and r=0.9584, p<0.01; respectively). Collectively, the results showed that the chichá is a nut of high nutritional value, rich in bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) strategically place nuts in a stable position during nut-cracking.

    PubMed

    Fragaszy, Dorothy M; Liu, Qing; Wright, Barth W; Allen, Angellica; Brown, Callie Welch; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Humans can use hand tools smoothly and effectively in varying circumstances; in other words, skillfully. A few other species of primates crack encased foods using hammer tools and anvils. Are they skilled? Positioning the food on the anvil so that it does not fall off when struck is a component of skilled cracking. We discovered that bearded capuchin monkeys deliberately place palm nuts in a relatively stable position on the anvil before striking them. In the first experiment, we marked the meridians of palm nuts where they stopped when rolled on a flat surface ("Stop meridian"). We videotaped monkeys as they cracked these nuts on an anvil. In playback we coded the position of the Stop meridian prior to each strike. Monkeys typically knocked the nuts on the anvil a few times before releasing them in a pit. They positioned the nuts so that the Stop meridian was within 30 degrees of vertical with respect to gravity more often than expected, and the nuts rarely moved after the monkeys released them. In the second experiment, 14 blindfolded people (7 men) asked to position marked nuts on an anvil as if to crack them reliably placed them with the Stop meridian in the same position as the monkeys did. In the third experiment, two people judged that palm nuts are most bilaterally symmetric along a meridian on, or close to, the Stop meridian. Thus the monkeys reliably placed the more symmetrical side of the nuts against the side of the pit, and the nuts reliably remained stationary when released. Monkeys apparently used information gained from knocking the nut to achieve this position. Thus, monkeys place the nuts skillfully, strategically managing the fit between the variable nuts and pits in the anvil, and skilled placement depends upon information generated by manual action.

  14. Wild Bearded Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) Strategically Place Nuts in a Stable Position during Nut-Cracking

    PubMed Central

    Fragaszy, Dorothy M.; Liu, Qing; Wright, Barth W.; Allen, Angellica; Brown, Callie Welch; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Humans can use hand tools smoothly and effectively in varying circumstances; in other words, skillfully. A few other species of primates crack encased foods using hammer tools and anvils. Are they skilled? Positioning the food on the anvil so that it does not fall off when struck is a component of skilled cracking. We discovered that bearded capuchin monkeys deliberately place palm nuts in a relatively stable position on the anvil before striking them. In the first experiment, we marked the meridians of palm nuts where they stopped when rolled on a flat surface (“Stop meridian”). We videotaped monkeys as they cracked these nuts on an anvil. In playback we coded the position of the Stop meridian prior to each strike. Monkeys typically knocked the nuts on the anvil a few times before releasing them in a pit. They positioned the nuts so that the Stop meridian was within 30 degrees of vertical with respect to gravity more often than expected, and the nuts rarely moved after the monkeys released them. In the second experiment, 14 blindfolded people (7 men) asked to position marked nuts on an anvil as if to crack them reliably placed them with the Stop meridian in the same position as the monkeys did. In the third experiment, two people judged that palm nuts are most bilaterally symmetric along a meridian on, or close to, the Stop meridian. Thus the monkeys reliably placed the more symmetrical side of the nuts against the side of the pit, and the nuts reliably remained stationary when released. Monkeys apparently used information gained from knocking the nut to achieve this position. Thus, monkeys place the nuts skillfully, strategically managing the fit between the variable nuts and pits in the anvil, and skilled placement depends upon information generated by manual action. PMID:23460793

  15. Locking Nut and Bolt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, R.

    1983-01-01

    Threaded fastener locks parts securely together despite together large loosening torques, even under conditions of high temperature and vibration. Positive locking action is suitable for use where conventional fasteners tend to work loose--for example, on high-speed rotating machinery. Bolt, nut and key are joined together so key occupies alined slots in bolt and nut and prevents nut from rotating off bolt.

  16. Blind-Anchor-Nut-Installation Fixture (BANIF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willey, Norman F., Jr.; Linker, James F.

    1994-01-01

    Blind-anchor-nut-installation fixture, BANIF, developed for replacing or installing anchor nuts in blind holes or other inaccessible places. Attachment of anchor nut to BANIF enables placement of anchor nut on blind side of component.

  17. Identification and expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase genes and their relations to oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yanling; Tan, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Nan; Cao, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera, Co) provides a fine edible oil source in China. Tea oil from the seeds is very beneficial to human health. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) hydrolyzes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, two critical metabolites for oil biosynthesis. The objectives of this study were to identify FBA genes and investigate the relationship between FBA gene expression and oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree. In this paper, four developmentally up-regulated CoFBA genes were identified in Camellia oleifera seeds based on the transcriptome from two seed developmental stages corresponding to the initiation and peak stages of lipid biosynthesis. The expression of CoFBA genes, along with three key oil biosynthesis genes CoACP, CoFAD2 and CoSAD were analyzed in seeds from eight developmental stages by real-time quantitative PCR. The oil content and fatty acid composition were also analyzed. The results showed that CoFBA and CoSAD mRNA levels were well-correlated with oil content whereas CoFAD2 gene expression levels were correlated with fatty acid composition in Camellia seeds. We propose that CoFBA and CoSAD are two important factors for determining tea oil yield because CoFBA gene controls the flux of key intermediates for oil biosynthesis and CoSAD gene controls the synthesis of oleic acid, which accounts for 80% of fatty acids in tea oil. These findings suggest that tea oil yield could be improved by enhanced expression of CoFBA and CoSAD genes in transgenic plants.

  18. Taub-Nut Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imazato, Harunobu; Mizoguchi, Shun'ya; Yata, Masaya

    We consider the Gibbons-Hawking metric for a three-dimensional periodic array of multi-Taub-NUT centers, containing not only centers with a positive NUT charge but also ones with a negative NUT charge. The latter are regarded as representing the asymptotic form of the Atiyah-Hitchin metric. The periodic arrays of Taub-NUT centers have close parallels with ionic crystals, where the Gibbons-Hawking potential plays the role of the Coulomb static potential of the ions, and are similarly classified according to their space groups. After a periodic identification and a Z2 projection, the array is transformed by T-duality to a system of NS5-branes with the SU(2) structure, and a further standard embedding yields, though singular, a half-BPS heterotic 5-brane background with warped compact transverse dimensions. A discussion is given on the possibility of probing the singular geometry by two-dimensional gauge theories.

  19. Quick application/release nut with engagement indicator (commercial application of an innovative nut design)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Jay M.

    1991-01-01

    This is an assembly which permits a fastener to be inserted or removed from either side with an indicator of fastener engagement. The nut has a plurality of segments, preferably at least three segments, which are internally threaded, spring loaded apart by an internal spring, and has detents on opposite sides which force the nut segments into operative engagement with a threaded member when pushed in and release the segments for quick insertion or removal of the fastener when moved out. When the nut is installed, end pressure on the detents presses the nut segments into operative engagement with a threaded member where continued rotation locks the structure together with the detents depressed to indicate positive locking engagement of the nut. On removal, counterclockwise rotation relieves the endwise pressure on the detents, permitting internal springs to force the detents outward, allowing the nut segments to move outward and separate to permit quick removal of the fastener.

  20. A Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil or nuts improves endothelial markers involved in blood pressure control in hypertensive women.

    PubMed

    Storniolo, C E; Casillas, R; Bulló, M; Castañer, O; Ros, E; Sáez, G T; Toledo, E; Estruch, R; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V; Fitó, M; Martínez-González, M A; Salas-Salvadó, J; Mitjavila, M T; Moreno, J J

    2017-02-01

    Serum nitric oxide (NO) reduction and increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) play a pivotal role in endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Considering that traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD) reduces blood pressure (BP), the aim of this study was to analyze whether TMD induced changes on endothelial physiology elements such as NO, ET-1 and ET-1 receptors which are involved in BP control. Non-smoking women with moderate hypertension were submitted for 1 year to interventions promoting adherence to the TMD, one supplemented with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and the other with nuts versus a control low-fat diet (30 participants/group). BP, NO, ET-1 and related gene expression as well as oxidative stress biomarkers were measured. Serum NO and systolic BP (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP) were negatively associated at baseline, as well as between NO and ET-1. Our findings also showed a DBP reduction with both interventions. A negative correlation was observed between changes in NO metabolites concentration and SBP or DBP after the intervention with TMD + EVOO (p = 0.033 and p = 0.044, respectively). SBP reduction was related to an impairment of serum ET-1 concentrations after the intervention with TMD + nuts (p = 0.008). We also observed changes in eNOS, caveolin 2 and ET-1 receptors gene expression which are related to NO metabolites levels and BP. The changes in NO and ET-1 as well as ET-1 receptors gene expression explain, at least partially, the effect of EVOO or nuts on lowering BP among hypertensive women.

  1. Methyl bromide as a microbicidal fumigant for tree nuts.

    PubMed Central

    Schade, J E; King, A D

    1977-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) has broad microbicidal activity, but its use as a disinfectant for food is limited by the resulting bromide residues. Increasing the MeBr concentration, exposure temperature, or exposure period of a treatment tended to increase both the microbicidal efficacy of MeBr and the bromide residues. Its sporicidal activity was less at high than at low relative humidity within the range of 20 to 99%. Both the efficacy and the resulting residues of a MeBr treatment varied inversely with the load of product in a fumigation chamber due to sorption of the fumigant. Fumigation tests with almond kernels inoculated with Escherichia coli or Salmonella typhimurium indicated that MeBr can be used to disinfect whole nut kernels without resulting in excessive bromide residues, although the MeBr level necessary is higher than that normally used for insect control. PMID:406844

  2. Nut-enriched bread is an effective and acceptable vehicle to improve regular nut consumption.

    PubMed

    Devi, Asika; Chisholm, Alexandra; Gray, Andrew; Tey, Siew Ling; Williamson-Poutama, Destynee; Cameron, Sonya L; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-10-01

    Consuming 30 g of nuts/day is recommended to reduce chronic disease. However, nut consumption appears far from ideal among several populations. A potential strategy to increase consumption is to add nuts to a staple, for example, bread. Whether the health benefits and acceptability of nuts persist in this form is currently unknown. Thus, we examined the effects of consuming three nut-enriched breads on postprandial glycaemia, satiety, gastrointestinal tolerance, dietary intakes, and acceptance. In this controlled, crossover study, 32 participants were randomly allocated to receive one of four breads for 8 days each. Three breads contained either 30 g of finely sliced hazelnuts, 30 g semi-defatted hazelnut flour, or 15 g of each (amounts per 120 g bread) and were compared with a control nut-free bread. Blood glucose response was measured over 120 min, along with ratings of gastrointestinal discomfort. Appetite ratings and diet diaries were completed during each treatment period. Area under the blood glucose curve was significantly lower for the nut breads compared to the control bread (all P < 0.001), with no significant differences between the nut breads (all P ≥ 0.130). There were no significant differences in satiety (all P ≥ 0.135) or gastrointestinal symptoms (all P ≥ 0.102) between the breads. Acceptance was highest for the finely sliced hazelnut bread. Furthermore, consuming hazelnut-enriched bread improved diet quality, increasing monounsaturated fat, vitamin E, and dietary fibre intakes. Bread appears to be an effective and acceptable vehicle for increasing nut consumption, resulting in improved postprandial glycaemia and diet profiles. Long-term studies are now required.

  3. NSD3-NUT fusion oncoprotein in NUT midline carcinoma: implications for a novel oncogenic mechanism.

    PubMed

    French, Christopher A; Rahman, Shaila; Walsh, Erica M; Kühnle, Simone; Grayson, Adlai R; Lemieux, Madeleine E; Grunfeld, Noam; Rubin, Brian P; Antonescu, Cristina R; Zhang, Songlin; Venkatramani, Rajkumar; Dal Cin, Paola; Howley, Peter M

    2014-08-01

    NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is an aggressive subtype of squamous cell carcinoma that typically harbors BRD4/3-NUT fusion oncoproteins that block differentiation and maintain tumor growth. In 20% of cases, NUT is fused to uncharacterized non-BRD gene(s). We established a new patient-derived NMC cell line (1221) and demonstrated that it harbors a novel NSD3-NUT fusion oncogene. We find that NSD3-NUT is both necessary and sufficient for the blockade of differentiation and maintenance of proliferation in NMC cells. NSD3-NUT binds to BRD4, and BRD bromodomain inhibitors induce differentiation and arrest proliferation of 1221 cells. We find further that NSD3 is required for the blockade of differentiation in BRD4-NUT-expressing NMCs. These findings identify NSD3 as a novel critical oncogenic component and potential therapeutic target in NMC. The existence of a family of fusion oncogenes in squamous cell carcinoma is unprecedented, and should lead to key insights into aberrant differentiation in NMC and possibly other squamous cell carcinomas. The involvement of the NSD3 methyltransferase as a component of the NUT fusion protein oncogenic complex identifies a new potential therapeutic target. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Chemical characterization of a variety of cold-pressed gourmet oils available on the Brazilian market.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Nicola; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Salvo, Andrea; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Bartolomeo, Giovanni; Mangano, Valentina; Rotondo, Archimede; Di Stefano, Vita; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Dugo, Giacomo

    2018-07-01

    Different specialty extra virgin oils, produced by cold-pressing fruits/nuts (olive, pequi, palm, avocado, coconut, macadamia and Brazil nut) and seeds (grapeseed and canola), and retailed in the Brazilian region of Minas Gerais, were chemically characterized. Specifically, for each type of oil, the fatty acid composition was elucidated by GC-FID, the contents of selected polyphenols and squalene were determined respectively by UHPLC-MS and UHPLC-PDA, whereas minerals were explored by means of ICP-MS. Olive oil was confirmed to have the highest MUFA content due to a valuable level of oleic acid, while oils from grapeseed, Brazil nut and canola were marked by nutritionally important PUFA levels. The highest SFA content found in coconut oil was mainly due to the high levels of lauric acid, known for its advantageous HDL-raising effects. As for polyphenols, gourmet oils from palm, coconut and canola showed higher levels of phenolic acids (e.g. p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, syringic, acids) than olive oil, which was though characterized by peculiar antioxidants, such as tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. Also, olive oil had the highest amount of squalene, followed by the oil from Brazil nut. Finally, all the investigated oils had very low levels (order of μg/kg) of pro-oxidant elements, such as Cu, Fe and Mn. Overall, these findings may fill the gaps still present in literature on certain compositional aspects of commercially available gourmet oils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pinon Pine Tree Study, Los Alamos National Laboratory: Source document

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    P. R. Fresquez; J. D. Huchton; M. A. Mullen

    One of the dominant tree species growing within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, lands is the pinon pine (Pinus edulis) tree. Pinon pine is used for firewood, fence posts, and building materials and is a source of nuts for food--the seeds are consumed by a wide variety of animals and are also gathered by people in the area and eaten raw or roasted. This study investigated the (1) concentration of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup tot}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in soils (0- to 12-in. [31 cm] depth underneath themore » tree), pinon pine shoots (PPS), and pinon pine nuts (PPN) collected from LANL lands and regional background (BG) locations, (2) concentrations of radionuclides in PPN collected in 1977 to present data, (3) committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from the ingestion of nuts, and (4) soil to PPS to PPN concentration ratios (CRs). Most radionuclides, with the exception of {sup 3}H in soils, were not significantly higher (p < 0.10) in soils, PPS, and PPN collected from LANL as compared to BG locations, and concentrations of most radionuclides in PPN from LANL have decreased over time. The maximum net CEDE (the CEDE plus two sigma minus BG) at the most conservative ingestion rate (10 lb [4.5 kg]) was 0.0018 mrem (0.018 {micro}Sv). Soil-to-nut CRs for most radionuclides were within the range of default values in the literature for common fruits and vegetables.« less

  6. Marking nut anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-01-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  7. In chemico evaluation of tea tree essential oils as skin sensitizers: Impact of the chemical composition on aging and generation of reactive species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a popular skin remedy obtained from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, M. linariifolia or M dissitiflora. Due to the commercial importance ofTTO, substitution or adulteration with other tea tree species (such as cajeput, niaouli, manuka and kanuka oils) is common and may p...

  8. Floating nut for spacecraft application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ell, L. J.; Mathewson, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Nut overcomes mechanical mismatch from accumulated tolerances and maintains assembly even if mounting screw loosens. Nut and screws can be painted with bonding agent to insure lock. If assemblies are removed frequently, nut and screws can be made of steel to reduce wear and tear on threads and risk of faulty threads.

  9. In vitro and in vivo killing of ocular Demodex by tea tree oil

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Y-Y; Di Pascuale, M A; Li, W; Baradaran-Rafii, A; Elizondo, A; Kuo, C-L; Raju, V K; Tseng, S C G

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To compare the in vitro killing effect of different agents on Demodex and to report the in vivo killing effect of tea tree oil (TTO) on ocular Demodex. Methods: Survival time of Demodex was measured under the microscope. Sampling and counting of Demodex was performed by a modified method. Results: Demodex folliculorum survived for more than 150 minutes in 10% povidone-iodine, 75% alcohol, 50% baby shampoo, and 4% pilocarpine. However, the survival time was significantly shortened to within 15 minutes in 100% alcohol, 100% TTO, 100% caraway oil, or 100% dill weed oil. TTO’s in vitro killing effect was dose dependent. Lid scrub with 50% TTO, but not with 50% baby shampoo, can further stimulate Demodex to move out to the skin. The Demodex count did not reach zero in any of the seven patients receiving daily lid scrub with baby shampoo for 40–350 days. In contrast, the Demodex count dropped to zero in seven of nine patients receiving TTO scrub in 4 weeks without recurrence. Conclusions: Demodex is resistant to a wide range of antiseptic solutions. Weekly lid scrub with 50% TTO and daily lid scrub with tea tree shampoo is effective in eradicating ocular Demodex. PMID:16234455

  10. Activity of tea tree oil and nerolidol alone or in combination against Pediculus capitis (head lice) and its eggs.

    PubMed

    Di Campli, Emanuela; Di Bartolomeo, Soraya; Delli Pizzi, Patricia; Di Giulio, Mara; Grande, Rossella; Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina

    2012-11-01

    Head lice infestation is an emerging social problem in undeveloped and developed countries. Because of louse resistance increasing, several long-used insecticidal compounds have lost their efficacy, and alternatives, such as essential oils, have been proposed to treat this parasitic infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of two natural substances: tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil and nerolidol (3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol) against lice and its eggs. Products were used alone and in combination (ratio 1:1 and 1:2) from 8 % dilution. The in vitro effect of natural substances at different concentrations were evaluated against 69 head lice (adults and nymphs) and 187 louse eggs collected from school children in Chieti-Pescara (Central Italy) over a 6-month period. The lice mortality was evaluated for 24 h by a stereo light microscope. The ovicidal activity was monitored by microscopic inspections for 15 days. Tea tree oil was more effective than nerolidol against head lice with 100 % mortality at 30 min and 1 % concentration. On the contrary, nerolidol expressed a more pronounced ovicidal activity inducing the failure of 50 % of the eggs to hatch at 1 % concentration after 4 days; the same effect was achieved by using a twice concentration of tea tree oil. The association of the two substances both in ratios 1:1 and 1:2 combined efficaciously their insecticidal and ovicidal effect; in particular, the ratio 1:2 (tea tree oil 0.5 % plus nerolidol 1 %) acted producing both the death of all head lice at 30 min and the abortive effect of louse eggs after 5 days. These results offer new potential application of natural compounds and display a promising scenario in the treatment of pediculosis resistant cases. The development of novel pediculicides containing essential oils could be, in fact, an important tool to control the parasitic infestation.

  11. Influence of foliar fertilization on walnut foliar zinc levels and nut production in black walnut

    Treesearch

    William R. Reid; Andrew L. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The impact of foliar zinc fertilizer application on nut-bearing black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) trees was studied. Foliar sprays were applied three times per season on two cultivars during four growing seasons by wetting the foliage of the entire crown using a tank mix containing 500 ppm zinc, starting at leaf burst and continuing at 2 week intervals...

  12. Simple methods for raising tree and shrub seedlings in Afghanistan [Dari version

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna; George Hernandez

    2008-01-01

    Growing trees and shrubs in nurseries is rewarding. You may wish to grow trees and shrubs for many reasons: 1) reforestation; 2) land stabilization; 3) fire wood (energy); 4) improving water quality; 5) urban landscapes; 6) providing shade; 7) producing fruits or nuts. If you enjoy growing plants, you are more likely to produce better trees and shrubs (Figure 1.1). In...

  13. Quick application/release nut with engagement indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Jay M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A composite nut is shown which permits a fastener to be inserted or removed from either side with an indicator of fastener engagement. The nut has a plurality of segments, preferably at least three segments, which are internally threaded, spring loaded apart by an internal spring, and has detents on opposite sides which force the nut segments into operative engagements with a threaded member when pushed in and release the segments for quick insertion or removal of the nut when moved out. When the nut is installed, end pressure on one of the detents presses the nut segments into operative engagement with a threaded member where continued rotation locks the structure together with the detents depressed to indicate positive locking engagement of the nut. On removal, counterclockwise rotation of the nut relieves the endwise pressure on the detents, permitting internal springs to force the detents outward and allowing the nut segments to move outward and separate to permit quick removal of the fastener.

  14. Maternal intake of cashew nuts accelerates reflex maturation and facilitates memory in the offspring.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Marília Ferreira Frazão Tavares; Pereira, Diego Elias; Sousa, Morgana Moura; Medeiros, Dilian Maise Ferreira; Lemos, Leanderson Tulio Marques; Madruga, Marta Suely; Santos, Nayane Medeiros; de Oliveira, Maria Elieidy Gomes; de Menezes, Camila Carolina; Soares, Juliana Késsia Barbosa

    2017-10-01

    Essential fatty acids, being indispensable during the stages of pregnancy, lactation and infancy influence the transmission of nerve impulses and brain function, and cashew nuts are a good source of these fatty acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cashew nut consumption on reflex development, memory and profile of fatty acids of rat offspring treated during pregnancy and lactation. The animals were divided into three groups: Control (CONT), treated with 7% lipid derived from soybean oil; Normolipidic (NL) treated with 7% lipids derived from cashew nuts; and Hyperlipidic (HL) treated with 20% lipids derived from cashew nuts. Reflex ontogeny, Open-field habituation test and the Object Recognition Test (ORT) were assessed. The profile of fatty acids in the brain was carried out when the animals were zero, 21 and 60days old. Accelerated reflex maturation was observed in animals treated with cashew nuts (p<0.05). NL presented better memory in the Open-field habituation test; the NL and HL showed improvement of short-term memory in the ORT, but long term damage in HL (p<0.05). The results of the lipid profile of the brain at the end of the experiment showed an increase in levels of saturated fatty acids and less Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in animals of the HL. The data showed that maternal consumption of cashew nuts can accelerate reflex maturation and facilitate memory in offspring when offered in adequate quantities. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ambient orchard and on-tree volatile collection system for monitoring and detection of attractants for navel orangeworm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The navel orangeworm (NOW) is a major insect pest of California tree nuts. Its feeding damage lowers nut kernel quality resulting in considerable monetary loss to growers, producers, and shippers. Moreover, NOW feeding damage directly contributes to aflatoxin contamination. Hence, control of NOW has...

  16. Characterization of the soluble allergenic proteins of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.).

    PubMed

    Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Peterson, W Rich; Roux, Kenneth H

    2002-10-23

    The allergens associated with cashew food allergy have not been well-characterized. We sought to identify the major allergens in cashew nut by performing IgE immunoblots to dissociated and reduced or nonreduced cashew protein extracts, followed by sequencing of the peptides of interest. Sera from 15 subjects with life-threatening reactions to cashews and 8 subjects who tolerate cashews but have life-threatening reactions to other tree nuts were compared. An aqueous cashew protein extract containing albumin/globulin was separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and subjected to IgE immunoblotting using patient sera. Selected IgE reactive bands were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Each of the 15 sera from cashew-allergic subjects showed IgE binding to the cashew protein extract. The dominant IgE-binding antigens in the reduced preparations included peptides in the 31-35 kD range, consistent with the large subunits of the major storage 13S globulin (legumin-like protein). Low-molecular-weight polypeptides of the 2S albumin family, with similarity to the major walnut allergen Jug r 1, also bound IgE. The sera from eight patients who tolerate cashew but displayed allergies to other tree nuts showed only minimal or no IgE binding to cashew. Cashew food allergy is associated with the presence of IgE directed against the major seed storage proteins in cashew, including the 13S globulin (legumin group) and 2S albumins, both of which represent major allergen classes in several plant seeds. Thus, the legumin-group proteins and 2S albumins are again identified as major food allergens, which will help further research into seed protein allergenicity.

  17. Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline) on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Konan, Y L; Sylla, M S; Doannio, J M; Traoré, S

    2003-06-01

    Repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. If synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. The people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. After demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades) of Cocos nucifera (coconut), Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) and Carapa procera (gobi) were effective against mosquitoes, it became necessary to study the impact of the two excipients used in their manufacture, on the effectiveness of the repellents. Experiments were carried with Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti under lobaratory conditions and any other mosquitoes collected under field conditions in Ivory Coast. The laboratory results indicate that the average protection times obtained with formulations with karite nut butter as excipient (54.8 +/- 37.0 mn and 74.6 +/- 26.4 mn respectively on An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti) are higher than those recorded with vaseline as excipient (respectively 42.7 +/- 30.0 mn and 60.8 +/- 33.9 mn). On the other hand, under field conditions, the biting rate percentage reduction obtained with the products with karite nut butter and vaseline excipient were similar (respectively 29.8% and 35.9% for all mosquitoes collected and 45.7% and 47.4% against An. gambiae). Nevertheless, the use of karite nut butter on repellent products should be encouraged because its sale price is very lower (10 time less) than the vaseline's.

  18. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Financial and tax aspects of tree planting

    Treesearch

    William L. Hoover

    2004-01-01

    Trees are planted for many reasons, including soil and water conservation, wildlife habitat, nut and timber production. Altruism motivates many landowners to plant trees. There are, however, those who plant with the expectation of increasing their family's wealth. In this publication I discuss the financial and tax aspects of tree planting projects. The focus is...

  19. Characterization of edible coatings consisting of pea starch, whey protein isolate, and Carnauba wax and their effects on oil rancidity and sensory properties of walnuts and pine nuts.

    PubMed

    Mehyar, Ghadeer F; Al-Ismail, Khalid; Han, Jung H; Chee, Grace W

    2012-02-01

    Edible coatings made of whey protein isolate (WPI), pea starch (PS), and their combinations with carnauba wax (CW) were prepared and characterized. WPI combined with CW formed stable emulsion while PS with CW formed unstable emulsion and both formulations produced non-homogeneous films. Addition of PS to WPI: CW combination at the ratio of 1:1:1, respectively, resulted in stable emulsion and homogenous films. The emulsion PS: WPI: CW (1:1:2) was stable and formed a continuous film but had less homogenous droplets size distribution when compared to 1:1:1 film. Combined films had a reduced tensile strength and elongation compared to single component films. WPI : CW (1:1) films had higher elastic modulus than the WPI films, but the modulus reduced by the addition of PS. All the coating formulations were effective in preventing oxidative and hydrolytic rancidity of walnuts and pine nuts stored at 25 °C throughout the storage (12 d) but were less effective at 50 °C. Increasing the concentration of CW from 1:1:1 to 1:1:2 in PS: WPI: CW formulation did not contribute in further prevention of oil rancidity at 25 °C. Using of PS: WPI: CW (1:1:1) coating on both nuts significantly (P < 0.05) improved their smoothness and taste but the PS: WPI: CW (1:1:2) coatings imparted unacceptable yellowish color on walnuts. Edible coating of walnuts and pine nuts by whey protein isolate, pea starch, and carnauba wax reduced the oxidative and hydrolytic rancidity of the nuts and improved sensory characteristics. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Conservation and management of butternut trees

    Treesearch

    Lenny Farlee; Keith Woeste; Michael Ostry; James McKenna; Sally Weeks

    2010-01-01

    Butternut (Juglans cinerea), also known as white walnut, is a native hardwood related to black walnut (Juglans nigra) and other members of the walnut family. Butternut is a medium-sized tree with alternate, pinnately compound leaves, that bears large, sharply ridged, cylindrical nuts inside sticky green hulls that earned it the...

  1. Cover crops to improve soil health and pollinator habitat in nut orchards: Part II

    Treesearch

    Jerry Van Sambeek

    2017-01-01

    Integrating cover crops into a nut orchard can have some unique benefits and problems not found when used cover crops during the fallow period between cash crops. Studies show ground covers can reduce hardwood tree growth anywhere from a few percent to more than 70 percent in the case of tall fescue. This means if it takes 3 years to put on one inch of diameter growth...

  2. Nut traits and nutritional composition of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) as influenced by zinc fertilization.

    PubMed

    Özenç, Nedim; Özenç, Damla Bender

    2015-07-01

    Zinc is an essential element for plants and its deficiency is a widespread problem throughout the world, causing decreased yields and nutritional quality. In this study the effect of zinc fertilization on some nut traits and the nutritional composition of 'Tombul' hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) variety cultivated in the Black Sea region of Turkey was investigated and the contribution of this nut to human nutrition determined. Trials were carried out at 'Tombul' hazelnut orchards, and zinc fertilizers were applied at 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kg Zn ha(-1) in three consecutive years. Significant differences in some nut traits and mineral composition (protein, total oil, ash, kernel percentage, empty and wrinkled nuts, copper, boron, manganese and molybdenum) were observed with zinc fertilizer applications. In terms of daily nutritional element requirements, 100 g of hazelnut provided about 44.74% phosphorus, 13.39% potassium, 19.32% calcium, 37.49% magnesium, 0.19% sodium, 51.63% iron, 25.73% zinc and 14.05% boron of the recommended daily amounts (RDAs), while copper, manganese and molybdenum contents exceeded their RDAs. In order to improve some nut traits and the mineral composition of hazelnut, 0.8 and 1.6 kg Zn ha(-1) fertilizations could be recommended in practice. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Floating nut retention system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. F.; Theakston, H. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A floating nut retention system includes a nut with a central aperture. An inner retainer plate has an opening which is fixedly aligned with the nut aperture. An outer retainer member is formed of a base plate having an opening and a surface adjacent to a surface of the inner retainer plate. The outer retainer member includes a securing mechanism for retaining the inner retainer plate adjacent to the outer retainer member. The securing mechanism enables the inner retainer plate to float with respect to the outer retainer number, while simultaneously forming a bearing surface for inner retainer plate.

  4. The two NUT-like solutions of Ernst equation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wu Yabo; Dong Peng; Deng Xuemei

    By applying Ehlers transformation to Schwarzschild and Kerr solutions of Ernst equation and choosing the suitable coordinate transformations, the two NUT-like solutions, i.e., the so called NUT-Taub-like and the Kerr-NUT-like solutions are obtained which not only can, respectively, reduce to Schwarzschild and Kerr solutions when the parameter l{sup '}=0, but also can also reduce to the NUT-Taub metric and Kerr-NUT metric, respectively, when l{sup '} satisfies the some approximation. Meanwhile it is shown that in the NUT-Taub and Kerr-NUT solutions the range of value for the parameter l interpreted as the gravomagnetic monopole cannot be arbitrary and should be confinedmore » by mass of the source to vertical bar l vertical bar<NUT-Taub-like and NUT-Taub solutions are discussed and the physical properties of the horizons on the Kerr-NUT-like space-time are analyzed.« less

  5. Does providing written dietary advice improve the ingestion of non-allergic nuts in children with existing nut allergies? - A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Norman, M; South, C; Quinn, P; Chan, D; Palmer, S; Netting, M; Gold, M

    2016-05-01

    Allergy to one or more nuts is common in children and often complete nut avoidance is advised. More recently, introduction of non-allergic nuts into the diet is advised by some allergists. This study aims to determine whether the provision of additional written dietary advice increases the ingestion of non-allergic nuts by children with nut allergy. Secondary aims include determining which factors facilitate or prevent successful inclusion of non-allergic nuts in the diet, and how inclusion influences quality of life, sensitization and the rate of nut reactions. This is a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial of children with nut allergy who were asked to ingest one or more non-allergic nuts. Participants were 75 children aged 2-16 years (Intervention=36, Control=39), recruited in Adelaide, Australia. Randomized participants were supplied with the intervention (recipe booklet and monthly reminder text messages) or provided standard verbal dietary advice. After 6 months participants were assessed by a blinded investigator with regard to nut ingestion, quality of life, sensitization and nut reactions. The intervention did not increase the ingestion of non-allergic nuts. A negative hospital challenge was a predictor of successful introduction. Parental report of child concern about a reaction was the greatest barrier. Ingestion of non-allergic nuts did not improve quality of life or change nut sensitization. Few nut reactions occurred during the study. Ingestion of non-allergic nuts by children with nut allergy was not improved by additional dietary intervention. Selective introduction of non-allergic nuts is difficult to achieve when the child is anxious about introduction and challenges cannot be done in a medically supervised setting. This dietary intervention did not improve non-allergic nut ingestion by nut allergic children. Hospital challenge increased introduction rates, whilst parentally reported child concern about a reaction reduced success. Non

  6. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on the functional and rheological properties of the protein fraction extracted from pine nuts.

    PubMed

    Cao, Baiying; Fang, Li; Liu, Chunlei; Min, Weihong; Liu, Jingsheng

    2018-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure treatments could increase the protein solubility (200 MPa), water holding capacity (400 MPa), and oil holding capacity (400 MPa) of pine nuts protein fractions, respectively. The exposed sufhydryl content for albumin was highest at 100 MPa while for other fractions it was 400 MPa, contrary for total sufhydryl content-generally it was at 100 MPa, except glutelin (400 MPa). Pine nuts protein fractions demonstrated the typical behavior of weak gels (G' > G″). After the treatments of high hydrostatic pressure the specific surface area of pine nuts protein particle was increased upon pressure, and the surface of protein became rough which increased the particle size. The functional groups of protein were found to be unchanged, but the characteristic peaks of pine nuts protein moved to a low-band displacement and the value of peaks was amplified accordingly to the pressure. The high hydrostatic pressure treatments were found to improve the functional properties of pine nuts protein isolates by enhancing the heat-induced gel strength of pine nuts protein isolates which make proteins more stretchable. These results suggest that high hydrostatic pressure treatments can increase the functional properties and alter the rheological properties of pine nuts protein fractions which will broaden its applications in food industry.

  7. Nuclear fuel element nut retainer cup. [PWR

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Walton, L.A.

    1977-07-19

    A typical embodiment has an end fitting for a nuclear reactor fuel element that is joined to the control rod guide tubes by means of a nut plate assembly. The nut plate assembly has an array of nuts, each engaging the respective threaded end of the control rod guide tubes. The nuts, moreover, are retained on the plate during handling and before fuel element assembly by means of hollow cylindrical locking cups that are brazed to the plate and loosely circumscribe the individual enclosed nuts. After the nuts are threaded onto the respective guide tube ends, the locking cups aremore » partially deformed to prevent one or more of the nuts from working loose during reactor operation. The locking cups also prevent loose or broken end fitting parts from becoming entrained in the reactor coolant.« less

  8. Nuts, nut cracking, and pitted stones at Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Goren-Inbar, Naama; Sharon, Gonen; Melamed, Yoel; Kislev, Mordechai

    2002-01-01

    The Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov (Israel) has revealed a unique association of edible nuts with pitted hammers and anvils. Located in the Dead Sea rift, on the boundary between the Arabian and African plates, the site dates to the Early-Middle Pleistocene, oxygen isotope stage 19. In a series of strata, seven species of nuts, most of which can be cracked open only by a hard hammer, were uncovered. Five of the species are extant terrestrial nuts, and two are aquatic nuts now extinct in the Levant. In addition, the site yielded an assemblage of pitted hammers and anvils similar in pit morphology to those used by chimpanzees and contemporary hunter–gatherers. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that a site has offered both paleobotanical and lithic evidence of plant foods eaten by early hominins and technologies used for processing these foods. The evidence also sheds light on the structure of the community: ethnographic analogies suggest that mixedgender groups may have been active on the shores of paleoLake Hula. PMID:11854536

  9. Development of low-shock pyrotechnic separation nuts. [design performance of flight type nuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Neubert, V. H.

    1973-01-01

    Performance demonstrations and comparisons were made on six flight type pyrotechnic separation nut designs, two of which are standard designs in current use, and four of which were designed to produce low shock on actuation. Although the shock performances of the four low shock designs are considerably lower than the standard designs, some penalties may be incurred in increased volume, weight, or complexity. These nuts, and how they are installed, can significantly influence the pyrotechnic shock created in spacecraft structures. A high response monitoring system has been developed and demonstrated to provide accurate performance comparisons for pyrotechnic separation nuts.

  10. Antibacterial activity, chemical composition, and cytotoxicity of leaf's essential oil from brazilian pepper tree (schinus terebinthifolius, raddi).

    PubMed

    Silva, A B; Silva, T; Franco, E S; Rabelo, S A; Lima, E R; Mota, R A; da Câmara, C A G; Pontes-Filho, N T; Lima-Filho, J V

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of leaf's essential oil (EO) from Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) against staphylococcal isolates from dogs with otitis externa was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of EO ranged from 78.1 to 1,250 μg/mL. The oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and cytotoxicity tests were carried out with laboratory animals.

  11. Prebiotic nut compounds and human microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Lamuel-Raventos, Rosa M.; Onge, Marie-Pierre St.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nut consumption is clearly related to human health outcomes. Its beneficial effects have been mainly attributed to nut fatty acid profiles and content of vegetable protein, fiber, vitamins, minerals, phytosterols and phenolics. However, in this review we focus on the prebiotics properties in humans of the non-bioaccessible material of nuts (polymerized polyphenols and polysaccharides), which provides substrates for the human gut microbiota and on the formation of new bioactive metabolites and the absorption of that may partly explain the health benefits of nut consumption. PMID:27224877

  12. A dry-inoculation method for nut kernels.

    PubMed

    Blessington, Tyann; Theofel, Christopher G; Harris, Linda J

    2013-04-01

    A dry-inoculation method for almonds and walnuts was developed to eliminate the need for the postinoculation drying required for wet-inoculation methods. The survival of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis PT 30 on wet- and dry-inoculated almond and walnut kernels stored under ambient conditions (average: 23 °C; 41 or 47% RH) was then compared over 14 weeks. For wet inoculation, an aqueous Salmonella preparation was added directly to almond or walnut kernels, which were then dried under ambient conditions (3 or 7 days, respectively) to initial nut moisture levels. For the dry inoculation, liquid inoculum was mixed with sterilized sand and dried for 24 h at 40 °C. The dried inoculated sand was mixed with kernels, and the sand was removed by shaking the mixture in a sterile sieve. Mixing procedures to optimize the bacterial transfer from sand to kernel were evaluated; in general, similar levels were achieved on walnuts (4.8-5.2 log CFU/g) and almonds (4.2-5.1 log CFU/g). The decline of Salmonella Enteritidis populations was similar during ambient storage (98 days) for both wet-and dry-inoculation methods for both almonds and walnuts. The dry-inoculation method mimics some of the suspected routes of contamination for tree nuts and may be appropriate for some postharvest challenge studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 40 CFR 112.10 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore oil drilling and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and Kernels) § 112.10...

  14. 40 CFR 112.10 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore oil drilling and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and Kernels) § 112.10...

  15. 40 CFR 112.10 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore oil drilling and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and Kernels) § 112.10...

  16. Taking actions to quit chewing betel nuts and starting a new life: taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsui-Yun; Lin, Hung-Ru

    2017-04-01

    To understand taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing. Previous studies verified that betel nut chewing significantly increases the risk of oral cancer. In Taiwan, taxi drivers work for approximately 10-13 hours per day, and 31·7-80% of them choose to chew betel nuts for their invigorating qualities, which enable them to work more hours and receive more income. A qualitative research design was used. This study used the grounded theory method with purposive sampling to perform in-depth interviews with male taxi drivers who had successfully quit betel nut chewing for more than six months. The interviewed participants were 25 taxi drivers aged 45-67 who had chewed betel nuts for an average of 30·9 years. A constant comparative analysis of the 25 interviews revealed six categories, namely the first experience of chewing betel nuts, a part of work and life, perceiving the impact of betel nuts, trying to change, acting to quit betel nut chewing and starting a new life. During the cessation process, taxi drivers tended to be affected by their addiction to chewing betel nuts and the temptation of friends' invitations to chew betel nuts. However, their recognition of the physical effects of betel nut chewing and their sense of responsibility and commitment to family were the critical factors affecting their determination to quit betel nut chewing. Their willpower to not to chew betel nuts and the source of their motivation to exercise self-control also contributed to their success. Healthcare personnel should understand the experiences and perceptions of betel nut chewers, strengthen their understanding of the effects of betel nut chewing on physical health during the cessation period and support their self-efficacy and quitting behaviours with the assistance of significant others. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Seasonal carbohydrate storage and mobilization in bearing and non-bearing pistachio (Pistacia vera) trees.

    PubMed

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2008-02-01

    We analyzed annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization of bearing ("on") and non-bearing ("off") 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees growing on three different rootstocks. On all rootstocks, carbohydrate storage in shoots and branches of "on" and "off" trees was lowest following the spring growth flush. In "off" trees, stored carbohydrates increased and remained high after the initial growth flush. In "on" trees, stem carbohydrates increased temporarily in early summer, but were mobilized in mid-season during kernel fill, and then increased again after nut harvest. During the dormant season, the only substantial differences in carbohydrate storage between previously "on" and "off" trees were found in the roots of the weakest rootstock. The annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization pattern in canopy branches of heavily cropped pistachio trees appeared to be driven by carbohydrate demands related to nut development and untempered by tree vigor. Mobilization of carbohydrates from current-season and 1- and 2-year-old stem wood of "on" trees during the primary period of kernel fill corresponded with the period of inflorescence bud abscission. Thus, the alternate bearing pattern associated with inflorescence bud abscission in 'Kerman' pistachio may be a function of mid-season mobilization of stored carbohydrates in current-season stems resulting in stimulation of inflorescence bud abscission.

  18. Essential oils and metal ions as alternative antimicrobial agents: a focus on tea tree oil and silver.

    PubMed

    Low, Wan-Li; Kenward, Ken; Britland, Stephen T; Amin, Mohd Cim; Martin, Claire

    2017-04-01

    The increasing occurrence of hospital-acquired infections and the emerging problems posed by antibiotic-resistant microbial strains have both contributed to the escalating cost of treatment. The presence of infection at the wound site can potentially stall the healing process at the inflammatory stage, leading to the development of a chronic wound. Traditional wound treatment regimes can no longer cope with the complications posed by antibiotic-resistant strains; hence, there is a need to explore the use of alternative antimicrobial agents. Pre-antibiotic compounds, including heavy metal ions and essential oils, have been re-investigated for their potential use as effective antimicrobial agents. Essential oils have potent antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and other beneficial therapeutic properties. Similarly, heavy metal ions have also been used as disinfecting agents because of their broad spectrum activities. Both of these alternative antimicrobials interact with many different intracellular components, thereby resulting in the disruption of vital cell functions and eventually cell death. This review will discuss the application of essential oils and heavy metal ions, particularly tea tree oil and silver ions, as alternative antimicrobial agents for the treatment of chronic, infected wounds. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. 40 CFR 180.466 - Fenpropathrin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., tart 5.0 Citrus, dried pulp 4.0 Citrus, oil 75 Cotton, refined oil 3.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 1.0 Egg...) 2.0 Nut, tree, crop group 14 0.10 Olive 5.0 Papaya 1.0 Pea, succulent 0.02 Peanut, hay 20.0 Peanut 0...

  20. 40 CFR 180.466 - Fenpropathrin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., tart 5.0 Citrus, dried pulp 4.0 Citrus, oil 75 Cotton, refined oil 3.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 1.0 Egg...) 2.0 Nut, tree, crop group 14 0.10 Olive 5.0 Papaya 1.0 Pea, succulent 0.02 Peanut, hay 20.0 Peanut 0...

  1. Occurrence of ochratoxin a contamination and detection of ochratoxigenic aspergillus species in retail samples of dried fruits and nuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and is a potential contaminant of a wide variety of food products. To determine the incidence of OTA contamination in dried fruits and tree nuts, retail packaged and bulk raisins, dates, figs, prunes, almon...

  2. Nuts and Human Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Rávila Graziany Machado; Schincaglia, Raquel Machado; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in nuts and their outcome regarding human health. The consumption of nuts is frequently associated with reduction in risk factors for chronic diseases. Although nuts are high calorie foods, several studies have reported beneficial effects after nut consumption, due to fatty acid profiles, vegetable proteins, fibers, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and phytosterols with potential antioxidant action. However, the current findings about the benefits of nut consumption on human health have not yet been clearly discussed. This review highlights the effects of nut consumption on the context of human health. PMID:29207471

  3. Effect of different types of plastic packaging films on the moisture and aflatoxin contents of pistachio nuts during storage.

    PubMed

    Shakerardekani, Ahmad; Karim, Roselina

    2013-04-01

    Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the popular tree nuts in the world. Proper selection of packaging materials is necessary to prevent absorption of moisture and aflatoxin formation which will influence the overall product quality and safety. This research is undertaken to study the effect of different type of flexible packaging films on the moisture and aflatoxin contents of whole pistachio nuts during storage at ambient temperature (22-28 °C) and relative humidity of 85-100%. Five types of plastic films tested were low density polyethylene (LDPE) which serves as the control, food-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon (LDPE/PA), polyamide/polypropylene (PA/PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The moisture content and aflatoxin content of pistachio nuts were measured using oven drying method and HPLC, respectively. Sample were analysed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 months during the storage period. Results showed that there was an increase in moisture content with the increase in storage time of pistachio nuts. The increase in moisture content was associated with the aflatoxin level of pistachio nuts during storage time. All the packaging materials except LDPE delayed the moisture absorption and aflatoxin formation of the product. The most suitable packaging materials for maintaining the quality and safety of pistachio nuts is PET films followed by nylon, PA/PP and PVC. The shelf-life of pistachio can be extended from 2 months (Control) to 5 months when PET is used as the packaging material.

  4. Mediterranean nuts: origins, ancient medicinal benefits and symbolism.

    PubMed

    Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Salas-Huetos, Albert; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2011-12-01

    To consider historical aspects of nuts in relation to origin and distribution, attributed medicinal benefits, symbolism, legends and superstitions. Review of historical aspects of nuts. Mediterranean region. The varieties reviewed include almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, pine nuts and pistachios. Like other foods, nuts have a wide variety of cultural connections to the areas where they grow and to the people who live there or eat them. History, symbolism and legends reveal the ancient tradition of nuts and how they are related to the lives of our ancestors. Archaeological excavations in eastern Turkey have uncovered the existence of a non-migratory society whose economy centred on harvesting nuts. This shows that nuts have been a staple in the human diet since the beginnings of history. Moreover, since ancient times nuts have been used for their medicinal properties. They also play a role in many old legends and traditions.

  5. Seasonal variation in the populations of Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi in physic nut (Jatropha curcas) plantations.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Jander F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Sarmento, Renato A; da Silva, Ricardo Siqueira; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Carvalho, Marcos Alberto; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Silva, Laila Cristina Rezende

    2015-07-01

    Studies on the seasonal variation of agricultural pest species are important for the establishment of integrated pest control programs. The seasonality of pest attacks on crops is affected by biotic and abiotic factors, for example, climate and natural enemies. Besides that, characteristics of the host plant, crop management, location and the pests' bioecology also affect this seasonality. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) and Tetranychus bastosi (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) are the most important pests in the cultivation of physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae). All parts of J. curcas can be used for a wide range of purposes. In addition many researchers have studied its potential for use as neat oil, as transesterified oil (biodiesel), or as a blend with diesel. However studies about physic nut pests have been little known. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal variation of P. latus and T. bastosi in physic nut. This study was conducted at three sites in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. We monitored climatic elements and the densities of the two mite species and of their natural enemies for a period of 2 years. Attack by P. latus occurred during rainy seasons, when the photoperiod was short and the physic nut had new leaves. In contrast, attack by T. bastosi occurred during warmer seasons with longer photoperiods and stronger winds. Populations of both mites and their natural enemies were greater in sites with greater plant diversity adjacent to the plantations. The predators found in association with P. latus and T. bastosi were Euseius concordis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), spiders, Stethorus sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

  6. Impact of Consuming Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts within a Mediterranean Diet on DNA Methylation in Peripheral White Blood Cells within the PREDIMED-Navarra Randomized Controlled Trial: A Role for Dietary Lipids.

    PubMed

    Arpón, Ana; Milagro, Fermín I; Razquin, Cristina; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Marti, Amelia; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Riezu-Boj, José-Ignacio; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2017-12-23

    DNA methylation could be reversible and mouldable by environmental factors, such as dietary exposures. The objective was to analyse whether an intervention with two Mediterranean diets, one rich in extra-virgin olive oil (MedDiet + EVOO) and the other one in nuts (MedDiet + nuts), was influencing the methylation status of peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs) genes. A subset of 36 representative individuals were selected within the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED-Navarra) trial, with three intervention groups in high cardiovascular risk volunteers: MedDiet + EVOO, MedDiet + nuts, and a low-fat control group. Methylation was assessed at baseline and at five-year follow-up. Ingenuity pathway analysis showed routes with differentially methylated CpG sites (CpGs) related to intermediate metabolism, diabetes, inflammation, and signal transduction. Two CpGs were specifically selected: cg01081346- CPT1B / CHKB-CPT1B and cg17071192- GNAS/GNASAS , being associated with intermediate metabolism. Furthermore, cg01081346 was associated with PUFAs intake, showing a role for specific fatty acids on epigenetic modulation. Specific components of MedDiet, particularly nuts and EVOO, were able to induce methylation changes in several PWBCs genes. These changes may have potential benefits in health; especially those changes in genes related to intermediate metabolism, diabetes, inflammation and signal transduction, which may contribute to explain the role of MedDiet and fat quality on health outcomes.

  7. Impact of Consuming Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts within a Mediterranean Diet on DNA Methylation in Peripheral White Blood Cells within the PREDIMED-Navarra Randomized Controlled Trial: A Role for Dietary Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Razquin, Cristina; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Ros, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation could be reversible and mouldable by environmental factors, such as dietary exposures. The objective was to analyse whether an intervention with two Mediterranean diets, one rich in extra-virgin olive oil (MedDiet + EVOO) and the other one in nuts (MedDiet + nuts), was influencing the methylation status of peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs) genes. A subset of 36 representative individuals were selected within the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED-Navarra) trial, with three intervention groups in high cardiovascular risk volunteers: MedDiet + EVOO, MedDiet + nuts, and a low-fat control group. Methylation was assessed at baseline and at five-year follow-up. Ingenuity pathway analysis showed routes with differentially methylated CpG sites (CpGs) related to intermediate metabolism, diabetes, inflammation, and signal transduction. Two CpGs were specifically selected: cg01081346–CPT1B/CHKB-CPT1B and cg17071192–GNAS/GNASAS, being associated with intermediate metabolism. Furthermore, cg01081346 was associated with PUFAs intake, showing a role for specific fatty acids on epigenetic modulation. Specific components of MedDiet, particularly nuts and EVOO, were able to induce methylation changes in several PWBCs genes. These changes may have potential benefits in health; especially those changes in genes related to intermediate metabolism, diabetes, inflammation and signal transduction, which may contribute to explain the role of MedDiet and fat quality on health outcomes. PMID:29295516

  8. Korean pine nut oil replacement decreases intestinal lipid uptake while improves hepatic lipid metabolism in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shuang; Park, Soyoung; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Sunhye

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Consumption of pine nut oil (PNO) was shown to reduce weight gain and attenuate hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of PNO on both intestinal and hepatic lipid metabolism in mice fed control or HFD. MATERIALS/METHODS Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed control diets containing 10% energy fat from either Soybean Oil (SBO) or PNO, or HFD containing 15% energy fat from lard and 30% energy fat from SBO or PNO for 12 weeks. Expression of genes related to intestinal fatty acid (FA) uptake and channeling (Cd36, Fatp4, Acsl5, Acbp), intestinal chylomicron synthesis (Mtp, ApoB48, ApoA4), hepatic lipid uptake and channeling (Lrp1, Fatp5, Acsl1, Acbp), hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) lipolysis and FA oxidation (Atgl, Cpt1a, Acadl, Ehhadh, Acaa1), as well as very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly (ApoB100) were determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS In intestine, significantly lower Cd36 mRNA expression (P < 0.05) and a tendency of lower ApoA4 mRNA levels (P = 0.07) was observed in PNO-fed mice, indicating that PNO consumption may decrease intestinal FA uptake and chylomicron assembly. PNO consumption tended to result in higher hepatic mRNA levels of Atgl (P = 0.08) and Cpt1a (P = 0.05). Significantly higher hepatic mRNA levels of Acadl and ApoB100 were detected in mice fed PNO diet (P < 0.05). These results suggest that PNO could increase hepatic TAG metabolism; mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and VLDL assembly. CONCLUSIONS PNO replacement in the diet might function in prevention of excessive lipid uptake by intestine and improve hepatic lipid metabolism in both control diet and HFD fed mice. PMID:27698954

  9. GC-MS method validation and levels of methyl eugenol in a diverse range of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oils.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Carolyn A; Davies, Noel W; Larkman, Tony

    2017-03-01

    Tea tree oil distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia has widespread use in the cosmetic industry as an antimicrobial as well as for other functions in topical products. Concerns were first raised by the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Products in 2004 about the level of the potentially carcinogenic phenylpropanoid compound methyl eugenol in tea tree oil. Limits on oil content in different types of cosmetic products were set based on a reported upper level of 0.9% methyl eugenol in the oil. A previous publication indicated that these levels were based on oil from a Melaleuca species not used in the commercial production of oil. Even the highest recorded levels in Melaleuca alternifolia, the overwhelmingly most common species used, were ∼15 times less than this, meaning that more oil could be safely used in the products. The current study, including details on methodology and reproducibility, extends that work across a suite of 57 plantation-sourced oils from a range of geographical locations and production years, as well as many Australian and international commercial oils. Lower levels of methyl eugenol in oils of known provenance were confirmed, with a recorded range of 160-552 ppm and a mean of 337 ppm. Analysis of variance showed methyl eugenol levels in Australian plantation oils to be correlated to the geographical region but not to the year of production. Average methyl eugenol levels in commercial oils were significantly lower, and these samples were divided into an authentic group and a group that were suspected of being adulterated based on an independent test. Authentic commercial oils had similar levels of methyl eugenol to Australian provenance material, whilst the oils classed as suspect had significantly lower levels.

  10. Antibacterial activity, chemical composition, and cytotoxicity of leaf’s essential oil from brazilian pepper tree (schinus terebinthifolius, raddi)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, A.B.; Silva, T.; Franco, E.S.; Rabelo, S.A.; Lima, E.R.; Mota, R.A.; da Câmara, C.A.G.; Pontes-Filho, N.T.; Lima-Filho, J.V.

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of leaf’s essential oil (EO) from Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) against staphylococcal isolates from dogs with otitis externa was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of EO ranged from 78.1 to 1,250 μg/mL. The oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and cytotoxicity tests were carried out with laboratory animals. PMID:24031476

  11. Characterization and Discrimination of Oueslati Virgin Olive Oils from Adult and Young Trees in Different Ripening Stages Using Sterols, Pigments, and Alcohols in Tandem with Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Chtourou, Fatma; Jabeur, Hazem; Lazzez, Ayda; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-05-03

    Dynamics of squalene, sterol, aliphatic alcohol, pigment, and triterpenic diol accumulations in olive oils from adult and young trees of the Oueslati cultivar were studied for two consecutive years, 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. Data were compared statistically for differences by age of trees, maturation of olive, and year of harvesting. Results showed that the mean campesterol content in olive oil from adult trees at the green stage of maturation was significantly (p < 0.02) above the limit established by IOC legislation. However, the mean values of campesterol and Δ-7-stigmastenol were significantly (p < 0.01) above the limits in oils from young trees at the black stage of ripening. Principal component analysis was applied to alcohols, squalene, pigments, and sterols having noncompliance with the legislation. Then, data of 36 samples were subjected to a discriminant analysis with "maturation" as grouping variable and principal components as input variables. The model revealed clear discrimination of each tree age/maturation stage group.

  12. Pinolenic Acid in Structured Triacylglycerols Exhibits Superior Intestinal Lymphatic Absorption As Compared to Pinolenic Acid in Natural Pine Nut Oil.

    PubMed

    Chung, Min-Yu; Woo, Hyunjoon; Kim, Juyeon; Kong, Daecheol; Choi, Hee-Don; Choi, In-Wook; Kim, In-Hwan; Noh, Sang K; Kim, Byung Hee

    2017-03-01

    The positional distribution pattern of fatty acids (FAs) in the triacylglycerols (TAGs) affects intestinal absorption of these FAs. The aim of this study was to compare lymphatic absorption of pinolenic acid (PLA) present in structured pinolenic TAG (SPT) where PLA was evenly distributed on the glycerol backbone, with absorption of pine nut oil (PNO) where PLA was predominantly positioned at the sn-3 position. SPT was prepared via the nonspecific lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol with free FA obtained from PNO. Lymphatic absorption of PLA from PNO and from SPT was compared in a rat model of lymphatic cannulation. Significantly (P < 0.05) greater amounts of PLA were detected in lymph collected for 8 h from an emulsion containing SPT (28.5 ± 0.7% dose) than from an emulsion containing PNO (26.2 ± 0.6% dose), thereby indicating that PLA present in SPT has a greater capacity for lymphatic absorption than PLA from PNO.

  13. Essential oil yield and composition of Pistacia vera 'Kerman' fruits, peduncles and leaves grown in California.

    PubMed

    Dragull, Klaus; Beck, John J; Merrill, Glory B

    2010-03-15

    Pistacia vera 'Kerman' is the predominant pistachio nut cultivar in the United States (California), the world's second largest producer. Despite several reports on the essential oil (EO) content in the genus Pistacia, data on 'Kerman' are limited. The EO content and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions of tree nut orchards are of current interest to researchers investigating insect pests and the potential role of EO and VOCs as semiochemicals. To establish a basis for the VOC output of pistachios, the EO content of fruits, peduncles, and leaves was analyzed. Evaluated plant parts contained limonene as the primary EO component, followed by alpha-terpinolene. Peduncles were unique in containing relatively high levels of alpha-thujene. The results were reproducible between two different geographical locations. In situ solid phase microextraction (SPME) studies demonstrated the volatile emission was representative of the EO composition. This is the first report detailing the content and distribution of EO and the unique limonene-dominant profile for this Pistacia vera cultivar which may influence pistachio insect pest semiochemical research.

  14. Nuts in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-07-01

    Nuts are rich in many bioactive compounds that can exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. We reviewed the evidence relating nut consumption and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. Nuts reduce the postprandial glycemic response; however, long-term trials of nuts on insulin resistance and glycemic control in diabetic individuals are inconsistent. Epidemiologic studies have shown that nuts may lower the risk of diabetes incidence in women. Few studies have assessed the association between nuts and abdominal obesity, although an inverse association with body mass index and general obesity has been observed. Limited evidence suggests that nuts have a protective effect on blood pressure and endothelial function. Nuts have a cholesterol-lowering effect, but the relation between nuts and hypertriglyceridemia and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is not well established. A recent pooled analysis of clinical trials showed that nuts are inversely related to triglyceride concentrations only in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. An inverse association was found between the frequency of nut consumption and the prevalence and the incidence of MetS. Several trials evaluated the effect of nuts on subjects with MetS and found that they may have benefits in some components. Compared with a low-fat diet, a Mediterranean diet enriched with nuts could be beneficial for MetS management. The protective effects on metabolism could be explained by the modulation of inflammation and oxidation. Further trials are needed to clarify the role of nuts in MetS prevention and treatment. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. 40 CFR 112.11 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and... Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling, production, or workover facilities. 112.11 Section 112.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL...

  16. Fungal decay and shelf life of oranges coated with chitosan and bergamot, thyme, and tea tree essential oils.

    PubMed

    Cháfer, M; Sánchez-González, L; González-Martínez, Ch; Chiralt, A

    2012-08-01

    Chitosan coatings, containing or not essential oils (bergamot, thyme and tea tree oil), were applied to oranges (cv. Navel Powell). Antifungal effect was evaluated by applying coatings before and after inoculating the fruit with Penicillium italicum CECT 2294 (10(5) spores/mL), preventive and curative treatments, respectively. The effect of coatings on the quality parameters (acidity, pH, soluble solids, juice percentage, weight loss, firmness, color parameters, and respiration rate) was controlled for the different oranges samples throughout the cold storage time. Preventive antimicrobial treatments with coatings containing tea tree oil were the most effective with a reduction of the microbial growth (expressed as the percentage of infected samples) of 50%, as compared to the uncoated samples. The coatings did not lead to any relevant changes in the development of the sample quality parameters throughout the cold storage, except for a slightly reduced loss of both weight and firmness when the coatings contained bergamot oil. Results of this study are a useful tool for the development of new environmental friendly and healthier commercial applications in the control of the main postharvest fungal decay of citrus fruits. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Effects of Fumigant Alternatives to Methyl Bromide on Pest Control in Open Field Nursery Production of Perennial Fruit and Nut Plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producers of deciduous fruit and nut trees and vines rely on preplant fumigation to meet regulatory requirements designed to ensure nematode free planting stock. In the past, preplant treatments with methyl bromide or high rates of 1,3-dichloropropene were the preferred treatments. However, the ph...

  18. Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Duke, J.A.; Bagby, M.O.

    It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree,more » mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)« less

  19. 4. VIEW NORTH, TURKISH FILBERT TREE AT THE CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTH, TURKISH FILBERT TREE AT THE CORNER OF WHAT WAS ONCE THE NUT BLOCK AREA AT THE REAR OF THE ORIGINAL 50-ACRE PARCEL - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, Landscape, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

  20. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    PubMed

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/ PMID:26827236

  2. 40 CFR 112.11 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and... corrosion, such as with protective coatings or cathodic protection. (o) Adequately protect sub-marine piping...

  3. 40 CFR 112.11 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and... corrosion, such as with protective coatings or cathodic protection. (o) Adequately protect sub-marine piping...

  4. 40 CFR 112.11 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and... corrosion, such as with protective coatings or cathodic protection. (o) Adequately protect sub-marine piping...

  5. Aflatoxin

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in the following foods: Peanuts and peanut butter Tree nuts such as pecans Corn Wheat Oil ... foods that may contain aflatoxin. Peanuts and peanut butter are some of the most rigorously tested products ...

  6. Post-obstructive pulmonary edema from aspirated nuts.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Ahsan; Ahmad, Sabina Qureshi; Silverman, Joshua; Concepcion, Emily; Lee, Haesoon

    2017-01-01

    Post-obstructive pulmonary edema is thought to occur from hemodynamic changes secondary to forced inspiration against the closed airway due to acute or chronic airway obstruction. We report a case of a 13 month-old boy who developed pulmonary edema from aspirated foreign body, nuts. He underwent emergency bronchoscopy to confirm the clinical diagnosis of aspirated nuts in the trachea and nuts were removed endoscopically. His trachea was then intubated and he was mechanically ventilated with oxygen. He developed florid pulmonary edema early in the course with tracheal obstruction and during endoscopic removal of nuts. After removal of obstruction he was ventilated mechanically and pulmonary edema cleared rapidly. Aspirated nuts obstructing trachea can induce obstructive pulmonary edema. Early recognition of foreign body obstruction based on clinical history and its removal resolved pulmonary edema.

  7. Areca (Betel) Nut Chewing Practices in Micronesian Populations.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Yvette C; Novotny, Rachel; Miller, Mary Jane; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2011-03-01

    To describe the areca nut/betel quid chewing practices of Micronesian chewers living in Guam. Two studies were conducted using qualitative data from focus groups and quantitative cross-sectional data from the 2007 Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Ten focus groups included 49 men and women aged 18-60 years living in Guam in 2007. Participants were areca nut/betel quid chewers selected to reflect Guam's age and ethnic group (Chamorro, Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese) distributions. Salient themes were extracted from transcripts of the sessions by three expert reviewers. A second method, latent class analysis, was used to identify unique groups of chewers. The groups were then compared on demographics and chewing-related behaviors. Areca nut and betel quid recipes collected from the focus groups showed that Chamorros had a preference for the ripe nut and swallowed the nut, whereas, the Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese groups preferred the unripe nut and did not swallow it. Similarly, latent class analysis resulted in the identification of two groups of areca nut/betel quid chewers. Group 1 was all Chamorros. Compared to Group 2, the chewers in Group 1 preferred red and ripe nuts, did not add slake lime (calcium hydroxide) or tobacco, and swallowed the masticated areca nut (with or without Piper betle leaf). The quantitative analysis confirmed the qualitative exploration of areca nut/betel quid chewers in Guam, thus providing evidence that chewing practices vary among Micronesian populations. If future research should include an intervention, the differences in chewing practices among Micronesian populations should be taken into consideration to ensure programmatic success.

  8. [Allergy to cashew nuts and peanuts].

    PubMed

    de Groot, H

    2007-05-05

    Anaphylaxis due to the ingestion of peanuts is a serious, common condition, known to both the general public and physicians. Recently, an increasing number ofpatients with an anaphylactic reaction after eating small amounts of cashew nuts have been reported. In three children, a boy aged 7 and two girls aged 9 and 10 years, respectively, with heterogeneous case histories involving allergic upper airway and conjunctival symptoms and constitutional eczema, allergy for cashew nuts was diagnosed in the first two and allergy for peanuts in the third. They were given dietary advice and an adrenaline auto-injector for emergencies. In most cases, a detailed food history, together with the demonstration of IgE against cashew nuts by means of serology or skin prick tests, are sufficient to establish the diagnosis. If the clinical relevance of a sensitisation to cashew nuts is unknown, a food provocation test may be necessary. The treatment consists of dietary intervention, and an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed for a serious anaphylactic reaction. So far, three major allergens from the cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) have been identified and purified.

  9. Dynamics of a b-nut failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarubin, Peter V.

    1999-06-01

    In August of 1989, the Galileo spacecraft, consisting of an orbiter and probe, was mounted to an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) rocket stage being readied for flight aboard NASA's Space Shuttle, 'STS-34,' 'Atlantis.' During routine age testing of an IUS igniter fire line circuit, a 'b-nut' failure occurred. On board the Galileo/IUS first stage rocket motor was a b-nut from this failed lot. There was concern that the mission could be jeopardized if the b-nut failed because of the close proximity of the IUS second stage rocket motor nozzle. A fix had to be made to insure mission success. Chemical Systems Division was called upon to provide high- speed motion picture photography at 3000 frames per second to analyze the dynamics of a b-nut failure, and verify that the fix would prevent damage to the second stage nozzle, should a b-nut failure occur. This report will show how displacement and velocity measurements can be made from 16 mm motion picture film.

  10. Global analysis of gene expression profiles in developing physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Pingzhi; Zhang, Sheng; Song, Chi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jia, Yongxia; Fang, Xiaohua; Chen, Fan; Wu, Guojiang

    2012-01-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is an oilseed plant species with high potential utility as a biofuel. Furthermore, following recent sequencing of its genome and the availability of expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, it is a valuable model plant for studying carbon assimilation in endosperms of oilseed plants. There have been several transcriptomic analyses of developing physic nut seeds using ESTs, but they have provided limited information on the accumulation of stored resources in the seeds. We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of developing physic nut seeds 14, 19, 25, 29, 35, 41, and 45 days after pollination (DAP). The acquired profiles reveal the key genes, and their expression timeframes, involved in major metabolic processes including: carbon flow, starch metabolism, and synthesis of storage lipids and proteins in the developing seeds. The main period of storage reserves synthesis in the seeds appears to be 29-41 DAP, and the fatty acid composition of the developing seeds is consistent with relative expression levels of different isoforms of acyl-ACP thioesterase and fatty acid desaturase genes. Several transcription factor genes whose expression coincides with storage reserve deposition correspond to those known to regulate the process in Arabidopsis. The results will facilitate searches for genes that influence de novo lipid synthesis, accumulation and their regulatory networks in developing physic nut seeds, and other oil seeds. Thus, they will be helpful in attempts to modify these plants for efficient biofuel production.

  11. Soft container for explosive nuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, D. C.; Drummond, W. E.; Miller, G.

    1981-01-01

    Flexible fabric fits over variety of assembly shapes to contain debris produced by detonations or safety tests. Bag material is woven multifilament polyamide or aramid. Belt loops hold bag to clamp. Ring supports explosive nut structure and detonator wires, and after nut is mounted, bag and clamp are slipped over ring and fastened.

  12. Unitized Nut-and-Washer Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Combination nut, washer, and lockwasher secures parts quickly without damaging metal finishes. Nut and lockwasher are captured by bent tabs of flat washer in this concept for unified fastener. Optional perforated tab on flat washer allows easy tagging and storage. Fastener intended for attaching leads and buses to studs on electronic equipment.

  13. 40 CFR 112.10 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore oil drilling and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and Kernels) § 112.10... Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore oil drilling and workover facilities. 112.10 Section 112.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

  14. 40 CFR 112.10 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore oil drilling and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and Kernels) § 112.10... Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore oil drilling and workover facilities. 112.10 Section 112.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

  15. Characterization of reference gene expression in tung tree (Vernicia fordii)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tung oil from tung tree (Vernicia fordii) is widely used as a drying ingredient in paints, varnishes, and other coatings and finishes. Recent research has focused on the understanding of the biosynthesis of oil in tung trees. Many oil biosynthetic genes have been identified in tung tree but little...

  16. Areca (Betel) Nut Chewing Practices in Micronesian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Paulino, Yvette C.; Novotny, Rachel; Miller, Mary Jane; Murphy, Suzanne P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the areca nut/betel quid chewing practices of Micronesian chewers living in Guam. Design Two studies were conducted using qualitative data from focus groups and quantitative cross-sectional data from the 2007 Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Ten focus groups included 49 men and women aged 18–60 years living in Guam in 2007. Participants were areca nut/betel quid chewers selected to reflect Guam's age and ethnic group (Chamorro, Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese) distributions. Salient themes were extracted from transcripts of the sessions by three expert reviewers. A second method, latent class analysis, was used to identify unique groups of chewers. The groups were then compared on demographics and chewing-related behaviors. Results Areca nut and betel quid recipes collected from the focus groups showed that Chamorros had a preference for the ripe nut and swallowed the nut, whereas, the Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese groups preferred the unripe nut and did not swallow it. Similarly, latent class analysis resulted in the identification of two groups of areca nut/betel quid chewers. Group 1 was all Chamorros. Compared to Group 2, the chewers in Group 1 preferred red and ripe nuts, did not add slake lime (calcium hydroxide) or tobacco, and swallowed the masticated areca nut (with or without Piper betle leaf). Conclusion The quantitative analysis confirmed the qualitative exploration of areca nut/betel quid chewers in Guam, thus providing evidence that chewing practices vary among Micronesian populations. Implication If future research should include an intervention, the differences in chewing practices among Micronesian populations should be taken into consideration to ensure programmatic success. PMID:25678943

  17. A One-Hand Nut and Bolt Assembly Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Special wrench speeds nut and bolt assembly when insufficient room to hold nut behind bolthole with standard tool. C-clamp shaped box-andsocket-wrench assembly holds nut on blind side in alinement to receive bolt from open side.

  18. Barking up the wrong tree: injuries due to falls from trees in Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Negin, Joel; Vizintin, Pavle; Houasia, Patrick; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C

    2014-12-11

    To investigate tree-related injuries in Solomon Islands by the types of trees involved, who is affected and the types of injuries caused. Descriptive case series of all cases of injuries related to trees presenting to the National Referral Hospital in Honiara from 1994 to 2011. Data were collected by the attending clinician using a Trauma Epidemiology form, which provides information on age, sex, cause of injury and type of fracture. Number of injuries by tree type, sex and age. Of the 7651 injuries in the database, 1107 (14%) were caused by falls from trees. Falls from coconut trees led to the highest number of injuries, followed by falls from mango, guava, apple and nut trees. Overall, 85% of injuries occurred in individuals aged < 20 years. For injuries involving guava trees, 77% of patients were aged < 10 years, compared with 46% for the five most commonly involved tree types. Overall, 71% of injuries occurred among males. Of all injuries, 92% were fractures, 3% were dislocations and 5% were non-fracture, non-dislocation injuries. The arm (including wrist, elbow and hand) was the most common location of injury across all tree types. Distal radius fractures in the forearm were particularly common, as were ulna fractures. While mangos and guavas are undeniably delicious, the quest for their flesh can be hazardous. Children will always climb trees, but the search for food among children in lower-income settings may lead to higher rates of injury.

  19. Pedologic Factors Affecting Virgin Olive Oil Quality of "Chemlali" Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    Rached, Mouna Ben; Galaverna, Gianni; Cirlini, Martina; Boujneh, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Guerfel, Mokhtar

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study examined the characterization of extra virgin olive oil samples from the main cultivar Chemlali, grown in five olive orchards with different soil type (Sandy, Clay, Stony, Brown, Limestone and Gypsum). Volatile compounds were studied using headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technics. Moreover, the sterol profile was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 35 different volatile compounds were identified: alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction was characterized by the preeminence of 2-hexenal (32.75%) and 1-hexanol (31.88%). Three sterols were identified and characterized. For all olive oil samples, ß-sitosterol (302.25 mg/kg) was the most abundant sterol. Interestingly, our results showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the levels of the volatile compounds and sterols from oils obtained from olive trees grown in different soil type.

  20. Development of an ultra-low-shock separation nut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woebkenberg, W.; Matteo, D. N.; Williams, V. D.

    1982-01-01

    The technical problems encountered in the development of an advanced separation nut design are described. The nut is capable of sustaining a large preload and releasing that load with a low level of induced pyrotechnic shock, while demonstrating a tolerance for extremely high shock imposed by other pyrotechnic devices. The analysis of the separation nut was performed to acquire additional understanding of the phenomena affecting operation of the nut and to provide quantitative evaluation of design modification for aerospace applications.

  1. Higher dimensional Taub-NUT spaces and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelea, Cristian Ionut

    In the first part of this thesis we discuss classes of new exact NUT-charged solutions in four dimensions and higher, while in the remainder of the thesis we make a study of their properties and their possible applications. Specifically, in four dimensions we construct new families of axisymmetric vacuum solutions using a solution-generating technique based on the hidden SL(2,R) symmetry of the effective action. In particular, using the Schwarzschild solution as a seed we obtain the Zipoy-Voorhees generalisation of the Taub-NUT solution and of the Eguchi-Hanson soliton. Using the C-metric as a seed, we obtain and study the accelerating versions of all the above solutions. In higher dimensions we present new classes of NUT-charged spaces, generalising the previously known even-dimensional solutions to odd and even dimensions, as well as to spaces with multiple NUT-parameters. We also find the most general form of the odd-dimensional Eguchi-Hanson solitons. We use such solutions to investigate the thermodynamic properties of NUT-charged spaces in (A)dS backgrounds. These have been shown to yield counter-examples to some of the conjectures advanced in the still elusive dS/CFT paradigm (such as the maximal mass conjecture and Bousso's entropic N-bound). One important application of NUT-charged spaces is to construct higher dimensional generalisations of Kaluza-Klein magnetic monopoles, generalising the known 5-dimensional Kaluza-Klein soliton. Another interesting application involves a study of time-dependent higher-dimensional bubbles-of-nothing generated from NUT-charged solutions. We use them to test the AdS/CFT conjecture as well as to generate, by using stringy Hopf-dualities, new interesting time-dependent solutions in string theory. Finally, we construct and study new NUT-charged solutions in higher-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theories, generalising the known Reissner-Nordstrom solutions.

  2. Global Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in Developing Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Pingzhi; Zhang, Sheng; Song, Chi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jia, Yongxia; Fang, Xiaohua; Chen, Fan; Wu, Guojiang

    2012-01-01

    Background Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is an oilseed plant species with high potential utility as a biofuel. Furthermore, following recent sequencing of its genome and the availability of expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, it is a valuable model plant for studying carbon assimilation in endosperms of oilseed plants. There have been several transcriptomic analyses of developing physic nut seeds using ESTs, but they have provided limited information on the accumulation of stored resources in the seeds. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of developing physic nut seeds 14, 19, 25, 29, 35, 41, and 45 days after pollination (DAP). The acquired profiles reveal the key genes, and their expression timeframes, involved in major metabolic processes including: carbon flow, starch metabolism, and synthesis of storage lipids and proteins in the developing seeds. The main period of storage reserves synthesis in the seeds appears to be 29–41 DAP, and the fatty acid composition of the developing seeds is consistent with relative expression levels of different isoforms of acyl-ACP thioesterase and fatty acid desaturase genes. Several transcription factor genes whose expression coincides with storage reserve deposition correspond to those known to regulate the process in Arabidopsis. Conclusions/Significance The results will facilitate searches for genes that influence de novo lipid synthesis, accumulation and their regulatory networks in developing physic nut seeds, and other oil seeds. Thus, they will be helpful in attempts to modify these plants for efficient biofuel production. PMID:22574177

  3. Analysis of biologically active oxyprenylated phenylpropanoids in Tea tree oil using selective solid-phase extraction with UHPLC-PDA detection.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Luca; Genovese, Salvatore; Bucciarelli, Tonino; Martini, Filippo; Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Preziuso, Francesca; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro

    2018-05-30

    An efficient analytical strategy based on different extraction methods of biologically active naturally occurring oxyprenylated umbelliferone and ferulic acid derivatives 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin, auraptene, umbelliprenin, boropinic acid, and 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid and quantification by UHPLC with spectrophotometric (UV/Vis) detection from Tea tree oil is reported. Absorption of the pure oil on Al 2 O 3 (Brockmann activity II) prior washing the resulting solid with MeOH and treatment of this latter with CH 2 Cl 2 resulted the best extraction methodology in terms of yields of oxyprenylated secondary metabolites. Among the five O-prenylphenylpropanoids herein under investigation auraptene and umbelliprenin were never detected while 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid was the most abundant compound resulting from all the three extraction methods employed. The UHPLC analytical methodology set up in the present study resulted to be an effective and versatile technique for the simultaneous characterization and quantification of prenyloxyphenylpropanoids in Tea tree oil and applicable to other complex matrices from the plant kingdom. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dropping macadamia nuts-in-shell reduces kernel roasting quality.

    PubMed

    Walton, David A; Wallace, Helen M

    2010-10-01

    Macadamia nuts ('nuts-in-shell') are subjected to many impacts from dropping during postharvest handling, resulting in damage to the raw kernel. The effect of dropping on roasted kernel quality is unknown. Macadamia nuts-in-shell were dropped in various combinations of moisture content, number of drops and receiving surface in three experiments. After dropping, samples from each treatment and undropped controls were dry oven-roasted for 20 min at 130 °C, and kernels were assessed for colour, mottled colour and surface damage. Dropping nuts-in-shell onto a bed of nuts-in-shell at 3% moisture content or 20% moisture content increased the percentage of dark roasted kernels. Kernels from nuts dropped first at 20%, then 10% moisture content, onto a metal plate had increased mottled colour. Dropping nuts-in-shell at 3% moisture content onto nuts-in-shell significantly increased surface damage. Similarly, surface damage increased for kernels dropped onto a metal plate at 20%, then at 10% moisture content. Postharvest dropping of macadamia nuts-in-shell causes concealed cellular damage to kernels, the effects not evident until roasting. This damage provides the reagents needed for non-enzymatic browning reactions. Improvements in handling, such as reducing the number of drops and improving handling equipment, will reduce cellular damage and after-roast darkening. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Associations between nut consumption and inflammatory biomarkers12

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhi; Malik, Vasanti S; Keum, NaNa; Hu, Frank B; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Bao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased nut consumption has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, as well as a healthy lipid profile. However, the associations between nut consumption and inflammatory biomarkers are unclear. Objective: We investigated habitual nut consumption in relation to inflammatory biomarkers in 2 large cohorts of US men and women. Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 5013 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) who were free of diabetes. Nut intake, defined as intake of peanuts and other nuts, was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires, and cumulative averages from 1986 and 1990 in the NHS and from 1990 and 1994 in the HPFS were used. Plasma biomarkers were collected in 1989–1990 in the NHS and 1993–1995 in the HPFS. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the associations of nut consumption with fasting plasma C-reactive protein (CRP, n = 4941), interleukin 6 (IL-6, n = 2859), and tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2, n = 2905). Results: A greater intake of nuts was associated with lower amounts of a subset of inflammatory biomarkers, after adjusting for demographic, medical, dietary, and lifestyle variables. The relative concentrations (ratios) and 95% CIs comparing subjects with nut intake of ≥5 times/wk and those in the categories of never or almost never were as follows: CRP: 0.80 (0.69, 0.90), P-trend = 0.0003; and IL-6: 0.86 (0.77, 0.97), P-trend = 0.006. These associations remained significant after further adjustment for body mass index. No significant association was observed with TNFR2. Substituting 3 servings of nuts/wk for 3 servings of red meat, processed meat, eggs, or refined grains/wk was associated with significantly lower CRP (all P < 0.0001) and IL-6 (P ranges from 0.001 to 0.017). Conclusion: Frequent nut consumption was associated with a healthy profile of inflammatory biomarkers. PMID:27465378

  6. Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts reduces waist circumference and shifts lipoprotein subfractions to a less atherogenic pattern in subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Nagila R T; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Cofán, Montserrat; Pérez-Heras, Ana M; Fitó, Montserrat; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Martínez-González, Miguel-Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Arós, Fernando; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio

    2013-10-01

    The PREDIMED trial showed that Mediterranean diets supplemented with either extra-virgin olive oil or nuts reduced incident cardiovascular events compared to a control diet. Consumption of both supplemental foods has been associated with reduced LDL-cholesterol, but it is unknown whether they can shift lipoprotein subfractions to a less atherogenic pattern. We investigated changes in adiposity and lipoprotein subfractions after consumption of the PREDIMED diets. In a PREDIMED sub-cohort (n = 169), lipoprotein subclasses (particle concentrations and size) were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at baseline and after intervention for 1 year. Participants allocated to the Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts showed significant reductions from baseline of waist circumference (mean [95% CI]; -5 cm [-7; -3]) and concentrations of medium-small (-27 nmol/l [-46; -8]) and very small LDL (-111 nmol/l [-180; -42]); decreased LDL particle number (a nuclear magnetic resonance-specific measurement) (-98 nmol/l [-184; -11]); and an increase of large LDL concentrations (54 nmol/l [18; 90]), with a net increase (0.2 nmol/l [0.1; 0.4]) of LDL size. The Mediterranean diets with olive oil and nuts increased large HDL concentrations (0.6 μM [0.0; 1.1] and 1.0 μM [0.4; 1.5], respectively). Compared to the other two intervention groups, participants in the nut-enriched diet showed significantly reduced waist circumference (p ≤ 0.006, both) and increased LDL size (p < 0.05, both). Lipoprotein subfractions are shifted to a less atherogenic pattern by consumption of Mediterranean diets enriched with nuts. The results contribute mechanistic evidence for the reduction of cardiovascular events observed in the PREDIMED trial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bolt and nut evaluator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J. (Inventor); Burkhardt, Raymond (Inventor); White, Steven (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A device for testing fasteners such as nuts and bolts is described which consists of a fixed base plate having a number of threaded and unthreaded holes of varying size for receiving the fasteners to be tested, a torque marking paper taped on top the fixed base plate for marking torque-angle indicia, a torque wrench for applying torque to the fasteners being tested, and an indicator for showing the torque applied to the fastener. These elements provide a low cost, nondestructive device for verifying the strength of bolts and nuts.

  8. Nuts and Your Heart: Eating Nuts for Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats — lower bad cholesterol levels. Omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are found in many kinds of fish, but many nuts are also rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3s are a healthy form ...

  9. Native fruit tree genetic resources in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of climate, from subarctic to subtropical, and the complex geological history of Japan have produced a rich biodiversity. The flora includes several hundred species of native woody plants with edible fleshy fruits or nuts. People have eaten them from prehistoric times until about a half century ago. In Hokkaidō and the Ryūkyū Islands nut species had an important role in the diet, but fleshy fruits were also eaten until recently. Only Castanea crenata and a few minor species became domesticated as edible fruit trees in pre-modern times. Recently, Vitis coignetiae, Lonicera caerulea, Akebia quinata, Akebia trifoliata, Stauntonia hexaphylla, and Actinidia arguta have entered small-scale cultivation. The conservation of the germplasm of many of these native species, both in situ and ex situ, is precarious. PMID:27069393

  10. Children monosensitized to pine nuts have similar patterns of sensitization.

    PubMed

    Novembre, Elio; Mori, Francesca; Barni, Simona; Ferrante, Giuliana; Pucci, Neri; Ballabio, Cinzia; Uberti, Francesca; Penas, Elena; Restani, Patrizia

    2012-12-01

    Several cases of pine nut allergies and anaphylaxis have been reported in the literature, but only few pine nut allergens have been characterized. The aim of this research is to identify through immunoelectrophoretic techniques the major pine nut allergens in a group of children monosensitized to pine nuts. We studied five children with pine nut allergies and no other sensitization to food except to pine nuts, confirmed by in vivo (prick test, prick-to-prick) and in vitro tests (specific IgE determinations [CAP-FEIA]). The protein profile of pine nuts was analyzed by Sodium Dodecyl sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Immunoblotting was performed after incubation of membranes with the sera from the children included in the present study. Immunoblotting (SDS-PAGE) demonstrated five similar bands between 6 and 47 kDa in all the subjects studied. These bands should be considered the potential allergens for pine nut allergic children. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. The vapor activity of oregano, perilla, tea tree, lavender, clove, and geranium oils against a Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a closed box.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Shigeharu; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Hasumi, Yayoi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2006-12-01

    The vapor activity of six essential oils against a Trichophyton mentagrophytes was examined using a closed box. The antifungal activity was determined from colony size, which was correlated with the inoculum size. As judged from the minimum inhibitory dose and the minimum fungicidal dose determined after vapor exposure for 24 h, the vapor activity of the six essential oils was ranked in the following order: oregano > clove, perilla > geranium, lavender, tea tree. The vapors of oregano, perilla, tea tree, and lavender oils killed the mycelia by short exposure, for 3 h, but the vapors of clove and geranium oils were only active after overnight exposure. The vapor of oregano and other oils induced lysis of the mycelia. Morphological examination by scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the cell membrane and cell wall were damaged in a dose- and time-dependent manner by the action of oregano vapor, causing rupture and peeling of the cell wall, with small bulges coming from the cell membrane. The vapor activity increased after 24 h, but mycelial accumulation of the active oil constituents was maximized around 15 h, and then decreased in parallel with the decrease of vapor concentration. This suggested that the active constituent accumulated on the fungal cells around 15 h caused irreversible damage, which eventually led to cellular death.

  12. Climate Based Predictability of Oil Palm Tree Yield in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Oettli, Pascal; Behera, Swadhin K; Yamagata, Toshio

    2018-02-02

    The influence of local conditions and remote climate modes on the interannual variability of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) total yields in Malaysia and two major regions (Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah/Sarawak) is explored. On a country scale, the state of sea-surface temperatures (SST) in the tropical Pacific Ocean during the previous boreal winter is found to influence the regional climate. When El Niño occurs in the Pacific Ocean, rainfall in Malaysia reduces but air temperature increases, generating a high level of water stress for palm trees. As a result, the yearly production of FFB becomes lower than that of a normal year since the water stress during the boreal spring has an important impact on the total annual yields of FFB. Conversely, La Niña sets favorable conditions for palm trees to produce more FFB by reducing chances of water stress risk. The region of the Leeuwin current also seems to play a secondary role through the Ningaloo Niño/ Niña in the interannual variability of FFB yields. Based on these findings, a linear model is constructed and its ability to reproduce the interannual signal is assessed. This model has shown some skills in predicting the total FFB yield.

  13. Impact of Korean pine nut oil on weight gain and immune responses in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soyoung; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Sunhye

    2013-01-01

    Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to have favorable effects on lipid metabolism and appetite control. We investigated whether PNO consumption could influence weight gain, and whether the PNO-induced effect would result in an improvement of immune function in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed control diets with 10% energy fat from either PNO or soybean oil (SBO), or HFDs with 45% energy fat from 10% PNO or SBO and 35% lard, 20% PNO or SBO and 25% lard, or 30% PNO or SBO and 15% lard for 12 weeks. The proliferative responses of splenocytes upon stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Con A-stimulated production of interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ, and LPS-stimulated production of IL-6, IL-1β, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by splenocytes were determined. Consumption of HFDs containing PNO resulted in significantly less weight gain (17% less, P < 0.001), and lower weight gain was mainly due to less white adipose tissue (18% less, P = 0.001). The reduction in weight gain did not result in the overall enhancement in splenocyte proliferation. Overall, PNO consumption resulted in a higher production of IL-1β (P = 0.04). Replacement of SBO with PNO had no effect on the production of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6, or PGE2 in mice fed with either the control diets or HFDs. In conclusion, consumption of PNO reduced weight gain in mice fed with HFD, but this effect did not result in the overall improvement in immune responses. PMID:24133613

  14. Pesticide residues in nut-planted soils of China and their relationship between nut/soil.

    PubMed

    Han, Yongxiang; Mo, Runhong; Yuan, Xinyue; Zhong, Donglian; Tang, Fubin; Ye, Caifen; Liu, Yihua

    2017-08-01

    Twenty-nine pesticide residues in nut-planted soils from China were investigated. One organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) was detected in 5.3% soils, and the residue levels of 7.2 μg/kg to 77.2 μg/kg. The concentrations of six organochlorines (DDT, HCH, endosulfan, quintozene, aldrin and dieldrin) detected in 78.9% soils were 0.6 μg/kg to 90.1 μg/kg. The residue levels of six pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin) detected in 65.8% soils were 1.5 μg/kg to 884.3 μg/kg. Triadimefon and buprofezin were found in 71.1% and 52.6% samples, respectively, with the corresponding concentrations of 9.8 μg/kg to 193.7 μg/kg and 87.9 μg/kg to 807.4 μg/kg. The multiple residues were found in 76.3% soils. A significant correlation between pesticide residues in nuts and soils was observed, with the correlation coefficient (r) 0.83 (P < 0.001). In addition, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) values for the explanation of pesticides from soils into nuts were ranged from 0.8 to 16.5. The results showed that some pesticides could accumulate in nut by the uptake effect from soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tea Tree Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... oil without problems, but some people may develop contact dermatitis (an allergic skin rash) or skin irritation on ... References Jack AR, Norris PL, Storrs FJ. Allergic contact dermatitis to plant extracts in cosmetics . Seminars in Cutaneous ...

  16. Perceptions and Knowledge of Nuts amongst Health Professionals in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rachel C.; Yong, Lee Ching; Gray, Andrew R.; Tey, Siew Ling; Chisholm, Alexandra; Leong, Sook Ling

    2017-01-01

    Despite their nutritional value, population-level nut consumption remains low. Studies suggest that individuals would eat more nuts on their doctor’s advice, making health professionals potentially important for promoting nut consumption. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the perceptions and knowledge of nuts and the predictors of nut promotion among health professionals in New Zealand. Dietitians, general practitioners (GPs), and practice nurses were identified from the Electoral Roll and invited to complete a questionnaire (n = 318, 292, and 149 respondents respectively). Over one-fifth of GPs and practice nurses believed that eating nuts could increase blood cholesterol concentrations and cause weight gain. The most common perceptions overall were that nuts are healthy; high in protein, fat, and calories; and are satiating. Nut consumption was recommended for reasons relating to these perceptions and because of nuts’ selenium content. Conversely, reasons for suggesting the consumption of fewer nuts included that they were high in calories and fat, would cause weight gain, and concerns regarding allergies and cost. All groups of health professionals were more likely to promote nut consumption if they perceived nuts to reduce the risk of diabetes (all p ≤ 0.034). Education could improve health professionals’ knowledge regarding the effects of nut consumption on blood cholesterol and body weight, alongside other health benefits, which should improve the advice given to patients and may thereby increase nut consumption. PMID:28257045

  17. Physical properties of wild mango fruit and nut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehiem, J.; Simonyan, K.

    2012-02-01

    Physical properties of two wild mango varieties were studied at 81.9 and 24.5% moisture (w.b.) for the fruits and nuts, respectively. The shape and size of the fruit are the same while that of nuts differs at P = 0.05. The mass, density and bulk density of the fruits are statistically different at P = 0.05 but the volume is the same. The shape and size, volume and bulk density of the nuts are statistically the same at P = 0.05. The nuts of both varieties are also the same at P = 0.05 in terms of mass and density. The packing factor for both fruits and nut of the two varieties are the same at 0.95. The relevant data obtained for the two varieties would be useful for design and development of machines and equipment for processing and handling operations.

  18. Fuzzy fault tree assessment based on improved AHP for fire and explosion accidents for steel oil storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Shuai, Jian; Xu, Kui

    2014-08-15

    Fire and explosion accidents of steel oil storage tanks (FEASOST) occur occasionally during the petroleum and chemical industry production and storage processes and often have devastating impact on lives, the environment and property. To contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing the occurrence probability of FEASOST, a fault tree of FEASOST is constructed that identifies various potential causes. Traditional fault tree analysis (FTA) can achieve quantitative evaluation if the failure data of all of the basic events (BEs) are available, which is almost impossible due to the lack of detailed data, as well as other uncertainties. This paper makes an attempt to perform FTA of FEASOST by a hybrid application between an expert elicitation based improved analysis hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy set theory, and the occurrence possibility of FEASOST is estimated for an oil depot in China. A comparison between statistical data and calculated data using fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) based on traditional and improved AHP is also made. Sensitivity and importance analysis has been performed to identify the most crucial BEs leading to FEASOST that will provide insights into how managers should focus effective mitigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 7 CFR 457.131 - Macadamia nut crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Macadamia nut crop insurance provisions. 457.131... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.131 Macadamia nut crop insurance provisions. The macadamia nut crop insurance provisions for the 2012 and succeeding crop...

  20. 7 CFR 457.131 - Macadamia nut crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Macadamia nut crop insurance provisions. 457.131... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.131 Macadamia nut crop insurance provisions. The macadamia nut crop insurance provisions for the 2012 and succeeding crop...

  1. 7 CFR 457.131 - Macadamia nut crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Macadamia nut crop insurance provisions. 457.131... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.131 Macadamia nut crop insurance provisions. The macadamia nut crop insurance provisions for the 2012 and succeeding crop...

  2. Tobacco and areca nut chewing--reproductive impairments: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil

    2013-04-01

    A large number of people are using smokeless tobacco and areca nut worldwide. Sufficient data on tobacco smoking have harmful effect on human health and reproduction is available. However, data on the smokeless tobacco and areca nut use on human reproduction is scanty. This overview is an attempt to compose on the consumption of smokeless tobacco and areca nut on human reproduction and some relevant experimental data were also included. The existing studies suggest that tobacco and areca nut chewing alone, together or with other ingredients had reproductive toxic potential. Pregnant women using smokeless tobacco during pregnancy also had adverse effect on pregnancy and its outcome. Thus pregnant women must avoid consumption of any mixture containing areca nut and tobacco in order to protect the pregnancy and outcome. The data suggest that smokeless tobacco use is also harmful as smoking for reproduction and use of areca nut might have further compounded the problem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement and analysis of force-time outputs of pyrotechnic nuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubert, V. H.

    1973-01-01

    The dynamic loadings produced by two standard pyrotechnic nuts were compared with loadings produced by four recently developed low-shock nuts. The nuts were manufactured by separate contractors. Each nut was given a number designation, the number having no special significance. The results show that the use of the Hopkinson bar to measure force-time outputs of the nuts at stud and housing sides aided greatly in understanding the events occurring in the nuts. Acceleration data appear to be dependable, for the most part, but of more limited value. The low-shock designs show considerable improvement over the standard designs above 4,000 Hz when the results are plotted in shock spectrum form. They involve some penalties with regard to weight and cost.

  4. Wild capuchin monkeys adjust stone tools according to changing nut properties.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Falótico, Tiago; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Corat, Clara; Mosley, Hannah; Haslam, Michael

    2016-09-14

    Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases. We conducted field experiments to test whether capuchins adapt their stone hammer selection to changing properties of the target nut, using stones of different weights and two maturation stages of cashew nuts. The results show that although fresh nuts are easier to crack, capuchin monkeys used larger stone tools to open them, which may help the monkeys avoid contact with the caustic hazard in fresh nuts. We demonstrate that capuchin monkeys are actively able to distinguish between the maturation stages within one nut species, and to adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly.

  5. Wild capuchin monkeys adjust stone tools according to changing nut properties

    PubMed Central

    Luncz, Lydia V.; Falótico, Tiago; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Corat, Clara; Mosley, Hannah; Haslam, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases. We conducted field experiments to test whether capuchins adapt their stone hammer selection to changing properties of the target nut, using stones of different weights and two maturation stages of cashew nuts. The results show that although fresh nuts are easier to crack, capuchin monkeys used larger stone tools to open them, which may help the monkeys avoid contact with the caustic hazard in fresh nuts. We demonstrate that capuchin monkeys are actively able to distinguish between the maturation stages within one nut species, and to adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly. PMID:27624672

  6. Cognition: the new frontier for nuts and berries.

    PubMed

    Pribis, Peter; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    The inclusion of nuts in the diet is associated with a decreased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, gallstones, diabetes, cancer, metabolic syndrome, and visceral obesity. Frequent consumption of berries seems to be associated with improved cardiovascular and cancer outcomes, improved immune function, and decreased recurrence of urinary tract infections; the consumption of nuts and berries is associated with reduction in oxidative damage, inflammation, vascular reactivity, and platelet aggregation, and improvement in immune functions. However, only recently have the effects of nut and berry consumption on the brain, different neural systems, and cognition been studied. There is growing evidence that the synergy and interaction of all of the nutrients and other bioactive components in nuts and berries can have a beneficial effect on the brain and cognition. Regular nut consumption, berry consumption, or both could possibly be used as an adjunctive therapeutic strategy in the treatment and prevention of several neurodegenerative diseases and age-related brain dysfunction. A number of animal and a growing number of human studies show that moderate-duration dietary supplementation with nuts, berry fruit, or both is capable of altering cognitive performance in humans, perhaps forestalling or reversing the effects of neurodegeneration in aging. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Fixtures Hold Nuts During Tightening Of Bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.

    1993-01-01

    Two fixtures designed for use on cross-head of tensile testing machine simplify adjustments of crosshead to accommodate specimens of various lengths. Two cagelike fixtures hold pairs of nuts, preventing nuts from turning while bolts are tightened. Enable one person acting alone to tighten bolts.

  8. Nuts as a replacement for carbohydrates in the diabetic diet: a reanalysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C; Lamarche, Benoît; Banach, Monica S; Srichaikul, Korbua; Vidgen, Edward; Mitchell, Sandy; Parker, Tina; Nishi, Stephanie; Bashyam, Balachandran; de Souza, Russell J; Ireland, Christopher; Pichika, Sathish C; Beyene, Joseph; Sievenpiper, John L; Josse, Robert G

    2018-05-23

    total energy intake from monounsaturated fat. The full-dose nut diet (median intake, 75 g/day) also reduced HbA 1c compared with the full-dose muffin diet by -2.0 mmol/mol (95% CI -3.8, -0.3 mmol/mol) (-0.19% [95% CI -0.35%, -0.02%]), (p = 0.026). Estimated cholesterol levels in LDL particles with a diameter <255 ångström [LDL-c <255Å ]) and apolipoprotein B were also significantly decreased after the full-dose nut diet compared with the full-dose muffin diet. According to the dose response, the full-dose nut diet is predicted to reduce HbA 1c (-2.0 mmol/mol [-0.18%]; p = 0.044), cholesterol (-0.25 mmol/l; p = 0.022), LDL-cholesterol (-0.23 mmol/l; p = 0.019), non-HDL-cholesterol (-0.26 mmol/l; p = 0.020), apolipoprotein B (-0.06 g/l, p = 0.013) and LDL-c< 255Å (-0.42 mmol/l; p < 0.001). No serious study-related adverse events occurred, but one participant on the half-dose nut diet was hospitalised for atrial fibrillation after shovelling snow. Nut intake as a replacement for carbohydrate consumption improves glycaemic control and lipid risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00410722 FUNDING: The study was funded by the International Tree Nut Council Nutrition Research and Education Foundation, the Peanut Institute, Loblaw Companies and the Canada Research Chairs Program of the Government of Canada.

  9. A Rapid Analytical Method for Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g. as salad dressings) but also for preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to their high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential, in order to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and inter-laboratory validated analytical method for analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  10. Characterization of Chilean hazel nut sweet cookies.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Bravo, S; Carrasco, P; Ríos, P

    1993-05-01

    A series of studies were carried out to test the effect of the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour in sweet cookies at the levels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The proximate chemical analysis of the different flour mixtures showed a regular increase from 7.2 to 12.2%, 14.5% to 18.8% and 1% to 2.2%, respectively, decreasing at the same time with the percentages of water and carbohydrates. Chemical amino acid scores of leucine and threonine in wheat flour improved with the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour. The farinographic evaluation made to the different blends showed several changes occurred with the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour to wheat flour. These included increase in water absorption, decrease in dough developing time and weakening of the dough. Sensory characteristics such as appearance, texture, flavor and also acceptability improved with the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour into the cookie formulas.

  11. Brazilian nut consumption by healthy volunteers improves inflammatory parameters.

    PubMed

    Colpo, Elisângela; Dalton D A Vilanova, Carlos; Reetz, Luiz Gustavo B; Duarte, Marta M M F; Farias, Iria Luiza G; Meinerz, Daiane F; Mariano, Douglas O C; Vendrusculo, Raquel G; Boligon, Aline A; Dalla Corte, Cristiane L; Wagner, Roger; Athayde, Margareth L; da Rocha, João Batista T

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose of Brazil nuts on the inflammatory markers of healthy individuals. A randomized crossover study was conducted with 10 healthy individuals (mean age 24.7 ± 3.4 y). Each individual was tested four times regarding intake of different portions of Brazil nuts: 0, 5, 20 and 50 g. At each testing period, peripheral blood was collected before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 h after intake of nuts, as well as at 5 and 30 d after intake of various Brazil nut portions. Blood samples were tested for high-sensitivity to C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, urea, and creatinine. Consumption of nuts did not affect biochemical parameters for liver and kidney function, indicating absence of hepatic and renal toxicity. A single intake of Brazil nuts (20 or 50 g) caused a significant decrease in serum IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels (P < 0.05), whereas serum levels of IL-10 were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The results indicate a long-term decrease in inflammatory markers after a single intake of large portions of Brazil nuts in healthy volunteers. Therefore, the long-term effect of regular Brazil nut consumption on inflammatory markers should be better investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of failure to separate an Inconel 718 frangible nut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, William C., III; Hohmann, Carl

    1994-01-01

    The 2.5-inch frangible nut is used in two places to attach the Space Shuttle Orbiter to the External Tank. It must be capable of sustaining structural loads and must also separate into two pieces upon command. Structural load capability is verified by proof loading each flight nut, while ability to separate is verified on a sample of a production lot. Production lots of frangible nuts beginning in 1987 experienced an inability to reliably separate using one of two redundant explosive boosters. The problems were identified in lot acceptance tests, and the cause of failure has been attributed to differences in the response of the Inconel 718. Subsequent tests performed on the frangible nuts resulted in design modifications to the nuts along with redesign of the explosive booster to reliably separate the frangible nut. The problem history along with the design modifications to both the explosive booster and frangible nut are discussed in this paper. Implications of this failure experience impact any pyrotechnic separation system involving fracture of materials with respect to design margin control and lot acceptance testing.

  13. 40 CFR 180.593 - Etoxazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., undelinted seed 0.05 Cucumber 0.02 Fruit, pome, group 11 0.20 Fruit, stone, group 12, except plum 1.0 Goat..., liver 0.01 Milk, fat 0.01 Nut, tree, group 14 0.01 Peppermint, oil 20 Peppermint, tops 10 Pistachio 0.01 Plum 0.15 Plum, prune, dried 0.30 Sheep, fat 0.02 Sheep, liver 0.01 Spearmint, oil 20 Spearmint, tops...

  14. Population Genetic Analyses of the Fungal Pathogen Colletotrichum fructicola on Tea-Oil Trees in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, He; Zhou, Guo-Ying; Liu, Jun-Ang; Xu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Colletotrichum fructicola is found in all five continents and is capable of causing severe diseases in a number of economically important plants such as avocado, fig, cocoa, pear, and tea-oil trees. However, almost nothing is known about its patterns of genetic variation and epidemiology on any of its host plant species. Here we analyzed 167 isolates of C. fructicola obtained from the leaves of tea-oil tree Camellia oleifera at 15 plantations in seven Chinese provinces. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted for all isolates based on DNA sequences at fragments of four genes: the internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster (539 bp), calmodulin (633 bp), glutamine synthetase (711 bp), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (190 bp), yielding 3.52%, 0.63%, 8.44%, and 7.89% of single nucleotide polymorphic sites and resulting in 15, 5, 12 and 11 alleles respectively at the four gene fragments in the total sample. The combined allelic information from all four loci identified 53 multilocus genotypes with the most frequent represented by 21 isolates distributed in eight tea-oil plantations in three provinces, consistent with long-distance clonal dispersal. However, despite evidence for clonal dispersal, statistically significant genetic differentiation among geographic populations was detected. In addition, while no evidence of recombination was found within any of the four gene fragments, signatures of recombination were found among the four gene fragments in most geographic populations, consistent with sexual mating of this species in nature. Our study provides the first insights into the population genetics and epidemiology of the important plant fungal pathogen C. fructicola. PMID:27299731

  15. Effects of oil content on the sensory, textural, and physical properties of pecan butter (Carya illinoinensis).

    PubMed

    Wagener, Emily A; Kerr, William L

    2017-10-20

    It has been difficult to produce acceptable pecan butters as the high oil content results in a product that flows and separates too easily. The objective of this work was to create pecan butters with varying oil levels (50-70%) and determine which would give the most acceptable product. Consumers rated pecan butters with 55-60% oil the most acceptable, whether roasted or not. Acceptability varied most in terms of texture and spreadability, but not flavor. Under large deformation firmness varied from 51.8 g (70% oil) to 4,880 g (50%) oil, while "spreadability" ranged from 19.2 to 7748 (g/s). Samples with 70% oil had the lowest viscosity and were Newtonian. Pecan butters with 50-55% oil had high viscosity and were shear thinning. Yield stress decreased with oil content, ranging from 0.014 to 500 Pa. The storage modulus (G') increased from ∼7 Pa for samples with 70% oil up to 260,000 Pa for those with 50% oil. In conjunction, tan δ decreased from 1 to 0.07, showing the products take on much more solid-like behavior as oil is removed. In conclusion, the rheological properties of pecan butter were quite sensitive to the amount of oil in the product. Differences in acceptability were primarily due to "texture" and "spreadability," suggesting there is a limited range of firmness and spreadability that consumers will deem acceptable. There has been considerable demand for butters and spreads made from a variety of culinary nuts. Pecans generally have too much oil (∼70%) to make a product with proper consistency and stability. In this study, some of the oil was removed to overcome this problem. It was found that pecan butter with 55-60% oil was most acceptable to consumers and with the level of firmness, yield stress, and spreadability most similar to commercial nut butters. The oil was relatively simple to remove from unroasted nuts, thus manufacturers could easily produce more acceptable pecan butter for the market. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Blue, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  17. Development of a lexicon for cashew nuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A lexicon of flavor and texture terms was developed to describe the sensory characteristics of cashew nuts. A highly-trained and experienced descriptive analysis panel (n = 10, ages 22-58 each with at least 60 hours of descriptive work in nuts) was used to create the lexicon for cashews. After ini...

  18. How nut and seed butters are processed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This month's food processing column follows the theme "How Is It Porcessed?". It will explore how nut and seed butters are processed. In recent years a variety of new nut and seed butters have entered the marketplace. Their predecessor, peanut butter, as well as these new products and the process...

  19. Palauans who chew betel nut: social impact of oral disease.

    PubMed

    Quinn Griffin, M T; Mott, M; Burrell, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J

    2014-03-01

    Chewing betel nut is a tradition extending from Southeast Asia to the Pacific. Globally, betel nut is the fourth main psychotropic substance containing a stimulant, arecoline, that has a similar effect to nicotine. In Palau, there is broad acceptance of betel nut chewing. One of the largest immigrant groups in Hawaii is the Palauans. Chewing betel nut has significant social implications that make it difficult for those who engage in this practice to separate potential oral disease from the social importance. However, little is known about the social impact of oral disease from chewing betel nut on Palauans in Hawaii. The study aimed to describe the perceptions of betel-chewing Palauans in Hawaii regarding betel nut and to determine the social impact of oral disease among these individuals. Descriptive study conducted on the island of Oahu, Hawaii with 30 adult Palauans. Data were collected using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 to measure perceptions of social impact of oral disease on well-being. Demographic and general health information was collected. Participants perceived little negative social impact of oral disease on well-being. Families, peers and society exert a strong influence on the decision to chew betel nut, a known carcinogen. Participants in this study showed little concern on the impact of betel nut chewing on their oral health. They continue the habit in spite of the awareness of potential for oral disease. Nurses face challenges in educating Palauans about the negative aspects of betel nut, particularly those related to oral health especially when they do not perceive problems. Nurses must be involved in the development of health policies to design and implement strategies to promote behavioural change, and to ensure clinical services that are culturally sensitive to betel nut chewers. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  20. Determination of aflatoxin risk components for in-shell Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Vargas, E A; dos Santos, E A; Whitaker, T B; Slate, A B

    2011-09-01

    A study was conducted on the risk from aflatoxins associated with the kernels and shells of Brazil nuts. Samples were collected from processing plants in Amazonia, Brazil. A total of 54 test samples (40 kg) were taken from 13 in-shell Brazil nut lots ready for market. Each in-shell sample was shelled and the kernels and shells were sorted in five fractions: good kernels, rotten kernels, good shells with kernel residue, good shells without kernel residue, and rotten shells, and analysed for aflatoxins. The kernel:shell ratio mass (w/w) was 50.2/49.8%. The Brazil nut shell was found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Rotten nuts were found to be a high-risk fraction for aflatoxin in in-shell Brazil nut lots. Rotten nuts contributed only 4.2% of the sample mass (kg), but contributed 76.6% of the total aflatoxin mass (µg) in the in-shell test sample. The highest correlations were found between the aflatoxin concentration in in-shell Brazil nuts samples and the aflatoxin concentration in all defective fractions (R(2)=0.97). The aflatoxin mass of all defective fractions (R(2)=0.90) as well as that of the rotten nut (R(2)=0.88) were also strongly correlated with the aflatoxin concentration of the in-shell test samples. Process factors of 0.17, 0.16 and 0.24 were respectively calculated to estimate the aflatoxin concentration in the good kernels (edible) and good nuts by measuring the aflatoxin concentration in the in-shell test sample and in all kernels, respectively. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  1. 40 CFR 180.593 - Etoxazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subgroup 9A 0.20 Milk, fat 0.01 Nut, tree, group 14 0.01 Papaya 0.20 Pepper/eggplant subgroup 8-10B 0.20..., black 0.20 Sapote, mamey 0.20 Sheep, fat 0.02 Sheep, liver 0.01 Spearmint, oil 20 Spearmint, tops 10...

  2. Composition and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Kernel Oil from Torreya grandis, Carya Cathayensis, and Myrica Rubra

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Liang; Shi, Wei-Yong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we measured the composition and free radical scavenging activity of several species of nuts, namely, Torreya grandis, Carya cathayensis, and Myrica rubra. The nut kernels of the aforementioned species are rich in fatty acids, particularly in unsaturated fatty acids, and have 51% oil content. T. grandis and C. cathayensis are mostly produced in ZheJiang province. The trace elements in the kernels of T. grandis and C. cathayensis were generally higher than those in M. rubra, except for Fe with a value of 64.41 mg/Kg. T. grandis is rich in selenium (52.91−68.71 mg/Kg). All three kernel oils have a certain free radical scavenging capacity, with the highest value in M. rubra. In the DPPH assay, the IC50 of M. rubra kernel oil was 60 μg/mL, and OH was 100 μg/mL. The results of this study provide basic data for the future development of the edible nut resources in ZheJiang province. PMID:24734074

  3. The strategies that peanut and nut-allergic consumers employ to remain safe when travelling abroad.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Julie; Botting, Neil; Gowland, M Hazel; Lucas, Jane S

    2012-07-09

    An understanding of the management strategies used by food allergic individuals is needed as a prerequisite to improving avoidance and enhancing quality of life. Travel abroad is a high risk time for severe and fatal food allergic reactions, but there is paucity of research concerning foreign travel. This study is the first to investigate the experiences of, and strategies used by peanut and tree nut allergic individuals when travelling abroad. Thirty-two adults with a clinical history of reaction to peanuts or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated allergy participated in a qualitative interview study. Travel abroad was considered difficult with inherent risks for allergic individuals. Many participants recounted difficulties with airlines or restaurants. Inconsistency in managing allergen avoidance by airlines was a particular risk and a cause of frustration to participants. Individuals used a variety of strategies to remain safe including visiting familiar environments, limiting their activities, carrying allergy information cards in the host language, preparing their own food and staying close to medical facilities. Participants used a variety of allergen avoidance strategies, which were mostly extensions or modifications of the strategies that they use when eating at home or eating-out in the UK. The extended strategies reflected their recognition of enhanced risk during travel abroad. Their risk assessments and actions were generally well informed and appropriate. A need for airline policy regarding allergy to be declared and adhered to is needed, as is more research to quantify the true risks of airborne allergens in the cabin. Recommendations arising from our study are presented.

  4. The strategies that peanut and nut-allergic consumers employ to remain safe when travelling abroad

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An understanding of the management strategies used by food allergic individuals is needed as a prerequisite to improving avoidance and enhancing quality of life. Travel abroad is a high risk time for severe and fatal food allergic reactions, but there is paucity of research concerning foreign travel. This study is the first to investigate the experiences of, and strategies used by peanut and tree nut allergic individuals when travelling abroad. Methods Thirty-two adults with a clinical history of reaction to peanuts or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated allergy participated in a qualitative interview study. Results Travel abroad was considered difficult with inherent risks for allergic individuals. Many participants recounted difficulties with airlines or restaurants. Inconsistency in managing allergen avoidance by airlines was a particular risk and a cause of frustration to participants. Individuals used a variety of strategies to remain safe including visiting familiar environments, limiting their activities, carrying allergy information cards in the host language, preparing their own food and staying close to medical facilities. Conclusions Participants used a variety of allergen avoidance strategies, which were mostly extensions or modifications of the strategies that they use when eating at home or eating-out in the UK. The extended strategies reflected their recognition of enhanced risk during travel abroad. Their risk assessments and actions were generally well informed and appropriate. A need for airline policy regarding allergy to be declared and adhered to is needed, as is more research to quantify the true risks of airborne allergens in the cabin. Recommendations arising from our study are presented. PMID:22776751

  5. Phenology, natural enemies, and efficacy of horticultural oil for control of Chionaspis heterophyllae (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on Christmas tree plantations.

    PubMed

    Fondren, Kirsten M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2005-10-01

    Pine needle scale, Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch), and Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley are important pests of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L., and other conifers in much of North America. On Christmas tree plantations, these insects are typically controlled by spraying broad-spectrum insecticides when the vulnerable immature stages are present. However, effective control of bivoltine populations can be difficult to achieve due to asynchronous hatch and development of the second generation. Our objectives were to 1) determine the phenology of the second generation of C. heterophyllae in Michigan; 2) characterize the natural enemy complex; and 3) assess the effectiveness of horticultural oil for control of C. heterophyllae on P. sylvestris Christmas tree plantations. We monitored scale populations in three counties in lower Michigan for 3 yr. Scale phenology was consistently associated with cumulative degree-days base 10 degrees C (DD(10 degrees C)). Second-generation egg hatch began at approximately 1230-1300 DD(10 degrees C), and continued for approximately 3 wk. The peak of the second instar coincided with 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees C). Common predators included the coccinellids Chilocorus stigma (Say) and Microweisia misella (LeConte). On average, 70% of the C. heterophyllae population in unsprayed fields was killed by predators in 1999. Two endoparasitic wasps, Encarsia bella Gahan and Marietta mexicana Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), also were recovered. In 2000 and 2001, we applied a highly refined horticultural spray oil with a backpack mist blower at 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees). Scale mortality on trees treated with oil ranged from 66 to 80% and was similar to control achieved using conventional insecticides in both years.

  6. Collar nut and thrust ring

    DOEpatents

    Lowery, Guy B.

    1991-01-01

    A collar nut comprises a hollow cylinder having fine interior threads at one end for threadably engaging a pump mechanical seal assembly and an inwardly depending flange at the other end. The flange has an enlarged portion with a groove for receiving an O-ring for sealing against the intrusion of pumpage from the exterior. The enlarged portion engages a thrust ring about the pump shaft for crushing a hard O-ring, such as a graphite O-ring. The hard O-ring seals the interior of the mechanical seal assembly and pump housing against the loss of lubricants or leakage of pumpage. The fine threads of the hollow cylinder provide the mechanical advantage for crushing the hard O-ring evenly and easily with a hand tool from the side of the collar nut rather than by tightening a plurality of bolts from the end and streamlines the exterior surface of the mechanical seal. The collar nut avoids the spatial requirements of bolt heads at the end of a seal and associated bolt head turbulence.

  7. Extravirgin olive oil consumption reduces risk of atrial fibrillation: the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Miguel Á; Toledo, Estefanía; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ros, Emilio; Covas, Maria I; Fernández-Crehuet, Joaquín; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel A; Fitó, Monserrat; Serra-Majem, Luis; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Sorlí, Jose V; Babio, Nancy; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Valentina; Estruch, Ramón; Alonso, Alvaro

    2014-07-01

    The PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) randomized primary prevention trial showed that a Mediterranean diet enriched with either extravirgin olive oil or mixed nuts reduces the incidence of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality. We assessed the effect of these diets on the incidence of atrial fibrillation in the PREDIMED trial. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets: Mediterranean diet supplemented with extravirgin olive oil, Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or advice to follow a low-fat diet (control group). Incident atrial fibrillation was adjudicated during follow-up by an events committee blinded to dietary group allocation. Among 6705 participants without prevalent atrial fibrillation at randomization, we observed 72 new cases of atrial fibrillation in the Mediterranean diet with extravirgin olive oil group, 82 in the Mediterranean diet with mixed nuts group, and 92 in the control group after median follow-up of 4.7 years. The Mediterranean diet with extravirgin olive oil significantly reduced the risk of atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.85 compared with the control group). No effect was found for the Mediterranean diet with nuts (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.20). In the absence of proven interventions for the primary prevention of atrial fibrillation, this post hoc analysis of the PREDIMED trial suggests that extravirgin olive oil in the context of a Mediterranean dietary pattern may reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation. http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Effect of tiger nut-derived products in gluten-free batter and bread.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Guamis, Buenaventura; Capellas, Marta

    2015-07-01

    Tiger nut is a tuber used to produce tiger nut milk that yields a high quantity of solid waste, which can be dried and used as fiber source. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of gluten-free bread formulated with different tiger nut-derived products in order to substitute soya flour (which is an allergen ingredient) and, at the same time, increase the use of tiger nut-derived products. Four gluten-free formulations based on corn starch and containing tiger nut milk, tiger nut milk by-product, tiger nut flour, or soya flour (as reference formulation) were studied. Tiger nut milk increased G' of gluten-free batter and rendered breads with the softest crumb (502.46 g ± 102.05), the highest loaf-specific volume (3.35 cm(3)/g ± 0.25), and it was mostly preferred by consumers (61.02%). Breads elaborated with tiger nut flour had similar characteristics than soya flour breads (except in color and crumb structure). The addition of tiger nut milk by-product resulted in a hard (1047.64 g ± 145.74) and dark (L(*)  = 70.02 ± 3.38) crumb bread, which was the least preferred by consumers. Results showed that tiger nut is a promising ingredient to formulate gluten-free baked products. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Differentiation of NUT Midline Carcinoma by Epigenomic Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Brian E.; Hofer, Matthias D.; Lemieux, Madeleine E.; Bauer, Daniel E.; Cameron, Michael J.; West, Nathan H.; Agoston, Elin S.; Reynoird, Nicolas; Khochbin, Saadi; Ince, Tan A.; Christie, Amanda; Janeway, Katherine A.; Vargas, Sara O.; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R.; Aster, Jon C.; Sallan, Stephen E.; Kung, Andrew L.; Bradner, James E.; French, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a lethal pediatric tumor defined by the presence of BRD-NUT fusion proteins that arrest differentiation. Here we explore the mechanisms underlying the ability of BRD4-NUT to prevent squamous differentiation. In both gain-of and loss-of-expression assays we find that expression of BRD4-NUT is associated with globally decreased histone acetylation and transcriptional repression. Bulk chromatin acetylation can be restored by treatment of NMC cells with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), engaging a program of squamous differentiation and arrested growth in vitro that closely mimics the effects of siRNA mediated attenuation of BRD4-NUT expression. The potential therapeutic utility of HDACi differentiation therapy was established in three different NMC xenograft models, where it produced significant growth inhibition and a survival benefit. Based on these results and translational studies performed with patient-derived primary tumor cells, a child with NMC was treated with the FDA-approved HDAC inhibitor, vorinostat. An objective response was obtained after five weeks of therapy, as determined by positron emission tomography. These findings provide preclinical support for trials of HDACi in patients with NMC. PMID:21447744

  10. Novel Insights into the Influence of Seed Sarcotesta Photosynthesis on Accumulation of Seed Dry Matter and Oil Content in Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii”

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yongling; Yu, Weiwu; Hänninen, Heikki; Song, Lili; Du, Xuhua; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Jiasheng

    2018-01-01

    Seed oil content is an important trait of nut seeds, and it is affected by the import of carbon from photosynthetic sources. Although green leaves are the main photosynthetic organs, seed sarcotesta photosynthesis also supplies assimilates to seed development. Understanding the relationship between seed photosynthesis and seed development has theoretical and practical significance in the cultivation of Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii.” To assess the role of seed sarcotesta photosynthesis on the seed development, anatomical and physiological traits of sarcotesta were measured during two growing seasons in the field. Compared with the attached current-year leaves, the sarcotesta had higher gross photosynthetic rate at the first stage of seed development. At the late second stage of seed development, sarcotesta showed down-regulation of PSII activity, as indicated by significant decrease in the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: the maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm), the PSII quantum yield (ΦPSII), and the photosynthetic quenching coefficient (qP). The ribulose 1, 5—bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) activity, the total chlorophyll content (Chl(a+b)) and nitrogen content in the sarcotesta were also significantly decreased during that period. Treatment with DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] preventing seed photosynthesis decreased the seed dry weight and the oil content by 25.4 and 25.5%, respectively. We conclude that seed photosynthesis plays an important role in the dry matter accumulation at the first growth stage. Our results also suggest that down-regulation of seed photosynthesis is a plant response to re-balance the source-sink ratio at the second growth stage. These results suggest that seed photosynthesis is important for biomass accumulation and oil synthesis of the Torreya seeds. The results will facilitate achieving higher yields and oil contents in nut trees by selection for higher seed photosynthesis cultivars. PMID:29375592

  11. Therapeutic Potential of Tea Tree Oil for Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jackson; Carson, Christine F.; Peterson, Greg M.; Walton, Shelley F.; Hammer, Kate A.; Naunton, Mark; Davey, Rachel C.; Spelman, Tim; Dettwiller, Pascale; Kyle, Greg; Cooper, Gabrielle M.; Baby, Kavya E.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, scabies affects more than 130 million people at any time. In the developed world, outbreaks in health institutions and vulnerable communities result in a significant economic burden. A review of the literature demonstrates the emergence of resistance toward classical scabicidal treatments and the lack of effectiveness of currently available scabicides in reducing the inflammatory skin reactions and pyodermal progression that occurs in predisposed patient cohorts. Tea tree oil (TTO) has demonstrated promising acaricidal effects against scabies mites in vitro and has also been successfully used as an adjuvant topical medication for the treatment of crusted scabies, including cases that did not respond to standard treatments. Emerging acaricide resistance threatens the future usefulness of currently used gold standard treatments (oral ivermectin and topical permethrin) for scabies. The imminent development of new chemical entities is doubtful. The cumulative acaricidal, antibacterial, antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing effects of TTO may have the potential to successfully reduce the burden of scabies infection and the associated bacterial complications. This review summarizes current knowledge on the use of TTO for the treatment of scabies. On the strength of existing data for TTO, larger scale, randomized controlled clinical trials are warranted. PMID:26787146

  12. 7 CFR 985.155 - Identification of oil by producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING...) Handler's pickup receipt number, when applicable; (g) Destination of oil for storage; (h) Name of the firm...

  13. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 48: strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  14. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 47: Strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  15. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 45: Strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  16. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, List 46: Strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  17. Natural and anthropogenic variations in the N cycle - A perspective provided by nitrogen isotopes in trees near oil-sand developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Marion, J.; Smirnoff, A.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen stable isotopes of tree-ring series have been recently used to detect past air pollution effects on forests in the contexts of point sources, highways or peri-urban regions. Here, we want to assess their potential to understand changes in soil processes and reveal perturbations of the N cycle. Our approach involves combining tree-ring N, C and O stable isotope series with statistical modelling to distinguish the responses of trees due to natural (climatic) conditions from the ones potentially caused by emissions from the Athabasca oil-sand developments where truck fleets, oil upgraders, desulphurization and hydrogen plants, boilers, heaters and turbines have been active since 1967. Three white spruce trees [Picea glauca (Moench)] 165 years or older, were selected in a well drained brunisolic site, at 55 km from the heart of the development operations (white and black spruce trees from other sites are currently being investigated). Their growth rings were dated and separated at a time resolution of 1 or 2 years for the 1880-2009 period. The average oxygen isotope ratios of cellulose do not show long-term anomalies and reflect climatic conditions. The average C isotope ratios of cellulose covering the 1880-1965 period show short-term variations mostly explained by local climatic conditions, whereas the 1966-1995 series presents similar short-term variations superimposed on a long-term isotopic increase significantly departing from the oxygen isotope curve. Most importantly, the nitrogen isotope series of treated wood shows an average decrease of 1.0% during the 1970-2009 period. The statistical links between the variations of the regional drought index and the isotopic C and N responses during the pre-operation period allows to develop predictive climatic models. When we apply these models to predict the natural isotopic behaviour of the recent period, the measured isotopic trends of the operation period depart from the modelled curves. In contrast, using

  18. Association of Areca Nut Chewing With Risk of Erectile Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yung-Jui; Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2017-09-01

    Areca nut chewing has been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but its association with erectile dysfunction (ED) has not been investigated. To investigate the association between areca nut chewing and risk of ED. Consecutive men at public health centers for oral malignancy screening or health checkup were invited to complete a questionnaire. The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM). Of the 2,652 respondents, 1,038 (mean age = 43.8 ± 11.1 years) were eligible for the areca nut chewing group and 1,090 non-areca nut chewers were selected as the age-matched control group. In the areca nut group, the mean duration of chewing was 13.2 ± 9.6 years, 61.7% consumed more than 10 portions per day, and 76.2% used it with betel leaf, 16.7% used it with betel inflorescence, and 7.1% used it with betel leaf and inflorescence. Smoking, alcohol drinking, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes were more predominant in areca nut chewers compared with controls. ED defined by self-report and by SHIM score was more prevalent in areca nut chewers than in controls (13.7% vs 9.8% and 48.7% vs 43.3%, respectively; P < .05 for the two comparisons). Areca nut use with betel inflorescence was associated with a higher risk of ED (odds ratio = 2.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.55-3.28) with a dose-dependent effect, whereas using it with betel leaf was not (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% confidence interval = 0.79-1.26) after adjustment of possible confounders. Areca nut chewing with betel inflorescence was associated with an increased risk of ED. These findings warrant further studies. Huang Y-J, Jiann B-P. Association of Areca Nut Chewing With Risk of Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med 2017;5:e163-e168. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Botanical pesticides effect from shells of bean’s cashew nut on biological agents of trichoderma sp. and gliocladium sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bande, L. O. S.; Mariadi; Gusnawaty, HS; Nuriadi; Trisulpa, L.; Rahmania

    2018-02-01

    A shell of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentanle) has contained Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) that is used as botanical pesticides. CNSL oil consists of active substance such as anacardat acid, cardol and cardanol. Utilization of the pesticides from shells of cashew nut to control pests and diseases of plants would be affected on biological agents. The objective of this research was to investigate pesticides inhibition on the increase of mycelium Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. by in vitro method. The tested concentration sample consisted of 0.0% (control), 2.5%, 7.5% and 10.0% in PDA media. The results of this research showed that 2.5% botanical pesticides concentration could minimize mycelium of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. 22.73% and 21.04% respectively and also the increase shells of cashew extract could be affected the increase of mycelium inhibition. The extract with 2.5% concentration was the recommended concentration to control of fruit rot diseases and if concentration was 10.0% then its inhibition become 54.98% and 49.35%, respectively. The results proved that uncontrolled utilization of the pesticides could be affected on decrease of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. growth.

  20. Chemical composition of nuts and seeds sold in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyung Ok; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Choi, Kyung-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Eleven types of nuts and seeds were analyzed to determine their energy (326-733 mg), moisture (1.6-18.3 mg), carbohydrate (8.8-70.9 mg), protein (4.9-30.5 mg), lipid (2.5-69.8 mg), and ash (1.2-5.5 mg) contents per 100 g of sample. Energy content was highest in pine nuts (733 mg/100 g), carbohydrate level was highest in dried figs (70.9 mg/100 g) and protein was highest in peanuts (30.5 mg/100 g). The amino acid compositions of nuts and seeds were characterized by the dominance of hydrophobic (range = 1,348.6-10,284.6 mg), hydrophilic (range = 341.1-3,244.3 mg), acidic (range = 956.1-8,426.5 mg), and basic (range = 408.6-4,738.5 mg) amino acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were highest in macadamia nuts (81.3%), whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were highest in the walnuts (76.7%). Macadamia nuts did not contain any vitamin E, whereas sunflower seeds contained the highest level (60.3 mg/kg). Iron (Fe) content was highest in pumpkin seeds (95.85 ± 33.01 ppm), zinc (Zn) content was highest in pistachios (67.24 ± 30.25 ppm), copper (Cu) content was greatest in walnuts (25.45 ± 21.51 ppm), and lead (Pb) content was greatest in wheat nuts (25.49 ± 4.64 ppm), significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, current commercial nuts and seeds have no safety concerns, although further analysis of Pb contents is necessary to ensure safety. PMID:23610599

  1. Sassafras oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Sassafras oil comes from the root bark of the sassafras tree. Sassafras oil overdose occurs when someone swallows more than the ... Safrole is the poisonous ingredient in sassafras oil. It is a clear or ... yellow oily liquid. It can be dangerous in large amounts.

  2. Tea tree oil nanoemulsions for inhalation therapies of bacterial and fungal pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Zhu, Lifei; Liu, Boming; Du, Lina; Jia, Xiaodong; Han, Li; Jin, Yiguang

    2016-05-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a natural essential oil with strong antimicrobial efficacy and little drug resistance. However, the biomedical applications of TTO are limited due to its hydrophobicity and formulation problems. Here, we prepared an inhalable TTO nanoemulsion (nanoTTO) for local therapies of bacterial and fungal pneumonia. The optimal formulation of nanoTTOs consisted of TTO/Cremophor EL/water with a mean size of 12.5nm. The nanoTTOs showed strong in vitro antimicrobial activities on Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. After inhalation to the lung, the nanoTTOs had higher anti-fungal effect than fluconazole on the fungal pneumonia rat models with reduced lung injury, highly microbial clearance, blocking of leukocyte recruitment, and decrease of pro-inflammatory mediators. In the case of rat bacterial pneumonia, the nanoTTOs showed slightly lower therapeutic efficacy than penicillin though at a much lower dose. Taken together, our results show that the inhalable nanoTTOs are promising nanomedicines for local therapies of fungal and bacterial pneumonia with no obvious adverse events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cross-sensitization profiles of edible nuts in a birch-endemic area.

    PubMed

    Uotila, R; Kukkonen, A K; Pelkonen, A S; Mäkelä, M J

    2016-04-01

    Sensitization to birch pollen causes cross-sensitization to nuts, but rarely leads to clinical nut allergy. The aim was to study sensitizations to nuts in individuals sensitized to birch pollen and examine cross-reactivities between birch and nut species. All subjects with skin prick tests (SPTs) for birch pollen conducted during 1997-2013 in the Skin and Allergy Hospital in Helsinki (n = 114 572) and their available SPTs for nuts (n = 50 604) were included. Nut sensitizations were analyzed both with and without cosensitization to birch and stratified into age-categories. Cross-reactivities were analyzed with hierarchical clustering. One group of 1589 patients was surveyed for symptoms. Data were gathered also from Lapland to examine sensitizations in an area with less birch-pollen exposure. Of subjects with birch sensitization, 84% were cosensitized to hazelnut, 71% to almond, and 60% to peanut. In a subgroup without birch sensitization, young children (<5 years) were most commonly nut-sensitized (8-40%); and this prevalence decreased in adolescents and further in adults (4-12%). Cashew and pistachio (ρ = 0.66; P < 0.001) and pecan and walnut (ρ = 0.65; P < 0.001) correlated the strongest. The majority of nut-sensitized patients (71% hazelnut, 83% almond, 73% peanut) reported no or mild symptoms. Cosensitizations between nuts and birch were similar in Lapland with its lower birch-pollen exposure. Birch-sensitized individuals are frequently cosensitized to hazelnut, almond, and peanut. Among the birch-negatives, prevalences of nut sensitizations decrease from early childhood to adolescence. Cashew and pistachio, and pecan and walnut cross-react the most. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Quality and stability of edible oils enriched with hydrophilic antioxidants from the olive tree: the role of enrichment extracts and lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Sánchez de Medina, Verónica; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Jiménez-Ot, Carlos; Luque de Castro, María Dolores

    2011-11-09

    Phenolic extracts from olive tree leaves and olive pomace were used to enrich refined oils (namely, maize, soy, high-oleic sunflower, sunflower, olive, and rapeseed oils) at two concentration levels (200 and 400 μg/mL, expressed as gallic acid). The concentration of characteristic olive phenols in these extracts together with the lipidic composition of the oils to be enriched influenced the mass transfer of the target antioxidants, which conferred additional stability and quality parameters to the oils as a result. In general, all of the oils experienced either a noticeable or dramatic improvement of their quality-stability parameters (e.g., peroxide index and Rancimat) as compared with their nonenriched counterparts. The enriched oils were also compared with extra virgin olive oil with a natural content in phenols of 400 μg/mL. The healthy properties of these phenols and the scarce or nil prices of the raw materials used can convert oils in supplemented foods or even nutraceuticals.

  5. Changes in olive oil volatile organic compounds induced by water status and light environment in canopies of Olea europaea L. trees.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Caruso, Giovanni; Giunti, Giulia; Cuzzola, Angela; Saba, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Andrea; Gucci, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Light and water are major factors in fruit development and quality. In this study, the effect of water and light in Olea europaea trees on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in olive oil was studied over 2 years. Mature fruits were harvested from three zones of the canopy with different light exposure (64%, 42% and 30% of incident light) of trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation. VOCs were determined by SPME GC-MS and analysed by principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to partition treatment effects. Fruit fresh weight and mesocarp oil content decreased in zones where intercepted light was less. Low light levels significantly slowed down fruit maturation, whereas conditions of water deficit accelerated the maturation process. The presence of cyclosativene and α-muurulene was associated with water deficit, nonanal, valencene with full irrigation; α-muurulene, (E)-2-hexanal were related to low light conditions, while trans-β-ocimene, α-copaene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, hexanal and nonanal to well exposed zones. The year strongly affected the VOC profile of olive oil. This is the first report on qualitative changes in VOCs induced by light environment and/or water status. This information is valuable to better understand the role of environmental factors on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Alternate alloys for UF/sub 6/ cylinder valve packing nuts

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Blue, S.C.

    One-inch cylinder valve packing nuts made from aluminum bronze alloy C63600 are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. The use of alloys which are more resistant to cracking should eliminate the occasional nut failures. It is proposed that packing nuts be produced from either aluminum bronze C61300 or Monel (NO4400). 2 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Finite element analysis of the Space Shuttle 2.5-inch frangible nut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinnis, Darin N.

    1994-01-01

    Finite element analysis of the Space Shuttle 2.5-inch frangible nut was conducted to improve understanding of the current design and proposed design changes to this explosively-actuated nut. The 2.5-inch frangible nut is used in two places to attach the aft end of the Space Shuttle Orbiter to the External Tank. Both 2.5-inch frangible nuts must function to complete safe separation. The 2.5-inch frangible nut contains two explosive boosters containing RDX explosive each capable of splitting the nut in half, on command from the Orbiter computers. To ensure separation, the boosters are designed to be redundant. The detonation of one booster is sufficient to split the nut in half. However, beginning in 1987 some production lots of 2.5-inch frangible nuts have demonstrated an inability to separate using only a single booster. The cause of the failure has been attributed to differences in the material properties and response of the Inconel 718 from which the 2.5-inch frangible nut is manufactured. Subsequent tests have resulted in design modifications of the boosters and frangible nut. Model development and initial analysis was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under funding from NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (NASA-JSC) starting in 1992. Modeling codes previously developed by SNL were transferred to NASA-JSC for further analysis on this and other devices. An explosive bolt with NASA Standard Detonator (NSD) charge, a 3/4-inch frangible nut, and the Super*Zip linear separation system are being modeled by NASA-JSC.

  8. More Nuts and Bolts of Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechner, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Several additions to a classroom activity are proposed in which an "enzyme" (the student) converts "substrates" (nut-bolt assemblies) into "products" (separated nuts and bolts) by unscrewing them. (Contains 1 table.)

  9. Areca nut and tobacco chewing habits in Durban, KwaZulu Natal.

    PubMed

    Bissessur, S; Naidoo, S

    2009-11-01

    Areca nut/quid chewing is a habit that is commonly practiced in the Indian subcontinent and this age-old social habit is still being practiced by the Indians in South Africa. The areca nut/quid is prepared in a variety of ways. The quid may be prepared with or without tobacco. This habit is said to be associated with the development of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a premalignant lesion, oral leukoplakia and oral cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of areca nut/quid chewing (with or without tobacco), associated habits (smoking and alcohol consumption) as well as the awareness of the risks. The study was cross-sectional in design and used administered questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to collect the data. A convenience sample of 101 respondents was interviewed. More than three quarter were born in South Africa and the rest were migrant communities from Pakistan, India and Dubai. All respondents from the migrant community were males. Slightly more females than maleschewed areca nut/quid. Popular ingredients that were chewed included areca nut, betel leaf, lime and paan masala. Enjoyment and special functions were the most important reasons for chewing areca nut. Family influence was a reason for chewing. Nearly 60% did not know whether areca nut chewing is harmful to their health. The majority have not attempted to give up the habit. It is recommended that aggressive awareness programmes on the hazardous effects of areca nut/quid chewing be developed similar to those for smoking cessation. Government health warnings need to be written on paan packaging. Taxes need to be imposed on the areca nut and condiments. Age restrictions need to be imposed on purchasing of the areca nut/quid thus making access difficult for the children.

  10. Integrated genome sequence and linkage map of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a biodiesel plant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pingzhi; Zhou, Changpin; Cheng, Shifeng; Wu, Zhenying; Lu, Wenjia; Han, Jinli; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Yan; Ni, Peixiang; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xun; Huang, Ying; Song, Chi; Wang, Zhiwen; Shi, Nan; Zhang, Xudong; Fang, Xiaohua; Yang, Qing; Jiang, Huawu; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Wang, Ying; Chen, Fan; Wang, Jun; Wu, Guojiang

    2015-03-01

    The family Euphorbiaceae includes some of the most efficient biomass accumulators. Whole genome sequencing and the development of genetic maps of these species are important components in molecular breeding and genetic improvement. Here we report the draft genome of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a biodiesel plant. The assembled genome has a total length of 320.5 Mbp and contains 27,172 putative protein-coding genes. We established a linkage map containing 1208 markers and anchored the genome assembly (81.7%) to this map to produce 11 pseudochromosomes. After gene family clustering, 15,268 families were identified, of which 13,887 existed in the castor bean genome. Analysis of the genome highlighted specific expansion and contraction of a number of gene families during the evolution of this species, including the ribosome-inactivating proteins and oil biosynthesis pathway enzymes. The genomic sequence and linkage map provide a valuable resource not only for fundamental and applied research on physic nut but also for evolutionary and comparative genomics analysis, particularly in the Euphorbiaceae. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Betel nut usage is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Bawany, Faizan Imran; Ahmed, Muhammad Umer; Hussain, Mehwish; Khan, Asadullah; Lashari, Muhammad Nawaz

    2013-12-27

    The objective of our study was to assess betel nut usage as one of the major risk factors associated with coronary artery disease. This case control study consisted of 300 controls and 300 cases. A structured questionnaire was administered to the participants to assess consumption of betel nut and confounding variables. A respondent was considered a regular consumer of betel nut if he/she consumed one or more pieces of betel nut every day for a period of greater than 6 months. About 8 in 10 betel nut chewers developed coronary artery disease. After adjusting for diabetes and hypertension, the odds ratio analysis depicted 7.72 times greater likelihood for coronary artery disease in patients who chewed betel nut for more than 10 years. Our study concludes that betel nut chewing is a significant risk factor leading to the development of coronary artery disease.

  12. Betel Nut Usage Is a Major Risk Factor for Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Bawany, Faizan Imran; Ahmed, Muhammad Umer; Hussain, Mehwish; Khan, Asadullah; Lashari, Muhammad Nawaz

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The objective of our study was to assess betel nut usage as one of the major risk factors associated with coronary artery disease. Methods: This case control study consisted of 300 controls and 300 cases. A structured questionnaire was administered to the participants to assess consumption of betel nut and confounding variables. A respondent was considered a regular consumer of betel nut if he/she consumed one or more pieces of betel nut every day for a period of greater than 6 months. Results: About 8 in 10 betel nut chewers developed coronary artery disease. After adjusting for diabetes and hypertension, the odds ratio analysis depicted 7.72 times greater likelihood for coronary artery disease in patients who chewed betel nut for more than 10 years. Conclusion: Our study concludes that betel nut chewing is a significant risk factor leading to the development of coronary artery disease. PMID:24576380

  13. Structural analysis of a frangible nut used on the NASA Space Shuttle

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Metzinger, K.E.

    A structural analysis methodology has been developed for the NASA 2.5-inch frangible nut used on the Space Shuttle. Two of these nuts are used to secure the External Tank to the aft end of the Orbiter. Both nuts must completely fracture before the Orbiter can safely separate from the External Tank. Ideally, only one of the two explosive boosters contained in each nut must detonate to completely break a nut. However, after an uncontrolled change in the Inconel 718 material processing, recent tests indicate that in certain circumstances both boosters may be required. This report details the material characterization andmore » subsequent structural analyses of nuts manufactured from two lots of Inconel 718. The nuts from the HSX lot were observed to consistently separate with only one booster, while the nuts from the HBT lot never completely fracture with a single booster. The material characterization requires only tensile test data and the determination of a tearing parameter based on a computer simulation of a tensile test. Subsequent structural analyses using the PRONTO2D finite element code correctly predict the differing response of nuts fabricated from these two lots. This agreement is important because it demonstrates that this technique can be used to screen lots of Inconel 718 before manufacturing frangible nuts from them. To put this new capability to practice, Sandia personnel have transferred this technology to the Pyrotechnics Group at NASA-JSC.« less

  14. Nuts as part of a healthy cardiovascular diet.

    PubMed

    Nash, Stephen D; Nash, David T

    2008-12-01

    The increasing trend of obesity has been associated with a greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and may lead to more vascular disease. Nuts, a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids and fiber, have been shown to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Numerous studies have demonstrated that nuts favorably affect serum lipids. They also exhibit a number of nonlipid benefits, including improved weight management, greater insulin sensitivity, and favorable endothelial effects, as well as having anti-inflammatory properties. Incorporating nuts into the diets of more people may lead to a variety of cardiovascular benefits.

  15. Pestle-pounding and nut-cracking by wild chimpanzees at Kpala, Liberia.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Gaku

    2015-04-01

    Bossou in Guinea is one of the longitudinal study sites of wild chimpanzees, and is located only a few kilometers away from the national border between Guinea and Liberia. The forests in the area spread over the national border of Guinea, and the Bossou chimpanzees have been found to use the neighboring Liberian forest. Local assistants and I started surveying these forests in Liberia, and found that additional groups of chimpanzees lived in Nimba County, Liberia. The present study reports tool use behaviors by chimpanzees living in forests of the Kpala area in Nimba County. We directly observed pestle-pounding behavior, which had been confirmed only in the Bossou group of wild chimpanzees. Moreover, we heard sounds of nut-cracking, and successfully filmed chimpanzees cracking open oil palm nuts with stones. The uniqueness of stone-tool use behaviors has been emphasized with the group of chimpanzees that have been longitudinally studied at Bossou, but the behaviors probably have a wide distribution in this area. Emigrant chimpanzees are thought to contribute to the propagation of the cultural tool-use behaviors. It is also thought that, if the distantly located groups share similar cultural behaviors, there might be genetic exchange between them. Conservation efforts should be needed not only at Bossou, but also in a wider area including nonprotected forests beyond the national border.

  16. Quality Evaluation of Shelled and Unshelled Macadamia Nuts by Means of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR).

    PubMed

    Canneddu, Giovanna; Júnior, Luis Carlos Cunha; de Almeida Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique

    2016-07-01

    The quality of shelled and unshelled macadamia nuts was assessed by means of Fourier transformed near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. Shelled macadamia nuts were sorted as sound nuts; nuts infected by Ecdytolopha aurantiana and Leucopteara coffeella; and cracked nuts caused by germination. Unshelled nuts were sorted as intact nuts (<10% half nuts, 2014); half nuts (March, 2013; November, 2013); and crushed nuts (2014). Peroxide value (PV) and acidity index (AI) were determined according to AOAC. PCA-LDA shelled macadamia nuts classification resulted in 93.2% accurate classification. PLS PV prediction model resulted in a square error of prediction (SEP) of 3.45 meq/kg, and a prediction coefficient determination value (Rp (2) ) of 0.72. The AI PLS prediction model was better (SEP = 0.14%, Rp (2) = 0.80). Although adequate classification was possible (93.2%), shelled nuts must not contain live insects, therefore the classification accuracy was not satisfactory. FT-NIR spectroscopy can be successfully used to predict PV and AI in unshelled macadamia nuts, though. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T.; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C.

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  18. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  19. Betel nut chewing associated with increased risk of arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Ting; Chou, Yu-Tsung; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chou, Chieh-Ying; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen; Wu, Jin-Shang

    2017-11-01

    Betel nut chewing is associated with certain cardiovascular outcomes. Subclinical atherosclerosis may be one link between betel nut chewing and cardiovascular risk. Few studies have examined the association between chewing betel nut and arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was thus to determine the relationship between betel nut chewing and arterial stiffness in a Taiwanese population. We enrolled 7540 eligible subjects in National Cheng Kung University Hospital from October 2006 to August 2009. The exclusion criteria included history of cerebrovascular events, coronary artery disease, and taking lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensives, and hypoglycemic agents. Increased arterial stiffness was defined as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ≥1400cm/s. According to their habit of betel nut use, the subjects were categorized into non-, ex-, and current chewers. The prevalence of increased arterial stiffness was 32.7, 43.3, and 43.2% in non-, ex- and current chewers, respectively (p=0.011). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that ex-chewers (odds ratio [OR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-2.65) and current chewers (OR 2.29, 95% CI=1.05-4.99) had elevated risks of increased arterial stiffness after adjustment for co-variables. Both ex- and current betel nut chewing were associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness. Stopping betel nut chewing may thus potentially be beneficial to reduce cardiovascular risk, based on the principals of preventive medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Epidemiological investigation of chewing fresh or dried betel nut and oral mucosal disease].

    PubMed

    Yongxiu, Du; Dongye, Sun; Xinchun, Jian; Qiuhua, Mao; Yanan, Cheng; Pu, Xu

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chewing fresh or dried betel nut on the inci-dence and canceration of oral mucosa disease in Haikou City in Hainan Province. Through a survey questionnaire, clinical examination, and regular follow-up, we collected clinical data from 1 722 cases and divided them into two groups, among which 704 of the afflicted people chew dried betel nut, whereas the other 1 018 chew fresh betel nut. The data were 
statistically analyzed using different variables which included age, number, time of onset of the disease, and the cancerous condition associated with common oral mucosa disease, including oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), oral leukoplakia (OLK), and oral Lichen planus (OLP). 1) The study found no significant difference in the prevalence of oral mucosa diseases between the dried betel nut group (n=704) and fresh betel nut group (n=1 018) among the 1 722 cases (P>0.05), but the peak age of oral mucosal disease was more advanced in the dried betel nut group (P<0.01). 2) The incidence within 5 years of OSF, OLK, OLP, and oral mucosa diseases in the dried betel nut group was significantly higher than that in the fresh betel nut group (P<0.01). 3) The incidence of cancer for oral mucosa disease in patients included in the dried betel nut group was significantly higher than that in the fresh betel nut group (P<0.01). Chewing dried betel nut is more pathogenic and carcinogenic than chewing fresh betel nut. The extremely harmful components of the dried betel nut synergistically play a vital role in the occurrence and carcinogenesis of oral mucosal diseases.

  1. Extra-strong "floating nut"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. F.; Theakston, H.

    1979-01-01

    Increased bearing area withstands much higher torque than previous designs. Floating nut makes it possible to fasten parts on heavy-duty equipment, such as tractors and cranes, even though they can be reached for tightening from one side only.

  2. A Dichotomous Key to Tree Cones and Fruits of the Eastern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Linda T.

    1991-01-01

    The author presents a dichotomous key to 29 tree cones, fruits, and nuts of eastern United States. Students can use the key to identify at least 10 species in a 1-hour laboratory assignment. This key uses reproductive structures that are significantly different from others. These structures are durable enough to be used in the laboratory for many…

  3. Therapeutic Potential of Tea Tree Oil for Scabies.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jackson; Carson, Christine F; Peterson, Greg M; Walton, Shelley F; Hammer, Kate A; Naunton, Mark; Davey, Rachel C; Spelman, Tim; Dettwiller, Pascale; Kyle, Greg; Cooper, Gabrielle M; Baby, Kavya E

    2016-02-01

    Globally, scabies affects more than 130 million people at any time. In the developed world, outbreaks in health institutions and vulnerable communities result in a significant economic burden. A review of the literature demonstrates the emergence of resistance toward classical scabicidal treatments and the lack of effectiveness of currently available scabicides in reducing the inflammatory skin reactions and pyodermal progression that occurs in predisposed patient cohorts. Tea tree oil (TTO) has demonstrated promising acaricidal effects against scabies mites in vitro and has also been successfully used as an adjuvant topical medication for the treatment of crusted scabies, including cases that did not respond to standard treatments. Emerging acaricide resistance threatens the future usefulness of currently used gold standard treatments (oral ivermectin and topical permethrin) for scabies. The imminent development of new chemical entities is doubtful. The cumulative acaricidal, antibacterial, antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing effects of TTO may have the potential to successfully reduce the burden of scabies infection and the associated bacterial complications. This review summarizes current knowledge on the use of TTO for the treatment of scabies. On the strength of existing data for TTO, larger scale, randomized controlled clinical trials are warranted. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Neural net classification of x-ray pistachio nut data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David P.; Sipe, Michael A.; Schatzki, Thomas F.; Keagy, Pamela M.; Le, Lan Chau

    1996-12-01

    Classification results for agricultural products are presented using a new neural network. This neural network inherently produces higher-order decision surfaces. It achieves this with fewer hidden layer neurons than other classifiers require. This gives better generalization. It uses new techniques to select the number of hidden layer neurons and adaptive algorithms that avoid other such ad hoc parameter selection problems; it allows selection of the best classifier parameters without the need to analyze the test set results. The agriculture case study considered is the inspection and classification of pistachio nuts using x- ray imagery. Present inspection techniques cannot provide good rejection of worm damaged nuts without rejecting too many good nuts. X-ray imagery has the potential to provide 100% inspection of such agricultural products in real time. Only preliminary results are presented, but these indicate the potential to reduce major defects to 2% of the crop with 1% of good nuts rejected. Future image processing techniques that should provide better features to improve performance and allow inspection of a larger variety of nuts are noted. These techniques and variations of them have uses in a number of other agricultural product inspection problems.

  5. 77 FR 65877 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ...; bushberry subgroup 13-07B; low growing berry, except strawberry subgroup 13-07H; and herb subgroup 19A... berry, except strawberry subgroup 13-07H; and herb subgroup 19A. Contact: Kevin Sweeney, RD, (703) 305... 10; citrus, oil; grape; fruit, pome, group 11; strawberry; tomato; and nut, tree, group 14. Contact...

  6. Faying Surface Lubrication Effects on Nut Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Deneen M.; Morrison, Raymond F.

    2006-01-01

    Bolted joint analysis typically is performed using nut factors derived from textbooks and procedures from program requirement documents. Joint specific testing was performed for a critical International Space Station (ISS) joint. Test results indicate that for some configurations the nut factor may be significantly different than accepted textbook values. This paper presents results of joint specific testing to aid in determining if joint specific testing should be performed to insure required preloads are obtained.

  7. Quantification of nitropropanoyl glucosides in karaka nuts before and after treatment.

    PubMed

    MacAskill, J J; Manley-Harris, M; Field, Richard J

    2015-05-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to assay nitropropanoyl glucosides in the nuts of karaka (Corynocarpus laevigatus) a traditional food of New Zealand Māori. Levels of glucosides, measured as 3-nitropropanoic acid, ranged from 50.25 to 138.62 g kg(-1) (5.0-13.9% w/w) and were highest in nuts from unripe drupes; these levels are higher than any previously reported. Other parts of the drupe also contained nitropropanoyl glucosides but at lower levels than the nut. Treatment procedures to remove the glucosides from the nuts varied in their efficacy with soxhlet extraction removing 98.7% and prolonged boiling and cold water extraction both removing 96%. These findings confirm the traditional methods for preparation of these nuts for consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described previously in only 3 patients. The allergen(s) is/are unknown.

  9. Technical intelligence and culture: Nut cracking in humans and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Christophe; Bombjaková, Daša; Boyette, Adam; Meier, Amelia

    2017-06-01

    According to the technical intelligence hypothesis, humans are superior to all other animal species in understanding and using tools. However, the vast majority of comparative studies between humans and chimpanzees, both proficient tool users, have not controlled for the effects of age, prior knowledge, past experience, rearing conditions, or differences in experimental procedures. We tested whether humans are superior to chimpanzees in selecting better tools, using them more dexteriously, achieving higher performance and gaining access to more resource as predicted under the technical intelligence hypothesis. Aka and Mbendjele hunter-gatherers in the rainforest of Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo, respectively, and Taï chimpanzees in the rainforest of Côte d'Ivoire were observed cracking hard Panda oleosa nuts with different tools, as well as the soft Coula edulis and Elaeis guinensis nuts. The nut-cracking techniques, hammer material selection and two efficiency measures were compared. As predicted, the Aka and the Mbendjele were able to exploit more species of hard nuts in the forest than chimpanzees. However, the chimpanzees were sometimes more efficient than the humans. Social roles differed between the two species, with the Aka and especially the Mbendjele exhibiting cooperation between nut-crackers whereas the chimpanzees were mainly individualistic. Observations of nut-cracking by humans and chimpanzees only partially supported the technical intelligence hypothesis as higher degrees of flexibility in tool selection seen in chimpanzees compensated for use of less efficient tool material than in humans. Nut cracking was a stronger social undertaking in humans than in chimpanzees. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Nuts and Grains: Microbiology and Preharvest Contamination Risks.

    PubMed

    Brar, Pardeepinder K; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2018-04-01

    Low-water-activity foods have been involved in recalls and foodborne disease outbreaks. Increased consumption; better detection methods and reporting systems; improved surveillance, trace-back, and ability to connect sporadic foodborne illnesses; and inadequate implementation of food safety programs are some of the likely reasons for the increase in frequency of recalls and outbreaks linked to dry foods. Nuts and grains can be contaminated with foodborne pathogens at any stage during production, processing, storage, and distribution. Focusing on preharvest contamination, the various potential sources of contamination include soil, animal intrusion, contaminated harvesting equipment, harvest and preharvest handling, storage conditions, and others. The low water activity of nuts and grains prevents the growth of most foodborne pathogens on their surfaces. The long-term survival of bacterial foodborne pathogens ( Salmonella , Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes ) on dry foods has been documented in the literature for different nut types. Preventing contamination is the key to avoiding foodborne disease risks linked to dry foods. The implementation of good agricultural practices and other food safety systems provides a proactive approach to address concerns thoroughly. A plethora of research is available on preventing the growth of mycotoxin-producing fungi on the surface of nuts and grains. Milling is an effective mechanism to reduce the microbial load on grains. This review focuses on providing information about associated foodborne microorganisms, preharvest contamination sources, and good agricultural practice recommendations for nuts and grains.

  11. 7 CFR 457.131 - Macadamia nut crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Macadamia nut crop insurance provisions. 457.131 Section 457.131 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.131 Macadamia nut...

  12. [Advance in studies on areca nuts and their active substances].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi; Chen, Qi-Cheng; Cao, Li-Xing; Chen, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-06-01

    A number of clinical practices and studies indicated that areca nuts showed such effects as anthelmintic, food retention removal, qi activation and diuresis, and elimination of wetness and jaundice. Arecoline is the most important pharmacological active ingredient for healthcare from areca plants with a wide influence on human functions. In recent years, a lot of studies have been made on areca nuts and arecoline's pharmacology, physiology and immunity. The article summarizes areca nuts and their active substances.

  13. Determination of Trace Elements in Edible Nuts in the Beijing Market by ICP-M.

    PubMed

    Yin, Liang Liang; Tian, Qing; Shao, Xian Zhang; Kong, Xiang Yin; Ji, Yan Qin

    2015-06-01

    Nuts have received increased attention from the public in recent years as important sources of some essential elements, and information on the levels of elements in edible nuts is useful to consumers. Determination of the elemental distributions in nuts is not only necessary in evaluating the total dietary intake of the essential elements, but also useful in detecting heavy metal contamination in food. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral contents in edible nuts, and to assess the food safety of nuts in the Beijing market. Levels of Li, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb, Th, and U in 11 types of edible nuts and seeds (macadamia nuts, lotus nuts, pistachios, sunflower seeds, pine nuts, almonds, walnuts, chestnuts, hazelnuts, cashews, and ginkgo nuts) as well as raisins were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The accuracy of the method was validated using standard reference materials GBW10014 (cabbage) and GBW10016 (tea). Our results provide useful information for evaluating the levels of trace elements in edible nuts in the Beijing market, will be helpful for improving food safety, and will aid in better protecting consumer interests. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  14. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan; Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta

    2014-01-01

    The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  15. Molecular analysis of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Juliana Soares; Ferracin, Lara Munique; Carneiro Vieira, Maria Lucia; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Maria Helena

    2012-04-01

    Brazil nuts are an important export market in its main producing countries, including Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru. Approximately 30,000 tons of Brazil nuts are harvested each year. However, substantial nut contamination by Aspergillus section Flavi occurs with subsequent production of aflatoxins. In our study, Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated from Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa), and identified by morphological and molecular means. We obtained 241 isolates from nut samples, 41% positive for aflatoxin production. Eighty-one isolates were selected for molecular investigation. Pairwise genetic distances among isolates and phylogenetic relationships were assessed. The following Aspergillus species were identified: A. flavus, A. caelatus, A. nomius, A. tamarii, A. bombycis, and A. arachidicola. Additionally, molecular profiles indicated a high level of nucleotide variation within β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences associated with high genetic divergence from RAPD data. Among the 81 isolates analyzed by molecular means, three of them were phylogenetically distinct from all other isolates representing the six species of section Flavi. A putative novel species was identified based on molecular profiles.

  16. Incorporating social and cultural significance of large old trees in conservation policy.

    PubMed

    Blicharska, Malgorzata; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    In addition to providing key ecological functions, large old trees are a part of a social realm and as such provide numerous social-cultural benefits to people. However, their social and cultural values are often neglected when designing conservation policies and management guidelines. We believe that awareness of large old trees as a part of human identity and cultural heritage is essential when addressing the issue of their decline worldwide. Large old trees provide humans with aesthetic, symbolic, religious, and historic values, as well as concrete tangible benefits, such as leaves, branches, or nuts. In many cultures particularly large trees are treated with reverence. Also, contemporary popular culture utilizes the image of trees as sentient beings and builds on the ancient myths that attribute great powers to large trees. Although the social and cultural role of large old trees is usually not taken into account in conservation, accounting for human-related values of these trees is an important part of conservation policy because it may strengthen conservation by highlighting the potential synergies in protecting ecological and social values. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Machine recognition of navel orange worm damage in x-ray images of pistachio nuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keagy, Pamela M.; Parvin, Bahram; Schatzki, Thomas F.

    1995-01-01

    Insect infestation increases the probability of aflatoxin contamination in pistachio nuts. A non- destructive test is currently not available to determine the insect content of pistachio nuts. This paper uses film X-ray images of various types of pistachio nuts to assess the possibility of machine recognition of insect infested nuts. Histogram parameters of four derived images are used in discriminant functions to select insect infested nuts from specific processing streams.

  18. Long-term associations of nut consumption with body weight and obesity1234

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Chandra L

    2014-01-01

    There is some concern that the high-fat, energy-dense content of nuts may promote weight gain. Nuts, however, are rich in protein and dietary fiber, which are associated with increased satiety. They also contain high amounts of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and phytoesterols that may confer health benefits for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes delay and prevention. Therefore, it is important to determine the association between nut consumption and long-term weight change and disease risk to reach scientific consensus and to make evidence-based public health recommendations. Several cross-sectional analyses have shown an inverse association between higher nut consumption and lower body weight. In addition, several independent prospective studies found that increasing nut consumption was associated with lower weight gain over relatively long periods of time. Moreover, high consumption of nuts (especially walnuts) has been associated with lower diabetes risk. Therefore, regular consumption (approximately one handful daily) of nuts over the long term, as a replacement to less healthful foods, can be incorporated as a component of a healthy diet for the prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24898229

  19. Prevalence of areca nut chewing in the middle school-going children of Indore, India

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Ashok; Khandelwal, Vishal; Saha, Mainak K.; Khandelwal, Sushma; Prasad, Sai; Saha, Suparana G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess areca nut chewing habit among middle school-aged children in Indore, India. Areca nut is chewed by itself, and in various scented preparations. It is associated with carcinogenesis, foreign body aspiration in children, and oral submucous fibrosis and may aggravate asthma. Materials and Methods: A retrospective collection of data to evaluate the prevalence of areca nut chewing among 3896 children was done. A simple random sampling was done. Children of both sexes were included in this study. Results: 27.06% of the school-going children (1054/3896) had areca nut chewing habit. More boys chewed areca nut than girls (2:1). 45.42% of school going children of rural area pander to areca nut chewing habit, whereas in urban area 20.09% children are indulged. Government school children are more involved in areca nut chewing habit. 81.02% of the children used sweetened and flavoured form of areca nut. The majority of the users were not aware of harmful effects that the use of areca nut might be harmful for health Conclusion: To diminish the use of areca nut, the Indian Government should consider limiting trade, advertising, and actively communicating its health risks to the public and should deem heavy taxes on it. PMID:22919213

  20. Evaluation of kukui oil (Aleurites moluccana) for controlling termites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The application of many chemical-based pesticides to protect wood has been greatly restricted in the United States and elsewhere. A possible natural product that can be used for wood preservation is the oil from the nut of the kukui plant, Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd., which has been reported, ba...

  1. Machine recognition of navel orange worm damage in X-ray images of pistachio nuts

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Keagy, P.M.; Schatzki, T.F.; Parvin, B.

    Insect infestation increases the probability of aflatoxin contamination in pistachio nuts. A non-destructive test is currently not available to determine the insect content of pistachio nuts. This paper presents the use of film X-ray images of various types of pistachio nuts to assess the possibility of machine recognition of insect infested nuts. Histogram parameters of four derived images are used in discriminant functions to select insect infested nuts from specific processing streams.

  2. The role of nuts in the optimal diet: time for a critical appraisal?

    PubMed

    Russo, P; Siani, A

    2012-12-01

    During the last decades, nuts have attracted the attention of researchers for their potential benefits in cardiovascular prevention. We discuss here some aspects of the assumed beneficial effects of nuts, weighing them against potential harm. Epidemiological observations and controlled intervention trials consistently suggest that nuts consumption is associated with improved serum lipid profile, thus helping decrease cardiovascular risk. Being nuts an energy dense food, their impact on energy balance and body weight should be considered. In particular, the claim that adding nuts to the habitual diet, thus increasing calorie intake, does not cause body fat accumulation still needs evidence and biological plausibility. The potential risk associated with the relatively frequent occurrence of allergic reactions following the consumption of nuts is also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Discrimination Between Closed and Open Shell (Turkish) Pistachio Nuts Using Undecimated Wavelet Packet Transform

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to low consumer acceptance and the possibility of immature kernels, closed-shell pistachio nuts should be separated from open-shell nuts before reaching the consumer. The feasibility of a system using impact acoustics as a means of classifying closed-shell nuts from open-shell nuts has already b...

  4. Characterization of Aspergillus species on Brazil nut from the Brazilian Amazonian region and development of a PCR assay for identification at the genus level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazil nut is a protein-rich extractivist tree crop in the Amazon region. Fungal contamination of shells and kernel material frequently includes the presence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species from the section Flavi. Aflatoxins are polyketide secondary metabolites, which are hepatotoxic carcinogens in mammals. The objectives of this study were to identify Aspergillus species occurring on Brazil nut grown in different states in the Brazilian Amazon region and develop a specific PCR method for collective identification of member species of the genus Aspergillus. Results Polyphasic identification of 137 Aspergillus strains isolated from Brazil nut shell material from cooperatives across the Brazilian Amazon states of Acre, Amapá and Amazonas revealed five species, with Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus the most abundant. PCR primers ASP_GEN_MTSSU_F1 and ASP_GEN_MTSSU_R1 were designed for the genus Aspergillus, targeting a portion of the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Primer specificity was validated through both electronic PCR against target gene sequences at Genbank and in PCR reactions against DNA from Aspergillus species and other fungal genera common on Brazil nut. Collective differentiation of the observed section Flavi species A. flavus, A. nomius and A. tamarii from other Aspergillus species was possible on the basis of RFLP polymorphism. Conclusions Given the abundance of Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus observed on Brazil nut, and associated risk of mycotoxin accumulation, simple identification methods for such mycotoxigenic species are of importance for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system implementation. The assay for the genus Aspergillus represents progress towards specific PCR identification and detection of mycotoxigenic species. PMID:24885088

  5. Associations between Nut Consumption and Health Vary between Omnivores, Vegetarians, and Vegans.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel C; Gray, Andrew R; Tey, Siew Ling; Chisholm, Alexandra; Burley, Victoria; Greenwood, Darren C; Cade, Janet

    2017-11-06

    Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced risk factors for chronic disease; however, most population-based studies lack consideration of effect modification by dietary pattern. The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) provides an ideal opportunity to examine relationships between nut consumption and chronic disease risk factors in a large sample with diverse dietary patterns. Nut and nutrient intake from 34,831 women was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among self-identified omnivores, vegetarians and vegans. In this cross-sectional analysis, higher nut consumption was associated with lower body weight (difference between highest and lowest consumption categories from adjusted model: 6.1 kg; 95% CI: 4.7, 7.6) body mass index (BMI, 2.4 units difference; 95% CI: 1.9, 2.9), and waist circumference (2.6 cm difference; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.8) (all p for linear trend < 0.001). Higher nut consumption was also associated with reduced prevalence of high cholesterol and high blood pressure; having a history of heart attack, diabetes and gallstones; and markers of diet quality (all adjusted p for linear trend ≤ 0.011). Higher nut consumption appeared overall to be associated with greater benefits amongst omnivores compared to vegetarians and vegans. Findings support existing literature around beneficial effects of nut consumption and suggest that benefits may be larger among omnivores. Nut promotion strategies may have the highest population impact by specifically targeting this group.

  6. Associations between Nut Consumption and Health Vary between Omnivores, Vegetarians, and Vegans

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rachel C.; Tey, Siew Ling; Chisholm, Alexandra; Burley, Victoria; Cade, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced risk factors for chronic disease; however, most population-based studies lack consideration of effect modification by dietary pattern. The UK Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS) provides an ideal opportunity to examine relationships between nut consumption and chronic disease risk factors in a large sample with diverse dietary patterns. Nut and nutrient intake from 34,831 women was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among self-identified omnivores, vegetarians and vegans. In this cross-sectional analysis, higher nut consumption was associated with lower body weight (difference between highest and lowest consumption categories from adjusted model: 6.1 kg; 95% CI: 4.7, 7.6) body mass index (BMI, 2.4 units difference; 95% CI: 1.9, 2.9), and waist circumference (2.6 cm difference; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.8) (all p for linear trend < 0.001). Higher nut consumption was also associated with reduced prevalence of high cholesterol and high blood pressure; having a history of heart attack, diabetes and gallstones; and markers of diet quality (all adjusted p for linear trend ≤ 0.011). Higher nut consumption appeared overall to be associated with greater benefits amongst omnivores compared to vegetarians and vegans. Findings support existing literature around beneficial effects of nut consumption and suggest that benefits may be larger among omnivores. Nut promotion strategies may have the highest population impact by specifically targeting this group. PMID:29113145

  7. Influence of roasting conditions on health-related compounds in different nuts.

    PubMed

    Schlörmann, W; Birringer, M; Böhm, V; Löber, K; Jahreis, G; Lorkowski, S; Müller, A K; Schöne, F; Glei, M

    2015-08-01

    Due to their health-beneficial ingredients the consumption of nuts can contribute to a healthy diet. The composition of hazelnuts, almonds, macadamia nuts, pistachios and walnuts regarding health-promoting and potentially harmful compounds was examined before and after roasting under different time and temperature conditions. Fatty acid compositions were not affected by roasting. Malondialdehyde increased with higher roasting temperatures (17-fold in walnuts). Levels of tocopherol isomers were reduced after roasting (α-T: 38%, β-T: 40%, γ-T: 70%) and hydrophilic antioxidant capacity decreased significantly in hazelnuts (1.4-fold), macadamia nuts (1.7-fold) and walnuts (3.7-fold). Increasing roasting temperatures supported the formation of significant amounts of acrylamide only in almonds (1220 μg kg(-1)). In general, nuts roasted at low/middle temperatures (120-160°C) exhibited best sensory properties. Therefore, desired sensory quality along with a favourable healthy nut composition may be achieved by roasting over a low to medium temperature range. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oecophylla longinoda (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Lead to Increased Cashew Kernel Size and Kernel Quality.

    PubMed

    Anato, F M; Sinzogan, A A C; Offenberg, J; Adandonon, A; Wargui, R B; Deguenon, J M; Ayelo, P M; Vayssières, J-F; Kossou, D K

    2017-06-01

    Weaver ants, Oecophylla spp., are known to positively affect cashew, Anacardium occidentale L., raw nut yield, but their effects on the kernels have not been reported. We compared nut size and the proportion of marketable kernels between raw nuts collected from trees with and without ants. Raw nuts collected from trees with weaver ants were 2.9% larger than nuts from control trees (i.e., without weaver ants), leading to 14% higher proportion of marketable kernels. On trees with ants, the kernel: raw nut ratio from nuts damaged by formic acid was 4.8% lower compared with nondamaged nuts from the same trees. Weaver ants provided three benefits to cashew production by increasing yields, yielding larger nuts, and by producing greater proportions of marketable kernel mass. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 45

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars is published in HortScience every one to two years and provides information on most new scion and rootstock cultivars of fruits and nuts that have not been previously provided in this format. New citrus cultivars have not been included since the list publ...

  10. Wild bearded capuchins process cashew nuts without contacting caustic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sirianni, Giulia; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2013-04-01

    Complex and flexible food processing was a key element for the evolutionary success of hominins, enlarging the range of exploitable foods while enabling occupation of new habitats. Only a few primate species crack open encased food by using percussive tools and/or avoid physical contact with irritant compounds by removing the structures containing them. We describe, for the first time, how a population of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) accesses the nutritious kernel of cashew nuts avoiding the caustic chemicals protecting it. Two processing strategies, namely rubbing/piercing and stone tool use, are used according to maturity of the nuts. The frequency of cashew nuts processing increases with capuchin age, and the same set of processing strategies appears to be absent in other capuchin populations, making cashew nuts processing an excellent candidate for social transmission. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Machine vision system for automated detection of stained pistachio nuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Tom C.

    1995-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to separate stained pistachio nuts, which comprise of about 5% of the California crop, from unstained nuts. The system may be used to reduce labor involved with manual grading or to remove aflatoxin contaminated product from low grade process streams. The system was tested on two different pistachio process streams: the bi- chromatic color sorter reject stream and the small nut shelling stock stream. The system had a minimum overall error rate of 14% for the bi-chromatic sorter reject stream and 15% for the small shelling stock stream.

  12. Effect of chewing betel nut (Areca catechu) on salivary cortisol measurement.

    PubMed

    Konečná, Martina; Urlacher, Samuel S

    2015-09-01

    Cultural practices may compromise the accuracy of salivary hormone measurements and must be considered when designing human biology research protocols. This study aims to evaluate the acute effect of one common human practice-chewing betel nut-on the measurement of salivary cortisol levels under field conditions. Data were collected from 17 adult habitual betel nut users (males = 11; females = 6; mean age = 32.8 years) from a small rural community in Papua New Guinea. Saliva was collected in time series from each participant before and at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 min after chewing betel nut. Samples were analyzed by radioimmunoassay and cortisol levels were compared across time using linear mixed effects modeling. Measured mean cortisol concentration fell nearly 40% immediately following betel nut use and remained significantly below baseline levels for the following 45 min (all P < 0.05). Cortisol concentrations measured at 60 min and 75 min were indistinguishable from baseline levels (all P > 0.16). Chewing betel nut is associated with a transient but significant reduction in measured levels of salivary cortisol. Future research must take this into account in populations where betel nut use is prevalent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Escherichia coli Field Contamination of Pecan Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Karen A.; Amling, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    More pecan samples collected from grazed orchards were contaminated with Escherichia coli than were samples from nongrazed orchards. No differences in frequency of contamination between mechanically and manually harvested nuts occurred. Nutmeats from whole uncracked pecans that were soaked for 24 h in a lactose broth solution containing E. coli did not become contaminated. Twentyfour percent of the whole pecans soaked in water for 48 h to simulate standing in a rain puddle developed openings along shell suture lines which did not completely close when the nuts were redried. PMID:4584575

  14. NUT Midline Carcinoma of the Nasal Cavity.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Mia; Caruso, Andria M; Kim, Esther; Foss, Robert D

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated form of squamous cell carcinoma caused by a chromosomal rearrangement of the NUT gene on chromosome 15. These tumors have a predilection for midline and paramidline structures of the upper aerodigestive tract and mediastinum and can affect patients across a broad age range, including children. In the current example, a 53 year old male presented with a mass originating in the left nasal cavity. The clinical, radiographic, and morphologic features of NMC are discussed.

  15. Development of Anti-Loosening Performance of Hyper Lock Nut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Shuji; Migita, Hiroaki; Kataoka, Mitumasa; Nakasaki, Nobuyuki; Murano, Kohshi

    Bolted joints are widely used in mechanical structures as they allow easy disassembly for maintenance without high cost. However, vibration-induced loosening due to dynamic loading remains a long-unresolved issue. We have developed a new type of nut named the hyper lock nut (HLN) that offers anti-loosening performance without a complicated tightening process and tools. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of joints bolted with the HLN, and tightening behavior was analyzed using the three-dimensional finite element method. The analytical results were compared with the experimental results for the HLN, and close qualitative agreement was observed between the two with respect to displacement, tightening force and tightening torque. We found a number of new aspects and plus points for joints bolted with the HLN in comparison to those fastened with JIS standard nuts. It was found that the tightening torque of the HLN is higher than that of JIS standard nuts, and that satisfactory anti-loosening performance can be realized through the thread contact force at the slit region and the angular face of the bearing surface.

  16. Prevalence and factors associated with the consumption of betel-nut among military conscripts in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Chu, Nain-Feng; Wu, Der-Min; Shen, Mu-Han

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluates the prevalence of betel-nut chewing among military personnel stationed on Taiwan's offshore islands. Furthermore, this study examines variables to identify which may predict a greater predilection toward betel-nut chewing among the conscript population studied. A cross-sectional mass screening was conducted of compulsory military service personnel stationed on Taiwan's offshore islands between August 1 and December 31, 2001. A total of 7574 military employees were included in this survey. Information regarding betel-nut chewing habits were ascertained using a standard structured questionnaire, which including the level and duration of betel-nut chewing as well as respondents' knowledge, attitude and practices with regard to consumption of this product. Conscripts were found to be less likely to chew betel-nut regularly while performing military service. There are 1535 (20.3%) of respondents reporting to habitually chew betel-nut prior to active duty shrank to 1048 (13.8%) after going on active-duty. The most reasons to chew betel-nut among the recruits after military services are curiosity (33.3%) and as a stimulant (29.8%). About 46% of military employees who currently chew betel-nut report an interest to quit in the future. The risk factors for betel-nut chewing include individual factors (e.g., age, education, knowledge, and attitude toward betel-nut chewing), lifestyle habits (e.g., cigarette smoking), and familial factors (e.g., consumption of betel-nut by parents). More interesting, the recruits had the habit of cigarette smoking associated with increase risk for betel-nut chewing (OR: 7.18; 95% CI: 5.66-9.20). Although the military has made considerable progress in reducing betel-nut chewing on military campuses, the prevalence of betel-nut chewing is still relatively high and, in 2001, affected about one quarter of all military personnel stationed on the abovementioned offshore islands. In future efforts to lower betel-nut consumption

  17. Pine nut use in the Early Holocene and beyond: The danger cave archaeobotanical record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    Nuts of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) from Early Holocene strata in Danger Cave, Utah, are distinguishable by seed-coat sculpturing from pine nuts of single-needled pinyon (Pinus monophylla), which occur in strata dating <7000 years BP. Owls and other taphonomic agents may deposit pine nuts in archaeological sites, but the morphology of the pine nuts in Danger Cave strongly indicate they were deposited by human foragers who brought small quantities with them for food for at least the last 7500 years. Large-scale transport of pine nuts to Danger Cave from distant hinterlands is unlikely, however. The seamless transition from limber pine to pinyon pine nuts in the Danger Cave record suggests that foragers who had utilized limber pine as a food resource easily switched to using pinyon pine nuts when pinyon pine migrated into the region at the close of the Early Holocene.

  18. Nutrition attributes and health effects of pistachio nuts.

    PubMed

    Bulló, M; Juanola-Falgarona, M; Hernández-Alonso, P; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological and/or clinical trials have suggested that nut consumption has a beneficial impact on health outcomes such as hypertension, diabetes, CVD, cancer, other inflammatory conditions and total mortality. Nuts are nutrient-dense foods with a healthy fatty acid profile, as well as provide other bioactive compounds with recognised health benefits. Among nuts, pistachios have a lower fat and energy content and the highest levels of K, γ-tocopherol, vitamin K, phytosterols, xanthophyll carotenoids, certain minerals (Cu, Fe and Mg), vitamin B₆ and thiamin. Pistachios have a high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. The aforementioned characteristics and nutrient mix probably contribute to the growing body of evidence that consumption of pistachios improves health. The present review examines the potential health effects of nutrients and phytochemicals in pistachios, as well as epidemiological and clinical evidence supporting these health benefits.

  19. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the equipment can be used for both foods and leads to "cross-contamination." That's the same thing that happens in your own house if someone spreads peanut butter on a sandwich and dips that same knife ... to nuts also have to avoid foods with these statements on the label. Some of ...

  20. Molecular performance of commercial MTG variety oil palm based on RAPD markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, L. A. P.; Setyo, I. E.; Basyuni, M.; Bayu, E. S.; Setiado, H.; Reynaldi, N. F.; Laia, H.; Puteri, S. A. K.; Arifiyanto, D.; Syahputra, I.

    2018-02-01

    The oil palm, an economically important tree in Indonesia, has been one of the world’s major sources of edible oil and a significant precursor of biodiesel fuel. This research is conducted by taking individual tree sample of commercial MTG variety germplasm oil palm one years old. The purpose of this research is to analyse molecular performance of some oil palm MTG variety based on RAPD markers. In this experiment, the DNA profile diversity was assessed using markers of oil palm’s random RAPD markers (OPD-20, SB-19, OPM-01 and OPO-11). A total of 15 trees commercial MTG oil palm variety were used for analysis. The results of the experiment indicated out of 4 RAPD markers (OPD-20, SB-19, OPM-01 and OPO-11) showed polymorphic of PCR product. These preliminary results demonstrated RAPD marker can be used to evaluate genetic relatedness among trees of commercial MTG variety oil palm and detecting either genetic variants or mislabelled.

  1. In vitro fermented nuts exhibit chemopreventive effects in HT29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lux, Stefanie; Scharlau, Daniel; Schlörmann, Wiebke; Birringer, Marc; Glei, Michael

    2012-10-01

    It is proven that nuts contain essential macro- and micronutrients, e.g. fatty acids, vitamins and dietary fibre (DF). Fermentation of DF by the gut microflora results in the formation of SCFA which are recognised for their chemopreventive potential, especially by influencing cell growth. However, little is known about cellular response to complex fermentation samples of nuts. Therefore, we prepared and analysed (pH, SCFA, bile acids, tocopherol, antioxidant capacity) fermentation supernatant (fs) fractions of nuts (almonds, macadamias, hazelnuts, pistachios, walnuts) after in vitro fermentation and determined their effects on growth of HT29 cells as well as their genotoxic/anti-genotoxic potential. The fermented nut samples contained 2- to 3-fold higher amounts of SCFA than the faeces control, but considerable reduced levels of bile acids. While most of the investigated native nuts comprised relatively high amounts of tocopherol (α-tocopherol in almonds and hazelnuts and γ- and δ-tocopherol in pistachios and walnuts), rather low concentrations were found in the fs. All nut extracts and nut fs showed a strong antioxidant potential. Furthermore, all fs, except the fs pistachio, reduced growth of HT29 cells significantly. DNA damage induced by H₂O₂ was significantly reduced by the fs of walnuts after 15 min co-incubation of HT29 cells. In conclusion, this is the first study which presents the chemopreventive effects (reduction of tumour-promoting desoxycholic acid, rise in chemopreventive SCFA, protection against oxidative stress) of different nuts after in vitro digestion and fermentation, and shows the potential importance of nuts in the prevention of colon cancer.

  2. Estimating primary productivity of tropical oil palm in Malaysia using remote sensing technique and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Tan, K. P.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    The amount of carbon sequestration by vegetation can be estimated using vegetation productivity. At present, there is a knowledge gap in oil palm net primary productivity (NPP) at a regional scale. Therefore, in this study NPP of oil palm trees in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated using remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) model with inputs from local meteorological data, upscaled leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/fPAR) derived using UK-DMC 2 satellite data and a constant maximum LUE value from the literature. NPP values estimated from the model was then compared and validated with NPP estimated using allometric equations developed by Corley and Tinker (2003), Henson (2003) and Syahrinudin (2005) with diameter at breast height, age and the height of the oil palm trees collected from three estates in Peninsular Malaysia. Results of this study show that oil palm NPP derived using a light use efficiency model increases with respect to the age of oil palm trees, and it stabilises after ten years old. The mean value of oil palm NPP at 118 plots as derived using the LUE model is 968.72 g C m-2 year-1 and this is 188% - 273% higher than the NPP derived from the allometric equations. The estimated oil palm NPP of young oil palm trees is lower compared to mature oil palm trees (<10 years old), as young oil palm trees contribute to lower oil palm LAI and therefore fPAR, which is an important variable in the LUE model. In contrast, it is noted that oil palm NPP decreases with respect to the age of oil palm trees as estimated using the allomeric equations. It was found in this study that LUE models could not capture NPP variation of oil palm trees if LAI/fPAR is used. On the other hand, tree height and DBH are found to be important variables that can capture changes in oil palm NPP as a function of age.

  3. 76 FR 4201 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Insurance Regulations, Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance... pertinent, related to the insurance of macadamia nuts. DATES: Effective Date: January 25, 2011. FOR FURTHER... Nut Crop Insurance Provisions to specify the correct crop year to which it was applicable. It was...

  4. Growth of four tropical tree species in petroleum-contaminated soil and effects of crude oil contamination.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, I; Ochoa-Gaona, S; Adams, R H; Rivera-Cruz, M C; Pérez-Hernández, V; Jarquín-Sánchez, A; Geissen, V; Martínez-Zurimendi, P

    2017-01-01

    Under greenhouse conditions, we evaluated establishment of four tree species and their capacity to degrade crude oil recently incorporated into the soil; the species were as follows: Cedrela odorata (tropical cedar), Haematoxylum campechianum (tinto bush), Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany), and Tabebuia rosea (macuilis). Three-month-old plants were planted in soil with three treatments of heavy petroleum and a control (C0 0 mg kg -1 ; C1 18,000 mg kg -1 ; C2 31,700 mg kg -1 ; C3 47,100 mg kg -1 ) with four repetitions per treatment and species; the experiment was carried out for 245 days. Height and biomass of all species significantly diminished as petroleum concentration increased, although plant survival was not affected. The quantity of colony-forming units (CFU) of rhizospheric bacteria varied among tree species and treatments; petroleum stimulated bacterial CFU for S. macrophylla. The number of fungi CFU for S. macrophylla and T. rosea was significantly greater in C0 than in soil with petroleum, but among species and among different concentrations, no significant differences were found. The greatest percentage of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation was found in C1 for soil without plants (45 %). Differences from the remaining treatments (petroleum concentrations in soil and plant species) were not significant (P < 0.05). Among all trees, H. campechianum had the greatest TPH degradation (32.5 % in C2). T. rosea (C1) and H. campechianum (C2) resulted in petroleum degradation at levels ranging from 20.5 to 32.5 %. On the basis of this experiment, the tree species used did not improve TPH degradation. However, all of them showed high rates of survival and vigor. So, as tree species provide goods and services, experiments with inoculation of hydrocarbonclastic microorganisms, addition of fertilizers, and mixture of tree and grasses are recommended.

  5. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Q.; Phan, T. D.; Thieu, V. Q. Q.; Tran, S. T.; Do, S. H.

    2012-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  6. Decontamination of nuts and spices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The social and economic impacts of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and food recalls connected to consumption of microbiologically contaminated nuts, spices or their products have become important food safety concerns. Initiatives have been undertaken by regulatory and public health agencies, indust...

  7. Effects of betel nut on cardiovascular risk factors in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz; Mehboobali, Naseema; Haider, Ghulam; Pervez, Shahid; Azam, Iqbal

    2012-10-24

    Areca nut (commonly known as betel nut) chewing has been shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism by which betel nut ingestion could lead to development of CVD is not precisely known; however, dyslipidemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and inflammation could be some of the potential risk factors. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of two dosages of betel nut on homocysteinemia, inflammation and some of the components of metabolic syndrome, such as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol, obesity and fasting hyperglycemia in a rat model. Thirty-six adult female Sprague Dawley rats, aged 10-12 weeks were divided into three equal groups. Group-1 served as the control group (n = 12) and received water, whereas groups 2 and 3 were given water suspension of betel nut orally in two dosages, 30 mg and 60 mg, respectively for a period of 5 weeks. At the end of the fifth week, the animals were weighed and sacrificed, blood was collected and liver, kidney, spleen and stomach were removed for histological examination.Plasma/serum was analyzed for glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) - a marker of inflammation. When the mean concentration values of 3 groups were compared using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD-test, there was a significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol (p = 0.04) in the group receiving 30 mg/day betel nut compared to the control group. However, administration of a higher dose of betel nut (60 mg/day) had no significant effect on the serum concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and NAG. Histological examination of spleen revealed a dose-dependent extramedullary hematopoiesis. No other remarkable change in the tissues (liver, kidney and stomach) was observed.Mean serum/plasma levels of folate

  8. Gas gangrene and osteomyelitis of the foot in a diabetic patient treated with tea tree oil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic foot wounds represent a class of chronic non-healing wounds that can lead to the development of soft tissue infections and osteomyelitis. We reviewed the case of a 44-year-old female with a diabetic foot wound who developed gas gangrene while treating her wound with tea tree oil, a naturally derived antibiotic agent. This case report includes images that represent clinical examination and x-ray findings of a patient who required broad-spectrum antibiotics and emergent surgical consultation. Emergency Department (ED) detection of these complications may prevent loss of life or limb in these patients. PMID:21559069

  9. Multicentre Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Food Challenge Study in Children Sensitised to Cashew Nut.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, Johanna P M; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Dubois, Anthony E J; de Groot, Hans; Reitsma, Marit; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wichers, Harry J; de Jong, Nicolette W

    2016-01-01

    Few studies with a limited number of patients have provided indications that cashew-allergic patients may experience severe allergic reactions to minimal amounts of cashew nut. The objectives of this multicentre study were to assess the clinical relevance of cashew nut sensitisation, to study the clinical reaction patterns in double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge tests and to establish the amount of cashew nuts that can elicit an allergic reaction. A total of 179 children were included (median age 9.0 years; range 2-17 years) with cashew nut sensitisation and a clinical history of reactions to cashew nuts or unknown exposure. Sensitised children who could tolerate cashew nuts were excluded. The study included three clinical visits and a telephone consultation. During the first visit, the medical history was evaluated, physical examinations were conducted, blood samples were drawn and skin prick tests were performed. The children underwent a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test with cashew nut during the second and third visits. The study showed that 137 (76.5%) of the sensitised children suspected of allergy to cashew nut had a positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test, with 46% (63) manifesting subjective symptoms to the lowest dose of 1 mg cashew nut protein and 11% (15) developing objective symptoms to the lowest dose. Children most frequently had gastro-intestinal symptoms, followed by oral allergy and skin symptoms. A total of 36% (49/137) of the children experienced an anaphylactic reaction and 6% (8/137) of the children were treated with epinephrine. This prospective study demonstrated a strikingly high percentage of clinical reactions to cashew nut in this third line population. Severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis requiring epinephrine, were observed. These reactions were to minimal amounts of cashew nut, demonstrated the high potency of this allergens. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed NTR3572.

  10. Sea transport of animal and vegetable oils and its environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Bucas, Gwenaelle; Saliot, Alain

    2002-12-01

    The increasing production-and therefore sea traffic--of vegetable oils has regularly led to spillages during the past 40 years. The accident of Allegra, on October,lst, 1997, in the English Channel gave rise to a spillage of 900 tonnes of palm nut oil. The drift of this solid vegetable oil was followed by aerial observations. Samples of oil were collected in order to analyse its chemical evolution. This study, associated with several bibliographic cases of pollution by non-petroleum oils, shows that drifting oils can mix with floating material to sink or form a crust. They can also be oxidized or disperse and/or be degraded by bacteria. They may also polymerise. The coating properties of vegetable oils act as crude oils to affect sea life, tourism and yachting. As a result, it is necessary to quickly collect the oil after a spillage, using usual equipment (booms and pumps).

  11. Thermogravimetric characterization and gasification of pecan nut shells.

    PubMed

    Aldana, Hugo; Lozano, Francisco J; Acevedo, Joaquín; Mendoza, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on the evaluation of pecan nut shells as an alternative source of energy through pyrolysis and gasification. The physicochemical characteristics of the selected biomass that can influence the process efficiency, consumption rates, and the product yield, as well as create operational problems, were determined. In addition, the thermal decomposition kinetics necessary for prediction of consumption rates and yields were determined. Finally, the performance of a downdraft gasifier fed with pecan nut shells was analyzed in terms of process efficiency and exit gas characteristics. It was found that the pyrolytic decomposition of the nut shells can be modeled adequately using a single equation considering two independent parallel reactions. The performance of the gasification process can be influenced by the particle size and air flow rate, requiring a proper combination of these parameters for reliable operation and production of a valuable syngas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Breeding better cultivars, faster: applications of new technologies for the rapid deployment of superior horticultural tree crops

    PubMed Central

    van Nocker, Steve; Gardiner, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Woody perennial plants, including trees that produce fruits and nuts of horticultural value, typically have long breeding cycles, and development and introduction of improved cultivars by plant breeders may require many breeding cycles and dozens of years. However, recent advances in biotechnologies and genomics have the potential to accelerate cultivar development greatly in all crops. This mini-review summarizes approaches to reduce the number and the duration of breeding cycles for horticultural tree crops, and outlines the challenges that remain to implement these into efficient breeding pipelines. PMID:26504538

  13. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS INFLUENCING BETEL NUT CHEWING AMONG ADULTS IN WEST INSEIN TOWNSHIP, YANGON, MYANMAR.

    PubMed

    Myint, Su Kyaw; Narksawat, Kulaya; Sillabutra, Jutatip

    2016-09-01

    Betel nut chewing can cause precancerous oral lesions and is common in Myanmar. We conducted a cross sectional study aimed to estimate prevalence and factors influencing betel nut chewing among 420 subjects aged ≥18 years in West Insein Township, Yangon, Myanmar in order to inform preventive health programs. The mean age of the study subjects was 45(±15) years. The overall prevalence of current betel nut chewing among study subjects was 55.2%. The mean age starting betel nut chewing was 29(±13) years, and the mean duration of chewing was 15(±13) years. The reasons given by study subjects for chewing betel nut included the addictive effect to betel nut, to release tension, to get rid of boredom and to stop smoking. Sixty-two point three percent of current betel nut chewers also chewed tobacco and 24.2% also smoked cigarettes. Factors significantly associated with betel nut chewing were male gender, current alcohol consumer, having no education or finishing primary or secondary school, having a low score regarding their attitude about the health effects of betel nut chewing, and having high score on interpersonal factors by family and peer pressure. Our results show a need to better educate the public about the health effects of betel nut chewing among the study population.

  14. 40 CFR 180.298 - Methidathion; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Nut, tree, group 14 0.05 Olive 0.05 Safflower, seed 0.5 Sorghum, forage, forage 2.0 Sorghum, grain, forage 2.0 Sorghum, grain, grain 0.2 Sorghum, grain, stover 2.0 Sunflower, seed 0.5 Tangerine 6.0 (b... million Almond, hulls 6.0 Artichoke, globe 0.05 Citrus, oil 420.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.2 Fruit...

  15. 40 CFR 180.298 - Methidathion; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Nut, tree, group 14 0.05 Olive 0.05 Safflower, seed 0.5 Sorghum, forage, forage 2.0 Sorghum, grain, forage 2.0 Sorghum, grain, grain 0.2 Sorghum, grain, stover 2.0 Sunflower, seed 0.5 Tangerine 6.0 (b... million Almond, hulls 6.0 Artichoke, globe 0.05 Citrus, oil 420.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.2 Fruit...

  16. Cashew Nut Positioning during Stone Tool Use by Wild Bearded Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus).

    PubMed

    Falótico, Tiago; Luncz, Lydia V; Svensson, Magdalena S; Haslam, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Wild capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) at Serra da Capivara National Park, Brazil, regularly use stone tools to break open cashew nuts (Anacardium spp.). Here we examine 2 approaches used by the capuchins to position the kidney-shaped cashew nuts on an anvil before striking with a stone tool. Lateral positioning involves placing the nut on its flatter, more stable side, therefore requiring less attention from the monkey during placement. However, the less stable and never previously described arched position, in which the nut is balanced with its curved side uppermost, requires less force to crack the outer shell. We observed cashew nut cracking in a field experimental setting. Only 6 of 20 adults, of both sexes, were observed to deliberately place cashew nuts in an arched position, which may indicate that the technique requires time and experience to learn. We also found that use of the arched position with dry nuts, but not fresh, required, in 63% of the time, an initial processing to remove one of the cashew nut lobes, creating a more stable base for the arch. This relatively rare behaviour appears to have a complex ontogeny, but further studies are required to establish the extent to which social learning is involved. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Nut consumption, lipids, and risk of a coronary event.

    PubMed

    Fraser, G E

    1999-07-01

    In the past, many have avoided nuts because of their high fat content. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, however, recommends regular consumption of this food along with seeds and dried beans (4-5 servings per week) as part of a diet to control hypertension. Nuts are nutrient-dense and most of their fat is unsaturated. They are also perhaps the best natural source of vitamin E and are relatively concentrated repositories of dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, and arginine, the dietary precursor of nitric oxide. Human feeding studies have demonstrated reductions of 8-12% in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol when almonds and walnuts are substituted for more traditional fats. Other studies show that macadamias and hazelnuts appear at least as beneficial as fats in commonly recommended diets. Whether consuming modest quantities of nuts daily may promote weight gain is not known with certainty, but preliminary data suggest that this is unlikely. Four of the best and largest cohort studies in nutritional epidemiology have now reported that eating nuts frequently is associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease of the order of 30-50%. The findings are very consistent in subgroup analyses and unlikely to be due to confounding. Possible mechanisms include reduction in LDL cholesterol, the antioxidant actions of vitamin E, and the effects on the endothelium and platelet function of higher levels of nitric oxide. Although nuts may account for a relatively small percentage of dietary calories, the potential interacting effects of these factors on disease risk may be considerable.

  18. Polyphenol bioavailability in nuts and seeds by an in vitro dialyzability approach.

    PubMed

    Herbello-Hermelo, Paloma; Lamas, Juan Pablo; Lores, Marta; Domínguez-González, Raquel; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2018-07-15

    An in vitro dialyzability approach has been undertaken to elucidate the bioavailable fraction of the total polyphenols (TPs) of edible nuts and seeds. The TP contents in samples and in dialyzates were assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method. Antioxidant activity was determined in selected samples, using a modified method against Trolox®. TPs and antioxidant activity in nuts/seeds were determined after applying a pressurized liquid extraction sample pre-treatment. High dialyzability ratios were assessed in most nuts/seeds (TP dialyzability percentages within the 25-91% range). The highest TP dialyzability ratios were found in raw Brazil nuts (81 ± 5%), toasted pistachios (88 ± 9%), and fried cashews (89 ± 9%), whereas TPs in pumpkin seeds were found to be very low (TPs were not detected in the dialyzable fraction). TP dialyzability was correlated with the copper content in nuts and seeds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Do dry roasting, lightly salting nuts affect their cardioprotective properties and acceptability?

    PubMed

    Tey, Siew Ling; Robinson, Terryn; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra W; Brown, Rachel Clare

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have reported improvements in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors with the consumption of raw nuts. However, around one-third of nuts consumed are roasted and salted. Thus, it is important to determine whether roasting and salting nuts affect the health benefits observed with raw nuts. This study aimed to compare the effects of consuming two different forms of hazelnuts on cardiovascular risk factors and acceptance. Using a randomised crossover design, 72 participants were asked to consume 30 g/day of either raw or dry roasted, lightly salted hazelnuts for 28 days each. CVD risk factors were measured at the beginning and end of each treatment period. "Desire to consume" and "overall liking" for both forms of hazelnuts were assessed daily using a 150-mm visual analogue scale. Body composition, blood pressure, plasma total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 and B100, glucose and α-tocopherol concentrations did not differ between forms of hazelnuts (all P ≥ 0.054). High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (P = 0.037) and triacylglycerol (P < 0.001) concentrations were significantly lower following the consumption of dry roasted, lightly salted hazelnuts when compared to the raw hazelnuts. Compared with baseline, consuming both forms of hazelnuts significantly improved HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations, total-C/HDL-C ratio, and systolic blood pressure without significantly changing body composition. Acceptance ratings did not differ between forms of hazelnuts and remained high throughout the study. Dry roasting and lightly salting nuts do not appear to negate the cardioprotective effects observed with raw nut consumption, and both forms of nuts are resistant to monotony. Public health messages could be extended to include dry roasted and lightly salted nuts as part of a heart healthy diet.

  20. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 46. Rambutan.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 46 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, 8 newly released rambutan cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. Of the eight described cultivars, one ...

  1. Suitable pitch difference to realize anti-loosening performance for various bolts-nuts diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, S.; Tateishi, K.; Noda, N.-A.; Sano, Y.; Takase, Y.; Honda, K.

    2018-06-01

    In bolt-nut connection, the anti-loosening performance and high fatigue strength are always required with low cost to ensure the connected structure’s safety. In the previous study, a suitable pitch difference between the bolt-nut was obtained as α = 33 μm for M16 JIS bolt- nut through loosening experiment and FEM simulation for tightening process. However, other bolt-nut diameters have not been considered yet. In this paper, therefore, suitable pitch difference is considered for various diameters to realize anti-loosening performance. Since bolt-nut thread geometries are different depending on the diameter, they are expressed as approximate formula. Then, loosening force and anti-loosening force are considered by varying the diameter. Finally, suitable pitch difference {α }minsuit< α < {α }maxsuit was determined from mechanical condition.

  2. Rootstock Effects on Pistachio Trees Grown in Verticillium dahliae-Infested Soil.

    PubMed

    Epstein, L; Beede, R; Kaur, S; Ferguson, L

    2004-04-01

    ABSTRACT In a field trial in soil infested with Verticillium dahliae, we compared the yield, growth, incidence of symptoms of Verticillium wilt, and mortality of two interspecific hybrid pistachio tree rootstocks (UCBI and PGII) with the standard rootstocks: the V. dahliae-resistant and susceptible Pistacia integerrima and P. atlantica, respectively. After 10 years, the trees were destructively sampled for V. dahliae in the xylem at the graft union. The results indicate that trees on the (P. atlantica 'KAC' x P. integerrima) hybrid UCBI rootstock grew and yielded as well as those on P. integerrima. Trees on the hybrid PGII yielded the least. Analysis of variance and log-linear models indicate that in soil infested with V. dahliae, three associations significantly affect pistachio nut yield. Rootstock affects scion vigor and extent of infection. Third, the extent of infection and scion vigor are inversely associated. Although trees on the P. integerrima rootstock had the highest ratings in a visual assessment of vigor, 65% were infected with V. dahliae in the trunk in the graft region compared with 73% in P. atlantica and 25% in UCBI. Thus, P. integerrima and UCBI have at least one different mechanism for resistance to V. dahliae.

  3. Effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chuan-Yi; Young, Yi-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system. Seventeen healthy volunteers without any experience of chewing betel nut (fresh chewers) and 17 habitual chewers underwent vital sign measurements, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests prior to the study. Each subject then chewed two pieces of betel nut for 2min (dosing). The same paradigm was repeated immediately, 10min, and 20min after chewing. On a different day, 10 fresh chewers masticated chewing gum as control. Fresh chewers exhibited significantly decreased response rates of oVEMP (53%) and cVEMP (71%) after dosing compared with those from the predosing period. These abnormal VEMPs returned to normal 20min after dosing. In contrast, 100% response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were observed before and after masticating chewing gum. In habitual chewers, the response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were 32% and 29%, respectively, 20min after dosing. Chewing betel nuts induced a transient loss of the otolithic reflexes in fresh chewers but may cause permanent loss in habitual chewers. Chewing betel nuts can cause a loss of otholitic reflex function. This creates a risk for disturbed balance and malfunction, for instance, during driving. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Defining a global research and policy agenda for betel quid and areca nut.

    PubMed

    Mehrtash, Hedieh; Duncan, Kalina; Parascandola, Mark; David, Annette; Gritz, Ellen R; Gupta, Prakash C; Mehrotra, Ravi; Amer Nordin, Amer Siddiq; Pearlman, Paul C; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Wen, Chi-Pang; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Trimble, Edward L

    2017-12-01

    Betel quid and areca nut are known risk factors for many oral and oesophageal cancers, and their use is highly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region. Additionally, betel quid and areca nut are associated with health effects on the cardiovascular, nervous, gastrointestinal, metabolic, respiratory, and reproductive systems. Unlike tobacco, for which the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides evidence-based policies for reducing tobacco use, no global policy exists for the control of betel quid and areca nut use. Multidisciplinary research is needed to address this neglected global public health emergency and to mobilise efforts to control betel quid and areca nut use. In addition, future research is needed to advance our understanding of the basic biology, mechanisms, and epidemiology of betel quid and areca nut use, to advance possible prevention and cessation programmes for betel quid and areca nut users, and to design evidence-based screening and early diagnosis programmes to address the growing burden of cancers that are associated with use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine digluconate alone and in combination with eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil and thymol against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Karpanen, T J; Worthington, T; Hendry, E R; Conway, B R; Lambert, P A

    2008-11-01

    Effective skin antisepsis and disinfection of medical devices are key factors in preventing many healthcare-acquired infections associated with skin microorganisms, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG), a widely used antiseptic in clinical practice, alone and in combination with tea tree oil (TTO), eucalyptus oil (EO) and thymol against planktonic and biofilm cultures of S. epidermidis. Antimicrobial susceptibility assays against S. epidermidis in a suspension and in a biofilm mode of growth were performed with broth microdilution and ATP bioluminescence methods, respectively. Synergy of antimicrobial agents was evaluated with the chequerboard method. CHG exhibited antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis in both suspension and biofilm (MIC 2-8 mg/L). Of the essential oils thymol exhibited the greatest antimicrobial efficacy (0.5-4 g/L) against S. epidermidis in suspension and biofilm followed by TTO (2-16 g/L) and EO (4-64 g/L). MICs of CHG and EO were reduced against S. epidermidis biofilm when in combination (MIC of 8 reduced to 0.25-1 mg/L and MIC of 32-64 reduced to 4 g/L for CHG and EO, respectively). Furthermore, the combination of EO with CHG demonstrated synergistic activity against S. epidermidis biofilm with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of <0.5. The results from this study suggest that there may be a role for essential oils, in particular EO, for improved skin antisepsis when combined with CHG.

  6. Effects of betel nut on cardiovascular risk factors in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Areca nut (commonly known as betel nut) chewing has been shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism by which betel nut ingestion could lead to development of CVD is not precisely known; however, dyslipidemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and inflammation could be some of the potential risk factors. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of two dosages of betel nut on homocysteinemia, inflammation and some of the components of metabolic syndrome, such as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol, obesity and fasting hyperglycemia in a rat model. Methods Thirty-six adult female Sprague Dawley rats, aged 10–12 weeks were divided into three equal groups. Group-1 served as the control group (n = 12) and received water, whereas groups 2 and 3 were given water suspension of betel nut orally in two dosages, 30 mg and 60 mg, respectively for a period of 5 weeks. At the end of the fifth week, the animals were weighed and sacrificed, blood was collected and liver, kidney, spleen and stomach were removed for histological examination. Plasma/serum was analyzed for glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) – a marker of inflammation. Results When the mean concentration values of 3 groups were compared using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s HSD-test, there was a significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol (p = 0.04) in the group receiving 30 mg/day betel nut compared to the control group. However, administration of a higher dose of betel nut (60 mg/day) had no significant effect on the serum concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and NAG. Histological examination of spleen revealed a dose-dependent extramedullary hematopoiesis. No other remarkable change in the tissues (liver, kidney and stomach) was observed. Mean

  7. A comparison of the proximate, fibre, mineral content, amino acid and the fatty acid profile of Marula (Sclerocarya birrea caffra) nut and soyabean (Glycine max) meals.

    PubMed

    Malebana, Ingrid Mm; Nkosi, Bhutikini D; Erlwanger, Kennedy H; Chivandi, Eliton

    2018-03-01

    As a result of shortages and the cost of the currently utilized conventional dietary protein sources in the Sub-Saharan Africa feed industry, the chemical evaluation of available non-conventional sources for feed is imperative. One such source is Marula nut meal (a by-product of Marula oil extraction). The present study chemically characterized the nutritional composition of two differently processed Marula nut meals (MNMs) and compared them with that of solvent extracted soyabean meal (SBM). The MNMs had higher dry matter, ether extract and gross energy but lower crude protein and ash contents compared to SBM. The cold press produced Marula nut meal (MNM2) had higher arginine than the hydraulic filter press produced Marula nut meal (MNM1) and SBM. The meals had similar neutral and acid detergent fibre contents. The MNMs had higher phosphorus, magnesium and copper concentrations than SBM. Although the total saturated fatty acid proportion was similar across the meals, total monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid proportions were higher in MNMs and SBM, respectively. Oleic acid was higher in MNMs than in SBM. The low crude protein content in MNMs compared to SBM is comparable with other conventional dietary protein sources. Thus, the MNMs could be used as protein and energy feed ingredients. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Long-term intake of nuts in relation to cognitive function in older women.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J; Okereke, O; Devore, E; Rosner, B; Breteler, M; Grodstein, F

    2014-05-01

    Nuts contain nutrients that may benefit brain health; thus, we examined long-term intake of nuts in relation to cognition in older women. Population-based prospective cohort study. Academic research using data from the Nurses' Health Study. Nut intake was assessed in a food-frequency questionnaire beginning in1980, and approximately every four years thereafter. Between 1995-2001, 16,010 women age 70 or older (mean age = 74 years) without a history of stroke were administered 4 repeated telephone-based cognitive interviews over 6 years. Our final sample included 15,467 women who completed an initial cognitive interview and had complete information on nut intake. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), a global score averaging the results of all tests (TICS, immediate and delayed verbal recall, category fluency, and attention), and a verbal memory score averaging the results of tests of verbal recall. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression models, higher long-term total nut intake was associated with better average cognitive status for all cognitive outcomes. For the global composite score combining all tests, women consuming at least 5 servings of nuts/week had higher scores than non-consumers (mean difference=0.08 standard units, 95% confidence interval 0.00-0.15; p-trend=0.003). This mean difference of 0.08 is equivalent to the mean difference we find between women 2 years apart in age. Long-term intake of nuts was not associated with rates of cognitive decline. Higher nut intake may be related to better overall cognition at older ages, and could be an easily-modifiable public health intervention.

  9. Self-reported adverse food reactions and anaphylaxis in the SchoolNuts study: A population-based study of adolescents.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, Vicki L; Koplin, Jennifer J; Field, Michael J; Sasaki, Mari; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Sawyer, Susan M; Peters, Rachel L; Allen, Katrina J

    2018-03-01

    Adolescents are at the highest risk of death from anaphylaxis, yet few population-based studies have described the frequencies and risk factors for allergic reactions caused by accidental allergen ingestion in this group. We describe the prevalence, frequency, and associated risk factors for recent adverse food reactions in 10- to 14-year-olds in Melbourne, Australia, recruited from a stratified, random, population-based sample of schools (SchoolNuts, n = 9663; 48% response rate). Self-reported food allergy and adverse reaction details, including anaphylaxis, were identified by using a student questionnaire over the past year. Of 547 students with possible IgE-mediated food allergy, 243 (44.4%; 95% CI, 40.3% to 48.7%) reported a reaction to a food. Fifty-three (9.7%; 95% CI, 7.2% to 12.2%) students reported 93 anaphylaxis episodes. Peanut and tree nuts were the most common food triggers. Among students with current IgE-mediated food allergy, those with resolved or current asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.9 [95% CI, 1.1-1.3] and 1.7 [95% CI, 1.1-2.6]) and those with more than 2 food allergies (aOR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.1-3.1]) were at greatest risk of any adverse food reaction, and those with nut allergy were most at risk of severe reactions (aOR, 2.9 [95% CI, 1.1-4.4]). Resolved or current asthma was not associated with increased risk of severe reactions (aOR, 0.8 [95% CI, 0.3-2.2] and 1.6 [95% CI, 0.7-3.7]). Adolescents with food allergy are frequently exposed to food allergens. Those with asthma and more than 2 food allergies were at the greatest risk for adverse food reactions. Those with nut allergies were most at risk of severe reactions. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  10. Multicentre Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Food Challenge Study in Children Sensitised to Cashew Nut

    PubMed Central

    van der Valk, Johanna P. M.; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Dubois, Anthony E. J.; de Groot, Hans; Reitsma, Marit; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wichers, Harry J.; de Jong, Nicolette W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies with a limited number of patients have provided indications that cashew-allergic patients may experience severe allergic reactions to minimal amounts of cashew nut. The objectives of this multicentre study were to assess the clinical relevance of cashew nut sensitisation, to study the clinical reaction patterns in double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge tests and to establish the amount of cashew nuts that can elicit an allergic reaction. Methods and Findings A total of 179 children were included (median age 9.0 years; range 2–17 years) with cashew nut sensitisation and a clinical history of reactions to cashew nuts or unknown exposure. Sensitised children who could tolerate cashew nuts were excluded. The study included three clinical visits and a telephone consultation. During the first visit, the medical history was evaluated, physical examinations were conducted, blood samples were drawn and skin prick tests were performed. The children underwent a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test with cashew nut during the second and third visits. The study showed that 137 (76.5%) of the sensitised children suspected of allergy to cashew nut had a positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test, with 46% (63) manifesting subjective symptoms to the lowest dose of 1 mg cashew nut protein and 11% (15) developing objective symptoms to the lowest dose. Children most frequently had gastro-intestinal symptoms, followed by oral allergy and skin symptoms. A total of 36% (49/137) of the children experienced an anaphylactic reaction and 6% (8/137) of the children were treated with epinephrine. Conclusion This prospective study demonstrated a strikingly high percentage of clinical reactions to cashew nut in this third line population. Severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis requiring epinephrine, were observed. These reactions were to minimal amounts of cashew nut, demonstrated the high potency of this allergens

  11. Nut consumption and total and cause-specific mortality: results from the Golestan Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Eslamparast, Tannaz; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Poustchi, Hossein; Hashemian, Maryam; Dawsey, Sanford M; Freedman, Neal D; Boffetta, Paolo; Abnet, Christian C; Etemadi, Arash; Pourshams, Akram; Malekshah, Akbar Fazeltabar; Islami, Farhad; Kamangar, Farin; Merat, Shahin; Brennan, Paul; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: A number of prospective studies have observed inverse associations between nut consumption and chronic diseases. However, these studies have predominantly been conducted in Western countries, where nut consumption tends to be more common among individuals with healthier lifestyles. It is important to examine the association in other parts of the world, and particularly among populations with different patterns of disease, socioeconomic status, lifestyles and disease risk factors. Our objective was to examine the association between nut consumption and mortality in a population whose nut consumption does not track with a healthy lifestyle. Methods: We examined the association between nut consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the 50 045 participants of the Golestan Cohort Study. Participants were aged 40 and older at baseline in 2004, and have been actively followed since that time. Dietary data were collected using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire that was administered at baseline. Results: During 349 677 person-years of follow-up, 3981 cohort participants died, including 1732 women and 2249 men. Nut consumption was associated inversely with all-cause mortality. The pooled multivariate adjusted hazard ratios for death among participants who ate nuts, as compared with those who did not, were 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82-0.95] for the consumption of less than one serving of nuts per week, 0.75 (95% CI, 0.67-0.85) for one to less than three servings per week and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.58-0.86) for three or more servings per week (P < 0.001 for trend). Among specific causes, significant inverse associations were observed between nut consumption and deaths due to cardiovascular disease, all cancers and gastrointestinal cancers. Conclusions: This study provides evidence for an inverse association between nut consumption and mortality in a developing country, where nut consumption does not track with a

  12. 76 FR 17611 - Propylene Oxide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ...: This document proposes to amend the propylene oxide tolerance on ``nut, tree, group 14'' to ``nutmeat... ``nut, tree, group 14'' to read ``nutmeat, processed, except peanuts.'' A final rule published in the... the propylene oxide tolerance by replacing ``nutmeat, processed, except peanuts'' with ``nut, tree...

  13. Molecular cloning and expression profile of ß-ketoacyl-acp synthase gene from tung tree (Vernicia fordii Hemsl.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tung tree (Vernicia fordii) is an important woody oil tree. Tung tree seeds contain 50-60% oil with approximately 80 mole a-eleostearic acid (9cis, 11trans, 13trans octadecatrienoic acid). Fatty acid synthesis is catalyzed by the concerted action of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase, a ...

  14. Metabolic profiling using direct infusion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry for the characterisation of olive oils.

    PubMed

    Goodacre, Royston; Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman; Bianchi, Giorgio; Kell, Douglas B

    2002-11-01

    There is a continuing need for improved methods for assessing the adulteration of foodstuffs. We report some highly encouraging data, where we have developed direct infusion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) together with chemometrics as a novel, rapid (1 min per sample) and powerful technique to elucidate key metabolite differences in vegetable and nut oils. Principal components analysis of these ESI-MS spectra show that the reproducibility of this approach is high and that olive oil can be discriminated from oils which are commonly used as adulterants. These adulterants include refined hazelnut oil, which is particularly challenging given its chemical similarity to olive oils.

  15. Fatigue testing of metric bolts fitted with lip-type nuts

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dragoni, E.

    This paper addresses the effect of the external shape of lip-type nuts on the fatigue strength of commercial M10 bolts loaded in tension. Evolving from the standard configuration, six nut geometries are compared, characterized by lips of different shape (cylindrical, tapered or both) and length. Testing and statistical treatment of the data are performed in accordance with a JSME standard involving 14 specimens for each geometry. Within the class of merely cylindrical lips, only limited advantages over the standard assembly are detected. In particular, the bolt strength remains mostly unaffected by lengthening of the lip beyond one third of themore » nut height. Conversely, tapering of the lip end so as to thin its wall around the entry section of the bolt results in substantial improvements. In this case, the strength increase is roughly proportional to the taper length. Adoption of a tapered lip covering two thirds of the nut height enhances the bolt strength by about one fourth with respect to the standard geometry.« less

  16. Human skin penetration of the major components of Australian tea tree oil applied in its pure form and as a 20% solution in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cross, Sheree E; Russell, Michael; Southwell, Ian; Roberts, Michael S

    2008-05-01

    The safety of topical application of Australian tea tree Oil (TTO) is confounded by a lack of transdermal penetration data, which adequately informs opinions and recommendations. In this study we applied TTO in its pure form and as a 20% solution in ethanol in vitro to human epidermal membranes from three different donors, mounted in horizontal Franz-type diffusion cells, using normal 'in use' dosing conditions (10 mg/cm2). In addition, we examined the effect of partially occluding the application site on the penetration of TTO components. Our data showed that only a small quantity of TTO components, 1.1-1.9% and 2-4% of the applied amount following application of a 20% TTO solution and pure TTO, respectively, penetrated into or through human epidermis. The largest TTO component penetrating the skin was terpinen-4-ol. Following partial occlusion of the application site, the penetration of terpinen-4-ol increased to approximately 7% of the applied TTO. Measurement of the rate of evaporation of tea tree oil from filter paper (7.4 mg/cm2) showed that 98% of the oil evaporated in 4 hours. Overall, it is apparent that the penetration of TTO components through human skin is limited.

  17. Areca nut use following migration and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Warnakulasuriya, S

    2002-01-01

    Areca nut use is widespread in the Oriental countries, affecting approximately 20% of the world's population. The combined use of areca nut and smokeless tobacco (ST) is practiced particularly in the Indo-Chinese continents. While there is considerable global variation in the use of these products, migrant studies relevant to areca nut use is of considerable interest to epidemiologists in suggesting the extent to which these environment exposures are important in the aetiology of different cancers and other health-related consequences. Studies on Indian migrants to the Malay peninsula, South and east Africa and various Asian ethnic groups resident in several parts of the United Kingdom have shown that the consumption of areca nut (often mixed with ST) is highly prevalent in these communities. Available data on the prevalence of areca chewing among these migrant populations are reviewed here. The carriage of these risk factors from South Asia to other countries has resulted in excess risk of oral cancer in these new settlements. There is also a high incidence of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and late onset diabetes among Indians living in the United Kingdom and there is new evidence to suggest that the combined roles of areca and ST may be contributory. Because of their enhanced financial situation, substance abuse may increase in their new country of domicile. The two products are psychologically addictive and a dependency syndrome related to their use among Asian immigrants to the United Kingdom has been described recently.

  18. Identification of molecular performance from oil palm clones based on SSR markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Lollie Agustina P.; Basyuni, M.; Bayu, Eva S.; Arvita, D.; Arifiyanto, D.; Syahputra, I.

    2018-03-01

    In Indonesia, the oil palms are an important economic crop, producing food and raw materials for the food, confectionary, cosmetics and oleo-chemical industrial demands of oil palm products. Clonal oil palm offers the potential for greater productivity because it is possible to establish uniform tree stands comprising identical copies (clones) of a limited number of highly productive oil palms. Unfortunately, tissue culture sometimes accentuates the expression of detects in oil palm, particularly when embryogenesis is induced in particullar callus for prolonged periods. This research is conducted by taking individual tree sample of clone germplasm two years old. The purpose of this research is to molecular performance analysis of some oil palm clones based on SSR markers. A total of 30 trees oil palm clones were used for analysis. In this experiment, the DNA profile diversity was assessed using five loci of oil palm’s specific SSR markers. The results of the experiment indicated out of 3 SSR markers (FR-0779, FR-3663 and FR-0782) showed monomorphic of PCR product and 2 SSR markers (FR-0783 and FR- 3745) showed polymorphic of PCR product. There are 10 total number of PCR product. These preliminary results demonstrated SSR marker can be used to evaluate genetic relatedness among trees of oil palm clones.

  19. 76 FR 38036 - Propylene Oxide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... regulation amends the propylene oxide tolerance on ``nut, tree, group 14'' to ``nutmeat, processed, except... propylene oxide tolerance (40 CFR 180.491) on ``nut, tree, group 14'' to read ``nutmeat, processed, except...) on ``nut, tree, group 14'' to read ``nutmeat, processed, except peanuts.'' IV. Statutory and...

  20. Circum-Arctic petroleum systems identified using decision-tree chemometrics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, K.E.; Ramos, L.S.; Zumberge, J.E.; Valin, Z.C.; Scotese, C.R.; Gautier, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Source- and age-related biomarker and isotopic data were measured for more than 1000 crude oil samples from wells and seeps collected above approximately 55??N latitude. A unique, multitiered chemometric (multivariate statistical) decision tree was created that allowed automated classification of 31 genetically distinct circumArctic oil families based on a training set of 622 oil samples. The method, which we call decision-tree chemometrics, uses principal components analysis and multiple tiers of K-nearest neighbor and SIMCA (soft independent modeling of class analogy) models to classify and assign confidence limits for newly acquired oil samples and source rock extracts. Geochemical data for each oil sample were also used to infer the age, lithology, organic matter input, depositional environment, and identity of its source rock. These results demonstrate the value of large petroleum databases where all samples were analyzed using the same procedures and instrumentation. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly-(-a-hydroxy dibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In exploring alternative vegetable oils for non-food industrial applications, especially in temperate climates, tree seed oils that are not commonly seen as competitors to soybean, peanut, and corn oils can become valuable sources of new oils. Many trees produce edible fruits and seeds while others ...

  2. B-vitamins, carotenoids and α-/γ-tocopherol in raw and roasted nuts.

    PubMed

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Schlörmann, Wiebke; Glei, Michael

    2017-04-15

    The concentrations of B-vitamins, carotenoids and tocopherols in nuts may differ between species and might be influenced by roasting. Thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and α-/γ-tocopherol were determined in different varieties of raw and roasted nuts using HPLC (fluorescence/UV-vis detection). The analysis revealed remarkable concentrations of thiamine and pyridoxine in pistachios (57%, 79% of the recommended daily intake/100g (RDI), respectively) and riboflavin in almonds (119% of the RDI). Pistachios were rich in lutein/zeaxanthin and contained highest β-carotene levels among nuts. Almonds and hazelnuts were abundant in α-tocopherol (>4-fold the RDI for tocopherol equivalents) while pistachios and walnuts were rich in γ-tocopherol. Roasting had a diminishing effect on thiamine, carotenoids and tocopherols especially in almonds and walnuts. Nuts could make a valuable contribution to a healthy diet in regard to B-vitamins, lutein/zeaxanthin and tocopherols. A reduction in micronutrient content by roasting is reliant on the nut variety and specific micronutrient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. LONG-TERM INTAKE OF NUTS IN RELATION TO COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN OLDER WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    O’BRIEN, J.; OKEREKE, O.; DEVORE, E.; ROSNER, B.; BRETELER, M.; GRODSTEIN, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nuts contain nutrients that may benefit brain health; thus, we examined long-term intake of nuts in relation to cognition in older women. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting Academic research using data from the Nurses’ Health Study. Participants Nut intake was assessed in a food-frequency questionnaire beginning in1980, and approximately every four years thereafter. Between 1995–2001, 16,010 women age 70 or older (mean age = 74 years) without a history of stroke were administered 4 repeated telephone-based cognitive interviews over 6 years. Our final sample included 15,467 women who completed an initial cognitive interview and had complete information on nut intake. Main Outcome Measures The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), a global score averaging the results of all tests (TICS, immediate and delayed verbal recall, category fluency, and attention), and a verbal memory score averaging the results of tests of verbal recall. Results In multivariable-adjusted linear regression models, higher long-term total nut intake was associated with better average cognitive status for all cognitive outcomes. For the global composite score combining all tests, women consuming at least 5 servings of nuts/week had higher scores than non-consumers (mean difference=0.08 standard units, 95% confidence interval 0.00–0.15; p-trend=0.003). This mean difference of 0.08 is equivalent to the mean difference we find between women 2 years apart in age. Long-term intake of nuts was not associated with rates of cognitive decline. Conclusions Higher nut intake may be related to better overall cognition at older ages, and could be an easily-modifiable public health intervention. PMID:24886736

  4. Chromosome-damaging activity of saliva of betel nut and tobacco chewers.

    PubMed

    Stich, H F; Stich, W

    1982-01-01

    Saliva of volunteers chewing betel quid, cured betel nut (Areca catechu), betel leaves (Piper betle), a mixture of quid ingredients (dried betel nut flakes, catechu, cardamon, lime, copra and menthol) and Indian tobacco was collected and examined for its genotoxic activity. Chromosome aberrations (chromatid breaks and chromatid exchanges) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were used to estimate the genotoxic effect. No detectable levels of clastogenic activity were observed in the saliva of non-chewing individuals. After 5 min of chewing betel quid, betel nut, betel leaves, quid ingredients and Indian tobacco, the saliva samples showed relatively potent clastogenic activities. The addition of transition metals Mn2+ and Cu2+ to the saliva samples of betel nut and Indian tobacco chewers enhanced their clastogenic activities, whereas Fe3+ increased the clastogenicity of the betel nut saliva but decreased the genotoxic effect of the saliva of Indian tobacco chewers. After removal of the betel quid or its components from the mouth, the clastogenic activity disappeared within 5 min. The western-type chewing tobacco did not produce a genotoxic activity in the saliva of chewers. A possible association between the genotoxicity in the saliva of betel quid chewers and the development of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal carcinomas is discussed.

  5. Preparation of Tea Tree Oil/Poly(styrene-butyl methacrylate) Microspheres with Sustained Release and Anti-Bacterial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Guanquan; Chen, Huayao; Zhou, Hongjun; Zhou, Xinhua; Xu, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Using butyl methacrylate (BMA) and styrene (St) as monomers and divinylbenzene (DVB) as a crosslinking agent, P(St-BMA) microspheres were prepared by suspension polymerization. Tea tree oil (TTO) microspheres were prepared by adsorbing TTO on P(St-BMA) microspheres. The structure and surface morphology of P(St-BMA) microspheres and TTO microspheres were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy, and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In doing so, the structural effect of P(St-BMA) microspheres on oil absorption and sustained release properties could be investigated. The results show that the surface of the P(St-BMA) microspheres in the process of TTO microsphere formation changed from initially concave to convex. The TTO microspheres significantly improved the stability of TTO, which was found to completely decompose as the temperature of the TTO increased from about 110 °C to 150 °C. The oil absorption behavior, which was up to 3.85 g/g, could be controlled by adjusting the monomer ratio and the amount of crosslinking agent. Based on Fickian diffusion, the sustained release behavior of TTO microspheres was consistent with the Korsmeyer-Pappas kinetic model. After 13 h of natural release, the anti-bacterial effect of the TTO microspheres was found to be significantly improved compared to TTO. PMID:29723967

  6. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs....1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap of the pine tree. It is obtained commercially from the waste liquors of pinewood pulp mills and consists mainly of tall oil resin...

  7. Trend Analysis of Betel Nut-associated Oral Cancer 
and Health Burden in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan Jia; Chen, Jie; Zhong, Wai Sheng; Ling, Tian You; Jian, Xin Chun; Lu, Ruo Huang; Tang, Zhan Gui; Tao, Lin

    To forecast the future trend of betel nut-associated oral cancer and the resulting burden on health based on historical oral cancer patient data in Hunan province, China. Oral cancer patient data in five hospitals in Changsha (the capital city of Hunan province) were collected for the past 12 years. Three methods were used to analyse the data; Microsoft Excel Forecast Sheet, Excel Trendline, and the Logistic growth model. A combination of these three methods was used to forecast the future trend of betel nut-associated oral cancer and the resulting burden on health. Betel nut-associated oral cancer cases have been increasing rapidly in the past 12  years in Changsha. As of 2016, betel nuts had caused 8,222 cases of oral cancer in Changsha and close to 25,000 cases in Hunan, resulting in about ¥5 billion in accumulated financial loss. The combined trend analysis predicts that by 2030, betel nuts will cause more than 100,000 cases of oral cancer in Changsha and more than 300,000 cases in Hunan, and more than ¥64 billion in accumulated financial loss in medical expenses. The trend analysis of oral cancer patient data predicts that the growing betel nut industry in Hunan province will cause a humanitarian catastrophe with massive loss of human life and national resources. To prevent this catastrophe, China should ban betel nuts and provide early oral cancer screening for betel nut consumers as soon as possible.

  8. A survey of the bacteriological quality of preroasted peanut, almond, cashew, hazelnut, and brazil nut kernels received into three Australian nut-processing facilities over a period of 3 years.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni; Huang, Bixing; Stuttard, Ed

    2008-02-01

    There is little information about bacteriological quality of preroasted kernels available in the public domain. An investigation of the bacteriological quality of preroasted peanut, almond, cashew, hazelnut, and Brazil nut kernels received into three Australian nut-processing facilities was performed over a period of 3 years. A total of 836 samples were analyzed for aerobic plate count, and 921 samples for Salmonella and Escherichia coli. The 921 samples included 653 peanut, 100 cashew, 60 almond, 60 Brazil nut, and 48 hazelnut kernels. There was no E. coli detected in any sample. Salmonella subsp. II (Fremantle) was detected in one raw almond sample. The aerobic plate count percentages of positive samples with counts above the detection level of the plating method used (100 CFU/g) for peanuts, almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, and Brazil nuts were 84, 78, 74, 50, and 45%, respectively. Of the samples containing more than this detection limit, the means were 4.5, 4.4, 3.1, 2.5, and 3.8 log CFU/g respectively. Although roasted kernel quality was not within the scope of this survey, raw microbial bioload would be expected to reduce on roasting. The bacteriological quality of preroasted peanut, almond, cashew, hazelnut, and Brazil nut kernels received into nut-processing facilities in Australia does not appear to suggest a public health concern.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1702 - Sheanut oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sheanut oil. 184.1702 Section 184.1702 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1702 Sheanut oil. (a) Sheanut oil is produced from sheanuts derived from the Shea tree Butyrospermum...

  10. Cultural and historical aspects of Mediterranean nuts with emphasis on their attributed healthy and nutritional properties.

    PubMed

    Salas-Salvadó, J; Casas-Agustench, P; Salas-Huetos, A

    2011-06-01

    Nuts have been part of the human diet since prehistoric times. The aim of the present article is to describe the most important historical and cultural aspects of nut consumption throughout history. We discuss the following historical aspects of nuts originating in the Mediterranean: prehistory, the Egyptian civilization, their spread through the Mediterranean region by the Greek, Phoenician and Roman civilizations, and their reintroduction into Europe by means of the Al-Andalus culture. Particular emphasis is placed on the healthy and nutritional attributes that nuts have had throughout history. We also consider the role of the first globalization of food--the exchange of nuts between continents--and discuss the symbolism that nuts have had for humans throughout history in the context of cultural aspects of the Mediterranean region. Nuts and fruits are probably the earliest foods consumed by humans and are considered to be important because of their nutritional properties. Nuts have also been used in the past by different civilizations as drugs to prevent or treat several diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. NUTS and BOLTS: Applications of Fluorescence Detected Sedimentation

    PubMed Central

    Kroe, Rachel R.; Laue, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation is a widely used method for characterizing the solution behavior of macromolecules. However, the two commonly used detectors (absorbance and interference) impose some fundamental restrictions on the concentrations and complexity of the solutions that can be analyzed. The recent addition of a fluorescence detector for the XL-I analytical ultracentrifuge (AU-FDS) enables two different types of sedimentation experiments. First, the AU-FDS can detect picomolar concentrations of labeled solutes allowing the characterization of very dilute solutions of macromolecules, applications we call Normal Use Tracer Sedimentation (NUTS). The great sensitivity of NUTS analysis allows the characterization of small quantities of materials and high affinity interactions. Second, AU-FDS allows characterization of trace quantities of labeled molecules in solutions containing high concentrations and complex mixtures of unlabeled molecules, applications we call Biological On Line Tracer Sedimentation (BOLTS). The discrimination of BOLTS enables the size distribution of a labeled macromolecule to be determined in biological milieu such as cell lysates and serum. Examples are presented that embody features of both NUTS and BOLTS applications, along with our observations on these applications. PMID:19103145

  12. Benefits of Nut Consumption on Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoona; Keogh, Jennifer B.

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that nut consumption could be a healthy dietary strategy to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of action of nuts addressing effects on glycemic control, weight management, energy balance, appetite, gut microbiota modification, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function and blood pressure with a focus on data from both animal and human studies. The favourable effects of nuts could be explained by the unique nutrient composition and bioactive compounds in nuts. Unsaturated fatty acids (monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids) present in nuts may play a role in glucose control and appetite suppression. Fiber and polyphenols in nuts may also have an anti-diabetic effect by altering gut microbiota. Nuts lower serum cholesterol by reduced cholesterol absorption, inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and increased bile acid production by stimulation of 7-α hydroxylase. Arginine and magnesium improve inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial function and blood pressure. In conclusion, nuts contain compounds that favourably influence glucose homeostasis, weight control and vascular health. Further investigations are required to identify the most important mechanisms by which nuts decrease the risk of T2DM and CVD. PMID:29165404

  13. Improvement of Milk Fatty Acid Composition for Production of Functional Milk by Dietary Phytoncide Oil Extracted from Discarded Pine Nut Cones (Pinus koraiensis) in Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Jung, U Suk; Jeon, Seung Woo; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Won Seob; Lee, Sang Bum; Kim, Youn Chil; Kim, Bae Young; Wang, Tao; Lee, Hong Gu

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of adding phytoncide oil extracted from Korean pine nut cone byproduct to the diet of dairy cows on milk yield and compositions, fatty acid characteristics, complete blood count and stress response. A total of 74 Holstein cows were used for 30 days and divided into two groups. Each group was given a basal diet (C) or an experimental diet containing phytoncide additives at 0.016% (T) in feed. The results showed that phytoncide feeding had no effect on milk yield. In addition, there were no observed effects on milk composition, but the ratio of fatty acid in milk was significantly affected by the phytoncide diet, and it showed a positive effect. Not only were the major functional fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid increased, but also ω6:ω3 fatty acid ratio was reduced in milk of T group (p<0.05). In blood analysis, the complete blood count showed no significant difference between C and T group on all parameters. However, the cortisol concentration was significantly decreased in T group compared to control (p<0.05). Taken together, we suggest that phytoncide oil does not have a great influence on the physiological changes, but can be a potential feed additive that improves the milk fatty acid and stress resilience in dairy cows. In addition, it will contribute to the development of feed resource, a reduction in feed cost and a lessening of environmental pollution. PMID:27383800

  14. The ethics of betel nut consumption in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tham, Joseph; Sem, Geoffrey; Sit, Eugene; Tai, Michael Cheng-Tek

    2017-11-01

    The ethics of betel nut use in Taiwan are examined in this article. It first presents scientific facts about the betel quid, its consumption and negative health consequences and then analyses the cultural background and economic factors contributing to its popularity in Asia. Governmental and institutional attempts to curb betel nut cultivation, distribution and sales are also described. Finally, the bioethical implications of this often ignored subject are considered. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. The Effects of Preventive Intervention for Betel Nut Chewing in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te; Hong, Yu-Jue

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was to explore the effect of preventive health education intervention in the knowledge, attitude, practice of betel nut chewing, and self-efficacy of anti-betel nut chewing for adolescent students. Methods: One hundred eighty-six indigenous samples were recruited, and divided into experimental and control groups. The…

  16. Global analysis of gene expression profiles in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) seedlings exposed to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Sheng; Zhu, Shuang; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Guojiang

    2015-01-21

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a small perennial tree or large shrub, which is well-adapted to semi-arid regions and is considered to have potential as a crop for biofuel production. It is now regarded as an excellent model for studying biofuel plants. However, our knowledge about the molecular responses of this species to drought stress is currently limited. In this study, genome-wide transcriptional profiles of roots and leaves of 8-week old physic nut seedlings were analyzed 1, 4 and 7 days after withholding irrigation. We observed a total of 1533 and 2900 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in roots and leaves, respectively. Gene Ontology analysis showed that the biological processes enriched in droughted plants relative to unstressed plants were related to biosynthesis, transport, nucleobase-containing compounds, and cellular protein modification. The genes found to be up-regulated in roots were related to abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis and ABA signal transduction, and to the synthesis of raffinose. Genes related to ABA signal transduction, and to trehalose and raffinose synthesis, were up-regulated in leaves. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response genes were significantly up-regulated in leaves under drought stress, while a number of genes related to wax biosynthesis were also up-regulated in leaves. Genes related to unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis were down-regulated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly reduced in leaves 7 days after withholding irrigation. As drought stress increased, genes related to ethylene synthesis, ethylene signal transduction and chlorophyll degradation were up-regulated, and the chlorophyll content of leaves was significantly reduced by 7 days after withholding irrigation. This study provides us with new insights to increase our understanding of the response mechanisms deployed by physic nut seedlings under drought stress. The genes and pathways identified in this study also provide much information of

  17. More pistachio nuts for improving the blood lipid profile. Systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2016-05-06

    Recent evidence suggests that regular intake of nuts may be associated with reduction of all-cause mortality, especially cardiovascular deaths. Among all types of nuts, pistachio displays the most favorable dietary composition. Therefore, we searched Medline and ISI Web of Science to identify interventional studies which evaluated changes of conventional blood lipids after replacing part of normal caloric intake with pistachio nuts in humans. Overall, 9 studies were finally included in our systematical literature review (4 randomized crossover, 3 randomized controlled and 3 prospective). In 6/9 (67%) interventional studies total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased. In all studies total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (7/7; 100%) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (6/6; 100%) decreased after replacing caloric intake with pistachio nuts for not less than 3 weeks. A significant reduction of triglycerides could only be observed in 2 out of 8 studies (25%). Even more importantly, in no interventional study the intake of pistachio nuts was associated with unfavorable changes of the lipid profile. The results of our literature search provide solid evidence that intake of pistachio nuts may exerts favorable effects on the traditional blood profile, provided that their consumption does not increase the habitual or recommended daily caloric intake. It seems also reasonable to suggest that further studies aimed to investigate the favorable effects of nuts on human diseases should distinguish between one type and the others, since the different nuts exhibit unique dietary composition and may hence produce distinctive biological effects in humans.

  18. Areca nut chewing and risk of atrial fibrillation in Taiwanese men: a nationwide ecological study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wei-Chung; Chen, Chung-Yu; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Tang, Wei-Hua; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Su, Ho-Ming; Hsu, Po-Chao; Jhuo, Shih-Jie; Lin, Ming-Yen; Lee, Kun-Tai; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung; Lai, Wen-Ter

    2013-01-01

    Areca nut chewing is associated with the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and cardiovascular mortality. Although a few case reports or case series have suggested the link between areca nut chewing and cardiac arrhythmias, information about the relationship between areca nut chewing and atrial fibrillation (AF) is lacking. Thus, a nationwide ecological study was conducted to investigate this. Two national datasets, the nationwide population-based 2005 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset (NHIRD) and the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), were used for analyses. The clinical characteristics, inhabited area and medical histories for 375,360 eligible males were retrieved from the 2005 NHIRD. Health related behaviors including areca nut chewing, cigarette smoking, infrequent vegetable eating, and exercise habit were collected from the 2005 NHIS. The prevalence of AF and the areca nut chewing rate were evaluated by multivariate analysis. Of the 375,360 males (mean age, 44 years old), 1,326 (0.35%) were diagnosed with AF. The higher areca nut chewing rate, the higher prevalence rate of AF in Taiwan (Spearman correlation coefficient r=0.558, p=0.007). After adjusting for other covariates, the current areca nut chewing rate was found to be independently associated with the prevalence of AF. The adjusted odd ratio for areca nut chewing was 1.02 (95% CI=1.00-1.04) in risk of AF prevalence. Areca nut chewing is independently associated with the prevalence of AF in Taiwanese men. However, further exploration of the underlying mechanisms is necessary.

  19. Repulsive Effect for Unbound High Energy Particles Along Rotation Axis in Kerr-Taub-NUT Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Chen, Song-Bai

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the acceleration of the unbound high energy particles moving along the rotation axis in the Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime, and then study the dependence of the repulsive effects on the NUT charge for the particles in the spacetime. Whether the repulsive effects with the NUT charge become stronger depends on the Carter constant, the position and velocity of the particles themselves. We also present numerically the changes of the observable velocity and acceleration with the NUT charge for the unbound particles in the Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime. Supported by the Scientific Research Fund of Hunan Provincial Education Department under Grant No. 17A124, and the Construct Program of Key Disciplines in Hunan Province

  20. The NUTS CubeSat Project: Spin-Offs and Technology Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkeland, R.; Stein, T. A.; Tommer, M.; Beermann, B.; Petrasch, J.; Gjersvik, A.

    2015-09-01

    The development of CubeSats allows for the conception and implementation of new approaches and technologies. In this paper we present a spin-off and technology innovation resulting from the NTNU Test Satellite (NUTS). NUTS is a 2U CubeSat under development by students of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim, Norway. The satellite is due to launch in 2017 and is based upon in-house developments. We will describe the innovative carbon-fibre frame, radio systems and proposals for an infrared camera for atmospheric gravity waves observations. A NUTS spinoff, the Cosmic Particle Telescope (CPT-SCOPE), will be presented in greater detail since it has been selected for the BEXUS 20 campaign in autumn 2015. CPT-SCOPE is a Norwegian-German compact radiation monitor prototype developed by students.

  1. Image processing for x-ray inspection of pistachio nuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David P.

    2001-03-01

    A review is provided of image processing techniques that have been applied to the inspection of pistachio nuts using X-ray images. X-ray sensors provide non-destructive internal product detail not available from other sensors. The primary concern in this data is detecting the presence of worm infestations in nuts, since they have been linked to the presence of aflatoxin. We describe new techniques for segmentation, feature selection, selection of product categories (clusters), classifier design, etc. Specific novel results include: a new segmentation algorithm to produce images of isolated product items; preferable classifier operation (the classifier with the best probability of correct recognition Pc is not best); higher-order discrimination information is present in standard features (thus, high-order features appear useful); classifiers that use new cluster categories of samples achieve improved performance. Results are presented for X-ray images of pistachio nuts; however, all techniques have use in other product inspection applications.

  2. Areca nut chewing and dependency syndrome: is the dependence comparable to smoking? a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Saira S; Shafique, Kashif; Vart, Priya; Arain, Moin I

    2011-08-18

    Areca nut is the seed of fruit oriental palm known as Areca catechu. Many adverse effects of nut chewing have been well documented in the medical literature. As these nuts are mixed with some other substances like tobacco and flavouring agents, it has been hypothesized that it might also cause some dependency symptoms among its users. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate dependency syndrome among areca nut users with and without tobacco additives and compare it with dependency associated with cigarette smoking among the male Pakistani population. This was an observational cross sectional study carried out on healthy individuals, who were users of any one of the three products (areca nut only, areca nut with tobacco additives, cigarette smokers). Participants were selected by convenience sampling of people coming to hospital to seek a free oral check up. Information was collected about the socio-demographic profile, pattern of use and symptoms of dependency using the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate association between socio-demographic profile, pattern of substance use and dependency syndrome. We carried out final analysis on 851 individuals, of which 36.8% (n = 314) were areca nut users, 28.4% (n = 242) were the chewers of areca with tobacco additives and 34.7% (n = 295) were regular cigarette smokers. Multivariate analyses showed that individuals using areca nut with tobacco additives were significantly more likely to have dependency syndrome (OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.39-3.40) while cigarette smokers were eight times more likely to have dependency syndrome as compared to areca nut only users. Areca nut use with and without tobacco additives was significantly associated with dependency syndrome. In comparison to exclusive areca nut users, the smokers were eight times more likely to develop dependence while areca nut users with tobacco additives were also significantly more likely

  3. Nut, corn, and popcorn consumption and the incidence of diverticular disease.

    PubMed

    Strate, Lisa L; Liu, Yan L; Syngal, Sapna; Aldoori, Walid H; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2008-08-27

    Patients with diverticular disease are frequently advised to avoid eating nuts, corn, popcorn, and seeds to reduce the risk of complications. However, there is little evidence to support this recommendation. To determine whether nut, corn, or popcorn consumption is associated with diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. The Health Professionals Follow-up Study is a cohort of US men followed up prospectively from 1986 to 2004 via self-administered questionnaires about medical (biennial) and dietary (every 4 years) information. Men reporting newly diagnosed diverticulosis or diverticulitis were mailed supplemental questionnaires. The study included 47,228 men aged 40 to 75 years who at baseline were free of diverticulosis or its complications, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease and returned a food-frequency questionnaire. Incident diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. During 18 years of follow-up, there were 801 incident cases of diverticulitis and 383 incident cases of diverticular bleeding. We found inverse associations between nut and popcorn consumption and the risk of diverticulitis. The multivariate hazard ratios for men with the highest intake of each food (at least twice per week) compared with men with the lowest intake (less than once per month) were 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.63-1.01; P for trend = .04) for nuts and 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.92; P for trend = .007) for popcorn. No associations were seen between corn consumption and diverticulitis or between nut, corn, or popcorn consumption and diverticular bleeding or uncomplicated diverticulosis. In this large, prospective study of men without known diverticular disease, nut, corn, and popcorn consumption did not increase the risk of diverticulosis or diverticular complications. The recommendation to avoid these foods to prevent diverticular complications should be reconsidered.

  4. Nut, corn and popcorn consumption and the incidence of diverticular disease

    PubMed Central

    Strate, Lisa L.; Liu, Yan L.; Syngal, Sapna; Aldoori, Walid H.; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients with diverticular disease are frequently advised to avoid nuts, corn, popcorn and seeds to reduce the risk of complications. However, there is little evidence to support this recommendation. Objective: To determine if nut, corn and popcorn consumption are associated with diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. Design and Setting: The Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a cohort of men followed prospectively from 1986 to 2004 via self-administered medical (biennial) and dietary (every 4 years) questionnaires. Men reporting newly diagnosed diverticulosis or diverticulitis were mailed supplemental questionnaires. Participants: 47,228 men aged 40-75 years who at baseline were free of diverticulosis or its complications, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease, and returned a food frequency questionnaire. Main Outcome Measures: Incident diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. Results: During 18 years of follow-up, there were 801 incident cases of diverticulitis and 383 incident cases of diverticular bleeding. We found inverse associations between nut, and popcorn consumption and the risk of diverticulitis. The multivariable hazard ratios for men with the highest intake of each food (at least twice per week) compared to men with the lowest intake (less than once per month) were 0.80 (95% CI 0.63-1.01; P for trend 0.04) for nuts, and 0.72 (95% CI 0.56-0.92; P for trend 0.007) for popcorn. No associations were seen between corn consumption and diverticulitis, or between nut, corn, or popcorn consumption and diverticular bleeding or uncomplicated diverticulosis. Conclusions: In this large, prospective study of men without known diverticular disease, nut, corn and popcorn consumption did not increase the risk of diverticulosis or diverticular complications. The recommendation to avoid these foods to prevent diverticular complications should be reconsidered. PMID:18728264

  5. [Bromatological characteristics of pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis Koch) cultivated in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, V D

    1975-01-01

    The A. studied pecan nuts cultivated in Brazil: two samples represented North American varieties and three others Brazilian hybrids. The comparison between physical classification and chemical composition, specially amino acid contents pointed to non significant differences, all beeing useful for commercial purposes. The A. stresses the importance of the culture of pecan nuts in Brazil.

  6. Potential of Aqueous Ozone to Control Aflatoxigenic Fungi in Brazil Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Valle, Héctor; Venâncio, Armando

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the use of aqueous ozone as alternative technology for fungal control. Brazil nuts sterilized were inoculated with either 1 × 106 or 1 × 107 conidia mL−1 of Aspergillus flavus (MUM 9201) to determine optimal treatment parameters and different aqueous ozone contact times. These assays showed that the effect of ozone is almost immediate against A. flavus, and the optimum ozone concentration depended on the number of initial viable spores on the shell. The remaining viable spores in the ozone solution were recorded, and the rate of inactivation for each treatment was determined by assessing the ratio between the cfu of each treatment and the control. The ozonized nuts were also cultured to recover the fungal population. Aqueous ozone was effective in reducing the conidia of A. flavus and the natural fungal population associated with Brazil nuts. Aqueous ozone presented a great potential to reduce microorganisms counts in Brazil nuts with a great potential use in packing houses for decontamination step. PMID:25937982

  7. Association of Nut Consumption with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the 2008/2009 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rachel C.; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R.; Chisholm, Alexandra; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Parnell, Winsome

    2015-01-01

    Nut consumption has been associated with improvements in risk factors for chronic disease in populations within North America, Europe and Iran. This relationship has not been investigated in New Zealand (NZ). The associations between nut consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among New Zealanders were examined. Data from the 24-h diet recalls of 4721 participants from the NZ Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 (2008/2009 NZANS) were used to determine whole and total nut intake. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were collected, as well as blood samples analysed for total cholesterol (total-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), C-reactive protein (CRP) and folate. Participants were classified according to their five-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Both whole and total nut consumers had significantly lower weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and central adiposity than non-nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.044). Whole blood, serum and red blood cell folate concentrations were significantly higher among whole nut consumers compared to non-whole nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.014), with only serum folate higher in total nut consumers compared to non-total nut consumers (p = 0.023). There were no significant differences for blood pressure, total-C, HDL-C and HbA1c; however, significant negative associations between total nut consumption and CVD risk category (p < 0.001) and CRP (p = 0.045) were apparent. Nut consumption was associated with more favourable body composition and a number of risk factors, which could collectively reduce chronic disease. PMID:26371037

  8. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Darin C.; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K. K.; McElwee, Kevin J.; Cheng, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51 × faster), ostrich oil (1.46 × faster), and rhea oil (1.64 × faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35 × slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022

  9. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Darin C; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K K; McElwee, Kevin J; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51×faster), ostrich oil (1.46×faster), and rhea oil (1.64×faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35×slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Oral Screening for Pre-cancerous Lesions Among Areca-nut Chewing Population from Rural India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ramdas; Gupta, Bhawna; Bose, Surojit

    2015-01-01

    To detect early oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) in a rural population chewing tobacco-free areca nut preparations, determine their awareness level of oral cancer and educate them about maintaining good oral health. A total of 2175 18- to 65-year-old areca nut chewers (male:female ratio 2.5:1), without a history of consuming tobacco in any form, from the villages of two districts of the West Bengal state of India were screened clinically through oral examination for suspected OPLs. A pre-designed questionnaire was employed to record demographic data, information on tobacco-free areca-nut chewing habit and knowledge about oral diseases. Education on oral health was provided through distribution of printed leaflets, display of banner/posters and a public-announcement system. Chewing areca nut in the form of betel quid was more popular (90.7%) than chewing areca nut alone (9%) or tobacco-free packaged areca nut preparation sold as 'pan masala' (0.3%). OPLs were detected in 7.3% of the subjects, more among the males. An increasing incidence of OPLs could be observed with an increase in age as well as with duration and frequency of areca-nut chewing, while decreasing incidence was observed with an increase in educational level. Oral submucous fibrosis showed the highest prevalence (2.7%) among the various OPLs detected. Tobacco-free areca-nut chewing is an independent risk factor for the development of OPL and a large rural population still practices such high risk behaviour. In rural areas with limited health care resources, screening by visual oral examination involving minimum cost may prove useful to reduce oral cancer mortality.

  11. Nut consumption and 5-y all-cause mortality in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montero, A; Bes-Rastrollo, M; Barrio-López, M T; Fuente-Arrillaga, C de la; Salas-Salvadó, J; Moreno-Galarraga, L; Martínez-González, M A

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between nut consumption and all-cause mortality after 5-y follow-up in a Spanish cohort. The SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra Follow-up) project is a prospective cohort study, formed by Spanish university graduates. Information is gathered by mailed questionnaires collected biennially. In all, 17 184 participants were followed for up to 5 y. Baseline nut consumption was collected by self-reported data, using a validated 136-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Information on mortality was collected by permanent contact with the SUN participants and their families, postal authorities, and the National Death Index. The association between baseline nut consumption and all-cause mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models to adjust for potential confounding. Baseline nut consumption was categorized in two ways. In a first analysis energy-adjusted quintiles of nut consumption (measured in g/d) were used. To adjust for total energy intake the residuals method was used. In a second analysis, participants were categorized into four groups according to pre-established categories of nut consumption (servings/d or servings/wk). Both analyses were adjusted for potential confounding factors. Participants who consumed nuts ≥2/wk had a 56% lower risk for all-cause mortality than those who never or almost never consumed nuts (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence intervals, 0.23-0.86). Nut consumption was significantly associated with a reduced risk for all-cause mortality after the first 5 y of follow-up in the SUN project. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electricity generation from palm oil tree empty fruit bunch (EFB) using dual chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, N. F.; Mahmood, N. A. B. N.; Ibrahim, K. A.; Muhammad, S. A. F. S.; Amalina, N. S.

    2017-06-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been discovered and utilized in laboratory scale for electricity production based on microbial degradation of organic compound. However, various source of fuel has been tested and recently complex biomass such as lignocellulose biomass has been focused on. In the present research, oil palm tree empty fruit bunch (EFB) has been tested for power production using dual chamber MFC and power generation analysis has been conducted to address the performance of MFC. In addition, two microorganisms (electric harvesting microbe and cellulose degrading microbe) were used in the MFC operation. The analysis include voltage produced, calculated current and power. The first section in your paper

  13. Yeast lipids from cardoon stalks, stranded driftwood and olive tree pruning residues as possible extra sources of oils for producing biofuels and biochemicals.

    PubMed

    Tasselli, Giorgia; Filippucci, Sara; Borsella, Elisabetta; D'Antonio, Silvia; Gelosia, Mattia; Cavalaglio, Gianluca; Turchetti, Benedetta; Sannino, Ciro; Onofri, Andrea; Mastrolitti, Silvio; De Bari, Isabella; Cotana, Franco; Buzzini, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    Some lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks occur in Mediterranean Countries. They are still largely unexploited and cause considerable problems due to the lack of cost-effective harvesting, storage and disposal technologies. Recent studies found that some basidiomycetous yeasts are able to accumulate high amount of intracellular lipids for biorefinery processes (i.e., biofuels and biochemicals). Accordingly, the above biomass feedstocks could be used as carbon sources (after their pre-treatment and hydrolysis) for lipid accumulation by oleaginous yeasts. Cardoon stalks, stranded driftwood and olive tree pruning residues were pre-treated with steam-explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis for releasing free mono- and oligosaccharides. Lipid accumulation tests were performed at two temperatures (20 and 25 °C) using Leucosporidium creatinivorum DBVPG 4794, Naganishia adeliensis DBVPG 5195 and Solicoccozyma terricola DBVPG 5870. S. terricola grown on cardoon stalks at 20 °C exhibited the highest lipid production (13.20 g/l), a lipid yield (28.95%) close to the maximum theoretical value and a lipid composition similar to that found in palm oil. On the contrary, N. adeliensis grown on stranded driftwood and olive tree pruning residues exhibited a lipid composition similar to those of olive and almonds oils. A predictive evaluation of the physical properties of the potential biodiesel obtainable by lipids produced by tested yeast strains has been reported and discussed. Lipids produced by some basidiomycetous yeasts grown on Mediterranean lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks could be used as supplementary sources of oils for producing biofuels and biochemicals.

  14. 77 FR 10381 - Metaflumizone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... regulation establishes tolerances for residues of metaflumizone in or on citrus fruit, tree nuts, almond... metaflumizone, in or on: Fruit, citrus, group 10 at 0.04 ppm; nut, tree, group 14 at 0.04 ppm; almond, hulls at... Registration for a Fire Ant Bait for Application to Citrus, Tree Nuts, and Grape, and a new Section 3...

  15. 76 FR 31479 - Pyraflufen-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...); nuts, tree, group 14 at 0.01 ppm; pistachio at 0.01 ppm; fruit, pome, group 11 at 0.01 ppm; fruit... Tree Nuts (Crop Group 14), Pistachios, Pome Fruit (Crop Group 11-10), And Stone Fruits (Crop Group 12... fruit, pomegranate, olive, grape, tree nuts and pistachio for which one half of the combined Levels of...

  16. Effect of irradiation and storage on the antioxidative activity of cashew nuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajilata, M. G.; Singhal, R. S.

    2006-02-01

    Food irradiation, a cold process employed for preservation of food has been studied extensively for its beneficial and undesirable effects on food constituents. Since nuts have been shown to contain several antioxidants, and ionizing irradiation is known to result in the formation of free radicals, investigation on the antioxidative potential of cashew nuts after irradiation and subsequent storage was undertaken by assessing their ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation using the 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid (DETBA) assay. Irradiation at 0.25-1.00 kGy and subsequent storage was found to considerably reduce antioxidative activity in the cashew nuts.

  17. One-step multiplex PCR method for the determination of pecan and Brazil nut allergens in food products.

    PubMed

    Hubalkova, Zora; Rencova, Eva

    2011-10-01

    A one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the simultaneous detection of the major allergens of pecan and Brazil nuts was developed. Primer pairs for the amplification of partial sequences of genes encoding the allergens were designed and tested for their specificity on a range of food components. The targeted amplicon size was 173 bp of Ber e 1 gene of Brazil nuts and 72 bp of vicilin-like seed storage protein gene in pecan nuts. The primer pair detecting the noncoding region of the chloroplast DNA was used as the internal control of amplification. The intrinsic detection limit of the PCR method was 100 pg mL(-1) pecan or Brazil nuts DNA. The practical detection limit was 0.1% w/w (1 g kg(-1)). The method was applied for the investigation of 63 samples with the declaration of pecans, Brazil nuts, other different nut species or nuts generally. In 15 food samples pecans and Brazil nuts allergens were identified in the conformity with the food declaration. The presented multiplex PCR method is specific enough and can be used as a fast approach for the detection of major allergens of pecan or Brazil nuts in food. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effects of Tree-crop Farming on Land-cover Transitions in a Mosaic Landscape in the Eastern Region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asubonteng, Kwabena; Pfeffer, Karin; Ros-Tonen, Mirjam; Verbesselt, Jan; Baud, Isa

    2018-05-11

    Tree crops such as cocoa and oil palm are important to smallholders' livelihoods and national economies of tropical producer countries. Governments seek to expand tree-crop acreages and improve yields. Existing literature has analyzed socioeconomic and environmental effects of tree-crop expansion, but its spatial effects on the landscape are yet to be explored. This study aims to assess the effects of tree-crop farming on the composition and the extent of land-cover transitions in a mixed cocoa/oil palm landscape in Ghana. Land-cover maps of 1986 and 2015 produced through ISODATA, and maximum likelihood classification were validated with field reference, Google Earth data, and key respondent interviews. Post-classification change detection was conducted and the transition matrix analyzed using intensity analysis. Cocoa and oil palm areas have increased in extent by 8.9% and 11.2%, respectively, mainly at the expense of food-crop land and forest. The intensity of forest loss to both tree crops is at a lower intensity than the loss of food-crop land. There were transitions between cocoa and oil palm, but the gains in oil palm outweigh those of cocoa. Cocoa and oil palm have increased in area and dominance. The main cover types converted to tree-crop areas are food-crop land and off-reserve forest. This is beginning to have serious implications for food security and livelihood options that depend on ecosystem services provided by the mosaic landscape. Tree-crop policies should take account of the geographical distribution of tree-commodity production at landscape level and its implications for food production and ecosystems services.

  19. Anacardic Acids from Cashew Nuts Ameliorate Lung Damage Induced by Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ana Laura Nicoletti; Annoni, Raquel; Torres, Larissa Helena Lobo; Durão, Ana Carolina Cardoso Santos; Shimada, Ana Lucia Borges; Almeida, Francine Maria; Hebeda, Cristina Bichels; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenorio Quirino Santos; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Martins, Milton Arruda; Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Owen, Robert W.; Marcourakis, Tania; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Mauad, Thais

    2013-01-01

    Anacardic acids from cashew nut shell liquid, a Brazilian natural substance, have antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and modulate immune responses and angiogenesis. As inflammatory lung diseases have been correlated to environmental pollutants exposure and no reports addressing the effects of dietary supplementation with anacardic acids on lung inflammation in vivo have been evidenced, we investigated the effects of supplementation with anacardic acids in a model of diesel exhaust particle- (DEP-) induced lung inflammation. BALB/c mice received an intranasal instillation of 50 μg of DEP for 20 days. Ten days prior to DEP instillation, animals were pretreated orally with 50, 150, or 250 mg/kg of anacardic acids or vehicle (100 μL of cashew nut oil) for 30 days. The biomarkers of inflammatory and antioxidant responses in the alveolar parenchyma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and pulmonary vessels were investigated. All doses of anacardic acids ameliorated antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased vascular adhesion molecule in vessels. Animals that received 50 mg/kg of anacardic acids showed decreased levels of neutrophils and tumor necrosis factor in the lungs and BALF, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that AAs supplementation has a potential protective role on oxidative and inflammatory mechanisms in the lungs. PMID:23533495

  20. Sugars of the unfermented sap and the wine from the oil palm, Elaeis guinensis, tree.

    PubMed

    Eze, M O; Ogan, U

    1988-01-01

    The sugar composition of the unfermented sap from oil palm (Elaeis guinensis) trees growing in the plantations of the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, Benin City, has been determined. While sucrose concentration ranges from 9.59 to 10.59% (w/v) in the pure unfermented sap, that of either glucose or fructose is much less than 1% (w/v) (0.13-0.73% w/v). Raffinose occurs in traces only (0.13-0.35 w/v). These results were derived from our improved methods which eliminate completely, or reduce to a bare minimum, fermentation of the sap during collection. The variation with time of storage of the individual sugars in the sap during fermentation to form palm wine reveals that, as sucrose steadily decreases, fructose reaches a peak at 1.51% (w/v) at the 9th hour, and thereafter declines, while glucose and raffinose remain continuously low; all sugars disappear beyond the 33rd hour. Concomittantly, pH decreases from pH 6.60 at zero time and stabilizes at pH 3.30 after 48 h, while titrable acidity increases continuously up until the 96th hour. These changes account for the variations in the quality of palm wine during storages.

  1. The Other Major 2010 Oil Spill: Oil weathering after the Kalamazoo River Dilbit Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarthout, B.; Reddy, C. M.; Nelson, R. K.; Hamilton, S. K.; Aeppli, C.; Valentine, D. L.; Fundaun, S. E.; Oliveira, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    Diluted bitumen (dilbit) from the oil sands (tar sands) of western Canada is increasingly being transported to US markets. North America's largest inland oil spill and the first major oil sands spill in a freshwater environment occurred in 2010, when at least 843,000 gallons leaked from a pipeline into the Kalamazoo River of southwest Michigan. Cleanup of this oil was unusually difficult and protracted, lasting through 2014 and costing over a billion dollars, largely because a substantial fraction of the oil became submersed and deposited in slack water areas over 60 km of river channel, reservoirs, and floodplain backwaters. To investigate the fate of the spilled dilbit from the 2010 Kalamazoo River release, black rings, presumably oil residues, on the bark of dead trees were collected in 2015. These residues were deposited on the trees during high flood levels that have not been observed since the spill and represent an opportunity to constrain weathering processes excluding dissolution. This material contained a major non-GC amenable fraction of 90-95%, presumably oxygenated hydrocarbons. The GC amenable portion was consistent with laboratory weathered dilbit. We used a variety of analytical tools to characterize the dilbit residues, as well as to identify dilbit weathering processes that occurred since the spill.

  2. Distillation time alters essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of male Juniperus scopulorum trees.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Schlegel, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 15 distillation times (DT), ranging from 1.25 to 960 min, on oil yield, essential oil profiles, and antioxidant capacity of male J. scopulorum trees. Essential oil yields were 0.07% at 1.25 min DT and reached a maximum of 1.48% at 840 min DT. The concentrations of alpha-thujene (1.76-2.75%), alpha-pinene (2.9-8.7%), sabinene (45-74.7%), myrcene (2.4-3.4%), and para-cymene (0.8-3.1%) were highest at the shortest DT (1.5 to 5 min) and decreased with increasing DT. Cis-sabinene hydrate (0.5-0.97%) and linalool plus trans-sabinene (0.56-1.6%) reached maximum levels at 40 min DT. Maximum concentrations of limonene (2.3-2.8%) and pregeijerene-B (0.06-1.4%) were obtained at 360-480 min DT, and 4-terpinenol (0.7-5.7%) at 480 min DT. Alpha-terpinene (0.16-2.9%), gamma-terpinene (0.3-4.9%) and terpinolene (0.3-1.4%) reached maximum at 720 min DT. The concentrations of delta-cadinene (0.06-1.65%), elemol (0-6.0%), and 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol (0-4.4%) reached maximum at 840 min DT. The yield of the essential oil constituents increased with increasing DT. Only linalool/transsabinene hydrate reached a maximum yield at 360 min DT. Maximum yields of the following constituents were obtained at 720 min DT: alpha-thujene, alpha-pinene, camphene, sabinene, myrcene, alpha-terpinene, para-cimene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, terpinolene, and 4-terpinenol. At 840 min DT, cis-sabinene hydrate, prejeijerene-B, gamma muurolene, delta-cadinene, reached maximum. At 960 min DT, maximum yields of beta-pinene, elemol, alphaeudesmol/betaeudesmol, 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol were reached. These changes were adequately modeled by either the Michaelis-Menten or the Power (Convex) nonlinear regression models. Oils from the 480 min DT showed higher antioxidant activity compared to samples collected at 40, 160, or 960 min DT. These results show the potential for obtaining essential oils with various compositions and antioxidant capacity from male J

  3. The Effect of Polyhexanide, Octenidine Dihydrochloride, and Tea Tree Oil as Topical Antiseptic Agents on In Vivo Microcirculation of the Human Skin: A Noninvasive Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rothenberger, Jens; Krauss, Sabrina; Tschumi, Christian; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Held, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Antiseptics are indispensable for wound management and should focus not only on the efficacy in reducing the bacterial burden but also on how much they interfere in wound healing. In this study, the authors analyzed the direct effect of topical antiseptic agents on the microcirculation of intact human skin. The perfusion dynamics were assessed before, and 10 minutes after, the volunteers' fingers of the right hand (n = 20) were immersed in the following solutions - octenidine dihydrochloride, polyhexanide, tea tree oil, and saline solution. The authors used the Oxygen to See (LEA Medizintechnik GmbH, Giessen, Germany) diagnostic device for noninvasive determination of oxygen supply in microcirculation of blood perfused tissues, which combines a laser light to determine blood flow, as well as white light to determine hemoglobin oxygenation and the relative amount of hemoglobin. Tea tree oil (÷19.0%) (B. Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany) and polyhexanide (÷12.4%) (Lavanid, Serag Wiessner GmbH, Naila, Germany) caused a significant increase in blood flow compared to the negative control (-25.6%). Octenidine (Octenisept, Schülke & Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany) showed a nonsignificant trend towards an increase in blood flow (÷7.2%). There were alterations in the values of hemoglobin oxygenation and the relative amount of hemoglobin, but these were not significant. Perfusion is an important factor for wound healing. Therefore, it might be advantageous if antiseptic agents would increase blood flow. Tea tree oil and polyhexanide have a positive effect on skin blood flow and can therefore be used especially in critically perfused wounds, provided the adverse reactions and the antimicrobial efficacy are comparable.

  4. Analysis of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in cashew nut, nutmeg, apricot kernel, and pine nut samples: re-evaluating the uniqueness of 2-alkylcyclobutanones for irradiated food identification.

    PubMed

    Leung, Elvis M K; Tang, Phyllis N Y; Ye, Yuran; Chan, Wan

    2013-10-16

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) have long been considered as unique radiolytic products that can be used as indicators for irradiated food identification. A recent report on the natural existence of 2-ACB in non-irradiated nutmeg and cashew nut samples aroused worldwide concern because it contradicts the general belief that 2-ACBs are specific to irradiated food. The goal of this study is to test the natural existence of 2-ACBs in nut samples using our newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with enhanced analytical sensitivity and selectivity ( Ye , Y. ; Liu , H. ; Horvatovich , P. ; Chan , W. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated chicken by precolumn derivatization with hydroxylamine . J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013 , 61 , 5758 - 5763 ). The validated method was applied to identify 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-TCB) in nutmeg, cashew nut, pine nut, and apricot kernel samples (n = 22) of different origins. Our study reveals that 2-DCB and 2-TCB either do not exist naturally or exist at concentrations below the detection limit of the existing method. Thus, 2-DCB and 2-TCB are still valid to be used as biomarkers for identifying irradiated food.

  5. Nondestructive inspection of nuts for food quality and safety using NIRS (abstract)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mold infection and insect infestation are significant postharvest problems for processors of nuts. Fungal disease causes direct loss of product or reduced value due to the lower-quality grade of the chest-nut lot. In most cases, fungal infection is not detectable using traditional sorting techniques...

  6. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  7. 40 CFR 180.599 - Acequinocyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Commodity Parts per million Almond, hulls 2.0 Apple, wet pomace 1.0 Cattle, fat 0.02 Cattle, liver 0.02 Citrus, oil 30 Fruit, citrus, group 10 0.20 Fruit, pome, group 11 0.40 Goat, fat 0.02 Goat, liver 0.02 Grape 1.6 Horse, fat 0.02 Horse, liver 0.02 Nut, tree, group 14 0.02 Pistachio 0.02 Sheep, fat 0.02...

  8. Genome-wide analysis of oleosin gene family in 22 tree species: An accelerator for metabolic engineering of biofuel crops and agrigenomics industrial applications?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major molecules of energy storage in eukaryotes. Trees contribute to part of enormous plant oil reserves because fruits and kernels of many trees contain up to 50-80% of oil. TAGs accumulate in oil bodies in plants, similar to oil droplets in animals. Oleosins (OLEs) ...

  9. Biological Activity of Polynesian Calophyllum inophyllum Oil Extract on Human Skin Cells.

    PubMed

    Ansel, Jean-Luc; Lupo, Elise; Mijouin, Lily; Guillot, Samuel; Butaud, Jean-François; Ho, Raimana; Lecellier, Gaël; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Pichon, Chantal

    2016-07-01

    Oil from the nuts of Calophyllum inophyllum, locally called "Tamanu oil" in French Polynesia, was traditionally used for wound healing and to cure various skin problems and ailments. The skin-active effect of "Tamanu oil emulsion" was investigated on human skin cells (keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts) and showed cell proliferation, glycosaminoglycan and collagen production, and wound healing activity. Transcriptomic analysis of the treated cells revealed gene expression modulation including genes involved in the metabolic process implied in O-glycan biosynthesis, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation. The presence of neoflavonoids as bioactive constituents in Tamanu oil emulsion may contribute to these biological activities. Altogether, consistent data related to targeted histological and cellular functions brought new highlights on the mechanisms involved in these biological processes induced by Tamanu oil effects in skin cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Siew Ling; Brown, Rachel; Gray, Andrew; Chisholm, Alexandra; Delahunty, Conor

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118) examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100 kJ/d) of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality. PMID:21845219

  11. Irradiation disinfestation of dried fruits and nuts

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rhodes, A.A.

    This collection of research papers is the result of a research project which examined the technical and economic feasibility of irradiation as a means of disinfesting dried fruits and nuts of postharvest insects. The project was overseen by representatives from the United States Department of Agriculture, the United States Department of Energy, the University of California, CH2M HILL, and the dried fruit and nut industry. The actual research was undertaken by the Agricultural Research Service and the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, the University of California, Riverside, and CH2M HILL. The papers themselves represent themore » work of their authors and each paper is itself a complete entity. The individual papers were abstracted and indexed for the database.« less

  12. Characterization of Liquid Volatile Matter (LVM) of Cashew Nut Shell using Pyrolysis and Gas Chomatroghaphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashuni; Jahiding, Muhammad; Sitti Ilmawati, Waode; Kurniasih, Ita; Wati, Wa; Muzirah; Burhan, Muniati

    2017-05-01

    Cashew nut areexcellent products in Southeast Sulawesi. Cashew nut is one part of the cashew plant untapped waste. Cashew nut shell potential as a producer of liquidvolatile matter (LVM) and charcoal because it contains lignocellulos. LVM is the smoke condensation products obtained from the pyrolysis reactor can used foradhesive of briquettes hybridapplication. The aim of this reseach is to produce LVM of cashew nut shellby pyrolysisand analyze the content byGas Chromatography(GC). The research procedure begin with drying the cashew nut, the sample inserting into the pyrolysis reactor then heating with three variations of temperature respectively is 400°C, 500°C and 600°C. Cashew nutshell have been heating by pyrolisis processwith high temperatures resulting chorcoal and LVM separately. Volume LVM measured,then identify is components using GC. LVM obtained respectively 200ml kg-1, 340 ml kg-1, and 340 ml kg-1. Chromatogram of the GC from LVM of cashew nut shell has ammonia, hexane, acetic acid, propanone and phenol. Phenol compounds can be used as a adhesive for hybrid briquettes applications.

  13. Chemical Composition Analysis, Sensory, and Feasibility Study of Tree Peony Seed.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yingyi; Han, Jigang; Tian, Fang; Tang, Xue; Hu, Yonghong; Guan, Yan

    2017-02-01

    Eight wild species in Sect. Moutan DC (tree peony) of the genus Paeonia grown in natural habitats and 1 cultivated specie were investigated to analyze their fatty acid and bioactive phenolic compound profiles. For fatty acid composition, P. ludlowii contained the lowest α-linolenic acid (27.68%) and P. jishanensis contained the highest (51.96 %) content of the 9 species. For phenolic compounds, P. qiui contained the highest resveratrol (2.12 mg/g), P. delavayi contained the highest β-gentiobiosylpaeoniflorin (26.23 mg/g), and P. ostii contained the highest paeoniflorin (23.66 mg/g). P. ostii was selected to perform a feasibility study because of its relatively high level of α-linolenic acid 46.53%, low in ω-6 to ω-3 ratio of 1:2, and high level of the preferred bioactive phenolic compounds l including paeoniflorin and resveratrol. Physical pressing and refining process were conducted to obtain P. ostii seed oil. It exhibited bland sensory attributes described as slight grassy, very slight nutty, no painty or fishy aroma and slight grassy, slight nutty flavor with a very slight throat catch. Tocol results reported high level in tree peony seed oil 223.5 ± 13.65 mg/100 g with γ-tocopherol 70.1 ± 2.14 mg/100 g, and γ-tocotrienol 149.6 ± 15.83 mg/g. Because of the high total tocol, γ-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol levels, and tree peony seed oil exhibited better oxidation stability than flaxseed oil even with similar α-linolenic acid levels. In addition, high levels of γ-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol can introduce therapeutic effects such as antiinflammation and antioxidation. Therefore, this study showed that tree peony seed oil has a great potential to be used in edible oil, nutraceutical supplement, and other health care products. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Nut production in response to thinning and fertilization for planted walnut

    Treesearch

    Felix Ponder; Steve Rutledge; J.W. Van Sambeek

    2013-01-01

    Nut production from nursery-run black walnuts grown on 225 acres at the Hammons Products Company's Sho-Neff Black Walnut Farm in Stockton, MO, was evaluated from 1995 to 2010 to determine if nut production increased after thinning and fertilization in 2001. The farm consists of 11 upland and 10 bottomland plantings on sites ranging from unsuitable to well suited...

  15. Coupling for joining a ball nut to a machine tool carriage

    DOEpatents

    Gerth, Howard L.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved coupling for joining a lead screw ball nut to a machine tool carriage. The ball nut is coupled to the machine tool carriage by a plurality of laterally flexible bolts which function as hinges during the rotation of the lead screw for substantially reducing lateral carriage movement due to wobble in the lead screw.

  16. 77 FR 25903 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...; safflower, seed; and nut, tree, group 14. DATES: This final rule is effective May 2, 2012. ADDRESSES: EPA...; nut, tree, group 14 at 0.02 ppm; onion, dry bulb at 0.03 ppm; papaya at 0.40 ppm; and safflower, seed..., dry bulb; papaya; safflower, seed; and nut, tree, group 14 to the table in paragraph (a) to read as...

  17. Polyphenol-Rich Pomegranate Juice Reduces IgE Binding to Cashew Nut Allergens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cashew nut allergy is mediated by IgE binding to seed-storage proteins including Ana o 1, 2, and 3. Cashew nuts commonly cause severe reactions and only small amounts are needed. Polyphenol rich juices and polyphenol compounds have been demonstrated to complex with peanut allergens. The interacti...

  18. The Nuts and Bolts of Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics: Suggestions and Clarifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Matthew Junker's recent article describes a useful and effective enzyme kinetics application and analogy in which students simulate enzyme activity by unscrewing nut-bolt "substrate molecules", thus, converting them into separate nuts and bolts "products". A number of suggestions and corrections are presented that improve the clarity and accuracy…

  19. Role of an RNase III Binding Site in Transcription Termination at λ nutL by HK022 Nun Protein

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Robert S.; Court, Donald L.; Gottesman, Max E.

    2006-01-01

    The phage HK022 Nun protein excludes phage λ by binding nascent λ pL and pR transcripts at nutL and nutR, respectively, and inducing transcription termination just downstream of these sites. Termination is more efficient at nutL than at nutR. One difference between nutL and nutR is the presence of RNase III processing sites (rIII) located immediately promoter distal to λ nutL. We found that deletion of rIII dramatically reduced Nun transcription arrest in vitro but had little effect on termination in vivo. However, consistent with the in vitro results, overexpression of a transcript carrying nutL and rIII efficiently titrated Nun, allowing λ to grow on a strain that expressed Nun, whereas a transcript carrying only nutL or nutL-rIII with nucleotides 97 to 141 deleted was ineffective. Rnc70, an RNase III mutant that binds but does not cleave rIII, also prevented Nun-mediated λ exclusion. We propose that rIII enhances the on-rate of Nun at nutL, stimulating Nun-mediated arrest in vitro. We have shown that a specific element in rIII, i.e., box C (G89GUGUGUG), strongly enhances arrest on rIII+ templates. Nun-rIII interactions do not stimulate Nun termination in vivo, presumably because formation of the Nun-nutL complex is normally not rate-limiting in the cell. In contrast to Nun, N is not occluded by Rnc70 and is not efficiently titrated by a nutL-rIII transcript. PMID:16980485

  20. 3D finite element analysis of tightening process of bolt and nut connections with pitch difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Noda, N.-A.; Sano, Y.; Huang, Y. T.; Takase, Y.

    2018-06-01

    In a wide industrial field, the bolt-nut joint is unitized as an important machine element and anti-loosening performance is always required. In this paper, the effect of a slight pitch difference between a bolt and nut is studied. Firstly, by varying the pitch difference, the prevailing torque required for the nut rotation, before the nut touches the clamped body, is measured experimentally. Secondly, the tightening torque is determined as a function of the axial force of the bolt after the nut touches the clamped body. The results show that a large value of pitch difference may provide large prevailing torque that causes an anti-loosening effect although a very large pitch difference may deteriorate the bolt axial force under a certain tightening torque. Thirdly, a suitable pitch difference is determined taking into account the anti-loosening and clamping abilities. Furthermore, the chamfered corners at nut ends are considered, and it is found that the 3D finite element analysis with considering the chamfered nut threads has a good agreement with the experimental observation. Finally, the most desirable pitch difference required for improving anti-loosening is proposed.