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Sample records for tribasic copper chloride

  1. Tribasic copper chloride and copper sulfate as copper sources for weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D; Monegue, H J; Hall, D D; Orr, D E

    1998-01-01

    We conducted three 28-d experiments involving a total of 915 pigs to assess the relative efficacy of tribasic Cu chloride (Cu2[OH]3Cl) and Cu sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H20) in diets for weanling pigs. Experiments 1 and 2 were conducted at an experiment station (University of Kentucky), and Exp. 3 was conducted at a commercial feed company's swine research facilities (United Feeds, Inc.). The basal diet was a fortified corn-soybean meal-dried whey diet (1.25% lysine) with no antimicrobials in Exp. 1 or with carbadox (55 mg/kg) in Exp. 2 and 3. In Exp. 1, 135 pigs were weaned at 27 to 31 d and fed the basal diet without or with 100 or 200 ppm Cu from Cu chloride, or 100 or 200 ppm Cu from Cu sulfate from 7.9 to 17.7 kg BW. The 200 ppm level of Cu from Cu sulfate improved ADG (P < .10), and both levels of Cu from Cu chloride tended to improve feed:gain. In Exp. 2, 150 pigs were weaned at 27 to 31 d and fed the basal diet without or with 100, 150, or 200 ppm Cu from Cu chloride, or 200 ppm Cu from Cu sulfate from 8.9 to 20.8 kg BW. Addition of 200 ppm Cu improved ADG (P < .08) and ADFI (P < .01), but not feed:gain. Source of Cu did not affect performance. In Exp. 3, 630 pigs were weaned at 16 to 20 d and fed a common diet for 10 to 12 d until the start of the experimental period. The same experimental diets as used in Exp. 2 were fed from 9.1 to 25.5 kg BW. Both Cu sources improved ADG (P < .01), and sources and levels of Cu did not differ. Liver Cu increased in pigs fed 200 ppm Cu, and Cu sulfate tended to increase liver Cu more than did Cu chloride in one experiment, but not in another experiment. The results indicate that tribasic Cu chloride is as effective as Cu sulfate in improving growth in weanling pigs.

  2. Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

  3. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  4. Copper Chloride Cathode For Liquid-Sodium Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Bankston, Clyde P.

    1990-01-01

    Rechargeable liquid-sodium cell with copper chloride cathode offers substantial increase in energy density over cells made with other cathode materials. Unit has theoretical maximum energy density of 1135 W.h/kg. Generates electricity by electrochemical reaction of molten sodium and solid copper chloride immersed in molten electrolyte, sodium tetrachloroaluminate at temperature of equal to or greater than 200 degrees C. Wall of alumina tube separates molten electrolyte from molten sodium anode. Copper chloride cathode embedded in pores of sintered nickel cylinder or directly sintered.

  5. Electronic properties of carbon fibers intercalated with copper chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oshima, H.; Natarajan, V.; Woollam, J. A.; Yavrouian, A.; Haugland, E. J.; Tsuzuku, T.

    1984-01-01

    Copper chloride intercalated pitch-based carbon fibers are found to have electrical resistivities as low as 12.9 micro-ohm-cm, and are air- and thermally-stable at and above room temperature. This is therefore a good candidate system for conductor application. In addition, Shubnikov-deHaas quantum oscillatory effects were found, and electronic properties of the intercalated fiber are studied using magnetic fields to 20 tesla.

  6. Effect of copper chloride on the emissions of PCDD/Fs and PAHs from PVC combustion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongli; Xu, Xiaobai; Zheng, Minghui; Chiu, Chung H

    2002-09-01

    The influences of temperature, air flow and the amount of copper chloride upon the types and amount of the toxic emissions such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during combustion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were investigated. The mechanism concerning the effect of temperature and copper chloride on the PCDD/Fs and PAHs formation was discussed. The results shown that without copper chloride, trace amounts of PCDD/Fs and large amounts of PAHs were found in the emissions from the pure PVC combustion under various combustion conditions. The addition of copper chloride enhanced PCDD/Fs formation, but it seems that the formation of PAHs decreased with increasing amount of copper chloride, and greater total amount of PAHs were produced at the higher temperature under our experimental conditions.

  7. Graphite fiber intercalation: Basic properties of copper chloride intercalated fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Miller, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    In situ resistance measurements were used to follow the intercalation of copper chloride in pitch-based fibers. Subsequent single fiber resistivity measurements reveal a large range of resistivities, from 13 to 160 micro-ohms cm. Additional density measurements reveal a bimodal distribution of mass densities. The dense fibers have lower resistivities and correspond to the stage III compound identified by X-ray diffraction. Neither resistivity nor density correlate with diameter. Both energy dispersive spectroscopy and mass density data suggest that excess chlorine resides in the intercalated fiber, resulting in a stoichiometry of C4.9n CuCl2.5 (where n is the stage number) for the denser fibers. Finally, thermogravimetric analysis shows a 33 percent loss in mass upon heating to 700C. This loss in mass is attributed to loss of both chlorine and carbon.

  8. Effect of oxygen, methyl mercaptan, and methyl chloride on friction behavior of copper-iron contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with an iron rider on a copper disk and a copper rider on an iron disk. The sputter cleaned iron and copper disk surfaces were saturated with oxygen, methyl mercaptan, and methyl chloride at atmospheric pressure. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to monitor the surfaces. Lower friction was obtained in all experiments with the copper rider sliding on the iron disk than when the couple was reversed. For both iron and copper disks, methyl mercaptan gave the best surface coverage and was most effective in reducing friction. For both iron and copper disks, methyl chloride was the least effective in reducing friction. With sliding, copper transferred to iron and iron to copper.

  9. A parametric study of the copper chloride laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerheim, N. M.

    1977-01-01

    A parametric study of the double-pulsed copper chloride laser is reported. The effects of a wide range of variables on the laser energy density and on three characteristic time intervals (the minimum, maximum, and optimum delay time) between the two electrical-discharge pulses were studied. The geometric variables investigated included a tube diameter of 2.3 to 40 mm and a tube length of 3 to 60 cm. Three buffer gases, helium, neon, and argon, were studied over the pressure range 0.5-50 torr, and the tube temperature was varied from 270 to 500 C. The energy density and voltage of both the dissociation and pumping pulse were varied independently from less than 1 mJ/cu cm at 8.5 kV to over 500 mJ/cu cm at 20 kV. The optimum conditions for maximum laser energy density were found to be with 20 torr neon in a 10-mm by 30-cm tube at 400 C. The maximum energy density obtained was 22 microjoules/cu cm.

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of the copper(II) aspartame chloride complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakır, S.; Coşkun, E.; Naumov, P.; Biçer, E.; Bulut, İ.; İçbudak, H.; Çakır, O.

    2002-08-01

    Aspartame adduct of copper(II) chloride Cu(Asp) 2Cl 2·2H 2O (Asp=aspartame) is synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT IR, UV/vis, ESR spectroscopies, TG, DTG, DTA measurements and molecular mechanics calculations. Aqueous solution of the green solid absorbs strongly at 774 and 367 nm. According to the FT IR spectra, the aspartame moiety coordinates to the copper(II) ion via its carboxylate ends, whereas the ammonium terminal groups give rise to hydrogen bonding network with the water, the chloride ions or neighboring carboxylate groups. The results suggest tetragonally distorted octahedral environment of the copper ions.

  11. Measurements of copper ground-state and metastable level population densities in a copper-chloride laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerheim, N. M.

    1977-01-01

    The population densities of both the ground and the 2D(5/2) metastable states of copper atoms in a double-pulsed copper-chloride laser are correlated with laser energy as a function of time after the dissociation current pulse. Time-resolved density variations of the ground and excited copper atoms were derived from measurements of optical absorption at 324.7 and 510.6 nm, respectively, over a wide range of operating conditions in laser tubes with diameters of 4 to 40 mm. The minimum delay between the two current pulses at which lasing was observed is shown to be a function of the initial density and subsequent decay of the metastable state. Similarly, the maximum delay is shown to be a function of the initial density and decay of the ground state.

  12. Electrodeposition of copper composites from deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Andrew P; El Ttaib, Khalid; Frisch, Gero; McKenzie, Katy J; Ryder, Karl S

    2009-06-07

    Here we describe for the first time the electrolytic deposition of copper and copper composites from a solution of the metal chloride salt in either urea-choline chloride, or ethylene glycol-choline chloride based eutectics. We show that the deposition kinetics and thermodynamics are quite unlike those in aqueous solution under comparable conditions and that the copper ion complexation is also different. The mechanism of copper nucleation is studied using chronoamperometry and it is shown that progressive nucleation leads to a bright nano-structured deposit. In contrast, instantaneous nucleation, at lower concentrations of copper ions, leads to a dull deposit. This work also pioneers the use of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) to monitor both current efficiency and the inclusion of inert particulates into the copper coatings. This technique allows the first in situ quantification or particulate inclusion. It was found that the composition of composite material was strongly dependent on the amount of species suspended in solution. It was also shown that the majority of material was dragged onto the surface rather than settling on to it. The distribution of the composite material was found to be even throughout the coating. This technology is important because it facilitates deposition of bright copper coatings without co-ligands such as cyanide. The incorporation of micron-sized particulates into ionic liquids has resulted, in one case, in a decrease in viscosity. This observation is both unusual and surprising; we explain this here in terms of an increase in the free volume of the liquid and local solvent perturbation.

  13. Stability of bromine, iodine monochloride, copper (II) chloride, and nickel (II) chloride intercalated pitch-based graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Slabe, Melissa E.; Shaffer, Nanette

    1987-01-01

    Four different grades of pitch-based graphite fibers (Amoco P-55, P-75, P-100. and P-120) were intercalated with each of four different intercalates: bromine (Br2), iodine monochloride (ICl), copper (II) chloride (CuCl2), and nickel (II) chloride (NiCl2). The P-55 fibers did not react with Br2 or NiCl2, and the P-75 did not react with NiCl2. The stability of the electrical resistance of the intercalated fibers was monitored over long periods of time in ambient, high humidity (100 percent at 60 C), vacuum (10 to the -6 torr), and high temperature (up to 400 C) conditions. Fibers with lower graphitization form graphite intercalation compounds (GIC's) which are more stable than those with higher graphitization (i.e., P-55 (most stable) greater than P-75 greater than P-100 greater than P-120 (least stable). Br2 formed the most stable GIC's followed in order of decreasing stability by ICl, CuCl2, and NiCl2. While Br2 GIC's had the most stability, ICl had the advantages of forming GIC's with slightly greater reduction in resistance (by about 10%) than Br2, and the ability to intercalate P-55 fiber. Transition metal chlorides are susceptible to water vapor and high temperature. The stability of fibers in composites differs.

  14. Metallic conductivity and air stability in copper chloride intercalated carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, H.; Woollam, J. A.; Yavrouian, A.

    1982-12-01

    Carbon-copper chloride intercalation compounds have been obtained by using variously graphitized carbon fibers as host materials. The resultant conductors are air stable, thermally stable to 450 K, have electrical resistivities as low as 12.9 microohm cm at room temperature, and have metallic conductivity temperature dependencies. These intercalated fibers have tensile strengths of 160000 psi, and Young's moduli of 25 x 10 to the 6th psi. For aerospace use, 1/(resistivity x density) is a figure of merit. On this basis, a reduction in resistivity by a factor of two will make this conductor competitive with copper.

  15. Effect and interactions of commercial additives and chloride ion in copper electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wenyuan

    This thesis is to understand and compare the effects and interactions of modified polysaccharide (HydroStar), polyacrylamide (Cyquest N-900) and chloride ion on copper electrowinning. A study of the nucleation and growth was conducted in a synthetic electrolyte (40 g/L Cu, 160 g/L H2SO 4, 20 mg/L Cl-) with the addition of HydroStar or Cyquest N-900 using potential step measurements. The current responses generated were compared to theoretical models of nucleation and growth mechanisms. The nucleation and growth mechanism changed as function of potential and the presence of organic additives. The nucleation and growth mechanisms were confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At low overpotentials, electrodeposition from the electrolyte without additives proceeded by progressive nucleation with three-dimensional (3-D) growth. The addition of HydroStar produced smaller nuclei and changed the mechanism to progressive nucleation and 2-D growth. Cyquest N-900 used there appeared to be progressive nucleation with 2-D growth and polarize the cathodes. In addition, instantaneous nucleation under diffusion control occurred at high overpotentials. Chloride ion and its interaction with HydroStar and Cyquest N-900 were further characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The trends observed from Nyquist plots and equivalent circuit models were consistent with the CV results. Chloride, on its own, depolarized copper electrodeposition, while chloride ion associated with Cyquest N-900 inhibited the reaction. It is proposed that Cl- acted as a bridging ligand between copper and Cyquest N-900. The addition of HydroStar depolarized copper deposition, but it did not interact with.

  16. Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium

    DOEpatents

    Albin, David S.; Noufi, Rommel

    2015-06-09

    Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating a thin film device comprises: providing a semiconductor film comprising indium (In) and selenium (Se) upon a substrate; heating the substrate and the semiconductor film to a desired temperature; and performing a mass transport through vapor transport of a copper chloride vapor and se vapor to the semiconductor film within a reaction chamber.

  17. Protection of copper surface with phytic acid against corrosion in chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Peca, Dunja; Pihlar, Boris; Ingrid, Milošev

    2014-01-01

    Phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate) was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for copper in 3% sodium chloride. Phytic acid is a natural compound derived from plants, it is not toxic and can be considered as a green inhibitor. Electrochemical methods of linear polarization and potentiodynamic polarization were used to study the electrochemical behaviour and evaluate the inhibition effectiveness. To obtain the optimal corrosion protection the following experimental conditions were investigated: effect of surface pre-treatment (abrasion and three procedures of surface roughening), pre-formation of the layer of phytic acid, time of immersion and concentration of phytic acid. To evaluate the surface pre-treatment procedures the surface roughness and contact angle were measured. Optimal conditions for formation of phytic layer were selected resulting in the inhibition effectiveness of nearly 80%. Morphology and composition of the layer were further studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The layer of phytic acid with thickness in the nanometer range homogeneously covers the copper surface. The obtained results show that this natural compound can be used as a mildly effective corrosion inhibitor for copper in chloride solution.

  18. Response to copper and sodium chloride excess in Spirulina sp. (cyanobacteria).

    PubMed

    Deniz, F; Saygideger, S D; Karaman, S

    2011-07-01

    Physiological responses of the cyanobacterium, Spirulina sp., were evaluated following exposure to copper (0.1 and 1.0 mg/L) and sodium chloride (0.2 and 0.4 mol/L) for 7 days. Growth and chlorophyll a content exhibited decreases at most exposure levels, while increases occurred for malondialdehyde at all exposure levels. Proline content was increased at the higher exposure levels. Carotenoid levels of Spirulina sp. were not significantly changed. Increased amounts of malondialdehyde were indicative of free radical formation in Spirulina sp. under the stress, while increasing levels of proline pointed to the occurrence of a scavenging mechanism. Concentrations of copper in Spirulina sp. decreased with increasing concentrations of NaCl.

  19. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous copper films in choline chloride-urea deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q B; Abbott, Andrew P; Yang, C

    2015-06-14

    Nanoporous copper films were fabricated by a facile electrochemical alloying/dealloying process without the need of a template. A deep eutectic solvent made from choline chloride (ChCl) and urea was used with zinc oxide as the metal salt. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterise the electrochemical reduction of zinc and follow Cu-Zn alloy formation on the copper substrate at elevated temperatures from 353 to 393 K. The alloy formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction spectra. 3D, open and bicontinuous nanoporous copper films were obtained by in situ electrochemically etching (dealloying) of the zinc component in the Cu-Zn surface alloys at an appropriate potential (-0.4 V vs. Ag). This dealloying process was found to be highly temperature dependent and surface diffusion controlled, which involved the self-assembly of copper atoms at the alloy/electrolyte interface. Additionally, the effects of the deposition parameters, including deposition temperature, current density as well as total charge density on resulting the microstructure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscope.

  20. Electrochemical aspects of copper atmospheric corrosion in the presence of sodium chloride

    DOE PAGES

    Schindelholz, Eric John; Cong, Hongbo; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; ...

    2018-04-26

    Here, this study describes the evolving state of electrolyte and corrosion processes associated with sodium chloride on copper at the initial stage of corrosion and the critical implications of this behavior on controlling kinetics and damage distributions. Sodium chloride droplets were placed on copper in humid conditions and the resulting electrolyte properties, corrosion products and damage were characterized over time using time-lapse imaging, micro Raman spectroscopy, TOF-SIMS and optical profilometry. Within minutes of NaCl droplet placement, NaOH-rich films resultant from oxygen reduction advanced stepwise from the droplets, leaving behind concentric trenching attack patterns suggestive of moving anode-cathode pairs at themore » alkaline film front. Corrosion attack under these spreading alkaline films was up to 10x greater than under the original NaCl drops. Furthermore, solid Cu 2Cl(OH) 3 shells formed over the surface of the NaCl drops within hours of exposure. Thermodynamic modeling along with immersed electrochemical experiments in simulated droplet and films electrolytes were used to rationalize this behavior and build a description of the rapidly evolving corroding system.« less

  1. Modification of graphene electronic properties via controllable gas-phase doping with copper chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybin, Maxim G.; Islamova, Vera R.; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Obraztsova, Elena D.

    2018-01-01

    Molecular doping is an efficient, non-destructive, and simple method for changing the electronic structure of materials. Here, we present a simple air ambient vapor deposition method for functionalization of pristine graphene with a strong electron acceptor: copper chloride. The doped graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis-NIR optical absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electro-physical measurements performed using the 4-probe method. The effect of charge transfer from graphene to a dopant results in shifting the Fermi level in doped graphene. The change of the electronic structure of doped graphene was confirmed by the tangential Raman peak (G-peak) shift and by the appearance of the gap in the UV-vis-NIR spectrum after doping. Moreover, the charge transfer resulted in a substantial decrease in electrical sheet resistance depending on the doping level. At the highest concentration of copper chloride, a Fermi level shift into the valence band up to 0.64 eV and a decrease in the sheet resistance value by 2.36 times were observed (from 888 Ω/sq to 376 Ω/sq for a single graphene layer with 97% of transparency).

  2. Electrochemical aspects of copper atmospheric corrosion in the presence of sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Schindelholz, Eric John; Cong, Hongbo; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    Here, this study describes the evolving state of electrolyte and corrosion processes associated with sodium chloride on copper at the initial stage of corrosion and the critical implications of this behavior on controlling kinetics and damage distributions. Sodium chloride droplets were placed on copper in humid conditions and the resulting electrolyte properties, corrosion products and damage were characterized over time using time-lapse imaging, micro Raman spectroscopy, TOF-SIMS and optical profilometry. Within minutes of NaCl droplet placement, NaOH-rich films resultant from oxygen reduction advanced stepwise from the droplets, leaving behind concentric trenching attack patterns suggestive of moving anode-cathode pairs at themore » alkaline film front. Corrosion attack under these spreading alkaline films was up to 10x greater than under the original NaCl drops. Furthermore, solid Cu 2Cl(OH) 3 shells formed over the surface of the NaCl drops within hours of exposure. Thermodynamic modeling along with immersed electrochemical experiments in simulated droplet and films electrolytes were used to rationalize this behavior and build a description of the rapidly evolving corroding system.« less

  3. Effects of copper source and concentration on in vitro phytate phosphorus hydrolysis by phytase.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yanfang; Applegate, Todd J

    2006-03-08

    Five copper (Cu) sources were studied at pH 2.5, 5.5, and 6.5 to determine how Cu affects phytate phosphorus (PP) hydrolysis by phytase at concentrations up to 500 mg/kg diet (60 min, 40-41 degrees C). Subsequently, Cu solubility with and without sodium phytate was measured. Adding Cu inhibited PP hydrolysis at pH 5.5 and pH 6.5 (P < 0.05). This inhibition was greater with higher concentrations of Cu. Tri-basic copper chloride and copper lysinate inhibited PP hydrolysis much less than copper sulfate pentahydrate, copper chloride, and copper citrate (P < 0.05). A strong negative relationship was observed between PP hydrolysis and soluble Cu at pH 5.5 (r = -0.76, P < 0.0001) and 6.5 (r = -0.54, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, pH, Cu concentration, and source influenced PP hydrolysis by phytase in vitro and were related to the amount of soluble Cu and the formation of insoluble copper-phytin complexes.

  4. Liver mitochondrial dysfunction and electron transport chain defect induced by high dietary copper in broilers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Cao, Huabin; Su, Rongsheng; Guo, Jianying; Li, Chengmei; Pan, Jiaqiang; Tang, Zhaoxin

    2017-09-01

    Copper is an important trace mineral in the diet of poultry due to its biological activity. However, limited information is available concerning the effects of high copper on mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, 72 broilers were used to investigate the effects of high dietary copper on liver mitochondrial dysfunction and electron transport chain defect. Birds were fed with different concentrations [11, 110, 220, and 330 mg of copper/kg dry matter (DM)] of copper from tribasic copper chloride (TBCC). The experiment lasted for 60 d. Liver tissues on d 60 were subjected to histopathological observation. Additionally, liver mitochondrial function was recorded on d 12, 36, and 60. Moreover, a site-specific defect in the electron transport chain in liver mitochondria was also identified by using various chemical inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration. The results showed different degrees of degeneration, mitochondrial swelling, and high-density electrons in hepatocytes. In addition, the respiratory control ratio (RCR) and oxidative phosphorylation rate (OPR) in liver mitochondria increased at first and then decreased in high-dose groups. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation velocity in treated groups was higher than that in control group, which were magnified by inhibiting electron transport at Complex IV. The results indicated that high dietary copper could decline liver mitochondrial function in broilers. The presence of a site-specific defect at Complex IV in liver mitochondria may be responsible for liver mitochondrial dysfunction caused by high dietary copper. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER CHLORIDE, METHYLENE CHLORIDE,AND 6-AMINONICOTINAMIDE TO EMBRYOS OF THE GRASS SHRIMPPALAEMONETES PUGIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryos of estuarine grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio have demonstrated sensitivity to various solvents and petroleum products, indicating utility for evaluating estuarine contamination. Testing was performed to establish concentration-response curves for methylene chloride, cop...

  6. In vitro Solubility of Copper(II) Sulfate and Dicopper Chloride Trihydroxide for Pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, C S; Kim, B G

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the solubility of copper (Cu) in two sources of copper(II) sulfate (CuSO 4 ) including monohydrate and pentahydrate and three sources of dicopper chloride trihydroxide (dCCTH) including α-form (dCCTH-α), β-form (dCCTH-β), and a mixture of α- and β-form (dCCTH-αβ) at different pH and a 3-step in vitro digestion assay for pigs. In Exp. 1, Cu sources were incubated in water-based buffers at pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.8, and 6.8 for 4 h using a shaking incubator at 39°C. The CuSO 4 sources were completely dissolved within 15 min except at pH 6.8. The solubility of Cu in dCCTH-α was greater (p<0.05) than dCCTH-β but was not different from dCCTH-αβ during 3-h incubation at pH 2.0 and during 2-h incubation at pH 3.0. At pH 4.8, there were no significant differences in solubility of Cu in dCCTH sources. Copper in dCCTH sources were non-soluble at pH 6.8. In Exp. 2, the solubility of Cu was determined during the 3-step in vitro digestion assay for pigs. All sources of Cu were completely dissolved in step 1 which simulated digestion in the stomach. In Exp. 3, the solubility of Cu in experimental diets including a control diet and diets containing 250 mg/kg of additional Cu from five Cu sources was determined during the in vitro digestion assay. The solubility of Cu in diets containing additional Cu sources were greater (p<0.05) than the control diet in step 1. In conclusion, the solubility of Cu was influenced by pH of digesta but was not different among sources based on the in vitro digestion assay.

  7. In vitro Solubility of Copper(II) Sulfate and Dicopper Chloride Trihydroxide for Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Park, C. S.; Kim, B. G.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the solubility of copper (Cu) in two sources of copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4) including monohydrate and pentahydrate and three sources of dicopper chloride trihydroxide (dCCTH) including α-form (dCCTH-α), β-form (dCCTH-β), and a mixture of α- and β-form (dCCTH-αβ) at different pH and a 3-step in vitro digestion assay for pigs. In Exp. 1, Cu sources were incubated in water-based buffers at pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.8, and 6.8 for 4 h using a shaking incubator at 39°C. The CuSO4 sources were completely dissolved within 15 min except at pH 6.8. The solubility of Cu in dCCTH-α was greater (p<0.05) than dCCTH-β but was not different from dCCTH-αβ during 3-h incubation at pH 2.0 and during 2-h incubation at pH 3.0. At pH 4.8, there were no significant differences in solubility of Cu in dCCTH sources. Copper in dCCTH sources were non-soluble at pH 6.8. In Exp. 2, the solubility of Cu was determined during the 3-step in vitro digestion assay for pigs. All sources of Cu were completely dissolved in step 1 which simulated digestion in the stomach. In Exp. 3, the solubility of Cu in experimental diets including a control diet and diets containing 250 mg/kg of additional Cu from five Cu sources was determined during the in vitro digestion assay. The solubility of Cu in diets containing additional Cu sources were greater (p<0.05) than the control diet in step 1. In conclusion, the solubility of Cu was influenced by pH of digesta but was not different among sources based on the in vitro digestion assay. PMID:27456425

  8. Partial dissolution of ACQ-treated wood in lithium chloride/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone: Separation of copper from potential lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Stan Lebow; Karen G. Reed

    2012-01-01

    A cellulose solvent system based on lithium chloride (LiCl) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) was used to assess the merits of partial dissolutions of coarsely ground wood samples. Alkaline Copper Quaternary (ACQ)-treated pine wood was of particular interest for treatment given the potential to generate a copper- rich stream apart from solid and/or liquid...

  9. Electrochemical Deposition of Niobium onto the Surface of Copper Using a Novel Choline Chloride-Based Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Wixtroma, Alex I.; Buhlera, Jessica E.; Reece, Charles E.

    2013-06-01

    Recent research has shown that choline chloride-based solutions can be used to replace acid-based electrochemical polishing solutions. In this study niobium metal was successfully deposited on the surface of copper substrate via electrochemical deposition using a novel choline chloride-based ionic liquid. The niobium metal used for deposition on the Cu had been dissolved in the solution from electrochemical polishing of a solid niobium piece prior to the deposition. The visible coating on the surface of the Cu was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This deposition method effectively recycles previously dissolved niobium from electrochemicalmore » polishing.« less

  10. Crystal structures of copper(II) chloride, copper(II) bromide, and copper(II) nitrate complexes with pyridine-2-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumakov, Yu. M.; Tsapkov, V. I.; Jeanneau, E.; Bairac, N. N.; Bocelli, G.; Poirier, D.; Roy, J.; Gulea, A. P.

    2008-09-01

    The crystal structures of chloro-(2-formylpyridinethiosemicarbazono)copper dimethyl sulfoxide solvate ( I), bromo-(2-formylpyridinethiosemicarbazono)copper ( II), and (2-formylpyridinethiosemicarbazono)copper(II) nitrate dimethyl sulfoxide solvate ( III) are determined using X-ray diffraction. In the crystals, complexes I and II form centrosymmetric dimers in which the thiosemicarbazone sulfur atom serves as a bridge and occupies the fifth coordination site of the copper atom of the neighboring complex related to the initial complex through the center of symmetry. In both cases, the coordination polyhedron of the complexing ion is a distorted tetragonal bipyramid. Complex III in the crystal structure forms polymer chains in which the copper atom of one complex forms the coordination bond with the thicarbamide nitrogen atom of the neighboring complex. In this structure, the coordination polyhedron of the central atom is an elongated tetragonal bipyramid. It is established that complexes I III at a concentration of 10-5 mol/l selectively inhibit the growth of 60 to 90 percent of the cancer tumor cells of the human myeloid leukemia (HL-60).

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER SULFATE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE TO SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water-soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil which indicates they may be a useful test species in estuarine developmental toxicity tests. Detailed concentration-response curves for copper sulfate an...

  12. Comparison between micro- and nanosized copper oxide and water soluble copper chloride: interrelationship between intracellular copper concentrations, oxidative stress and DNA damage response in human lung cells.

    PubMed

    Strauch, Bettina Maria; Niemand, Rebecca Katharina; Winkelbeiner, Nicola Lisa; Hartwig, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Nano- and microscale copper oxide particles (CuO NP, CuO MP) are applied for manifold purposes, enhancing exposure and thus the potential risk of adverse health effects. Based on the pronounced in vitro cytotoxicity of CuO NP, systematic investigations on the mode of action are required. Therefore, the impact of CuO NP, CuO MP and CuCl 2 on the DNA damage response on transcriptional level was investigated by quantitative gene expression profiling via high-throughput RT-qPCR. Cytotoxicity, copper uptake and the impact on the oxidative stress response, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis were further analysed on the functional level. Cytotoxicity of CuO NP was more pronounced when compared to CuO MP and CuCl 2 in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Uptake studies revealed an intracellular copper overload in the soluble fractions of both cytoplasm and nucleus, reaching up to millimolar concentrations in case of CuO NP and considerably lower levels in case of CuO MP and CuCl 2 . Moreover, CuCl 2 caused copper accumulation in the nucleus only at cytotoxic concentrations. Gene expression analysis in BEAS-2B and A549 cells revealed a strong induction of uptake-related metallothionein genes, oxidative stress-sensitive and pro-inflammatory genes, anti-oxidative defense-associated genes as well as those coding for the cell cycle inhibitor p21 and the pro-apoptotic Noxa and DR5. While DNA damage inducible genes were activated, genes coding for distinct DNA repair factors were down-regulated. Modulation of gene expression was most pronounced in case of CuO NP as compared to CuO MP and CuCl 2 and more distinct in BEAS-2B cells. GSH depletion and activation of Nrf2 in HeLa S3 cells confirmed oxidative stress induction, mainly restricted to CuO NP. Also, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction were most distinct for CuO NP. The high cytotoxicity and marked impact on gene expression by CuO NP can be ascribed to the strong intracellular copper ion release, with subsequent

  13. Copper-catalyzed, C-C coupling-based one-pot tandem reactions for the synthesis of benzofurans using o-iodophenols, acyl chlorides, and phosphorus ylides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Hang; Wan, Jie-Ping

    2014-11-07

    One-pot reactions involving acyl chlorides, phosphorus ylides, and o-iodophenols with copper catalysis have been established for the rapid synthesis of functionalized benzofurans. With all of these easily available and stable reactants, the construction of the target products has been accomplished via tandem transformations involving a key C-C coupling, leading to the formation of one C(sp(2))-C bond, one C(sp(2))-O bond, and one C ═ C bond.

  14. Effect of chloride ions on the corrosion behavior of low-alloy steel containing copper and antimony in sulfuric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sun-Ah; Kim, Seon-Hong; Yoo, Yun-Ha; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2015-05-01

    The influence of the addition of HCl on the corrosion behavior of low-alloy steel containing copper and antimony was investigated using electrochemical (potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and weight loss tests in a 1.6M H2SO4 solution with different concentrations of hydrochloric acid (0.00, 0.08, 0.15 and 0.20 M HCl) at 60 °C. The result showed that the corrosion rate decreased with increasing HCl by the formation of protective layers. SEM, EDS and XPS examinations of the corroded surfaces after the immersion test indicated that the corrosion production layer formed in the solution containing HCl was highly comprised of metallic Cu, Cu chloride and metallic (Fe, Cu, Sb) compounds. The corrosion resistance was improved by the Cu-enriched layer, in which chloride ions are an accelerator for cupric ion reduction during copper deposition. Furthermore, cuprous and antimonious chloride species are complex salts for cuprous ions adsorbed on the surface during copper deposition.

  15. Photoinduced, Copper-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation with Alkyl Electrophiles: Cyanation of Unactivated Secondary Alkyl Chlorides at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Ratani, Tanvi S; Bachman, Shoshana; Fu, Gregory C; Peters, Jonas C

    2015-11-04

    We have recently reported that, in the presence of light and a copper catalyst, nitrogen nucleophiles such as carbazoles and primary amides undergo C-N coupling with alkyl halides under mild conditions. In the present study, we establish that photoinduced, copper-catalyzed alkylation can also be applied to C-C bond formation, specifically, that the cyanation of unactivated secondary alkyl chlorides can be achieved at room temperature to afford nitriles, an important class of target molecules. Thus, in the presence of an inexpensive copper catalyst (CuI; no ligand coadditive) and a readily available light source (UVC compact fluorescent light bulb), a wide array of alkyl halides undergo cyanation in good yield. Our initial mechanistic studies are consistent with the hypothesis that an excited state of [Cu(CN)2](-) may play a role, via single electron transfer, in this process. This investigation provides a rare example of a transition metal-catalyzed cyanation of an alkyl halide, as well as the first illustrations of photoinduced, copper-catalyzed alkylation with either a carbon nucleophile or a secondary alkyl chloride.

  16. Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells by Copper Chloride (CuCl2) as an Additive in Single Solvent Perovskite Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emrul Kayesh, Md.; Matsuishi, Kiyoto; Chowdhury, Towhid H.; Kaneko, Ryuji; Noda, Takeshi; Islam, Ashraful

    2018-05-01

    In this letter, we have introduced copper chloride (CuCl2) as an additive in the CH3NH3PbI3 precursor solution to improve the surface morphology and crystallinity of CH3NH3PbI3 films in a single solvent system. Our optimized perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with 2.5 mol% CuCl2 additive showed best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.22%. The PCE of the PSCs fabricated by CuCl2 (2.5 mol%) additive engineering was 56% higher than the PSC fabricated with pristine CH3NH3PbI3.

  17. Copper Complex in Poly(vinyl chloride) as a Nitric Oxide-Generating Catalyst for the Control of Nitrifying Bacterial Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Wonoputri, Vita; Gunawan, Cindy; Liu, Sanly; Barraud, Nicolas; Yee, Lachlan H; Lim, May; Amal, Rose

    2015-10-14

    In this study, catalytic generation of nitric oxide by a copper(II) complex embedded within a poly(vinyl chloride) matrix in the presence of nitrite (source of nitric oxide) and ascorbic acid (reducing agent) was shown to effectively control the formation and dispersion of nitrifying bacteria biofilms. Amperometric measurements indicated increased and prolonged generation of nitric oxide with the addition of the copper complex when compared to that with nitrite and ascorbic acid alone. The effectiveness of the copper complex-nitrite-ascorbic acid system for biofilm control was quantified using protein analysis, which showed enhanced biofilm suppression when the copper complex was used in comparison to that with nitrite and ascorbic acid treatment alone. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and LIVE/DEAD staining revealed a reduction in cell surface coverage without a loss of viability with the copper complex and up to 5 mM of nitrite and ascorbic acid, suggesting that the nitric oxide generated from the system inhibits proliferation of the cells on surfaces. Induction of nitric oxide production by the copper complex system also triggered the dispersal of pre-established biofilms. However, the addition of a high concentration of nitrite and ascorbic acid to a pre-established biofilm induced bacterial membrane damage and strongly decreased the metabolic activity of planktonic and biofilm cells, as revealed by CLSM with LIVE/DEAD staining and intracellular adenosine triphosphate measurements, respectively. This study highlights the utility of the catalytic generation of nitric oxide for the long-term suppression and removal of nitrifying bacterial biofilms.

  18. Copper

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper ; CASRN 7440 - 50 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  19. Electrochemical synthesis of copper nanoparticles using cuprous oxide as a precursor in choline chloride-urea deep eutectic solvent: nucleation and growth mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q B; Hua, Y X

    2014-12-28

    The electrochemical nucleation and growth kinetics of copper nanoparticles on a Ni electrode have been studied with cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry in the choline chloride (ChCl)-urea based deep eutectic solvent (DES). The copper source was introduced into the solvent by the dissolution of Cu(I) oxide (Cu2O). Cyclic voltammetry indicates that the electroreduction of Cu(I) species in the DES is a diffusion-controlled quasi-reversible process. The analysis of the chronoamperometric transient behavior during electrodeposition suggests that the deposition of copper on the Ni electrode at low temperatures follows a progressive nucleation and three-dimensional growth controlled by diffusion. The effect of temperature on the diffusion coefficient of Cu(I) species that is present in the solvent and electron transfer rate constant obeys the Arrhenius law, according to which the activation energies are estimated to be 49.20 and 21.72 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The initial stage of morphological study demonstrates that both electrode potential and temperature play important roles in controlling the nucleation and growth kinetics of the nanocrystals during the electrodeposition process. Electrode potential is observed to affect mainly the nucleation process, whereas temperature makes a major contribution to the growth process.

  20. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Thiazolyl Blue as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Copper in Neutral Sodium Chloride Solution.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li; Zhang, Shengtao; Qiang, Yujie; Xu, Yue; Guo, Lei; Madkour, Loutfy H; Chen, Shijin

    2018-06-19

    The anticorrosion effect of thiazolyl blue (MTT) for copper in 3% NaCl at 298 K was researched by electrochemical methods, scanning electron-microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results reveal that MTT can protect copper efficiently, with a maximum efficiency of 95.7%. The corrosion inhibition mechanism was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectral (FT-IR), and theoretical calculation. The results suggest that the MTT molecules are adsorbed on metal surface forming a hydrophobic protective film to prevent copper corrosion. It also indicates that the MTT and copper form covalent bonds. The molecular dynamic simulation further gives the evidence for adsorption. The adsorption isotherm studies demonstrate that a spontaneous, mixed physical and chemical adsorption occurs, which obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The present research can help us better understand the corrosion inhibition process and improve it.

  1. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  2. Chloridotetra­kis(pyridine-4-carb­alde­hyde-κN)copper(II) chloride

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiu-Jin; Zhang, Shu-Hua; Yang, Ge-Ge; Huang, Xue-Ren; Jiang, Yi-Min

    2009-01-01

    In the mol­ecular structure of the title compound, [CuCl(C6H5NO)4]Cl, the CuII atom is coordinated by four N atoms of four pyridine-4-carboxaldehyde ligands and one chloride anion in a slightly distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry. There is also a non-coordinating Cl− anion in the crystal structure. The CuII atom and both Cl atoms are situated on fourfold rotation axes. A weak C—H⋯Cl inter­action is also present. PMID:21578129

  3. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and pipe...

  4. Effects of copper amine treatments on mechanical, biological and surface/interphase properties of poly (vinyl chloride)/wood composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Haihong

    2005-11-01

    The copper ethanolamine (CuEA) complex was used as a wood surface modifier and a coupling agent for wood-PVC composites. Mechanical properties of composites, such as unnotched impact strength, flexural strength and flexural toughness, were significantly increased, and fungal decay weight loss was dramatically decreased by wood surface copper amine treatments. It is evident that copper amine was a very effective coupling agent and decay inhibitor for PVC/wood flour composites, especially in high wood flour loading level. A DSC study showed that the heat capacity differences (DeltaCp) of composites before and after PVC glass transition were reduced by adding wood particles. A DMA study revealed that the movements of PVC chain segments during glass transition were limited and obstructed by the presence of wood molecule chains. This restriction effect became stronger by increasing wood flour content and by using Cu-treated wood flour. Wood flour particles acted as "physical cross-linking points" inside the PVC matrix, resulting in the absence of the rubbery plateau of PVC and higher E', E'' above Tg, and smaller tan delta peaks. Enhanced mechanical performances were attributed to the improved wetting condition between PVC melts and wood surfaces, and the formation of a stronger interphase strengthened by chemical interactions between Cu-treated wood flour and the PVC matrix. Contact angles of PVC solution drops on Cu-treated wood surfaces were decreased dramatically compared to those on the untreated surfaces. Acid-base (polar), gammaAB, electron-acceptor (acid) (gamma +), electron-donor (base) (gamma-) surface energy components and the total surface energies increased after wood surface Cu-treatments, indicating a strong tendency toward acid-base or polar interactions. Improved interphase and interfacial adhesion were further confirmed by measuring interfacial shear strength between wood and the PVC matrix.

  5. Diaquachloro-tris(ethyl-p-Aminobenzoate)copper(II) Chloride: Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Investigation of Antibacterial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahardjo, S. B.; Lestari, W. W.; Syaima, H.

    2017-07-01

    The new complex of [Cu(benz)3(H2O)2Cl]Cl has been synthesized in 1:4 mole ratio of CuCl2·2H2O and ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (benz) in ethanol at room temperature. The complex was characterized by UV-Vis and infrared spectroscopy, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), thermal analysis, magnetic measurement and molar conductivity. Infrared spectra indicated that benz was coordinated to the metal ion through nitrogen of primary amine group. Water molecules and chloride ion were also coordinated to Cu(II). CuCl2·2H2O, benz, and Cu(II) complex were screened for investigating in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using a modified Kirby-Bauer method.

  6. The influence of copper concentration and source on ileal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Pang, Y; Patterson, J A; Applegate, T J

    2009-03-01

    Copper is normally supplemented in poultry diets as a growth promotant and antimicrobial. However, there are conflicting reports about the growth benefits and little information about how Cu affects the microbiota in the intestinal tract of poultry. Therefore, in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted with broilers to determine the effects of Cu source and supplementation on ileal microbiota. The influence of Cu on growth of lactobacilli and Escherichia coli in media inoculated with ileal contents was determined in the first study. When Cu sulfate pentahydrate was supplemented to the cultures, quadratic increases in lactobacilli to graded concentrations of Cu up to 125 mg/kg and quadratic decreases in E. coli up to 250 mg/kg of Cu were observed after 24 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. However, when tribasic Cu chloride (TBCC) was supplemented, neither linear nor quadratic responses to graded concentrations of dietary Cu were observed on number of lactobacilli or number of E. coli. The effects of Cu and Cu source on ileal microbiota and growth performance in broiler chickens were determined in the second study. Bird performance was not affected by Cu source or concentration. The bacterial culture enumeration results revealed that supplementation with 187.5 mg/kg of Cu from Cu sulfate pentahydrate and TBCC had no effect on number of ileal lactobacilli of birds. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of ileal microbial communities revealed that neither Cu supplementation nor source had effects on the number of bacterial species predominant in the ileal digesta or associated with the ileal mucosa. Supplementation with TBCC supplementation significantly increased the similarity coefficients of microbiota in the ileal mucosa compared with cross-products of all individuals. This suggests that TBCC may alter the intestinal microbiota, yet this shift had no effect on bird performance.

  7. Removal of copper (II) from aqueous solutions by flotation using polyaluminum chloride silicate (PAX-XL60 S) as coagulant and carbonate ion as activator.

    PubMed

    Ghazy, S E; Mahmoud, I A; Ragab, A H

    2006-01-01

    Flotation is a separation technology for removing toxic heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Here a simple and rapid flotation procedure is presented for the removal of copper(II) from aqueous solutions. It is based on the use of polyaluminum chloride silicate (PAX-XL60 S) as coagulant and flocculent, carbonate ion as activator and oleic acid (HOL) as surfactant. Both ion and precipitate flotation are included depending on the solution pH. Ion and precipitate flotation in the aqueous HOL-PAX-XL60 S-Cu2+-CO3(2-) system gave powerful preferential removal of Cu2+ (F -100%) over the HOL-PAX-XL60 S-Cu2+ system containing no CO3(2+) ion (F approximately 86%). The role of CO3(2-) ion is also evident from decreasing the dose of PAX-XL60 S from 700 mg l(-1) to 200 mg l(-1). The other parameters, influencing the flotation process, namely: metal ion, surfactant and PAX-XL60 S concentrations, ionic strength, temperature and foreign ions were examined. Moreover, the procedure was successfully applied to recover Cu2+ ions from different volumes up to 11 and from natural water samples.

  8. Effect of copper chloride exposure on the membrane potential and cytosolic free calcium in primary cultured chicken hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xuexia; Chen, Long; Li, Jingtao; Su, Rongsheng; Shi, Dayou; Tang, Zhaoxin

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of copper on membrane potential and cytosolic free calcium in isolated primary chicken hepatocytes which were exposed to different concentration of Cu(2+) (0, 10, 50, 100 μM) or a mixture of Cu(2+) and vitamin C (50 and 50 μM, respectively). Viability, membrane potential, and cytosolic free Ca(2+) of monolayer cultured hepatocytes were investigated at the indicated time point. Results showed that, among the different concentrations of Cu(2+) exposure, the viability of hepatocytes treated with 100 μM Cu(2+) was the worst at the 12th and 24th hours. The effects of Cu(2+) on viability and proliferation were time and dose dependent. Further investigation indicated that Cu(2+) exposure significantly enhanced cytosolic free Ca(2+) in hepatocytes, compared to that in control group, at the 24th hour. Meanwhile, membrane potential was noticeably reduced in hepatocytes increasing concentration of Cu(2+). Taking these results together, we have shown that Cu(2+) can cause toxicity to primary chicken hepatocytes in excessive dose and the effect of Cu(2+) exposure on membrane potential is not site specific, which is probably mediated by the changes of cytosolic free Ca(2+).

  9. Effects of dietary copper and amino acid density on growth performance, apparent metabolizable energy, and nutrient digestibility in Eimeria acervulina-challenged broilers.

    PubMed

    Rochell, S J; Usry, J L; Parr, T M; Parsons, C M; Dilger, R N

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of copper supplementation in diets varying in amino acid (AA) density on growth performance, apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), apparent ileal nutrient digestibility (AID), and plasma carotenoids in broilers infected with Eimeria acervulina. Ross 308 male broilers (480 total) were housed in battery cages and allotted to 8 experimental treatments in a factorial arrangement of 2 dietary AA densities [1.00% (LAA) or 1.20% (HAA) digestible Lys], 2 supplemental copper concentrations (zero or 116 mg/kg), and 2 E. acervulina infection states (uninfected or infected). Essential AA ratios relative to digestible Lys were similar in both the LAA and HAA diets, and copper was provided by 200 mg/kg of tribasic copper chloride (58% copper). Chicks received experimental diets from 2 to 21 d post hatch and 6 replicate cages of 10 birds per cage were assigned to each treatment. Broilers were inoculated with zero or 6.3 × 105 sporulated E. acervulina oocysts at 15 d and blood and ileal digesta were collected at 21 days. From 2 to 15 d, body weight gain and G:F of broilers were improved (P < 0.05) with increasing AA density, and an AA density × copper interaction was observed (P < 0.05) for feed intake. Eimeria infection reduced (P < 0.05) plasma carotenoids, growth performance, dietary AMEn, and AID of organic matter, nitrogen, and total AA. There were no interactive effects of dietary treatments with E. acervulina infection on broiler growth performance or dietary AMEn. An AA density × copper supplementation interaction was observed (P < 0.05) for AID of total AA, whereby copper supplementation increased AID of total AA for birds fed the LAA diet and decreased AID of total AA for birds fed the HAA diet. In summary, E. acervulina-induced reductions in nutrient digestibility were dependent on dietary copper and AA status, but changes in digestibility had minimal impact on growth performance of broilers during

  10. Study of the Effect of Molten Copper Chloride Immersion Test on Alloys with High Nickel Content with and without Surface Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siantar, Edwin

    The demand for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier has increased greatly. The Cu-Cl cycle is a promising thermochemical cycle that is currently being developed to be the large-scale method of hydrogen production. The lifetime of materials for the pipes transporting molten CuCl is an important parameter for an economic design of a commercial thermochemical Cu-Cl hydrogen plant. This research is an examination of candidate materials following an immersion test in molten CuCl at 500 °C for 100 h. Two alloys, Ni based super-alloy (Inconel 625) and super austenitic stainless steel (AL6XN) were selected as the base metal. There were two types of coating applied to improve the corrosion resistance of the base metals during molten CuCl exposure. A metallic of Diamalloy 4006 and two ceramic of yttria stabilized zirconia and alumina coatings were applied to the base metal using thermal spray methods. An immersion apparatus was designed and constructed to perform an immersion test that has a condition similar to those in a hydrogen plant. After the immersion test, the materials were evaluated using an electrochemical method in combination with ex-situ surface analysis. The surface condition including elemental composition, film structure and resistivity of the materials were examined and compared. The majority of the coatings were damaged and fell off. Cracks were found in the original coated specimens indicating the sample geometry may have affected the integrity of the sprayed coating. When the coating cracked, it provided a pathway for the molten CuCl to go under the coating and react with the surface underneath the coating. Copper deposits and iron chloride that were found on the sample surfaces suggest that there were corrosion reactions that involved the metal dissolution and reduction of copper during immersion test. The results also suggest that Inconel 625 performed better than stainless steel AL6XN. Both Diamalloy 4006 and YSZ (ZrO2 18TiO2 10Y2O3) coatings seemed to

  11. Preparation of Copper Telluride Films by Co-Reduction of Cu(I) and Te(IV) Ions in Choline Chloride: Ethylene Glycol Ionic Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golgovici, Florentina; Catrangiu, Adriana-Simona; Stoian, Andrei Bogdan; Anicai, Liana; Visan, Teodor

    2016-07-01

    Cathodic processes of direct co-reduction of Cu+ and Te4+ ions on Pt electrode at 60°C were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The ionic liquid as background electrolyte consisted of a mixture of choline chloride and ethylene glycol (ChCl-EG 1:2 mol ratio) in which 5-20 mM CuCl and 8 mM TeO2 were dissolved. The voltammograms exhibited the following successive cathodic processes: Cu2+/Cu+ reduction, Te underpotential deposition, simultaneous deposition of Cu metal and CuTe compound, and deposition of Te-rich CuTe compound at the most negative potentials (from -0.5 V to -0.8 V). Corresponding dissolution or oxidation peaks were recorded on the anodic branch. The voltammetric results were confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectra. Copper telluride films have been synthesized on platinum substrate via potentiostatic electrodeposition at 60°C. It was found from atomic force microscopy that CuTe film samples prepared from ChCl-EG + 5 mM CuCl + 8 mM TeO2 ionic liquid have high growth rates. The x-ray diffraction patterns of the deposited films from ChCl-EG + 10 mM CuCl + 8 mM TeO2 ionic liquid indicated the presence of a Cu2Te phase for film deposited at -0.7 V and a Cu0.656Te0.344 phase for film deposited at -0.6 V.

  12. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34 Section 151.50-34 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall...

  13. Effects of replacing a dietary antibacterial agent (zinc bacitracin) with copper salts in Cherry Valley Pekin meat ducks.

    PubMed

    Wu, D W; Wang, L C; Wen, C; Hooge, D M; Liang, C; Zhou, Y M

    2013-01-01

    1. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of high dietary copper concentrations obtained from tribasic copper chloride (TBCC, 58% copper) and copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4, 25% copper) in replacing antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in duck diets. 2. A total of 960 one-day-old Cherry Valley meat-strain ducks were divided into 3 treatment groups, with 8 replicates per treatment, in a 6-week feeding trial. The ducks were fed a basal diet supplemented with AGP (40 mg zinc bacitracin/kg and 40 mg garlicin/kg of diet) or 150 mg of Cu/kg of diet, given as either CuSO4 or TBCC. 3. The body weight, average daily gain, average daily feed intake and mortality of ducks were not affected by the dietary treatments. However, the feed/gain ratio of ducks that were fed TBCC diets was significantly lower than those of ducks that were fed CuSO4 diets and were similar to those in the AGP group. 4. TBCC increased the Cu content in the liver tissue of ducks compared with the content in those that were fed the diet supplemented with AGP. TBCC also increased the Fe and Zn content in breast muscles compared with that in ducks that were fed the diet supplemented with CuSO4. 5. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were significantly higher in the serum of ducks that received the diet supplemented with TBCC than AGP or CuSO4. TBCC treatment decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in serum of ducks compared with groups supplemented with CuSO4. 6. No significant difference was observed in liver or muscle fat content among the different dietary treatment groups. The serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was lower in ducks fed AGP diets than those fed CuSO4 diets. 7. It was concluded that the replacement of AGP with 150 mg of Cu/kg of feed from TBCC improved the feed efficiency, trace mineral deposition and antioxidant status more than when the source of copper was CuSO4.

  14. Electrodeposition of copper on a Pt(111) electrode in sulfuric acid containing poly(ethylene glycol) and chloride ions as probed by in situ STM.

    PubMed

    Fu, YunLin; Pao, Te; Chen, Sih-Zih; Yau, ShuehLin; Dow, Wei-Ping; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2012-07-03

    This study employed real-time in situ STM imaging to examine the adsorption of PEG molecules on Pt(111) modified by a monolayer of copper adatoms and the subsequent bulk Cu deposition in 1 M H(2)SO(4) + 1 mM CuSO(4)+ 1 mM KCl + 88 μM PEG. At the end of Cu underpotential deposition (~0.35 V vs Ag/AgCl), a highly ordered Pt(111)-(√3 × √7)-Cu + HSO(4)(-) structure was observed in 1 M H(2)SO(4) + 1 mM CuSO(4). This adlattice restructured upon the introduction of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, molecular weight 200) and chloride anions. At the onset potential for bulk Cu deposition (~0 V), a Pt(111)-(√3 × √3)R30°-Cu + Cl(-) structure was imaged with a tunneling current of 0.5 nA and a bias voltage of 100 mV. Lowering the tunneling current to 0.2 nA yielded a (4 × 4) structure, presumably because of adsorbed PEG200 molecules. The subsequent nucleation and deposition processes of Cu in solution containing PEG and Cl(-) were examined, revealing the nucleation of 2- to 3-nm-wide CuCl clusters on an atomically smooth Pt(111) surface at overpotentials of less than 50 mV. With larger overpotential (η > 150 mV), Cu deposition seemed to bypass the production of CuCl species, leading to layered Cu deposition, starting preferentially at step defects, followed by lateral growth to cover the entire Pt electrode surface. These processes were observed with both PEG200 and 4000, although the former tended to produce more CuCl nanoclusters. Raising [H(2)SO(4)] to 1 M substantiates the suppressing effect of PEG on Cu deposition. This STM study provided atomic- or molecular-level insight into the effect of PEG additives on the deposition of Cu.

  15. THE EVOLUTION OF SYNTHETICALLY PRECIPITATED COPPER SOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to explore the effect of water quality, particularly chloride and sulfate, on copper mineral formation. Copper-sulfate and chloride compounds are often found on the surface of copper pipes in drinking water distribution systems. When attempting to ...

  16. 40 CFR 415.360 - Applicability; description of the copper salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... copper salts production subcategory. 415.360 Section 415.360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.360 Applicability; description of the copper... copper salts, including (a) copper sulfate, copper chloride, copper iodide, and copper nitrate, and (b...

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation with tribasic zinc sulfate or zinc sulfate on growth performance, zinc content and expression of zinc transporters in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bo; Zhou, Xihong; Wu, Jie; Long, Ciming; Yao, Yajun; Peng, Hongxing; Wan, Dan; Wu, Xin

    2017-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of zinc sulfate (ZS) and tribasic zinc sulfate (TBZ) as sources of supplemental zinc on growth performance, serum zinc (Zn) content and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Zn transporters (ZnT1/ZnT2/ZnT5/ZIP4/DMT1) of young growing pigs. A total of 96 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs were randomly allotted to two treatments and were fed a basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg Zn from either ZS or TBZ for 28 days. Feed : gain ratio in pigs fed TBZ were lower (P < 0.05) than pigs fed ZS, and average daily weight gain tended to increase (0.05 ≤ P ≤ 0.10) in pigs fed TBZ. Compared with pigs fed ZS, pigs fed TBZ had a higher CuZn-superoxide dismutase and Zn content in serum (P < 0.05) while they had a lower Zn content in feces (P < 0.05). In addition, ZIP4 mRNA expression of zinc transporter in either duodenum or jejunum of pigs fed TBZ were higher (P < 0.05) than pigs fed ZS. These results indicate that TBZ is more effective in serum Zn accumulation and intestinal Zn absorption, and might be a potential substitute for ZS in young growing pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Induction of micronuclei and binuclei in blood, gill and liver cells of fishes subchronically exposed to cadmium chloride and copper sulphate.

    PubMed

    Cavas, Tolga; Garanko, Natasha N; Arkhipchuk, Victor V

    2005-04-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) and Peppered cory (Corydoras paleatus) were evaluated as target species to perform genotoxicity tests for heavy metals. Fishes were exposed to different doses of cadmium (0.005-0.1 mg/L) and copper (0.01-0.25 mg/L) for 21 days. Hexavalent chromium at a single dose of 5 mg/L was used as a positive control. Frequencies of micronuclei and binuclei were evaluated comparatively in peripheral blood erythrocytes, gill epithelial cells and liver cells. As a result it was observed that, fish species and their tissues showed differential sensitivity to the heavy metal treatment. In general, frequencies of micronucleated and binucleated cells significantly increased following the exposure for 21 days to copper, cadmium and chromium. On the other hand, gill and liver cells showed higher frequencies of micronuclei and binuclei than erythrocytes. Our results indicated the formation of micronuclei and binuclei in fish cells caused by their exposure to cadmium, copper and chromium, thus verifying results obtained earlier on mammals, which indicated that these heavy metals have cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. The suitability of the micronucleus assay in native fish species for the screening of aquatic genotoxicants is highlighted and the importance of target tissue selection in the piscine micronucleus test is emphasized.

  19. Vinyl Chloride

    Cancer.gov

    Learn about vinyl chloride, which can raise the risk of a rare form of liver cancer, as well as brain and lung cancers, and leukemia and lymphoma. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make PVC, a substance used in products such as pipes.

  20. Influence of complexation with chloride on the responses of a lux-marked bacteria bioassay to cadmium, copper, lead, and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Sarin, C.; Hall, J.M.; Cotter-Howells, J.

    2000-02-01

    The toxicity of a heavy metal in solution to a microorganism depends not only on its concentration but also on pH and the concentrations of any aqueous complexing ligands in the microorganism's environment. This paper reports on the use of different inorganic resuscitation media and effect of the chloride ion, Cl{sup {minus}}, on the bioluminescence response of a bacterial biosensor, Escherichia coli HB101 (pUCD607), to four metals: Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb. The toxicity tests were conducted at pH 4, using 0.1 M KNO{sub 3} as resuscitation medium and adding KCl to investigate effect of Cl{sup {minus}} concentration. The speciesmore » distributions of metals as a function of Cl{sup {minus}} concentration were calculated using GeoChem-PC. Resuscitation in 0.1 M KCl gave significantly higher light output than that in 0.1 M KNO{sub 3}, demonstrating that Cl{sup {minus}} ions increased the toxicity of Hg, apparently because of the formation of HgCl{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and increased the toxicity of Pb because of PbCl{sup +} formation. The toxicity of Cu decreased at high Cl{sup {minus}} concentrations as free Cu{sup 2+} decreased, in accordance with the free ion model. Concentrations of Cl{sup {minus}} had no significant effect on the toxicity of Cd. This study clearly demonstrates that the chloro-complexes of some heavy metals can be toxic and, for Pb and Hg, more toxic than the free ion.« less

  1. Mechanistic characterization of chloride interferences in electrothermal atomization systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shekiro, J.M.; Skogerboe, R.K.; Taylor, Howard E.

    1988-01-01

    A computer-controlled spectrometer with a photodiode array detector has been used for wavelength and temperature resolved characterization of the vapor produced by an electrothermal atomizer. The system has been used to study the chloride matrix interference on the atomic absorption spectrometric determination of manganese and copper. The suppression of manganese and copper atom populations by matrix chlorides such as those of calcium and magnesium is due to the gas-phase formation of an analyte chloride species followed by the diffusion of significant fractions of these species from the atom cell prior to completion of the atomization process. The analyte chloride species cannot be formed when matrix chlorides with metal-chloride bond dissociation energies above those of the analyte chlorides are the principal entitles present. The results indicate that multiple wavelength spectrometry used to obtain temperature-resolved spectra is a viable tool in the mechanistic characterization of interference effects observed with electrothermal atomization systems. ?? 1988 American Chemical Society.

  2. Mepiquat chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mepiquat chloride ; CASRN 24307 - 26 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  3. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl chloride ; CASRN 74 - 87 - 3 ( 07 / 17 / 2001 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  4. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  5. Vinyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635R - 00 / 004 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF VINYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 75 - 01 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) May 2000 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance w

  6. Benzyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzyl chloride ; CASRN 100 - 44 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  7. Allyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl chloride ; CASRN 107 - 05 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  8. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  9. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  10. Methylene Chloride.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan A

    2018-02-01

    Methylene chloride is an industrial solvent used in commercial paint strippers and degreasing agents. This chemical is widely used in consumer products, yet without appropriate protections, exposure may lead to death. Already banned in some countries, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently proposed limiting its use in the United States.

  11. Anodization of Copper in Chloride Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-31

    ethylene glycol is often present. The results of their cyclic voltammetric experiments led them to the conclusion that the presence of ethylene glycol will...a microdisk, and that low ohmic drops are encountered even at high current densities. Wikiel, dos Santos and Osteryoung have used pulse voltammetry to...Cu+ is produced by the reproportionation reaction between Cu2 + in solution and Cuo on the disk: (13) Cu0 + Cu2 + = 2Cu+. The product Cu+ is detected

  12. Dialkylimidazolium Chlorides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Force Systems Command U. S. Air Force Academy, Colorado 80840 I7 *i iL•- r.•r -i- ABSTRACT A- A - i The synthesis of a homologous series of 1 -methyl...Chemical Co. and was vacuum distilled from BaO before use. The 1 - chloropropane and 1 -chlorobutane were obtained from the Aldrich Chemical Co. and were used...23.52% Cl, 1.84% 0. l-Methvl-3-propylimidazolium chloride. 1 -Methylimidazole (10.1 g, 0.123 mol) and l- chloropropane (12.7 g, 0.161 mol) were mixed in

  13. The Copper-nicotinamide complex: sustainable applications in coupling and cycloaddition reactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Crystalline copper (II)-nicotinamide complex, synthesized via simple mixing of copper chloride and nicotinamide solution at room temperature, catalyzes the C-S, C-N bond forming and cycloaddition reactions under a variety of sustainable reaction conditions.

  14. The electronic spectra and the structures of the individual copper(II) chloride and bromide complexes in acetonitrile according to steady-state absorption spectroscopy and DFT/TD-DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshin, Pavel K.; Myasnikova, Olesya S.; Kashina, Maria V.; Gorbunov, Artem O.; Bogachev, Nikita A.; Kompanets, Viktor O.; Chekalin, Sergey V.; Pulkin, Sergey A.; Kochemirovsky, Vladimir A.; Skripkin, Mikhail Yu.; Mereshchenko, Andrey S.

    2018-03-01

    The results of spectrophotometric study and quantum chemical calculations for copper(II) chloro- and bromocomplexes in acetonitrile are reported. Electronic spectra of the individual copper(II) halide complexes were obtained in a wide spectral range 200-2200 nm. Stability constants of the individual copper(II) halide complexes in acetonitrile were calculated: log β1 = 8.5, log β2 = 15.6, log β3 = 22.5, log β4 = 25.7 for [CuCln]2-n and log β1 = 17.0, log β2 = 24.6, log β3 = 28.1, log β4 = 30.4 for [CuBrn]2-n. Structures of the studied complexes were optimized and electronic spectra were simulated using DFT and TD-DFT methodologies, respectively. According to the calculations, the more is the number of halide ligands the less is coordination number of copper ion.

  15. Process for removing copper in a recoverable form from solid scrap metal

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, Alan D.; Oden, Laurance L.; White, Jack C.

    1995-01-01

    A process for removing copper in a recoverable form from a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix is disclosed. The process begins by placing a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix into a reactor vessel. The atmosphere within the reactor vessel is purged with an inert gas or oxidizing while the reactor vessel is heated in the area of the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix to raise the temperature within the reactor vessel to a selected elevated temperature. Air is introduced into the reactor vessel and thereafter hydrogen chloride is introduced into the reactor vessel to obtain a desired air-hydrogen chloride mix. The air-hydrogen chloride mix is operable to form an oxidizing and chloridizing atmosphere which provides a protective oxide coating on the surface of the solid ferrous scrap metal in the mix and simultaneously oxidizes/chloridizes the copper in the mix to convert the copper to a copper monochloride gas for transport away from the solid ferrous scrap metal. After the copper is completely removed from the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix, the flows of air and hydrogen chloride are stopped and the copper monochloride gas is collected for conversion to a recoverable copper species.

  16. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  17. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002474.htm Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  18. Chloride test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Serum chloride test ... A greater-than-normal level of chloride is called hyperchloremia. It may be due to: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (used to treat glaucoma) Diarrhea Metabolic acidosis Respiratory alkalosis (compensated) Renal ...

  19. Molecular imaging and therapy targeting copper metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wachsmann, Jason; Peng, Fangyu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. Significant efforts have been devoted to identify new biomarkers for molecular imaging and targeted therapy of HCC. Copper is a nutritional metal required for the function of numerous enzymatic molecules in the metabolic pathways of human cells. Emerging evidence suggests that copper plays a role in cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Increased accumulation of copper ions was detected in tissue samples of HCC and many other cancers in humans. Altered copper metabolism is a new biomarker for molecular cancer imaging with position emission tomography (PET) using radioactive copper as a tracer. It has been reported that extrahepatic mouse hepatoma or HCC xenografts can be localized with PET using copper-64 chloride as a tracer, suggesting that copper metabolism is a new biomarker for the detection of HCC metastasis in areas of low physiological copper uptake. In addition to copper modulation therapy with copper chelators, short-interference RNA specific for human copper transporter 1 (hCtr1) may be used to suppress growth of HCC by blocking increased copper uptake mediated by hCtr1. Furthermore, altered copper metabolism is a promising target for radionuclide therapy of HCC using therapeutic copper radionuclides. Copper metabolism has potential as a new theranostic biomarker for molecular imaging as well as targeted therapy of HCC. PMID:26755872

  20. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1989-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  1. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1990-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  2. Copper Metallochaperones

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Nigel J.; Winge, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    The current state of knowledge on how copper metallochaperones support the maturation of cuproproteins is reviewed. Copper is needed within mitochondria to supply the CuA and intramembrane CuB sites of cytochrome oxidase, within the trans-Golgi network to supply secreted cuproproteins and within the cytosol to supply superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1). Subpopulations of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase also localize to mitochondria, the secretory system, the nucleus and, in plants, the chloroplast, which also requires copper for plastocyanin. Prokaryotic cuproproteins are found in the cell membrane and in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria. Cu(I) and Cu(II) form tight complexes with organic molecules and drive redox chemistry, which unrestrained would be destructive. Copper metallochaperones assist copper in reaching vital destinations without inflicting damage or becoming trapped in adventitious binding sites. Copper ions are specifically released from copper metallochaperones upon contact with their cognate cuproproteins and metal transfer is thought to proceed by ligand substitution. PMID:20205585

  3. Copper Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Time and International Normalized Ratio (PT/INR) PSEN1 Quantitative Immunoglobulins Red Blood Cell (RBC) Antibody Identification Red ... and are usually performed in special reference or research laboratories. Rarely, a copper test may be used ...

  4. Copper poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vitamin and mineral supplements (copper is an essential micronutrient, but too much can be deadly) Other products ... person throw up unless poison control or a health care provider tells you to. Before Calling Emergency ...

  5. Investigation of magnetic properties in the case of three families of 1-dimensional magnets: M(II)A(4,4'-bipyridine); M = iron, cobalt, nickel, copper; A = chloride, nitrogen, (ox)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilovic, Dusan S.

    Magnetic properties of three families of metal-organic coordinated networks which have the general form of M(II)A(4,4'-bipyridine), where M=Fe, Ni, Co, and Cu and A=Cl2, (ox) and (N3)2, are studied in this dissertation. Novel Ni(N3)2(4,4'-bipyridine), Co(N3)2(4,4'-bipyridine) and Cu(N 3)2(4,4'-bipyridine) have been synthesized. We applied different synthesis procedures and produced Ni, Co, and Cu azide compounds for the first time, thus leaving the hydrothermal route procedure. Powder x-ray diffraction at room temperature was done in order to establish the crystal structure of the members of these three families. It was found that all of them crystallize in orthorhombic structure, where transitional metals have an octahedral coordination. Since all three families have identical crystal structure we got opportunity to examine how ligands facilitate magnetic interaction between metallic centers and also to test existing magnetic theoretical models. Since 4,4'-bipyridine is much longer than other ligands, our systems can be considered as 1-D magnetic systems. Their interchain magnetic interactions are very weak, and they order magnetically at very low temperatures of the order of few K. Measurements of M(H) at temperatures T=1.9K and T=2K and chi(T) in different external magnetic fields in zero field and field cooled modes have been made. In the case of MCl2(4,4'-bipyridine) family of compounds, we observed ferromagnetic interactions between metal ions within the chains and antiferromagnetic interactions between adjacent chains. M(ox)(4,4'-bipyridine) family of metal-organic compounds has antiferromagnetic interactions between the transitional metal ions within the chain, while weak ferromagnetic interaction exists between the chains. All members in the M(N3)2(4,4'-bipyridine) family except in the case of the copper compound were found to have ferromagnetic interactions between metal ions within the chains and then antiferromagnetic interactions between adjacent

  6. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Ligand-Doped Copper Oxo-hydroxide Nanoparticles are Effective Antimicrobials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Carlos A. P.; Faria, Nuno; Ivask, Angela; Bondarenko, Olesja M.; Kahru, Anne; Powell, Jonathan

    2018-04-01

    Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial therapies is an increasing clinical problem. This is as true for topical applications as it is for systemic therapy. Topically, copper ions may be effective and cheap antimicrobials that act through multiple pathways thereby limiting opportunities to bacteria for resistance. However, the chemistry of copper does not lend itself to facile formulations that will readily release copper ions at biologically compatible pHs. Here, we have developed nanoparticulate copper hydroxide adipate tartrate (CHAT) as a cheap, safe, and readily synthesised material that should enable antimicrobial copper ion release in an infected wound environment. First, we synthesised CHAT and showed that this had disperse aquated particle sizes of 2-5 nm and a mean zeta potential of - 40 mV. Next, when diluted into bacterial medium, CHAT demonstrated similar efficacy to copper chloride against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with dose-dependent activity occurring mostly around 12.5-50 mg/L of copper. Indeed, at these levels, CHAT very rapidly dissolved and, as confirmed by a bacterial copper biosensor, showed identical intracellular loading to copper ions derived from copper chloride. However, when formulated at 250 mg/L in a topically applied matrix, namely hydroxyethyl cellulose, the benefit of CHAT over copper chloride was apparent. The former yielded rapid sustained release of copper within the bactericidal range, but the copper chloride, which formed insoluble precipitates at such concentration and pH, achieved a maximum release of 10 ± 7 mg/L copper by 24 h. We provide a practical formulation for topical copper-based antimicrobial therapy. Further studies, especially in vivo, are merited.

  8. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  9. Copper cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper cyanide ; CASRN 544 - 92 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  10. Copper peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, L.

    1988-01-01

    A number of oxidizing agents, including chlorine, bromine, ozone and other peroxides, were allowed to act on copper solutions with the intention of forming copper peroxide. The only successful agent appears to be hydrogen peroxide. It must be used in a neutral 50 to 30 percent solution at a temperature near zero. Other methods described in the literature apparently do not work. The excess of hydrogen must be quickly sucked out of the brown precipitate, which it is best to wash with alcohol and ether. The product, crystalline under a microscope, can be analyzed only approximately. It approaches the formula CuO2H2O. In alkaline solution it appears to act catalytically in causing the decomposition of other peroxides, so that Na2O2 cannot be used to prepare it. On the addition of acids the H2O2 is regenerated. The dry substance decomposes much more slowly than the moist but is not very stable.

  11. Copper metallothioneins.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Jenifer; Jung, Hunmin; Meloni, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a class of low molecular weight and cysteine-rich metal binding proteins present in all the branches of the tree of life. MTs efficiently bind with high affinity several essential and toxic divalent and monovalent transition metals by forming characteristic polynuclear metal-thiolate clusters within their structure. MTs fulfil multiple biological functions related to their metal binding properties, with essential roles in both Zn(II) and Cu(I) homeostasis as well as metal detoxification. Depending on the organism considered, the primary sequence, and the specific physiological and metabolic status, Cu(I)-bound MT isoforms have been isolated, and their chemistry and biology characterized. Besides the recognized role in the biochemistry of divalent metals, it is becoming evident that unique biological functions in selectively controlling copper levels, its reactivity as well as copper-mediated biochemical processes have evolved in some members of the MT superfamily. Selected examples are reviewed to highlight the peculiar chemical properties and biological functions of copper MTs. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 69(4):236-245, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Sodium chloride and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y W

    1997-09-01

    The hypothesis that sodium chloride deficiency, and not its overuse, is prime cause of hypertension and arteriosclerosis is presented. In the author's home town--a farflung part of northern China--hypertension is a rare disease and arteriosclerosis is a virtually unknown condition. The average intake of sodium chloride for these people is > 30 g/day compared with the typical sodium chloride intake of 10-12 g per day in the USA. When the 10-12 g salt ingested is mixed with the average daily water intake (2100 ml), 0.47% to 0.57% saline mixture is produced, which is hypotonic to extracellular fluid in salt content. Thus sodium conservation becomes necessary. All the hormones and ions involved in sodium conservation are inducers of hypertension; these include aldosterone, angiotensin 11, glucocorticoids, catecholamine, and vasopression. Plus, potassium waste, induced under the influence of aldosterone excess, participates in the development of hypertension.

  13. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-01-09

    A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

  14. METHOD OF APPLYING COPPER COATINGS TO URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protecting metallic uranium, which comprises anodic etching of the uranium in an aqueous phosphoric acid solution containing chloride ions, cleaning the etched uranium in aqueous nitric acid solution, promptly electro-plating the cleaned uranium in a copper electro-plating bath, and then electro-plating thereupon lead, tin, zinc, cadmium, chromium or nickel from an aqueous electro-plating bath.

  15. Sodium-metal chloride battery research at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operation temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study of these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation - a rate limiting process - under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

  16. Long-Term Effects of Soldering By-Products on Nickel-Coated Copper Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolin, T. D.; Hodge, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of thirty-year-old, down graded flight cables was conducted to determine the makeup of a green material on the surface of the shielded wire near soldered areas and to ascertain if the green material had corroded the nickel-coated copper wire. Two likely candidates were possible due to the handling and environments to which these cables were exposed. The flux used to solder the cables is known to contain abietic acid, a carboxylic acid found in many pine rosins used for the soldering process. The resulting material copper abietate is green in color and is formed during the application of heat during soldering operations. Copper (II) chloride, which is also green in color is known to contaminate flight parts and is corrosive. Data is presented that shows the material is copper abietate, not copper (II) chloride, and more importantly that the abietate does not aggressively attack nickel-plated copper wire.

  17. Atmospheric Methyl Chloride

    DOE Data Explorer

    Khalil, M. A. K. [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Rasmussen, R. A. [Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR (USA)

    1999-01-01

    This data set provides monthly average concentrations of atmospheric methyl chloride taken from seven locations distributed among the polar, middle, and tropical latitudes of both hemispheres. The seven primary sites include Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Cape Kumukahi and Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Cape Matatula, Samoa; Cape Grim, Tasmania; and the South Pole and Palmer Station, Antarctica. Concentration measurements from these seven sites cover a period of 16 years, extending from 1981-1997. Monthly data taken between 1987-1989 from 20 short-term sites and vertical distribution measured at various latitudes are also provided. Air samples were collected from various sites in stainless steel flasks and methyl chloride concentrations were measured using an Electron Capture Gas Chromatograph. Concentrations are reported as mixing ratios in dry air. The concentrations are determined by using a set of calibration standards that are referenced against a primary standard which is also used to establish the absolute concentration. The primary standards were prepared by the investigators in the absence of an available standard from a centralized location. The data are useful in global methyl chloride budget analyses and for determining the atmospheric distribution and trends of methyl chloride and estimating the total emissions at various latitudes.

  18. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: POLYVINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on air emissions from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. PVC is manufactured by 20 companies at 35 plants. Each plant uses one or more of four possible polymerization processes: (1) suspension polymerization, (2) emulsion polymerization, (3) bulk p...

  19. Critical review: Copper runoff from outdoor copper surfaces at atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Hedberg, Jonas F; Herting, Gunilla; Goidanich, Sara; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2014-01-01

    This review on copper runoff dispersed from unsheltered naturally patinated copper used for roofing and facades summarizes and discusses influencing factors, available literature, and predictive models, and the importance of fate and speciation for environmental risk assessment. Copper runoff from outdoor surfaces is predominantly governed by electrochemical and chemical reactions and is highly dependent on given exposure conditions (size, inclination, geometry, degree of sheltering, and orientation), surface parameters (age, patina composition, and thickness), and site-specific environmental conditions (gaseous pollutants, chlorides, rainfall characteristics (amount, intensity, pH), wind direction, temperature, time of wetness, season). The corrosion rate cannot be used to assess the runoff rate. The extent of released copper varies largely between different rain events and is related to dry and wet periods, dry deposition prior to the rain event and prevailing rain and patina characteristics. Interpretation and use of copper runoff data for environmental risk assessment and management need therefore to consider site-specific factors and focus on average data of long-term studies (several years). Risk assessments require furthermore that changes in copper speciation, bioavailability aspects, and potential irreversible retention on solid surfaces are considered, factors that determine the environmental fate of copper runoff from outdoor surfaces.

  20. Copper Doped Methylene Blue Sensitized Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Acrylamide Films for Stable Diffraction Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Beena Mary; Joseph, Rani; Sreekumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.

    2006-11-01

    Copper doped methylene blue sensitized poly(vinyl alcohol) (MBPVA)-acrylamide films were fabricated to improve the storage life of recorded gratings. The films were fabricated using gravity settling method and the copper chloride concentration was optimized as 3.18× 10-3 mol/l for a dye concentration of 6.2× 10-4 mol/l. The gratings recorded on the optimized film constitution could be stored for months with stable diffraction efficiency (24%) without any chemical or thermal fixing techniques. The resolution of the material is found to be unaffected with the addition of copper chloride.

  1. A LATENT PERIOD IN THE ACTION OF COPPER ON RESPIRATION

    PubMed Central

    Cook, S. F.

    1926-01-01

    1. When copper chloride is allowed to act on Aspergillus niger there is at first a period during which there is no change in the rate of the production of carbon dioxide, following which the rate of respiration falls. The interval of no change is called the latent period. 2. When the copper is removed from the external solution before the end of the latent period this interval is prolonged. The rate of respiration then falls to a new level below the normal level. 3. Experiments on Nitella and on Valonia indicate that the copper penetrates the cell almost immediately. 4. The length of the latent period varies inversely as a constant power of the concentration of the copper. 5. These results are explained by assuming that the copper is made active in the respiration system by means of a reversible reaction. By using appropriate velocity constants the experimental curves can be duplicated by calculated curves. PMID:19872281

  2. A Quick Reference on Chloride.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Andrea A; de Morais, Helio Autran

    2017-03-01

    Chloride is an essential element, playing important roles in digestion, muscular activity, regulation of body fluids, and acid-base balance. As the most abundant anion in extracellular fluid, chloride plays a major role in maintaining electroneutrality. Chloride is intrinsically linked to sodium in maintaining osmolality and fluid balance and has an inverse relationship with bicarbonate in maintaining acid-base balance. It is likely because of these close ties that chloride does not get the individual attention it deserves; we can use these facts to simplify and interpret changes in serum chloride concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Arizona Copper

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-19

    Arizona produces 60% of the total copper mined in the US; in 2007, 750,000 tons of copper came out of the state. One of the major mining districts is located about 30 km south of Tucson. Starting around 1950, open-pit mining replaced underground operations, and the ASARCO-Mission complex, Twin Buttes, and Sierrita mines became large open pit operations. Accompanying copper mineralization, silver, molybdenum, zinc, lead and gold are extracted. In addition to the pits themselves, enormous leach ponds and tailings piles surround the pits. The image was acquired May 31, 2012, covers an area of 22 by 28 km, and is located at 31.9 degrees north, 111 degrees west. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on Terra. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. More information about ASTER is available at asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/ Credit: NASA

  4. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  5. COPPER CORROSION RESEARCH UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Copper release and corrosion related issues continue to be important to many water systems. The objective of this presentation is to discuss the current state of copper research at the USEPA. Specifically, the role of aging on copper release, use of phosphates for copper corrosio...

  6. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology. PMID:24672633

  7. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  8. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  9. Copper in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - copper ... yeast are also sources of copper in the diet. ... day 9 to 13 years: 700 mcg/day Adolescents and adults Males and ... eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  10. [Progress on suxamethonium chloride analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming-Zhe; Cheng, Xiang-Wei; Chu, Jian-Xin

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: Suxamethonium chloride is a depolarizing muscle relaxant used in general anesthesia. In overdose, it causes adverse reactions such as bradycardia, arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, and death. The article reviews the progress on testing methods of suxamethonium chloride such as infrared spectroscopy, chemical color reaction, chemical titration, enzyme electrode, chromatography and mass spectrometry.

  11. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology. PMID:24205938

  12. Iron and copper release in drinking-water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baoyou; Taylor, James S

    2007-09-01

    A large-scale pilot study was carried out to evaluate the impacts of changes in water source and treatment process on iron and copper release in water distribution systems. Finished surface waters, groundwaters, and desalinated waters were produced with seven different treatment systems and supplied to 18 pipe distribution systems (PDSs). The major water treatment processes included lime softening, ferric sulfate coagulation, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and integrated membrane systems. PDSs were constructed from PVC, lined cast iron, unlined cast iron, and galvanized pipes. Copper pipe loops were set up for corrosion monitoring. Results showed that surface water after ferric sulfate coagulation had low alkalinity and high sulfates, and consequently caused the highest iron release. Finished groundwater treated by conventional method produced the lowest iron release but the highest copper release. The iron release of desalinated water was relatively high because of the water's high chloride level and low alkalinity. Both iron and copper release behaviors were influenced by temperature.

  13. On copper peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, L.

    1988-01-01

    The action of hydrogen superoxide on copper salts in alcoholic solutions is studied. The action of hydrogen peroxide on copper hydroxide in alcoholic suspensions, and the action of ethereal hydrogen peroxide on copper hydroxide are discussed. It is concluded that using the procedure proposed excludes almost entirely the harmful effect of hydrolysis.

  14. Copper-tantalum alloy

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1986-07-15

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  15. Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

  16. Chloride: the queen of electrolytes?

    PubMed

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O B

    2012-04-01

    Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general do not allocate chapters exclusively on hypochloremia or hyperchloremia and information on chloride other than channelopathies is scattered in the literature. To systematically review the function of chloride in man, data for this review include searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, and references from relevant articles including the search terms "chloride," "HCl," "chloride channel" "acid-base," "acidosis," "alkalosis," "anion gap" "strong anion gap" "Stewart," "base excess" and "lactate." In addition, internal medicine, critical care, nephrology and gastroenterology textbooks were evaluated on topics pertaining the assessment and management of acid-base disorders, including reference lists from journals or textbooks. Chloride is, after sodium, the most abundant electrolyte in serum, with a key role in the regulation of body fluids, electrolyte balance, the preservation of electrical neutrality, acid-base status and it is an essential component for the assessment of many pathological conditions. When assessing serum electrolytes, abnormal chloride levels alone usually signify a more serious underlying metabolic disorder, such as metabolic acidosis or alkalosis. Chloride is an important component of diagnostic tests in a wide array of clinical situations. In these cases, chloride can be tested in sweat, serum, urine and feces. Abnormalities in chloride channel expression and function in many organs can cause a range of disorders. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Calcium phosphate stabilization of fly ash with chloride extraction.

    PubMed

    Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator by products include fly ash and air pollution control residues. In order to transform these incinerator wastes into reusable mineral species, soluble alkali chlorides must be separated and toxic trace elements must be stabilized in insoluble form. We show that alkali chlorides can be extracted efficiently in an aqueous extraction step combining a calcium phosphate gel precipitation. In such a process, sodium and potassium chlorides are obtained free from calcium salts, and the trace metal ions are immobilized in the calcium phosphate matrix. Moderate calcination of the chemically treated fly ash leads to the formation of cristalline hydroxylapatite. Fly ash spiked with copper ions and treated by this process shows improved stability of metal ions. Leaching tests with water or EDTA reveal a significant drop in metal ion dissolution. Hydroxylapatite may trap toxic metals and also prevent their evaporation during thermal treatments. Incinerator fly ash together with air pollution control residues, treated by the combined chloride extraction and hydroxylapatite formation process may be considered safe to use as a mineral filler in value added products such as road base or cement blocks.

  18. Washing bridges to reduce chloride : interim report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-12-01

    Chloride ions are known to promote the corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete. This project was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of washing, to reduce chloride content and chloride ion uptake. The project consists of a laboratory and a field...

  19. Washing bridges to reduce chloride : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-07-01

    Chloride ions are known to promote the corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete. This project was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of washing, to reduce existing chloride content and chloride ion uptake. The project consisted of a laboratory c...

  20. Iron chloride catalysed PCDD/F-formation: Experiments and PCDD/F-signatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengmei; Buekens, Alfons; Ma, Siyuan; Li, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    Iron chloride is often cited as catalyst of PCDD/F-formation, together with copper chloride. Conversely, iron chloride catalysis has been less studied during de novo tests. This paper presents such de novo test data, derived from model fly ash incorporating iron (III) chloride and established over a vast range of temperature and oxygen concentration in the gas phase. Both PCDD/F-output and its signature are extensively characterised, including homologue and congener profiles. For the first time, a complete isomer-specific analysis is systematically established, for all samples. Special attention is paid to the chlorophenols route PCDD/F, to the 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners, and to their relationship and antagonism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans strain Cutipay enhances chalcopyrite bioleaching under moderate thermophilic conditions in the presence of chloride ion.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Fazzini, Roberto A; Cortés, Maria Paz; Maass, Alejandro; Parada, Pilar

    2014-12-01

    Currently more than 90% of the world's copper is obtained through sulfide mineral processing. Among the copper sulfides, chalcopyrite is the most abundant and therefore economically relevant. However, primary copper sulfide bioleaching is restricted due to high ionic strength raffinate solutions and particularly chloride coming from the dissolution of ores. In this work we describe the chalcopyrite bioleaching capacity of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans strain Cutipay (DSM 27601) previously described at the genomic level (Travisany et al. (2012) Draft genome sequence of the Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans Cutipay strain, an indigenous bacterium isolated from a naturally extreme mining environment in Northern Chile. J Bacteriol 194:6327-6328). Bioleaching assays with the mixotrophic strain Cutipay showed a strong increase in copper recovery from chalcopyrite concentrate at 50°C in the presence of chloride ion, a relevant inhibitory element present in copper bioleaching processes. Compared to the abiotic control and a test with Sulfobacillus acidophilus DSM 10332, strain Cutipay showed an increase of 42 and 69% in copper recovery, respectively, demonstrating its high potential for chalcopyrite bioleaching. Moreover, a genomic comparison highlights the presence of the 2-Haloacid dehalogenase predicted-protein related to a potential new mechanism of chloride resistance in acidophiles. This novel and industrially applicable strain is under patent application CL 2013-03335.

  2. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    EEEElhIhEEEEEE 1111 1 - MI(CRO( fy Hl ff1Sf UIIIUN Ift I IA I~t Research and Development Technical Report DELET - TR - 78 - 0563 - F Cq LITHIUM -THIONYL CHLORIDE...2b(1110) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Lithium -Thionyl Chloride Battery -10/1/78 - 11/30/80 6. PNING ORG. REPORT NUMBER Z %A a.~as B.,OWRACT OR...block number) Inorganic Electrolyte battery, Thionyl Chloride, lithium , high rate D cell, high rate flat cylindrical cell, laser designator battery. C//i

  3. Effect of chloride ion concentration on the galvanic corrosion of α phase brass by eccrine sweat.

    PubMed

    Meekins, Andrew; Bond, John W; Chaloner, Penelope

    2012-07-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement of the relative concentration of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium ions in eccrine sweat deposits from 40 donors revealed positive correlations between chloride and sodium (ρ = 0.684, p < 0.01) and chloride and calcium ions (ρ = 0.91, p < 0.01). Correlations between ion concentration and the corrosion of α phase brass by the donated sweat were investigated by visual grading of the degree of corrosion, by measuring the copper/zinc ratio using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and from a measurement of the potential difference between corroded and uncorroded brass when a large potential was applied to the uncorroded brass. An increasing copper/zinc ratio (indicative of dezincification) was found to correlate positively to both chloride ion concentration and visual grading of corrosion, while visual grading gave correlations with potential difference measurements that were indicative of the preferential surface oxidation of zinc rather than copper. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. The Underpotential Deposition of Copper on Pt(311): Site Selective Deposition and Anion Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-14

    water (18 MOhms Millipore Milli-Q water). Aqueous acid solutions were prepared from high-purity (ULTREX) sulfuric acid . Copper ion solutions were...prepared by dissolution of CuSO 4 .5H 2 0 (Aldrich Gold Label 5N5) in sulfuric acid solutions. Chloride and bromide containing solutions were prepared by...Voltammetric characteristics of a Pt(311) electrode in acidic solutions containing chloride and bromide. Fig. 1 shows cyclic voltammograxns for the

  5. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  6. Chloride channels in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles, including proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain, ie, stroke. Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Cl−) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke. At least three Cl− channel genes are expressed in VSMCs: 1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1), which may encode the calcium-activated Cl− channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Cl− channel and Cl−/H+ antiporter, which is closely related to the volume-regulated Cl− channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes the PKA- and PKC-activated Cl− channels. Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization, vasoconstriction, and inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs. Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension. In addition, Cl− current mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death. This review focuses on the functional roles of Cl− channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Cl− channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:23103617

  7. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  8. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food... Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the... label of the hops extract identifies the presence of the methylene chloride and provides for the use of...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7) is a white... manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g) of...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The...

  13. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c) The...

  14. Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite polyvinyl chloride films with NO-generating activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozakevych, Roman B.; Korobeinyk, Alina V.; Bolbukh, Yulia M.; Tertykh, Valentin A.; Mikhalovska, Lyuba I.; Zienkiewicz-Strzałka, Malgorzlata; Deryło-Marczewska, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The silica and copper oxide nanoparticles were embedded into the polyvinyl chloride film and obtained filled composites were tested as a catalyst in the reaction of the NO release from appropriate biomolecules. Obtained materials were characterized using scanning electron, atomic-force microscopies and thermomechanical analysis. It has been shown that the introduced particles are distributed uniformly in the polymeric matrix of hybrid composite and such film produces a significant amount of NO when reacts with S-nitrosothiols. At the same time, the unfilled polyvinyl chloride film had no statistically significant catalytic activity.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride...

  16. Bacterial copper storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Christopher; David, Sholto; Lee, Jaeick

    2018-03-30

    Copper is essential for most organisms as a cofactor for key enzymes involved in fundamental processes such as respiration and photosynthesis. However, copper also has toxic effects in cells, which is why eukaryotes and prokaryotes have evolved mechanisms for safe copper handling. A new family of bacterial proteins uses a Cys-rich four-helix bundle to safely store large quantities of Cu(I). The work leading to the discovery of these proteins, their properties and physiological functions, and how their presence potentially impacts the current views of bacterial copper handling and use are discussed in this review. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Compressed sodium chloride as a fast-acting antimicrobial surface: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B D; Smith, S W

    2016-10-01

    Antimicrobial surfaces are currently being studied as an aid to reduce transmission of pathogens leading to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Among the most harmful and costly pathogens that cause HAIs is meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Currently available and previously investigated antimicrobial surface technologies that are effective against MRSA (e.g. copper alloy surfaces) take 30min to several hours to achieve significant reduction. This article presents a new antimicrobial surface technology made of compressed sodium chloride that reduces MRSA 20-30 times faster than copper alloy surfaces. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 24-hour urine copper test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003604.htm 24-hour urine copper test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The 24-hour urine copper test measures the amount of copper in ...

  19. High adherence copper plating process

    DOEpatents

    Nignardot, Henry

    1993-01-01

    A process for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

  20. Multiphase separation of copper nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Fang; Lan, Pui Ching; Olson, Tammy

    Here, this communication reports a new method to purify copper nanowires with nearly 100% yield from undesired copper nanoparticle side-products formed during batch processes of copper nanowire synthesis. Also, this simple separation method can yield large quantities of long, uniform, high-purity copper nanowires to meet the requirements of nanoelectronics applications as well as provide an avenue for purifying copper nanowires in the industrial scale synthesis of copper nanowires, a key step for commercialization and application of nanowires.

  1. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

    1996-12-10

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  2. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, Geoffrey L.; Kanazirev, Vladislav

    1996-01-01

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  3. Multiphase separation of copper nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Qian, Fang; Lan, Pui Ching; Olson, Tammy; ...

    2016-09-01

    Here, this communication reports a new method to purify copper nanowires with nearly 100% yield from undesired copper nanoparticle side-products formed during batch processes of copper nanowire synthesis. Also, this simple separation method can yield large quantities of long, uniform, high-purity copper nanowires to meet the requirements of nanoelectronics applications as well as provide an avenue for purifying copper nanowires in the industrial scale synthesis of copper nanowires, a key step for commercialization and application of nanowires.

  4. Improved Electroformed Structural Copper and Copper Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Hudson, W.; Babcock, B.; Edwards, R.

    1998-01-01

    Electroforming offers a superior means for fabricating internally cooled heat exchangers and structures subjected to thermal environments. Copper is deposited from many such applications because of the good thermal conductivity. It suffers from mediocre yield strength as a structural material and loses mechanical strength at intermediate temperatures. Mechanical properties similar to those of electroformed nickel are desired. Phase 1 examined innovative means to improve deposited copper structural performance. Yield strengths as high as 483 MPa (70 ksi) were obtained with useful ductility while retaining a high level of purity essential to good thermal conductivity. Phase 2 represents a program to explore new additive combinations in copper electrolytes to produce a more fine, equiaxed grain which can be thermally stabilized by other techniques such as alloying in modest degrees and dispersion strengthening. Evaluation of new technology - such as the codeposition of fullerness (diamond-like) particles were made to enhance thermal conductivity in low alloys. A test fire quality tube-bundle engine was fabricated using these copper property improvement concepts to show the superiority of the new coppers and fabrications methods over competitive technologies such as brazing and plasma deposition.

  5. COPPER RESEARCH UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an update and overview of new research results and remaining research needs with respect to copper corrosion control issues. The topics to be covered include: occurrence of elevated copper release in systems that meet the Action Level; impact of water c...

  6. Polyelectrolyte-mediated assembly of copper-phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate multilayers and the subsequent production of nanoparticulate copper oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Chickneyan, Zarui Sara; Briseno, Alejandro L; Shi, Xiangyang; Han, Shubo; Huang, Jiaxing; Zhou, Feimeng

    2004-07-01

    An approach to producing films of nanometer-sized copper oxide particulates, based on polyelectrolyte-mediated assembly of the precursor, copper(II)phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (CPTS), is described. Multilayered CPTS and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) were alternately assembled on different planar substrates via the layer-by-layer (LbL) procedure. The growth of CPTS multilayers was monitored by UV-visible spectrometry and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. Both the UV-visible spectra and the QCM data showed that a fixed amount of CPTS could be attached to the substrate surface for a given adsorption cycle. Cyclic voltammograms at the CPTS/PDADMAC-covered gold electrode exhibited a decrease in peak currents with the layer number, indicating that the permeability of CPTS multilayers on the electrodes had diminished. When these CPTS multilayered films were calcined at elevated temperatures, uniform thin films composed of nanoparticulate copper oxide could be produced. Ellipsometry showed that the thickness of copper oxide nanoparticulate films could be precisely tailored by varying the thickness of CPTS multilayer films. The morphology and roughness of CPTS multilayer and copper oxide thin films were characterized by atomic force microscopy. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that these thin films contained both CuO and Cu2O nanoparticles. The preparation of such copper oxide thin films with the use of metal complex precursors represents a new route for the synthesis of inorganic oxide films with a controlled thickness.

  7. Fragmentation of molecular tributyltin chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmekhin, S.; Caló, A.; Kisand, V.; Nõmmiste, E.; Kotilainen, H.; Aksela, H.; Aksela, S.

    2008-06-01

    Fragmentation of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) vapour has been studied experimentally by means of time-of-flight mass spectrometry at the photon energy range of 9-25 eV of synchrotron radiation, at 21.22 eV of HeI as well as with 500 eV electron beam excitation. Branching ratios of the tributyltin chloride fragments taken with HeI and synchrotron radiation have been presented first time. Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were carried out for TBTCl and the ionization energies obtained were used to predict the dissociation pathways creating the observed ions.

  8. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2007-04-01

    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  9. Bioaccessibility and Solubility of Copper in Copper-Treated Lumber

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micronized copper (MC)-treated lumber is a recent replacement for Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and Ammonium Copper (AC)-treated lumbers; though little is known about the potential risk of copper (Cu) exposure from incidental ingestion of MC-treated wood. The bioaccessibility o...

  10. Effects of ultrasound and temperature on copper electro reduction in Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES).

    PubMed

    Mandroyan, Audrey; Mourad-Mahmoud, Mahmoud; Doche, Marie-Laure; Hihn, Jean-Yves

    2014-11-01

    This paper concerns a preliminary study for a new copper recovery process from ionic solvent. The aim of this work is to study the reduction of copper in Deep Eutectic Solvent (choline chloride-ethylene glycol) and to compare the influence of temperature and the ultrasound effects on kinetic parameters. Solutions were prepared by dissolution of chloride copper salt CuCl2 (to obtain Copper in oxidation degree II) or CuCl (to obtain Copper in oxidation degree I) and by leaching metallic copper directly in DES. The spectrophotometry UV-visible analysis of the leached solution showed that the copper soluble form obtained is at oxidation degree I (Copper I). Both cyclic voltammetry and linear voltammetry were performed in the three solutions at three temperatures (25, 50 and 80°C) and under ultrasonic conditions (F=20kHz, PT=5.8W) to calculate the mass transfer diffusion coefficient kD and the standard rate coefficient k°. These parameters are used to determine that copper reduction is carried out via a mixed kinetic-diffusion control process. Temperature and ultrasound have the same effect on mass transfer for reduction of Cu(II)/Cu(I). On the other hand, temperature is more beneficial than ultrasound for mass transfer of Cu(I)/Cu. Standard rate constant improvement due to temperature increase is of the same order as that obtained with ultrasound. But, by combining higher temperature and ultrasound (F=20kHz, PT=5.6W at 50°C), reduction limiting current is increased by a factor of 10 compared to initial conditions (T=25°C, silent), because ultrasonic stirring is more efficient in lower viscosity fluid. These values can be considered as key-parameters in the design of copper recovery in global processes using ultrasound. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. Surface Chloride Levels in Colorado Structural Concrete

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-01-01

    This project focused on the chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel in structural concrete. The primary goal of this project is to analyze the surface chloride concentration level of the concrete bridge decks throughout Colorado. The study in...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acids to form amines that are subsequently reacted with methyl chloride to form the quaternary ammonium... then reacted with 2-ethylhexanal, reduced, methylated, and subsequently reacted with methyl chloride to...

  9. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acids to form amines that are subsequently reacted with methyl chloride to form the quaternary ammonium... then reacted with 2-ethylhexanal, reduced, methylated, and subsequently reacted with methyl chloride to...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  13. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, S.J.; Thomas, T.R.

    1975-11-14

    A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel, and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  14. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Steven J.; Thomas, Thomas R.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  15. Anaerobic Copper Toxicity and Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guoqiang; Yang, Jing; Li, Tang; Zhao, Jin; Sun, Shujuan; Li, Xiaokang; Lin, Chuxian; Li, Jianghui; Zhou, Huaibin; Lyu, Jianxin; Ding, Huangen

    2017-08-15

    While copper is an essential trace element in biology, pollution of groundwater from copper has become a threat to all living organisms. Cellular mechanisms underlying copper toxicity, however, are still not fully understood. Previous studies have shown that iron-sulfur proteins are among the primary targets of copper toxicity in Escherichia coli under aerobic conditions. Here, we report that, under anaerobic conditions, iron-sulfur proteins in E. coli cells are even more susceptible to copper in medium. Whereas addition of 0.2 mM copper(II) chloride to LB (Luria-Bertani) medium has very little or no effect on iron-sulfur proteins in wild-type E. coli cells under aerobic conditions, the same copper treatment largely inactivates iron-sulfur proteins by blocking iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in the cells under anaerobic conditions. Importantly, proteins that do not have iron-sulfur clusters (e.g., fumarase C and cysteine desulfurase) in E. coli cells are not significantly affected by copper treatment under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, indicating that copper may specifically target iron-sulfur proteins in cells. Additional studies revealed that E. coli cells accumulate more intracellular copper under anaerobic conditions than under aerobic conditions and that the elevated copper content binds to the iron-sulfur cluster assembly proteins IscU and IscA, which effectively inhibits iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. The results suggest that the copper-mediated inhibition of iron-sulfur proteins does not require oxygen and that iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis is the primary target of anaerobic copper toxicity in cells. IMPORTANCE Copper contamination in groundwater has become a threat to all living organisms. However, cellular mechanisms underlying copper toxicity have not been fully understood up to now. The work described here reveals that iron-sulfur proteins in Escherichia coli cells are much more susceptible to copper in medium under anaerobic conditions than they

  16. Anaerobic Copper Toxicity and Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Guoqiang; Yang, Jing; Li, Tang; Zhao, Jin; Sun, Shujuan; Li, Xiaokang; Lin, Chuxian; Li, Jianghui; Zhou, Huaibin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT While copper is an essential trace element in biology, pollution of groundwater from copper has become a threat to all living organisms. Cellular mechanisms underlying copper toxicity, however, are still not fully understood. Previous studies have shown that iron-sulfur proteins are among the primary targets of copper toxicity in Escherichia coli under aerobic conditions. Here, we report that, under anaerobic conditions, iron-sulfur proteins in E. coli cells are even more susceptible to copper in medium. Whereas addition of 0.2 mM copper(II) chloride to LB (Luria-Bertani) medium has very little or no effect on iron-sulfur proteins in wild-type E. coli cells under aerobic conditions, the same copper treatment largely inactivates iron-sulfur proteins by blocking iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in the cells under anaerobic conditions. Importantly, proteins that do not have iron-sulfur clusters (e.g., fumarase C and cysteine desulfurase) in E. coli cells are not significantly affected by copper treatment under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, indicating that copper may specifically target iron-sulfur proteins in cells. Additional studies revealed that E. coli cells accumulate more intracellular copper under anaerobic conditions than under aerobic conditions and that the elevated copper content binds to the iron-sulfur cluster assembly proteins IscU and IscA, which effectively inhibits iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. The results suggest that the copper-mediated inhibition of iron-sulfur proteins does not require oxygen and that iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis is the primary target of anaerobic copper toxicity in cells. IMPORTANCE Copper contamination in groundwater has become a threat to all living organisms. However, cellular mechanisms underlying copper toxicity have not been fully understood up to now. The work described here reveals that iron-sulfur proteins in Escherichia coli cells are much more susceptible to copper in medium under anaerobic conditions

  17. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  18. Corrosion behaviour of high copper dental amalgams.

    PubMed

    Yap, A U J; Ng, B L; Blackwood, D J

    2004-06-01

    This study evaluated the corrosion behaviour of two high copper dental amalgam alloys [Dispersalloy (Dentsply-Caulk) and Tytin (Kerr)] in different electrolytes. Amalgam specimens were prepared, coupled to a copper wire, cemented into glass tubes and polished to a 600-grit finish. A corrosion cell was prepared using a carbon counter-electrode, a standard calomel electrode as the reference and amalgam as the working electrode. The alloys were tested in the following mediums at 37 degrees C: (i) artificial saliva based on Fusayama's solution (FS), (ii) artificial saliva with citric acid adjusted to pH 4.0 (FC) and (iii) 1% sodium chloride solution (SC). Corrosion potentials (E(corr)) and corrosion rates (I(corr)) were determined using potentiostatic and impedance spectroscopy methods. Data was subjected to anova/Scheffe's post hoc test at 0.05 significance level. For both alloys, the corrosion potential in FS was significantly greater than in SC. Corrosion potential of Tytin in FS and SC was also significantly greater than in FC. The corrosion rate of Dispersalloy in FC was significantly greater than in FS and SC. For Tytin, corrosion rate in SC was significantly greater than in FS and FC. Although no significant difference in corrosion potential/rate was observed between the alloys when tested in FS, significant differences were observed when electrochemical testing was carried out in FC and SC. The corrosion behaviour of high copper amalgam alloys are both material and environment dependent. Certain food substances may increase the corrosion of high copper amalgams.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be commercially...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be commercially...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be commercially obtained as a byproduct in...

  2. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Nannhein, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Altos, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  3. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  4. Corrosive microenvironments at lead solder surfaces arising from galvanic corrosion with copper pipe.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Caroline K; Stone, Kendall R; Dudi, Abhijeet; Edwards, Marc A

    2010-09-15

    As stagnant water contacts copper pipe and lead solder (simulated soldered joints), a corrosion cell is formed between the metals in solder (Pb, Sn) and the copper. If the resulting galvanic current exceeds about 2 μA/cm(2), a highly corrosive microenvironment can form at the solder surface, with pH < 2.5 and chloride concentrations at least 11 times higher than bulk water levels. Waters with relatively high chloride tend to sustain high galvanic currents, preventing passivation of the solder surface, and contributing to lead contamination of potable water supplies. The total mass of lead corroded was consistent with predictions based on the galvanic current, and lead leaching to water was correlated with galvanic current. If the concentration of sulfate in the water increased relative to chloride, galvanic currents and associated lead contamination could be greatly reduced, and solder surfaces were readily passivated.

  5. Optimization of staged bioleaching of low-grade chalcopyrite ore in the presence and absence of chloride in the irrigating lixiviant: ANFIS simulation.

    PubMed

    Vakylabad, Ali Behrad; Schaffie, Mahin; Naseri, Ali; Ranjbar, Mohammad; Manafi, Zahra

    2016-07-01

    In this investigation, copper was bioleached from a low-grade chalcopyrite ore using a chloride-containing lixiviant. In this regard, firstly, the composition of the bacterial culture media was designed to control the cost in commercial application. The bacterial culture used in this process was acclimated to the presence of chloride in the lixiviant. Practically speaking, the modified culture helped the bio-heap-leaching system operate in the chloridic media. Compared to the copper recovery from the low-grade chalcopyrite by bioleaching in the absence of chloride, bioleaching in the presence of chloride resulted in improved copper recovery. The composition of the lixiviant used in this study was a modification with respect to the basal salts in 9 K medium to optimize the leaching process. When leaching the ore in columns, 76.81 % Cu (based on solid residues of bioleaching operation) was recovered by staged leaching with lixiviant containing 34.22 mM NaCl. The quantitative findings were supported by SEM/EDS observations, X-ray elemental mapping, and mineralogical analysis of the ore before and after leaching. Finally, Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was used to simulate the operational parameters affecting the bioleaching operation in chloride-sulfate system.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  10. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  11. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the Food...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b...

  18. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions...

  19. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from...

  20. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the Food...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS...

  11. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  13. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be...

  14. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  15. Stabilization of the Thermal Decomposition of Poly(Propylene Carbonate) Through Copper Ion Incorporation and Use in Self-Patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Todd J.; Chen, Yu-Chun; Saha, Rajarshi; Kohl, Paul A.

    2011-06-01

    Incorporation of copper ions into poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) films cast from γ-butyrolactone (GBL), trichloroethylene (TCE) or methylene chloride (MeCl) solutions containing a photo-acid generator is shown to stabilize the PPC from thermal decomposition. Copper ions were introduced into the PPC mixtures by bringing the polymer mixture into contact with copper metal. The metal was oxidized and dissolved into the PPC mixture. The dissolved copper interferes with the decomposition mechanism of PPC, raising its decomposition temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that copper ions make PPC more stable by up to 50°C. Spectroscopic analysis indicates that copper ions may stabilize terminal carboxylic acid groups, inhibiting PPC decomposition. The change in thermal stability based on PPC exposure to patterned copper substrates was used to provide a self-aligned patterning method for PPC on copper traces without the need for an additional photopatterning registration step. Thermal decomposition of PPC is then used to create air isolation regions around the copper traces. The spatial resolution of the self-patterning PPC process is limited by the lateral diffusion of the copper ions within the PPC. The concentration profiles of copper within the PPC, patterning resolution, and temperature effects on the PPC decomposition have been studied.

  16. Copper-Silicon Bronzes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1933-05-11

    copper alloys which have good static properties are disa:cinting in their endurance properties. The silicide allo~rs that are given high tensile strength...works satisfactorily, but the best welds 4 have been obtained by using a flux cdmposed of 905 fused borax and i0. sodium fluoride., The flux is...properties re- main almost the same. Grain size increases with sil- icon. III A study of hardening copper by heat treating its alloys with silicides

  17. A peroxynitrite complex of copper: formation from a copper-nitrosyl complex, transformation to nitrite and exogenous phenol oxidative coupling or nitration.

    PubMed

    Park, Ga Young; Deepalatha, Subramanian; Puiu, Simona C; Lee, Dong-Heon; Mondal, Biplab; Narducci Sarjeant, Amy A; del Rio, Diego; Pau, Monita Y M; Solomon, Edward I; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2009-11-01

    Reaction of nitrogen monoxide with a copper(I) complex possessing a tridentate alkylamine ligand gives a Cu(I)-(*NO) adduct, which when exposed to dioxygen generates a peroxynitrite (O=NOO(-))-Cu(II) species. This undergoes thermal transformation to produce a copper(II) nitrito (NO(2) (-)) complex and 0.5 mol equiv O(2). In the presence of a substituted phenol, the peroxynitrite complex effects oxidative coupling, whereas addition of chloride ion to dissociate the peroxynitrite moiety instead leads to phenol ortho nitration. Discussions include the structures (including electronic description) of the copper-nitrosyl and copper-peroxynitrite complexes and the formation of the latter, based on density functional theory calculations and accompanying spectroscopic data.

  18. Copper tolerance and copper accumulation of herbaceous plants colonizing inactive California copper mines

    SciTech Connect

    Kruckeberg, A.L.; Wu, L.

    1992-06-01

    Herbaceous plant species colonizing four copper mine waste sites in northern California were investigated for copper tolerance and copper accumulation. Copper tolerance was found in plant species colonizing soils with high concentrations of soil copper. Seven of the eight plant species tested were found at more than one copper mine. The mines are geographically isolated, which makes dispersal of seeds from one mine to another unlikely. Tolerance has probably evolved independently at each site. The nontolerant field control population of Vulpia microstachya displays significantly higher tolerance to copper at all copper concentration levels tested than the nontolerant Vulpia myrous population,more » and the degree of copper tolerance attained by V. microstachya at the two copper mines was much greater than that found in V. myrous. It suggests that even in these two closely related species, the innate tolerance in their nontolerant populations may reflect their potential for evolution of copper tolerance and their ability to initially colonize copper mine waste sites. The shoot tissue of the copper mine plants of Arenaria douglasii, Bromous mollis, and V. microstachya accumulated less copper than those plants of the same species from the field control sites when the two were grown in identical conditions in nutrient solution containing copper. The root tissue of these mine plants contain more copper than the roots of the nonmine plants. This result suggests that exclusion of copper from the shoots, in part by immobilization in the roots, may be a feature of copper tolerance. No difference in the tissue copper concentration was detected between tolerant and nontolerant plants of Lotus purshianus, Lupinus bicolor, and Trifolium pratense even though the root tissue had more copper than the leaves.« less

  19. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  20. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  1. Essentiality of copper in humans.

    PubMed

    Uauy, R; Olivares, M; Gonzalez, M

    1998-05-01

    The biochemical basis for the essentiality of copper, the adequacy of the dietary copper supply, factors that condition deficiency, and the special conditions of copper nutriture in early infancy are reviewed. New biochemical and crystallographic evidence define copper as being necessary for structural and catalytic properties of cuproenzymes. Mechanisms responsible for the control of cuproprotein gene expression are not known in mammals; however, studies using yeast as a eukaryote model support the existence of a copper-dependent gene regulatory element. Diets in Western countries provide copper below or in the low range of the estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake. Copper deficiency is usually the consequence of decreased copper stores at birth, inadequate dietary copper intake, poor absorption, elevated requirements induced by rapid growth, or increased copper losses. The most frequent clinical manifestations of copper deficiency are anemia, neutropenia, and bone abnormalities. Recommendations for dietary copper intake and total copper exposure, including that from potable water, should consider that copper is an essential nutrient with potential toxicity if the load exceeds tolerance. A range of safe intakes should be defined for the general population, including a lower safe intake and an upper safe intake, to prevent deficiency as well as toxicity for most of the population.

  2. Surface study of films formed on copper and brass at open circuit potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procaccini, R.; Schreiner, W. H.; Vázquez, M.; Ceré, S.

    2013-03-01

    The corrosion resistance of Cu-Zn alloys strongly depends on the quality of the protective passive film. This study focuses on the influence of Zn on the composition of oxide films on copper and brass (Cu77Zn21Al2) in borax 0.1 mol L-1 (pH 9.2) solution, where the solubility of copper oxides is minimal. The effect of the presence of chloride ions at low concentration (0.01 mol L-1) in the electrolyte was also evaluated. Both conditions were studied using a set of different electrochemical, optical and surface techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, differential reflectance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. A duplex Cu2O/CuO layer forms on copper at potentials positive to the open circuit potential (OCP), while in the case of brass, zinc compounds are also incorporated to the surface film. It also became evident that a surface film can be formed on these materials even at potentials negative to the OCP. Zn(II) species are the main constituents of the films growing on brass, while copper oxides are incorporated to the surface film when approaching the OCP. The presence of chloride ions at low concentrations contributes to the dissolution of the oxo-hydroxides formed during the early stages of the aging process at open circuit potential. Also, copper chloro-compounds are formed, as shown by Raman spectroscopy for both copper and brass electrodes.

  3. Formation of Copper Catalysts for CO 2 Reduction with High Ethylene/Methane Product Ratio Investigated with In Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Eilert, André; Roberts, F. Sloan; Friebel, Daniel; ...

    2016-04-04

    Nanostructured copper cathodes are among the most efficient and selective catalysts to date for making multicarbon products from the electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO 2RR). We report an in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the formation of a copper nanocube CO 2RR catalyst with high activity that highly favors ethylene over methane production. The results show that the precursor for the copper nanocube formation is copper(I)-oxide, not copper(I)-chloride as previously assumed. A second route to an electrochemically similar material via a copper(II)–carbonate/hydroxide is also reported. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of using oxidized copper precursors formore » constructing selective CO 2 reduction catalysts and shows the precursor oxidation state does not affect the electrocatalyst selectivity toward ethylene formation.« less

  4. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Carcinogenicity of benzyl chloride, benzal chloride, benzotrichloride and benzoyl chloride in mice by skin application.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, K; Matsushita, H; Sakabe, H; Takemoto, K

    1981-10-01

    The carcinogenicity of benzyl chloride (BYC), benzal chloride (BAC), benzotrichloride (BTC) and benzoyl chloride (BOC), which were suspected as causative agents of lung cancer and maxillary malignant lymphoma of workers employed in factories producing BOC, was examined by skin applications in female ICR mice. After rather high dose exposure, BTC exhibited leukemogenic and pulmonary tumorigenic activities as well as potent dermal carcinogenic activity. After administration of the chemicals at the dose of 2.3 microliter/animal, twice a week for 50 weeks, BTC induced 68% incidence of skin cancers and 58% incidence of pulmonary tumors (including 10% of lung carcinomas) within 399 days. Incidence of skin cancers was 58% for BAC, 15% for BYC and 10% for BOC within 560 days. Considering the extent of possible exposure of the workers to these chemicals in the working environment and the carcinogenic potency of the chemicals tested, it can be concluded that BTC was very probably responsible for causing the cancers seen int he workers employed in manufacturing BOC.

  6. Copper slag as a catalyst for mercury oxidation in coal combustion flue gas.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Zhang, Weilin; Wang, Jun; Yang, Zequn; Li, Liqing; Shih, Kaimin

    2018-04-01

    Copper slag is a byproduct of the pyrometallurgical smelting of copper concentrate. It was used in this study to catalyze elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) oxidation in simulated coal combustion flue gas. The copper slag exhibited excellent catalytic performance in Hg 0 oxidation at temperatures between 200 °C and 300 °C. At the most optimal temperature of 250 °C, a Hg 0 oxidation efficiency of 93.8% was achieved under simulated coal combustion flue gas with both a high Hg 0 concentration and a high gas hourly space velocity of 128,000 h -1 . Hydrogen chloride (HCl) was the flue gas component responsible for Hg 0 oxidation over the copper slag. The transition metal oxides, including iron oxides and copper oxide in the copper slag, exhibited significant catalytic activities in the surface-mediated oxidation of Hg 0 in the presence of HCl. It is proposed that the Hg 0 oxidation over the copper slag followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism whereby reactive chlorine species that originated from HCl reacted with the physically adsorbed Hg 0 to form oxidized mercury. This study demonstrated the possibility of reusing copper slag as a catalyst for Hg 0 oxidation and revealed the mechanisms involved in the process and the key factors in the performance. This knowledge has fundamental importance in simultaneously reducing industrial waste and controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Porphyry copper deposit density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Donald A.; Berger, Vladimir; Menzie, W. David; Berger, Byron R.

    2005-01-01

    Estimating numbers of undiscovered mineral deposits has been a source of unease among economic geologists yet is a fundamental task in considering future supplies of resources. Estimates can be based on frequencies of deposits per unit of permissive area in control areas around the world in the same way that grade and tonnage frequencies are models of sizes and qualities of undiscovered deposits. To prevent biased estimates it is critical that, for a particular deposit type, these deposit density models be internally consistent with descriptive and grade and tonnage models of the same type. In this analysis only deposits and prospects that are likely to be included in future grade and tonnage models are employed, and deposits that have mineralization or alteration separated by less than an arbitrary but consistent distance—2 km for porphyry copper deposits—are combined into one deposit. Only 286 deposits and prospects that have more than half of the deposit not covered by postmineral rocks, sediments, or ice were counted.Nineteen control areas were selected and outlined along borders of hosting magmatic arc terranes based on three main features: (1) extensive exploration for porphyry copper deposits, (2) definable geologic settings of the porphyry copper deposits in island and continental volcanic-arc subduction-boundary zones, and (3) diversity of epochs of porphyry copper deposit formation.Porphyry copper deposit densities vary from 2 to 128 deposits per 100,000 km2 of exposed permissive rock, and the density histogram is skewed to high values. Ninety percent of the control areas have densities of four or more deposits, 50 percent have densities of 15 or more deposits, and 10 percent have densities of 35 or more deposits per 100,000 km2. Deposit density is not related to age or depth of emplacement. Porphyry copper deposit density is inversely related to the exposed area of permissive rock. The linear regression line and confidence limits constructed with

  8. Bicarbonate secretion and chloride absorption by rabbit cortical collecting ducts. Role of chloride/bicarbonate exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Star, R A; Burg, M B; Knepper, M A

    1985-01-01

    Cortical collecting ducts (CCD) from rabbits treated with deoxycorticosterone (DOC) actively secrete bicarbonate at high rates. To investigate the mechanism of bicarbonate secretion, we measured bicarbonate and chloride transport in CCD from rabbits treated with DOC for 9-24 d. Removal of chloride (replaced with gluconate) from both perfusate and bath inhibited bicarbonate secretion without changing transepithelial voltage. Removal of chloride only from the bath increased bicarbonate secretion, while removal of chloride only from the perfusate inhibited secretion. In contrast to the effect of removing chloride, removal of sodium from both the perfusate and bath (replacement with N-methyl-D-glucamine) did not change the rate of bicarbonate secretion. The rate of bicarbonate secretion equaled the rate of chloride absorption in tubules bathed with 0.1 mM ouabain to inhibit any cation-dependent chloride transport. Under these conditions, chloride absorption occurred against an electrochemical gradient. Removal of bicarbonate from both the perfusate and bath inhibited chloride absorption. Removal of bicarbonate only from the bath inhibited chloride absorption, while removal of bicarbonate from the lumen stimulated chloride absorption. We conclude that CCD from DOC-treated rabbits actively secrete bicarbonate and actively absorb chloride by an electroneutral mechanism involving 1:1 chloride/bicarbonate exchange. The process is independent of sodium. PMID:3930570

  9. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOEpatents

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  10. [Sodium chloride 0.9%: nephrotoxic crystalloid?].

    PubMed

    Dombre, Vincent; De Seigneux, Sophie; Schiffer, Eduardo

    2016-02-03

    Sodium chloride 0.9%, often incorrectly called physiological saline, contains higher concentration of chloride compared to plasma. It is known that the administration of sodium chloride 0.9% can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in a reproducible manner. The elevated chloride concentration in 0.9% NaCl solution can also adversely affect renal perfusion. This effect is thought to be induced by hyperchloremia that causes renal artery vasoconstriction. For these reasons, the use of 0.9% NaCl solution is raising attention and some would advocate the use of a more "physiological" solution, such as balanced solutions that contain a level of chloride closer to that of plasma. Few prospective, randomized, controlled trials are available today and most were done in a perioperative setting. Some studies suggest that the chloride excess in 0.9% NaCl solution could have clinical consequences; however, this remains to be established by quality randomized controlled trials.

  11. High adherence copper plating process

    DOEpatents

    Nignardot, H.

    1993-09-21

    A process is described for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing the surface of an aluminum or steel substrate for the electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to either substrate.

  12. Copper toxicity in ruminant animals

    SciTech Connect

    Oehme, F.W.

    This discussion includes clinical and post mortem features, metabolism of both normal and toxic quantities of copper, effect of copper upon the tissues, and control treatment and prevention of copper toxicity. These effects are discussed in regard to ruminants. Specific emphasis is placed on metabolism and biochemistry. 33 references, 3 figures.

  13. Metal chloride cathode for a battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7786-30-3) is a... prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution and...

  15. A Facile Preparation of Imidazolinium Chlorides

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Kevin M.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    A process for the preparation of symmetric and unsymmetric imidazolinium chlorides that involves reaction of a formamidine with dichloroethane and a base (a) is described. This method makes it possible to obtain numerous imidazolinium chlorides under solvent-free reaction conditions and in excellent yields with purification by simple filtration. Alternatively, symmetric imidazolinium chlorides can be prepared directly in moderate yields from substituted anilines by utilizing half of the formamidine intermediate as sacrificial base (b). PMID:18412354

  16. Brazing copper to dispersion-strengthened copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryding, David G.; Allen, Douglas; Lee, Richard H.

    1996-11-01

    The advanced photon source is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source that will produce intense x-ray beams, which will allow the study of smaller samples and faster reactions and processes at a greater level of detail than has ben possible to date. The beam is produced by using third- generation insertion devices in a 7-GeV electron/positron storage ring that is 1,104 meters in circumference. The heat load from these intense high-power devices is very high, and certain components must sustain total heat loads of 3 to 15 kW and heat fluxes of 30 W/mm$_2). Because the beams will cycle on and off many times, thermal shock and fatigue will be a problem. High heat flux impinging on a small area causes a large thermal gradient that results in high stress. GlidCop, a dispersion-strengthened copper, is the desired design material because of its high thermal conductivity and superior mechanical properties as compared to copper and its alloys. GlidCop is not amenable to joining by fusion welding, and brazing requires diligence because of high diffusivity. Brazing procedures were developed using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Migration of copper and some other metals from copper tableware

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiwata, H.; Inoue, T.; Yoshihira, K.

    Intake of heavy metals is an important problem in human health. Certain heavy metals are avoided with regard to their use for utensils or tableware coming into contact with food, although copper is widely used in food processing factories or at home. The use of copper products for the processing, cooking or serving of foods and beverages is considered to be a cause of a copper contamination. Although copper is essential element, its excess ingestion is undesirable. In this study, the migration of copper from tin-plated or non-plated copperware under several experimental conditions was investigated using food-simulating solvents.

  18. Investigation of an Electrochemical Method for Separation of Copper, Indium, and Gallium from Pretreated CIGS Solar Cell Waste Materials

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Anna M. K.; Björefors, Fredrik; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of the semiconductor material copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) is important to ensure a future supply of indium and gallium, which are relatively rare and therefore expensive elements. As a continuation of our previous work, where we recycled high purity selenium from CIGS waste materials, we now show that copper and indium can be recycled by electrodeposition from hydrochloric acid solutions of dissolved selenium-depleted material. Suitable potentials for the reduction of copper and indium were determined to be −0.5 V and −0.9 V (versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode), respectively, using cyclic voltammetry. Electrodeposition of first copper and then indium from a solution containing the dissolved residue from the selenium separation and ammonium chloride in 1 M HCl gave a copper yield of 100.1 ± 0.5% and an indium yield of 98.1 ± 2.5%. The separated copper and indium fractions contained no significant contamination of the other elements. Gallium remained in solution together with a small amount of indium after the separation of copper and indium and has to be recovered by an alternative method since electrowinning from the chloride-rich acid solution was not effective. PMID:26347901

  19. Fabrication Of Metal Chloride Cathodes By Sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    Transition-metal chloride cathodes for use in high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by sintering transition-metal powders mixed with sodium chloride. Need for difficult and dangerous chlorination process eliminated. Proportions of transition metal and sodium chloride in mixture adjusted to suit specific requirements. Cathodes integral to sodium/metal-chloride batteries, which have advantages over sodium/sulfur batteries including energy densities, increased safety, reduced material and thermal-management problems, and ease of operation and assembly. Being evaluated for supplying electrical power during peak demand and electric vehicles.

  20. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  1. Metal Fluorides, Metal Chlorides and Halogenated Metal Oxides as Lewis Acidic Heterogeneous Catalysts. Providing Some Context for Nanostructured Metal Fluorides.

    PubMed

    Lennon, David; Winfield, John M

    2017-01-28

    Aspects of the chemistry of selected metal fluorides, which are pertinent to their real or potential use as Lewis acidic, heterogeneous catalysts, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to β-aluminum trifluoride, aluminum chlorofluoride and aluminas γ and η, whose surfaces become partially fluorinated or chlorinated, through pre-treatment with halogenating reagents or during a catalytic reaction. In these cases, direct comparisons with nanostructured metal fluorides are possible. In the second part of the review, attention is directed to iron(III) and copper(II) metal chlorides, whose Lewis acidity and potential redox function have had important catalytic implications in large-scale chlorohydrocarbons chemistry. Recent work, which highlights the complexity of reactions that can occur in the presence of supported copper(II) chloride as an oxychlorination catalyst, is featured. Although direct comparisons with nanostructured fluorides are not currently possible, the work could be relevant to possible future catalytic developments in nanostructured materials.

  2. Sulfonato-imino copper(ii) complexes: fast and general Chan-Evans-Lam coupling of amines and anilines.

    PubMed

    Hardouin Duparc, V; Schaper, F

    2017-10-14

    Sulfonato-imine copper complexes with either chloride or triflate counteranions were prepared in a one-step reaction followed by anion-exchange. They are highly active in Chan-Evans-Lam couplings under mild conditions with a variety of amines or anilines, in particular with sterically hindered substrates. No optimization of reaction conditions other than time and/or temperature is required.

  3. Creative Copper Crests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knab, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to create an art activity that would link the computer-created business cards of fourth-grade students with an upcoming school-wide medieval event. Creating family crests from copper foil would be a great connection, since they, like business cards, are an individual's way to identify themselves to others.…

  4. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standard for ethylene... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride...

  5. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    DOEpatents

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  6. Polynuclear complexes of copper(I) halides: coordination chemistry and catalytic transformations of alkynes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhalichko, B. M.; Temkin, Oleg N.; Mys'kiv, M. G.

    2000-11-01

    Characteristic features of the coordination chemistry of Cu(I) and mechanisms of catalytic conversions of alkynes in the CuCl-MCl-H2O-HC≡CR system (MCl is alkali metal or ammonium chloride or amine hydrochloride; R=H, CH2OH, CH=CH2, etc.) are analysed based on studies of the compositions and structures of copper(I) chloride (bromide) complexes, alkyne π-complexes and ethynyl organometallic polynuclear compounds formed in this system in solutions and in the crystalline state. The role of polynuclear complexes in various reactions of alkynes is discussed. The bibliography includes 149 references.

  7. The influence of salinity on copper accumulation and its toxic effects in estuarine animals with differing osmoregulatory strategies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacqueline A; Marsden, Islay D; Glover, Chris N

    2010-08-01

    Copper is an important ionoregulatory toxicant in freshwater, but its effects in marine and brackish water systems are less well characterised. The effect of salinity on short-term copper accumulation and sublethal toxicity in two estuarine animals was investigated. The osmoregulating crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus accumulated copper in a concentration-dependent, but salinity-independent manner. Branchial copper accumulation correlated positively with branchial sodium accumulation. Sublethal effects of copper were most prevalent in 125% seawater, with a significant increase in haemolymph chloride noted after 96h at exposure levels of 510 microg Cu(II) L(-1). The osmoconforming gastropod, Scutus breviculus, was highly sensitive to copper exposure, a characteristic recognised previously in related species. Toxicity, as determined by a behavioural index, was present at all salinities and was positively correlated with branchial copper accumulation. At 100% seawater, increased branchial sodium accumulation, decreased haemolymph chloride and decreased haemolymph osmolarity were observed after 48h exposure to 221 microg Cu(II) L(-1), suggesting a mechanism of toxicity related to ionoregulation. However, these effects were likely secondary to a general effect on gill barrier function, and possibly mediated by mucus secretion. Significant impacts of copper on haemocyanin were also noted in both animals, highlighting a potentially novel mechanism of copper toxicity to animals utilising this respiratory pigment. Overall these findings indicate that physiology, as opposed to water chemistry, exerts the greatest influence over copper toxicity. An understanding of the physiological limits of marine and estuarine organisms may be critical for calibration of predictive models of metal toxicity in waters of high and fluctuating salinities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps.

    PubMed

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2004-01-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 degrees C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 degrees C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 degrees C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics.

  9. Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate

    DOEpatents

    Bergeron, Charles; Bullard, John E.; Morgan, Evan

    1991-01-01

    A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

  10. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product....

  2. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Methylene Chloride. 1910.1052 Section 1910.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1052 Methylene Chloride. This occupational...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene Chloride. 1910.1052 Section 1910.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1052 Methylene Chloride. This occupational...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylene Chloride. 1910.1052 Section 1910.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1052 Methylene Chloride. This occupational...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene Chloride. 1910.1052 Section 1910.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1052 Methylene Chloride. This occupational...

  6. Enhanced hydrophilicity of chlorided aluminum oxide particulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, W. R., III

    1978-01-01

    An enhancement of hydrophilicity for chlorided aluminas was demonstrated by the results obtained from gaseous H2O sorptions at 70-, 80-, and 86-percent relative humidity on alpha and gamma aluminum oxide particulates and on alpha and gamma aluminum oxide particulates with a chemisorbed surface chloride phase (produced by reactions of gaseous HCl + H2O on alumina). Continuous sorption histories for H2O on chlorided aluminas having specific surface areas that range from 7 to 227 sq m/g before chloriding indicated that initial sorption rates were directly linked to the extent of chemisorbed chlorided coverage and implied the same relationship for sorption capacities. The initial sorption rate on chlorided aluminas was found to be slower for the first exposure to H2O than for subsequent exposures (which reached equilibrated H2O coverages much faster), suggesting that slow chemical reactions between H2O and chlorided alumina may have been operative during initial exposures. Chlorided alumina particles were found to remain very hydrophilic (relative to nonchlorided analogs) for several H2O sorption/desorption cycles.

  7. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chlorid...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  12. Chloride: from Nutrient to Toxicant.

    PubMed

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin

    2018-05-01

    In salinized soils in which chloride (Cl-) is the dominant salt anion, growth of plants that tolerate only low concentrations of salt (glycophytes) is disturbed by Cl- toxicity. Chlorotic discolorations precede necrotic lesions, causing yield reductions. Little is known about the effects of Cl- toxicity on these dysfunctions. A lack of understanding exists regarding (i) the molecular and physiological mechanisms that lead to Cl--induced damage and (ii) the adaptive aspects of induced tolerance to Cl- salinity. Here, mechanistic explanations for the Cl--induced stress responses are proposed and novel ideas and strategies by which glycophytic plants avoid the excessive accumulation of Cl- are reviewed. New experiments are suggested to test the proposed hypotheses. Cl- salinity constrains global food security and thus we urgently need more research into the causes and consequences of Cl- salinity.

  13. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  14. Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Bagshaw, Gary H.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

  15. A Review of Sodium-Metal Chloride Battery Activity At JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Following the disclosures by Coetzer et al. on the use of transition metal chlorides in chloroaluminates as alternate cathodes to sulfur in rechargeable sodium batteries, several laboratories, including the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, focused their attention on these systems. These systems have certain distinct advantages over sodium-sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability, and lower operating temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and NaNiCl2, were developed extensively and evaluated in various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and warrants a detailed fundamental study on these cathodes. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory a program was initiated two years back to understand the electrochemical behavior of FeCl2 and NiCl2, and to identify and evaluate other transition metal chlorides of promise. The initial efforts focused on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics, and identifying the rate-limiting processes in te reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged form these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation- a rate limiting process-under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have a higher energy density, has been assessed. On the basis of the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt appear promising.

  16. Fiber optic chloride sensing: if corrosion's the problem, chloride sensing is the key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhr, Peter L.; MacCraith, Brian D.; Huston, Dryver R.; Guerrina, Mario; Nelson, Matthew

    1997-09-01

    The use of chloride-based deicing agents to help clear US highways of roadway hazards leads to associated chemical related problems. Fouling of local rivers and streams due to runoff of the water borne chlorides is significant and has contributed to local ordances are attempting to force state agencies to reduce, if not eliminate, the use of these chlorides. With respect to the corrosion aspects of chloride application, cracks that occur in the roadway/bridge pavement allow water to seep into the pavement carrying the chloride to the rebar with the resultant increase in corrosion. The costs of this corrosion are considerable and have led to the widespread use of chloride/water impermeable membranes on roadways and especially within bridges. Fiber optic sensor have repeatedly been shown to provide measurement capabilities of parameters within such reinforced concrete structures. Development of a fiber optic chloride sensors capable of being embedded within a roadway or bridge deck is reported.

  17. Chloride Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the amount of ...

  18. Embedded chloride detectors for roadways and bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhr, Peter L.; Huston, Dryver R.; McPadden, Adam P.; Cauley, Robert F.

    1996-04-01

    The problems associated with the application of chloride-based deicing agents to roadways and specifically bridges include chemical pollution and accelerated corrosion of strength members (especially rebar) within the structure. In many instances, local ordinances are attempting to force state agencies to reduce, if not eliminate, the use of these chlorides (typically at the cost of increased driving hazards). With respect to the corrosion aspects of chloride application, cracks that occur in the roadway/bridge pavement allow water to seep into the pavement carrying the chloride to the rebar with the resultant increase in corrosion. In response to this problem, particularly in high roadsalt usage areas, a chloride/water impermeable membrane is placed above the rebar matrix so if/when roadway cracking occurs, the roadsalts won't be able to damage the rebar. Such a membrane is costly -- and the question of its in-service performance is questionable. In a joint effort between the University of Vermont and the Vermont Agency of Transportation, we are developing fiber optic chloride detectors which are capable of being embedded into the rebar-concrete roadway under this membrane. The sensing mechanism relies on spectroscopic analysis of a chemical reaction of chloride and reagents (which have been coated onto the ends of fibers). Laboratory results of these detectors and a usable system configuration are presented.

  19. Oxidation Mechanism of Copper Selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskinen, Pekka; Patana, Sonja; Kobylin, Petri; Latostenmaa, Petri

    2014-09-01

    The oxidation mechanism of copper selenide was investigated at deselenization temperatures of copper refining anode slimes. The isothermal roasting of synthetic, massive copper selenide in flowing oxygen and oxygen - 20% sulfur dioxide mixtures at 450-550 °C indicate that in both atmospheres the mass of Cu2Se increases as a function of time, due to formation of copper selenite as an intermediate product. Copper selenide oxidises to copper oxides without formation of thick copper selenite scales, and a significant fraction of selenium is vaporized as SeO2(g). The oxidation product scales on Cu2Se are porous which allows transport of atmospheric oxygen to the reaction zone and selenium dioxide vapor to the surrounding gas. Predominance area diagrams of the copper-selenium system, constructed for selenium roasting conditions, indicate that the stable phase of copper in a selenium roaster gas with SO2 is the sulfate CuSO4. The cuprous oxide formed in decomposition of Cu2Se is further sulfated to CuSO4.

  20. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  1. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1987-07-30

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  2. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton; Sinha, Shome N.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  3. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1990-05-15

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  4. Lithium thionyl chloride high rate discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinedinst, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    Improvements in high rate lithium thionyl chloride power technology achieved by varying the electrolyte composition, operating temperature, cathode design, and cathode composition are discussed. Discharge capacities are plotted as a function of current density, cell voltage, and temperature.

  5. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  6. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

  7. Inert Reassessment Document for Cerous Chloride

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The rare earth chlorides have a wide variety of scientific applications. They a re used in superconductors, lasers, magnets, catalytic converters, fertilizes, supper alloys, cigarette lighters and as catalysts in the production of petroleum products.

  8. Qualitative Determination of Nitrate with Triphenylbenzylphosphonium Chloride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Donna A.; Cole, Jerry J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses two procedures for the identification of nitrate, the standard test ("Brown Ring" test) and a new procedure using triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride (TPBPC). Effectiveness of both procedures is compared, with the TPBPC test proving to be more sensitive and accurate. (JM)

  9. Copper Vapor Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    flow. A volumetric quench.ng agent should quench the lower laser level m a t.me ᝺^ sec without mterfenng w.th the excitation process. A high-speed...quenchtng agent should not ^" »ff. AlLu^ A« Ire Imon gases do not appear promrsmg. there are some other more complex posstb.hues st.ll to be pursued...dimension along the How). Unless a volumetric quenching agent is discovered and employed, those copper atoms which contributed to the previous laser

  10. Liver disease among polyvinyl chloride production workers.

    PubMed

    Creech, J L; Makk, L

    1975-01-31

    A protocol for systematic testing of all employees of a chemical plant is presented. This factory manufactures polyvinyl chloride compounds and resins, ABS compounds and resins, and synthetic rubber. The results were reviewed, which led to the discovery of 2 additional cases of angiosarcoma and 11 cases of portal fibrosis. Two of the 11 cases were found to have developed in employees other than polyvinyl chloride production workers.

  11. The 5-(4-Ethynylophenoxy) isophthalic chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Sulfone-ester polymers containing pendent ethynyl groups and a direct and multistep process for preparing them are disclosed. The multistep process involves the conversion of a pendent bromo group to the ethynyl group while the direct route involves reating hydroxy-terminated sulfone oligomer or polymers with a stoichiometric amount of 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride. The 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride and the process for preparing it are also disclosed.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and properties of copper(I) complexes with bis(diphenylphosphino)-ferrocene ancillary ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinfang; Zhang, Songlin; Ding, Yuqiang

    2012-06-01

    Three copper(I) complexes (2-4) containing dppf ancillary ligand (dppf = bis(diphenylphosphino)-ferrocene) were synthesized when chloride-bridged copper(I) complex 1 reacted with acetanilide and characterized by IR, element analysis and NMR spectrum. And the crystal structures of complexes 2 and 4 have been determined by X-ray diffraction method. Complex 2, an acetate-bridged copper(I) complex, was obtained under N2 atmosphere in un-dried solvent; the acetate ion came from the hydrolysis reaction of acetanilide due to residual water in solvent. Acetanilide was deprotonated and coordinated with the copper(I) centre to form a copper(I) amidate complex 3 when reacted in pre-dried solvent. In addition, a known complex 4, the oxidation product of dppf, was isolated from the same reaction system when reacted in air atmosphere. CV and TG experiments were carried out to check the electron transfer properties and thermal stabilities of complexes 2-3. Finally, the arylation reaction of complex 3 with iodobenzene was performed to study the reaction mechanism of copper(I) catalyzed Goldberg reaction.

  13. The copper rush of the nineties.

    PubMed

    Solioz, Marc

    2016-09-01

    The nineties witnessed the discovery of the copper ATPases, enzymes which transport copper across the cytoplasmic membranes of bacteria and eukaryotes. In the same decade, several other key components of copper homeostasis have also been discovered, like copper chaperones and plasma membrane copper transporters. This has finally led to a molecular understanding of two inherited human diseases related to copper: Menkes disease, manifested by systemic copper deficiency, and Wilson disease, caused by defective secretion of excess copper. A historic perspective and untold stories of the events leading up to these discoveries are presented here.

  14. Structure of complexes between aluminum chloride and other chlorides, 2: Alkali-(chloroaluminates). Gaseous complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargittai, M.

    1980-01-01

    The structural chemistry of complexes between aluminum chloride and other metal chlorides is important both for practice and theory. Condensed-phase as well as vapor-phase complexes are of interest. Structural information on such complexes is reviewed. The first emphasis is given to the molten state because of its practical importance. Aluminum chloride forms volatile complexes with other metal chlorides and these vapor-phase complexes are dealt with in the second part. Finally, the variations in molecular shape and geometrical parameters are summarized.

  15. Abnormal passive chloride absorption in cystic fibrosis jejunum functionally opposes the classic chloride secretory defect

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Michael A.; Högenauer, Christoph; Coates, Stephen W.; Santa Ana, Carol A.; Porter, Jack L.; Rosenblatt, Randall L.; Emmett, Michael; Fordtran, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Due to genetic defects in apical membrane chloride channels, the cystic fibrosis (CF) intestine does not secrete chloride normally. Depressed chloride secretion leaves CF intestinal absorptive processes unopposed, which results in net fluid hyperabsorption, dehydration of intestinal contents, and a propensity to inspissated intestinal obstruction. This theory is based primarily on in vitro studies of jejunal mucosa. To determine if CF patients actually hyperabsorb fluid in vivo, we measured electrolyte and water absorption during steady-state perfusion of the jejunum. As expected, chloride secretion was abnormally low in CF, but surprisingly, there was no net hyperabsorption of sodium or water during perfusion of a balanced electrolyte solution. This suggested that fluid absorption processes are reduced in CF jejunum, and further studies revealed that this was due to a marked depression of passive chloride absorption. Although Na+-glucose cotransport was normal in the CF jejunum, absence of passive chloride absorption completely blocked glucose-stimulated net sodium absorption and reduced glucose-stimulated water absorption 66%. This chloride absorptive abnormality acts in physiological opposition to the classic chloride secretory defect in the CF intestine. By increasing the fluidity of intraluminal contents, absence of passive chloride absorption may reduce the incidence and severity of intestinal disease in patients with CF. PMID:12840066

  16. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar.

    PubMed

    Peng, Gai-Fei; Feng, Nai-Qian; Song, Qi-Ming

    2014-04-30

    The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short), composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel's salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO₂ - in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel's salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  17. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Gai-Fei; Feng, Nai-Qian; Song, Qi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short), composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel’s salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO2− in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel’s salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms. PMID:28788625

  18. Lead and Copper Control 101

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is an overview of the most important water treatment strategies for the control of lead and copper release from drinking water corrosion. In addition to the sections specifically on lead and copper treatment, sections are included that cover sampling to find le...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1845 - Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Anhydrous stannous chloride (SnCl2, CAS Reg. No. 7772-99-8) is the chloride salt of metallic tin. It is prepared by reacting molten tin with either chlorine or gaseous tin tetrachloride. Dihydrated stannous chloride (SnCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10025-0969-091) is the chloride salt of metallic tin that contains two...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1845 - Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Anhydrous stannous chloride (SnCl2, CAS Reg. No. 7772-99-8) is the chloride salt of metallic tin. It is prepared by reacting molten tin with either chlorine or gaseous tin tetrachloride. Dihydrated stannous chloride (SnCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10025-69-1) is the chloride salt of metallic tin that contains two...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1845 - Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Anhydrous stannous chloride (SnCl2, CAS Reg. No. 7772-99-8) is the chloride salt of metallic tin. It is prepared by reacting molten tin with either chlorine or gaseous tin tetrachloride. Dihydrated stannous chloride (SnCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10025-0969-091) is the chloride salt of metallic tin that contains two...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1845 - Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Anhydrous stannous chloride (SnCl2, CAS Reg. No. 7772-99-8) is the chloride salt of metallic tin. It is prepared by reacting molten tin with either chlorine or gaseous tin tetrachloride. Dihydrated stannous chloride (SnCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10025-69-1) is the chloride salt of metallic tin that contains two...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterile pralidoxime chloride. 522.1862 Section 522....1862 Sterile pralidoxime chloride. (a) Chemical name. 2-Formyl-1-methylpyridinium chloride oxime. (b) Specifications. Sterile pralidoxime chloride is packaged in vials. Each vial contains 1 gram of sterile...

  4. 21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic chloride complex may be safely used as release agents in the closure...

  5. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are described...

  6. [Synthesis, characterization and fluorescent properties of copper phthalocyanine derivates substituted by aliphatic alcohol].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Xu, Qing-Feng; Lu, Jian-Mei; Yao, She-Chun

    2007-04-01

    A series of copper phthalocyanine derivatives substituted by aliphatic chain were obtained by the reaction of tetra-formyl chloride copper phthalocyanine and aliphatic alcohol such as n-butyl alcohol, n-amyl alcohol, n-hexyl alcohol, n-caprylic alcohol and lauryl alcohol. IR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis and 1H NMR verified the structures and substituting degree. The solubility and the relationship between fluorescence and concentration and substituting group were studied in organic solution. It was confirmed that the solubility in organic solution was improved greatly, the fluorescence did not change in linear according to the concentration and the fluorescence of copper phthalocyanine derivatives substituted by the long alkyl was stronger than that substituted by the relatively short alkyl.

  7. Synthesis of copper quantum dots by chemical reduction method and tailoring of its band gap

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhash, P. G.; Nair, Swapna S., E-mail: swapna.s.nair@gmail.com

    Metallic copper nano particles are synthesized with citric acid and CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) as surfactant and chlorides as precursors. The particle size and surface morphology are analyzed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. The average size of the nano particle is found to be 3 - 10 nm. The optical absorption characteristics are done by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. From the Tauc plots, the energy band gaps are calculated and because of their smaller size the particles have much higher band gap than the bulk material. The energy band gap is changed from 3.67 eV to 4.27 eV in citric acid coatedmore » copper quantum dots and 4.17 eV to 4.52 eV in CTAB coated copper quantum dots.« less

  8. Copper-based 2D-coordination polymer as catalyst for allylation of aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Gilson B.; Menezes, Paulo H.; Malvestiti, Ivani; Falcão, Eduardo H. L.; Alves, Severino, Jr.; Chojnacki, Jarosław; da Silva, Fausthon F.

    2018-03-01

    A copper-tartrate, [Cu2(Tart)2(H2O)2]·4H2O, was synthesized at room temperature in aqueous media using copper chloride and D-tartaric acid. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system P21 space group and was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, X-ray powder diffraction and the results are in good agreement with the single crystal structure. Catalytic properties for allylation of aldehydes were investigated at different solvents, and the best conditions obtained were using a mixture of CH2Cl2:H2O. The copper-tartrate obtained showed good performance as catalyst for different substrates and yields were between 62% and 95%.

  9. Leaching for recovery of copper from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash: influence of ash properties and metal speciation.

    PubMed

    Lassesson, Henric; Fedje, Karin Karlfeldt; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2014-08-01

    Recovery of metals occurring in significant amounts in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, such as copper, could offer several advantages: a decreased amount of potentially mobile metal compounds going to landfill, saving of natural resources and a monetary value. A combination of leaching and solvent extraction may constitute a feasible recovery path for metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. However, it has been shown that the initial dissolution and leaching is a limiting step in such a recovery process. The work described in this article was focused on elucidating physical and chemical differences between two ash samples with the aim of explaining the differences in copper release from these samples in two leaching methods. The results showed that the chemical speciation is an important factor affecting the release of copper. The occurrence of copper as phosphate or silicate will hinder leaching, while sulphate and chloride will facilitate leaching. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. The copper metallome in eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Vest, Katherine E; Hashemi, Hayaa F; Cobine, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Copper is an element that is both essential and toxic. It is a required micronutrient for energy production in aerobic eukaryotes, from unicellular yeast to plants and mammals. Copper is also required for the acquisition and systemic distribution of the essential metal iron, and so copper deficiency results in iron deficiency. Copper enzymes have been identified that explain the wide variety of symptoms suffered by copper deficient subjects. The cloning of the genes encoding transport proteins responsible for copper-related Menkes and Wilson diseases inspired and coincided with the discovery of copper chaperones that stimulated the copper homeostasis field. Copper continues to be implicated in new array of proteins, notably those involved in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Here we will describe the cadre of important historical copper proteins and survey the major metallochaperones and transporters responsible for mobilization and sequestration of copper in yeast, mammals and plants.

  11. Atmospheric chloride: Its implication for foliar uptake and damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, E. L.; Sealy, R. L.

    Atmospheric chloride is inversely related to distance from the Texas coast; r2 = 0.86. Levels of atmospheric chloride are higher in the early summer than in the winter because of salt storms. Leaf chloride l'evels of Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss) reflect the atmospheric chloride levels; r2 = 0.78. The importance of considering the effect of atmospheric chloride on leaf damage to horticultural crops is discussed.

  12. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-zinc(II) and -copper(II) complexes induce apoptosis in tumor cells by inhibiting the proteasomal activity☆

    PubMed Central

    Milacic, Vesna; Chen, Di; Giovagnini, Lorena; Diez, Alejandro; Fregona, Dolores; Dou, Q. Ping

    2013-01-01

    Zinc and copper are trace elements essential for proper folding, stabilization and catalytic activity of many metalloenzymes in living organisms. However, disturbed zinc and copper homeostasis is reported in many types of cancer. We have previously demonstrated that copper complexes induced proteasome inhibition and apoptosis in cultured human cancer cells. In the current study we hypothesized that zinc complexes could also inhibit the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity responsible for subsequent apoptosis induction. We first showed that zinc(II) chloride was able to inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome with an IC50 value of 13.8 μM, which was less potent than copper(II) chloride (IC50 5.3 μM). We then compared the potencies of a pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PyDT)-zinc(II) complex and a PyDT-copper(II) complex to inhibit cellular proteasomal activity, suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in various human breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Consistently, zinc complex was less potent than copper complex in inhibiting the proteasome and inducing apoptosis. Additionally, zinc and copper complexes appear to use somewhat different mechanisms to kill tumor cells. Zinc complexes were able to activate calpain-, but not caspase-3-dependent pathway, while copper complexes were able to induce activation of both proteases. Furthermore, the potencies of these PyDT-metal complexes depend on the nature of metals and also on the ratio of PyDT to the metal ion within the complex, which probably affects their stability and availability for interacting with and inhibiting the proteasome in tumor cells. PMID:18501397

  13. Regulation of extracellular copper-binding proteins in copper-resistant and copper-sensitive mutants of Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, V J; Gordon, A S

    1994-01-01

    Extracellular proteins of wild-type Vibrio alginolyticus were compared with those of copper-resistant and copper-sensitive mutants. One copper-resistant mutant (Cu40B3) constitutively produced an extracellular protein with the same apparent molecular mass (21 kDa) and chromatographic behavior as copper-binding protein (CuBP), a copper-induced supernatant protein which has been implicated in copper detoxification in wild-type V. alginolyticus. Copper-sensitive V. alginolyticus mutants displayed a range of alterations in supernatant protein profiles. CuBP was not detected in supernatants of one copper-sensitive mutant after cultures had been stressed with 50 microM copper. Increased resistance to copper was not induced by preincubation with subinhibitory levels of copper in the wild type or in the copper-resistant mutant Cu40B3. Copper-resistant mutants maintained the ability to grow on copper-amended agar after 10 or more subcultures on nonselective agar, demonstrating the stability of the phenotype. A derivative of Cu40B3 with wild-type sensitivity to copper which no longer constitutively expressed CuBP was isolated. The simultaneous loss of both constitutive CuBP production and copper resistance in Cu40B3 indicates that constitutive CuBP production is necessary for copper resistance in this mutant. These data support the hypothesis that the extracellular, ca. 20-kDa protein(s) of V. alginolyticus is an important factor in survival and growth of the organism at elevated copper concentrations. The range of phenotypes observed in copper-resistant and copper-sensitive V. alginolyticus indicate that altered sensitivity to copper was mediated by a variety of physiological changes. Images PMID:8031076

  14. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  15. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

  16. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... basis and analyzes the samples with gas chromatography or, if the owner or operator assumes that all... concentration of vinyl chloride in the exhaust gases does not exceed 10 ppm (average for 3-hour period), or... chloride in the exhaust gases does not exceed 10 ppm (average for 3-hour period), or equivalent as provided...

  17. Commercial scale cucumber fermentations brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride instead of NaCl...

  18. Occupational asthma due to soft corrosive soldering fluxes containing zinc chloride and ammonium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Weir, D C; Robertson, A S; Jones, S; Burge, P S

    1989-01-01

    Two cases of occupational asthma due to soft corrosive soldering fluxes used in metal jointing are described in which the diagnosis was based on work related deterioration in daily peak expiratory flow rate and positive responses in bronchial provocation tests. Both fluxes contained ammonium chloride and zinc chloride. Occupational asthma provoked by these agents has not previously been reported. PMID:2705153

  19. Stability of methacholine chloride in isotonic sodium chloride using a capillary electrophoresis assay.

    PubMed

    Henn, S; Monfort, P; Vigneron, J H; Hoffman, M A; Hoffman, M

    1999-10-01

    To investigate the stability of methacholine chloride in 0.9% sodium chloride solutions. Methacholine powder was mixed with diluent to a final concentration of 5 and 10 mg/ml. Duplicates of each admixture were divided and stored in glass vials at 25 degrees C, 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C for 12 months. At appropriate times intervals, samples were removed from solutions and analysed. Methacholine concentrations were measured using a high performance capillary electrophoresis assay. No colour or other visual changes were seen in any sample. However, an additional peak was observed in some samples. Methacholine chloride solutions 5 mg/ml were stable in isotonic sodium chloride after refrigeration or freezing over a period of one year; methacholine chloride solutions 10 mg/ml were stable for one year after freezing. The solutions stored at ambient temperature were stable for 35 days and for less than 14 days, respectively, for the 5 and the 10 mg/ml solutions.

  20. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    PubMed Central

    Thoreson, Wallace B; Bryson, Eric J

    2004-01-01

    Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl) was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca)) and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca). PMID:15579212

  1. TOLERANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TO SODIUM CHLORIDE

    PubMed Central

    Parfentjev, I. A.; Catelli, Anna R.

    1964-01-01

    Parfentjev, I. A. (Institute of Applied Biology, New York, N.Y.), and Anna R. Catelli. Tolerance of Staphylococcus aureus to sodium chloride. J. Bacteriol. 88:1–3. 1964.—The tolerance of Staphylococcus aureus to high concentrations of sodium chloride in liquid medium has been reported. We found that S. aureus grows at 37 C in Tryptose Phosphate Broth saturated with sodium chloride. No difference was noticed between possibly pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. Under the conditions of our tests, no changes in the original properties of S. aureus strains occurred. In contrast, solutions of sodium chloride in distilled water were injurious to staphylococci and killed most of these organisms in 1 hr. Staphylococci were killed faster at 37 C than at room temperature in a solution of 0.85% sodium chloride in water. Addition of traces of Tryptose Phosphate Broth had a protective effect and prolonged the life of these organisms in physiological saline. All tests were performed at pH 7.2. PMID:14197887

  2. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings or...

  3. Draft genome sequence of chloride-tolerant Leptospirillum ferriphilum Sp-Cl from industrial bioleaching operations in northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Issotta, Francisco; Galleguillos, Pedro A; Moya-Beltrán, Ana; Davis-Belmar, Carol S; Rautenbach, George; Covarrubias, Paulo C; Acosta, Mauricio; Ossandon, Francisco J; Contador, Yasna; Holmes, David S; Marín-Eliantonio, Sabrina; Quatrini, Raquel; Demergasso, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirillum ferriphilum Sp-Cl is a Gram negative, thermotolerant, curved, rod-shaped bacterium, isolated from an industrial bioleaching operation in northern Chile, where chalcocite is the major copper mineral and copper hydroxychloride atacamite is present in variable proportions in the ore. This strain has unique features as compared to the other members of the species, namely resistance to elevated concentrations of chloride, sulfate and metals. Basic microbiological features and genomic properties of this biotechnologically relevant strain are described in this work. The 2,475,669 bp draft genome is arranged into 74 scaffolds of 74 contigs. A total of 48 RNA genes and 2,834 protein coding genes were predicted from its annotation; 55 % of these were assigned a putative function. Release of the genome sequence of this strain will provide further understanding of the mechanisms used by acidophilic bacteria to endure high osmotic stress and high chloride levels and of the role of chloride-tolerant iron-oxidizers in industrial bioleaching operations.

  4. Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

  5. Verification of chloride adsorption effect of mortar with salt adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshina, T.; Nakajima, N.; Sudo, H.; Date, S.

    2017-11-01

    In order to investigate the chloride adsorption effect of mortar mixed with chloride adsorbent, electrophoresis test using mortar specimen and immersion dry repeated test were conducted to evaluate chloride adsorption effect. As a result, it was confirmed that soluble salt content that causes corrosion of rebar in the specimen was reduced by the chloride adsorbent and corrosion inhibiting effect of the rebar was also obtained. It was also confirmed that by increasing dosage of the chloride adsorbent, the chloride adsorbing effect becomes larger as well..

  6. The Interaction of Polycrystalline Copper Films with Dilute Aqueous Solutions of Cupric Chloride

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    to interconnect semiconductor devices and other computer components Electronic circuits are mass / produced to obtain poduct uniformity and lowestx...so one needs to determine what if any pH change is produced by this extraneous oxide film growth. Thus, in order to determine any interference which...diffusion type; bulk diffusion rates would lie between 10 - 1 3 and 6x10-12mol.h- 1cm-2 mixed grain -13 boundary and bulk diffusion would lie between 6x10

  7. The copper deposits of Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, B.S.; Burbank, W.S.

    1929-01-01

    The copper district of Keweenaw Point, in the northern peninsula of Michigan, is the second largest producer of copper in the world.  The output of the district since 1845 has been more than 7,500,000,000 pounds and showed a rather steady and consistent increase from the beginning of production to the end of the World War in 1918, since which there has been a marked decrease.

  8. Copper atomic-scale transistors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fangqing; Kavalenka, Maryna N; Röger, Moritz; Albrecht, Daniel; Hölscher, Hendrik; Leuthold, Jürgen; Schimmel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We investigated copper as a working material for metallic atomic-scale transistors and confirmed that copper atomic-scale transistors can be fabricated and operated electrochemically in a copper electrolyte (CuSO 4 + H 2 SO 4 ) in bi-distilled water under ambient conditions with three microelectrodes (source, drain and gate). The electrochemical switching-on potential of the atomic-scale transistor is below 350 mV, and the switching-off potential is between 0 and -170 mV. The switching-on current is above 1 μA, which is compatible with semiconductor transistor devices. Both sign and amplitude of the voltage applied across the source and drain electrodes ( U bias ) influence the switching rate of the transistor and the copper deposition on the electrodes, and correspondingly shift the electrochemical operation potential. The copper atomic-scale transistors can be switched using a function generator without a computer-controlled feedback switching mechanism. The copper atomic-scale transistors, with only one or two atoms at the narrowest constriction, were realized to switch between 0 and 1 G 0 ( G 0 = 2e 2 /h; with e being the electron charge, and h being Planck's constant) or 2 G 0 by the function generator. The switching rate can reach up to 10 Hz. The copper atomic-scale transistor demonstrates volatile/non-volatile dual functionalities. Such an optimal merging of the logic with memory may open a perspective for processor-in-memory and logic-in-memory architectures, using copper as an alternative working material besides silver for fully metallic atomic-scale transistors.

  9. Copper atomic-scale transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kavalenka, Maryna N; Röger, Moritz; Albrecht, Daniel; Hölscher, Hendrik; Leuthold, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    We investigated copper as a working material for metallic atomic-scale transistors and confirmed that copper atomic-scale transistors can be fabricated and operated electrochemically in a copper electrolyte (CuSO4 + H2SO4) in bi-distilled water under ambient conditions with three microelectrodes (source, drain and gate). The electrochemical switching-on potential of the atomic-scale transistor is below 350 mV, and the switching-off potential is between 0 and −170 mV. The switching-on current is above 1 μA, which is compatible with semiconductor transistor devices. Both sign and amplitude of the voltage applied across the source and drain electrodes (U bias) influence the switching rate of the transistor and the copper deposition on the electrodes, and correspondingly shift the electrochemical operation potential. The copper atomic-scale transistors can be switched using a function generator without a computer-controlled feedback switching mechanism. The copper atomic-scale transistors, with only one or two atoms at the narrowest constriction, were realized to switch between 0 and 1G 0 (G 0 = 2e2/h; with e being the electron charge, and h being Planck’s constant) or 2G 0 by the function generator. The switching rate can reach up to 10 Hz. The copper atomic-scale transistor demonstrates volatile/non-volatile dual functionalities. Such an optimal merging of the logic with memory may open a perspective for processor-in-memory and logic-in-memory architectures, using copper as an alternative working material besides silver for fully metallic atomic-scale transistors. PMID:28382242

  10. Effects of chloride, sulfate and natural organic matter (NOM) on the accumulation and release of trace-level inorganic contaminants from corroding iron.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ching-Yu; Ferguson, John F; Korshin, Gregory V

    2013-09-15

    This study examined effects of varying levels of anions (chloride and sulfate) and natural organic matter (NOM) on iron release from and accumulation of inorganic contaminants in corrosion scales formed on iron coupons exposed to drinking water. Changes of concentrations of sulfate and chloride were observed to affect iron release and, in lesser extent, the retention of representative inorganic contaminants (vanadium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, lead and uranium); but, effects of NOM were more pronounced. DOC concentration of 1 mg/L caused iron release to increase, with average soluble and total iron concentrations being four and two times, respectively, higher than those in the absence of NOM. In the presence of NOM, the retention of inorganic contaminants by corrosion scales was reduced. This was especially prominent for lead, vanadium, chromium and copper whose retention by the scales decreased from >80% in the absence of NOM to <30% in its presence. Some of the contaminants, notably copper, chromium, zinc and nickel retained on the surface of iron coupons in the presence of DOC largely retained their mobility and were released readily when ambient water chemistry changed. Vanadium, arsenic, cadmium, lead and uranium retained by the scales were largely unsusceptible to changes of NOM and chloride levels. Modeling indicated that the observed effects were associated with the formation of metal-NOM complexes and effects of NOM on the sorption of the inorganic contaminants on solid phases that are typical for iron corrosion in drinking water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    DOEpatents

    Curtis, Calvin J [Lakewood, CO; Miedaner, Alexander [Boulder, CO; Van Hest, Maikel [Lakewood, CO; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Nekuda, Jennifer A [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  12. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Cancer; central nervous system effects; liver effects; blood effects; and flammability. (iii) Employers..., whichever occurs first. (B) A continuous-monitoring and alarm system must be provided when concentrations of... system must be used to alert employees when vinyl chloride concentrations exceed the allowable...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Cancer; central nervous system effects; liver effects; blood effects; and flammability. (iii) Employers..., whichever occurs first. (B) A continuous-monitoring and alarm system must be provided when concentrations of... system must be used to alert employees when vinyl chloride concentrations exceed the allowable...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Cancer; central nervous system effects; liver effects; blood effects; and flammability. (iii) Employers..., whichever occurs first. (B) A continuous-monitoring and alarm system must be provided when concentrations of... system must be used to alert employees when vinyl chloride concentrations exceed the allowable...

  15. Fluid Bed Dehydration of Magnesium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adham, K.; Lee, C.; O'Keefe, K.

    Molten salt electrolysis of MgCl2 is commonly used for the production of magnesium metal. However, the electrolysis feed must be completely dry with minimum oxygen content. Therefore, complete dehydration of the MgCl2 brine or the hydrated prill is a required process, which is very challenging because of the ease of thermal degradation due to hydrolysis of magnesium chloride.

  16. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  17. Mercuric chloride (HgCl2)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mercuric chloride ( HgCl2 ) ; CASRN 7487 - 94 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  18. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission determination... China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review pursuant to... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  19. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Sherman (202-205-3289...

  20. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the... contained in USITC Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  2. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Chlorides,” 2d printing including additions and revisions 1990, which is incorporated by reference in... availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register... Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA...

  3. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Free Amine Value of Fatty Quaternary Ammonium Chlorides,” 2d printing including additions and revisions... Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741... Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to...

  4. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Free Amine Value of Fatty Quaternary Ammonium Chlorides,” 2d printing including additions and revisions... Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741... Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to...

  5. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions†

    PubMed Central

    Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV) we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N) as 500 nM. PMID:27873832

  6. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions.

    PubMed

    Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene

    2008-09-15

    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO₃, a solution of AgNO₃ and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO₃, solution of AgNO₃ and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV) we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N) as 500 nM.

  7. MERCURIC CHLORIDE CAPTURE BY ALKALINE SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of bench-scale mechanistic studies of mercury/sorbent reactions that showed that mercuric chloride (HgC12) is readily adsorbed by alkaline sorbents, which may offers a less expensive alternative to the use of activated carbons. A laboratory-scale, fixed-b...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... stabilizer or thickener as defined in § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... stabilizer or thickener as defined in § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  12. Absorption media for irreversibly gettering thionyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Buffleben, George; Goods, Steven H.; Shepodd, Timothy; Wheeler, David R.; Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy

    2002-01-01

    Thionyl chloride is a hazardous and reactive chemical used as the liquid cathode in commercial primary batteries. Contrary to previous thinking, ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon (Calgon Corporation) reversibly absorbs thionyl chloride. Thus, several candidate materials were examined as irreversible getters for thionyl chloride. The capacity, rate and effect of temperature were also explored. A wide variety of likely materials were investigated through screening experiments focusing on the degree of heat generated by the reaction as well as the material absorption capacity and irreversibility, in order to help narrow the group of possible getter choices. More thorough, quantitative measurements were performed on promising materials. The best performing getter was a mixture of ZnO and ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. In this example, the ZnO reacts with thionyl chloride to form ZnCl.sub.2 and SO.sub.2. The SO.sub.2 is then irreversibly gettered by ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. This combination of ZnO and carbon has a high capacity, is irreversible and functions effectively above -20.degree. C.

  13. Porins Increase Copper Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Speer, Alexander; Rowland, Jennifer L.; Haeili, Mehri; Niederweis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Copper resistance mechanisms are crucial for many pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, during infection because the innate immune system utilizes copper ions to kill bacterial intruders. Despite several studies detailing responses of mycobacteria to copper, the pathways by which copper ions cross the mycobacterial cell envelope are unknown. Deletion of porin genes in Mycobacterium smegmatis leads to a severe growth defect on trace copper medium but simultaneously increases tolerance for copper at elevated concentrations, indicating that porins mediate copper uptake across the outer membrane. Heterologous expression of the mycobacterial porin gene mspA reduced growth of M. tuberculosis in the presence of 2.5 μM copper by 40% and completely suppressed growth at 15 μM copper, while wild-type M. tuberculosis reached its normal cell density at that copper concentration. Moreover, the polyamine spermine, a known inhibitor of porin activity in Gram-negative bacteria, enhanced tolerance of M. tuberculosis for copper, suggesting that copper ions utilize endogenous outer membrane channel proteins of M. tuberculosis to gain access to interior cellular compartments. In summary, these findings highlight the outer membrane as the first barrier against copper ions and the role of porins in mediating copper uptake in M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis. PMID:24013632

  14. Release of Micronized Copper Particles from Pressure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Micronized copper pressure treated lumber (PTL) has recently been introduced to the consumer market as a replacement for ionized copper PTL. The presence of particulate rather than aqueous copper raises concerns about the exposure of humans as well as the environment to the particles. Two common pathways of exposure, leaching during contact with water and transfer during physical contact, were investigated to gage potential human and environmental risk during intended use of the product. Characterization, leaching tests, and wipe tests were conducted on two representative formulations of micronized copper PTL (micronized copper azole or MCA) to quantify the levels of copper present in the treated material and the amount of copper released during use as well as to determine the form (particle or ion) of the copper after it was released. Additionally, an ionized copper pressure treated wood (alkaline copper azole or ACA) was tested for comparison. The characterization showed that copper carbonate is the primary particle form in the MCA treated wood, but other forms are also present, particularly in the MCA-1 formulation, which contained a large amount of organically complexed copper. Microscopy showed that MCA-1 contained particles roughly half the size of MCA-2. The leaching results indicate that mostly (> ~95%) ionic copper is released from the MCA wood and that the particulate copper that was released is attached to cellulose and not free in solution. A sma

  15. Electrochemical chloride extraction : influence of concrete surface on treatment.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-10-01

    One bridge restoration technique available for reducing corrosion-induced concrete deterioration, which removes : chloride ions while simultaneously realkalizing the concrete adjacent to the steel, is electrochemical chloride extraction : (ECE). Stud...

  16. Electrochemical Chloride Extraction : Influence of Concrete Surface on Treatment

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-09-01

    One bridge restoration technique available for reducing corrosion-induced concrete deterioration, which removes chloride ions while simultaneously realkalizing the concrete adjacent to the steel, is electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE). Studies ...

  17. Copper-Zinc-Tin-Sulfur Thin Film Using Spin-Coating Technology

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Min-Yen; Lei, Po-Hsun; Lin, Shao-Hsein; Yang, Chyi-Da

    2016-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by using spin-coating and an annealing process, which can improve the crystallinity and morphology of the thin films. The grain size, optical gap, and atomic contents of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), tin (Sn), and sulfur (S) in a CZTS thin film absorber relate to the concentrations of aqueous precursor solutions containing copper chloride (CuCl2), zinc chloride (ZnCl2), tin chloride (SnCl2), and thiourea (SC(NH2)2), whereas the electrical properties of CZTS thin films depend on the annealing temperature and the atomic content ratios of Cu/(Zn + Sn) and Zn/Sn. All of the CZTS films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), Raman spectroscopy, and Hall measurements. Furthermore, CZTS thin film was deposited on an n-type silicon substrate by using spin-coating to form an Mo/p-CZTS/n-Si/Al heterostructured solar cell. The p-CZTS/n-Si heterostructured solar cell showed a conversion efficiency of 1.13% with Voc = 520 mV, Jsc = 3.28 mA/cm2, and fill-factor (FF) = 66%. PMID:28773647

  18. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves amore » two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.« less

  19. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Stephen R.

    2005-11-01

    Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride (Final Report ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Vinyl Chloride and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database. Common synonyms of vinyl chloride (VC) include chloroethene, chloroethylene, ethylene monochloride, and monochloroethene. VC is a synthetic chemical used as a chemical intermediate in the polymerization of polyvinyl chloride.

  1. Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten

    DOEpatents

    Slattery, Kevin T.; Driemeyer, Daniel E.; Davis, John W.

    2000-07-18

    Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by sintering a stack of individual copper and tungsten powder blend layers having progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in successive powder blend layers in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

  2. Thiol-based copper handling by the copper chaperone Atox1.

    PubMed

    Hatori, Yuta; Inouye, Sachiye; Akagi, Reiko

    2017-04-01

    Human antioxidant protein 1 (Atox1) plays a crucial role in cellular copper homeostasis. Atox1 captures cytosolic copper for subsequent transfer to copper pumps in trans Golgi network, thereby facilitating copper supply to various copper-dependent oxidereductases matured within the secretory vesicles. Atox1 and other copper chaperones handle cytosolic copper using Cys thiols which are ideal ligands for coordinating Cu(I). Recent studies demonstrated reversible oxidation of these Cys residues in copper chaperones, linking cellular redox state to copper homeostasis. Highlighted in this review are unique redox properties of Atox1 and other copper chaperones. Also, summarized are the redox nodes in the cytosol which potentially play dominant roles in the redox regulation of copper chaperones. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 69(4):246-254, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1845 - Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 7772-99-8) is the chloride salt of metallic tin. It is prepared by reacting molten tin with either chlorine or gaseous tin tetrachloride. Dihydrated stannous chloride (SnCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10025-69-1) is the chloride salt of metallic tin that contains two molecules of water. It is prepared from...

  4. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false n-Butyl chloride capsules. 520.260 Section 520.260... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.260 n-Butyl chloride capsules. (a)(1) Specifications. n-Butyl chloride capsules, veterinary contain 272 milligrams or 816 milligrams...

  5. Determination of mercurous chloride and total mercury in mercury ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fahey, J.J.

    1937-01-01

    A method for the determination of mercurous chloride and total mercury on the same sample is described. The mercury minerals are volatilized in a glass tube and brought into intimate contact with granulated sodium carbonate. The chlorine is fixed as sodium chloride, determined with silver nitrate, and computed to mercurous chloride. The mercury is collected on a previously weighed gold coil and weighed.

  6. Making Positive Electrodes For Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    High coulombic yields provided by sodium/metal chloride battery in which cathode formed by impregnating sintered nickel plaque with saturated solution of nickel chloride. Charge/discharge cycling of nickel chloride electrode results in very little loss of capacity. Used in spacecraft, electric land vehicles, and other applications in which high-energy-density power systems required.

  7. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154.1740... Operating Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that: (a) Section 154.1818 is met; or (b) Section 154.1710 is met, and...

  9. Chloride sensing by WNK1 kinase involves inhibition of autophosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Piala, Alexander T.; Moon, Thomas M.; Akella, Radha; He, Haixia; Cobb, Melanie H.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    WNK1 [with no lysine (K)] is a serine-threonine kinase associated with a form of familial hypertension. WNK1 is at the top of a kinase cascade leading to phosphorylation of several cotransporters, in particular those transporting sodium, potassium, and chloride (NKCC), sodium and chloride (NCC), and potassium and chloride (KCC). The responsiveness of NKCC, NCC, and KCC to changes in extracellular chloride parallels their phosphorylation state, provoking the proposal that these transporters are controlled by a chloride-sensitive protein kinase. Here, we found that chloride stabilizes the inactive conformation of WNK1, preventing kinase autophosphorylation and activation. Crystallographic studies of inactive WNK1 in the presence of chloride revealed that chloride binds directly to the catalytic site, providing a basis for the unique position of the catalytic lysine. Mutagenesis of the chloride binding site rendered the kinase less sensitive to inhibition of autophosphorylation by chloride, validating the binding site. Thus, these data suggest that WNK1 functions as a chloride sensor through direct binding of a regulatory chloride ion to the active site, which inhibits autophosphorylation. PMID:24803536

  10. 46 CFR 154.1745 - Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. 154.1745 Section 154.1745 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Operating Requirements § 154.1745 Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. A vessel carrying vinyl chloride...

  11. ATP7A Gene Addition to the Choroid Plexus Results in Long-term Rescue of the Lethal Copper Transport Defect in a Menkes Disease Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Donsante, Anthony; Yi, Ling; Zerfas, Patricia M; Brinster, Lauren R; Sullivan, Patricia; Goldstein, David S; Prohaska, Joseph; Centeno, Jose A; Rushing, Elisabeth; Kaler, Stephen G

    2011-01-01

    Menkes disease is a lethal infantile neurodegenerative disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutations in a P-type ATPase, ATP7A. Currently available treatment (daily subcutaneous copper injections) is not entirely effective in the majority of affected individuals. The mottled-brindled (mo-br) mouse recapitulates the Menkes phenotype, including abnormal copper transport to the brain owing to mutation in the murine homolog, Atp7a, and dies by 14 days of age. We documented that mo-br mice on C57BL/6 background were not rescued by peripheral copper administration, and used this model to evaluate brain-directed therapies. Neonatal mo-br mice received lateral ventricle injections of either adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) harboring a reduced-size human ATP7A (rsATP7A) complementary DNA (cDNA), copper chloride, or both. AAV5-rsATP7A showed selective transduction of choroid plexus epithelia and AAV5-rsATP7A plus copper combination treatment rescued mo-br mice; 86% survived to weaning (21 days), median survival increased to 43 days, 37% lived beyond 100 days, and 22% survived to the study end point (300 days). This synergistic treatment effect correlated with increased brain copper levels, enhanced activity of dopamine-β-hydroxylase, a copper-dependent enzyme, and correction of brain pathology. Our findings provide the first definitive evidence that gene therapy may have clinical utility in the treatment of Menkes disease. PMID:21878905

  12. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chloride production subcategory. 415.670 Section 415.670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride... chloride. ...

  13. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nano - and microparticulate copper oxide: role of solubility and intracellular bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nano- or microscale copper oxide particles (CuO NP, CuO MP) are increasingly applied as catalysts or antimicrobial additives. This increases the risk of adverse health effects, since copper ions are cytotoxic under overload conditions. Methods The extra- and intracellular bioavailability of CuO NP and CuO MP were explored. In addition, different endpoints related to cytotoxicity as well as direct and indirect genotoxicity of the copper oxides and copper chloride (CuCl2) were compared. Results Comprehensively characterized CuO NP and CuO MP were analysed regarding their copper ion release in model fluids. In all media investigated, CuO NP released far more copper ions than CuO MP, with most pronounced dissolution in artificial lysosomal fluid. CuO NP and CuCl2 caused a pronounced and dose dependent decrease of colony forming ability (CFA) in A549 and HeLa S3 cells, whereas CuO MP exerted no cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 50 μg/mL. Cell death induced by CuO NP was at least in part due to apoptosis, as determined by subdiploid DNA as well as via translocation of the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) into the cell nucleus. Similarly, only CuO NP induced significant amounts of DNA strand breaks in HeLa S3 cells, whereas all three compounds elevated the level of H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks. Finally, all copper compounds diminished the H2O2-induced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, catalysed predominantly by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1); here, again, CuO NP exerted the strongest effect. Copper derived from CuO NP, CuO MP and CuCl2 accumulated in the soluble cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of A549 cells, yielding similar concentrations in the cytoplasm but highest concentrations in the nucleus in case of CuO NP. Conclusions The results support the high cytotoxicity of CuO NP and CuCl2 and the missing cytotoxicity of CuO MP under the conditions applied. For these differences in cytotoxicity, extracellular copper ion levels due to dissolution of

  14. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nano - and microparticulate copper oxide: role of solubility and intracellular bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Semisch, Annetta; Ohle, Julia; Witt, Barbara; Hartwig, Andrea

    2014-02-13

    Nano- or microscale copper oxide particles (CuO NP, CuO MP) are increasingly applied as catalysts or antimicrobial additives. This increases the risk of adverse health effects, since copper ions are cytotoxic under overload conditions. The extra- and intracellular bioavailability of CuO NP and CuO MP were explored. In addition, different endpoints related to cytotoxicity as well as direct and indirect genotoxicity of the copper oxides and copper chloride (CuCl2) were compared. Comprehensively characterized CuO NP and CuO MP were analysed regarding their copper ion release in model fluids. In all media investigated, CuO NP released far more copper ions than CuO MP, with most pronounced dissolution in artificial lysosomal fluid. CuO NP and CuCl2 caused a pronounced and dose dependent decrease of colony forming ability (CFA) in A549 and HeLa S3 cells, whereas CuO MP exerted no cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 50 μg/mL. Cell death induced by CuO NP was at least in part due to apoptosis, as determined by subdiploid DNA as well as via translocation of the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) into the cell nucleus. Similarly, only CuO NP induced significant amounts of DNA strand breaks in HeLa S3 cells, whereas all three compounds elevated the level of H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks. Finally, all copper compounds diminished the H2O2-induced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, catalysed predominantly by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1); here, again, CuO NP exerted the strongest effect. Copper derived from CuO NP, CuO MP and CuCl2 accumulated in the soluble cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of A549 cells, yielding similar concentrations in the cytoplasm but highest concentrations in the nucleus in case of CuO NP. The results support the high cytotoxicity of CuO NP and CuCl2 and the missing cytotoxicity of CuO MP under the conditions applied. For these differences in cytotoxicity, extracellular copper ion levels due to dissolution of particles as well as differences in

  15. Benefits of copper recognised worldwide.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    In an article that first appeared in the June 2014 issue of Health Estate Journal's sister publication, The Clinical Services Journal, the Copper Development Association highlights the growing recognition, both in the UK, and among healthcare research and provider bodies overseas, of the significant part that antimicrobial copper can play in preventing and controlling infection in healthcare settings. Over the past few months, the Association explains, antimicrobial copper's infection-beating properties have been acknowledged by a variety of 'research and horizon-scanning' bodies, among them one in Canada, as well as by a leading UK consultancy and research provider to the NHS. The material is also increasingly being specified by hospitals worldwide following trials which have demonstrated clearly its efficacy in 'beating the bugs'.

  16. Advanced Copper Composites Against Copper-Tolerant Xanthomonas perforans and Tomato Bacterial Spot.

    PubMed

    Strayer-Scherer, A; Liao, Y Y; Young, M; Ritchie, L; Vallad, G E; Santra, S; Freeman, J H; Clark, D; Jones, J B; Paret, M L

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp., is a widespread and damaging bacterial disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). For disease management, growers rely on copper bactericides, which are often ineffective due to the presence of copper-tolerant Xanthomonas strains. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of the new copper composites core-shell copper (CS-Cu), multivalent copper (MV-Cu), and fixed quaternary ammonium copper (FQ-Cu) as potential alternatives to commercially available micron-sized copper bactericides for controlling copper-tolerant Xanthomonas perforans. In vitro, metallic copper from CS-Cu and FQ-Cu at 100 μg/ml killed the copper-tolerant X. perforans strain within 1 h of exposure. In contrast, none of the micron-sized copper rates (100 to 1,000 μg/ml) from Kocide 3000 significantly reduced copper-tolerant X. perforans populations after 48 h of exposure compared with the water control (P < 0.05). All copper-based treatments killed the copper-sensitive X. perforans strain within 1 h. Greenhouse studies demonstrated that all copper composites significantly reduced bacterial spot disease severity when compared with copper-mancozeb and water controls (P < 0.05). Although there was no significant impact on yield, copper composites significantly reduced disease severity when compared with water controls, using 80% less metallic copper in comparison with copper-mancozeb in field studies (P < 0.05). This study highlights the discovery that copper composites have the potential to manage copper-tolerant X. perforans and tomato bacterial spot.

  17. Biliary copper excretion by hepatocyte lysosomes in the rat. Major excretory pathway in experimental copper overload

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, J.B. Jr.; Myers, B.M.; Kost, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that lysosomes are the main source of biliary copper in conditions of hepatic copper overload. We used a rat model of oral copper loading and studied the relationship between the biliary output of copper and lysosomal hydrolases. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given tap water with or without 0.125% copper acetate for up to 36 wk. Copper loading produced a 23-fold increase in the hepatic copper concentration and a 30-65% increase in hepatic lysosomal enzyme activity. Acid phosphatase histochemistry showed that copper-loaded livers contained an increased number of hepatocyte lysosomes; increased copper concentration of these organelles wasmore » confirmed directly by both x ray microanalysis and tissue fractionation. The copper-loaded rats showed a 16-fold increase in biliary copper output and a 50-300% increase in biliary lysosomal enzyme output. In the basal state, excretory profiles over time were similar for biliary outputs of lysosomal enzymes and copper in the copper-loaded animals but not in controls. After pharmacologic stimulation of lysosomal exocytosis, biliary outputs of copper and lysosomal hydrolases in the copper-loaded animals remained coupled: injection of colchicine or vinblastine produced an acute rise in the biliary output of both lysosomal enzymes and copper to 150-250% of baseline rates. After these same drugs, control animals showed only the expected increase in lysosomal enzyme output without a corresponding increase in copper output. We conclude that the hepatocyte responds to an increased copper load by sequestering excess copper in an increased number of lysosomes that then empty their contents directly into bile. The results provide direct evidence that exocytosis of lysosomal contents into biliary canaliculi is the major mechanism for biliary copper excretion in hepatic copper overload.« less

  18. Copper tolerance and virulence in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ladomersky, Erik; Petris, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for all aerobic organisms. It functions as a cofactor in enzymes that catalyze a wide variety of redox reactions due to its ability to cycle between two oxidation states, Cu(I) and Cu(II). This same redox property of copper has the potential to cause toxicity if copper homeostasis is not maintained. Studies suggest that the toxic properties of copper are harnessed by the innate immune system of the host to kill bacteria. To counter such defenses, bacteria rely on copper tolerance genes for virulence within the host. These discoveries suggest bacterial copper intoxication is a component of host nutritional immunity, thus expanding our knowledge of the roles of copper in biology. This review summarizes our current understanding of copper tolerance in bacteria, and the extent to which these pathways contribute to bacterial virulence within the host. PMID:25652326

  19. Molecular Mediators Governing Iron-Copper Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gulec, Sukru; Collins, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Given their similar physiochemical properties, it is a logical postulate that iron and copper metabolism are intertwined. Indeed, iron-copper interactions were first documented over a century ago, but the homeostatic effects of one on the other has not been elucidated at a molecular level to date. Recent experimental work has, however, begun to provide mechanistic insight into how copper influences iron metabolism. During iron deficiency, elevated copper levels are observed in the intestinal mucosa, liver, and blood. Copper accumulation and/or redistribution within enterocytes may influence iron transport, and high hepatic copper may enhance biosynthesis of a circulating ferroxidase, which potentiates iron release from stores. Moreover, emerging evidence has documented direct effects of copper on the expression and activity of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. This review summarizes current experimental work in this field, with a focus on molecular aspects of iron-copper interplay and how these interactions relate to various disease states. PMID:24995690

  20. 21 CFR 582.5260 - Copper gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5260 Copper gluconate. (a) Product. Copper gluconate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5260 - Copper gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5260 Copper gluconate. (a) Product. Copper gluconate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5260 - Copper gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5260 Copper gluconate. (a) Product. Copper gluconate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5260 - Copper gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5260 Copper gluconate. (a) Product. Copper gluconate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  4. Leaching of Copper Ore by Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, John; Biaha, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative laboratory exercise based upon the procedures copper manufacturers employ to increase copper production is described. The role of chemoautotrophic microorganisms in biogeologic process is emphasized. Safety considerations when working with bacteria are included. (KR)

  5. 21 CFR 582.5260 - Copper gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5260 Copper gluconate. (a) Product. Copper gluconate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin... § 73.2125 Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin shall conform in identity and...

  7. 21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin... § 73.2125 Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin shall conform in identity and...

  8. 21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin... § 73.2125 Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin shall conform in identity and...

  9. 21 CFR 73.1125 - Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin....1125 Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin is a green to black powder obtained from chlorophyll by...

  10. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Rosenhoover, William A.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  11. Chronic copper poisoning in Angora kids.

    PubMed

    Belford, C J; Raven, C R; Black, H

    1989-12-01

    The investigation of five field cases of chronic copper poisoning in a group of 100 Angora kids is reported. Toxicity was confirmed by the demonstration of Heinz body anaemias, necrotizing liver disease, haemoglobinuric nephrosis and excessive levels of copper in blood, livers and kidneys. The dietary history of the kids is described. Tissue levels of copper and reported interactions between selenium, zinc and copper are discussed. Therapeutic and preventative measures are suggested.

  12. Textured carbon surfaces on copper by sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curren, A. N. (Inventor); Jensen, K. A. (Inventor); Roman, R. F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A very thin layer of highly textured carbon is applied to a copper surface by a triode sputtering process. A carbon target and a copper substrate are simultaneously exposed to an argon plasma in a vacuum chamber. The resulting carbon surface is characterized by a dense, random array of needle like spires or peaks which extend perpendicularly from the copper surface. The coated copper is especially useful for electrode plates in multistage depressed collectors.

  13. Processing and Modeling of Porous Copper Using Sintering Dissolution Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Mustafa Abualgasim Abdalhakam

    The growth of porous metal has produced materials with improved properties as compared to non-metals and solid metals. Porous metal can be classified as either open cell or closed cell. Open cell allows a fluid media to pass through it. Closed cell is made up of adjacent sealed pores with shared cell walls. Metal foams offer higher strength to weight ratios, increased impact energy absorption, and a greater tolerance to high temperatures and adverse environmental conditions when compared to bulk materials. Copper and its alloys are examples of these, well known for high strength and good mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. In the present study, the porous Cu was made by a powder metallurgy process, using three different space holders, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate. Several different samples have been produced, using different ratios of volume fraction. The densities of the porous metals have been measured and compared to the theoretical density calculated using an equation developed for these foams. The porous structure was determined with the removal of spacer materials through sintering process. The sintering process of each spacer material depends on the melting point of the spacer material. Processing, characterization, and mechanical properties were completed. These tests include density measurements, compression tests, computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The captured morphological images are utilized to generate the object-oriented finite element (OOF) analysis for the porous copper. Porous copper was formed with porosities in the range of 40-66% with density ranges from 3 to 5.2 g/cm3. A study of two different methods to measure porosity was completed. OOF (Object Oriented Finite Elements) is a desktop software application for studying the relationship between the microstructure of a material and its overall mechanical, dielectric, or thermal properties using finite element models based on

  14. Organic Electrochemistry in Aluminum Chloride Melts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-15

    establishing a new, room temperature molten salt system. The low temperature fused salt was prepared by combining aluminum...narrow (600 mY) potential range. Organic electrosynthesis was conducted in a 50-50 by volume molten salt - benzene solution. This mixed solvent...room temperature molten salt system, namely a 67:33 mole percent aluminum chloride: ethylpyridinium bromide melt and in a 50-50 by volume solution of the

  15. Inactivation of Viruses by Benzalkonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J. A.; Froelich, E. J.

    1964-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (as Roccal or Zephiran) was found to inactivate influenza, measles, canine distemper, rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, feline pneumonitis, meningopneumonitis, and herpes simplex viruses after 10 min of exposure at 30 C or at room temperature. Poliovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus were not inactivated under the same conditions. It was concluded that all viruses tested were sensitive except members of the picorna group. The literature was reviewed. PMID:4288740

  16. High chloride content calcium silicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojing; Karpukhina, Natalia; Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G

    2017-03-08

    Chloride is known to volatilize from silicate glass melts and until now, only a limited number of studies on oxychloride silicate glasses have been reported. In this paper we have synthesized silicate glasses that retain large amounts of CaCl 2 . The CaCl 2 has been added to the calcium metasilicate composition (CaO·SiO 2 ). Glasses were produced via a melt quench route and an average of 70% of the chloride was retained after melting. Up to 31.6 mol% CaCl 2 has been successfully incorporated into these silicate glasses without the occurrence of crystallization. 29 Si MAS-NMR spectra showed the silicon being present mainly as a Q 2 silicate species. This suggests that chloride formed Cl-Ca(n) species, rather than Si-Cl bonds. Upon increasing the CaCl 2 content, the T g reduced markedly from 782 °C to 370 °C. Glass density and glass crystallization temperature decreased linearly with an increase in the CaCl 2 content. However, both linear regressions revealed a breakpoint at a CaCl 2 content just below 20 mol%. This might be attributed to a significant change in the structure and is also correlated with the nature of the crystallizing phases formed upon heat treatment. The glasses with less than 19.2 mol% CaCl 2 crystallized to wollastonite, whilst the compositions with CaCl 2 content equal to or greater than 19.2 mol% are thought to crystallize to CaCl 2 . In practice, the crystallization of CaCl 2 could not occur until the crystallization temperature fell below the melting point of CaCl 2 . The implications of the results along with the high chloride retention are discussed.

  17. Chloride Transport in Porous Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Thomas E.; Watkins, Mary L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes dissipative Cl- transport in "porous" lipid bilayer membranes, i.e., cholesterol-containing membranes exposed to 1–3 x 10-7 M amphotericin B. P DCl (cm·s-1), the diffusional permeability coefficient for Cl-, estimated from unidirectional 36Cl- fluxes at zero volume flow, varied linearly with the membrane conductance (Gm, Ω-1·cm-2) when the contributions of unstirred layers to the resistance to tracer diffusion were relatively small with respect to the membranes; in 0.05 M NaCl, P DCl was 1.36 x 10-4 cm·s-1 when Gm was 0.02 Ω-1·cm-2. Net chloride fluxes were measured either in the presence of imposed concentration gradients or electrical potential differences. Under both sets of conditions: the values of P DCl computed from zero volume flow experiments described net chloride fluxes; the net chloride fluxes accounted for ∼90–95% of the membrane current density; and, the chloride flux ratio conformed to the Ussing independence relationship. Thus, it is likely that Cl- traversed aqueous pores in these anion-permselective membranes via a simple diffusion process. The zero current membrane potentials measured when the aqueous phases contained asymmetrical NaCl solutions could be expressed in terms of the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz constant field equation, assuming that the P DNa/P DCl ratio was 0.05. In symmetrical salt solutions, the current-voltage properties of these membranes were linear; in asymmetrical NaCl solutions, the membranes exhibited electrical rectification consistent with constant-field theory. It seems likely that the space charge density in these porous membranes is sufficiently low that the potential gradient within the membranes is approximately linear; and, that the pores are not electrically neutral, presumably because the Debye length within the membrane phase approximates the membrane thickness. PMID:4708408

  18. Removing Chlorides From Metallurgical-Grade Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, W. C.; Coleman, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    Process for making low-cost silicon for solar cells is further improved. Silane product recycled to feed stripper column converts some of heavy impurities to volatile ones that pass off at top of column with light wastes. Impurities--chlorides of arsenic, phosphorus, and boron-would otherwise be carried to subsequent distillations where they would be difficult to remove. Since only a small amount of silane is recycled, silicon production efficiency remains high.

  19. Joining of alumina via copper/niobium/copper interlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Robert A.; Chapman, Daniel R.; Danielson, David T.

    2000-03-15

    Alumina has been joined at 1150 degrees C and 1400 degrees C using multilayer copper/niobium/copper interlayers. Four-point bend strengths are sensitive to processing temperature, bonding pressure, and furnace environment (ambient oxygen partial pressure). Under optimum conditions, joints with reproducibly high room temperature strengths (approximately equal 240 plus/minus 20 MPa) can be produced; most failures occur within the ceramic. Joints made with sapphire show that during bonding an initially continuous copper film undergoes a morphological instability, resulting in the formation of isolated copper-rich droplets/particles at the sapphire/interlayer interface, and extensive regions of direct bonding between sapphire and niobium. For optimized aluminamore » bonds, bend tests at 800 degrees C-1100 degrees C indicate significant strength is retained; even at the highest test temperature, ceramic failure is observed. Post-bonding anneals at 1000 degrees C in vacuum or in gettered argon were used to assess joint stability and to probe the effect of ambient oxygen partial pressure on joint characteristics. Annealing in vacuum for up to 200 h causes no significant decrease in room temperature bend strength or change in fracture path. With increasing anneal time in a lower oxygen partial pressure environment, the fracture strength decreases only slightly, but the fracture path shifts from the ceramic to the interface.« less

  20. Copper vs. Copper at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (2005)

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab - Fulvia Pilat

    2017-12-09

    To investigate a new form of matter not seen since the Big Bang, scientists are using a new experimental probe: collisions between two beams of copper ions. The use of intermediate size nuclei is expected to result in intermediate energy density - not as

  1. Understanding microwave vessel contamination by chloride species.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Sandro; Spanu, Davide; Bianchi, Davide; Dossi, Carlo; Pozzi, Andrea; Monticelli, Damiano

    2016-10-01

    Microwaves are widely used to assist digestion, general sample treatment and synthesis. The use of aqua regia is extensively adopted for the closed vessel mineralization of samples prior to trace element detection, leading to the contamination of microwave vessels by chlorine containing species. The latter are entrapped in the polymeric matrix of the vessels, leading to memory effects that are difficult to remove, among which the risk of silver incomplete recoveries by removal of the sparingly soluble chloride is the predominant one. In the present paper, we determined by mass spectrometry that hydrogen chloride is the species entrapped in the polymeric matrix and responsible for vessel contamination. Moreover, several decontamination treatments were considered to assess their efficiency, demonstrating that several cleaning cycles with water, nitric acid or silver nitrate in nitric acid were inefficient in removing chloride contamination (contamination reduction around 90%). Better results (≈95% decrease) were achieved by a single decontamination step in alkaline environment (sodium hydroxide or ammonia). Finally, a thermal treatment in a common laboratory oven (i.e. without vacuum and ventilation) was tested: a one hour heating at 150°C leads to a 98.5% decontamination, a figure higher than the ones obtained by wet treatments which requires comparable time. The latter treatment is a major advancement with respect to existing treatments as it avoids the need of a vacuum oven for at least 17h as presently proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Copper toxicity in aquaculture: A practical approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Copper sulfate is used as a therapeutant for various applications in aquaculture. There is a great deal of information on the toxicity of copper, especially in low-alkalinity waters; however, much of this information is fragmented, and a comprehensive guide of copper toxicity and safe concentration...

  3. 21 CFR 524.463 - Copper naphthenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Copper naphthenate. 524.463 Section 524.463 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.463 Copper naphthenate. (a) Amount. The drug is a 37.5 percent solution of copper naphthenate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos...

  4. 21 CFR 524.463 - Copper naphthenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper naphthenate. 524.463 Section 524.463 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.463 Copper naphthenate. (a) Amount. The drug is a 37.5 percent solution of copper naphthenate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos...

  5. Lead and Copper Rule Tier Schedule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lead and Copper Rule Tier Schedule may be used by public water systems in Wyoming and on EPA R8 Tribal Lands as a guide to properly identify their lead and copper tap sample sites to comply with the Lead and Copper Rule.

  6. Multistep divergent synthesis of benzimidazole linked benzoxazole/benzothiazole via copper catalyzed domino annulation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jen-Yu; Selvaraju, Manikandan; Chen, Chih-Hau; Sun, Chung-Ming

    2013-04-21

    An efficient, facile synthesis of structurally diverse benzimidazole integrated benzoxazole and benzothiazoles has been developed. In a multi-step synthetic sequence, 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzoic acid was converted into benzimidazole bis-heterocycles, via the intermediacy of benzimidazole linked ortho-chloro amines. The amphiphilic reactivity of this intermediate was designed to achieve the title compounds by the reaction of various acid chlorides and isothiocyanates in a single step through the in situ formation of ortho-chloro anilides and thioureas under microwave irradiation. A versatile one pot domino annulation reaction was developed to involve the reaction of benzimidazole linked ortho-chloro amines with acid chlorides and isothiocyanates. The initial acylation and urea formation followed by copper catalyzed intramolecular C-O and C-S cross coupling reactions furnished the angularly oriented bis-heterocycles which bear a close resemblance to the streptomyces antibiotic UK-1.

  7. Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1989-05-23

    Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys are prepared by a consumable electrode method in which the electrode consists of a copper matrix with embedded strips of refractory molybdenum or tungsten. The electrode is progressively melted at its lower end with a superatmospheric inert gas pressure maintained around the liquifying electrode. The inert gas pressure is sufficiently above the vapor pressure of copper at the liquidus temperature of the alloy being formed to suppress boiling of liquid copper.

  8. Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.A.; Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.

    1989-05-23

    Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys are prepared by a consumable electrode method in which the electrode consists of a copper matrix with embedded strips of refractory molybdenum or tungsten. The electrode is progressively melted at its lower end with a superatmospheric inert gas pressure maintained around the liquefying electrode. The inert gas pressure is sufficiently above the vapor pressure of copper at the liquidus temperature of the alloy being formed to suppress boiling of liquid copper. 6 figs.

  9. Transformation of methyltin chlorides and stannic chloride under simulated landfill conditions.

    PubMed

    Björn, Annika; Hörsing, Maritha; Ejlertsson, Jörgen; Svensson, Bo H

    2011-12-01

    There is increasing concern regarding the fate of methyltins in the environment, particularly since large amounts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics are deposited in landfills. The potential transformation of methyltin chlorides and stannic chloride in landfills was investigated, by incubating the target substances at concentrations relevant to landfill conditions (100 and 500 µg Sn L(-1)). The amounts of methane formed in all treatment bottles, and controls, were measured to evaluate the general microbial activity of the inocula and possible effects of methyltins on the degradation of organic matter. The methyltins and stannic chloride were found to have no significant inhibitory effects on the activity of landfill micro-organisms, and the methanol used to disperse the tin compounds was completely degraded. In some experimental bottles, the methanol degradation gave rise to larger methane yields than expected, which was attributed to enhanced degradation of the waste material. Alkyltin analyses showed that monomethyltin trichloride at an initial concentration of 500 µg Sn L(-1) promoted methylation of inorganic tin present in the inoculum. No methylation activities were detected in the incubations with 100 µg Sn L(-1) methyltin chlorides (mono-, di- or tri-methyltin), but demethylation occurred instead. Levels of soluble inorganic tin increased during the incubation period, due partly to demethylation and partly to a release of tin from the waste inocula.

  10. The effect of natural and anthropogenic factors on sorption of copper in chernozem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Tatiana; Minkina, Tatiana; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Pinskii, David; Linnik, Vitaly; Sushkova, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the attendant anions and particle-size distribution on the adsorption of copper by ordinary chernozem. Solutions of HM nitrates, acetates, chlorides, and sulfates were used to study the effect of the chemical composition of added copper salts on the adsorption of copper by an ordinary chernozem. Samples of the soil sieved through a 1-mm sieve in the natural ionic form and soil fraction with different particle size (clay - the particle with size < 1μm and physical clay < 10 μm) were treated with solutions of the corresponding copper salts at a soil : solution ratio of 1:10. The concentrations of the initial copper solutions were 0.02, 0.05, 0.08, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 mM/L. The range of Cu2+ concentrations in the studied system covers different geochemical situations corresponding to the actual levels of soil contamination with the metal under study. The suspensions were shaken for 1 h, left to stand for 24 h, and then filtered. The contents of the HM in the filtrates were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The contents of the adsorbed copper cations were calculated from the difference between the metal concentrations in the initial and equilibrium solutions. The isotherms of copper adsorption from the metal nitrate, chloride, and sulfate solutions have near linear shapes and, hence, can be satisfactorily described by a Henry or Freundlich equation: Cads = KH •Ceq.(1) Cads = KF •Ceqn,(2) where Cadsis the content of the adsorbed cations, mM/kg soil;Ceq is the concentration of copper in the equilibrium solution, mM/L; KH and KF denote the Henry and Freundlich adsorption coefficients, respectively, kg/L. The isotherm of Cu2+ adsorption by ordinary chernozem from acetate solutions is described by the Langmuir equation: Cads = C∞ÊLC / (1 + ÊLC), (3) where Cadsis the content of the adsorbed cations, mM/kg soil;C∞ is the maximum adsorption of the HM, mM/kg soil; ÊL is the affinity constant, L

  11. Crystallization of copper metaphosphate glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Byeong-Soo; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the valence state of copper in copper metaphosphate glass on the crystallization behavior and glass transition temperature has been investigated. The crystallization of copper metaphosphate is initiated from the surface and its main crystalline phase is copper metaphosphate (Cu(PO)3),independent of the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu(total)). However, the crystal morphology, the relative crystallization rates, and their temperature dependences are affected by the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu (total)) ratio in the glass. On the other hand, the totally oxidized glass crystallizes from all over the surface. The relative crystallization rate of the reduced glass to the totally oxidized glass is large at low temperature, but small at high temperature. The glass transition temperature of the glass increases as the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu(total)) ratio is raised. It is also found that the atmosphere used during heat treatment does not influence the crystallization of the reduced glass, except for the formation of a very thin CuO surface layer when heated in air.

  12. Building a Copper Pipe "Xylophone."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Explains how to use the equation for frequency of vibration of a transversely oscillating bar or pipe with both ends free to vibrate to build a simple and inexpensive xylophone from a 3-meter section of copper pipe. The instrument produces a full major scale and can be used to investigate various musical intervals. (Author/NB)

  13. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COPPER ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-05-12

    A low melting point plutonium alloy useful as fuel is a homogeneous liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor is described. Vessels of tungsten or tantalum are useful to contain the alloy which consists essentially of from 10 to 30 atomic per cent copper and the balance plutonium and cerium. with the plutontum not in excess of 50 atomic per cent.

  14. CopperCore Service Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogten, Hubert; Martens, Harrie; Nadolski, Rob; Tattersall, Colin; van Rosmalen, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    In an e-learning environment there is a need to integrate various e-learning services like assessment services, collaboration services, learning design services and communication services. In this article we present the design and implementation of a generic integrative service framework, called CopperCore Service Integration (CCSI). We will…

  15. COPPER CORROSION AND SOLUBILITY RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster provides a very cursory summary of TTEB in-house copper research experimental systems, and extramural research projects. The field studies summarized are the Indian Hill (OH) study of the use of orthophosphate for reducing cuprosolvency in a high alkalinity water, an...

  16. Metabolic crossroads of iron and copper

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James F; Prohaska, Joseph R; Knutson, Mitchell D

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between the essential dietary metals, iron and copper, have been known for many years. This review highlights recent advances in iron-copper interactions with a focus on tissues and cell types important for regulating whole-body iron and copper homeostasis. Cells that mediate dietary assimilation (enterocytes) and storage and distribution (hepatocytes) of iron and copper are considered, along with the principal users (erythroid cells) and recyclers of red cell iron (reticuloendothelial macrophages). Interactions between iron and copper in the brain are also discussed. Many unanswered questions regarding the role of these metals and their interactions in health and disease emerge from this synopsis, highlighting extensive future research opportunities. PMID:20384844

  17. Synthesis, Spray Deposition, and Hot-Press Transfer of Copper Nanowires for Flexible Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rupali; Calvo, Micha; Schreck, Murielle; Tervoort, Elena; Sologubenko, Alla S; Niederberger, Markus

    2018-06-20

    We report a solution-phase approach to the synthesis of crystalline copper nanowires (Cu NWs) with an aspect ratio >1000 via a new catalytic mechanism comprising copper ions. The synthesis involves the reaction between copper(II) chloride and copper(II) acetylacetonate in a mixture of oleylamine and octadecene. Reaction parameters such as the molar ratio of precursors as well as the volume ratio of solvents offer the possibility to tune the morphology of the final product. A simple low-cost spray deposition method was used to fabricate Cu NW films on a glass substrate. Post-treatment under reducing gas (5% H 2 + 95% N 2 ) atmosphere resulted in Cu NW films with a low sheet resistance of 24.5 Ω/sq, a transmittance of T = 71% at 550 nm (including the glass substrate), and a high oxidation resistance. Moreover, the conducting Cu NW networks on a glass substrate can easily be transferred onto a polycarbonate substrate using a simple hot-press transfer method without compromising on the electrical performance. The resulting flexible transparent electrodes show excellent flexibility ( R/ R o < 1.28) upon bending to curvatures of 1 mm radius.

  18. Restrained management of copper level enhances the antineoplastic activity of imatinib in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Iftekhar; Khan, Azmat Ali; Aman, Shazia; Qamar, Wajhul; Ebaid, Hossam; Al-Tamimi, Jameel; Alhazza, Ibrahim M; Rady, Ahmed M

    2018-01-26

    The present study was designed to investigate if elevated copper level can be targeted to enhance the efficacy of a significant anticancer drug, imatinib (ITB). The antineoplastic activity of this drug was assessed in the HepG2, HEK-293, MCF-7 and MDA-MD-231 cells targeting elevated copper level as their common drug target. The cell lines were treated with the different doses of copper chloride (Cu II) and disulfiram (DSF) alone as well as in their combinations with the drug for 24 h in standard culture medium and conditions. The treated cells were subjected to various assays including MTT, PARP, p-53, caspase-7, caspase-3, LDH and single cell electrophoresis. The study shows that DSF and Cu (II) synergizes the anticancer activity of ITB to a significant extent in a dose-specific way as evidenced by the combinations treated groups. Furthermore, the same treatment strategy was employed in cancer-induced rats in which the combinations of ITB-DSF and ITB-Cu II showed enhanced antineoplastic activity as compared to ITB alone. However, DSF was more effective than Cu (II) as an adjuvant to the drug. Hence, restrained manipulation of copper level in tumor cells can orchestrate the redox and molecular dispositions inside the cells favoring the induction of apoptosis.

  19. Recovery of copper from PVC multiwire cable waste by steam gasification.

    PubMed

    Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika; Rutkowski, Piotr; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz

    2015-12-01

    Screened multiwire, PVC insulated tinned copper cable was gasified with steam at high temperature (HTSG) under atmospheric pressure for recovery of cooper. Gases from the process were additionally equilibrated at 850°C on the bed of calcined clay granules and more than 98% of C+H content in the cable was transformed to non-condensing species. Granules prepared from local clay were generally resistant for chlorination, there was also almost no deposition of metals, Cu and Sn, on the catalytic bed. It was found that 28% of chlorine reacted to form CaCl2, 71% was retained in aqueous condensate and only 0.6% was absorbed in alkaline scrubber. More than 99% of calcium existed in the process solid residue as a mixture of calcium chloride and calcium oxide/hydroxide. PVC and other hydrocarbon constituents were completely removed from the cable sample. Copper was preserved in original form and volatilization of copper species appeared insignificant. Tin was alloying with copper and its volatilization was less than 1%. Fractionation and speciation of metals, chlorine and calcium were discussed on the basis of equilibrium model calculated with HSC Chemistry software. High temperature steam gasification prevents direct use of the air and steam/water is in the process simultaneously gaseous carrier and reagent, which may be recycled together with hydrocarbon condensates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Substituted benzotriazoles as inhibitors of copper corrosion in borate buffer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonkina, M. O.; Andreeva, N. P.; Kuznetsov, Yu. I.; Timashev, S. F.

    2017-08-01

    The adsorption of substituted 1,2,3-benzotriazoles (R-BTAs) onto copper is measured via ellipsometry in a pure borate buffer (pH 7.4) and satisfactorily described by Temkin's isotherm. The adsorption free energy (-Δ G a 0 ) values of these azoles are determined. The (-Δ G a 0 ) values are found to rise as their hydrophobicity, characterized by the logarithm of the partition coefficient of a substituted BTA in a model octanol-water system (log P), grows. The minimum concentration sufficient for the spontaneous passivation of copper ( C min) and a shift in the potential of local copper depassivation with chlorides ( E pt) after an azole is added to the solution (i.e., Δ E = E pt in - E pt backgr characterizing the ability of its adsorption to stabilize passivation) are determined in the same solution containing a corrosion additive (0.01M NaCl) for each azole under study. Both criteria of the passivating properties of azoles (log C min and Δ E) are shown to correlate linearly with log P, testifying to the role played by surface activity of this family of organic inhibitors in protecting copper in an aqueous solution.

  1. Long-term effects of copper and pH on the nematode community in an agroecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Korthals, G.W.; Lexmond, T.M.; Kammenga, J.E.

    1996-06-01

    Four copper (0, 250, 500, and 750 kg Cu-ha{sup {minus}1}) and pH (4.0, 4.7, 5.4, and 6.1 in 1 M KCl) treatments were applied to an arable agroecosystem., Effects on the nematode community were assessed after 10 years of exposure under field conditions. Both copper and pH had major influences on nematodes. The effect of copper was generally enhanced with decreasing soil pH. The lowest copper application rate which had a significant negative effect on the total number of nematodes was 250 kg{center_dot}ha{sup {minus}1} at pH 4.0, which is equivalent to a copper concentration of 0.32 mg{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} in 0.01more » M calcium chloride (Cu-CaCl{sub 2}). Species composition and the abundance of trophic groups were more sensitive than the total number of nematodes. Combinations of high copper and low pH significantly reduced the number of bacterial-feeding nematodes, whereas the number of hyphal-feeding nematodes increased. Omnivorous and predacious nematodes showed the most sensitive response, becoming extinct when Cu-CaCl{sub 2} was 0.8 to 1.4 mg{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1}. Plant-feeding nematodes showed the largest differences in abundance and appeared to reflect the effects of copper and pH on primary production. The results suggest that the nematode community was also affected indirectly by copper and pH via other components of the soil food web. It is concluded that nematodes offer excellent perspectives to assess effects of pollutants at the community level.« less

  2. The Intestinal Copper Exporter CUA-1 Is Required for Systemic Copper Homeostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chun, Haarin; Sharma, Anuj Kumar; Lee, Jaekwon; Chan, Jefferson; Jia, Shang; Kim, Byung-Eun

    2017-01-06

    Copper plays key catalytic and regulatory roles in biochemical processes essential for normal growth, development, and health. Defects in copper metabolism cause Menkes and Wilson's disease, myeloneuropathy, and cardiovascular disease and are associated with other pathophysiological states. Consequently, it is critical to understand the mechanisms by which organisms control the acquisition, distribution, and utilization of copper. The intestinal enterocyte is a key regulatory point for copper absorption into the body; however, the mechanisms by which intestinal cells transport copper to maintain organismal copper homeostasis are poorly understood. Here, we identify a mechanism by which organismal copper homeostasis is maintained by intestinal copper exporter trafficking that is coordinated with extraintestinal copper levels in Caenorhabditis elegans Specifically, we show that CUA-1, the C. elegans homolog of ATP7A/B, localizes to lysosome-like organelles (gut granules) in the intestine under copper overload conditions for copper detoxification, whereas copper deficiency results in a redistribution of CUA-1 to basolateral membranes for copper efflux to peripheral tissues. Worms defective in gut granule biogenesis exhibit defects in copper sequestration and increased susceptibility to toxic copper levels. Interestingly, however, a splice isoform CUA-1.2 that lacks a portion of the N-terminal domain is targeted constitutively to the basolateral membrane irrespective of dietary copper concentration. Our studies establish that CUA-1 is a key intestinal copper exporter and that its trafficking is regulated to maintain systemic copper homeostasis. C. elegans could therefore be exploited as a whole-animal model system to study regulation of intra- and intercellular copper trafficking pathways. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Advantages and challenges of increased antimicrobial copper use and copper mining.

    PubMed

    Elguindi, Jutta; Hao, Xiuli; Lin, Yanbing; Alwathnani, Hend A; Wei, Gehong; Rensing, Christopher

    2011-07-01

    Copper is a highly utilized metal for electrical, automotive, household objects, and more recently as an effective antimicrobial surface. Copper-containing solutions applied to fruits and vegetables can prevent bacterial and fungal infections. Bacteria, such as Salmonellae and Cronobacter sakazakii, often found in food contamination, are rapidly killed on contact with copper alloys. The antimicrobial effectiveness of copper alloys in the healthcare environment against bacteria causing hospital-acquired infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Clostridium difficile has been described recently. The use of copper and copper-containing materials will continue to expand and may lead to an increase in copper mining and production. However, the copper mining and manufacturing industry and the consumer do not necessarily enjoy a favorable relationship. Open pit mining, copper mine tailings, leaching products, and deposits of toxic metals in the environment often raises concerns and sometimes public outrage. In addition, consumers may fear that copper alloys utilized as antimicrobial surfaces in food production will lead to copper toxicity in humans. Therefore, there is a need to mitigate some of the negative effects of increased copper use and copper mining. More thermo-tolerant, copper ion-resistant microorganisms could improve copper leaching and lessen copper groundwater contamination. Copper ion-resistant bacteria associated with plants might be useful in biostabilization and phytoremediation of copper-contaminated environments. In this review, recent progress in microbiological and biotechnological aspects of microorganisms in contact with copper will be presented and discussed, exploring their role in the improvement for the industries involved as well as providing better environmental outcomes.

  4. Stability study of carboplatin infusion solutions in 0.9% sodium chloride in polyvinyl chloride bags.

    PubMed

    Myers, Alan L; Zhang, Yang-Ping; Kawedia, Jitesh D; Trinh, Van A; Tran, Huyentran; Smith, Judith A; Kramer, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Carboplatin is a platinum-containing compound with efficacy against various malignancies. The physico-chemical stability of carboplatin in dextrose 5% water (D5W) has been thoroughly studied; however, there is a paucity of stability data in clinically relevant 0.9% sodium chloride infusion solutions. The manufacturer's limited stability data in sodium chloride solutions hampers the flexibility of carboplatin usage in oncology patients. Hence, the purpose of this study is to determine the physical and chemical stability of carboplatin-sodium chloride intravenous solutions under different storage conditions. The physico-chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL carboplatin-sodium chloride solutions prepared in polyvinyl chloride bags was determined following storage at room temperature under ambient fluorescent light and under refrigeration in the dark. Concentrations of carboplatin were measured at predetermined time points up to seven days using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. All tested solutions were found physically stable for at least seven days. The greatest chemical stability was observed under refrigerated storage conditions. At 4℃, all tested solutions were found chemically stable for at least seven days, with nominal losses of ≤6%. Following storage at room temperature exposed to normal fluorescent light, the chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL solutions was three days, five days, and seven days, respectively. The extended physico-chemical stability of carboplatin prepared in sodium chloride reported herein permits advance preparation of these admixtures, facilitating pharmacy utility and operations. Since no antibacterial preservative is contained within these carboplatin solutions, we recommend storage, when prepared under specified aseptic conditions, no greater than 24 h at room temperature or three days under refrigeration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Stability of Alprostadil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polyvinyl Chloride Containers.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Susan V; Kirkham, Kylian; Munson, Jessica M

    2017-01-01

    The stability of alprostadil diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers at refrigerated temperature, protected from light, is reported. Five solutions of alprostadil 11 mcg/mL were prepared in 250 mL 0.9% sodium chloride polyvinyl chloride (PL146) containers. The final concentration of alcohol was 2%. Samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) with protection from light. Two containers were submitted for potency testing and analyzed in duplicate with the stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay at specific time points over 14 days. Three containers were submitted for pH and visual testing at specific time points over 14 days. Stability was defined as retention of 90% to 110% of initial alprostadil concentration, with maintenance of the original clear, colorless, and visually particulate-free solution. Study results reported retention of 90% to 110% initial alprostadil concentration at all time points through day 10. One sample exceeded 110% potency at day 14. pH values did not change appreciably over the 14 days. There were no color changes or particle formation detected in the solutions over the study period. This study concluded that during refrigerated, light-protected storage in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers, a commercial alcohol-containing alprostadil formulation diluted to 11 mcg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride 250 mL was stable for 10 days. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  6. Electron Detachment Dissociation of Underivatized Chloride-Adducted Oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornacki, James R.; Adamson, Julie T.; Håkansson, Kristina

    2012-11-01

    Chloride anion attachment has previously been shown to aid determination of saccharide anomeric configuration and generation of linkage information in negative ion post-source decay MALDI tandem mass spectrometry. Here, we employ electron detachment dissociation (EDD) and collision activated dissociation (CAD) for the structural characterization of underivatized oligosaccharides bearing a chloride ion adduct. Both neutral and sialylated oligosaccharides are examined, including maltoheptaose, an asialo biantennary glycan (NA2), disialylacto- N-tetraose (DSLNT), and two LS tetrasaccharides (LSTa and LSTb). Gas-phase chloride-adducted species are generated by negative ion mode electrospray ionization. EDD and CAD spectra of chloride-adducted oligosaccharides are compared to the corresponding spectra for doubly deprotonated species not containing a chloride anion to assess the role of chloride adduction in the stimulation of alternative fragmentation pathways and altered charge locations allowing detection of additional product ions. In all cases, EDD of singly chloridated and singly deprotonated species resulted in an increase in observed cross-ring cleavages, which are essential to providing saccharide linkage information. Glycosidic cleavages also increased in EDD of chloride-adducted oligosaccharides to reveal complementary structural information compared to traditional (non-chloride-assisted) EDD and CAD. Results indicate that chloride adduction is of interest in alternative anion activation methods such as EDD for oligosaccharide structural characterization.

  7. Chloride Fluxes in Isolated Dialyzed Barnacle Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    DiPolo, R.

    1972-01-01

    Chloride outflux and influx has been studied in single isolated muscle fibers from the giant barnacle under constant internal composition by means of a dialysis perfusion technique. Membrane potential was continually recorded. The chloride outfluxes and influxes were 143 and 144 pmoles/cm2-sec (mean resting potential: 58 mv, temperature: 22°–24°C) with internal and external chloride concentrations of 30 and 541 mM, respectively. The chloride conductance calculated from tracer measurements using constant field assumptions is about fourfold greater than that calculated from published electrical data. Replacing 97% of the external chloride ions by propionate reduces the chloride efflux by 51%. Nitrate ions applied either to the internal or external surface of the membrane slows the chloride efflux. The external pH dependence of the chloride efflux follows the external pH dependence of the membrane conductance, in the range pH 3.9–4.7, increasing with decreasing pH. In the range pH 5–9, the chloride efflux increased with increasing pH, in a manner similar to that observed in frog muscle fibers. The titration curve for internal pH changes in the range 4.0–7.0 was quantitatively much different from that for external pH change, indicating significant asymmetry in the internal and external pH dependence of the chloride efflux. PMID:5074810

  8. Simultaneous leaching of Pt, Pd and Rh from automotive catalytic converters in chloride-containing solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasani, M.; Khodadadi, A.; Koleini, S. M. J.; Saeedi, A. H.; Meléndez, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Dissolution of platinum group metals (PGM; herein Pt, Pd and Rh) in different chloride-based leaching systems from spent auto catalysts was performed. Response surface methodology and a five-level-five-factor central composite design were used to evaluate the effects of 1) temperature, 2) liquid-to-solid ratio, 3) stirring speed, 4) acid concentration and 5) particle size on extraction yield of PGM by aqua regia. Analysis of variance was used to determine the optimum conditions and most significant factors affecting the overall metal extraction. In the optimum conditions, leaching of Pt, Pd and Rh was 91.58%, 93.49% and 60.15%, respectively. The effect of different oxidizing agents on the PGM dissolution in chloride medium was studied comparatively in the following leaching systems: a) aqua regia/sulfuric acid mixture, b) hydrogen peroxide in sulfuric acid (piranha solution), c) sodium hypochlorite and d) copper(II). Dissolution of Rh is increased in both aqua regia and hydrogen peroxide/hydrochloric acid solutions by adding sulfuric acid.

  9. Wet extraction of heavy metals and chloride from MSWI and straw combustion fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar del Toro, M.; Calmano, W.; Ecke, H.

    2009-09-15

    Fly ash residues from combustion often do not meet the criteria neither for reuse as construction materials nor landfilling as non-hazardous waste, mainly because of the high concentration of heavy metals and chlorides. This work aimed to technically evaluate an innovative wet treatment process for the extraction of chloride (Cl{sup -}), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) from fly ashes from a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant and from a straw combustion (SC) facility. Factors investigated were liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, full carbonation (CO{sub 2} treatment), influence of pH and leaching time, using a two-level full factorialmore » design. The most significant factor for all responses was low pH, followed by L/S ratio. Multiple linear regression models describing the variation in extraction data had R{sup 2} values ranging from 58% to 98%. An optimization of the element extraction models was performed and a set of treatment conditions is suggested.« less

  10. Antioxidant protection mechanism of chick hepatic mitochondria exposed to lanthanum chloride & neodymium chloride treatment.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, N; Chattopadhyay, D; Chatterjee, G C

    1991-05-01

    Acute lanthanum chloride (250 mg/kg body wt) and neodymium chloride (200 mg/kg body wt) administrations resulted in significant enhancement of glutathione level in chick hepatic mitochondria. However, glutathione-s-transferase activity was depressed. There was no alteration in the activity of glutathione reductase. Activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was not altered under lanthanum and neodymium treatment. There was a significant enhancement of intramitochondrial glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Lipid peroxidation remains the same as control group of animals.

  11. NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride for oral solution).

    PubMed

    Swartz, M L

    1992-02-01

    NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Bicarbonate, and Potassium Chloride for Oral Solution), a product from Braintree Laboratories, Inc. is a modification of GoLYTELY (PEG 3350 and Electrolytes for Oral Solution) that has been found to have the same therapeutic advantages in terms of safety, efficacy, speed and patient acceptance. This product was developed to improve upon the taste of GoLYTELY. NuLYTELY represents an effective alternative for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy that may be more acceptable to some patients.

  12. Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten

    DOEpatents

    Slattery, Kevin T.; Driemeyer, Daniel E.

    1999-11-23

    Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by thermal plasma spraying mixtures of copper powder and tungsten powder in a varied blending ratio such that the blending ratio of the copper powder and the tungsten powder that is fed to a plasma torch is intermittently adjusted to provide progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in the interlayer in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

  13. Ginkgo biloba extract alleviates oxidative stress and some neurotransmitters changes induced by aluminum chloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Naglaa El-Shahat; Abd El-Moneim, Ahmed E

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, twenty four adult male albino rats were classified into four groups. The control group received normal diet and water; the second group was treated daily with oral dose of Ginkgo biloba (200 mg/kg body weight [b.wt]) for 3 mo; the third group was treated daily with oral dose of aluminum chloride (10 mg/kg b.wt) for 3 mo; and the fourth group was treated with both Ginkgo biloba and aluminum chloride (200 and 10 mg/kg b.wt, respectively) using a stomach tube for 3 mo. The results showed that administration of AlCl 3 to rats induced significant increase (P < 0.05) in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and decrease (P < 0.05) in glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase in brain and testis homogenates. The data also showed significant decrease (P < 0.05) in noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin (5-HT) levels in brain tissue. The rats administered AlCl 3 showed significant decrease (P < 0.05) in serum zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum iron (Fe), and non-significant decrease in magnesium (Mg). Furthermore, significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase and significant decrease (P < 0.05) in testosterone were recorded. The histologic examination showed some degenerative changes in both brain and testis tissues while significant improvement in biochemical and histologic changes were observed in the aluminum chloride plus Ginkgo biloba group. It could be concluded that the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba may be attributed to its antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Copper economy in Chlamydomonas: Prioritized allocation and reallocation of copper to respiration vs. photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kropat, Janette; Gallaher, Sean D.; Urzica, Eugen I.; Nakamoto, Stacie S.; Strenkert, Daniela; Tottey, Stephen; Mason, Andrew Z.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic elements, although required only in trace amounts, permit life and primary productivity because of their functions in catalysis. Every organism has a minimal requirement of each metal based on the intracellular abundance of proteins that use inorganic cofactors, but elemental sparing mechanisms can reduce this quota. A well-studied copper-sparing mechanism that operates in microalgae faced with copper deficiency is the replacement of the abundant copper protein plastocyanin with a heme-containing substitute, cytochrome (Cyt) c6. This switch, which is dependent on a copper-sensing transcription factor, copper response regulator 1 (CRR1), dramatically reduces the copper quota. We show here that in a situation of marginal copper availability, copper is preferentially allocated from plastocyanin, whose function is dispensable, to other more critical copper-dependent enzymes like Cyt oxidase and a ferroxidase. In the absence of an extracellular source, copper allocation to Cyt oxidase includes CRR1-dependent proteolysis of plastocyanin and quantitative recycling of the copper cofactor from plastocyanin to Cyt oxidase. Transcriptome profiling identifies a gene encoding a Zn-metalloprotease, as a candidate effecting copper recycling. One reason for the retention of genes encoding both plastocyanin and Cyt c6 in algal and cyanobacterial genomes might be because plastocyanin provides a competitive advantage in copper-depleted environments as a ready source of copper. PMID:25646490

  15. Mapping the spatial distribution of chloride deposition across Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. J.; Crosbie, R. S.

    2018-06-01

    The high solubility and conservative behaviour of chloride make it ideal for use as an environmental tracer of water and salt movement through the hydrologic cycle. For such use the spatial distribution of chloride deposition in rainfall at a suitable scale must be known. A number of authors have used point data acquired from field studies of chloride deposition around Australia to construct relationships to characterise chloride deposition as a function of distance from the coast; these relationships have allowed chloride deposition to be interpolated in different regions around Australia. In this paper we took this a step further and developed a chloride deposition map for all of Australia which includes a quantification of uncertainty. A previously developed four parameter model of chloride deposition as a function of distance from the coast for Australia was used as the basis for producing a continental scale chloride deposition map. Each of the four model parameters were made spatially variable by creating parameter surfaces that were interpolated using a pilot point regularisation approach within a parameter estimation software. The observations of chloride deposition were drawn from a literature review that identified 291 point measurements of chloride deposition over a period of 80 years spread unevenly across all Australian States and Territories. A best estimate chloride deposition map was developed from the resulting surfaces on a 0.05 degree grid. The uncertainty in the chloride deposition map was quantified as the 5th and 95th percentile of 1000 calibrated models produced via Null Space Monte Carlo analysis and the spatial variability of chloride deposition across the continent was consistent with landscape morphology. The temporal variability in chloride deposition on a decadal scale was investigated in the Murray-Darling Basin, this highlighted the need for long-term monitoring of chloride deposition if the uncertainty of the continental scale map is

  16. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    Copper is natural component of our environment. Flow of copper(II) ions in the environment depends on solubility of compounds containing this metal. Mobile ion coming from soil and rocks due to volcanic activity, rains and others are then distributed to water. Bio-availability of copper is substantially lower than its concentration in the aquatic environment. Copper present in the water reacts with other compounds and creates a complex, not available for organisms. The availability of copper varies depending on the environment, but moving around within the range from 5 to 25 % of total copper. Thus copper is stored in the sediments and the rest is transported to the seas and oceans. It is common knowledge that copper is essential element for most living organisms. For this reason this element is actively accumulated in the tissues. The total quantity of copper in soil ranges from 2 to 250 mg / kg, the average concentration is 30 mg / kg. Certain activities related to agriculture (the use of fungicides), possibly with the metallurgical industry and mining, tend to increase the total quantity of copper in the soil. This amount of copper in the soil is a problem particularly for agricultural production of food. The lack of copper causes a decrease in revenue and reduction in quality of production. In Europe, shows the low level of copper in total 18 million hectares of farmland. To remedy this adverse situation is the increasing use of copper fertilizers in agricultural soils. It is known that copper compounds are used in plant protection against various illnesses and pests. Mining of minerals is for the development of human society a key economic activity. An important site where the copper is mined in the Slovakia is nearby Smolníka. Due to long time mining in his area (more than 700 years) there are places with extremely high concentrations of various metals including copper. Besides copper, there are also detected iron, zinc and arsenic. Various plant species

  17. Epithelial chloride channel. Development of inhibitory ligands

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Chloride channels are present in the majority of epithelial cells, where they mediate absorption or secretion of NaCl. Although the absorptive and secretory channels are well characterized in terms of their electrophysiological behavior, there is a lack of pharmacological ligands that can aid us in further functional and eventually molecular characterization. To obtain such ligands, we prepared membrane vesicles from bovine kidney cortex and apical membrane vesicles from trachea and found that they contain a chloride transport process that is electrically conductive. This conductance was reduced by preincubating the vesicles in media containing ATP or ATP-gamma-S, but not beta- methylene ATP, which suggests that the membranes contain a kinase that can close the channels. We then screened compounds derived from three classes: indanyloxyacetic acid (IAA), anthranilic acid (AA), and ethacrynic acid. We identified potent inhibitors from the IAA and the AA series. We tritiated IAA-94 and measured binding of this ligand to the kidney cortex membrane vesicles and found a high-affinity binding site whose dissociation constant (0.6 microM) was similar to the inhibition constant (1 microM). There was a good correlation between the inhibitory potency of several IAA derivatives and their efficacy in displacing [3H]IAA-94 from its binding site. Further, other chloride channel inhibitors, including AA derivatives, ethacrynic acid, bumetanide, and DIDS, also displaced the ligand from its binding site. A similar conductance was found in apical membrane vesicles from bovine trachea that was also inhibited by IAA-94 and AA-130B, but the inhibitory effects of these compounds were weaker than their effects on the renal cortex channel. The two drugs were also less potent in displacing [3H]IAA-94 from the tracheal binding site. PMID:2450168

  18. Lubiprostone: chloride channel activator for chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Rivkin, Anastasia; Chagan, Larisa

    2006-12-01

    Chronic constipation is a common and costly health problem occurring in approximately 4.5 million Americans. Current management of constipation is suboptimal and requires a stepwise approach using a combination of laxatives to decrease symptoms. The objective of this review was to describe the efficacy and safety of a new therapeutic entity, lubiprostone, recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation. Computerized searches of MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were conducted (1966-July 10, 2006). Search terms utilized were lubiprostone, RU-0211, and chronic constipation. References of selected articles were searched for additional articles or abstracts. All relevant published literature regarding lubiprostone was included in this review. Pertinent abstracts presented at meetings of the American College of Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases Week were also included. Lubiprostone activates a chloride channel (ie, subtype 2) and increases chloride and fluid secretion into the intestines, resulting in relief of constipation. It is poorly absorbed after oral administration, and its metabolism occurs primarily in the stomach and jejunum. Lubiprostone was evaluated in 6 placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized Phase II or III clinical trials. Overall, in clinical trials, >1400 patients were exposed to 24 mug of lubiprostone BID for up to 48 weeks. It improved the number of bowel movements, stool consistency, bloating, and global assessment of constipation compared with placebo (P < 0.05). Nausea was the most common adverse effect reported in clinical trials, occurring in 30.9% of patients. However, nausea was dose dependent and decreased when lubiprostone was given with food. Lubiprostone is the first in its class of chloride channel activators that results in improvement of symptoms of constipation. It has not been compared with other laxatives but, based on the available placebo

  19. A Plasmodium falciparum copper-binding membrane protein with copper transport motifs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Copper is an essential catalytic co-factor for metabolically important cellular enzymes, such as cytochrome-c oxidase. Eukaryotic cells acquire copper through a copper transport protein and distribute intracellular copper using molecular chaperones. The copper chelator, neocuproine, inhibits Plasmodium falciparum ring-to-trophozoite transition in vitro, indicating a copper requirement for malaria parasite development. How the malaria parasite acquires or secretes copper still remains to be fully elucidated. Methods PlasmoDB was searched for sequences corresponding to candidate P. falciparum copper-requiring proteins. The amino terminal domain of a putative P. falciparum copper transport protein was cloned and expressed as a maltose binding fusion protein. The copper binding ability of this protein was examined. Copper transport protein-specific anti-peptide antibodies were generated in chickens and used to establish native protein localization in P. falciparum parasites by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results Six P. falciparum copper-requiring protein orthologs and a candidate P. falciparum copper transport protein (PF14_0369), containing characteristic copper transport protein features, were identified in PlasmoDB. The recombinant amino terminal domain of the transport protein bound reduced copper in vitro and within Escherichia coli cells during recombinant expression. Immunolocalization studies tracked the copper binding protein translocating from the erythrocyte plasma membrane in early ring stage to a parasite membrane as the parasites developed to schizonts. The protein appears to be a PEXEL-negative membrane protein. Conclusion Plasmodium falciparum parasites express a native protein with copper transporter characteristics that binds copper in vitro. Localization of the protein to the erythrocyte and parasite plasma membranes could provide a mechanism for the delivery of novel anti-malarial compounds. PMID:23190769

  20. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, M.L.; Savolainen, J.E.

    1960-01-01

    A method is given for dissolving reactor fuel elements in which the uranium is associated with a relatively inert chromium-containing alloy such as stainless steel. An aqueous mixture of acids comprising 2 to 2.5 molar hydrochloric acid and 4 to 8 molar nitric acid is employed in dissolving the fuel element. In order io reduce corrosion in subsequent processing of the resulting solution, chloride values are removed from the solution by contacting it with concentrated nitric acid at an elevated temperature.

  1. Active lithium chloride cell for spacecraft power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischmann, C. W.; Horning, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    An active thionyl chloride high rate battery is under development for spacecraft operations. It is a 540kC (150 Ah) battery capable of pulses up to 75A. This paper describes the design and initial test data on a 'state-of-the-art' cell that has been selected to be the baseline for the prototype cell for that battery. Initial data indicate that the specification can be met with fresh cells. Data for stored cells and additional environmental test data are in the process of being developed.

  2. Rapid fixation of methylene chloride by a macrocyclic amine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Jae; Stanger, Keith J; Noll, Bruce C; Gonzalez, Carlos; Marquez, Manuel; Smith, Bradley D

    2005-03-30

    A simple macrocyclic amine is alkylated by methylene chloride to give a quaternary ammonium chloride salt. When methylene chloride is the solvent, the reaction exhibits pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the reaction half-life at 25.0 degrees C is 2.0 min. The reaction half-life for a structurally related, acyclic amine is approximately 50 000 times longer. Detailed calculations favor a mechanism where the methylene chloride associates with the macrocycle to form an activated prereaction complex. The macrocyclic nitrogen subsequently attacks the methylene chloride with a classic SN2 trajectory, and although the carbon-chlorine bond breaks, the chloride leaving group does not separate from the newly formed cationic macrocycle, such that the product is a tightly associated ion-pair. X-ray crystal structures of the starting amine and the product salt, as well as kinetic data, support this mechanism.

  3. Buried chloride stereochemistry in the Protein Data Bank

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the chloride anion is involved in fundamental biological processes, its interactions with proteins are little known. In particular, we lack a systematic survey of its coordination spheres. Results The analysis of a non-redundant set (pairwise sequence identity?chloride anion shows that the first coordination spheres of the chlorides are essentially constituted by hydrogen bond donors. Amongst the side-chains positively charged, arginine interacts with chlorides much more frequently than lysine. Although the most common coordination number is 4, the coordination stereochemistry is closer to the expected geometry when the coordination number is 5, suggesting that this is the coordination number towards which the chlorides tend when they interact with proteins. Conclusions The results of these analyses are useful in interpreting, describing, and validating new protein crystal structures that contain chloride anions. PMID:25928393

  4. Buried chloride stereochemistry in the Protein Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Carugo, Oliviero

    2014-09-23

    Despite the chloride anion is involved in fundamental biological processes, its interactions with proteins are little known. In particular, we lack a systematic survey of its coordination spheres. The analysis of a non-redundant set (pairwise sequence identity < 30%) of 1739 high resolution (<2 Å) crystal structures that contain at least one chloride anion shows that the first coordination spheres of the chlorides are essentially constituted by hydrogen bond donors. Amongst the side-chains positively charged, arginine interacts with chlorides much more frequently than lysine. Although the most common coordination number is 4, the coordination stereochemistry is closer to the expected geometry when the coordination number is 5, suggesting that this is the coordination number towards which the chlorides tend when they interact with proteins. The results of these analyses are useful in interpreting, describing, and validating new protein crystal structures that contain chloride anions.

  5. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be used as a “check” on the required closed gauge, nor as a means or sampling. (h) The words “CANCER... legend: cancer—suspect agent in this area protective equipment required authorized personnel only must be... clean and dry for each use, to prevent skin contact with liquid vinyl chloride. [CGFR 70-10, 35 FR 3714...

  6. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be used as a “check” on the required closed gauge, nor as a means or sampling. (h) The words “CANCER... legend: cancer—suspect agent in this area protective equipment required authorized personnel only must be... clean and dry for each use, to prevent skin contact with liquid vinyl chloride. [CGFR 70-10, 35 FR 3714...

  7. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be used as a “check” on the required closed gauge, nor as a means or sampling. (h) The words “CANCER... legend: cancer—suspect agent in this area protective equipment required authorized personnel only must be... clean and dry for each use, to prevent skin contact with liquid vinyl chloride. [CGFR 70-10, 35 FR 3714...

  8. Chloride channels as tools for developing selective insecticides.

    PubMed

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2003-12-01

    Ligand-gated chloride channels underlie inhibition in excitable membranes and are proven target sites for insecticides. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(1)) receptor/chloride ionophore complex is the primary site of action for a number of currently used insecticides, such as lindane, endosulfan, and fipronil. These compounds act as antagonists by stabilizing nonconducting conformations of the chloride channel. Blockage of the GABA-gated chloride channel reduces neuronal inhibition, which leads to hyperexcitation of the central nervous system, convulsions, and death. We recently investigated the mode of action of the silphinenes, plant-derived natural compounds that structurally resemble picrotoxinin. These materials antagonize the action of GABA on insect neurons and block GABA-mediated chloride uptake into mouse brain synaptoneurosomes in a noncompetitive manner. In mammals, avermectins have a blocking action on the GABA-gated chloride channel consistent with a coarse tremor, whereas at longer times and higher concentrations, activation of the channel suppresses neuronal activity. Invertebrates display ataxia, paralysis, and death as the predominant signs of poisoning, with a glutamate-gated chloride channel playing a major role. Additional target sites for the avermectins or other chloride channel-directed compounds might include receptors gated by histamine, serotonin, or acetylcholine.The voltage-sensitive chloride channels form another large gene family of chloride channels. Voltage-dependent chloride channels are involved in a number of physiological processes including: maintenance of electrical excitability, chloride ion secretion and resorption, intravesicular acidification, and cell volume regulation. A subset of these channels is affected by convulsants and insecticides in mammals, although the role they play in acute lethality in insects is unclear. Given the wide range of functions that they mediate, these channels are also potential targets for

  9. Importance of Abnormal Chloride Homeostasis in Stable Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Grodin, Justin L; Verbrugge, Frederik H; Ellis, Stephen G; Mullens, Wilfried; Testani, Jeffrey M; Tang, W H Wilson

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to determine the long-term prognostic value of lower serum chloride in patients with stable chronic heart failure. Electrolyte abnormalities are prevalent in patients with chronic heart failure. Little is known regarding the prognostic implications of lower serum chloride. Serum chloride was measured in 1673 consecutively consented stable patients with a history of heart failure undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography. All patients were followed for 5-year all-cause mortality, and survival models were adjusted for variables that confounded the chloride-risk relationship. The average chloride level was 102 ± 4 mEq/L. Over 6772 person-years of follow-up, there were 547 deaths. Lower chloride (per standard deviation decrease) was associated with a higher adjusted risk of mortality (hazard ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.49; P < 0.001). Chloride levels net-reclassified risk in 10.4% (P = 0.03) when added to a multivariable model (with a resultant C-statistic of 0.70), in which sodium levels were not prognostic (P = 0.30). In comparison to those with above first quartile chloride (≥ 101 mEq/L) and sodium (≥ 138 meq/L), subjects with first quartile chloride had a higher adjusted mortality risk, whether they had first quartile sodium (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.69; P = 0.008) or higher (hazard ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.85; P = 0.005). However, subjects with first quartile sodium but above first quartile chloride had no association with mortality (P = 0.67). Lower serum chloride levels are independently and incrementally associated with increased mortality risk in patients with chronic heart failure. A better understanding of the biological role of serum chloride is warranted. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Copper transport and regulation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin, Jude; Ekici, Seda; Daldal, Fevzi; Ait-Mohand, Samia; Guérin, Brigitte; Labbé, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been successfully used as a model to gain fundamental knowledge in understanding how eukaryotic cells acquire copper during vegetative growth. These studies have revealed the existence of a heteromeric Ctr4–Ctr5 plasma membrane complex that mediates uptake of copper within the cells. Furthermore, additional studies have led to the identification of one of the first vacuolar copper transporters, Ctr6, as well as the copper-responsive Cuf1 transcription factor. Recent investigations have extended the use of S. pombe to elucidate new roles for copper metabolism in meiotic differentiation. For example, these studies have led to the discovery of Mfc1, which turned out to be the first example of a meiosis-specific copper transporter. Whereas copper-dependent transcriptional regulation of the Ctr family members is under the control of Cuf1 during mitosis or meiosis, meiosis-specific copper transporter Mfc1 is regulated by the recently discovered transactivator Mca1. It is foreseeable that identification of novel meiotic copper-related proteins will serve as stepping stones to unravel fundamental aspects of copper homoeostasis. PMID:24256274

  11. Copper transport and regulation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Jude; Ekici, Seda; Daldal, Fevzi; Ait-Mohand, Samia; Guérin, Brigitte; Labbé, Simon

    2013-12-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been successfully used as a model to gain fundamental knowledge in understanding how eukaryotic cells acquire copper during vegetative growth. These studies have revealed the existence of a heteromeric Ctr4-Ctr5 plasma membrane complex that mediates uptake of copper within the cells. Furthermore, additional studies have led to the identification of one of the first vacuolar copper transporters, Ctr6, as well as the copper-responsive Cuf1 transcription factor. Recent investigations have extended the use of S. pombe to elucidate new roles for copper metabolism in meiotic differentiation. For example, these studies have led to the discovery of Mfc1, which turned out to be the first example of a meiosis-specific copper transporter. Whereas copper-dependent transcriptional regulation of the Ctr family members is under the control of Cuf1 during mitosis or meiosis, meiosis-specific copper transporter Mfc1 is regulated by the recently discovered transactivator Mca1. It is foreseeable that identification of novel meiotic copper-related proteins will serve as stepping stones to unravel fundamental aspects of copper homoeostasis.

  12. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A J; Fieten, Hille

    2016-02-04

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted.

  13. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Fieten, Hille

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted. PMID:26861285

  14. Metallic copper as an antimicrobial surface.

    PubMed

    Grass, Gregor; Rensing, Christopher; Solioz, Marc

    2011-03-01

    Bacteria, yeasts, and viruses are rapidly killed on metallic copper surfaces, and the term "contact killing" has been coined for this process. While the phenomenon was already known in ancient times, it is currently receiving renewed attention. This is due to the potential use of copper as an antibacterial material in health care settings. Contact killing was observed to take place at a rate of at least 7 to 8 logs per hour, and no live microorganisms were generally recovered from copper surfaces after prolonged incubation. The antimicrobial activity of copper and copper alloys is now well established, and copper has recently been registered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the first solid antimicrobial material. In several clinical studies, copper has been evaluated for use on touch surfaces, such as door handles, bathroom fixtures, or bed rails, in attempts to curb nosocomial infections. In connection to these new applications of copper, it is important to understand the mechanism of contact killing since it may bear on central issues, such as the possibility of the emergence and spread of resistant organisms, cleaning procedures, and questions of material and object engineering. Recent work has shed light on mechanistic aspects of contact killing. These findings will be reviewed here and juxtaposed with the toxicity mechanisms of ionic copper. The merit of copper as a hygienic material in hospitals and related settings will also be discussed.

  15. High Intracellular Chloride Slows the Decay of Glycinergic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Samantha J.; Sivilotti, Lucia G.; Beato, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The time course of currents mediated by native and recombinant glycine receptors was examined with a combination of rapid agonist applications to outside-out patches and single-channel recording. The deactivation time constant of currents evoked by brief, saturating pulses of glycine is profoundly affected by the chloride concentration on the intracellular side of the cell membrane. Deactivation was threefold slower when intracellular chloride was increased from a low level (10 mm), similar to that observed in living mature neurons, to 131 mm (“symmetrical” chloride, often used in pipette internal solutions). Single-channel analysis revealed that high chloride has its greatest effect on the channel closing rate, slowing it by a factor of 2 compared with the value we estimated in the cell-attached mode (in which the channels are at physiological intracellular chloride concentrations). The same effect of chloride was observed when glycinergic evoked synaptic currents were recorded from juvenile rat spinal motoneurons in vitro, because the decay time constant was reduced from ∼7ms to ∼3 ms when cells were dialyzed with 10 mm chloride intracellular recording solution. Our results indicate that the time course of glycinergic synaptic inhibition in intact neurons is much faster than is estimated by measurements in symmetrical chloride and can be modulated by changes in intracellular chloride concentration in the range that can occur in physiological or pathological conditions. PMID:18987182

  16. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    PubMed

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. VOLATILE CHLORIDE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hanley, W.R.

    1959-01-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium, iron, and aluminum from centain shale type ores which contain uranium in minute quantities. The ore is heated wiih a chlorinating agent. such as chlorine, to form a volatilized stream of metal chlorides. The chloride stream is then passed through granular alumina which preferentially absorbs the volatile uranium chloride and from which the uranium may later be recovered. The remaining volatilized chlorides, chiefly those of iron and aluminum, are further treated to recover chlorine gas for recycle, and to recover ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as valuable by-products.

  18. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid by metal chlorides.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lincai; Lin, Lu; Zhang, Junhua; Zhuang, Junping; Zhang, Beixiao; Gong, Yan

    2010-08-02

    The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl(3), FeCl(3) and CuCl(2) and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl(3)), exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 degrees C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  19. Copper disinfection ban causes storm.

    PubMed

    Lester, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Since 1 February this year, under the EU's Biocidal Products Directive, it has been illegal to sell or use water treatment systems that use elemental copper, a practice employed historically by a significant number of UK healthcare facilities to combat Legionella. Alan Lester, managing director of specialist supplier of 'environmentally-friendly' water treatment systems, Advanced Hydro, says the ban has caused 'a storm of giant proportion,' with advocates of copper ion-based treatment systems arguing that this disinfection method dates back 3,000 years to Egyptian times, making it an 'undoubtedly proven' technology. Here he explains why the ban came into force, considers why the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is seeking a derogation, looks at the ban's likely impact, and gives a personal viewpoint on the 'pros and cons' of some of the alternative treatment technologies, including a titanium dioxide-based system marketed by Advanced Hydro itself in the UK.

  20. Thermoelectric Study of Copper Selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Mengliang; Liu, Weishu; Ren, Zhifeng; Opeil, Cyril

    2014-03-01

    Nanostructuring has been shown to be an effective approach in reducing lattice thermal conductivity and improving the figure of merit of thermoelectric materials. Copper selenide is a layered structure material, which has a low thermal conductivity and p-type Seebeck coefficient at low temperatures. We have evaluated several hot-pressed, nanostructured copper selenide samples with different dopants for their thermoelectric properties. The phenomenon of the charge-density wave observed in the nanocomposite, resistivity, Seebeck, thermal conductivity and carrier mobility will be discussed. Funding for this research was provided by the Solid State Solar - Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC), an Energy Frontier Research Center sponsored by the DOE, Office of Basic Energy Science, Award No. DE-SC0001299/ DE-FG02-09ER46577.

  1. Multilevel Dual Damascene copper interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, S.

    Copper has been acknowledged as the interconnect material for future generations of ICs to overcome the bottlenecks on speed and reliability present with the current Al based wiring. A new set of challenges brought to the forefront when copper replaces aluminum, have to be met and resolved to make it a viable option. Unit step processes related to copper technology have been under development for the last few years. In this work, the application of copper as the interconnect material in multilevel structures with SiO2 as the interlevel dielectric has been explored, with emphasis on integration issues and complete process realization. Interconnect definition was achieved by the Dual Damascene approach using chemical mechanical polishing of oxide and copper. The choice of materials used as adhesion promoter/diffusion barrier included Ti, Ta and CVD TiN. Two different polish chemistries (NH4OH or HNO3 based) were used to form the interconnects. The diffusion barrier was removed during polishing (in the case of TiN) or by a post CMP etch (as with Ti or Ta). Copper surface passivation was performed using boron implantation and PECVD nitride encapsulation. The interlevel dielectric way composed of a multilayer stack of PECVD SiO2 and SixNy. A baseline process sequence which ensured the mechanical and thermal compatibility of the different unit steps was first created. A comprehensive test vehicle was designed and test structures were fabricated using the process flow developed. Suitable modifications were subsequently introduced in the sequence as and when processing problems were encountered. Electrical characterization was performed on the fabricated devices, interconnects, contacts and vias. The structures were subjected to thermal stressing to assess their stability and performance. The measurement of interconnect sheet resistances revealed lower copper loss due to dishing on samples polished using HNO3 based slurry. Interconnect resistances remained stable upto 400o

  2. FAST copper for broadband access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Mung; Huang, Jianwei; Cendrillon, Raphael; Tan, Chee Wei; Xu, Dahai

    2006-10-01

    FAST Copper is a multi-year, U.S. NSF funded project that started in 2004, and is jointly pursued by the research groups of Mung Chiang at Princeton University, John Cioffi at Stanford University, and Alexader Fraser at Fraser Research Lab, and in collaboration with several industrial partners including AT&T. The goal of the FAST Copper Project is to provide ubiquitous, 100 Mbps, fiber/DSL broadband access to everyone in the U.S. with a phone line. This goal will be achieved through two threads of research: dynamic and joint optimization of resources in Frequency, Amplitude, Space, and Time (thus the name 'FAST') to overcome the attenuation and crosstalk bottlenecks, and the integration of communication, networking, computation, modeling, and distributed information management and control for the multi-user twisted pair network.

  3. Total gastrectomy due to ferric chloride intoxication.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, A Mesut; Abramson, Leonardo; Vera, Raúl A; Duza, Guillermo E; Palermo, Mariano

    2015-09-01

    The ferric chloride intoxication is frequently caused by accident. Its toxicity is generally underrated, which can lead to fatal evolution or irreversible consequences. In this case, the caustic condition of the substance is related to the toxic properties of iron. A 36-year-old male patient arrives by ambulance indicating sensory deterioration. He presents erosive injuries in the buccal cavity and in the oropharynx, brownish teeth and metabolic acidosis. Toxicology tests and ferritin blood dosage are requested, which show a result from 1400 mg/dl. The symptoms are interpreted as acute iron intoxication. Due to the unfavorable evolution of his condition, an abdominal and pelvic CT scan are performed, which show extensive pneumoperitoneum and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. An exploratory laparotomy, a total gastrectomy with esophagostomy and feeding jejunostomy, washing and drainage due to perforated gastric necrosis caused by caustic ingestion are performed. In our country, there is a high rate of intoxication caused by iron compounds, although it is not statistically measured. Nevertheless, the ferric chloride intoxication is extremely infrequent. The ingestion of this product leads to complications, which are associated with the iron concentration and its condition as a caustic agent. The surgical indications in the presence of intoxication caused by iron compounds are: stomach evacuation of iron, gastric necrosis, perforation or peritonitis and stenosis. Early or prophylactic gastrectomy is contraindicated. However, if complications that require immediate surgical intervention arise, there should be no hesitation and the corresponding procedure should be performed.

  4. Zinc-chloride battery technology - Status 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, J. W.; Carr, P.; Warde, C. J.; Henriksen, G. L.

    Zinc-chloride batteries are presently under development at Energy Development Associates (EDA) for load-leveling, electric-vehicle, and specialty applications. A 500-kWh battery system has been built at Detroit Edison's Charlotte substation near downtown Detroit. Following shakedown testing, this system will be installed at the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility in Hillsborough, New Jersey, in July 1983. Data is presented also for a prototype 50-kWh battery which has successfully operated through 150 cycles. EDA has built and tested three 4-passenger automobiles. The maximum range achieved on a single charge was 200 miles at 40 mph. Recently, the electric-vehicle battery program at EDA has focused on commercial vehicles. Two vans, each powered with a 45-kWh zinc-chloride battery, have been built and track tested. These vehicles, which carry a payload of 1,000 pounds, have a top speed of 55 mph and an operational range in excess of 80 miles. In the specialty battery area, two 6-kWh 12-V reserve batteries have been built and tested. This type of battery offers the prospect of long shelf life and an energy density in excess of 100 Wh/lb.

  5. Thermodynamic properties of potassium chloride aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zezin, Denis; Driesner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Potassium chloride is a ubiquitous salt in natural fluids, being the second most abundant dissolved salt in many geological aqueous solutions after sodium chloride. It is a simple solute and strong electrolyte easily dissociating in water, however the thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions were never correlated with sufficient accuracy for a wide range of physicochemical conditions. In this communication we propose a set of parameters for a Pitzer-type model which allows calculation of all necessary thermodynamic properties of KCl solution, namely excess Gibbs free energy and derived activity coefficient, apparent molar enthalpy, heat capacity and volume, as well as osmotic coefficient and activity of water in solutions. The system KCl-water is one of the best studied aqueous systems containing electrolytes. Although extensive experimental data were collected for thermodynamic properties of these solutions over the years, the accurate volumetric data became available only recently, thus making possible a complete thermodynamic formulation including a pressure dependence of excess Gibbs free energy and derived properties of the KCl-water liquids. Our proposed model is intended for calculation of major thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions at temperatures ranging from freezing point of a solution to 623 K, pressures ranging from saturated water vapor up to 150 MPa, and concentrations up to the salt saturation. This parameterized model will be further implemented in geochemical software packages and can facilitate the calculation of aqueous equilibrium for reactive transport codes.

  6. Picosecond dynamics from lanthanide chloride melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalampounias, Angelos G.

    2012-12-01

    The picosecond dynamics of molten lanthanide chlorides is studied by means of vibrational spectroscopy. Polarized Raman spectra of molten LaCl3, NdCl3, GdCl3, DyCl3, HoCl3 and YCl3 are fitted to a model enabling to obtain the times of vibrational dephasing, tν and vibrational frequency modulation tω. Our aim is to find possible sensitive indicators of short-time dynamics. It has been found that all lanthanide chlorides exhibit qualitative similarities in the vibrational relaxation and frequency modulation times in the molten state. It appears that the vibrational correlation functions of all melts comply with the Rothschild approach assuming that the environmental modulation is described by a stretched exponential decay. The evolution of the dispersion parameter α indicates the deviation of the melts from the model simple liquid and the similar local environment in which the oscillator is placed and with which it is coupled. The "packing" of the anions around central La3+ cation seems to be the key factor for the structure and the dynamics of the melts. The results are discussed in the framework of the current phenomenological status of the field.

  7. A cytosolic copper storage protein provides a second level of copper tolerance in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Straw, Megan L; Chaplin, Amanda K; Hough, Michael A; Paps, Jordi; Bavro, Vassiliy N; Wilson, Michael T; Vijgenboom, Erik; Worrall, Jonathan A R

    2018-01-24

    Streptomyces lividans has a distinct dependence on the bioavailability of copper for its morphological development. A cytosolic copper resistance system is operative in S. lividans that serves to preclude deleterious copper levels. This system comprises of several CopZ-like copper chaperones and P 1 -type ATPases, predominantly under the transcriptional control of a metalloregulator from the copper sensitive operon repressor (CsoR) family. In the present study, we discover a new layer of cytosolic copper resistance in S. lividans that involves a protein belonging to the newly discovered family of copper storage proteins, which we have named Ccsp (cytosolic copper storage protein). From an evolutionary perspective, we find Ccsp homologues to be widespread in Bacteria and extend through into Archaea and Eukaryota. Under copper stress Ccsp is upregulated and consists of a homotetramer assembly capable of binding up to 80 cuprous ions (20 per protomer). X-ray crystallography reveals 18 cysteines, 3 histidines and 1 aspartate are involved in cuprous ion coordination. Loading of cuprous ions to Ccsp is a cooperative process with a Hill coefficient of 1.9 and a CopZ-like copper chaperone can transfer copper to Ccsp. A Δccsp mutant strain indicates that Ccsp is not required under initial copper stress in S. lividans, but as the CsoR/CopZ/ATPase efflux system becomes saturated, Ccsp facilitates a second level of copper tolerance.

  8. Copper as a target for prostate cancer therapeutics: copper-ionophore pharmacology and altering systemic copper distribution.

    PubMed

    Denoyer, Delphine; Pearson, Helen B; Clatworthy, Sharnel A S; Smith, Zoe M; Francis, Paul S; Llanos, Roxana M; Volitakis, Irene; Phillips, Wayne A; Meggyesy, Peter M; Masaldan, Shashank; Cater, Michael A

    2016-06-14

    Copper-ionophores that elevate intracellular bioavailable copper display significant therapeutic utility against prostate cancer cells in vitro and in TRAMP (Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate) mice. However, the pharmacological basis for their anticancer activity remains unclear, despite impending clinical trails. Herein we show that intracellular copper levels in prostate cancer, evaluated in vitro and across disease progression in TRAMP mice, were not correlative with copper-ionophore activity and mirrored the normal levels observed in patient prostatectomy tissues (Gleason Score 7 & 9). TRAMP adenocarcinoma cells harbored markedly elevated oxidative stress and diminished glutathione (GSH)-mediated antioxidant capacity, which together conferred selective sensitivity to prooxidant ionophoric copper. Copper-ionophore treatments [CuII(gtsm), disulfiram & clioquinol] generated toxic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TRAMP adenocarcinoma cells, but not in normal mouse prostate epithelial cells (PrECs). Our results provide a basis for the pharmacological activity of copper-ionophores and suggest they are amendable for treatment of patients with prostate cancer. Additionally, recent in vitro and mouse xenograft studies have suggested an increased copper requirement by prostate cancer cells. We demonstrated that prostate adenocarcinoma development in TRAMP mice requires a functional supply of copper and is significantly impeded by altered systemic copper distribution. The presence of a mutant copper-transporting Atp7b protein (tx mutation: A4066G/Met1356Val) in TRAMP mice changed copper-integration into serum and caused a remarkable reduction in prostate cancer burden (64% reduction) and disease severity (grade), abrogating adenocarcinoma development. Implications for current clinical trials are discussed.

  9. Copper as a target for prostate cancer therapeutics: copper-ionophore pharmacology and altering systemic copper distribution

    PubMed Central

    Denoyer, Delphine; Pearson, Helen B.; Clatworthy, Sharnel A.S.; Smith, Zoe M.; Francis, Paul S.; Llanos, Roxana M.; Volitakis, Irene; Phillips, Wayne A.; Meggyesy, Peter M.; Masaldan, Shashank; Cater, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Copper-ionophores that elevate intracellular bioavailable copper display significant therapeutic utility against prostate cancer cells in vitro and in TRAMP (Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate) mice. However, the pharmacological basis for their anticancer activity remains unclear, despite impending clinical trails. Herein we show that intracellular copper levels in prostate cancer, evaluated in vitro and across disease progression in TRAMP mice, were not correlative with copper-ionophore activity and mirrored the normal levels observed in patient prostatectomy tissues (Gleason Score 7 & 9). TRAMP adenocarcinoma cells harbored markedly elevated oxidative stress and diminished glutathione (GSH)-mediated antioxidant capacity, which together conferred selective sensitivity to prooxidant ionophoric copper. Copper-ionophore treatments [CuII(gtsm), disulfiram & clioquinol] generated toxic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TRAMP adenocarcinoma cells, but not in normal mouse prostate epithelial cells (PrECs). Our results provide a basis for the pharmacological activity of copper-ionophores and suggest they are amendable for treatment of patients with prostate cancer. Additionally, recent in vitro and mouse xenograft studies have suggested an increased copper requirement by prostate cancer cells. We demonstrated that prostate adenocarcinoma development in TRAMP mice requires a functional supply of copper and is significantly impeded by altered systemic copper distribution. The presence of a mutant copper-transporting Atp7b protein (tx mutation: A4066G/Met1356Val) in TRAMP mice changed copper-integration into serum and caused a remarkable reduction in prostate cancer burden (64% reduction) and disease severity (grade), abrogating adenocarcinoma development. Implications for current clinical trials are discussed. PMID:27175597

  10. Acid Chlorides as Formal Carbon Dianion Linchpin Reagents in the Aluminum Chloride-Mediated Dieckmann Cyclization of Dicarboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Armaly, Ahlam M; Bar, Sukanta; Schindler, Corinna S

    2017-08-04

    The development of acid chlorides as formal dianion linchpin reagents that enable access to cyclic 2-alkyl- and 2-acyl-1,3-alkanediones from dicarboxylic acids is described herein. Mechanistic experiments relying on 13 C-labeling studies confirm the role of acid chlorides as carbon dianion linchpin reagents and have led to a revised reaction mechanism for the aluminum(III)-mediated Dieckmann cyclization of dicarboxylic acids with acid chlorides.

  11. The Effect of Some Key Changes in the Chemistry of Water in Relation to Copper and Brass Corrosion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorovei, M. C.; Benea, L.

    2018-06-01

    Corrosion means the degradation of the metals or their alloys, under the action of chemical or electrochemical agents from the environment. The complex corrosion phenomenon has a destructive action, generating undesirable economic consequences: metals and labor losses, appreciable reduction in the lifetime of various metal constructions, insecurity in the operation of industrial machinery. Under the current conditions of accelerated growth in the production of material goods, one of the most important issues is the economy of raw materials and materials, energy and labor force. Copper, having a purity of over 99%, is used in the manufacture of gas and water pipes, roofing materials, utensils and ornamental objects. Brass is used in the manufacture of flexible tubes, pipes, coils, cartridges, various electrochemical parts, jewelry, etc. The aim of this research work was to evaluate the corrosion resistance of copper and brass in various solutions: with different chloride ions as 35 g/L NaCl, waste water and tap water. The corrosion behavior of copper and brass was analyzed by electrochemical methods, such as: open circuit potential (OCP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Pure copper exhibits more noble potential values than its alloy (brass), according to the evolution of free potential in all tested solutions. After performing the electrochemical assays, ex-situ investigations, by optical microscopy, were made and the results confirm that the chloride ions affect the corrosion behavior of copper and brass. Corrosion of materials is a very important process to consider when choosing a material that has to operate in a specific environment.

  12. The Two Electron Oxidation of Cobalt Phthalocyanines by Thionyl Chloride: Implications for Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-20

    Phthalocyanines by Thionyl Chloride. Implications for Lithium /Thionyl Chloride Batteries By P.A. Bernstein and A.B.P. Lever* D T IC in NOV.0 3.1W9. M...Thionyl Chloride. Implications forI Lithium /Thionvl Chloride Batteries 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) P.A. Bernstein and A.B.P. Lever* 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b...SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by olock numoer) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP .’ Phthalocyanine," Lithium Battery, Thionyl

  13. Copper: a metal for the ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Copper was one of the first metals ever extracted and used by humans, and it has made vital contributions to sustaining and improving society since the dawn of civilization. Copper was first used in coins and ornaments starting about 8000 B.C., and at about 5500 B.C., copper tools helped civilization emerge from the Stone Age. The discovery that copper alloyed with tin produces bronze marked the beginning of the Bronze Age at about 3000 B.C. Copper is easily stretched, molded, and shaped; is resistant to corrosion; and conducts heat and electricity efficiently. As a result, copper was important to early humans and continues to be a material of choice for a variety of domestic, industrial, and high-technology applications today.

  14. Skin sterility after application of ethyl chloride spray.

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, Daniil; Gehrmann, Robin; Tan, Virak

    2012-01-18

    Ethyl chloride topical anesthetic spray is labeled as nonsterile, yet it is widely used during injection procedures performed in an outpatient setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sterility of ethyl chloride topical anesthetic spray applied before an injection. Our a priori hypothesis was that application of the spray after the skin has been prepared would not alter the sterility of the injection site. We conducted a prospective, blinded, controlled study to assess the effect of ethyl chloride spray on skin sterility. Fifteen healthy adult subjects (age, twenty-three to sixty-one years) were prepared for mock injections into both shoulders and both knees, although no injection was actually performed. Three culture samples were obtained from each site on the skin: one before skin preparation with isopropyl alcohol, one after skin preparation and before application of ethyl chloride, and one after ethyl chloride had been sprayed on the site. In addition, the sterility of the ethyl chloride was tested directly by inoculating cultures with spray from the bottles. Growth occurred in 70% of the samples obtained before skin preparation, 3% of the samples obtained after skin preparation but before application of ethyl chloride, and 5% of the samples obtained after the injection site had been sprayed with ethyl chloride. The percentage of positive cultures did not increase significantly after application of ethyl chloride (p = 0.65). Spraying of ethyl chloride directly on agar plates resulted in growth on 13% of these plates compared with 11% of the control plates; this difference was also not significant (p = 0.80). Although ethyl chloride spray is not sterile, its application did not alter the sterility of the injection sites in the shoulder and knee.

  15. Results of the Massachusetts methylene chloride end-users survey.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Cora R; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2003-02-01

    A survey of Massachusetts companies reporting use of methylene chloride between 1995 and 1999 was conducted to assess the status of industrial use of the chemical in 2000. Methylene chloride has had wide use in industry although it has been identified as potentially hazardous to exposed workers and the environment. New and tightened occupational and environmental regulations taking effect in the 1990s were hypothesized to have reduced use of the chemical in Massachusetts. Substitute technologies, especially aqueous cleaning, were expected to have replaced methylene chloride in many industries. Seventeen of the 21 Massachusetts manufacturing companies reporting use of over 10,000 lb/y of methylene chloride between 1995 and 1999 were surveyed by telephone regarding their experiences of methylene chloride use and elimination and/or replacement. Fifteen of the 17 companies had either eliminated (10) or reduced to below 10,000 lbs/yr (5) their use of methylene chloride at the time of the survey in 2000. Many of the surveyed companies moved to aqueous cleaning from methylene chloride degreasing operations. Environmental concerns were the most popular reason given for eliminating or reducing use of methylene chloride. Worker health and safety concerns, especially concern about compliance with the 1997 Occupational Safety and Health Administration methylene chloride standard, were also a motivation. In general, the companies associated many benefits and few problems with eliminating or reducing use of methylene chloride. Exposure reduction strategies based on toxics use reduction techniques appear to be feasible for many manufacturing companies. However, research should be conducted to assess the introduction of new hazards as a result of tightened regulations on methylene chloride.

  16. CNC Machining Of The Complex Copper Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popan, Ioan Alexandru; Balc, Nicolae; Popan, Alina

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the machining process of the complex copper electrodes. Machining of the complex shapes in copper is difficult because this material is soft and sticky. This research presents the main steps for processing those copper electrodes at a high dimensional accuracy and a good surface quality. Special tooling solutions are required for this machining process and optimal process parameters have been found for the accurate CNC equipment, using smart CAD/CAM software.

  17. Contact killing and antimicrobial properties of copper.

    PubMed

    Vincent, M; Duval, R E; Hartemann, P; Engels-Deutsch, M

    2018-05-01

    With the emergence of antibiotic resistance, the interest for antimicrobial agents has recently increased again in public health. Copper was recognized in 2008 by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the first metallic antimicrobial agent. This led to many investigations of the various properties of copper as an antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral agent. This review summarizes the latest findings about 'contact killing', the mechanism of action of copper nanoparticles and the different ways micro-organisms develop resistance to copper. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Material flows generated by pyromet copper smelting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, T.G.

    2005-01-01

    Copper production through smelting generates large volumes of material flows. As copper contained in ore becomes copper contained in concentrate to be fed into the smelting process, it leaves behind an altered landscape, sometimes mine waste, and always mill tailings. Copper concentrate, fluxing materials, fuels, oxygen, recyclables, scrap and water are inputs to the process. Dust (recycled), gases - containing carbon dioxide (CO2) (dissipated) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) (mostly collected, transformed and sold) and slag (discarded or sold) - are among the significant process outputs. This article reports estimates of the flows of these input/output materials for a particular set of smelters studied in some countries.

  19. Unraveling the Amycolatopsis tucumanensis copper-resistome.

    PubMed

    Dávila Costa, José Sebastián; Kothe, Erika; Abate, Carlos Mauricio; Amoroso, María Julia

    2012-10-01

    Heavy metal pollution is widespread causing serious ecological problems in many parts of the world; especially in developing countries where a budget for remediation technology is not affordable. Therefore, screening for microbes with high accumulation capacities and studying their stable resistance characteristics is advisable to define cost-effective any remediation strategies. Herein, the copper-resistome of the novel copper-resistant strain Amycolatopsis tucumanensis was studied using several approaches. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that proteins of the central metabolism, energy production, transcriptional regulators, two-component system, antioxidants and protective metabolites increased their abundance upon copper-stress conditions. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in presence of copper, superoxide dismutase, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and mycothiol reductase genes were markedly induced in expression. The oxidative damage of protein and lipid from A. tucumanensis was negligible compared with that observed in the copper-sensitive strain Amycolatopsis eurytherma. Thus, we provide evidence that A. tucumamensis shows a high adaptation towards copper, the sum of which is proposed as the copper-resistome. This adaptation allows the strain to accumulate copper and survive this stress; besides, it constitutes the first report in which the copper-resistome of a strain of the genus Amycolatopsis with bioremediation potential has been evaluated.

  20. Flocculation of copper(II) and tetracycline from water using a novel pH- and temperature-responsive flocculants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Jia, Shuying; Zhuo, Ning; Yang, Weiben; Wang, Yuping

    2015-12-01

    Insufficient research is available on flocculation of combined pollutants of heavy metals and antibiotics, which widely exist in livestock wastewaters. Aiming at solving difficulties in flocculation of this sort of combined pollution, a novel pH- and temperature-responsive biomass-based flocculant, carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-poly(N-isoproyl acrylamide-co-diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (denoted as CND) with two responsive switches [lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and isoelectric point (IEP)], was designed and synthesized. Its flocculation performance at different temperatures and pHs was evaluated using copper(II) and tetracycline (TC) as model contaminants. CND exhibited high efficiency for coremoval of both contaminants, whereas two commercial flocculants (polyaluminum chloride and polyacrylamide) did not. Especially, flocculation performance of the dual-responsive flocculant under conditions of temperature>LCST and IEP(contaminants)copper(II) and TC were present in bridging flocculation, including charge attraction, coordination and hydrophobic effect. Based on these pairwise interactions, copper(II) and TC exerted "aid" roles to each other's removal with the existence of CND, and preferable flocculation performance was thus achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radioactivity at the Copper Creek copper lode prospect, Eagle district, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedow, Helmuth; Tolbert, Gene Edward

    1952-01-01

    Investigation of radioactivity anomalies at the Copper Creek copper lode prospect, Eagle district, east-central Alaska, during 1949 disclosed that the radioactivity is associated with copper mineralization in highly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. These rocks are a roof pendant in the Mesozoic "Charley River" batholith. The radioactivity is probably all due to uranium associated with bornite and malachite.

  2. The copper-transporting ATPase pump and its potential role in copper-tolerance

    Treesearch

    Katie Ohno; C.A. Clausen; Frederick Green; G. Stanosz

    2016-01-01

    Copper-tolerant brown-rot decay fungi exploit intricate mechanisms to neutralize the efficacy of copper-containing preservative formulations. The production and accumulation oxalate is the most widely recognized theory regarding the mechanism of copper-tolerance in these fungi. The role of oxalate, however, may be only one part of a series of necessary components...

  3. Chlorine isotope fractionation during supergene enrichment of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, M.; Barnes, J.; Barra, F.; Milojevic, C.; Drew, D.

    2017-12-01

    Atacama. References [1] Arcuri T, Brimhall G (2003) The chloride source for atacamite mineralization at the Radomiro Tomic porphyry copper deposit, Northern Chile. Econ Geol 98:1667-1681 [2] Reich M et al. (2009) Supergene enrichment of copper deposits since the onset of modern hyperaridity in the Atacama Desert, Chile. Miner Deposita 44: 497-504

  4. Survey of Virginia aggregates for chloride contents : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-01-01

    A major cause of concrete bridge deck deterioration is the corrosion of the reinforcing steel which, in turn, is caused by the presence of extremely high concentrations of chloride ions in the concrete. It was believed that the chloride came almost e...

  5. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false n-Butyl chloride. 520.260 Section 520.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.260 n-Butyl chloride. (a)(1...

  6. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false n-Butyl chloride. 520.260 Section 520.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.260 n-Butyl chloride. (a)(1...

  7. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false n-Butyl chloride capsules. 520.260 Section 520.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.260 n-Butyl chloride capsules...

  8. [Forensic Analysis for 54 Cases of Suxamethonium Chloride Poisoning].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y F; Zhao, B Q; Ma, K J; Zhang, J; Chen, F Y

    2017-08-01

    To observe and analyze the performance of forensic science in the cases of suxa- methonium chloride poisoning, and to improve the identification of suxamethonium chloride poisoning. Fifty-four cases of suxamethonium chloride poisoning were collected. The rules of determination of suxamethonium chloride poisoning were observed by the retrospective analysis of pathological and toxicological changes as well as case features. The pathological features of suxamethonium chloride poisoning were similar to the general changes of sudden death, which mainly included acute pulmonary congestion and edema, and partly showed myocardial disarray and fracture. Suxamethonium chloride could be detected in the heart blood of all cases and in skin tissue of part cases. Suxa-methonium chloride poisoning has the characteristics with fast death and covert means, which are difficult to rescue and easily miss inspection. For the cases of sudden death or suspicious death, determination of suxamethonium chloride should be taken as a routine detection index to prevent missing inspection. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride (Final Report, 2000)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Vinyl Chloride and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  10. Health Assessment Document for Vinylidene Chloride (Final Report, 1983)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vinylidene chloride is a highly reactive, flammable, clear colorless liquid. In the absence of chemical inhibitors, it can produce violently explosive, complex peroxides. The estimated, ambient air level of vinylidene chloride in urban-suburban areas of the United States is 20 mi...

  11. Slow Sodium: An Oral Slowly Released Sodium Chloride Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, E. M.; Curtis, J. R.; Jewkes, R. J.; Jones, B. E.; Luck, V. A.; de Wardener, H. E.; Phillips, N.

    1971-01-01

    The use of a slowly released oral preparation of sodium chloride is described. It was given to patients and athletes to treat or prevent acute and chronic sodium chloride deficiency. Gastrointestinal side effects were not encountered after the ingestion of up to 500 mEq in one day or 200 mEq in 10 minutes. PMID:5569979

  12. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  13. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  14. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  15. Influence of Sodium Chloride on Growth of Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Mitzel, John R.; Hunter, Jack A.; Beam, Walter E.

    1972-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal isolates of Neisseria meningitidis were tested for growth on nutrient agar with and without the addition of 0.8% sodium chloride. Of the 822 strains tested, 1.3% grew on the salt-free medium, and 74.1% grew on the medium supplemented with sodium chloride. PMID:4626905

  16. PREPARATION OF ANHYDROUS CERIUM CHLORIDE, URANIUM BROMIDE OR PLUTONIUM FLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Marmon, K.M.; Wichers, E.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for preparing anhydrous metal halides and converting metal oxalates to anhydrous metal halides which are free from oxyhalides. In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, cerous chloride is prepared by passing hydrogen chloride gas over hydrated cerous oxalate below lOO deg C until no more gas is absorbed and then continuing the treatmert at higher temperatures.

  17. Molybdenum In Cathodes Of Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetric curves of molybdenum wire in NaAlCl4 melt indicate molybdenum chloride useful as cathode material in rechargeable sodium/metal chloride electrochemical cells. Batteries used in electric vehicles, for electric-power load leveling, and other applications involving high energy and power densities.

  18. 46 CFR 151.50-75 - Ferric chloride solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferric chloride solution. 151.50-75 Section 151.50-75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-75 Ferric chloride solution...

  19. [Survey of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride toys].

    PubMed

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers in 101 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys on the Japanese market were surveyed. No phthalates were detected in designated toys, though bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and benzyl butyl phthalate were detected in more than half of other toys. 2,2,4-Tributyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate, o-acetyl tributyl citrate, adipates and diacetyl lauroyl glycerol, which are alternative plasticizers to phthalates, were detected. The results of structural analysis confirmed the presence of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, tributyl citrate, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and neopentyl glycol esters; these have not previonsly been reported in Japan. There appears to be a shift in plasticizers used for designated toys from phthalates to new plasticizers, and the number of different plasticizers is increasing.

  20. Phosphates behaviours in conversion of FP chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amamoto, I.; Kofuji, H.; Myochin, M.; Takasaki, Y.; Terai, T.

    2009-06-01

    The spent electrolyte of the pyroprocessing by metal electrorefining method should be considered for recycling after removal of fission products (FP) such as, alkali metals (AL), alkaline earth metals (ALE), and/or rare earth elements (REE), to reduce the volume of high-level radioactive waste. Among the various methods suggested for this purpose is precipitation by converting FP from chlorides to phosphates. Authors have been carrying out the theoretical analysis and experiment showing the behaviours of phosphate precipitates so as to estimate the feasibility of this method. From acquired results, it was found that AL except lithium and ALE are unlikely to form phosphate precipitates. However their conversion behaviours including REE were compatible with the theoretical analysis; in the case of LaPO 4 as one of the REE precipitates, submicron-size particles could be observed while that of Li 3PO 4 was larger; the precipitates were apt to grow larger at higher temperature; etc.