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Sample records for trichosanthes dioica roxb

  1. Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Satyendra; Manvi; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Trichosanthes, a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc.

  2. Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Satyendra; Manvi; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Trichosanthes, a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc. PMID:22654406

  3. A preliminary report on the genetic variation in pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) as assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, S; Biswas, A; Bandyopadhyay, T K; Ghosh, P D

    2014-06-01

    Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is an economically important cucurbit and is extensively propagated through vegetative means, viz vine and root cuttings. As the accessions are poorly characterized it is important at the beginning of a breeding programme to discriminate among available genotypes to establish the level of genetic diversity. The genetic diversity of 10 pointed gourd races, referred to as accessions was evaluated. DNA profiling was generated using 10 sequence independent RAPD markers. A total of 58 scorable loci were observed out of which 18 (31.03%) loci were considered polymorphic. Genetic diversity parameters [average and effective number of alleles, Shannon's index, percent polymorphism, Nei's gene diversity, polymorphic information content (PIC)] for RAPD along with UPGMA clustering based on Jaccard's coefficient were estimated. The UPGMA dendogram constructed based on RAPD analysis in 10 pointed gourd accessions were found to be grouped in a single cluster and may represent members of one heterotic group. RAPD analysis showed promise as an effective tool in estimating genetic polymorphism in different accessions of pointed gourd.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary characterization of a highly thermostable lectin from Trichosanthes dioica and comparison with other Trichosanthes lectins

    SciTech Connect

    Dharkar, Poorva D.; Anuradha, P.; Gaikwad, Sushama M.

    2006-03-01

    A lectin from Trichosanthes dioica seeds has been purified and crystallized using 25%(w/v) PEG 2K MME, 0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 and 50 µl 0.5%(w/v) n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside as thick needles belonging to hexagonal space group P6{sub 4}. A lectin from Trichosanthes dioica seeds has been purified and crystallized using 25%(w/v) PEG 2K MME, 0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 and 50 µl 0.5%(w/v) n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside as thick needles belonging to hexagonal space group P6{sub 4}. Unit-cell parameters were a = b = 167.54, c = 77.42 Å. The crystals diffracted to a Braggmore » spacing of 2.8 Å. Both the structures of abrin-a and T. kirilowii lectin could be used as a model in structure determination using the molecular-replacement method; however, T. kirilowii lectin coordinates gave better values of reliability and correlation parameters. The thermal, chemical and pH stability of this lectin have also been studied. When heated, its haemagglutination activity remained unaffected up to 363 K. Other stability studies show that 4 M guanidinium hydrochloride (Gdn–HCl) initiates unfolding and that the protein is completely unfolded at 6 M Gdn–HCl. Treatment with urea resulted in a total loss of activity at higher concentrations of denaturant with no major structural changes. The protein remained stable over a wide pH range, from pH 6 to pH 12, except for partial unfolding at extremely alkaline pH. The role of disulfide bonds in the protein stability was found to be insignificant. Rayleigh light-scattering studies showed no molecular aggregation in any of the extreme treated conditions. The unusual stability of this lectin resembles that of type II ribosome-inactivating proteins (type II RIPs), which is also supported by structure determination. The structural features observed in a preliminary electron-density map were compared with the other two available Trichosanthes lectin structures.« less

  5. Purification, physicochemical characterization, saccharide specificity, and chemical modification of a Gal/GalNAc specific lectin from the seeds of Trichosanthes dioica.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Nabil Ali Mohammed; Kenoth, Roopa; Swamy, Musti J

    2004-12-15

    A new galactose-specific lectin has been purified from the extracts of Trichosanthes dioica seeds by affinity chromatography on cross-linked guar gum. The purified lectin (T. dioica seed lectin, TDSL) moved as a single symmetrical peak on gel filtration on Superose-12 in the presence of 0.1 M lactose with an M(r) of 55 kDa. In the absence of ligand, the movement was retarded, indicating a possible interaction of the lectin with the column matrix. In SDS-PAGE, in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol, two non-identical bands of M(r) 24 and 37 kDa were observed, whereas in the absence of beta-mercaptoethanol, the lectin yielded a single band corresponding to approximately 55,000 Da, indicating that the two subunits of TDSL are connected by one or more disulfide bridges. TDSL is a glycoprotein with about 4.9% covalently bound neutral sugar. Analysis of near-UV CD spectrum by three different methods (CDSSTR, CONTINLL, and SELCON3) shows that TDSL contains 13.3% alpha-helix, 36.7% beta-sheet, 19.4% beta-turns, and 31.6% unordered structure. Among a battery of sugars investigated, TDSL was inhibited strongly by beta-d-galactopyranosides, with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside being the best ligand. Chemical modification studies indicate that tyrosine residues are important for the carbohydrate-binding and hemagglutinating activities of the lectin. A partial protection was observed when the tyrosine modification was performed in the presence of 0.2 M lactose. The tryptophan residues of TDSL appear to be buried in the protein interior as they could not be modified under native conditions, whereas upon denaturation with 8 M urea two Trp residues could be selectively modified by N-bromosuccinimide. The subunit composition and size, secondary structure, and sugar specificity of this lectin are similar to those of type-2 ribosome inactivating proteins, suggesting that TDSL may belong to this protein family.

  6. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Aliya, F; Begum, H; Reddy, M T; Sivaraj, N; Pandravada, S R; Narshimulu, G

    2014-05-01

    Fifty genotypes of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India during kharif, 2012. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively for twelve quantitative characters namely vine length (m), number of stems per plant, days to first female flower appearance, first female flowering node, days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period (days), fruit length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit weight (g), number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant (kg) for identification of the potential selection indices. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruiting period and number of fruits per plant not only had positively significant correlation with fruit yield but also had positively high direct effect on it and are regarded as the main determinants of fruit yield. Days to first fruit harvest had positively moderate direct effect on fruit yield and its association was negatively significant, days to last fruit harvest had negatively high direct effect on fruit yield and its association was significant positively, hence restricted simultaneous selection can be made for days to first fruit harvest and days to last fruit harvest. The improvement in fruit yield can be effective if selection is based on days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period and number of fruits per plant.

  7. [Study on the extraction technology and hypoglycemic activity of lectin from Trichosanthes kirilowi].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiong; Ye, Xiao-Li; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Xin; Li, Xue-Gang

    2012-03-01

    To extract lectins from Trichosanthes kirilowi and study their hypoglycemic activity. The optimal extraction process included the following parameters were conformed by optimization analysis,lectins extracted from Trichosanthes kirilowi was achieved by ammonium sulfate precipitation; The agglutinate activity was determined by using the agglutination test with 5% human blood cells. Human hepatocarcinoma cell HepG2 and the alloxan-induced diabetic mice model were used to assess hypoglycemic activity of Lectin in Trichosanthes kirilowi. The agglutination indexes of lectins extraction buffer were 32; The cell and mice tests indicated that the lectins exhibited hypoglycemic activity in the 70% saturation. The optimum extraction technology is as follows: extraction with PBS, the material-water ratio is 1:30, the extraction time is 24 h, while the concentration of sodium chloride is 0 mol/L and pH is 7.2. Precipitate lectins by ammonium sulfate in the 70% saturation, centrifugal speed is 10 000 tracted from Trichosanthes kirilowi exposes proper hypoglycemic activity.

  8. [Influence of different processing methods and mature stages on 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol of Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Na; Xie, Xiao-Liang; Yang, Tai-Xin; Zhang, Cun-Li; Jia, Dong-Sheng; Liu, Ming; Wen, Chun-Xiu

    2014-04-01

    To study the different mature stages and the best processing methods on the quality of Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds. The content of 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol in Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds was determined by HPLC. The sample of different mature stages such as immature, near mature and fully mature and processed by different methods were studied. Fully mature Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds were better than the immatured, and the best processing method was dried under 60degrees C, the content of 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol reached up to 131.63microlg/mL. Different processing methods and different mature stages had a significant influence on the quality of Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds.

  9. Jasmonic and salicylic acids enhanced phytochemical production and biological activities in cell suspension cultures of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb).

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2017-03-01

    In vitro cell suspension culture was established for the production of commercially valuable phytochemicals in Momordica dioica. The influence of elicitors in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) increased their effect on phytochemical production and biomass accumulation in M. dioica. The results indicate that compared with non-elicited cultures, JA- and SA-elicited cell suspension cultures had significantly enhanced phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid production, as well as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, elicited cultures produced 22 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and hydroxybenzoic acids. Greater biomass production, phytochemical accumulation, and biological activity occurred in JA- than in SA-elicited cell cultures. This study is the first to successfully establish M. dioica cell suspension cultures for the production of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as for biomass accumulation.

  10. Evolution and loss of long-fringed petals: a case study using a dated phylogeny of the snake gourds, Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Cucurbitaceae genus Trichosanthes comprises 90–100 species that occur from India to Japan and southeast to Australia and Fiji. Most species have large white or pale yellow petals with conspicuously fringed margins, the fringes sometimes several cm long. Pollination is usually by hawkmoths. Previous molecular data for a small number of species suggested that a monophyletic Trichosanthes might include the Asian genera Gymnopetalum (four species, lacking long petal fringes) and Hodgsonia (two species with petals fringed). Here we test these groups’ relationships using a species sampling of c. 60% and 4759 nucleotides of nuclear and plastid DNA. To infer the time and direction of the geographic expansion of the Trichosanthes clade we employ molecular clock dating and statistical biogeographic reconstruction, and we also address the gain or loss of petal fringes. Results Trichosanthes is monophyletic as long as it includes Gymnopetalum, which itself is polyphyletic. The closest relative of Trichosanthes appears to be the sponge gourds, Luffa, while Hodgsonia is more distantly related. Of six morphology-based sections in Trichosanthes with more than one species, three are supported by the molecular results; two new sections appear warranted. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses suggest an Oligocene origin of Trichosanthes in Eurasia or East Asia, followed by diversification and spread throughout the Malesian biogeographic region and into the Australian continent. Conclusions Long-fringed corollas evolved independently in Hodgsonia and Trichosanthes, followed by two losses in the latter coincident with shifts to other pollinators but not with long-distance dispersal events. Together with the Caribbean Linnaeosicyos, the Madagascan Ampelosicyos and the tropical African Telfairia, these cucurbit lineages represent an ideal system for more detailed studies of the evolution and function of petal fringes in plant-pollinator mutualisms. PMID:22759528

  11. An improved micropropagation system, ex vitro rooting and validation of genetic homogeneity in wild female Momordica dioica: an underutilized nutraceutical vegetable crop.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sumitra Kumari; Patel, Ashok Kumar; Harish; Shekhawat, Smita; Shekhawat, Narpat S

    2017-07-01

    Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd., is a perennial and dioecious (2n = 28) plant of family Cucurbitaceae. Conventional methods of propagation through seeds, stem cuttings and rhizomatous/tuberous roots are inadequate for its mass cultivation as a vegetable crop. This paper reports an improved and efficient micropropagation method for wild female M. dioica using nodal explants. Shoot amplification was achieved using subculturing of in vitro raised shoots on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) alone or in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The maximum number of shoots (45.30 ± 3.83) with an average length 6.52 ± 0.89 cm were differentiated on MS medium containing 0.5 mg L -1 BAP, 0.1 mg L -1 IAA and additives (50 mg L -1 ascorbic acid, 25 mg L -1 each of adenine sulphate, citric acid and l-arginine). The cloned shoots were rooted ex vitro. Each shoot treated with 250 mg L -1 IBA for 5 min produced 12.3 ± 1.33 with a mean length 5.4 ± 0.73 cm. More than 85% (46 plants) of ex vitro rooted plantlets were successfully hardened in a greenhouse with normal growth characteristics. In order to evaluate the genetic stability of micropropagated plants, the two PCR-based techniques, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) were used. The amplification patterns of the micropropagated and mother plant were monomorphic thus depicting genetic stability of the micropropagation system. This protocol could be effectively employed for the mass multiplication of wild female M. dioica , a popular summer vegetable crop.

  12. Effects of Urtica dioica extract on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Zamansoltani, Farzaneh; Abbasi, Esmail; Daneshi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Zangivand, Amir-Abdollah

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the effects of extract of Urtica dioica, a perennial herb in Iran, on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats. The effects of Urtica dioica extract were tested by using it as a supplement in a high-cholesterol diet. Male rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 mL/kg) for 4 weeks with Urtica dioica extract (100 or 300 mg/kg) or 10 mg/kg lovastatin supplementation to study the hypocholesterolemic effects of Urtica dioica on plasma lipid levels, hepatic enzymes activities, and liver histopathological changes. Urtica dioica extract at 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and also markedly decreased liver enzymes and weight in animals with a high cholesterol diet. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that in the 100 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, the appearance of the liver cells was similar to the control group, and steatosis and inflammation were not found. In the 300 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, mild steatosis was observed but mononuclear inflammatory infiltration was not found. The hepatic histopathological results reflect the correlation of Urtica dioica extract with both liver weight and the levels of plasma TC and LDL-C. These results indicate that Urtica dioica extract has hypocholesterolemic effects in the animal model.

  13. Pharmacological and toxicological evaluation of Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Dar, Sabzar Ahmad; Ganai, Farooq Ahmad; Yousuf, Abdul Rehman; Balkhi, Masood-Ul-Hassan; Bhat, Towseef Mohsin; Sharma, Poonam

    2013-02-01

    Medicinal plants are a largely unexplored source of drug repository. Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) is used in traditional medicine to treat diverse conditions. The present study describes the antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, antibacterial activity, and toxicological studies of Urtica dioica. U. dioica leaves were subjected to solvent extraction with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous, respectively, and screened for antidiabetic (300 mg/kg bw by glucose tolerance test; GTT), antiinflammatory (200 mg/kg bw by rat paw edema assay) and antibacterial activities [by disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays]. Toxicological studies were carried on Artemia salina and Wistar rats; phytochemical analyses were carried out, using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The aqueous extract of U. dioica (AEUD) significantly (p < 0.001; 67.92%) reduced the blood glucose level during GTT in Wistar rats with an effective dose of 300 mg/kg bw in dose-dependent studies. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis showed the presence of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids in AEUD. Hexane Fraction-2 (HF2) exhibited both antiinflammatory activity (48.83% after 3 h), comparable to that of indomethacin (53.48%), and potent antibacterial activity with MIC values ranging from 31.25-250 µg/mL against all the tested strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed fatty acid esters and terpenes as the major constituents of HF2. Toxicity tests showed higher safety margin of all the solvent extracts with LC(50) > 1000 μg/mL each on A. salina. Our results showed that the U. dioica leaves are an interesting source of bioactive compounds, justifying their use in folk medicine, to treat various diseases.

  14. Exploring the Urtica dioica Leaves Hemostatic and Wound-Healing Potential.

    PubMed

    Zouari Bouassida, Karama; Bardaa, Sana; Khimiri, Meriem; Rebaii, Tarek; Tounsi, Slim; Jlaiel, Lobna; Trigui, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The present paper investigated the efficiency of Urtica dioica (U. dioica) on hemostatic and wound healing activities. U. dioica leaf extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial and antioxidant effects as well as their flavonoid and polyphenol content. The hydroethanolic extract (EtOH-H 2 OE), showing the most potent antibacterial and antioxidant activities in vitro , thanks to its flavonoid and polyphenol richness, was selected for hemostatic and wound healing evaluation. Twenty-four rats completing full-thickness wounds were split into four groups. The wounds were topically treated with saline solution, glycerol, "CICAFLORA," and U. dioica EtOH-H 2 OE (50  µ L/mm 2 ) until day 11. The wound healing effect was assessed by macroscopic, histological, and biochemical parameters. Rats treated with EtOH-H 2 OE showed fast wound closure (92.39%) compared to the control animals (60.91%) on the 11th day of wounding ( P < 0.01). Histopathological and biochemical explorations showed full epidermal regeneration and an improvement of the hydroxyproline content in the U. dioica EtOH-H 2 OE treated rats. Analysis of fatty acids and sterols by GC-MS showed the presence of unsaturated fatty acids and a high concentration of lupeol known for their involvement in reepithelialization. These results prove the efficiency of U. dioica EtOH-H 2 OE in wound healing and supported its traditional use.

  15. Exploring the Urtica dioica Leaves Hemostatic and Wound-Healing Potential

    PubMed Central

    Bardaa, Sana; Khimiri, Meriem; Rebaii, Tarek; Jlaiel, Lobna

    2017-01-01

    The present paper investigated the efficiency of Urtica dioica (U. dioica) on hemostatic and wound healing activities. U. dioica leaf extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial and antioxidant effects as well as their flavonoid and polyphenol content. The hydroethanolic extract (EtOH-H2OE), showing the most potent antibacterial and antioxidant activities in vitro, thanks to its flavonoid and polyphenol richness, was selected for hemostatic and wound healing evaluation. Twenty-four rats completing full-thickness wounds were split into four groups. The wounds were topically treated with saline solution, glycerol, “CICAFLORA,” and U. dioica EtOH-H2OE (50 µL/mm2) until day 11. The wound healing effect was assessed by macroscopic, histological, and biochemical parameters. Rats treated with EtOH-H2OE showed fast wound closure (92.39%) compared to the control animals (60.91%) on the 11th day of wounding (P < 0.01). Histopathological and biochemical explorations showed full epidermal regeneration and an improvement of the hydroxyproline content in the U. dioica EtOH-H2OE treated rats. Analysis of fatty acids and sterols by GC-MS showed the presence of unsaturated fatty acids and a high concentration of lupeol known for their involvement in reepithelialization. These results prove the efficiency of U. dioica EtOH-H2OE in wound healing and supported its traditional use. PMID:29201895

  16. Determination of the concentration of a Bryonia Dioica tincture by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milea, Irimie; Culea, E.; Iliescu, T.; Milea, Janetta

    1995-03-01

    It was established a method based on Raman spectroscopy in order to control the content and concentration of homeopathic dilutions. Dilutions of a tincture of Bryonia Dioica in ethanol were prepared and investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The Raman line at 881 cm-1 was found to depend linearly versus the concentration of Bryonia Dioica. This permits to obtain a calibration curve that may be used to determine the concentration of Bryonia Dioica in ethanol. The method may be extended to determine the concentration of various homeopathic dilutions.

  17. Asymmetrical conspecific seed-siring advantage between Silene latifolia and S. dioica.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Benjamin R; Soper, Deanna M; Delph, Lynda F

    2010-04-01

    Silene dioica and S. latifolia experience only limited introgression despite overlapping flowering phenologies, geographical distributions, and some pollinator sharing. Conspecific pollen precedence and other reproductive barriers operating between pollination and seed germination may limit hybridization. This study investigates whether barriers at this stage contribute to reproductive isolation between these species and, if so, which mechanisms are responsible. Pollen-tube lengths for pollen of both species in styles of both species were compared. Additionally, both species were pollinated with majority S. latifolia and majority S. dioica pollen mixes; then seed set, seed germination rates and hybridity of the resulting seedlings were determined using species-specific molecular markers. The longest pollen tubes were significantly longer for conspecific than heterospecific pollen in both species, indicating conspecific pollen precedence. Seed set but not seed germination was lower for flowers pollinated with pure heterospecific versus pure conspecific pollen. Mixed-species pollinations resulted in disproportionately high representation of nonhybrid offspring for pollinations of S. latifolia but not S. dioica flowers. The finding of conspecific pollen precedence for pollen-tube growth but not seed siring in S. dioica flowers may be explained by variation in pollen-tube growth rates, either at different locations in the style or between leading and trailing pollen tubes. Additionally, this study finds a barrier to hybridization operating between pollination and seed germination against S. dioica but not S. latifolia pollen. The results are consistent with the underlying cause of this barrier being attrition of S. dioica pollen tubes or reduced success of heterospecifically fertilized ovules, rather than time-variant mechanisms. Post-pollination, pre-germination barriers to hybridization thus play a partial role in limiting introgression between these species.

  18. Asymmetrical conspecific seed-siring advantage between Silene latifolia and S. dioica

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Benjamin R.; Soper, Deanna M.; Delph, Lynda F.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Silene dioica and S. latifolia experience only limited introgression despite overlapping flowering phenologies, geographical distributions, and some pollinator sharing. Conspecific pollen precedence and other reproductive barriers operating between pollination and seed germination may limit hybridization. This study investigates whether barriers at this stage contribute to reproductive isolation between these species and, if so, which mechanisms are responsible. Methods Pollen-tube lengths for pollen of both species in styles of both species were compared. Additionally, both species were pollinated with majority S. latifolia and majority S. dioica pollen mixes; then seed set, seed germination rates and hybridity of the resulting seedlings were determined using species-specific molecular markers. Key Results The longest pollen tubes were significantly longer for conspecific than heterospecific pollen in both species, indicating conspecific pollen precedence. Seed set but not seed germination was lower for flowers pollinated with pure heterospecific versus pure conspecific pollen. Mixed-species pollinations resulted in disproportionately high representation of nonhybrid offspring for pollinations of S. latifolia but not S. dioica flowers. Conclusions The finding of conspecific pollen precedence for pollen-tube growth but not seed siring in S. dioica flowers may be explained by variation in pollen-tube growth rates, either at different locations in the style or between leading and trailing pollen tubes. Additionally, this study finds a barrier to hybridization operating between pollination and seed germination against S. dioica but not S. latifolia pollen. The results are consistent with the underlying cause of this barrier being attrition of S. dioica pollen tubes or reduced success of heterospecifically fertilized ovules, rather than time-variant mechanisms. Post-pollination, pre-germination barriers to hybridization thus play a partial role in

  19. [Biologically active compounds from the aqueous extract of Urtica dioica].

    PubMed

    Wagner, H; Willer, F; Kreher, B

    1989-10-01

    From the water extract of the roots of Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) a polysaccharide fraction was isolated which revealed activity in the carrageenan rat paw edema model and lymphocyte transformation test. Ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration of this fraction afforded 4 different polysaccharides, one of which reduced dose dependent hemolysis in the classical pathway of the complement test. The Urtica dioica lectin (UDA) was reisolated and found to stimulate the proliferation of human lymphocytes.

  20. Effect of fertilizer application on Urtica dioica and its element concentrations in a cut grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müllerová, Vladimíra; Hejcman, Michal; Hejcmanová, Pavla; Pavlů, Vilém

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of nutrient availability in cut grasslands on growth characteristics of Urtica dioica and its aboveground chemical composition (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of N, P and K application on the growth of U. dioica were studied over five years in a Dactylis glomerata grassland cut twice per year under unfertilized control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments (300, 80 and 200 kg of N, P and K ha-1 per year). Nitrogen application in the form of NH4NO3 over five years decreased the soil pH, while P and K application increased P and K availability in the soil. Over five years, cover of U. dioica increased from 1% initially to 7, 9, 58, 83 and 99% in the control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments, respectively. Concentrations of N, P and Ca in the aboveground biomass of U. dioica were very high in comparison to other species and concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were comparable with other grassland species. N and P limitation of U. dioica growth was expected if concentrations of N and P in the aboveground biomass were lower than 25 g N kg-1 and 4 g P kg-1 in the phenological stage of flowering. We concluded that two cuts per year are not sufficient to suppress expansion of U. dioica under high N, P and K availability. This probably explains why U. dioica survive also in frequently cut intensive grasslands under adequately high nutrient supply.

  1. The Urtica dioica extract enhances sensitivity of paclitaxel drug to MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Ali; Mansoori, Behzad; Aghapour, Mahyar; Shirjang, Solmaz; Nami, Sanam; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-10-01

    Due to the chemo resistant nature of cancer cells and adverse effects of current therapies, researchers are looking for the most efficient therapeutic approach which has the lowest side effects and the highest toxicity on cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the synergic effect of Urtica dioica extract in combination with paclitaxel on cell death and invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cell line. To determine the cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica extract with paclitaxel, MTT assay was performed. The scratch test was exploited to assess the effects of Urtica dioica, Paclitaxel alone and combination on migration of cancer cells. The expression levels of snail-1, ZEB1, ZEB2, twist, Cdc2, cyclin B1 and Wee1 genes were quantified using qRT-PCR and western blot performed for snail-1expression. The effects of plant extract, Paclitaxel alone and combination on different phases of cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometry. Results of MTT assay showed that Urtica dioica significantly destroyed cancer cells. Interestingly, Concurrent use of Urtica dioica extract with paclitaxel resulted in decreased IC50 dose of paclitaxel. Moreover, findings of scratch assay exhibited the inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica, Paclitaxel alone and combination on migration of MDA-MB-468 cell line. Our findings also demonstrated that the extract substantially decreased the Snail-1 and related gene expression. Ultimately, Cell cycle arrest occurred at G2/M phase post-treatment by deregulating Cdc2 and wee1. Our results demonstrated that the dichloromethane extract of Urtica dioica inhibit cell growth and migration. Also, Urtica dioica extract substantially increased sensitivity of breast cancer cells to paclitaxel. Therefore, it can be used as a potential candidate for treatment of breast cancer with paclitaxel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Urtica dioica for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza

    2005-01-01

    To determine the effects of therapy with Urtica dioica for symptomatic relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, partial crossover, comparative trial of Urtica dioica with placebo in 620 patients was conducted. Patients were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), Serum Prostatic- Specific Antigen (PSA), testosterone levels, and prostate size. At the end of 6-month trial, unblinding revealed that patients who initially received the placebo were switched to Urtica dioica. Both groups continued the medication up to 18 months. 558 patients (90%) completed the study (287/305, 91% in the Urtica dioica group, and 271/315, 86% in the placebo group). By intention- to-treat analysis, at the end of 6-month trial, 232 (81%) of 287 patients in the Urtica dioica group reported improved LUTS compared with 43 (16%) of 271 patients in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Both IPSS and Qmax showed greater improvement with drug than with placebo. The IPSS went from 19.8 down to 11.8 with Urtica dioica and from 19.2 to 17.7 with placebo (P = 0.002). Peak flow rates improved by 3.4 mL/s for placebo recipients and by 8.2 mL/s for treated patients (P < 0.05). In Urtica dioica group, PVR decreased from an initial value of 73 to 36 mL (P < 0.05). No appreciable change was seen in the placebo group. Serum PSA and testosterone levels were unchanged in both groups. A modest decrease in prostate size as measured by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) was seen in Urtica dioica group (from 40.1 cc initially to 36.3 cc; P < 0.001). There was no change in the prostate volume at the end of study with placebo. At 18-month follow-up, only patients who continued therapy, had a favorable treatment variables value. No side effects were identified in either group. In the present study, Urtica dioica

  3. Synergism effects of pioglitazone and Urtica dioica extract in streptozotocin-induced nephropathy via attenuation of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Sadat-Hosseini, Sara; Fallah, Marjan; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2017-05-01

    Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we investigated the synergism effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone (PIO) on the prevention of DN in streptozotocin induced-diabetic mice. Forty-two mice were divided into six groups as follows: non-diabetic control group, DMSO group (as solvent), diabetic group and four treatment groups which received U. dioica , pioglitazone, U. dioica plus pioglitazone and vitE. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (200 mg/kg body wt, IP) diluted in citrate buffer (pH= 4.6). After 4 weeks treatment, all animals were anaesthetized and blood was collected for serum urea and creatinine levels assessment in plasma and kidney tissue were excised for evaluation of oxidative stress markers. Treatment with U. dioica significantly inhibited increase in serum urea and creatinine in plasma that were observed in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the elevated level of oxidative stress markers (glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl) in renal supernatant of diabetic mice was inhibited by U. dioica treatment. Interestingly, U. dioica promoted beneficial effects of PIO in reducing STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage and oxidative stress markers. Our findings showed that PIO plus U. dioica have synergism protective effects against STZ-induced nephropathy that can be a candidate as a therapeutic approach in order to treatment of DN.

  4. Synergism effects of pioglitazone and Urtica dioica extract in streptozotocin-induced nephropathy via attenuation of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Sadat-hosseini, Sara; Fallah, Marjan; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we investigated the synergism effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone (PIO) on the prevention of DN in streptozotocin induced-diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Forty-two mice were divided into six groups as follows: non-diabetic control group, DMSO group (as solvent), diabetic group and four treatment groups which received U. dioica, pioglitazone, U. dioica plus pioglitazone and vitE. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (200 mg/kg body wt, IP) diluted in citrate buffer (pH= 4.6). After 4 weeks treatment, all animals were anaesthetized and blood was collected for serum urea and creatinine levels assessment in plasma and kidney tissue were excised for evaluation of oxidative stress markers. Results: Treatment with U. dioica significantly inhibited increase in serum urea and creatinine in plasma that were observed in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the elevated level of oxidative stress markers (glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl) in renal supernatant of diabetic mice was inhibited by U. dioica treatment. Interestingly, U. dioica promoted beneficial effects of PIO in reducing STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: Our findings showed that PIO plus U. dioica have synergism protective effects against STZ-induced nephropathy that can be a candidate as a therapeutic approach in order to treatment of DN. PMID:28656084

  5. Urtica dioica extract attenuates depressive like behavior and associative memory dysfunction in dexamethasone induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that glucocorticoids results in depression and is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Further diabetes induces oxidative stress and hippocampal dysfunction resulting in cognitive decline. Traditionally Urtica dioica has been used for diabetes mellitus and cognitive dysfunction. The present study investigated the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.m.) induced diabetes and its associated complications such as depressive like behavior and cognitive dysfunction. We observed that mice administered with chronic dexamethasone resulted in hypercortisolemia, oxidative stress, depressive like behavior, cognitive impairment, hyperglycemia with reduced body weight, increased water intake and decreased hippocampal glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) mRNA expression. Urtica dioica significantly reduced hyperglycemia, plasma corticosterone, oxidative stress and depressive like behavior as well as improved associative memory and hippocampal GLUT4 mRNA expression comparable to rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Further, Urtica dioica insignificantly improved spatial memory and serum insulin. In conclusion, Urtica dioica reversed dexamethasone induced hyperglycemia and its associated complications such as depressive like behavior and cognitive dysfunction.

  6. Evaluation of root-knot nematode disease control and plant growth promotion potential of biofertilizer Ning shield on Trichosanthes kirilowii in the field.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chun-Hao; Xie, Ping; Li, Ke; Xie, Yue-Sheng; Chen, Liu-Jun; Wang, Jin-Suo; Xu, Quan; Guo, Jian-Hua

    Biofertilizer Ning shield was composed of different strains of plant growth promotion bacteria. In this study, the plant growth promotion and root-knot nematode disease control potential on Trichosanthes kirilowii in the field were evaluated. The application of Ning shield significantly reduced the diseases severity caused by Meloidogyne incognita, the biocontrol efficacy could reached up to 51.08%. Ning shield could also promote the growth of T. kirilowii in the field by increasing seedling emergence, height and the root weight. The results showed that the Ning shield could enhance the production yield up to 36.26%. Ning shield could also promote the plant growth by increasing the contents of available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter, and increasing the contents of leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment. Moreover, Ning shield could efficiently enhance the medicinal compositions of Trichosanthes, referring to the polysaccharides and trichosanthin. Therefore, Ning shield is a promising biofertilizer, which can offer beneficial effects to T. kirilowii growers, including the plant growth promotion, the biological control of root-knot disease and enhancement of the yield and the medicinal quality. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. The Urtica dioica Agglutinin Is a Complex Mixture of Isolectins 1

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Els J. M.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Peumans, Willy J.

    1988-01-01

    Rhizomes of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) contain a complex mixture of isolectins. Ion exchange chromatography with a high resolution fast protein liquid chromatography system revealed six isoforms which exhibit identical agglutination properties and carbohydrate-binding specificity and in addition have the same molecular structure and virtually identical biochemical properties. However, since the U. dioica agglutinin isolectins differ definitely with respect to their amino acid composition, it is likely that at least some of them are different polypeptides coded for by different genes. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16665952

  8. Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kandis, Hayati; Karapolat, Sami; Yildirim, Umran; Saritas, Ayhan; Gezer, Suat; Memisogullari, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham group (group 1), control group (group 2), and Urtica dioica group (group 3). All the rats were exposed to hepatic ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In group 2, a total of 2 ml/kg 0.9% saline solution was given intraperitoneally. In group 3, a total of 2 ml/kg Urtica dioica was given intraperitoneally. At the end of the procedure, liver tissue and blood samples were taken from all rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, ceruloplasmin, catalase, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were measured. Liver tissue histopathologies were also evaluated by light microscopy. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1, and significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. Also, group 2 had higher serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels but lower catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels than group 1. In group 3, serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels were significantly lower, and catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels were higher than those in group 2. Histopathological examination showed that liver tissue damage was significantly decreased in group 3 compared with group 2. Urtica dioica has a protective effect on the liver in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion-injured rats.

  9. Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kandis, Hayati; Karapolat, Sami; Yildirim, Umran; Saritas, Ayhan; Gezer, Suat; Memisogullari, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion injury. METHODS: Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham group (group 1), control group (group 2), and Urtica dioica group (group 3). All the rats were exposed to hepatic ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In group 2, a total of 2 ml/kg 0.9% saline solution was given intraperitoneally. In group 3, a total of 2 ml/kg Urtica dioica was given intraperitoneally. At the end of the procedure, liver tissue and blood samples were taken from all rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, ceruloplasmin, catalase, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were measured. Liver tissue histopathologies were also evaluated by light microscopy. RESULTS: Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1, and significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. Also, group 2 had higher serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels but lower catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels than group 1. In group 3, serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels were significantly lower, and catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels were higher than those in group 2. Histopathological examination showed that liver tissue damage was significantly decreased in group 3 compared with group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Urtica dioica has a protective effect on the liver in hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion‐injured rats. PMID:21340227

  10. Effect of Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. on natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Panthong, Sumalee; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-08-01

    Immune system is the most important system ofhuman body. Thaifolk doctors have used some medicinal plants as an adaptogenic drug or immunomodulatory agent. Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. are used by folk doctors to activate immune response in cancer patients. To investigate the effect on natural killer cell activity and on lymphocyte proliferation activity of water extract of P chaba Hunter P. sarmentosum Roxb. and P interruptum Opiz. MATERIAL ANDMETHOD: Plant materials were extracted by decoction method. All extracts were testedfor an immunomodulatory effect using PBMCs from twelve healthy donors by chromium release assay. Lymphocyte proliferation was also determined by 3H-thymidine uptake assay. The degree of activation was expressed as the stimulation index. The water extract of P chaba Hunter significantly increased lymphocyte proliferation at concentrations ofl ng/ml, 10 ng/ml, 1 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml. P sarmentosum Roxb., and P interruptum Opiz. extracts at those concentrations significantly stimulated lymphocyteproliferation. P sarmentosum Roxb. extractsignificantly increased natural killer (NK) cell activity at a concentration of 100 μg/ml but P chaba Hunter and P interruptum Opiz. extracts did not significantly stimulate natural killer cell activity. P chaba Hunter, P interruptum Opiz. andP sarmentosum Roxb. have an immunomodulatory effect especially for P sarmentosum Roxb. extract which can activate both lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity.

  11. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice.

    PubMed

    Jalili, Cyrus; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Naseri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urtica dioica L (U.dioica) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. The main goal is to investigate whether the U.dioica could inhibit nicotine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone. In this study, hydro-alcoholic extract of U.dioica was prepared and various doses of U.dioica (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and U.dioica plus nicotine (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to 56 male mice for 28 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=7) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility, and morphology), testis and prostate weight, testis histology and testosterone hormone were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that nicotine administration (0.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone level, count and motility of sperm cells, and testis weight compared to control group (p=0.00). However, increasing the dose of U.dioica significantly boosted motility, count, normal morphology of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, and testosterone in all groups compared to control (p=0.00) and testis weight in 20 and 50 mg/kg doses in comparison with control group (p=0.00). It seems that U.dioica hydro-alcoholic extract administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and inhibits nicotine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters.

  12. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Cyrus; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Naseri, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urtica dioica L (U.dioica) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. Objective: The main goal is to investigate whether the U.dioica could inhibit nicotine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone. Materials and Methods: In this study, hydro-alcoholic extract of U.dioica was prepared and various doses of U.dioica (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and U.dioica plus nicotine (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to 56 male mice for 28 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=7) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility, and morphology), testis and prostate weight, testis histology and testosterone hormone were analyzed and compared. Results: The results indicated that nicotine administration (0.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone level, count and motility of sperm cells, and testis weight compared to control group (p=0.00). However, increasing the dose of U.dioica significantly boosted motility, count, normal morphology of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, and testosterone in all groups compared to control (p=0.00) and testis weight in 20 and 50 mg/kg doses in comparison with control group (p=0.00). Conclusion: It seems that U.dioica hydro-alcoholic extract administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and inhibits nicotine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters. PMID:25071848

  13. Protective role of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) extract on hepatocytes morphometric changes in STZ diabetic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Ghafari, Soraya; Afshar, Mohammad

    2010-09-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on the quantitative morphometric changes in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into control (G1), diabetic (G2), diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) groups. The control group received only sham injections of intraperitoneal saline; the diabetic group received intraperitoneal saline for 5 days followed by streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) on the 6th day; and the diabetic + Urtica dioica group received 100 mg/kg Urtica dioica intraperitoneal (7) injections for 5 days and streptozotocin injection on the 6th day. After five weeks, the animals were sacrificed and whole livers removed. Liver specimens were used for quantitative morphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining. All data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and expressed as the mean with standard error of means. In the G3 (diabetic + Urtica diocia) group, the mean surface area of hepatocytes in the periportal zone (Z1) was greater than in G2 (diabetic) and G1 (control) groups, but this difference was not significant. No alteration was observed in the surface area of hepatocytes in the perivenous zone (Z3) in the diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) group compared to the diabetic (G2) group. The mean nuclear area of hepatocytes of the rats in the diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) group was higher in Z1 and lower in Z3 than that of rats in the diabetic (G2) group. The mean diameter of hepatocyte nuclei in the diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) group was lower than that of diabetic (G2) and control (G1) groups in both Z1 and Z3. This study revealed that the administration of extract of Urtica dioica leaves before induction of diabetic with streptozotocin has a protective effect on the morphometric alterations of hepatocytes in the periportal and perivenous zones of the liver lobule in rats.

  14. Inhibition of quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum by Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L.

    PubMed

    Vasavi, Halkare Suryanarayana; Arun, Ananthapadmanabha Bhagwath; Rekha, Punchapady Devasya

    2013-12-01

    To investigated into the anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity of Syzygium cumini L. (S. cumini) and Pimenta dioica L. (P. dioica) using Chromobacterium violaceum (C. violaceum) strains. In this study, anti-QS activity of ethanol extract of Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L. were screened using C. violaceum CV026 biosensor bioassay. By bioassay guided fractionation of S. cumini and P. dioica, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) with strong anti-QS activity was separated. Inhibition of QS regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 by EAF was assessed at different concentrations. The effect of EAF on the synthesis of autoinducer like N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) was studied in C. violaceum ATCC31532 using its mutant C. violaceum CV026 by standard methods. EAF inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 in a concentration dependent manner without significant reduction in bacterial growth. Complete inhibition of violacein production was evidenced in 0.75-1.0 mg/mL concentration of EAF without inhibiting the synthesis of the AHL. TLC biosensor overlay profile of EAF revealed two translucent spots in S. cumini and P. dioica that inhibited C6-AHL mediated violacein production in C. violaceum CV026. This study indicates the anti-QS activity of the tested medicinal plants against C. violaceum. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum by Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L.

    PubMed Central

    Vasavi, Halkare Suryanarayana; Arun, Ananthapadmanabha Bhagwath; Rekha, Punchapady Devasya

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigated into the anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity of Syzygium cumini L. (S. cumini) and Pimenta dioica L. (P. dioica) using Chromobacterium violaceum (C. violaceum) strains. Methods In this study, anti-QS activity of ethanol extract of Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L. were screened using C. violaceum CV026 biosensor bioassay. By bioassay guided fractionation of S. cumini and P. dioica, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) with strong anti-QS activity was separated. Inhibition of QS regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 by EAF was assessed at different concentrations. The effect of EAF on the synthesis of autoinducer like N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) was studied in C. violaceum ATCC31532 using its mutant C. violaceum CV026 by standard methods. Results EAF inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 in a concentration dependent manner without significant reduction in bacterial growth. Complete inhibition of violacein production was evidenced in 0.75-1.0 mg/mL concentration of EAF without inhibiting the synthesis of the AHL. TLC biosensor overlay profile of EAF revealed two translucent spots in S. cumini and P. dioica that inhibited C6-AHL mediated violacein production in C. violaceum CV026. Conclusions This study indicates the anti-QS activity of the tested medicinal plants against C. violaceum. PMID:24093786

  16. Heritable variation in seed sex ratio of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).

    PubMed

    de Jong, T J; Nell, H W; Glawe, G A

    2005-03-01

    Male and female flowering plants of the dioecious Urtica dioica occur in approximately equal numbers in our study area on the coastal sand dunes of Meijendel. The seed sex ratio (SSR, fraction of males) collected from female plants in the field varied between 0.05 and 0.76, and differed significantly between maternal parents. After one generation of selection for either high or low SSR, female plants produced seed batches with sex ratios as extreme as 0.08 and 0.73. Natural populations of U. dioica harbour considerable genetic variation in SSR.

  17. [Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.)--botanical characteristics, biochemical composition and health benefits].

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Karolina; Janda, Katarzyna; Szkyrpan, Sylwia; Gutowska, Izabela; Wolska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) belongs to the family Urticaceae. It grows in the wild form in Asia, Europe, North America and North Africa. Stinging nettle is also a widespread ruderal plant found in Poland. Urtica dioica L., as a plant rich in biologically active compounds, is considered one of the most important plants used in phytotherapy. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated its antioxidant, antiplatelet, hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolemic properties. Research conducted in recent years indicates the possibility of using nettle in chemoprevention, diabetes, benign prostatic hyperplasia and urologic diseases.

  18. TRACE METAL CONTENT (Cu, Zn, Mn AND Fe) IN URTICA DIOICA L. AND PLANTAGO MAJOR L.

    PubMed

    Krolak, Elzbieta; Raczuk, Jolanta; Borkowska, Lidia

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the contents of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in the washed and unwashed leaves and roots of two plant species: Urica dioica L. and Plantago major L., used in herbal medicine. These two herb species occur in the same environmental habitats, yet their morphological structure is different. The soil and plant samples for analyses were collected from an uncontaminated area in Eastern Poland. In each habitat location, the samples were taken from sandy soils with slightly acidic and neutral pH values. The obtained results showed that U. dioica and P. major accumulated similar amounts of trace metals, such as: Cu, Zn and Fe, in leaves, despite the differences in the morphological structure of their overground parts. The content of Mn in leaves U. dioica was about twice as much as in P. major. Also, no differences in the metal content were observed between washed and unwashed leaves of both species. However, in the same habitat conditions, a significantly higher content of Cu, Zn and Mn was found in the roots of P. major than U. dioica. The content of Fe in the roots was similar in both species. P. major and U. dioica may be a valuable source of microelements, if they are obtained from unpolluted habitats.

  19. Introducing Urtica dioica, A Native Plant of Khuzestan, As an Antibacterial Medicinal Plant.

    PubMed

    Motamedi, Hossein; Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Bakhtiari, Ameneh; Vafaei, Mozhan

    2014-11-01

    Urtica dioica is a flowering plant with long history of use in folk medicine and as a food source. This study examined in vitro antibacterial potential of alcoholic extracts of U. dioica. Hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts were prepared using aqueous solution of ethanol and methanol and their inhibitory effects against clinical isolates was examined by disc diffusion method at different doses. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) indexes were also investigated. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was also performed to find structural changes of affected bacteria consequent to exposing with extracts. Both extracts were active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli with respectively 16, 10, 18, and 14 mm (methanolic) and 11, 9, 17, and 16 mm (ethanolic) inhibition zone. The MIC of ethanolic extract against S. epidermidis and E. coli was respectively 10 and 40 mg/mL. The MIC of methanolic extract against S. aureus and S. epidermidis was 40 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. The MBC was found only for S. epidermidis (20 mg/mL). In SEM analysis the round shape of S. epidermidis was changed and irregular shapes were appeared, which suggest that the main target of these extracts was cell wall. Extracts of U. dioica showed significant antibacterial effect against some clinically important pathogenic bacteria. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that U. dioica is useful as antibacterial and bactericidal agent in treating infectious diseases.

  20. RoxB Is a Novel Type of Rubber Oxygenase That Combines Properties of Rubber Oxygenase RoxA and Latex Clearing Protein (Lcp).

    PubMed

    Birke, Jakob; Röther, Wolf; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2017-07-15

    Only two types of rubber oxygenases, rubber oxygenase (RoxA) and latex clearing protein (Lcp), have been described so far. RoxA proteins (RoxAs) are c -type cytochromes of ≈70 kDa produced by Gram-negative rubber-degrading bacteria, and they cleave polyisoprene into 12-oxo-4,8-dimethyltrideca-4,8-diene-1-al (ODTD), a C 15 oligo-isoprenoid, as the major end product. Lcps are common among Gram-positive rubber degraders and do not share amino acid sequence similarities with RoxAs. Furthermore, Lcps have much smaller molecular masses (≈40 kDa), are b -type cytochromes, and cleave polyisoprene to a mixture of C 20 , C 25 , C 30 , and higher oligo-isoprenoids as end products. In this article, we purified a new type of rubber oxygenase, RoxB Xsp (RoxB of Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y). RoxB Xsp is distantly related to RoxAs and resembles RoxAs with respect to molecular mass (70.3 kDa for mature protein) and cofactor content (2 c -type hemes). However, RoxB Xsp differs from all currently known RoxAs in having a distinctive product spectrum of C 20 , C 25 , C 30 , and higher oligo-isoprenoids that has been observed only for Lcps so far. Purified RoxB Xsp revealed the highest specific activity of 4.5 U/mg (at 23°C) of all currently known rubber oxygenases and exerts a synergistic effect on the efficiency of polyisoprene cleavage by RoxA Xsp RoxB homologs were identified in several other Gram-negative rubber-degrading species, pointing to a prominent function of RoxB for the biodegradation of rubber in Gram-negative bacteria. IMPORTANCE The enzymatic cleavage of rubber (polyisoprene) is of high environmental importance given that enormous amounts of rubber waste materials are permanently released (e.g., by abrasion of tires). Research from the last decade has discovered rubber oxygenase A, RoxA, and latex clearing protein (Lcp) as being responsible for the primary enzymatic attack on the hydrophobic and water-insoluble biopolymer poly( cis -1,4-isoprene) in Gram

  1. Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on testicular tissue in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, S; Balajadeh, B Kabiri; Golalipour, M J

    2011-08-15

    Urtica dioica L. (Stinging nettle) has already been known for a long time as a medicinal plant in the world. This histopathological and morphometrical study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on testis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Eighteen male Wistar rats were allocated to equally normal, diabetic and treatment groups. Hyperglycemia was induced by Streptozotocin (80 mg kg(-1)) in animals of diabetic and treatment groups. One week after STZ injection (80 mg kg(-1)), the rats of treatment group received the extract of U. dioica (100 mg/kg/day) IP for 28 days. After 5 weeks of study, all the rats were sacrificed and testes were removed and fixed in bouin and after tissue processing stained with H and E technique. Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization and decrease in sperm concentration in seminiferous tubules were seen in diabetic and treatment groups group in comparison with control. External Seminiferous Tubular Diameter (STD) and Seminiferous Epithelial Height (SEH) significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in the diabetic rats compared with controls and these parameters in the treatment group were similar to diabetics animals. This study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves, after induction of diabetes; has no treatment effect on seminiferous tubules alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  2. Urtica dioica (Stinging Nettle): A Neglected Plant With Emerging Growth Promoter/Immunostimulant Properties for Farmed Fish.

    PubMed

    De Vico, Gionata; Guida, Vincenzo; Carella, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), is a perennial plant belonging to the family of Urticaceae , genus Urtica . Despite the use of nettle in folk veterinary medicine is well documented, U. dioica is today an underestimated and frequently neglected plant, considered by the contemporary agriculture as a weed to be eliminated. This mini review focus on very recent studies on dietary administration of U. dioica , both as a single herb or in combination with other herbs, to enhance growth and stimulate farmed fish immunity, thus enabling the fish to be more resistant against bacterial infections. Such an emerging feature, together with cost-effectiveness, adequate availability, and easy processing of nettle, could make this herb an excellent, inexpensive and widely used dietary supplement on intensive fish farms.

  3. Urtica dioica (Stinging Nettle): A Neglected Plant With Emerging Growth Promoter/Immunostimulant Properties for Farmed Fish

    PubMed Central

    De Vico, Gionata; Guida, Vincenzo; Carella, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), is a perennial plant belonging to the family of Urticaceae, genus Urtica. Despite the use of nettle in folk veterinary medicine is well documented, U. dioica is today an underestimated and frequently neglected plant, considered by the contemporary agriculture as a weed to be eliminated. This mini review focus on very recent studies on dietary administration of U. dioica, both as a single herb or in combination with other herbs, to enhance growth and stimulate farmed fish immunity, thus enabling the fish to be more resistant against bacterial infections. Such an emerging feature, together with cost-effectiveness, adequate availability, and easy processing of nettle, could make this herb an excellent, inexpensive and widely used dietary supplement on intensive fish farms. PMID:29632497

  4. Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic effects of essential oil from Urtica dioica L.

    PubMed

    Gül, Süleyman; Demirci, Betül; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Akpulat, H Aşkin; Aksu, Pinar

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of Urtica dioica essential oil, and to evaluate its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, using cytogenetic tests such as the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration analysis in human lymphocyte cultures in vitro. GC-MS analysis of U. dioica essential oil identified 43 compounds, representing 95.8% of the oil. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of U. dioica revealed that carvacrol (38.2%), carvone (9.0%), naphthalene (8.9%), (E)-anethol (4.7%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (3.0%), (E)-geranyl acetone (2.9%), (E)-β-ionone (2.8%) and phytol (2.7%) are the main components, comprising 72.2% of the oil. A significant correlation was found between the concentration of essential oil and the following: chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, apoptotic cells, necrotic cells, and binucleated cells.

  5. Introducing Urtica dioica, A Native Plant of Khuzestan, As an Antibacterial Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Motamedi, Hossein; Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Bakhtiari, Ameneh; Vafaei, Mozhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Urtica dioica is a flowering plant with long history of use in folk medicine and as a food source. Objectives: This study examined in vitro antibacterial potential of alcoholic extracts of U. dioica. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts were prepared using aqueous solution of ethanol and methanol and their inhibitory effects against clinical isolates was examined by disc diffusion method at different doses. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) indexes were also investigated. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was also performed to find structural changes of affected bacteria consequent to exposing with extracts. Results: Both extracts were active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli with respectively 16, 10, 18, and 14 mm (methanolic) and 11, 9, 17, and 16 mm (ethanolic) inhibition zone. The MIC of ethanolic extract against S. epidermidis and E. coli was respectively 10 and 40 mg/mL. The MIC of methanolic extract against S. aureus and S. epidermidis was 40 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. The MBC was found only for S. epidermidis (20 mg/mL). In SEM analysis the round shape of S. epidermidis was changed and irregular shapes were appeared, which suggest that the main target of these extracts was cell wall. Conclusions: Extracts of U. dioica showed significant antibacterial effect against some clinically important pathogenic bacteria. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that U. dioica is useful as antibacterial and bactericidal agent in treating infectious diseases. PMID:25625045

  6. Protective Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on Morphometric and Morphologic Alterations of Seminiferous Tubules in STZ Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Kabiri Balajadeh, Babak; Ghafari, Soraya; Azarhosh, Ramin; Khori, Vahid

    2011-09-01

    Urtica dioica L. has been known as a medicinal plant in the world. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on seminiferous tubules of diabetic rats. Animals were allocated to control, diabetic and protective groups. Treated animals received extract of U. dioica (100 mg/ kg/ day) IP for the first 5 days and STZ injection on the 6th day. After 5 weeks, testes removed and stained with H&E technique. Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization, and decrease in sperm concentration observed in diabetic in comparison with control and protective groups. External seminiferous tubular diameter and seminiferous epithelial height significantly reduced (P< 0.05) in diabetic compared with controls, and these parameters increased (P< 0.05) in the treated compared with diabetics. Hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica, before induction of diabetes; has protective role on seminiferous tubules alterations.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Salehzadeh, Ali; Asadpour, Leila; Naeemi, Akram Sadat; Houshmand, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Increase in the emergence of drug -resistant pathogens led to the development of natural antimicrobials. In this study the antimicrobial effect of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica on 16 skin and wound infections isolates of methicillin resistant S. aureus have been studied. Solvent extraction procedure was done using soxhlet apparatus for extracting antimicrobial agents from freeze dried plants. Antibacterial activity was measured using agar well diffusion method. The MIC of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica extracts against the standard strain of S. aureus ATCC 6538 were determined using the micro dilution method at 15 mg and 20 mg respectively. All the test bacteria were found sensitive to the Sambucus ebulus extract and only one isolate was resistant to Urtica dioica extract. Extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica possess antibacterial potency against MRSA isolates and may be used as a natural antiseptics and antimicrobial agents in medicine.

  8. Cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica radix on human colon (HT29) and gastric (MKN45) cancer cells mediated through oxidative and apoptotic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, S; Moradzadeh, M; Mousavi, S H; Sadeghnia, H R

    2016-10-15

    Defects in the apoptotic pathways are responsible for both the colorectal cancer pathogenesis and resistance to therapy. In this study, we examined the level of cellular oxidants, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica radix (0-2000 µg/mL) and oxaliplatin (0-1000 µg/mL, as positive control) in human gastric (MKN45) and colon (HT29) cancer, as well as normal human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Exposure to U. dioica or oxaliplatin showed a concentration dependent suppression in cell survival with IC50 values of 24.7, 249.9 and 857.5 µg/mL for HT29, MKN45 and HFF cells after 72 h treatment, respectively. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation were also concentration-dependently increased following treatment with U. dioica, similar to oxaliplatin. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells significantly increased concomitantly with concentration of U. dioica as compared with control cells, which is similar to oxaliplatin and serum-deprived cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that U. dioica inhibited proliferation of gastric and colorectal cancer cells while posing no significant toxic effect on normal cells. U. dioica not only increased levels of oxidants, but also induced concomitant increase of apoptosis. The precise signaling pathway by which U. dioica induce apoptosis needs further research.

  9. Effect of Urtica dioica Leaf Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts on the Number and the Diameter of the Islets in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Qujeq, Durdi; Tatar, Mohsen; Feizi, Farideh; Parsian, Hadi; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Halalkhor, Sohrab

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica has been known as a plant that decreases blood glucose. Despite the importance of this plant in herbal medicine, relatively little research has been down on effects of this plant on islets yet. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts on the number and the diameter of the islets and histological parameters in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Six rats were used in each group. Group I: Normal rats were administered saline daily for 8 weeks. Group II: Diabetic rats were administered streptozotocin, 50 mg/kg of body weight; Group III: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf aqueous extracts for 8 weeks; Group IV: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic extracts for 8 weeks. The animals, groups of diabetic and normal, were sacrificed by ether anaesthesia. Whole pancreas was dissected. The tissue samples were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for microscopic examination. Histologic examination and grading were carried out on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections. The effects of administration of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts to diabetic rats were determined by histopathologic examination. The pancreas from control rats showed normal pancreatic islets histoarchitecture. Our results also, indicate that the pancreas from diabetic rats show injury of pancreas tissue while the pancreas from diabetic rats treated with dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts show slight to moderate rearrangement of islets. According to our findings, dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts can cause a suitable repair of pancreatic tissue in streptozocin-induced diabetic experimental model.

  10. Effect of Urtica dioica Leaf Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts on the Number and the Diameter of the Islets in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Qujeq, Durdi; Tatar, Mohsen; Feizi, Farideh; Parsian, Hadi; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Halalkhor, Sohrab

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica has been known as a plant that decreases blood glucose. Despite the importance of this plant in herbal medicine, relatively little research has been down on effects of this plant on islets yet. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts on the number and the diameter of the islets and histological parameters in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Six rats were used in each group. Group I: Normal rats were administered saline daily for 8 weeks. Group II: Diabetic rats were administered streptozotocin, 50 mg/kg of body weight; Group III: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf aqueous extracts for 8 weeks; Group IV: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic extracts for 8 weeks. The animals, groups of diabetic and normal, were sacrificed by ether anaesthesia. Whole pancreas was dissected. The tissue samples were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for microscopic examination. Histologic examination and grading were carried out on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections. The effects of administration of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts to diabetic rats were determined by histopathologic examination. The pancreas from control rats showed normal pancreatic islets histoarchitecture. Our results also, indicate that the pancreas from diabetic rats show injury of pancreas tissue while the pancreas from diabetic rats treated with dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts show slight to moderate rearrangement of islets. According to our findings, dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts can cause a suitable repair of pancreatic tissue in streptozocin-induced diabetic experimental model. PMID:24551786

  11. Antimicrobial activity of seed extracts and bondenolide from Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.

    PubMed

    Simin, K; Khaliq-Uz-Zaman, S M; Ahmad, V U

    2001-08-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities, along with a phytotoxicity test of the newly isolated diterpene bondenolide (1), of a methanol extract, ethylacetate fraction and water soluble part of the methanol extract of Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. were assayed. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Protective Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on Morphometric and Morphologic Alterations of Seminiferous Tubules in STZ Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Kabiri Balajadeh, Babak; Ghafari, Soraya; Azarhosh, Ramin; Khori, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Urtica dioica L. has been known as a medicinal plant in the world. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on seminiferous tubules of diabetic rats. Materials and Methods Animals were allocated to control, diabetic and protective groups. Treated animals received extract of U. dioica (100 mg/ kg/ day) IP for the first 5 days and STZ injection on the 6th day. After 5 weeks, testes removed and stained with H&E technique. Results Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization, and decrease in sperm concentration observed in diabetic in comparison with control and protective groups. External seminiferous tubular diameter and seminiferous epithelial height significantly reduced (P< 0.05) in diabetic compared with controls, and these parameters increased (P< 0.05) in the treated compared with diabetics. Conclusion Hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica, before induction of diabetes; has protective role on seminiferous tubules alterations. PMID:23493848

  13. Taraxacum officinale and Urtica dioica extracts inhibit dengue virus serotype 2 replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ocelotl, María R; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora H; Moreno, Diego A; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Domínguez, Fabiola; Santos-López, Gerardo

    2018-03-16

    Urtica dioica, Taraxacum officinale, Calea integrifolia and Caesalpinia pulcherrima are widely used all over the world for treatment of different illnesses. In Mexico, these plants are traditionally used to alleviate or counteract rheumatism and inflammatory muscle diseases. In the present study we evaluated the activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of these four plants, on the replication of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2). Extraction process was carried out in a Soxtherm® system at 60, 85 and 120 °C; a chemical fractionation in silica gel chromatography was performed and compounds present in the active fractions were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn. The cytotoxic concentration and the inhibitory effect of extracts or fractions on the DENV2 replication were analyzed in the BHK-21 cell line (plaque forming assay). The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) and the selectivity index (SI) were calculated for the extracts and fractions. The methanolic extracts at 60 °C of T. officinale and U. dioica showed the higher inhibitory effects on DENV2 replication. After the chemical fractionation, the higher activity fraction was found for U. dioica and T. officinale, presenting IC 50 values of 165.7 ± 3.85 and 126.1 ± 2.80 μg/ml, respectively; SI values were 5.59 and 6.01 for each fraction. The compounds present in T. officinale, were luteolin and caffeoylquinic acids derivatives and quercertin diclycosides. The compounds in the active fraction of U. dioica, were, chlorogenic acid, quercertin derivatives and flavonol glycosides (quercetin and kaempferol). Two fractions from U. dioica and T. officinale methanolic extracts with anti-dengue activity were found. The compounds present in both fractions were identified, several recognized molecules have demonstrated activity against other viral species. Subsequent biological analysis of the molecules, alone or in combination, contained in the extracts will be carried out to develop therapeutics

  14. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. in mice and on human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Heroor, Sanjeev; Beknal, Arun Kumar; Mahurkar, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extracts of fruit and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. on cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression in mice and the phagocytic effect on human neutrophils. Methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. at two dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg p.o. were administered for 13 days to albino mice and cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg i.p.) was administered on 11th, 12th, and 13th days, 1 hour after the administration of the respective treatment. On 14th day blood was collected and the hematological parameters were evaluated. The two extracts in the concentration range 100, 50, 25, 12 and 6.25 μg were also tested for phagocytic effect on human neutrophils using the in vitro models-nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye test, phagocytosis of Candida albicans, and chemotaxis assay. Methanolic extracts of fruit and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. showed significant counteracting effect (P < 0.01) to cyclophosphamide-induced reduction in total WBC, differential leucocyte count, platelet counts, RBC counts, and hemoglobin levels. The extracts of the plant in the concentration range 100, 50, 25, 12, and 6.25 μg also showed significant (P < 0.01) phagocytic effect on human neutrophils in the parameters studied. Methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. exhibited immunomodulatory property in both in vivo and in vitro models.

  15. Spliced-leader RNA trans splicing in a chordate, Oikopleura dioica, with a compact genome.

    PubMed

    Ganot, Philippe; Kallesøe, Torben; Reinhardt, Richard; Chourrout, Daniel; Thompson, Eric M

    2004-09-01

    trans splicing of a spliced-leader RNA (SL RNA) to the 5' ends of mRNAs has been shown to have a limited and sporadic distribution among eukaryotes. Within metazoans, only nematodes are known to process polycistronic pre-mRNAs, produced from operon units of transcription, into mature monocistronic mRNAs via an SL RNA trans-splicing mechanism. Here we demonstrate that a chordate with a highly compact genome, Oikopleura dioica, now joins Caenorhabditis elegans in coupling trans splicing with processing of polycistronic transcipts. We identified a single SL RNA which associates with Sm proteins and has a trimethyl guanosine cap structure reminiscent of spliceosomal snRNPs. The same SL RNA, estimated to be trans-spliced to at least 25% of O. dioica mRNAs, is used for the processing of both isolated or first cistrons and downstream cistrons in a polycistronic precursor. Remarkably, intercistronic regions in O. dioica are far more reduced than those in either nematodes or kinetoplastids, implying minimal cis-regulatory elements for coupling of 3'-end formation and trans splicing. Copyright 2004 American Society for Microbiology

  16. The effects of Urtica dioica L. leaf extract on aniline 4-hydroxylase in mice.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Tevfik; Korkmaz, Halil

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hydroalcoholic (80% ethanol-20% water) extract of Urtica dioica L. on microsomal aniline 4-hydroxylase (A4H) were investigated in the liver of Swiss albino mice (8- 10-weeks-old) treated with two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, given orally for 14 days ). The activities of A4H showed a significant increase in the liver at both dose levels of extract treatment. The hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica induced the activities of A4H that had been increased by treatment of metal ions (Mg2+ and Ca2+) and the mixture of cofactors (NADH and NADPH). At saturated concentration of cofactor, microsomal A4H exhibited significantly even higher activities in the presence of the mixture of cofactors than NADPH and NADH. Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions acted as stimulants in vitro. The present results suggest that the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica may have modalatory effect on aniline hydroxylase at least in part and enhance the activity of A4H adding metals ions and cofactors.

  17. Urtica dioica extract suppresses miR-21 and metastasis-related genes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, Behzad; Mohammadi, Ali; Hashemzadeh, Shahriar; Shirjang, Solmaz; Baradaran, Ali; Asadi, Milad; Doustvandi, Mohammad Amin; Baradaran, Behzad

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer has a high prevalence among women worldwide. Tumor invasion and metastasis still remains an open issue that causes most of the therapeutic failures and remains the prime cause of patient mortality. Hence, there is an unmet need to develop the most effective therapeutic approach with the lowest side effects and highest cytotoxicity that will effectively arrest or eradicate metastasis. An MTT assay and scratch test were used to assess the cytotoxicity and migration effects of Urtica dioica on the breast cancer cells. The QRT-PCR was used to study the expression levels of miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, CXCR4, vimentin, and E-cadherin. The results of gene expression in tumoral groups confirmed the overexpression of miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, and CXCR4, and the lower expression of E-cadherin compared to control groups (P<0.05). Moreover, the results of the MTT assay show that Urtica dioica significantly inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, findings from the scratch assay exhibited the inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica on the migration of breast cancer cell lines. Urtica dioica extract could inhibit cancer cell migration by regulating miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, CXCR4, and E-Cadherin. Moreover, our findings demonstrated that the extract could decrease miR-21 expression, which substantially lessens the overexpressed MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, and CXCR4 and increases E-cadherin in the tumoral group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Trichosanthes kirilowii Exerts Androgenic Activity via Regulation of PSA and KLK2 in 22Rv1 Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Choi, Ji-Yoon; Dong, Mi-Sook; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2017-01-01

    The androgen comprises a group of hormones that play roles in male reproductive activity as well as personal characteristics. We investigated the androgenic activity of various herbal medicines in human prostate cancer 22Rv1 cells. Herbal extracts of Trichosanthes kirilowii (TK), Asarum sieboldii (AS), Sanguisorba officinalis (SO), and Xanthium strumarium (XS) were selected to have androgenic effects based on a preliminary in vitro screening system. TK, AS, SO, and XS enhanced the proliferation of 22Rv1 cells without having cytotoxic effects. All tested herbal extracts increased androgen receptor (AR)-induced transcriptional activity in the absence or presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In an AR-binding assay, TK, but not AS, SO, or XS, produced a significant inhibition of AR binding activity, indicating it has androgenic activity. Additionally, TK treatment positively regulated mRNA expression of the AR-related molecular targets prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and kallikrein 2 (KLK2) compared with untreated control. Taken together, TK-enhanced AR-mediated transcriptional activity might be an attractive candidate drug for treating androgen-related diseases. Trichosantheskirilowii (TK), Asarumsieboldii (AS), Sanguisorbaofficinalis (SO), and Xanthium strumarium (XS) enhanced the proliferation of 22Rv1 cells without having cytotoxic effects.TK, AS, SO, and XS increased androgen receptor (AR)-induced transcriptional activity.TK, but not AS, SO, or XS, produced a significant inhibition against AR-binding activity.TK treatment positively regulated mRNA expression of the AR-related molecular targets prostate-specific antigen and kallikrein 2. Abbreviations used: BPH: benign prostatic hyperplasia; AR: androgen receptor; DHT: dihydrotestosterone; PSA: prostate-specific antigen; TK: Trichosanthes kirilowii; AS: Asarum sieboldii; SO: Sanguisorba officinalis; XS: Xanthium strumarium; ATCC: American Type Culture Collection; FBS: fetal bovine serum; PBS: phosphate

  19. Trichosanthes kirilowii Exerts Androgenic Activity via Regulation of PSA and KLK2 in 22Rv1 Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Choi, Ji-Yoon; Dong, Mi-Sook; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2017-01-01

    Background: The androgen comprises a group of hormones that play roles in male reproductive activity as well as personal characteristics. Objective: We investigated the androgenic activity of various herbal medicines in human prostate cancer 22Rv1 cells. Materials and Methods: Herbal extracts of Trichosanthes kirilowii (TK), Asarum sieboldii (AS), Sanguisorba officinalis (SO), and Xanthium strumarium (XS) were selected to have androgenic effects based on a preliminary in vitro screening system. Results: TK, AS, SO, and XS enhanced the proliferation of 22Rv1 cells without having cytotoxic effects. All tested herbal extracts increased androgen receptor (AR)-induced transcriptional activity in the absence or presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In an AR-binding assay, TK, but not AS, SO, or XS, produced a significant inhibition of AR binding activity, indicating it has androgenic activity. Additionally, TK treatment positively regulated mRNA expression of the AR-related molecular targets prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and kallikrein 2 (KLK2) compared with untreated control. Conclusion: Taken together, TK-enhanced AR-mediated transcriptional activity might be an attractive candidate drug for treating androgen-related diseases. SUMMARY Trichosantheskirilowii (TK), Asarumsieboldii (AS), Sanguisorbaofficinalis (SO), and Xanthium strumarium (XS) enhanced the proliferation of 22Rv1 cells without having cytotoxic effects.TK, AS, SO, and XS increased androgen receptor (AR)-induced transcriptional activity.TK, but not AS, SO, or XS, produced a significant inhibition against AR-binding activity.TK treatment positively regulated mRNA expression of the AR-related molecular targets prostate-specific antigen and kallikrein 2. Abbreviations used: BPH: benign prostatic hyperplasia; AR: androgen receptor; DHT: dihydrotestosterone; PSA: prostate-specific antigen; TK: Trichosanthes kirilowii; AS: Asarum sieboldii; SO: Sanguisorba officinalis; XS: Xanthium strumarium; ATCC: American

  20. Mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive properties of Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Rahila; Qamar, Hafiz Misbah-Ud-Din; Khan, Shamim; Salma, Umme; Khan, Taous; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2016-09-01

    Urtica dioica has traditionally been used in the management of cardiovascular disorders especially hypertension. The aim of this study was to explore pharmacological base of its use in hypertension. Crude methanolic extract of U. dioica (Ud.Cr) and its fractions (Ud.EtAc, Ud.nHex, Ud.Chl and Ud.Aq) were tested in vivo on normotensive and hypertensive rats under anesthesia for blood pressure lowering effect. In-vitro experiments on rat and rabbit aortae were employed to probe the vasorelaxation mechanism(s). The responses were measured using pressure and force transducers connected to PowerLab Data Acquisition System. Ud.Cr and fractions were found more effective antihypertensive in hypertensive rats than normotensive with remarkable potency exhibited by the ethyl acetate fraction. The effect was same in the presence of atropine. In isolated rat aortic rings, Ud.Cr and all its fractions exhibited L-NAME sensitive endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect and also inhibit K(+) (80 mM)-induced pre-contractions. In isolated rabbit thoracic aortic rings Ud.Cr and its fractions induced relaxation with more potency against K(+) (80 mM) than phenylephrine (1 µM) like verapamil, showing Ud.EtAc fraction the most potent one. Pre-incubation of aortic rings with Ud.Cr and its fractions exhibited Ca(2+) channel blocking activity comparable with verapamil by shifting Ca(2+) concentration response curves to the right. Ud.Cr and its fractions also ablated the intracellular Ca(2+) release by suppressing PE peak formation in Ca(2+) free medium. When tested on basal tension, the crude extract and all fractions were devoid of any vasoconstrictor effect. These data indicate that crude methanolic extract and its fractions possess antihypertensive effect. Identification of NO-mediated vasorelaxation and calcium channel blocking effects explain the antihypertensive potential of U. dioica and provide a potential pharmacological base to its medicinal use in the management of hypertension.

  1. Anti-mycobacterial screening of five Indian medicinal plants and partial purification of active extracts of Cassia sophera and Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rambir; Hussain, Shariq; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Poonam

    2013-05-13

    To find out the anti-mycobacterial potential of Cassia sophera (C. sophera), Urtica dioica (U. dioica), Momordica dioica, Tribulus terrestris and Coccinia indica plants against multi-drug resistant (MDR) strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Plant materials were extracted successively with solvents of increasing polarity. Solvent extracts were screened for anti-mycobacterial activity against fast growing, non-pathogenic mycobacterium strain, Mycobacterium semegmatis, by disk diffusion method. The active extracts were tested against MDR and clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis by absolute concentration and proportion methods. The active extracts were subjected to bio-autoassay on TLC followed by silica column chromatography for isolation of potential drug leads. Hexane extract of U. dioica (HEUD) and methanol extract of C. sophera (MECS) produced inhibition zone of 20 mm in disc diffusion assay and MIC of 250 and 125 μ g/mL respectively in broth dilution assay against Mycobacterium semegmatis. Semipurified fraction F2 from MECS produced 86% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. F18 from HEUD produced 81% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. Phytochemical analysis indicated that anti-mycobacterial activity of MECS may be due to presence of alkaloids or flavonoids and that of HEUD due to terpenoids. C. sophera and U. dioica plant extracts exhibited promising anti-mycobacterial activity against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. This is the first report of anti-mycobacterial activity form C. sophera. This study showed possibility of purifying novel anti-mycobacterial compound(s) from C. sophera and U. dioica. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Activity of Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.) rhizome ethanol extract against MRSA, MRCNS, MSSA, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi.

    PubMed

    Sukandar, Elin Yulinah; Sunderam, Nethiyakalyani; Fidrianny, Irda

    2014-01-01

    Temu kunci (Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.)) has a number of benefits and one of these is antibacterial. The rhizome is said to have antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactocillus sp. and Candida albicans. The aim of the study is to test the antibacterial activity of Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.) rhizome ethanol extract on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (MRCNS), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. Antimicrobial activity of the extract was assayed by the microdilution method using Mueller Hinton Broth with sterilized 96 round-bottomed microwells to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) as well as to determine the time-kill activity. The MIC of the extract was 16 ppm for both Bacillus subtilis and MRSA; 8 ppm for both MSSA and Salmonella typhi and 4 ppm for MRCNS. Ethanol extract of Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.) showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria and was the most potent against MRCNS, with MIC 4 ppm. The killing profile test of the extract displayed bactericidal activity at 8-16 ppm against MRSA, MSSA, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi and bacteriostatic activity at 4 ppm towards MRCNS.

  3. The granule cell density of the dentate gyrus following administration of Urtica dioica extract to young diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Fazeli, S A; Gharravi, A M; Ghafari, S; Jahanshahi, M; Golalipour, M J

    2008-08-01

    Urtica dioica L. Stinging nettle has long been known worldwide as a medicinal plant. To study the benefits of the nettle in diabetic encephalopathy, the granule cell density of the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats was studied following administration of Urtica dioica extract. A total of 24 male albino Wistar rats were allocated equally to normal, diabetic, preventive and treatment groups. Hyperglycaemia was induced by streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) in the animals of the diabetic and treatment groups. One week after injection of the streptozotocin the animals in the treatment group received a hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks intraperitoneally. The rats of the preventive group received hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica (100 mg/kg/day) IP for the first 5 days and an injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) on the 6th day. After 5 weeks of study all the rats were sacrificed and coronal sections were taken from the dorsal hippocampal formation of the right cerebral hemispheres and stained with cresyl violet. The area densities of the granule cells were measured and compared in the four groups. The density was lower in the diabetic rats compared with the controls (p > 0.05). The preventive group showed lower cell density than the controls (p > 0.05). The densities in the treated rats were higher than in the diabetic rats (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the control and treated rats showed similar densities (p > 0.05). It seems that U. dioica extract can help compensate for granule cell loss in the diabetic rat dentate gyrus, which can ameliorate cognitive impairment in diabetes. However, preventive use of the extract showed no significant benefit.

  4. The effect of extracts of the roots of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the interaction of SHBG with its receptor on human prostatic membranes.

    PubMed

    Hryb, D J; Khan, M S; Romas, N A; Rosner, W

    1995-02-01

    Extracts from the roots of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The mechanisms underlying this treatment have not been elucidated. We set out to determine whether specific extracts from U. dioica had the ability to modulate the binding of sex hormone-binding globulin to its receptor on human prostatic membranes. Four substances contained in U. dioica were examined: an aqueous extract; an alcoholic extract; U. dioica agglutinin, and stigmasta-4-en-3-one. Of these, only the aqueous extract was active. It inhibited the binding of 125I-SHBG to its receptor. The inhibition was dose related, starting at about 0.6 mg/ml and completely inhibited binding at 10 mg/ml.

  5. Effects of Urtica dioica supplementation on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in type 2 diabetic patients: A double blind, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Amiri Behzadi, Alidad; Kalalian-Moghaddam, Hamid; Ahmadi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications including metabolic abnormality-induced diabetic micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Urtica dioica L. ( U. dioica ) has been traditionally used in Iranian medicine as an herbal remedy for hypoglycemic or due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 50 women with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were randomly divided into two groups namely, control and intervention groups. Control group received placebo and intervention group received hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica . Before and after 8 weeks of continuous treatment, some biochemical serum levels including FPG, TG, SGPT, SGOT, HDL, LDL, SOD and NO were measured. The results indicated that after 8 weeks, in the intervention group, FPG, TG, and SGPT levels significantly decreased and HDL, NO and SOD levels significantly increased as compared to the control group. Our results encourage the use of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica as an antioxidant agent for additional therapy of diabetes as hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica may decrease risk factors of cardiovascular incidence and other complications in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  6. Effects of Urtica dioica supplementation on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in type 2 diabetic patients: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Amiri Behzadi, Alidad; Kalalian-Moghaddam, Hamid; Ahmadi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications including metabolic abnormality-induced diabetic micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Urtica dioica L. (U. dioica) has been traditionally used in Iranian medicine as an herbal remedy for hypoglycemic or due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: 50 women with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were randomly divided into two groups namely, control and intervention groups. Control group received placebo and intervention group received hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica. Before and after 8 weeks of continuous treatment, some biochemical serum levels including FPG, TG, SGPT, SGOT, HDL, LDL, SOD and NO were measured. Results: The results indicated that after 8 weeks, in the intervention group, FPG, TG, and SGPT levels significantly decreased and HDL, NO and SOD levels significantly increased as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our results encourage the use of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica as an antioxidant agent for additional therapy of diabetes as hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica may decrease risk factors of cardiovascular incidence and other complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:28078249

  7. Antihypoxic activities of Eryngium caucasicum and Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Khalili, M; Dehdar, T; Hamedi, F; Ebrahimzadeh, M A; Karami, M

    2015-09-01

    Urtica dioica and Eryngium spp. have been used in traditional medicine for many years. In spite of many works, nothing is known about their protective effect against hypoxia-induced lethality. Protective effects of U. dioica (UD) aerial parts and E. caucasicum (EC) inflorescence against hypoxia-induced lethality in mice were evaluated by three experimental models of hypoxia, asphyctic, haemic and circulatory. Statistically significant protective activities were established in some doses of extracts in three models. Antihypoxic activity was especially pronounced in polyphenol fractions in asphyctic model. EC polyphenol fraction at 400 mg/kg prolonged survival time (48.80 ± 4.86, p < 0.001) which was comparable with that of phenytoin (p > 0.05). It was the most effective extract in circulatory model, too. It prolonged survival time significantly respect to control group (p < 0.001). UD extracts protected the mice but the response was not dose-dependent. In haemic model, extracts of EP significantly and dose dependently prolonged survival time as compared to control group (p < 0.001). At 600 mg/kg, EP was the most effective one, being capable of keeping the mice alive for 12.71 ± 0.75 min. Only the concentration of 300 mg/kg of UD was effective (p < 0.001). Extracts showed remarkable antihypoxic effects. Pharmacological effects may be attributed to the presence of polyphenols in the extracts.

  8. Effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ngugi, Charles C; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Mugo-Bundi, James; Orina, Paul Sagwe; Chemoiwa, Emily Jepyegon; Aloo, Peninah A

    2015-06-01

    We investigated effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were divided into 4 groups and fed for 4 and 16 weeks with 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% of U. dioica incorporated into the diet. Use of U. dioica in the diet resulted in improved biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters. Among the biochemical parameters; plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol decreased while total protein and albumin in fish increased with increasing dietary inclusion of U. dioica. Among the haematology parameters: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) counts, haematocrit (Htc), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and netrophiles increased with increasing dietary inclusion levels of U. dioica, some depending on the fish age. Serum immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst were the main immunological parameters in the adult and juvenile L. victorianus measured and they all increased with increasing herbal inclusion of U. dioica in the diet. Dietary incorporation of U. dioica at 5% showed significantly higher relative percentage survival (up to 95%) against A. hydrophila. The current results demonstrate that using U. dioica can stimulate fish immunity and make L. victorianus more resistant to bacterial infection (A. hydrophila). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Limonoid from the rhizomes of Luvunga scandens (Roxb.) Buch. Ham.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tan Phat; Minh, Nhat Phan; Dat, Trong Bui; Le, Tien Dung; Tran Nguyen, Minh An; Pham, Thi Nhat Trinh; Tri, Dinh Mai

    2017-10-01

    For first time, the chemical constituents of the rhizomes of Luvunga scandens (Roxb.) Buch. Ham. were investigated and led to the isolation of one new limonoid named Luvunga A (1), together with seven known compounds, including one limonoid (2) and six coumarins (3-8) were isolated for the first time from the species L. scandens by various chromatography methods. Their chemical structures were elucidated by IR, UV, HR-ESI-MS, NMR 1D and 2D experiments and compared with literatures.

  10. A specific insertion of a solo-LTR characterizes the Y-chromosome of Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Oyama, Ryan K; Silber, Martina V; Renner, Susanne S

    2010-06-14

    Relatively few species of flowering plants are dioecious and even fewer are known to have sex chromosomes. Current theory posits that homomorphic sex chromosomes, such as found in Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae), offer insight into the early stages in the evolution of sex chromosomes from autosomes. Little is known about these early steps, but an accumulation of transposable element sequences has been observed on the Y-chromosomes of some species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Recombination, by which transposable elements are removed, is suppressed on at least part of the emerging Y-chromosome, and this may explain the correlation between the emergence of sex chromosomes and transposable element enrichment. We sequenced 2321 bp of the Y-chromosome in Bryonia dioica that flank a male-linked marker, BdY1, reported previously. Within this region, which should be suppressed for recombination, we observed a solo-LTR nested in a Copia-like transposable element. We also found other, presumably paralogous, solo-LTRs in a consensus sequence of the underlying Copia-like transposable element. Given that solo-LTRs arise via recombination events, it is noteworthy that we find one in a genomic region where recombination should be suppressed. Although the solo-LTR could have arisen before recombination was suppressed, creating the male-linked marker BdY1, our previous study on B. dioica suggested that BdY1 may not lie in the recombination-suppressed region of the Y-chromosome in all populations. Presence of a solo-LTR near BdY1 therefore fits with the observed correlation between retrotransposon accumulation and the suppression of recombination early in the evolution of sex chromosomes. These findings further suggest that the homomorphic sex chromosomes of B. dioica, the first organism for which genetic XY sex-determination was inferred, are evolutionarily young and offer reference information for comparative studies of other plant sex chromosomes.

  11. Efficient control of air pollution through plants, a cost-effective alternative: studies on Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, C S; Bamniya, B R; Kapoor, K

    2013-09-01

    Plants can be used as both passive biomonitors and biomitigators in urban and industrial environments to indicate the environmental quality and to ameliorate pollution level in a locality. Many studies reveal that plants are negatively affected by the ambient levels of air pollutants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of air pollution on comparative basis with reference to changes in photosynthetic pigments, plant height, leaves, as well as, biochemical parameters of plants of different sites around Udaipur city receiving varying levels of pollution load. The investigated tree species Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Family: Fabaceae) exhibited a reduction in various physiological and biochemical growth parameters that correspond with air pollution levels at different sites. The tree species growing in polluted and control areas were compared with respect to foliar dust load, leaf area, and chlorophyll and total carbohydrate and total protein concentration in the leaves. Our studies suggest that D. sissoo Roxb. can successfully be grown in an area for monitoring air pollution, where it is mild and droughts are common. It will prove as an ideal tree species to control pollution effectively beside acting as a shade tree and being a source of food for birds and animals. By plantation of D. sissoo Roxb., mitigative measure at the polluted sites to control generation of particulate matter and the air quality required can be ensured. Our results also confirm that industrial and vehicular air pollution level in Udaipur city is shifting beyond limits.

  12. Reliable transformation system for Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae informed by genome and transcriptome project.

    PubMed

    Toh, Su San; Treves, David S; Barati, Michelle T; Perlin, Michael H

    2016-10-01

    Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae is a member of a species complex infecting host plants in the Caryophyllaceae. It is used as a model system in many areas of research, but attempts to make this organism tractable for reverse genetic approaches have not been fruitful. Here, we exploited the recently obtained genome sequence and transcriptome analysis to inform our design of constructs for use in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation techniques currently available for other fungi. Reproducible transformation was demonstrated at the genomic, transcriptional and functional levels. Moreover, these initial proof-of-principle experiments provide evidence that supports the findings from initial global transcriptome analysis regarding expression from the respective promoters under different growth conditions of the fungus. The technique thus provides for the first time the ability to stably introduce transgenes and over-express target M. lychnidis-dioicae genes.

  13. Urtica dioica dichloromethane extract induce apoptosis from intrinsic pathway on human prostate cancer cells (PC3).

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, A; Mansoori, B; Aghapour, M; Baradaran, B

    2016-03-31

    Prostate cancer is considered as the major cause of death among men around the world. There are a number of medicinal plants triggering apoptosis response in cancer cells, thus have a therapeutic potential. Therefore, further studies to characterize beneficial properties of these plants in order to introduce novel anti-cancer drugs are the interest of recent researches on the alternative medicine. On the other hand, due to traditional uses and availability of Urtica dioica extract, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of this medicinal herb on pc3 prostate cancer cell line. In the present study the cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica extract were assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and trypan blue viability dye. Then, DNA fragmentation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were exploited to measure cell death and apoptosis stage. The expression levels of caspase 3, caspase 9 and Bcl-2 genes were quantified by Real-Time PCR. Finally, Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. MTT assay showed that dichloromethanolic extract of Urtica dioica significantly inhibited the cell growth. According to the DNA fragmentation and TUNEL assay results, the herbal extract was able to induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Our findings also demonstrated that the plant extract substantially increases the caspase 3 and 9 mRNA expression, while decreases Bcl-2. Cell cycle arrest was occurred in G2 stage, due to the results of flow cytometry. These results indicate that dichloromethanolic extract of Urtica dioica can successfully induce apoptosis in PC3 cells. Therefore, it could be used as a novel therapeutic candidate for prostate tumor treatment.

  14. Culture optimization for the emergent zooplanktonic model organism Oikopleura dioica

    PubMed Central

    Bouquet, Jean-Marie; Spriet, Endy; Troedsson, Christofer; Otterå, Helen; Chourrout, Daniel; Thompson, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    The pan-global marine appendicularian, Oikopleura dioica, shows considerable promise as a candidate model organism for cross-disciplinary research ranging from chordate genetics and evolution to molecular ecology research. This urochordate, has a simplified anatomical organization, remains transparent throughout an exceptionally short life cycle of less than 1 week and exhibits high fecundity. At 70 Mb, the compact, sequenced genome ranks among the smallest known metazoan genomes, with both gene regulatory and intronic regions highly reduced in size. The organism occupies an important trophic role in marine ecosystems and is a significant contributor to global vertical carbon flux. Among the short list of bona fide biological model organisms, all share the property that they are amenable to long-term maintenance in laboratory cultures. Here, we tested diet regimes, spawn densities and dilutions and seawater treatment, leading to optimization of a detailed culture protocol that permits sustainable long-term maintenance of O. dioica, allowing continuous, uninterrupted production of source material for experimentation. The culture protocol can be quickly adapted in both coastal and inland laboratories and should promote rapid development of the many original research perspectives the animal offers. PMID:19461862

  15. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts.

    PubMed

    Rahimzadeh, Mahsa; Jahanshahi, Samaneh; Moein, Soheila; Moein, Mahmood Reza

    2014-06-01

    One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and 0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets.

  16. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts

    PubMed Central

    Rahimzadeh, Mahsa; Jahanshahi, Samaneh; Moein, Soheila; Moein, Mahmood Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Materials and Methods: Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results: Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and 0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Conclusion: Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets. PMID:25140210

  17. [Photosynthesis and transpiration characteristics of female and male Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim individuals].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Zhong, Zhang-cheng; Wang, Xiao-xue; Xie, Jun; Yang, Wen-ying

    2011-03-01

    A field research was conducted on the photosynthesis and transpiration characteristics of dioecious Trichosanthes kirilowii individuals at four key development stages. At vegetative growth stage, the photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency of male individuals were higher than those of female individuals, and hence, male individuals entered into reproductive growth stage 22 days earlier than female individuals. After entering into reproductive growth stage, male individuals had higher photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance, but slightly lower water use efficiency than female individuals. As the female individuals started to reproductive growth, their photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency were significantly lower, while the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were higher than those of the male individuals. The effects of climate factors on the growth and development of T. kirilowii mainly occurred at its vegetative growth and early reproductive growth stages, and weakened at later reproductive growth stages. Higher temperature and lower relative humidity benefited the growth and development of T. kirilowii, and illumination could enhance the photosynthesis rate of T. kirilowii, especially its male individuals. After entering into reproductive growth stage, the photosynthesis rate of male individuals increased significantly with increasing illumination, but that of female individuals only had a slight increase, and the transpiration rate of male individuals as well as the photosynthesis rate of female individuals all increased significantly with increasing temperature.

  18. Antioxidant and apoptotic effects of an aqueous extract of Urtica dioica on the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Fattahi, Sadegh; Ardekani, Ali Motevalizadeh; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Abedian, Zeinab; Mostafazadeh, Amrollah; Pourbagher, Roghayeh; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer and one of the leading causes of death among women in the world. Plants and herbs may play an important role in complementary or alternative treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-proliferative potential of Urtica dioica. The anti oxidant activity of an aqueous extract of Urtica dioica leaf was measured by MTT assay and the FRAP method while its anti-proliferative activity on the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and fibroblasts isolated from foreskin tissue was evaluated using MTT assay. Mechanisms leading to apoptosis were also investigated at the molecular level by measuring the amount of anti and pro-apoptotic proteins and at the cellular level by studying DNA fragmentation and annexin V staining by flow cytometry. The aqueous extract of Urtica dioica showed antioxidant effects with a correlation coefficient of r(2)=0.997. Dose-dependent and anti-proliferative effects of the extract were observed only on MCF-7 cells after 72 hrs with an IC50 value of 2 mg/ml. This anti proliferative activity was associated with an increase of apoptosis as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation, the appearance of apoptotic cells in flow cytometry analysis and an increase of the amount of calpain 1, calpastatin, caspase 3, caspase 9, Bax and Bcl-2, all proteins involved in the apoptotic pathway. This is the first time such in vitro antiproliferative effect of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica leaf has been described for a breast cancer cell line. Our findings warrant further research on Urtica dioica as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer.

  19. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  20. Chemical and antioxidant properties of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) juice and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) juice blends and their changes during storage.

    PubMed

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B

    2017-04-01

    Juice blends made from the mixture of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruits were analyzed for pH, antioxidant properties, total titratable acidity, vitamin C, lycopene and total phenolic contents after different blend ratios were made. The addition of snake tomato juice increased the vitamin C, total carotene, lycopene and antioxidant properties of the juice blends. The radical scavenging properties of juice blends containing a higher ratio of snake tomato were higher and samples stored at room temperature (29°C) showed an increase in antioxidant properties compared to samples stored at 4°C. In conclusion, snake tomato juice up to 50% may be added to Pineapple juice to make a healthy juice blend. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A new species of Chelonus (Areselonus) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from India reared from Acrocercops lysibathra (Meyrick) on Cordia latifolia Roxb.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zubair; Ghramh, Hamed A

    2018-01-01

    Chelonus (Areselonus) spinigaster sp. n. , (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae) is described from India. The new species was reared from the moth species Acrocercops lysibathra (Meyr.) on Cordia latifolia Roxb.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) roots extracts: in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies.

    PubMed

    Testai, Lara; Chericoni, Silvio; Calderone, Vincenzo; Nencioni, Giulia; Nieri, Paola; Morelli, Ivano; Martinotti, Enrica

    2002-06-01

    Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) is a plant principally used in the traditional medicine of oriental Marocco as antihypertensive remedy (J. Ethnopharmacol., 58 (1997), 45). The aim of this work was to evaluate a possible direct cardiovascular action of the plant and to investigate its mechanism of action. In aortic preparations with intact and functional endothelial layer, pre-contracted with KCl 20 mM or norepinephrine 3 microM, the crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of the plant roots, as well as purified fractions elicited a vasodilator action. Nevertheless, the vasodilator activity was not present in aortic rings without endothelial layer. In aortic rings with intact endothelial layer, the vasorelaxing effect was abolished by L-NAME, a NO-biosynthesis inhibitor, and ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor. Furthermore, potassium channel blockers (TEA, 4-aminopyridine, quinine, but not glybenclamide) antagonized the vasodilator action of the purified fraction F1W of U. dioica. The same fraction produced a marked decrease of inotropic activity, in spontaneously beating atria of guinea-pig, and a marked, but transient, hypotensive activity on the blood pressure of anaesthetized rats. It is concluded that U. dioica can produce hypotensive responses, through a vasorelaxing effect mediated by the release of endothelial nitric oxide and the opening of potassium channels, and through a negative inotropic action.

  3. An updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

    PubMed

    Patel, Satish; Sharma, Vikas; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Dixit, Vinod K

    2012-03-01

    Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a golden yellow, leafless, perennial, parasitic herb of the family Convolvulaceae. C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, anti steroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from C. reflexa such as cuscutin, amarbelin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, myricetin, quercetin, coumarin and oleanolic acid. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and traditional and biological medicinal uses of C. reflexa.

  4. Effects of accelerated ageing on viability, leachate exudation, and fatty acid content of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb

    Treesearch

    R.C. Thapliyal; K.F. Connor

    1997-01-01

    Accelerated ageing of seeds of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., a multi-purpose tropical legume tree, was effective as a vigour test only at temperatures in excess of 43 deg C for 72 h. Increased leakage of solutes accompanied the decrease in viability, but there was no relationship between seed size and conductivity. Analyses of D. sissoo...

  5. A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Sharma, P. P.

    2010-01-01

    Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

  6. A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta.

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Sharma, P P

    2010-10-01

    Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other.

  7. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Mohammadian, Maryam; Dianat, Mahin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI), serum triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), alanin trasaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined. Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP. Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome. PMID:23115450

  8. Food-chain transfer of cadmium and zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica to Helix aspersa and Lumbricus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Hodson, Mark E; Hutchings, Tony R

    2009-08-01

    The present study examines the potential of Urtica dioica as an ecologically relevant species for use in ecotoxicological testing. It is prevalent in degraded ecosystems and is a food source for invertebrates. Urtica dioica grown in hydroponic solutions containing from less than 0.003 to 5.7 mg Cd/L or from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/L accumulated metals resulting in leaf tissue concentrations in the range of 0.10 to 24.9 mg Cd/kg or 22.5 to 2,772.0 mg Zn/kg. No toxicological effects were apparent except at the highest concentrations tested, suggesting that this species may be an important pathway for transfer of metals to primary plant consumers. Helix aspersa and Lumbricus terrestris were fed the Cd- and Zn-rich leaves of U. dioica for six and four weeks, respectively. Cadmium and Zn body load increased with increasing metal concentration in the leaves (p < 0.001). Ratios of invertebrate metal concentration to leaf metal concentration were in the range of 1:0.03 to 1:1.4 for Cd and 1:0.2 to 1:2.8 for Zn in H. aspersa and 1:0.002 to 1:3.9 for Cd and 1:0.2 to 1:8.8 for Zn in L. terrestris. Helix aspersa Cd and Zn tissue concentrations (15.5 and 1,220.2 mg/kg, respectively) were approximately threefold those in L. terrestris when both species were fed nettle leaves with concentrations of approximately 23 mg Cd/kg and 3,400 mg Zn/kg. Models demonstrate that L. terrestris Cd tissue concentrations (r2 = 0.74, p < 0.001) and H. aspersa Zn tissue concentrations (r(2) = 0.69, p < 0.001) can be estimated from concentrations of Cd and Zn within the leaves of U. dioica and suggest that reasonably reproducible results can be obtained using these species for ecotoxicological testing.

  9. Effects of Urtica dioica dichloromethane extract on cell apoptosis and related gene expression in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-468).

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, A; Mansoori, B; Goldar, S; Shanehbandi, D; Khaze, V; Mohammadnejad, L; Baghbani, E; Baradaran, B

    2016-02-29

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in worldwide, especially in developing countries. Therefore, a large number of anticancer agents with herbal origins have been reported against this deadly disease. This study is the first to examine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Urtica dioica in MDA-MB-468, human breast adenocarcinoma cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylethiazol-2 yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction and trypan-blue exclusion assay were performed in MDA-MB-468 cells as well as control cell line L929 to analyze the cytotoxic activity of the dichloromethane extract. In addition, Apoptosis induction of Urtica dioica on the MDA-MB-468 cells was assessed using TUNEL (terminal deoxy transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick- end labeling) assay and DNA fragmentation analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that the extract significantly inhibited cell growth and viability without inducing damage to normal control cells. Nuclei Staining in TUNEL and DNA fragments in DNA fragmentation assay and increase in the mRNA expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-9, decrease in the bcl2 and no significant change in the caspase-8 mRNA expression level, showed that the induction of apoptosis was the main mechanism of cell death that induce by Urtica dioica extract. Our results suggest that urtica dioica dichloromethane extract may contain potential bioactive compound(s) for the treatment of breast adenocarcinoma.

  10. Antidiabetic effects of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rath, Diptirani; Kar, Durga Madhab; Panigrahi, Sandeep Kumar; Maharana, Laxmidhar

    2016-11-04

    Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (Convolvulaceae) is traditionally used to treat diabetes mellitus by tribal people of north-east India and Bangladesh. To evaluate the anti-diabetic effects of methanol and aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in normal, glucose loaded and Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The methanol (MECR) and aqueous (AECR) extracts (200 and 400mg/kg body weight) were administered orally to normal and diabetic rats with Metformin and solvent control as comparison groups. Long term effects like FBG, OGTT, lipid profile, HbA1c, body weight, histopathology of major organs, etc. were investigated. MECR and AECR did not have hypoglycemic effects in normal rats. Both AECR and MECR (400mg/kg) treatments showed significant reduction in blood glucose during OGTT in diabetic rats at 3h. Single oral administration of methanol and aqueous extracts (400mg/kg) to diabetic rats significantly reduced (p<0.05) blood glucose level to 61.90% and 55.39% respectively as compared to the Metformin group i.e. 68.32% at the end of 8h. MECR (400mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats) showed a significant decrease (p<0.01) of blood glucose level to 60.00% as compared to other groups. The treatment also resulted an improvement in body weights, decreased HbA1c and restored lipid profile. Histopathological injury was not observed, rather repair of beta cells was seen in extract treated diabetic rats. Methanolic extract of C. reflexa has significant antidiabetic effects and improves metabolic alterations thereby justifying its traditional folkloric claims. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Elisabete; Azevedo, Vitor; Melo, Tânia; Rego, Andreia M; V Evtuguin, Dmitry; Domingues, Pedro; Calado, Ricardo; Pereira, Rui; Abreu, Maria H; Domingues, Maria R

    2018-01-17

    Porphyra dioica is a commercial seaweed consumed all over the world, mostly in the shape of nori sheets used for "sushi" preparation. It is a well-known part of the Asian diet with health benefits, which have been associated, among others, to the high levels of n -3 and n- 6 fatty acids in this red alga. However, other highly valued lipids of Porphyra are polar lipids that remain largely undescribed and can have both nutritional value and bioactivity, thus could contribute to the valorization of this seaweed. In this context, the present work aims to identify the lipidome of two life cycle stages of the Atlantic species Porphyra dioica : the early life stage conchocelis produced in an indoor-nursery, and young blades produced outdoors using an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) framework. Both the blades (gametophyte) and conchocelis (sporophyte) are commercialized in the food and cosmetics sectors. Liquid chromatography coupled to Q-Exactive high resolution-mass spectrometry (MS) platform was used to gain insight into the lipidome of these species. Our results allowed the identification of 110 and 100 lipid molecular species in the lipidome of the blade and conchocelis, respectively. These lipid molecular species were distributed as follows (blade/conchocelis): 14/15 glycolipids (GLs), 93/79 phospholipids (PLs), and 3/6 betaine lipids. Both life stages displayed a similar profile of GLs and comprised 20:4( n -6) and 20:5( n -3) fatty acids that contribute to n -3 and n -6 fatty acid pool recorded and rank among the molecular species with higher potential bioactivity. PLs' profile was different between the two life stages surveyed, mainly due to the number and relative abundance of molecular species. This finding suggests that differences between both life stages were more likely related with shifts in the lipids of extraplastidial membranes rather than in plastidial membranes. PLs contained n -6 and n -3 precursors and in both life stages of Porphyra

  12. RAPD-PCR and real-time PCR HRM based genetic variation evaluations of Urtica dioica parts, ecotypes and evaluations of morphotypes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uzonur, Irem; Akdeniz, Gamze; Katmer, Zeynep; Ersoy, Seyda Karaman

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica is an ethnobotanically and medicinally important Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) plant worldwide and in Turkey; 90 % of herbal CAM applications depend on it in Turkey. It has a wide range of habitats in nearly all continents. It is found in all three phytogeographical regions in Turkey (Euro-Siberian, Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean) with high adaptivity to heterogeneous geographies such as climate, soil types and altitudes. This fact in relation to the assessment of chemical constituents of the plant and combining with further genetic and morphological variation data can assist and enhance the works for the utility and reliability of CAM applications in effect and activity of this plant species. In this work we have made some preliminary experiments with novel approaches to reveal the ecotypes and genetic variation of mighty ecotypes of Urtica dioica from different phytogeographical regions of Turkey (Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean). The ecotypes have heterogeneity in both its parts (leaf, stem, root) as revealed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) using random primers and High-resolution Melt (HRM) analysis using Urtica dioica specific primers and universal chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) primers and morphological traits such as phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of plants' leaf infusions as used in medicinal applications in Turkey. This work will contribute a lot for the development of molecular markers to detect the genetic variation and heterogeneity of Urtica dioica to further relate with expected phenotypes that are most useful and relevant in CAM applications.

  13. In vivo toxicity evaluation of aqueous acetone extract of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. fruit.

    PubMed

    Jayesh, Kuriakose; Helen, Lal Raisa; Vysakh, A; Binil, Eldhose; Latha, M S

    2017-06-01

    Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Family: Combretaceae), known as Bhibhitaki in Sanskrit and locally known as Behera in India is one of the oldest medicinal plants which has widely been used in the traditional system of medicine, especially in Ayurveda for centuries. The dried fruit of Terminalia bellirica is used for treating various ailments. Aqueous acetone extract of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb fruits (AATB), showed antioxidant potential in our screening study is selected for the present in vivo toxicity evaluation. Acute administration of AATB was done in female Wistar Albino rats as a single dose up to 2000 mg/kg body weight. At the end of the study, Blood was collected for biochemical and hematological analyses, while histological examinations were performed on liver and kidney. There was no alteration in the behavioral pattern, food and water intake in the treated animals. The relative organ weight, biochemical parameters, hematological parameters and histopathological analysis were also found normal. All the parameters of the toxicity evaluation were found to be normal and the data suggests aqueous acetone extract of Terminalia bellirica fruit is safe, to be used as a traditional herbal formulation for its antioxidant potential and other health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Trichosanthes tricuspidata modulates oxidative toxicity in brain hippocampus against pilocarpine induced status epilepticus in mice.

    PubMed

    Smilin Bell Aseervatham, G; Sivasudha, Thilagar; Suganya, Mohan; Rameshkumar, Angappan; Jeyadevi, Ramachandran

    2013-08-01

    Epilepsy prevails to be a neurological disorder in anticipation of safer drugs with enhanced anticonvulsant efficacy as presently available drugs fails to offer adequate control of epileptic seizures in about one-third of patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Trichosanthes tricuspidata methanolic extract (TTME) against epilepsy mediated oxidative stress in pilocarpine induced mice. Intraperitonial administration of pilocarpine (85 mg/kg) induced seizure in mice was assessed by behavior observations, which is significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by TTME (100 and 200 mg/kg; i.p) in a dose dependant manner, similar to diazepam. Seizure was accompanied by significant increase in lipid peroxidation and the hippocampal nitrite content in pilocarpine group when compared with control. Moreover, the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione levels were decreased in pilocarpine administered groups. TTME administration attenuated oxidative damage as evident by decreased lipid oxidative damage and nitrite-nitrate content and restored the level of enzymatic antioxidant defenses in hippocampus. Involvement of free radicals during epilepsy is further confirmed by histopathological analysis which showed the loss of neuronal cells in hippocampus CA1 and CA3 pyramidal region. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that TTME has anticonvulsant activity accompanied with the strong antioxidant potential plays a crucial role in reducing the oxidative stress produced by seizure.

  15. Determination of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc in Vegetables in Jaipur (India).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Verma, P S

    2014-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectroscopic method was used for the determination of Lead, Cadmium and Zinc in vegetables grown in and around Jaipur food stuffs irrigated with industrial waste water. Vegetable samples were collected after maturity, and analyzed, such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea), ladyfinger (Abelmoschus esulentus), pepper mint (Menthe pipereta), brinjal (Solanum melongena), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), onion (Allium cepa), radish (Raphanus sativus), pointedgourd (Trichosanthes dioica), bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria), chilies (Capsicum annum), ribbedgourd (Luffa acutangula) and pumpkin (Curcurbites pepo). The concentration of Lead ranged between 1.40-71.06 ppm, Cadmium 0.61-34.48 ppm and Zinc 0.39-187.26 ppm in vegetable samples. The results reveal that urban consumers are at greater risk of purchasing fresh vegetables with high levels of heavy metal, beyond the permissible limits, as defined by the Indian Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and WHO.

  16. Differential competitive ability between sexes in the dioecious Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Sandra; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Differences in competitive ability between the sexes of dioecious plants are expected as a result of allocation trade-offs associated with sex-differential reproductive costs. However, the available data on competitive ability in dioecious plants are scarce and contradictory. In this study sexual competition was evaluated using the dioecious plant Antennaria dioica in a common garden transplantation experiment. Methods Male and female plants were grown for 3 years either in isolation, or in competition with a plant of the same sex or the opposite sex. Flowering phenology, sexual and asexual reproduction, plant growth, nutrient content and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in the roots were assessed. Key Results Our results showed little evidence of sexual differences in competitive ability. Both sexes suffered similarly from competition, and competitive effects were manifested in some traits related to fitness but not in others. Survival was unaffected by competition, but competing plants reduced their vegetative growth and reproductive investment compared with non-competing plants. In addition, differences in sexual competitive ability were observed in relation to flowering frequency, an important life history trait not reported in previous studies. Conclusions The findings indicate that female and male A. dioica plants possess similar intersexual competitive abilities which may be related to the similar costs of reproduction between sexes in this species. Nevertheless, intrasexual competition is higher in females, giving support for asymmetric niche segregation between the sexes. PMID:22887023

  17. Environmental variation between habitats and uptake of heavy metals by Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Otte, M L; Wijte, A H

    1993-12-01

    The observation from previous surveys, that Urtica dioica plants that had grown in metal contaminated soil in the floodplains of the former Rhine estuary in different habitats, but at comparable total soil metal concentrations, showed significant differences in tissue metal concentrations, led to the hypothesis that variation in other environmental characteristics than soil composition and chemical speciation of metals between habitats is also important in determining uptake and translocation of metals in plants. A field survey indicated that differences in root Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations might partly be explained by variation in speciation of metals in different habitats. However, shoot concentrations showed a different pattern that did not relate to variation in soil metal concentrations. In a habitat experiment Urtica dioica plants were grown in artificially contaminated soil in pots that were placed in the four habitats (grassland, pure reed, mixed reed, osier bed) that were also included in the field survey. After seven weeks the plants showed significant differences in Cu and Zn concentrations in roots and aboveground plant parts and in distribution of the metals in the plants between habitats. It was concluded that variation between habitats in environmental characteristics other than soil composition can explain as much variation in plants as can variation in soil metal concentrations and/or speciation. The implications for assessment of soil metal contamination and uptake by plants are discussed.

  18. Sex-related differences in photoinhibition, photo-oxidative stress and photoprotection in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) exposed to drought and nutrient deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simancas, Bárbara; Juvany, Marta; Cotado, Alba; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-03-01

    Dimorphic plant species can show distinct nutrient needs due to sex-related differences in nutrient allocation to reproductive structures, which can potentially affect their sensitivity to photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress. Here, we investigated sex-related differences in the extent of photo-oxidative stress in male and female individuals of U. dioica exposed to a combination of severe drought and nutrient starvation. Male and female individuals of U. dioica subject to severe drought stress were exposed to various levels of nutrient availability. First, a set of plants grown under field conditions and exposed to summer drought was used to test the effects of nutrient supply (given as NPK fertilizer). Secondly, the effects of various phosphate concentrations in the nutrient solution were tested in drought-stressed potted plants. The Fv/Fm ratio (maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry), photoprotection capacity (levels of carotenoids, including the xanthophyll cycle, and vitamins C and E), and the extent of lipid peroxidation (hydroperoxide levels) were measured. Results showed that an application of the NPK fertilizer to the soil had a positive effect on drought-stressed plants, reducing the extent of lipid peroxidation in both males and females. P deficiency led to residual photoinhibition, as indicated by significant reductions in the Fv/Fm ratio, and enhanced lipid peroxidation in females, but not in males. We conclude that (i) increased nutrient availability in the soil can alleviate photo-oxidative stress in drought-stressed U. dioica plants, and (ii) U. dioica plants show sexual secondary dimorphism in terms of photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress, but this is only apparent when stress infringed on plants is very severe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plants as uranium (234U, 238U) contamination bioindicator near phosphogypsum stockpile.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    The aim of this study was to determine uranium concentrations in common nettle ( Urtica dioica ) plants and corresponding soils samples which were collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The uranium concentrations in roots depended on its concentrations in soils. Calculated BCF and TF values showed that soils characteristics and air deposition affect uranium absorption and that different uranium species have different affinities to U . dioica plants. The values of 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. Uranium concentration in plants roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile.

  20. Native Phytoremediation Potential of Urtica dioica for Removal of PCBs and Heavy Metals Can Be Improved by Genetic Manipulations Using Constitutive CaMV 35S Promoter.

    PubMed

    Viktorova, Jitka; Jandova, Zuzana; Madlenakova, Michaela; Prouzova, Petra; Bartunek, Vilem; Vrchotova, Blanka; Lovecka, Petra; Musilova, Lucie; Macek, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Although stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) has been shown to reduce HM (heavy metal) content in soil, its wider phytoremediation potential has been neglected. Urtica dioica was cultivated in soils contaminated with HMs or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). After four months, up to 33% of the less chlorinated biphenyls and 8% of HMs (Zn, Pb, Cd) had been removed. Bacteria were isolated from the plant tissue, with the endophytic bacteria Bacillus shackletonii and Streptomyces badius shown to have the most significant effect. These bacteria demonstrated not only benefits for plant growth, but also extreme tolerance to As, Zn and Pb. Despite these results, the native phytoremediation potential of nettles could be improved by biotechnologies. Transient expression was used to investigate the functionality of the most common constitutive promoter, CaMV 35S in Urtica dioica. This showed the expression of the CUP and bphC transgenes. Collectively, our findings suggest that remediation by stinging nettle could have a much wider range of applications than previously thought.

  1. Native Phytoremediation Potential of Urtica dioica for Removal of PCBs and Heavy Metals Can Be Improved by Genetic Manipulations Using Constitutive CaMV 35S Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Viktorova, Jitka; Jandova, Zuzana; Madlenakova, Michaela; Prouzova, Petra; Bartunek, Vilem; Vrchotova, Blanka; Lovecka, Petra; Musilova, Lucie; Macek, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Although stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) has been shown to reduce HM (heavy metal) content in soil, its wider phytoremediation potential has been neglected. Urtica dioica was cultivated in soils contaminated with HMs or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). After four months, up to 33% of the less chlorinated biphenyls and 8% of HMs (Zn, Pb, Cd) had been removed. Bacteria were isolated from the plant tissue, with the endophytic bacteria Bacillus shackletonii and Streptomyces badius shown to have the most significant effect. These bacteria demonstrated not only benefits for plant growth, but also extreme tolerance to As, Zn and Pb. Despite these results, the native phytoremediation potential of nettles could be improved by biotechnologies. Transient expression was used to investigate the functionality of the most common constitutive promoter, CaMV 35S in Urtica dioica. This showed the expression of the CUP and bphC transgenes. Collectively, our findings suggest that remediation by stinging nettle could have a much wider range of applications than previously thought. PMID:27930707

  2. Micropropagation of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. through tissue culture technique.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Jyoti; Khan, Shagufta; Sahu, Ram Kumar; Roy, Amit

    2014-04-01

    Multiple shoots of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Sissoo) were incited from seeds through indirect somatic embryogenesis method. Seeds were inoculated in Murashige and Skoog's medium without any growth hormone. Than cotyledonary leaves were struck and used for callus induction on MS medium amplified with 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (0.5 to 4 mg mL(-1)). After 3 to 4 weeks the embryogenic callus clumps was transferred to medium supplemented with cytokinin (BAP 1 to 5 mg L(-1), kinetin 1-5.0 mg L(-1)) for embryo maturation and germination. The high-frequency shoot proliferation (82%) and maximum number of shoots per explants were recorded in MS medium containing NAA (0.5)+BAP (0.5). The findings of recent investigations have shown that, it is possible to induce indirect somatic embryogenesis in Dalbergia sissoo and plant regeneration from callus cultures derived from cotyledonary leaves as explants.

  3. Influence of temperature and brewing time of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) infusions on vitamin C content

    PubMed

    Wolska, Jolanta; Czop, Michał; Jakubczyk, Karolina; Janda, Katarzyna

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) can be found in temperate climate zones of Europe, Africa and America Nettle may be a source of nutritional ingredients, mineral salts, vitamins and antioxidants. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of temperature and brewing time Urtica dioica L. infusions from different parts of this plant on vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content. Infusions of nettle leaf, stem and root were prepared at room temperature, 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C for 10 minutes. Leaf infusions were also brewed for 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes at initial water temperature of 60°C. The amount of vitamin C was determined by the spectrophotometric method. The best temperature of brewing nettle infusions, in terms of vitamin C concentration, is between 50 °C and 60 °C as it is sufficient to extract the substance, yet not high enough to destroy it. The optimal time of brewing appeared to be 10 minutes as the prolonged exposure to high temperature appeared to be detrimental for ascorbic acid as well.

  4. Effect of Selected Pyrazine Derivatives on the Production of Phenolics and Rutin in Urtica dioica and Fagopyrum esculentum.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, Sárka; Fiedlerová, Vendula; Tůma, Jirí; Musil, Karel; Tůmová, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    The effect of four pyrazine derivatives on the content of phenolic compounds in Urtica dioica L. and rutin in Fagopyrum esculentum Moench was studied. Pyrazine derivatives H1 and H2 were used on U. dioica, and derivatives S1 and S2 on F. esculentum, both separately and in combination with urea. The content of phenolic compounds in the stems of U. dioica after treatment with H2 at a concentration of 10(-3) M significantly increased compared with the control and to a lower concentration of the same pyrazine derivative. In the case of S1 and S2 for F. esculentum, rutin content also increased in stems, mainly after treatment together with urea. By contrast, rutin and phenolics contents in the leaves did not change in comparison with controls after application of H1, H2, S I and S2. Treatment with H1 and H2 in two chosen concentrations resulted in a significant increase in the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. A slight increase in the rate of photosynthesis was observed also after application of variants of S1 and S1 with urea. Pyrazine derivatives did not show any effect on either the relative content of chlorophyll or chlorophyll fluorescence. A slight weight reduction of above ground biomass was shown only after application of Si and S2. Dark necrosis on the edges and center of the leaves was observed in all treated plants after pyrazine application. The results suggest that all the pyrazine derivatives possess herbicidal effects.

  5. Influence of heavy metal stress on antioxidant status and DNA damage in Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals have the potential to interact and induce several stress responses in the plants; thus, effects of heavy metal stress on DNA damages and total antioxidants level in Urtica dioica leaves and stems were investigated. The samples are sampled from areas with different metal exposition. Metal content was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay was used, and genomic DNA isolation from frozen plant samples was performed to obtain DNA fingerprints of investigated plant. It was found that heavy metal contents in stems generally changed synchronously with those in leaves of the plant, and extraneous metals led to imbalance of mineral nutrient elements. DNA damages were investigated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and the results demonstrated that the samples exposed to metals yielded a large number of new fragments (total 12) in comparison with the control sample. This study showed that DNA stability is highly affected by metal pollution which was identified by RAPD markers. Results suggested that heavy metal stress influences antioxidant status and also induces DNA damages in U. dioica which may help to understand the mechanisms of metals genotoxicity.

  6. Influence of Heavy Metal Stress on Antioxidant Status and DNA Damage in Urtica dioica

    PubMed Central

    Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals have the potential to interact and induce several stress responses in the plants; thus, effects of heavy metal stress on DNA damages and total antioxidants level in Urtica dioica leaves and stems were investigated. The samples are sampled from areas with different metal exposition. Metal content was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay was used, and genomic DNA isolation from frozen plant samples was performed to obtain DNA fingerprints of investigated plant. It was found that heavy metal contents in stems generally changed synchronously with those in leaves of the plant, and extraneous metals led to imbalance of mineral nutrient elements. DNA damages were investigated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and the results demonstrated that the samples exposed to metals yielded a large number of new fragments (total 12) in comparison with the control sample. This study showed that DNA stability is highly affected by metal pollution which was identified by RAPD markers. Results suggested that heavy metal stress influences antioxidant status and also induces DNA damages in U. dioica which may help to understand the mechanisms of metals genotoxicity. PMID:23862140

  7. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination biomonitor in the area of phosphogypsum stockpile.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test a possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as a biomonitor of polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination near phosphogypsum stacks by determining concentrations of these radionuclides in samples collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in roots depended on their concentrations in soils. Bioconcentration factor values from soil to root of the plant did not depend on (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in soils that leads to the conclusion that different polonium and lead species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The main sources of both analyzed radionuclides in green parts of plants are wet and dry air deposition and transportation from soil. The values of (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. (210)Po and (210)Pb concentration in U. dioica roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile.

  8. Immunological responses and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles following dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).

    PubMed

    Saeidi Asl, Mohammad Reza; Adel, Milad; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dawood, Mahmoud A O

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, skin mucus, immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed with diets supplemented with U. dioica at 0, 1, 2 and 3%. After 8 weeks of feeding, the addition of U. dioica at 3% level resulted in improved weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio significantly when compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Hematological responses including: hematocrit (Htc), hemoglobin (Hb), lymphocyte and neutrophil populations enhanced significantly in fish fed 3% of stinging nettle when measured after 4 weeks; while, total red blood cells, white blood, Htc, Hb, lymphocyte and neutrophil populations significantly increased after 8 weeks in the same group (P < 0.05). Total serum protein and glucose contents increased significantly in fish fed stinging nettle at 3% when compared to the other groups after 8 weeks; however, triglycerides decreased significantly in the same group on the 4th and 8th week (P < 0.05). Additionally, several immune parameters, namely, IgM, lysozyme, complement components C3 and C4, and respiratory burst of blood leukocytes significantly increased in the 3% fed group on the 4th week; while, after 8 weeks the immune responses enhanced in fish fed 2 and 3% diets (P < 0.05). At the end of the feeding trial, mucus samples obtained from the fish fed stinging nettle supplementation exhibited improved antagonistic activities against several bacterial pathogens (Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Vibrio anguillarum and Lactococcus garviae), skin mucus enzymes activities (alkaline phosphatase, lysozyme, protease and esterase) and protein levels in 2 and 3% groups with the highest being in case of 3% group when compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). The cumulative mortality of rainbow trout subjected to Y. ruckeri infectious exhibited relatively low mortality levels in all

  9. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of Smilax glabra Roxb. extract on hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sa, Fei; Gao, Jian-Li; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Zheng, Ying; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2008-01-10

    Smilax glabra Roxb. (SGR) is the root of a traditional Chinese herb, referred to as tu fu ling in Chinese medicine. It is an inexpensive traditional Chinese medicine commonly used for the treatment of liver diseases, and a few studies have indicated that SGR has anti-hepatocarcinogenic and anti-cancer growth activities. In the current study, raw SGR plant was extracted with Accelerate Solvent Extractor, and the molecular mechanism by which S. glabra Roxb. extract (SGRE) has an anti-proliferative effect on the human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B, was determined. We showed that SGRE inhibited HepG2 and Hep3B cell growth by causing cell-cycle arrest at either S phase or S/G2 transition and induced apoptosis, as evidenced by a DNA fragmentation assay. SGRE-induced apoptosis by alternation of mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The SGRE-mediated mitochondria-caspase dependent apoptotic pathway also involved activation of p38, JNK, and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Isometric compounds of astilbin (flavonoids) and smilagenin (saponin) have been identified as the main chemical constituents in SGRE by HPLC-MS/MS. These results have identified, for the first time, the biological activity of SGRE in HepG2 and Hep3B cells and should lead to further development of SGR for liver disease therapy.

  10. Effects of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on reduction of microbial load and antioxidant properties of Chum-Hed-Thet (Cassia alata (L.) Roxb.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakhongsil, P.; Pewlong, W.; Sajjabut, S.; Chookaew, S.

    2017-06-01

    Considering the growing demands of herbal medicines, Cassia alata (L.) Roxb. has been reported to have various phytochemical activities. It has also been called in Thai as Chum-Hed-Thet. In this study, C. alata (L.) Roxb. powder were exposed to gamma and electron beam irradiation at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. At the dose of 10 kGy, both of gamma and electron beam irradiation were sufficient in reducing microbial load of irradiated samples as specified in Thai pharmacopoeia (2005). These include the total aerobic microbial count of < 5.0x105 CFU/g, total fungi count of < 5.0x104 CFU/g, bile tolerant gram negative bacteria of < 104 (per g). In addition, pathogenic Clostridium spp. (per 10 g), Salmonella spp. (per 10 g), S. aureus (per 1g) and E.coli (per 1g) were absence. In terms of the bioactive molecules, the total phenolic content, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant potential of unirradiated and irradiated samples were 19.32-22.44 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, 5.20-7.82 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g and 69.46-82.06 μmol FeSO4/g, respectively. However, there were no significant differences between unirradiated and irradiated samples (p>0.05). Therefore, both of radiation by gamma ray or electron beam at 10 kGy was sufficient in elimination of microbial flora and did not significantly affected the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of C. alata (L.) Roxb.

  11. Urticaria due to Urtica dioica in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Uslu, Sinan; Bulbul, Ali; Diler, Betul; Bas, Evrim Kiray; Nuhoglu, Asiye

    2011-03-01

    Urticaria is one of the most common dermatoses during the childhood, but it is very rare in the neonates. A 17-day-old infant with a generalized urticaria was admitted to our pediatric emergency unit. The mother of the infant reported having applied water boiled with stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) onto her nipples twice a day (before and after each breastfeeding) for 2 days in order to heal her nipple cracks. Serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgE levels for stinging nettle were high in the infant and the mother. The rashes began to regress within the first day of the hospitalization and disappeared completely on the second day without treatment. The skin prick test with the water boiled with stinging nettle was positive for the infant with significant induration, but not for the mother. Conclusion Reporting the first urticaria case in newborns due to stinging nettle, the authors suggest that breastfeeding mothers should always consult a physician before using skincare products.

  12. Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.).

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B; Sharma, Parameshwar P

    2013-10-01

    Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar.

  13. ANTI – TUMOUR EFFECT OF BERBERIS ASIATICA ROXB. EX. DC. ON DALTON'S LYMPHOMA ASCITE

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, E.P.; Elshurafa, Allam Ahmed; Elango, K.; Subburaju, T.; Suresh, B.

    1998-01-01

    Berberis asiatica Roxb. Ex. Dc., non Griff. Belongs to the family berberidaceae commonly occurring in the dry outer Himalaya, Assam etc. Roots along with stem bark s a reputed drug in Ayurvedic medicine contain several alkaloids. 50% Ethaolnic extract of roots reported to posses anti-cancer activity. The present study examines the antitumour effect of ethanolic root extract (BRE) against Dalton's lymphoma ascites tumour cells and solid tumour in swiss albino mice, A significant enhancement of mean survival time of BRE treated tumour bearing mice was found. Oral administration of BRE reduced the solid tumour induced by DLE and restored the altered haematological parameters to normal. PMID:22556858

  14. The inhibiting effects of Urtica dioica root extracts on experimentally induced prostatic hyperplasia in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Lichius, J J; Muth, C

    1997-08-01

    Extracts of stinging nettle roots (Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae) are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We established a BPH-model by directly implanting an urogenital sinus (UGS) into the ventral prostate gland of an adult mouse. Five differently prepared stinging nettle root extracts were tested in this model. The 20% methanolic extract was the most effective with a 51.4% inhibition of induced growth.

  15. Effect of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb on androgen-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Shweta; Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Dixit, V K

    2008-09-01

    Alopecia is a psychologically distressing condition. Androgenetic alopecia, which affects millions of men and women, is an androgen-driven disorder. Here, Cuscuta reflexa Roxb is evaluated for hair growth activity in androgen-induced alopecia. Petroleum ether extract of C. reflexa was studied for its hair growth-promoting activity. Alopecia was induced in albino mice by testosterone administration for 20 days. Its inhibition by simultaneous administration of extract was evaluated using follicular density, anagen/telogen ratio, and microscopic observation of skin sections. To investigate the mechanism of observed activity, in vitro experiments were performed to study the effect of extract and its major component on activity of 5alpha-reductase enzyme. Petroleum ether extract of C. reflexa exhibited promising hair growth-promoting activity as reflected from follicular density, anagen/telogen ratio, and skin sections. Inhibition of 5alpha-reductase activity by extract and isolate suggest that the extract reversed androgen-induced alopecia by inhibiting conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. The petroleum ether extract of C. reflexa and its isolate is useful in treatment of androgen-induced alopecia by inhibiting the enzyme 5alpha-reductase.

  16. Sex ratio rather than population size affects genetic diversity in Antennaria dioica.

    PubMed

    Rosche, C; Schrieber, K; Lachmuth, S; Durka, W; Hirsch, H; Wagner, V; Schleuning, M; Hensen, I

    2018-03-09

    Habitat fragmentation and small population size can lead to genetic erosion in threatened plant populations. Classical theory implies that dioecy can counteract genetic erosion as it decreases the magnitude of inbreeding and genetic drift due to obligate outcrossing. However, in small populations, sex ratios may be strongly male- or female-biased, leading to substantial reductions in effective population size. This may theoretically result in a unimodal relationship between sex ratios and genetic diversity; yet, empirical studies on this relationship are scarce. Using AFLP markers, we studied genetic diversity, structure and differentiation in 14 highly fragmented Antennaria dioica populations from the Central European lowlands. Our analyses focused on the relationship between sex ratio, population size and genetic diversity. Although most populations were small (mean: 35.5 patches), genetic diversity was moderately high. We found evidence for isolation-by-distance, but overall differentiation of the populations was rather weak. Females dominated 11 populations, which overall resulted in a slightly female-biased sex ratio (61.5%). There was no significant relationship between population size and genetic diversity. The proportion of females was not unimodally but positively linearly related to genetic diversity. The high genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation suggest that A. dioica has been widely distributed in the Central European lowlands in the past, while fragmentation occurred only in the last decades. Sex ratio has more immediate consequences on genetic diversity than population size. An increasing proportion of females can increase genetic diversity in dioecious plants, probably due to a higher amount of sexual reproduction. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Quantitative determination of plant phenolics in Urtica dioica extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Orčić, Dejan; Francišković, Marina; Bekvalac, Kristina; Svirčev, Emilija; Beara, Ivana; Lesjak, Marija; Mimica-Dukić, Neda

    2014-01-15

    A method for quantification of 45 plant phenolics (including benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, flavonoid aglycones, C- and O-glycosides, coumarins, and lignans) in plant extracts was developed, based on reversed phase HPLC separation of extract components, followed by tandem mass spectrometric detection. The phenolic profile of 80% MeOH extracts of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) herb, root, stem, leaf and inflorescence was obtained by using this method. Twenty-one of the investigated compounds were present at levels above the reliable quantification limit, with 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin as the most abundant. The inflorescence extracts were by far the richest in phenolics, with the investigated compounds amounting 2.5-5.1% by weight. As opposed to this, the root extracts were poor in phenolics, with only several acids and derivatives being present in significant amounts. The results obtained by the developed method represent the most detailed U. dioica chemical profile so far. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of antioxidant properties, elemental and phenolic contents composition of wild nettle (Urtica dioica L.) from Tunceli in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, N C; Turkoglu, S; Ince, O K; Ince, M

    2013-11-03

    Wild nettle (Urtica dioica L.) types were sampled from different geographical regions in Tunceli (Turkey) to determine their mineral, vitamin, phenolic contents and their antioxidant properties. The total phenol varied from 37.419 ± 0.380 to 19.182 ± 1.00 mg of GAEs g(-1) of dry nettle. The highest radical scavenging effect was observed in Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km with 33.70 ± 0.849 mg mL(-1). The highest reducing power was observed in the nettles from Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km. Among the various macronutrients estimated in the plant samples, potassium was present in the highest quantity followed by calcium and phosphate. Kaempferol and resveratrol were not determined in some nettle samples but rutin levels were determined in all samples. Vitamin A concentrations were ranged between 13.64 ± 1.90 and 5.74 ± 1.00 (mg kg(-1) dry weight). These results show that Urtica dioica L. collected from Tunceli in Turkey could be considered as a natural alternative source for food, pharmacology and medicine sectors.

  19. Induction of insulin secretion by a component of Urtica dioica leave extract in perifused Islets of Langerhans and its in vivo effects in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Farzami, Bijan; Ahmadvand, D; Vardasbi, S; Majin, F J; Khaghani, Sh

    2003-11-01

    The blood glucose lowering effect of Urtica dioica (Stinging Nettle) as a medicinal plant has been noted in old writings such as those of Avicenna. Recently, there has also been other investigators that indicated the hypoglycemic effect of Urtica dioica. But so far, the mechanism of this effect has not been deduced. In this report, a perifusion system is arranged in which an exact number of Langerhans Islets were exposed to several fractions of extracts of Urtica dioica by TLC. The active ingredient fraction named F(1), caused a marked increase in insulin secretion. A simultaneous assay of glucose showed that the increase in insulin level was associated with a decrease in glucose level. Furthermore, the active component of Urtica dioica was found to increase the insulin content of blood sera in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats that were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the active ingredient of the extract. The in vivo studies presented in this report show that not only an increase in insulin level of blood sera was observed in rats after 30 min from the initial point of injection but a simultaneous decrease of blood sugar was detected when similar sera was tested for glucose. The increase in insulin level was six times during the 120 min of our determination. The decrease in blood sugar was found to be similar both in the level and time of initiation. On the basis of our findings, we assume that F(1) is the active ingredient of plant leaves extract. The results show that the blood lowering effect of the extract was due to the enhancement of insulin secretion by Langerhance Isletes.

  20. Urtica Dioica Distillate Regenerates Pancreatic Beta Cells in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Gohari, Ali; Noorafshan, Ali; Akmali, Masoumeh; Zamani-Garmsiri, Fahimeh; Seghatoleslam, Atefeh

    2018-03-01

    Urtica dioica is known as an anti-hyperglycemic plant. Urtica dioica distillate (UD) is a traditional Iranian drink, locally known as "aragh gazaneh". In spite of its widespread consumption in Iran, according to traditional Iranian medicine, there is no scientific report on the usefulness of UD for diabetic patients. This survey was designed to evaluate its protective effects for the recovery from diabetes by determining the serum insulin, blood glucose, volume of pancreatic islets, and the number and volume of β-cells in diabetic rats. A total of 48 Sprague-Dawley male rats (200-250 g) were randomly distributed into 6 groups (n=8), including non-diabetic plus distilled water (DW), non-diabetic plus UD, diabetic plus DW, diabetic plus UD, diabetic plus insulin, and diabetic plus glibenclamide. DW, UD, and glibenclamide were administered via intragastric gavage and insulin was injected subcutaneously. After four weeks of experiments, blood samples were collected for serum insulin and blood glucose assay. Pancreas was also evaluated using stereological method. The SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Kruskal-Wallis, repeated measurements, and Mann-Whitney U test were applied for comparisons between the groups. The treatment of diabetic rats with UD reduced the blood glucose dramatically (P<0.001) and increased serum insulin levels significantly (P=0.03) in comparison to the diabetic plus DW rats. Treatment with UD did not affect the mean β-cell volumes in the diabetic rats when compared to the diabetic plus DW rats, but the islet volumes and β-cell numbers were significantly recovered. UD treatment in diabetic rats improves hyperglycemia by partially restoring plasma insulin levels. The data suggest that UD prevents islet atrophy and/or regenerate pancreatic β-cells.

  1. Urtica Dioica Distillate Regenerates Pancreatic Beta Cells in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gohari, Ali; Noorafshan, Ali; Akmali, Masoumeh; Zamani-Garmsiri, Fahimeh; Seghatoleslam, Atefeh

    2018-01-01

    Background Urtica dioica is known as an anti-hyperglycemic plant. Urtica dioica distillate (UD) is a traditional Iranian drink, locally known as “aragh gazaneh”. In spite of its widespread consumption in Iran, according to traditional Iranian medicine, there is no scientific report on the usefulness of UD for diabetic patients. This survey was designed to evaluate its protective effects for the recovery from diabetes by determining the serum insulin, blood glucose, volume of pancreatic islets, and the number and volume of β-cells in diabetic rats. Methods A total of 48 Sprague-Dawley male rats (200-250 g) were randomly distributed into 6 groups (n=8), including non-diabetic plus distilled water (DW), non-diabetic plus UD, diabetic plus DW, diabetic plus UD, diabetic plus insulin, and diabetic plus glibenclamide. DW, UD, and glibenclamide were administered via intragastric gavage and insulin was injected subcutaneously. After four weeks of experiments, blood samples were collected for serum insulin and blood glucose assay. Pancreas was also evaluated using stereological method. The SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Kruskal-Wallis, repeated measurements, and Mann-Whitney U test were applied for comparisons between the groups. Results The treatment of diabetic rats with UD reduced the blood glucose dramatically (P<0.001) and increased serum insulin levels significantly (P=0.03) in comparison to the diabetic plus DW rats. Treatment with UD did not affect the mean β-cell volumes in the diabetic rats when compared to the diabetic plus DW rats, but the islet volumes and β-cell numbers were significantly recovered. Conclusion UD treatment in diabetic rats improves hyperglycemia by partially restoring plasma insulin levels. The data suggest that UD prevents islet atrophy and/or regenerate pancreatic β-cells. PMID:29749986

  2. Hypoglycemic effects of Trichosanthes kirilowii and its protein constituent in diabetic mice: the involvement of insulin receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Tsai-Chung; Yang, Tse-Yen; Li, Chia-Cheng; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2017-01-18

    Diabetes is a serious chronic metabolic disorder. Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. (TK) is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, the clinical application of TK on diabetic patients and the hypoglycemic efficacies of TK are still unclear. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the usage of Chinese herbs in patients with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan. Glucose tolerance test was performed to analyze the hypoglycemic effect of TK. Proteomic approach was performed to identify the protein constituents of TK. Insulin receptor (IR) kinase activity assay and glucose tolerance tests in diabetic mice were further used to elucidate the hypoglycemic mechanisms and efficacies of TK. By a retrospective cohort study, we found that TK was the most frequently used Chinese medicinal herb in type 2 diabetic patients in Taiwan. Oral administration of aqueous extract of TK displayed hypoglycemic effects in a dose-dependent manner in mice. An abundant novel TK protein (TKP) was further identified by proteomic approach. TKP interacted with IR by docking analysis and activated the kinase activity of IR. In addition, TKP enhanced the clearance of glucose in diabetic mice in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, this study applied a bed-to-bench approach to elucidate the hypoglycemic efficacies and mechanisms of TK on clinical usage. In addition, we newly identified a hypoglycemic protein TKP from TK. Our findings might provide a reasonable explanation of TK on the treatment of diabetes in TCM.

  3. Studies on water soluble polysaccharides from Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. seeds.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, S; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2016-03-15

    In this existing experimental work, water soluble PDP polysaccharides were secluded from Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. seeds. The physicochemical properties were analyzed in terms of swelling power, solubility, pH and water holding capacity. Micromeretic studies proved the polysaccharide may be used a potential pharmaceutical adjuvant. The polysaccharide was characterized by FT-IR, SEM, TGA and NMR techniques. Methylation analysis confirmed that the polysaccharide is composed of Arabinose (Araf) units. The chemical shifts of anomeric proton region were found in the region of 4.4-5.5ppm. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that PDP polysaccharide was thermally stable. The in vitro antioxidant capacities of the polysaccharide were investigated in terms of scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and reducing power assay. The polysaccharide fractions showed activity in a concentration dependent manner which was comparable to the standard, ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An Efficient Protocol for Preparation of Gallic Acid from Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb by Combination of Macroporous Resin and Preparative High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zou, Denglang; Chen, Tao; Chen, Chen; Li, Hongmei; Liu, Yongling; Li, Yulin

    2016-08-01

    In this article, macroporous resin column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography were applied for preparation of gallic acid from Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. In the first step, six kinds of resins were investigated by adsorption and desorption tests and AB-8 macroporous resin was selected for the enrichment of gallic acid. As a result, 20 g of gallic acid at a purity of 71% could be separated from 100 g of crude extract in which the content of gallic acid was 16.7% and the recovery of gallic acid reached 85.0%. In the second step, preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was selected to purify gallic acid. As a result, 640 mg of gallic acid at a purity of 99.1% was obtained from 1 g of sample in 35 min. The results demonstrated that macroporous resin coupled with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was suitable for preparation of gallic acid from T. bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Food-chain transfer of zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica and Acer pseudoplatanus L. to the aphids Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis Schrank.

    PubMed

    Sinnett, Danielle; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the food-chain transfer of Zn from two plant species, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple), into their corresponding aphid species, Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system using solutions with increasing concentrations of Zn from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/l. Above-ground tissue concentrations in U. dioica and M. carnosum increased with increasing Zn exposure (p < 0.001). Zn concentrations in A. pseudoplatanus also increased with solution concentration from the control to the 9.8 mg Zn/l solution, above which concentrations remained constant. Zn concentrations in both D. platanoidis and the phloem tissue of A. pseudoplatanus were not affected by the Zn concentration in the watering solution. It appears that A. pseudoplatanus was able to limit Zn transport in the phloem, resulting in constant Zn exposure to the aphids. Zn concentrations in D. platanoidis were around three times those in M. carnosum.

  6. Volatile analysis and antimicrobial screening of the parasitic plant Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Prajwal; Satyal, Prabodh; Maharjan, Samjhana; Shrestha, Nawal; Setzer, William N

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil from the parasitic vine Cuscuta reflexa Roxb., collected from Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. From a total of 62 peaks, 61 compounds were identified in the oil, accounting for 99.6% of the oil. The majority of the essential oil was dominated by the relatively rare component cis-3-butyl-4-vinylcyclopentane (26.4%). The oil also contained substantial amounts of limonene (5.1%) and (E)-nerolidol (9.5%). Biological screening for antimicrobial activities did not show appreciable activity against either Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) or Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. However, marginal activity against Aspergillus niger was observed (minimum inhibitory concentration = 313 μg/mL).

  7. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Modarresi-Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza-Sulaiman, Shaida; Mousavi, Leila

    2012-12-01

    Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I), which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II) with a five solvent system (butanol). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30 microg/mL) as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v) as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC). The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I) exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC). MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II) were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II) for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17), and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11); besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342) which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  8. Phytochemical, pharmacological and ethnobotanical studies in mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.; Zingiberaceae).

    PubMed

    Jatoi, Shakeel Ahmad; Kikuchi, Akira; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Watanabe, Kazuo N

    2007-06-01

    Curcuma amada Roxb. is an important species known as mango ginger due to its characteristic raw-mango aroma. It has a long history of traditional uses ranging from folk medicine to several culinary preparations. The phytochemical, pharmacological and ethnobotanical studies of C. amada are reviewed. The rhizome is rich in essential oils, and more than 130 chemical constituents with biomedical significance have been isolated from it. Its antibacterial, insecticidal, antifungal and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The conservation of indigenous knowledge by proper documentation is suggested. The chemotaxonomy, allelopathy and genetic diversity of C. amada have not yet been explored, and many such studies are possible. This review was compiled to provide consolidated information covering different aspects of the plant, to provide a basis on which to plan future studies and to promote sustainable use of C. amada. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Urtica dioica inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis by targeting Ornithine decarboxylase and Adenosine deaminase as key regulatory enzymes in adenosine and polyamines homeostasis in human breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fattahi, Sadegh; Ghadami, Elham; Asouri, Mohsen; Motevalizadeh Ardekanid, Ali; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh

    2018-02-28

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous and multifactorial disease with variable disease progression risk, and treatment response. Urtica dioica is a traditional herb used as an adjuvant therapeutic agent in cancer. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of the aqueous extract of Urtica dioica on Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) gene expression in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, two breast cancer cell lines being estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative, respectively.  Cell lines were cultured in suitable media. After 24 h, different concentrations of the extract were added and after 72 h, ADA and ODC1 gene expression as well as BCL2 and BAX apoptotic genes were assessed by Taqman real time PCR assay. Cells viability was assessed by MTT assay, and apoptosis was also evaluated at cellular level. The intra and extracellular levels of ODC1 and ADA enzymes were evaluated by ELISA. Results showed differential expression of ADA and ODC1 genes in cancer cell lines. In MCF-7 cell line, the expression level of ADA was upregulated in a dose-dependent manner but its expression did not change in MDA-MB cell line. ODC1 expression was increased in both examined cell lines. Also, increased level of the apoptotic BAX/BCL-2 ratio was detected in MCF-7 cells. These results demonstrated that Urtica dioica induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by influencing ODC1 and ADA genes expression, and estrogen receptors. The different responses observed with these cell lines could be due to the interaction of Urtica dioica as a phytoestrogen with the estrogen receptor.

  10. A lower pH value benefits regeneration of Trichosanthes kirilowii by somatic embryogenesis, involving rhizoid tubers (RTBs), a novel structure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke-dong; Chang, Yun-xia; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Pei-long; Wu, Jian-xin; Li, Yan-yan; Wang, Xiao-wen; Wang, Wei; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Yi; Yu, De-shui; Liao, Li-bing; Li, Yi; Ma, Shu-ya; Tan, Guang-xuan; Li, Cheng-wei

    2015-03-06

    A new approach was established for the regeneration of Trichosanthes kirilowii from root, stem, and leaf explants by somatic embryogenesis (SE), involving a previously unreported SE structure, rhizoid tubers (RTBs). During SE, special rhizoids were first induced from root, stem, and leaf explants with average rhizoid numbers of 62.33, 40.17, and 11.53 per explant, respectively, on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (pH 4.0) supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) under dark conditions. Further, one RTB was formed from each of the rhizoids on MS medium (pH 4.0) supplemented with 20 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ) under light conditions. In the suitable range (pH 4.0-9.0), a lower pH value increased the induction of rhizoids and RTBs. Approximately 37.77, 33.47, and 31.07% of in vivo RTBs from root, stem, and leaf explants, respectively, spontaneously developed into multiple plantlets on the same MS medium (supplemented with 20 mg/L TDZ) for induction of RTBs, whereas >95.00% of in vitro RTBs from each kind of explant developed into multiple plantlets on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Morphological and histological analyses revealed that RTB is a novel type of SE structure that develops from the cortex cells of rhizoids.

  11. A Lower pH Value Benefits Regeneration of Trichosanthes kirilowii by Somatic Embryogenesis, Involving Rhizoid Tubers (RTBs), a Novel Structure

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ke-dong; Chang, Yun-xia; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Pei-long; Wu, Jian-xin; Li, Yan-yan; Wang, Xiao-wen; Wang, Wei; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Yi; Yu, De-shui; Liao, Li-bing; Li, Yi; Ma, Shu-ya; Tan, Guang-xuan; Li, Cheng-wei

    2015-01-01

    A new approach was established for the regeneration of Trichosanthes kirilowii from root, stem, and leaf explants by somatic embryogenesis (SE), involving a previously unreported SE structure, rhizoid tubers (RTBs). During SE, special rhizoids were first induced from root, stem, and leaf explants with average rhizoid numbers of 62.33, 40.17, and 11.53 per explant, respectively, on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (pH 4.0) supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) under dark conditions. Further, one RTB was formed from each of the rhizoids on MS medium (pH 4.0) supplemented with 20 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ) under light conditions. In the suitable range (pH 4.0–9.0), a lower pH value increased the induction of rhizoids and RTBs. Approximately 37.77, 33.47, and 31.07% of in vivo RTBs from root, stem, and leaf explants, respectively, spontaneously developed into multiple plantlets on the same MS medium (supplemented with 20 mg/L TDZ) for induction of RTBs, whereas >95.00% of in vitro RTBs from each kind of explant developed into multiple plantlets on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Morphological and histological analyses revealed that RTB is a novel type of SE structure that develops from the cortex cells of rhizoids. PMID:25744384

  12. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Notten, M J M; Oosthoek, A J P; Rozema, J; Aerts, R

    2006-01-01

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 microg g(-1) dw. Seven snails per treatment were fed for 38 days. Leaf Cd concentrations did not affect food consumption rates, and consequently Cd intake rates increased with increasing leaf concentrations. No differences were detected among treatments in the final soft tissue Cd concentrations and body burdens in the snails. Regression analyses showed no positive relationship between either snail Cd concentrations or body burdens and total Cd intake. This suggests a regulation of internal Cd concentrations at low food Cd concentrations. Our data suggest that Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in this regulation, in addition to Cd excretion via the faeces. Snail shells were no sinks for Cd.

  13. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench. and Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn. Flowers.

    PubMed

    Babotă, Mihai; Mocan, Andrei; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Ielciu, Irina; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Crișan, Gianina; Păltinean, Ramona

    2018-02-13

    Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn. and Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench. are two species of the Asteraceae family, known in Romanian traditional medicine for their diuretic, choleretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic and sterolic composition of flowers from the two species and to assess their antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties. LC-MS analyses were performed on methanolic, ethanolic and 70% v/v ethanolic extracts, before and after acid hydrolysis, and revealed high amounts of polyphenols. Chlorogenic acid was found as the main compound for the flowers of A. dioica (502.70 ± 25.11 mg/100 g d.w.), while quercitrin was dominant in H. arenarium (424.28 ± 21.21 mg/100 g d.w.) in 70% v / v ethanolic extracts before hydrolysis. Antioxidant capacity assays showed an important antioxidant potential, which can be correlated with the determined polyphenolic compounds, showing the 70% v / v ethanolic extracts of the two species as being the most effective antioxidant samples for the DPPH assay. Antibacterial and antifungal assays confirm a modest biological potential for the same extract of both species. Results obtained in the present study bring important data and offer scientific evidence on the chemical composition and on the biological activities of the flowers belonging to the two species.

  14. Antioxidant and wound healing potential of saponins extracted from the leaves of Algerian Urtica dioica L.

    PubMed

    Razika, Laoufi; Thanina, Affif Chaouche; Nadjiba, Chebouti-Meziou; Narimen, Benhabyles; Mahdi, Dahmani Mohamed; Karim, Arab

    2017-05-01

    The Nettle is a herbaceous and vivace plant of Asian origin. It is integrated in several areas especially alimentary, agricultural, industrial and medicinal. The aim of this work is to demonstrate through pharmacological tests a possible antioxidant and wound healing effect of crude saponins of the leaves of Urtica dioica L. The extraction method is based on the degree of solubility of saponins in organic solvents. The antioxidant activity of the leaves extracts was evaluated by the diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl test (DPPH). The wound healing effect is interpreted on the basis of the healing time and the evaluation of the surface of wounds. It appears from this study that the Nettle is rich in saponins, either 4.08% to 30 g of plant powder. The results also showed significant antioxidant effect similar to that of ascorbic acid (p> 0.05) with an IC 50 of 0.159mg/ml. As regards the healing power, treatment of rats with the product based on crude saponins is achieved after 15 days, either 100% of wound reduction. This value is much higher than that obtained by the reference product (Madécassol®) on the same duration of treatment with 93.73% of wound reduction. The achievement of pharmacological tests has thus shown that crude saponins extracted from the leaves of Urtica dioica L. can be integrated into the pharmaceutical field or even in cosmetic.

  15. Molecular characterisation of four double-flowered mutants of Silene dioica representing four centuries of variation

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Elizabeth K. S.; Gilmartin, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    Records of double-flowered Silene dioica date from the late sixteenth century and four named varieties are grown today, as previously, for their horticultural interest. Although double-flowered mutants have been characterized in several plants, their study in dioecious species is of particular interest due to influences of the homeotic mutation on the different floral whorl configurations in males and females. We have analysed four double-flowered varieties of Silene dioica: Flore Pleno and Rosea Plena date back to the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, Thelma Kay and Firefly were recognized in the latter part of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. We have analysed the floral structure of the four varieties, which have distinct floral architectures. Based on Y chromosome-specific PCR analysis we show that Firefly is male and that the other three varieties are female: Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses suggested a common origin for the three female varieties. The double-flowered phenotype in all four varieties is caused by mutation of the C-function MADS-box transcription factor gene SDM1. We show that Firefly carries a unique 44bp insertion into SDM1, revealing an independent origin for this variety. Comparative analysis of SDM1 cDNA and genomic sequences in Flore Pleno, Rosea Plena and Thelma Kay shows that all three are caused by the same 7bp insertion within SDM1 and therefore share a common origin. The three alleles also differ by several single nucleotide polymorphisms, which represent somatic mutations accumulated over four centuries of asexual propagation. PMID:25878355

  16. Competitive interactions are mediated in a sex-specific manner by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Antennaria dioica.

    PubMed

    Varga, S; Vega-Frutis, R; Kytöviita, M-M

    2017-03-01

    Plants usually interact with other plants, and the outcome of such interaction ranges from facilitation to competition depending on the identity of the plants, including their sexual expression. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been shown to modify competitive interactions in plants. However, few studies have evaluated how AM fungi influence plant intraspecific and interspecific interactions in dioecious species. The competitive abilities of female and male plants of Antennaria dioica were examined in a greenhouse experiment. Females and males were grown in the following competitive settings: (i) without competition, (ii) with intrasexual competition, (iii) with intersexual competition, and (iv) with interspecific competition by Hieracium pilosella - a plant with similar characteristics to A. dioica. Half of the pots were grown with Claroideoglomus claroideum, an AM fungus isolated from the same habitat as the plant material. We evaluated plant survival, growth, flowering phenology, and production of AM fungal structures. Plant survival was unaffected by competition or AM fungi. Competition and the presence of AM fungi reduced plant biomass. However, the sexes responded differently to the interaction between fungal and competition treatments. Both intra- and interspecific competition results were sex-specific, and in general, female performance was reduced by AM colonization. Plant competition or sex did not affect the intraradical structures, extraradical hyphae, or spore production of the AM fungus. These findings suggest that plant sexual differences affect fundamental processes such as competitive ability and symbiotic relationships with AM fungi. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. The primary structure of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) agglutinin. A two-domain member of the hevein family.

    PubMed

    Beintema, J J; Peumans, W J

    1992-03-09

    The primary structure of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) agglutinin has been determined by sequence analysis of peptides obtained from three overlapping proteolytic digests. The sequence of 80 residues consists of two hevein-like domains with the same spacing of half-cystine residues and several other conserved residues as observed earlier in other proteins with hevein-like domains. The hinge region between the two domains is four residues longer than those between the four domains in cereal lectins like wheat germ agglutinin.

  18. Beneficial effects of Urtica dioica on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats: protection against acetylcholinesterase activity and neuronal oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Simagol; Moradzadeh, Malihe; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Beheshti, Farimah; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2018-05-10

    This study was conducted to investigate protective effects of Urtica dioica extract on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and the oxidative damage of brain tissues in scopolamine-induced memory impairment model. The rats were treated with (1) saline (control), (2) scopolamine, and (3-5) the plant extract (20, 50, or 100 mg/kg) before scopolamine. The traveled distance and the latency to find the platform in Morris water maze (MWM) by scopolamine-treated group were longer while the time spent in target quadrant was shorter than those of the control. Scopolamine decreased the latency to enter the dark in passive avoidance test. Besides, it also increased AChE activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the hippocampal and cortical tissues while decreased thiols content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the brain (p < 0.01-p <0.001). Treatment by the extract reversed all the effects of scopolamine (p < 0.05-p <0.001). According to the results of present study, the beneficial effects of U. dioica on memory can be attributed to its protective effects on oxidative damage of brain tissue and AChE activity.

  19. Isolation of pyropheophorbide a from the leaves of Atalantia monophylla (ROXB.) CORR. (Rutaceae) as a possible antiviral active principle against herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Chansakaow, S; Ruangrungsi, N; Ishikawa, T

    1996-07-01

    Antiviral activity-guided isolation studies on the leaves of Atalantia monophylla (ROXB.) CORR. (Rutaceae) led to the identification of pyropheophorbide a (1), a simple chlorin derivative, from the chloroform extract (fr. B) as a possible antiviral active principle against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Pyropheophorbide a methyl ester (2) was also isolated from the hexane extract (fr. A).

  20. Antimutagenic and antioxidant activity of a protein fraction from aerial parts of Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Di Sotto, Antonella; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Savickiene, Nijole; Staršelskytė, Rasa; Baksenskaite, Vaida; Di Giacomo, Silvia; Vitalone, Annabella

    2015-06-01

    Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), stinging nettle, has been employed as a folklore remedy for a wide spectrum of ailments, including urinary disorders, prostatic hyperplasia, and liver diseases. It has been also used traditionally for cancer treatment. To evaluate the potential chemopreventive properties of a protein fraction from the aerial part of Urtica dioica (namely UDHL30). UDHL30 has been tested for the antimutagenic activity in bacteria (50-800 μg/plate; Ames test by the preincubation method) and for the cytotoxicity on human hepatoma HepG2 cells (0.06-2 mg/mL; 24 and 48 h incubation). Moreover, the antioxidant activity of UDHL30 (0.1-1200 μg/mL; ABTS and superoxide-radical scavenger assays) was evaluated as potential protective mechanisms. UDHL30 was not cytotoxic on HepG2 cells up to 2 mg/mL; conversely, it exhibited a strong antimutagenic activity against the mutagen 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) in all strains tested (maximum inhibition of 56, 78, and 61% in TA98, TA100, and WP2uvrA strains, respectively, at 800 μg/plate). In addition, a remarkable scavenging activity against ABTS radical and superoxide anion (IC50 values of 19.9 ± 1.0 μg/mL and 75.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL, respectively) was produced. UDHL30 possesses antimutagenic and radical scavenging properties. Being 2AA a pro-carcinogenic agent, we hypothesize that the antimutagenicity of UDHL30 can be due to the inhibition of CYP450-isoenzymes, involved in the mutagen bioactivation. The radical scavenger ability could contribute to 2AA-antimutagenicity. These data encourage further studies in order to better define the potential usefulness of UDHL30 in chemoprevention.

  1. Antioxidant-Rich Fraction of Urtica dioica Mediated Rescue of Striatal Mito-Oxidative Damage in MPTP-Induced Behavioral, Cellular, and Neurochemical Alterations in Rats.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Rohit; Joshi, Bhuwan Chandra; Kalia, Ajudhiya Nath; Prakash, Atish

    2017-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) having a complex and multi-factorial neuropathology includes mainly the degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway, which is a cumulative effect of depleted endogenous antioxidant enzymes, increased oxidative DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of a potent antioxidant from Urtica dioica in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of parkinsonism. MPTP was administered intranigrally for the induction of PD in male Wistar rats. Behavioral alterations were assessed in between the study period. Animals were sacrificed immediately after behavioral session, and different biochemical, cellular, and neurochemical parameters were measured. Intranigrally repeated administration of MPTP showed significant impairment of motor co-ordination and marked increase of mito-oxidative damage and neuroinflammation in rats. Intranigral MPTP significantly decreases the dopamine and its metabolites with impairment of dopaminergic cell density in rat brain. However, post-treatment with the potent antioxidant fraction of Urtica dioica Linn. (UD) (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) improved the motor function, mito-oxidative defense alteration significantly and dose dependently in MPTP-treated rats. In addition, the potent antioxidant fraction of UD attenuated the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-β) and restored the level of dopamine and its metabolites in MPTP-induced PD in rats. Moreover, minocycline (30 mg/kg) with lower dose of UD (20 mg/kg) had significantly potentiated the protective effect of minocycline as compared to its effect with other individual drug-treated groups. In conclusion, Urtica dioica protected the dopaminergic neurons probably by reducing mito-oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and cellular alteration along with enhanced neurotrophic potential. The above results revealed that the antioxidant rich

  2. Nettle sting of Urtica dioica for joint pain--an exploratory study of this complementary therapy.

    PubMed

    Randall, C; Meethan, K; Randall, H; Dobbs, F

    1999-09-01

    This exploratory study aims to explore the present use of the common stinging nettle to treat joint pain. Eighteen self-selected patients using the nettle sting of Urtica dioica were interviewed. Information regarding patients' use of nettle therapy was elicited, in particular mode of application, dosage and effects. All except one respondent were sure that netles had been very helpful and several considered themselves cured. No observed side effects were reported, except a transient urticarial rash. This exploratory study suggests nettle sting is a useful, safe and cheap therapy which needs further study. A randomized controlled trial is planned in collaboration with a rheumatology specialist.

  3. Thin layer chromatography fingerprint, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of rhizomes, stems, and leaves of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safitri, A.; Batubara, I.; Khumaida, N.

    2017-05-01

    Fingerprints of 5 temu hitam (Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.) accessions (Malang, Cirebon, Kuningan 1, Bogor, and Liwa) were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and compared to fingerprints of turmeric (Curcuma longa L), temu putih (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe), and temu lawak (Curcuma zanthorriza Roxb.). Maceration method with ethanol as the solvent was used for extraction. The eluent used for fingerprint by TLC was chloroform:dichloromethane (9:1v/v). Five accessions of temu hitam show similar fingerprint patterns, but different in band thickness. Temu hitam rhizomes have bands of curcuminoid (Rf 0.22, 0.10, 0.03), and characteristic bands of Rf 0.42, 0.27, and 0.77, which can be distinguished from turmeric and temu lawak and Rf 0.13, which is different from temu putih. Leaves and stems of temu hitam can be distinguished from temu putih, turmeric, and temu lawak at Rf 0.60. Rhizomes of all plants reveal strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals than its corresponding stems and leaves. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities were determined by microdilution and TLC-bioautography. Antibacterial activity of rhizomes of Cirebon and Kuningan 1 accessions are higher than that of other accessions (MIC = 250 μg/mL MBC = 500 μg/mL, but lower as compared to that of temu lawak (MIC = 62.5 μg/mL, MBC = 250 μg/mL) and tetracycline (MIC = MBC = 15.63 μg/mL). Rhizome of Liwa accession exhibits the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 124.88 μg/mL) amongst all accessions, but lower than that of temu lawak (IC50 = 18.45 μg/mL), turmeric (IC50 = 18.82 μg/mL), and temu putih (IC50 = 94.35 μg/mL).

  4. Effects of various doses of selenite on stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.).

    PubMed

    Krystofova, Olga; Adam, Vojtech; Babula, Petr; Zehnalek, Josef; Beklova, Miroslava; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) plants. Se was supplemented by one-shot and two repeated doses to the soil (2.0 and 4.0 mg Se per kg of substrate). Selenium content in roots increased linearly with dose and was significantly higher compared to other plant parts of interest. However, growth of the above-ground parts of plant as well as roots was slightly inhibited with increasing selenium concentration in comparison to the untreated plants. The content of phytochelatin2, a low molecular mass peptide containing a sulfhydryl group, correlated well with the Se content. This suggests a possible stimulation of synthesis of this plant peptide by Se.

  5. Effects of Various Doses of Selenite on Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Krystofova, Olga; Adam, Vojtech; Babula, Petr; Zehnalek, Josef; Beklova, Miroslava; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) plants. Se was supplemented by one-shot and two repeated doses to the soil (2.0 and 4.0 mg Se per kg of substrate). Selenium content in roots increased linearly with dose and was significantly higher compared to other plant parts of interest. However, growth of the above-ground parts of plant as well as roots was slightly inhibited with increasing selenium concentration in comparison to the untreated plants. The content of phytochelatin2, a low molecular mass peptide containing a sulfhydryl group, correlated well with the Se content. This suggests a possible stimulation of synthesis of this plant peptide by Se. PMID:21139861

  6. Nootropic activity of tuber extract of Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb).

    PubMed

    Rao, N Venkata; Pujar, Basavaraj; Nimbal, S K; Shantakumar, S M; Satyanarayana, S

    2008-08-01

    Nootropic effect of alcoholic (ALE; 50, 75, 100 mg/kg) and aqueous (AQE; 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) extracts of P. tuberosa was evaluated by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), scopolamine-induced amnesia (SIA), diazepam-induced amnesia (DIA), clonidine-induced (NA-mediated) hypothermia (CIH), lithium-induced (5-HT mediated) head twitches (LIH) and haloperidol-induced (DA- mediated) catalepsy (HIC) models. Piracetam was used as the standard drug. A significant increase in inflexion ratio (IR) was recorded in EPM, SIA and DIA models. A significant reversal effect was observed on rectal temperature in CIH model, reduction of head twitches in LIH models. However no significant reduction in catalepsy scores in HIC models were observed with test extracts and standard piracetam. The results indicate that nootropic activity observed with ALE and AQE of tuber extracts of P. tuberosa could be through improved learning and memory either by augmenting the noradrenaline (NA) transmission or by interfering with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release. Further, the extracts neither facilitated nor blocked release of the dopamine (DA). Thus ALE and AQE elicited significant nootropic effect in mice and rats by interacting with cholinergic, GABAnergic, adrenergic and serotonergic systems. Phytoconstituents like flavonoids have been reported for their nootropic effect and these are present in both ALE and AQE extracts of tubers of P. tuberosa (Roxb) and these active principles may be responsible for nootropic activity.

  7. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.)--a promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Policegoudra, R S; Aradhya, S M; Singh, L

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  8. Evaluation of acute toxicity and intestinal transit time of Olax scandens Roxb. leaves.

    PubMed

    Naik, Raghavendra; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Nariya, Mukesh B; Borkar, Sneha D

    2015-01-01

    Olax scandens Roxb. is a shrub or small tree found throughout tropical India. Fruits and leaves of this plant are used for medicinal and food purpose. Traditionally, leaves of O. scandens are used as vegetable in constipation. To evaluate the acute toxicity and intestinal transit time of O. scandens leaves on experimental animals. Acute oral toxicity study for sample was carried out following OECD guidelines. Evaluation of intestinal transit time was carried out in the dose of 1300 mg/kg by adopting Kaolin expulsion test and latency of the onset of kaolin expulsion in fecal matter in mice. The results show that the test drug is not likely to produce any toxicity in higher dose. In kaolin expulsion test, the drug produced mild increase in intestinal motility in mice proved by fast clearance of kaolin pellet in comparison to control group. The leaves of O. scandens are safe at higher dose and showed mild laxative activity in the dose of 1300 mg/kg body weight of mice.

  9. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Extract (Rosa canina, Tanacetum vulgare and Urtica dioica) on Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Daneshmand, Parvaneh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Kamali, Koorosh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Nazari, Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (SAD) is caused by genetic risk factors, aging and oxidative stresses. The herbal extract of Rosa canina (R. canina), Tanacetum vulgare (T. vulgare) and Urtica dioica (U. dioica) has a beneficial role in aging, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of this herbal extract in the rat model of SAD was investigated. The rats were divided into control, sham, model, herbal extract -treated and ethanol-treated groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21(st) day after modeling and each treatment group was given the drugs by intraperitoneal (I.P.) route for 21 days. The expression levels of the five important genes for pathogenesis of SAD including Syp, Psen1, Mapk3, Map2 and Tnf-α were measured by qPCR between the hippocampi of SAD model which were treated by this herbal extract and control groups. The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. Treatment of the rat model of SAD with herbal extract induced a significant change in expression of Syp (p=0.001) and Psen1 (p=0.029). In Morris Water Maze, significant changes in spatial learning seen in the rat model group were improved in herbal-treated group. This herbal extract could have anti-dementia properties and improve spatial learning and memory in SAD rat model.

  10. Anti-spermatogenic activity of ethanol extract of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. stem bark.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Neeru; Vats, Manisha

    2011-06-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-spermatogenic efficacy of ethanol extract of stem bark of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. For the in vitro study, semen samples were obtained from 15 healthy fertile men aged 25-35 years. Sperm motility was examined by the Sander-Cramer method. A dose-dependent and time-dependent effect of ethanol extract on sperm motility and sperm viability were observed. Various concentrations affected the motility of sperm. Ethanol extract at a concentration of 20 mg/mL caused complete immobilization within 3 minutes. Sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling was significantly reduced at this concentration. The in vivo studies were carried out on Swiss male albino mice. Ethanol extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight resulted in a significant decrease (p<0.001) in weight of the testis and epididymis. A significant decrease (p<0.01) in sperm motility and sperm count in the epididymis were observed. Histological changes in the epididymis and testis were also investigated. Copyright © 2011 Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  11. The distribution of macronutrients, anti-nutrients and essential elements in nettles, Laportea peduncularis susp. peduncularis (River nettle) and Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle).

    PubMed

    Mahlangeni, Nomfundo T; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-01-01

    Laportea peduncularis and Urtica dioica, which are popularly known as "Nettles" belong to the plant family Urticaceae and are consumed as green vegetables or used for their medicinal benefit in many countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and America. This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooking on the macronutrient, anti-nutrient and elemental composition of L. peduncularis and U. dioica leaves. The results showed a decrease in the crude fat, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C content with cooking, but an increase in the vitamin E content. The anti-nutrient content (cyanides, phytates and saponins) increased slightly with cooking, while the oxalate content has decreased. The concentration of essential elements in cooked L. peduncularis leaves were found to be in decreasing order of Ca > Mg > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Co. Both raw and cooked leaves of nettles were found to be rich sources of macronutrients and essential elements and may be used as alternatives to commercially available nutrient supplements. Statistical analyses (principal component analysis and correlations) indicated that certain elements taken up by these plants were from common sources. Both positive and negative relationships between nutrients, anti-nutrients and elements were observed in the plant leaves.

  12. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  13. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of the plants of genus Flemingia Roxb. et Ait. (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Zhai, Fengyan; Liu, Zhongdong

    2012-09-01

    The genus Flemingia Roxb. et Ait. (Leguminosae) has been used for disease prevention and therapy in China since ancient times. So the material basis of the pharmacological activity in the genus Flemingia should be clear for how to use this kind of traditional Chinese medicines more reasonably in pharmacology. Therefore, this review gives an account of the current knowledge on the chemical constituents, biological activities and pharmacological properties of the plants of the genus. Several different classes of compounds were previously isolated, which the main groups are flavones, particularly prenylated flavones, and triterpenes accompanied with sterols, anthraquinones, and others. The names and structures of the chemical constituents are given in this review. In addition, the pharmacological effects of the extracts and individual compounds (mainly for flavones) derived from the genus plants have been found, including neuroprotection, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, cytotoxicity, hormone-like effects, antimicrobial activities, and so on.

  14. Urtica dioica agglutinin: separation, identification, and quantitation of individual isolectins by capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ganzera, Markus; Piereder, Daniela; Sturm, Sonja; Erdelmeier, Clemens; Stuppner, Hermann

    2005-05-01

    With benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) being a major health problem in ageing men, alternative therapeutic approaches (e.g., with phytopharmaceuticals) are of great interest. Based on pharmacological evidences, one of the most promising options in that respect are the lectins found in Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) roots. In this study the qualitative and quantitative analysis of individual isolectins in U. dioica extracts is described, which is the first report on using capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the analysis of lectins in plant material at all. By utilizing a 200 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 3.75) a baseline separation and determination of four closely related isolectins was feasible within 20 min in the aqueous plant extracts. The individual compounds were identified based on reference compounds as well as data obtained from CE-mass spectrometry (MS) experiments. After modifying the optimized CE conditions to 100 mM ammonium formate buffer with pH 3.75 and a voltage of 15 kV, the isolectins were clearly assignable in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. The quantitative results obtained by CE (the total lectin content varied from 0 to 0.42% in the samples) were accurate (recovery rates of spiked samples between 92.5 and 96.2%), precise (relative standard deviation < 5%) and in good agreement to those obtained by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). As for peak resolution, assignable compounds and required separation time the newly developed CE method was clearly advantageous over the determination achieved by LC.

  15. A pseudoautosomal random amplified polymorphic DNA marker for the sex chromosomes of Silene dioica.

    PubMed Central

    Di Stilio, V S; Kesseli, R V; Mulcahy, D L

    1998-01-01

    The segregation pattern of an 810-bp random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) band in the F1 and backcross generations of a Silene dioica (L.) Clairv. family provides evidence that this molecular marker is located in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of the X and Y chromosomes. The marker was found through a combination of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and RAPD techniques. Recombination rates between this pseudoautosomal marker and the differentiating portion of the Y chromosome are 15% in both generations. Alternative explanations involving nondisjunction or autosomal inheritance are presented and discussed. Chromosome counts provide evidence against the nondisjunction hypothesis, and probability calculations argue against the possibility of autosomal inheritance. This constitutes the first report of a pseudoautosomal DNA marker for plant sex chromosomes. PMID:9691057

  16. Anticancer and antioxidant tannins from Pimenta dioica leaves.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Mohamed S A; Moharram, Fatma A; Mohamed, Mona A; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Aboutabl, Elsayed A

    2007-01-01

    Two galloylglucosides, 6-hydroxy-eugenol 4-O-(6'-O-galloyl)-beta-D-4C1-glucopyranoside (4) and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propane-1,2-diol-2-O-(2',6'-di-O-galloyl)-beta-D -4C1-glucopyranoside (7), and two C-glycosidic tannins, vascalaginone (10) and grandininol (14), together with fourteen known metabolites, gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), nilocitin (3), 1-O-galloyl-4,6-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(alpha/beta)-D-glucopyranose (5), 4,6-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(alpha/beta)-D-glucopyranose (6), 3,4,6-valoneoyl-(alpha/beta)-D-glucopyranose (8), pedunculagin (9), casuariin (11), castalagin (12), vascalagin (13), casuarinin (15), grandinin (16), methyl-flavogallonate (17) and ellagic acid (18), were identified from the leaves of Pimenta dioica (Merr.) L. (Myrtaceae) on the basis of their chemical and physicochemical analysis (UV, HRESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). It was found that 9 is the most cytotoxic compound against solid tumour cancer cells, the most potent scavenger against the artificial radical DPPH and physiological radicals including ROO*, OH*, and O2-*, and strongly inhibited the NO generation and induced the proliferation of T-lymphocytes and macrophages. On the other hand, 3 was the strongest NO inhibitor and 16 the highest stimulator for the proliferation of T-lymphocytes, while 10 was the most active inducer of macrophage proliferation.

  17. Effect of aqueous bark extract of Garuga pinnata Roxb. in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shirwaikar, Annie; Rajendran, K; Barik, Rakesh

    2006-09-19

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous extract of bark of Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae). The various parameters studied included fasting blood sugar levels, serum lipid levels, liver glycogen content, serum insulin level and glycated hemoglobin in diabetic and normal rats. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide was used to induce type-II diabetes mellitus. Treatment with the extract at two dose levels showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and serum insulin level and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels were also significantly reduced and the HDL cholesterol levels were significantly increased upon treatment with the extract thus proving the potent antidiabetic property of the plant.

  18. An efficient preparative procedure for main flavonoids from the peel of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. using polyamide resin followed by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Sun, Ailing; Liu, Renmin; Zhang, Yongqing; Cui, Jichun

    2014-08-15

    In this study, a simple and efficient preparative procedure was developed for preparation of seven flavonoids from the peel of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. using polyamide resin followed by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography (SPHPLC). First, the ethyl acetate fraction from the peel of T. kirilowii Maxim. obtained "prefractionation" using polyamide resin, which yielded two subfractions. And then the two subfractions were isolated by SPHPLC with an isocratic elution of methanol-water. Finally, seven known flavonoids were purified from 35 g of ethyl acetate extract including quercetin-3-O-[α-l-rhamnose (1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (19 mg), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (24 mg), apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (10mg), diosmetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (45 mg), luteolin (21 mg), apigenin (15 mg), and diosmetin (56 mg). The purities of the compounds were determined by HPLC and the chemical structures were confirmed by UV and NMR analysis. In the present study, a simple, effective, and rapid procedure was established for preparative separation of multiple components from the peel of T. kirilowii Maxim. Furthermore, it was scalable and economical, so it was a promising basis for large-scale preparation of flavonoids from other plant extracts. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Sex and parasites: genomic and transcriptomic analysis of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, the biotrophic and plant-castrating anther smut fungus.

    PubMed

    Perlin, Michael H; Amselem, Joelle; Fontanillas, Eric; Toh, Su San; Chen, Zehua; Goldberg, Jonathan; Duplessis, Sebastien; Henrissat, Bernard; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Aguileta, Gabriela; Petit, Elsa; Badouin, Helene; Andrews, Jared; Razeeq, Dominique; Gabaldón, Toni; Quesneville, Hadi; Giraud, Tatiana; Hood, Michael E; Schultz, David J; Cuomo, Christina A

    2015-06-16

    The genus Microbotryum includes plant pathogenic fungi afflicting a wide variety of hosts with anther smut disease. Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae infects Silene latifolia and replaces host pollen with fungal spores, exhibiting biotrophy and necrosis associated with altering plant development. We determined the haploid genome sequence for M. lychnidis-dioicae and analyzed whole transcriptome data from plant infections and other stages of the fungal lifecycle, revealing the inventory and expression level of genes that facilitate pathogenic growth. Compared to related fungi, an expanded number of major facilitator superfamily transporters and secretory lipases were detected; lipase gene expression was found to be altered by exposure to lipid compounds, which signaled a switch to dikaryotic, pathogenic growth. In addition, while enzymes to digest cellulose, xylan, xyloglucan, and highly substituted forms of pectin were absent, along with depletion of peroxidases and superoxide dismutases that protect the fungus from oxidative stress, the repertoire of glycosyltransferases and of enzymes that could manipulate host development has expanded. A total of 14% of the genome was categorized as repetitive sequences. Transposable elements have accumulated in mating-type chromosomal regions and were also associated across the genome with gene clusters of small secreted proteins, which may mediate host interactions. The unique absence of enzyme classes for plant cell wall degradation and maintenance of enzymes that break down components of pollen tubes and flowers provides a striking example of biotrophic host adaptation.

  20. Hox cluster disintegration with persistent anteroposterior order of expression in Oikopleura dioica.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hee-Chan; Edvardsen, Rolf Brudvik; Maeland, Anne Dorthea; Bjordal, Marianne; Jensen, Marit Flo; Hansen, Anette; Flaat, Mette; Weissenbach, Jean; Lehrach, Hans; Wincker, Patrick; Reinhardt, Richard; Chourrout, Daniel

    2004-09-02

    Tunicate embryos and larvae have small cell numbers and simple anatomical features in comparison with other chordates, including vertebrates. Although they branch near the base of chordate phylogenetic trees, their degree of divergence from the common chordate ancestor remains difficult to evaluate. Here we show that the tunicate Oikopleura dioica has a complement of nine Hox genes in which all central genes are lacking but a full vertebrate-like set of posterior genes is present. In contrast to all bilaterians studied so far, Hox genes are not clustered in the Oikopleura genome. Their expression occurs mostly in the tail, with some tissue preference, and a strong partition of expression domains in the nerve cord, in the notochord and in the muscle. In each tissue of the tail, the anteroposterior order of Hox gene expression evokes spatial collinearity, with several alterations. We propose a relationship between the Hox cluster breakdown, the separation of Hox expression domains, and a transition to a determinative mode of development.

  1. Effect of ecological surface treatment method on friction strength properties of nettle (urtica dioica) fibre yarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şansal, S.; Mıstık, S. I.; Fettahov, R.; Ovalı, S.; Duman, M.

    2017-10-01

    Over the last few decades, more attention is given to lignocellulose based fibres as reinforcement material in the polymer composites owing to the environmental pollution caused by the extensive usage of synthetic and inorganic fibres. Developing new natural fibre reinforced composites is the focus of many researches nowadays. They are made from renewable resources and they have less environmental effect in comparison to inorganic fibre reinforced composites. The interest of consumers in eco-friendly natural fibres and textiles has increased in recent years. Unlike inorganic fibres, natural fibres present light weight, high strength/density ratio and are readily available, environmentally friendly and biodegradable. Many different types of natural fibres are exploited for the production of biodegradable polymer composites. The nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant growing on rural sites of Europe, Asia, and North America. Nettle plant contains fibre similar to hemp and flax. However, similar to other natural fibres, nettle fibres are poorly compatible with the thermoplastic matrix of composites, due to their hydrophilic character which reduces mechanical properties of nettle fibre reinforced thermoplastics. In order to improve the fibrematrix adhesion of the natural fibre reinforced composites, surface treatment processes are applied to the lignocellulose fibres. In this study nettle (urtica dioica) fibre yarns were treated with NaOH by using conventional, ultrasonic and microwave energy methods. After treatment processes tensile strength, elongation, friction strength and SEM observations of the nettle fibre yarns were investigated. All treatment processes were improved the tensile strength, elongation and friction strength properties of the nettle fibre yarns. Also higher tensile strength, elongation and friction strength properties were obtained from treated nettle fibre yarns which treated by using microwave energy method.

  2. Ex-vivo in-vitro inhibition of lipopolysaccharide stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta secretion in human whole blood by extractum urticae dioicae foliorum.

    PubMed

    Obertreis, B; Ruttkowski, T; Teucher, T; Behnke, B; Schmitz, H

    1996-04-01

    An extract of Urtica dioica folium (IDS 23, Rheuma-Hek), monographed positively for adjuvant therapy of rheumatic diseases and with known effects in partial inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis in vitro, was investigated with respect to effects of the extract on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in human whole blood of healthy volunteers. In the assay system used, LPS stimulated human whole blood showed a straight increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) secretion reaching maximum concentrations within 24 h following a plateau and slight decrease up to 65 h, respectively. The concentrations of these cytokines was strongly positively correlated with the number of monocytes/macrophages of each volunteer. TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta concentration after LPS stimulation was significantly reduced by simultaneously given IDS 23 in a strictly dose dependent manner. At time 24 h these cytokine concentrations were reduced by 50.8% and 99.7%, respectively, using the highest test IDS 23 assay concentration of 5 mg/ml (p < 0.001). After 65 h the corresponding inhibition was 38.9% and 99.9%, respectively (p < 0.001). On the other hand IDS 23 showed no inhibition but stimulated IL-6 secretion in absence of LPS alone. Simultaneously given LPS and IDS 23 resulted in no further increase. In contrast to described effects on arachidonic acid cascade in vitro, tested Urtica dioica phenol carbon acid derivates and flavonoides such as caffeic malic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin and rutin did not influence LPS stimulated TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 secretion in tested concentrations up to 5 x 10(-5) mol/l. These further findings on the pharmacological mechanism of action of Urticae dioica folia may explain the positive effects of this extract in the treatment of rheumatic diseases.

  3. Effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in urolithiasis induced wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, A.; Kokilavani, R; Gurusamy, K.; Teepa, K. S. Ananta; Sathya, M.

    2011-01-01

    Urolithiasis was induced using ethylene glycol in wistar albino rats, the formation of calcium stones in the kidney results with the damage of antioxidant system. Ethanolic extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb fruit of family Curcurbitaceae was used to treat urolithiasis. On this course, the extract also repairs the changes that happened in the enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of urolithiasis induced rats. The results obtained from the analysis were compared at 5% level of significance using one way ANOVA. The results show that the ethanolic fruit extract has repaired the levels of antioxidants and malondialdehyde to their normal levels. PMID:22736884

  4. Natural products from Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. with antiproliferation activities in HCT116 colorectal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Muhammad; Bilal, Aishah; Ali, Muhammad Shaiq; Fatima, Itrat; Faisal, Amir; Sherkheli, Muhammad Azhar; Asghar, Adnan

    2017-03-01

    Parasitic Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. possesses many medicinal properties and is a rich source of a variety of biologically relevant natural products. Natural products are the prime source of leads, drugs, and drug templates, and many of the anticancer and antiviral drugs are either based on natural product or derived from them. Cancer is a devastating disease and one of the leading causes of death worldwide despite improvements in patient survival during the past 50 years; new and improved treatments for cancer are therefore actively sought. Colorectal cancer is the fourth most prevalent cancer worldwide and is responsible for nearly 9% of all cancer deaths. Our search for anticancer natural products from C. reflexa has yielded four natural products: Scoparone (1), p-coumaric acid (2), stigmasta-3,5-diene (3) and 1-O-p-hydroxycinnamoylglucose (4) and among them 1-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyldlucose (4) showed promising antiproliferative activities in HCT116 colorectal cell lines, whereas compounds 1-3 showed moderate activities.

  5. Effects of Stinging Nettle (Urtica Dioica L.,) on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Rat Model of Mammary Gland Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Telo, Selda; Halifeoglu, Ihsan; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi

    2017-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.,) is a medicinal herb commonly used by humans. The role of reactive oxygen metabolites on cancer etiology is known. There are some studies about the antioxidant effects of Urtica Dioica (UD) on therapy of some cancer types. This study aimed to investigate the effects of UD on antioxidant enzyme activities and mammary gland cancer induced by in rats-N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU) carcinogenesis. Rats were divided into four groups: a untreated group (Group 1), a NMU group (Group 2) given 50 mg/kg NMU by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, a NMU group (Group 3) treated with UD, a control group (Group 4) fed with 50g/kg UD. After 5.5 months, rats were decapitated, and mammary tissue and blood samples were obtained. There was a significant (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively) increase in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of group 2 compared with group 1 and 4. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the erythrocytes was decreased in group 3 than the other groups (p<0.0001). The erythrocyte catalase (CAT) activity was significantly increased in group 4 compared with group 2 and 3 (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively). The number of animals with palpable tumors was 6 (46.15%) in group 2, and 2 (13.3%) in group 3 at the end of the 22nd week. Although group 3 had lower palpable tumor number than group 2, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.096). The results showed that UD constituents may have effects on lipid peroxidation and some antioxidant enzyme activities, and may slow the formation of mammary tumor. PMID:29844787

  6. Hepatoprotective potential of antioxidant potent fraction from Urtica dioica Linn. (whole plant) in CCl4 challenged rats.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Bhuwan Chandra; Prakash, Atish; Kalia, Ajudhia N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate hepatoprotective component from Urtica dioica Linn. (whole plant) against CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro (HepG2 cells) and in-vivo (rats) model. Antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract and its fractions petroleum ether fraction (PEF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), n -butanol fraction (NBF) and aqueous fraction (AF) were determined by DPPH and NO radicals scavenging assay. Fractions were subjected to in-vitro HepG2 cell line study. Further, the most potent fraction (EAF) was subjected to in-vivo hepatoprotective potential against CCl 4 challenged rats. The in-vivo hepatoprotective active fraction was chromatographed on silica column to isolate the bioactive constituent(s). Structure elucidation was done by using various spectrophotometric techniques like UV, IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and MS spectroscopy. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica possessed the potent antioxidant activity viz. DPPH (IC 50 78.99 ± 0.17 μg/ml) and NO (IC 50 101.39 ± 0.30 μg/ml). The in-vitro HepG2 cell line study showed that the EAF prevented the cell damage. The EAF significantly attenuated the increased liver enzymes activities in serum and oxidative parameters in tissue of CCl 4 -induced rats, suggesting hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant action respectively. Column chromatography of most potent antioxidant fraction (EAF) lead to the isolation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid (ferulic acid) which is responsible for its hepatoprotective potential. Hence, the present study suggests that EAF of hydro-alcoholic extract has significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential on CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro and in-vivo .

  7. Influence of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on vegetative growth in the dioecious plant Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Oñate, Marta; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2009-10-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a herbaceous, dioecious perennial that is widely distributed around the world, reproduces both sexually and asexually, and is characterized by rapid growth. This work was aimed at evaluating the effects of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on the growth of leaves and shoots. Growth rates of apical shoots, together with foliar levels of phytohormones (cytokinins, auxins, absicisic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid) and other indicators of leaf physiology (water contents, photosynthetic pigments, alpha-tocopherol and F(v)/F(m) ratios) were measured in juvenile and mature plants, with a distinction made between reproductive and non-reproductive shoots in both males and females. Vegetative growth rates were not only evaluated in field-grown plants, but also in cuttings obtained from these plants. All measurements were performed during an active vegetative growth phase in autumn, a few months after mature plants reproduced during spring and summer. Vegetative growth rates in mature plants were drastically reduced compared with juvenile ones (48 % and 78 % for number of leaves and leaf biomass produced per day, respectively), which was associated with a loss of photosynthetic pigments (up to 24 % and 48 % for chlorophylls and carotenoids, respectively) and increases of alpha-tocopherol (up to 2.7-fold), while endogenous levels of phytohormones did not differ between mature and juvenile plants. Reductions in vegetative growth were particularly evident in reproductive shoots of mature plants, and occurred similarly in both males and females. It is concluded that (a) plant maturity reduces vegetative growth in U. dioica, (b) effects of plant maturity are evident both in reproductive and non-reproductive shoots, but particularly in the former, and (c) these changes occur similarly in both male and female plants.

  8. Glacial Refugia in Pathogens: European Genetic Structure of Anther Smut Pathogens on Silene latifolia and Silene dioica

    PubMed Central

    Vercken, Elodie; Fontaine, Michael C.; Gladieux, Pierre; Hood, Michael E.; Jonot, Odile; Giraud, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Climate warming is predicted to increase the frequency of invasions by pathogens and to cause the large-scale redistribution of native host species, with dramatic consequences on the health of domesticated and wild populations of plants and animals. The study of historic range shifts in response to climate change, such as during interglacial cycles, can help in the prediction of the routes and dynamics of infectious diseases during the impending ecosystem changes. Here we studied the population structure in Europe of two Microbotryum species causing anther smut disease on the plants Silene latifolia and Silene dioica. Clustering analyses revealed the existence of genetically distinct groups for the pathogen on S. latifolia, providing a clear-cut example of European phylogeography reflecting recolonization from southern refugia after glaciation. The pathogen genetic structure was congruent with the genetic structure of its host species S. latifolia, suggesting dependence of the migration pathway of the anther smut fungus on its host. The fungus, however, appeared to have persisted in more numerous and smaller refugia than its host and to have experienced fewer events of large-scale dispersal. The anther smut pathogen on S. dioica also showed a strong phylogeographic structure that might be related to more northern glacial refugia. Differences in host ecology probably played a role in these differences in the pathogen population structure. Very high selfing rates were inferred in both fungal species, explaining the low levels of admixture between the genetic clusters. The systems studied here indicate that migration patterns caused by climate change can be expected to include pathogen invasions that follow the redistribution of their host species at continental scales, but also that the recolonization by pathogens is not simply a mirror of their hosts, even for obligate biotrophs, and that the ecology of hosts and pathogen mating systems likely affects recolonization

  9. Influence of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on vegetative growth in the dioecious plant Urtica dioica

    PubMed Central

    Oñate, Marta; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a herbaceous, dioecious perennial that is widely distributed around the world, reproduces both sexually and asexually, and is characterized by rapid growth. This work was aimed at evaluating the effects of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on the growth of leaves and shoots. Methods Growth rates of apical shoots, together with foliar levels of phytohormones (cytokinins, auxins, absicisic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid) and other indicators of leaf physiology (water contents, photosynthetic pigments, α-tocopherol and Fv/Fm ratios) were measured in juvenile and mature plants, with a distinction made between reproductive and non-reproductive shoots in both males and females. Vegetative growth rates were not only evaluated in field-grown plants, but also in cuttings obtained from these plants. All measurements were performed during an active vegetative growth phase in autumn, a few months after mature plants reproduced during spring and summer. Key Results Vegetative growth rates in mature plants were drastically reduced compared with juvenile ones (48 % and 78 % for number of leaves and leaf biomass produced per day, respectively), which was associated with a loss of photosynthetic pigments (up to 24 % and 48 % for chlorophylls and carotenoids, respectively) and increases of α-tocopherol (up to 2·7-fold), while endogenous levels of phytohormones did not differ between mature and juvenile plants. Reductions in vegetative growth were particularly evident in reproductive shoots of mature plants, and occurred similarly in both males and females. Conclusions It is concluded that (a) plant maturity reduces vegetative growth in U. dioica, (b) effects of plant maturity are evident both in reproductive and non-reproductive shoots, but particularly in the former, and (c) these changes occur similarly in both male and female plants. PMID:19633309

  10. Effect of Urtica dioica agglutinin and Arabidopsis thaliana Chia4 chitinase on the protozoan Phytomonas françai.

    PubMed

    Gomes Rocha, Graça Celeste; Nicolich, Rebecca; Romeiro, Alexandre; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Attias, Márcia; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio

    2003-09-12

    The genus Phytomonas is responsible for many diseases in different crop plant species. The finding that chitin is an exposed cell surface polysaccharide in Phytomonas françai and the observation that chitinases can inhibit fungal growth raises expectations about the potential effect of plant chitinases on the P. françai cell membrane surface. The plant chitinases Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) and Arabidopsis thaliana Chia4 (ATCHIT4) proteins were over-expressed in bacteria and the interaction between these proteins and P. françai surface was analyzed by immunocytochemistry. We showed that UDA and ATCHIT4 proteins can interact with surface-exposed chitin from P. françai.

  11. Tooth enamel surface micro-hardness with dual species Streptococcus biofilm after exposure to Java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isjwara, F. R. G.; Hasanah, S. N.; Utami, Sri; Suniarti, D. F.

    2017-08-01

    Streptococcus biofilm on tooth surfaces can decrease mouth environment pH, thus causing enamel demineralization that can lead to dental caries. Java Turmeric extract has excellent antibacterial effects and can maintain S. mutans biofilm pH at neutral levels for 4 hours. To analyze the effect of Java Turmeric extract on tooth enamel micro-hardness, the Java Turmeric extract was added on enamel tooth samples with Streptococcus dual species biofilm (S. sanguinis and S. mutans). The micro-hardness of enamel was measured by Knoop Hardness Tester. Results showed that Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. could not maintain tooth enamel surface micro-hardness. It is concluded that Java Turmeric extract ethanol could not inhibit the hardness of enamel with Streptococcus dual species biofilm.

  12. Characterization of Urtica dioica agglutinin isolectins and the encoding gene family.

    PubMed

    Does, M P; Ng, D K; Dekker, H L; Peumans, W J; Houterman, P M; Van Damme, E J; Cornelissen, B J

    1999-01-01

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) has previously been found in roots and rhizomes of stinging nettles as a mixture of UDA-isolectins. Protein and cDNA sequencing have shown that mature UDA is composed of two hevein domains and is processed from a precursor protein. The precursor contains a signal peptide, two in-tandem hevein domains, a hinge region and a carboxyl-terminal chitinase domain. Genomic fragments encoding precursors for UDA-isolectins have been amplified by five independent polymerase chain reactions on genomic DNA from stinging nettle ecotype Weerselo. One amplified gene was completely sequenced. As compared to the published cDNA sequence, the genomic sequence contains, besides two basepair substitutions, two introns located at the same positions as in other plant chitinases. By partial sequence analysis of 40 amplified genes, 16 different genes were identified which encode seven putative UDA-isolectins. The deduced amino acid sequences share 78.9-98.9% identity. In extracts of roots and rhizomes of stinging nettle ecotype Weerselo six out of these seven isolectins were detected by mass spectrometry. One of them is an acidic form, which has not been identified before. Our results demonstrate that UDA is encoded by a large gene family.

  13. Trichosanthis Fructus: botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiankuo; Tang, Liying; Wu, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiao; Luo, Hanyan; Guo, Rixin; Xu, Mengying; Yang, Hongjun; Fan, Jianwei; Wang, Zhuju; Su, Ruiqiang

    2018-05-26

    Trichosanthis Fructus (ripe fruits of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. and Trichosanthes rosthornii Harms) is an essential traditional Chinese medicine to treat thoracic obstruction, angina, cardiac failure, myocardial infarction, pulmonary heart disease, some cerebral ischaemic diseases, etc. The present report reviews the advancements in research on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Trichosanthis Fructus. Finally, perspectives on future research and its possible directions are discussed. This review provides up-to-date information about the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and quality control of Trichosanthis Fructus and discusses the perspectives on future research and possible directions of this traditional Chinese Medicine and its origin plants. The information on Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. and Trichosanthes rosthornii Harms was collected from published scientific materials, including books; monographs on medicinal plants; pharmacopoeia and electronic databases such as SCI finder, PubMed, Web of Science, ACS, Science Direct, Wiley, Springer, Taylor, CNKI and Google Scholar. Approximately 162 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, nitrogenous compounds and lignans, have been isolated and identified from Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. and Trichosanthes rosthornii Harms. Numerous studies have shown that the extracts and compounds isolated from these two plants exhibit pharmacological activities, including protection against myocardial ischaemia, calcium antagonist, endothelial cell protection, anti-hypoxic, anti-platelet aggregation, expectorant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antioxidant. Trichosanthis Fructus is an essential traditional Chinese medicine with pharmacological activities that mainly affect the cardiovascular system. This review summarises its botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Future research is needed to clarify the different uses of the

  14. Growth and mitochondrial respiration of mungbeans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) germinated at low pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Gerth, W. A.; Scheld, H. W.; Strain, B. R.

    1988-01-01

    Mungbean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) seedlings were grown hypobarically to assess the effects of low pressure (21-24 kilopascals) on growth and mitochondrial respiration. Control seedlings grown at ambient pressure (101 kilopascals) were provided amounts of O2 equivalent to those provided experimental seedlings at reduced pressure to factor out responses to O2 concentration and to total pressure. Respiration was assayed using washed mitochondria, and was found to respond only to O2 concentration. Regardless of total pressure, seedlings grown at 2 millimoles O2 per liter had higher state 3 respiration rates and decreased percentages of alternative respiration compared to ambient (8.4 millimoles O2 per liter) controls. In contrast, seedling growth responded to total pressure but not to O2 concentration. Seedlings were significantly larger when grown under low pressure. While low O2 (2 millimoles O2 per liter) diminished growth at ambient pressure, growth at low pressure in the same oxygen concentration was enhanced. Respiratory development and growth of mungbean seedlings under low pressure is unimpaired whether oxygen or air is used as the chamber gas, and further, low pressure can improve growth under conditions of poor aeration.

  15. Thermodynamic parameters of the interaction of Urtica dioica agglutinin with N-acetylglucosamine and its oligomers.

    PubMed

    Lee, R T; Gabius, H J; Lee, Y C

    1998-07-01

    The interaction between Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and its beta(1-4)-linked oligomers was studied by fluorescence titration and isothermal titration microcalorimetry. UDA possesses one significant binding site that can be measured calorimetrically. This site is composed of three subsites, each subsite accommodating one GlcNAc residue. The interaction is enthalpically driven, and the binding area of UDA is characterized by a deltaH of interaction for a given oligosaccharide considerably smaller than that of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), despite the fact that they both belong to a family of proteins composed entirely of hevein domains. Relatively high deltaCp values of the UDA-carbohydrate interactions and more favorable entropy term compared to WGA suggest that binding of the carbohydrate ligands by UDA has a higher hydrophobic component than that of WGA.

  16. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil from leaves and rhizomes of Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.

    PubMed

    Jena, Sudipta; Ray, Asit; Banerjee, Anwesha; Sahoo, Ambika; Nasim, Noohi; Sahoo, Suprava; Kar, Basudeba; Patnaik, Jeetendranath; Panda, Pratap Chandra; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2017-09-01

    The essential oil extracted from rhizome and leaf of Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) was characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 32 and 35 identified constituents, comprising 92.6% and 92% of total leaf and rhizome oil, respectively. Curzerenone (33.2%), 14-hydroxy-δ-cadinene (18.6%) and γ-eudesmol acetate (7.3%) were the main components in leaf oil. In rhizome oil, curzerenone (72.6%), camphor (3.3%) and germacrone (3.3%) were found to be the major constituents. Antioxidant capacities of oil were assessed by various methods, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and reducing power ability (RPA). Based on the results, the leaf oil showed more antioxidant potential as compared to rhizome oil and reference standards (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)). Thus, the leaf essential oil of C. angustifolia can be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidant.

  17. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Leaf Extract of Erythrina suberosa (Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Yugal K; Panda, Sujogya K; Jayabalan, Rasu; Sharma, Nanaocha; Bastia, Akshaya K; Mohanta, Tapan K

    2017-01-01

    In this experiment, biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of Erythrina suberosa (Roxb.). The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticle was continuously followed by UV-vis spectrophotometric analysis. The response of the phytoconstituents resides in E. suberusa during synthesis of stable AgNPs were analyzed by ATR- fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Further, the size, charge, and polydispersity nature of AgNPs were studied using dynamic light scattering spectroscopy. The morphology of the nanoparticles was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Current result shows core involvement of plant extracts containing glycosides, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds played a crucial role in the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles were evaluated against different pathogenic bacterium and fungi. The antioxidant property was studied by radical scavenging (DPPH) assay and cytotoxic activity was evaluated against A-431 osteosarcoma cell line by MTT assay. The characteristics of the synthesized silver nanoparticles suggest their application as a potential antimicrobial and anticancer agent.

  18. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Leaf Extract of Erythrina suberosa (Roxb.)

    PubMed Central

    Mohanta, Yugal K.; Panda, Sujogya K.; Jayabalan, Rasu; Sharma, Nanaocha; Bastia, Akshaya K.; Mohanta, Tapan K.

    2017-01-01

    In this experiment, biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of Erythrina suberosa (Roxb.). The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticle was continuously followed by UV-vis spectrophotometric analysis. The response of the phytoconstituents resides in E. suberusa during synthesis of stable AgNPs were analyzed by ATR- fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Further, the size, charge, and polydispersity nature of AgNPs were studied using dynamic light scattering spectroscopy. The morphology of the nanoparticles was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Current result shows core involvement of plant extracts containing glycosides, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds played a crucial role in the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles were evaluated against different pathogenic bacterium and fungi. The antioxidant property was studied by radical scavenging (DPPH) assay and cytotoxic activity was evaluated against A-431 osteosarcoma cell line by MTT assay. The characteristics of the synthesized silver nanoparticles suggest their application as a potential antimicrobial and anticancer agent. PMID:28367437

  19. Predicting As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn levels in grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp.) and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) applying soil-plant transfer models.

    PubMed

    Boshoff, Magdalena; De Jonge, Maarten; Scheifler, Renaud; Bervoets, Lieven

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this study was to derive regression-based soil-plant models to predict and compare metal(loid) (i.e. As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentrations in plants (grass Agrostis sp./Poa sp. and nettle Urtica dioica L.) among sites with a wide range of metal pollution and a wide variation in soil properties. Regression models were based on the pseudo total (aqua-regia) and exchangeable (0.01 M CaCl2) soil metal concentrations. Plant metal concentrations were best explained by the pseudo total soil metal concentrations in combination with soil properties. The most important soil property that influenced U. dioica metal concentrations was the clay content, while for grass organic matter (OM) and pH affected the As (OM) and Cu and Zn (pH). In this study multiple linear regression models proved functional in predicting metal accumulation in plants on a regional scale. With the proposed models based on the pseudo total metal concentration, the percentage of variation explained for the metals As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were 0.56%, 0.47%, 0.59%, 0.61%, 0.30% in nettle and 0.46%, 0.38%, 0.27%, 0.50%, 0.28% in grass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lignans from the roots of Urtica dioica and their metabolites bind to human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG).

    PubMed

    Schöttner, M; Gansser, D; Spiteller, G

    1997-12-01

    Polar extracts of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) roots contain the ligans (+)-neoolivil, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol, and 3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran. These compounds were either isolated from Urtica roots, or obtained semisynthetically. Their affinity to human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) was tested in an in vitro assay. In addition, the main intestinal transformation products of plant lignans in humans, enterodiol and enterolactone, together with enterofuran were checked for their activity. All lignans except (-)-pinoresinol developed a binding affinity to SHBG in the in vitro assay. The affinity of (-)-3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran was outstandingly high. These findings are discussed with respect to potential beneficial effects of plant lignans on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

  1. Study of stinging nettle (urtica dioica l.) Fibers reinforced green composite materials : a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus Suryawan, I. G. P.; Suardana, N. P. G.; Suprapta Winaya, I. N.; Budiarsa Suyasa, I. W.; Tirta Nindhia, T. G.

    2017-05-01

    Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L., latin) is a wild plant that grows in Indonesia, Asia, and Europe. Nettle in Bali, Indonesia is called as Lateng, Jelatang. Nettle plant has a very strong fiber and high fixed carbon. Nettle plants are covered with fine hairs, especially in the leaves and stems. When it is touched, it will release chemicals, sting and trigger inflammation that causes redness, itching, bumps and irritation to the skin. Nettle plants grow in the wild, regarded as a weed in the agricultural industry, easy to grow and snatch food from the parent plant. The main objective of this paper is to review of the potential nettle fibers and then explain about the potential of local nettle plant in Indonesia. Nettle is a plant group at the end of bast. Its plant fibers taken from the bark, as reinforcement in composite materials. Nettle fibers have three main advantages such as strong, lightweight and low environmental impact.

  2. Plant constituents interfering with human sex hormone-binding globulin. Evaluation of a test method and its application to Urtica dioica root extracts.

    PubMed

    Gansser, D; Spiteller, G

    1995-01-01

    A test system is described, which allows the search for compounds interfering with human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) even in complex plant extracts. The method has been evaluated and applied to Urtica dioica root extracts. The lignan secoisolariciresinol (5) as well as a mixture of isomeric (11 E)-9,10,13-trihydroxy-11-octadecenoic and (10 E)-9,12,13-trihydroxy-10-octadecenoic acids (3 and 4, resp.) were demonstrated to reduce binding activity of human SHBG. Methylation of the mixture of 3 and 4 increased its activity about 10-fold.

  3. NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines mediated protective effect of Indigofera caerulea Roxb. on CCl4 induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ponmari, Guruvaiah; Annamalai, Arunachalam; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan; Lakshmi, P T V; Guruvayoorappan, C

    2014-12-01

    Indigofera caerulea Roxb. is a well known shrub among native medical practitioners in folk medicine used for the treatment of jaundice, epilepsy, night blindness and snake bites. It is also reported to have antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. However its actual efficacy and hepatoprotective mechanism in particular is uncertain. Thus the present study investigates the hepatoprotective effect of the methanolic extract of I. caerulea Roxb. leaves (MIL) and elucidation of its mode of action against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury in rats. HPLC analysis of MIL when carried out showed peaks close to standard ferulic acid and quercetin. Intragastric administration of MIL up to 2000 mg/kg bw, didn't show any toxicity and mortality in acute toxicity studies. During "in-vivo" study, hepatic injury was established by intraperitoneal administration of CCl4 3 ml/kg bw (30% CCl4 in olive oil; v/v) twice a week for 4 weeks in Sprague-Dawley rats. Further, hepatoprotective activity of MIL assessed using two different doses (100 and 200mg/kg bw) showed that intra-gastric administration of MIL (200mg/kg bw) significantly attenuates liver injury. Investigation of the underlying mechanism revealed that MIL treatment was capable of reducing inflammation by an antioxidant defense mechanism that blocks the activation of NF-κB as well as inhibits the release of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and IL-1β. The results suggest that MIL has a significant hepatoprotective activity which might be due to the presence of phytochemicals namely analogues of ferulic acid and other phytochemicals which together may suppress the inflammatory signaling pathways and promote hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 intoxicated liver damage. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb leaf extract ameliorates gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2010-10-28

    Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) known as "Mahabala" in Ayurveda and marketed as "Shahadeyi" is used in ethnomedicine to treat ailments such as dysuria and urinary disorders. To evaluate nephroprotective potential of SR against gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction. Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats with GM (100 mg/kg bodyweight (i.p.) for 8 days) and were treated with SR extract (200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight (p.o.) for 8 days) or 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (vehicle). Plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants along with lipid peroxidation were evaluated in various experimental groups. GM treatment induced significant elevation (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea, creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant decrement (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR treatment to GM treated rats (GM+SR) recorded significant decrement (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant increment (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR leaf extract ameliorates GM induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction and thus validates its ethnomedicinal use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimizing oil and xanthorrhizol extraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. rhizome by supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Salea, Rinaldi; Widjojokusumo, Edward; Veriansyah, Bambang; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R

    2014-09-01

    Oil and xanthorrhizol extraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. rhizome by supercritical carbon dioxide was optimized using Taguchi method. The factors considered were pressure, temperature, carbon dioxide flowrate and time at levels ranging between 10-25 MPa, 35-60 °C, 10-25 g/min and 60-240 min respectively. The highest oil yield (8.0 %) was achieved at factor combination of 15 MPa, 50 °C, 20 g/min and 180 min whereas the highest xanthorrhizol content (128.3 mg/g oil) in Curcuma xanthorrhiza oil was achieved at a factor combination of 25 MPa, 50 °C, 15 g/min and 60 min. Soxhlet extraction with n-hexane and percolation with ethanol gave oil yield of 5.88 %, 11.73 % and xanthorrhizol content of 42.6 mg/g oil, 75.5 mg/g oil, respectively. The experimental oil yield and xanthorrhizol content at optimum conditions agreed favourably with values predicted by computational process. The xanthorrizol content extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide was higher than extracted using Soxhlet extraction and percolation process.

  6. Structural characterization and macrophage immunomodulatory activity of a novel polysaccharide from Smilax glabra Roxb.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Zhao, Jing-Wen; Lu, Chuan-Jian; Zhu, Wei

    2017-01-20

    A novel heteropolysaccharide (SGRP1) with great immunomodulatory activity was isolated from the root of Smilax glabra Roxb. by hot water extraction. Physical and chemical analyses showed that SGRP1 had an average molecular weight of 1.26×10 4 Da and was composed of mannose, fucose and glucose in molar ratio of 1.00:3.09:39.41. The glycosidic linkage types of SGRP1 were proven to be (1→3)-linked -α-l-Fuc, (1→3)-linked-α-l-Man, (1→)-linked-α-d-Glc, and (1→6)-linked-α-d-Glc. The in vitro immunomodulatory assays demonstrated that SGRP1 could evidently promote the phagocytosis and increase macrophage-derived biological factors including nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion via JNK and ERK signaling pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway. The data supported that SGRP1 had immunomodulatory potential through activating macrophages and enhancing host immune system function, which enabled it to be a novel immunomodulator for application in immunological diseases or functional food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Search for the antiprostatic principle of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) roots.

    PubMed

    Wagner, H; Willer, F; Samtleben, R; Boos, G

    1994-12-01

    While searching for the antiprostatic active principle of the roots of Urtica dioica we ethanol-precipitated a polysaccharide mixture from an aqueous root extract and obtained chemically defined acidic polysaccharides with molecular masses of 15-210kDa. The chemical structures of these compounds have been determined. Some polysaccharides stimulated T lymphocytes in vitro while others influenced the complement system or triggered the release of TNF-α. The crude polysaccharide extract showed a prolonged antiinflammatory activity in the rat paw edema test for 22 hr, which is comparable to the pharmacological efficacy of indometacin. We have reisolated the isolectin mixture (UDA) originally detected in Urtica roots by Peumans et al. (1984). This mixture displayed immunomodulatory effects on T lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, UDA also directly inhibited cell proliferation and blocked binding of epidermal growth factor to its receptor on a tumor cell line, as determined by a [(125)I]-EGF binding assay. These investigations suggest that Urtica polysaccharides and also the N-acetyl-glucosamine specific lectin UDA play a major role in the antiprostatic activity of the drug and phytopreparations containing it. Copyright © 1994 Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart · Jena · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  8. Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), γ-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides.

  9. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Attenuates FFA Induced Ceramide Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes in an Adiponectin Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Obanda, Diana N; Zhao, Peng; Richard, Allison J; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2016-01-01

    Excess dietary lipids result in the accumulation of lipid metabolites including ceramides that can attenuate insulin signaling. There is evidence that a botanical extract of Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle) improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism(s) are not known. Hence, we examined the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UT) on adipocytes. We investigated the effects of an ethanolic extract of UT on free fatty acid (palmitic acid) induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated Akt serine phosphorylation and modulation of ceramidase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes were exposed to excess FFAs in the presence or absence of UT. Effects on adiponectin expression, ceramidase expression, ceramidase activity, ceramide accumulation and insulin signaling were determined. As expected, FFAs reduced adiponectin expression and increased the expression of ceramidase enzymes but not their activity. FFA also induced the accumulation of ceramides and reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in adipocytes. The effects of FFA were partially reversed by UT. UT enhanced adiponectin expression and ceramidase activity in the presence of excess FFAs. UT abated ceramide accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity via enhanced Akt phosphorylation. A siRNA knockdown of adiponectin expression prevented UT from exerting positive effects on ceramidase activity but not Akt phosphorylation. In adipocytes, the ability of UT to antagonize the negative effects of FFA by modulating ceramidase activity and ceramide accumulation is dependent on the presence of adiponectin. However, the ability of UT to enhance Akt phosphorylation is independent of adiponectin expression. These studies demonstrate direct effects of UT on adipocytes and suggest this botanical extract is metabolically beneficial.

  10. Influence of additional coupling agent on the mechanical properties of polyester–agave cantala roxb based composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ubaidillah, E-mail: ubaidillah@uns.ac.id; Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra, Kuala Lumpur; Raharjo, Wijang W.

    The mechanical and morphological properties of the unsaturated polyester resins (UPRs)-agave cantala roxb based composite are investigated in this paper. The cantala fiber woven in 3D angle interlock was utilized as the composite reinforcement. Surface grafting of the cantala fiber through chemical treatment was performed by introducing silane coupling agent to improving the compatibility with the polymer matrix. The fabrication of the composite specimens was conducted using vacuum bagging technique. The effect of additional coupling agent to the morphological appearance of surface fracture was observed using scanning electron microscopy. Meanwhile, the influence of additional silane to the mechanical properties wasmore » examined using tensile, bending and impact test. The photograph of surface fracture on the treated specimens showed the residual matrix left on the fibers in which the phenomenon was not found in the untreated specimens. Based on mechanical tests, the treated specimens were successfully increased their mechanical properties by 55%, 9.67%, and 92.4% for tensile strength, flexural strength, and impact strength, respectively, at 1.5% silane coupling agent.« less

  11. Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves and stem of Careya arborea Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Sharma, Nisha; Rao, Ch V

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study detailed pharmacognostic profile of leaves and stem of Careya arborea (C. arborea) Roxb. (Lecthyidaceae), an important medicinal plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Leaf and stem samples of C. arborea were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physicochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Results Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, broadly obovate in shape, acuminate apex with crenate, dentate margin, petioles (0.1–1.8 cm) long. Microscopically, the leaf showed the presence of median large size vascular bundle covered with fibrous bundle sheath, arrangement of xylem in cup shape and presence of cortical vascular bundle, patches of sclerenchyma, phloem fibers in groups and brown pigment containing cells in stem are some of the diagnostic features noted from anatomical study. Powder microscopy of leaf revealed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem with pitted vessels and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. The investigations also included leaf surface data; quantitative leaf microscopy and fluorescence analysis. Physiochemical parameters such as loss on drying, swelling index, extractive values and ash values were also determined and results showed that total ash of the stem bark was about two times higher than leaf and water soluble extractive value of leaf and stem bark was two times higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Conclusions The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications. PMID:23569939

  12. Purification, characterization and molecular cloning of trichoanguin, a novel type I ribosome-inactivating protein from the seeds of Trichosanthes anguina.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, L P; Chou, M H; Ho, C Y; Chuang, C C; Pan, F M; Wu, S H; Lin, J Y

    1999-01-01

    The seeds of the plant Trichosanthes anguina contain a type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), designated trichoanguin, which was purified to apparent homogeneity by the combined use of ion-exchange chromatographies, i.e. first with DE-52 cellulose and then with CM-52 cellulose. The protein was found to be a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 35 kDa and a pI of 9.1. It strongly inhibits the protein synthesis of rabbit reticulocyte lysate, with an IC50 of 0.08 nM, but only weakly that of HeLa cells, with an IC50 of 6 microM. Trichoanguin cleaves at the A4324 site of rat 28 S rRNA by its N-glycosidase activity. The cDNA of trichoanguin consists of 1039 nt and encodes an open reading frame coding for a polypeptide of 294 amino acid residues. The first 19 residues of this polypeptide encode a signal peptide sequence and the last 30 residues comprise an extension at its C-terminus. There are four potential glycosylation sites, located at Asn-51, Asn-65, Asn-201 and Asn-226. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of trichoanguin with those of RIPs such as trichosanthin, alpha-momorcharin, ricin A-chain and abrin A-chain reveals 55%, 48%, 36% and 34% identity respectively. Molecular homology modelling of trichoanguin indicates that its tertiary structure closely resembles those of trichosanthin and alpha-momorcharin. The large structural similarities might account for their common biological effects such as an abortifacient, an anti-tumour agent and anti-HIV-1 activities. Trichoanguin contains two cysteine residues, Cys-32 and Cys-155, with the former being likely to be located on the protein surface, which is directly amenable for conjugation with antibodies to form immunoconjugates. It is therefore conceivable that trichoanguin might be a better type I RIP than any other so far examined for the preparation of immunotoxins, with a great potential for application as an effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer. PMID:9931318

  13. Protective effect of Urtica dioica on liver damage induced by biliary obstruction in rats.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Serhat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Ibis, Cem

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Urtica dioica (UD) against liver damage in the common bile duct-ligated rats. A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups, namely, control, bile duct ligation (BDL) and BDL + received UD groups, containing eight animals in each group. The rats in UD-treated groups were given UD oils (2 ml/kg) once a day intraperitoneally for 2 weeks starting 3 days prior to BDL operation. The change demonstrating the bile duct proliferation and fibrosis in expanded portal tracts includes the extension of proliferated bile ducts into the lobules; inflammatory cell infiltration into the widened portal areas were observed in BDL group. Treatment of BDL with UD attenuated alterations in liver histology. The α-smooth muscle actin, cytokeratin-positive ductular proliferation and the activity of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling in the BDL were observed to be reduced with the UD treatment. The data indicate that UD attenuates BDL-induced cholestatic liver injury, bile duct proliferation and fibrosis.

  14. Cardioprotective effect of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb extract against isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Ansarullah; Karn, Sanjay S; Shah, Jigar D; Patel, Dipak K; Salunke, Sunita P; Padate, Geeta S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-05-01

    The present study investigates cardioprotective effect of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb (SR) extract on heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and membrane bound ATPases against isoproterenol (IP) induced myocardial necrosis (MN) in rats. Rats treated with IP (85 mg/kg, s.c.) recorded significant (p<0.05) increment in heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes of cardiac damage, cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activity levels of Ca(+2) ATPase whereas there was significant (p<0.05) decrease in plasma HDL, cardiac endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and Mg(+2) ATPase. Pre-treatment with SR extract (400 mg/kg per day, p.o.) for 30 consecutive days followed by IP injections on days 29th and 30th, showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes of cardiac damage, cardiac lipid peroxidation, Ca(+2) ATPase and significant increase in plasma HDL, cardiac endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and Mg(+2) ATPase compared to IP treated group. Hence, this study is the first scientific report on cardioprotective effect of SR against IP induced MN in rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Uncaria gambir Roxb. mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using diethanolamine as capping agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labanni, A.; Zulhadjri; Handayani, D.; Arief, S.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of silver nanoparticles preparation has been developed increasingly due to the wide application in various areas and field, such as medicine, energy, catalysis, and electronic. An environmental-friendly method is needed to fabricate biocompatible silver nanoparticles without producing hazardous materials to the environment. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles by green synthesis method, using leaf extract of gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb.) as bioreducing agent and aqueous diethanolamine (DEA) solution as capping agents. The AgNO3/DEA molar ratio was varied to investigate the effect of DEA concentration to the properties of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles was indicated by colour changes to yellowish brown and confirmed by result of UV-Vis spectrophotometer analysis which shown absorption band at 400 to 410 nm. The absorbance was increased to the reaction time of 24 hours, and was decrease by the increasing of DEA concentration in reaction. TEM analysis showed that prepared silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with diameter of 3,5 - 45,5 nm. The diameter of DEA capped silver nanoparticles was 13 nm, smaller than uncapped silver nanoparticles which was 26 nm It exhibited good stability to time reaction of one month which was potential to be developed in some fields.

  16. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Klooshani, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models. Hydroalcoholic extract of the plant leaves was prepared by percolation method. Male Swiss mice (25-35 g) and male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly distributed in control, standard drug, and three experimental groups (n=6 in each group). Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test, and carrageenan-induced paw edema were used to assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. The extract dose-dependently reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal twitches. In formalin test, the extract at any of applied doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) could not suppress the licking behavior of first phase while doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the second phase of formalin test. In carrageenan test, the extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the paw edema by 26%. The results confirm the folkloric use of the plant extract in painful and inflammatory conditions. Further studies are needed to characterize the active constituents and the mechanism of action of the plant extract.

  17. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Klooshani, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed to examine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract of the plant leaves was prepared by percolation method. Male Swiss mice (25-35 g) and male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly distributed in control, standard drug, and three experimental groups (n=6 in each group). Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test, and carrageenan-induced paw edema were used to assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Results: The extract dose-dependently reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal twitches. In formalin test, the extract at any of applied doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) could not suppress the licking behavior of first phase while doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the second phase of formalin test. In carrageenan test, the extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the paw edema by 26%. Conclusion: The results confirm the folkloric use of the plant extract in painful and inflammatory conditions. Further studies are needed to characterize the active constituents and the mechanism of action of the plant extract. PMID:25050274

  18. Chlorophyll extraction from suji leaf (Pleomele angustifolia Roxb.) with ZnCl2 stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Rahayuningsih, Edia; Pamungkas, Mukmin Sapto; Olvianas, Muhammad; Putera, Andreas Diga Pratama

    2018-03-01

    Suji ( Pleomele angustifolia Roxb .) leaves are a prominent source of chlorophyll and well-known for their ability to produce green color for food ingredients. However, chlorophyll is suspectible to color degradation at high temperature. Color degradation occurred because porphyrin loses magnesium in its ring and it can be avoided by adding zinc. The aim of this work was to investigate the combined effect of independent variables on chlorophyll extraction process using ZnCl 2 as a stabilizer. Suji leaves were blanched with boiling water for 2 min, Zn-chlorophyll synthesis was done by varying concentration of ZnCl 2 , Zn-chlorophyll extraction with ethanol, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry analysis of the final extracted solutions. A full three-level factorial design under response surface methodology was used to obtain the optimum condition of extraction process. The experimental data were analyzed by analysis of variance and fitted with second order polynomial equation. The coefficient of determination (R 2 ) was found to be 81.99%. The optimum operating conditions were obtained at pH 7, ZnCl 2 concentration of 700 ppm and temperature of 85 °C with desirability value of 1.0000. At the optimum conditions, the total chlorophyll content (TCC) was found to be 47.2975 mg/100 g fresh weight.

  19. Effects of urtica dioica extract on experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Baris; Basar, Omer; Aktas, Bora; Altinbas, Akif; Ekiz, Fuat; Büyükcam, Fatih; Albayrak, Aynur; Ginis, Zeynep; Oztürk, Gülfer; Coban, Sahin; Ucar, Engin; Kaya, Oskay; Yüksel, Osman; Caner, Sedat; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the acute inflammation of pancreas and peripancreatic tissues, and distant organs are also affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica extract (UDE) treatment on cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, Pancreatitis, and UDE treatment group. In the control group no procedures were performed. In the pancreatitis and treatment groups, pancreatitis was induced with intraperitoneal injection of cerulein, followed by intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml saline (pancreatitis group) and 1 ml 5.2% UDE (treatment group). Pancreatic tissues were examined histopathologically. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α), amylase and markers of apoptosis (M30, M65) were also measured in blood samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with Caspase-3 antibody. Histopathological findings in the UDE treatment group were less severe than in the pancreatitis group (5.7 vs 11.7, p = 0.010). TNF-α levels were not statistically different between treated and control groups (63.3 vs. 57.2, p = 0.141). UDE treatment was associated with less apoptosis [determined by M30, caspase-3 index (%)], (1.769 vs. 0.288, p = 0.056; 3% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.224; respectively). UDE treatment of pancreatitis merits further study.

  20. Effects of urtica dioica extract on experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Baris; Basar, Ömer; Aktas, Bora; Altinbas, Akif; Ekiz, Fuat; Büyükcam, Fatih; Albayrak, Aynur; Ginis, Zeynep; Öztürk, Gülfer; Coban, Sahin; Ucar, Engin; Kaya, Oskay; Yüksel, Osman; Caner, Sedat; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the acute inflammation of pancreas and peripancreatic tissues, and distant organs are also affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica extract (UDE) treatment on cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, Pancreatitis, and UDE treatment group. In the control group no procedures were performed. In the pancreatitis and treatment groups, pancreatitis was induced with intraperitoneal injection of cerulein, followed by intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml saline (pancreatitis group) and 1 ml 5.2% UDE (treatment group). Pancreatic tissues were examined histopathologically. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α), amylase and markers of apoptosis (M30, M65) were also measured in blood samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with Caspase-3 antibody. Histopathological findings in the UDE treatment group were less severe than in the pancreatitis group (5.7 vs 11.7, p = 0.010). TNF-α levels were not statistically different between treated and control groups (63.3 vs. 57.2, p = 0.141). UDE treatment was associated with less apoptosis [determined by M30, caspase-3 index (%)], (1.769 vs. 0.288, p = 0.056; 3% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.224; respectively). UDE treatment of pancreatitis merits further study. PMID:24995088

  1. Germacrane sesquiterpenes isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. inhibit UVB-induced upregulation of MMP-1, -2, and -3 expression in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Hae; Mohamed, Mohamed Antar Aziz; Jung, Ye-Jin; Shrestha, Sabina; Lee, Tae Hoon; Lee, Chang-Ho; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Jiyoung; Baek, Nam-In

    2015-10-01

    Four sesquiterpenes were isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.: furanodiene (1), germacrone (2), furanodienone (3), and 13-hydroxygermacrone (4). Importantly, this was the first time compounds 1 and 4 were isolated from this plant. The chemical structures of these compounds were determined using 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and electron ionization mass spectrometry analyses. Among the isolated compounds, compounds 2 and 4 inhibited UVB-induced upregulation of the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-3 in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). Moreover, this upregulation occurred in a dose-dependent manner over the range of 1-10 μM for each compound.

  2. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Attenuates FFA Induced Ceramide Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes in an Adiponectin Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Obanda, Diana N.; Zhao, Peng; Richard, Allison J.; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Excess dietary lipids result in the accumulation of lipid metabolites including ceramides that can attenuate insulin signaling. There is evidence that a botanical extract of Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle) improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism(s) are not known. Hence, we examined the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UT) on adipocytes. Research Design We investigated the effects of an ethanolic extract of UT on free fatty acid (palmitic acid) induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated Akt serine phosphorylation and modulation of ceramidase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes were exposed to excess FFAs in the presence or absence of UT. Effects on adiponectin expression, ceramidase expression, ceramidase activity, ceramide accumulation and insulin signaling were determined. Results As expected, FFAs reduced adiponectin expression and increased the expression of ceramidase enzymes but not their activity. FFA also induced the accumulation of ceramides and reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in adipocytes. The effects of FFA were partially reversed by UT. UT enhanced adiponectin expression and ceramidase activity in the presence of excess FFAs. UT abated ceramide accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity via enhanced Akt phosphorylation. A siRNA knockdown of adiponectin expression prevented UT from exerting positive effects on ceramidase activity but not Akt phosphorylation. Conclusions In adipocytes, the ability of UT to antagonize the negative effects of FFA by modulating ceramidase activity and ceramide accumulation is dependent on the presence of adiponectin. However, the ability of UT to enhance Akt phosphorylation is independent of adiponectin expression. These studies demonstrate direct effects of UT on adipocytes and suggest this botanical extract is metabolically beneficial. PMID:26939068

  3. Cedrin identified from Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don protects PC12 cells against neurotoxicity induced by Aβ1-42.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Dong, Zhanfei; Ming, Jie; Liu, Yan

    2018-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a severe neurodegenerative disease affecting elder worldwide and closely related to the neurotoxicity induced by amyloid β. To find efficient therapeutics, we have investigated the protective effects of cedrin from Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don on PC12 cells against the neurotoxicity induced by amyloid β 1-42 . The results have shown the viability of PC12 cells injured by amyloid β 1-42 can be improved by cedrin. Cedrin can reduce reacrive oxygen species overproduction, increase the activity of superoxide dismutase and decrease malondialdehyde content. Meanwhile, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in PC12 cells, and elevated Caspase-3 activity, downregulated Bcl-2 and upregulated Bax are meliorated. These results demonstrate the protective effect of cedrin is related to the inhibition of oxidative stress, improvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and suppression of apoptosis. This investigation gives evidences for the application of cedrin in practice and further investigation in vivo.

  4. A scanning proton microprobe study of stinging emergences from the leaf of the common stinging nettle urtica dioica l.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, N. P.; Perry, C. C.; Williams, R. J. P.; Watt, F.; Grime, G. W.

    1988-03-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) combined with the Oxford scanning proton microprobe (SPM) was used to investigate the abundance and spatial distribution of inorganic elements in mineralising stinging emergences from the leaf of the Common Stinging Nettle, Urtica dioica L. Elemental maps and point analytical data were collected for emergences at two stages of maturity. In all emergences calcium and silicon were spatially organised and present at high concentration. The inorganic elements K, P, S and Mn were also spatially organised during mineralisation, but at maturity these elements were present only at background levels and then showed no specific localisation. The observed changes in the inorganic content of the emergences are obviously related to the mineralisation processes. The possible biochemical significance of the distribution of the elements is discussed.

  5. V beta-specific deletion of mature thymocytes induced by the plant superantigen Urtica dioica agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Delcourt, M; Peumans, W J; Wagner, M C; Truffa-Bachi, P

    1996-03-15

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA), a plant protein, is a superantigen activating in a MHC class II-restricted manner the V beta 8. 3-bearing T-cells (Galelli and Truffa-Bachi, J. Immunol. 151, 1821, 1993). Administration of UDA to adult mice provokes the clonal expansion of the responding cells which is followed by the deletion of the major fraction of the UDA-sensitive cells, whereas the remaining cells become anergic (Galelli et al., J. Immunol. 154, 2600, 1995). We have analyzed the effect of UDA on thymocytes. Injection of UDA resulted in a rapid, but transient, deletion of a large fraction of the V beta 8.3-bearing mature T-cells. In contrast to other exogenous superantigens, this deletion was not preceded by the clonal expansion of the UDA-responding thymocytes. Moreover, the V beta 8.3-bearing mature T-cells escaping the deletion were not anergic to an in vitro UDA restimulation. UDA and the other superantigens also differ as the general, V beta-unrestricted, thymic atrophy induced by classical superantigens was not observed with UDA.

  6. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  7. Antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells by a stinging nettle root (Urtica dioica) extract.

    PubMed

    Konrad, L; Müller, H H; Lenz, C; Laubinger, H; Aumüller, G; Lichius, J J

    2000-02-01

    In the present study the activity of a 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots (Urtica dioica L., Urticaceae) on the proliferative activity of human prostatic epithelial (LNCaP) and stromal (hPCPs) cells was evaluated using a colorimetric assay. A concentration-dependent and significant (p < 0.05) antiproliferative effect of the extract was observed only on LNCaP cells during 7 days, whereas stromal cell growth remained unaltered. The inhibition was time-dependent with the maximum of growth reduction (30%) at a concentration of 1.0E-6 mg/ml on day 5 compared to the untreated control. On day 4 and 6, the reduction in proliferation of LNCaP cells showed the minimal effective dose at 1.0E-9 mg/ml. No cytotoxic effect of ME-20 on cell proliferation was observed. The antiproliferative effect of ME-20 of stinging nettle roots observed both in an in vivo model and in an in vitro system clearly indicates a biologically relevant effect of compounds present in the extract.

  8. Urtica dioica pollen allergy: Clinical, biological, and allergomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Tiotiu, Angelica; Brazdova, Andrea; Longé, Cyril; Gallet, Patrice; Morisset, Martine; Leduc, Virginie; Hilger, Christiane; Broussard, Cédric; Couderc, Rémy; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    The most emblematic members of Urticaceae at allergic risk level are wall pellitories (Parietaria), whereas nettle (Urtica) pollen is considered as poorly allergenic. No allergen from nettle pollen has yet been characterized, whereas 4 are listed for Parietaria pollen by the International Union of Immunological Societies. Clinical and biological profiles of 2 adult men who developed symptoms against nettle pollen and/or leaves were studied. To characterize the allergic reaction and identify the potential nettle pollen sensitizing allergens. IgE-mediated reaction to nettle pollen extract was evaluated by skin prick test, immunoassay, nasal provocation, and basophil activation test. To characterize specific nettle pollen allergens, an allergomic (IgE immunoproteomic) analysis was performed combining 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, IgE immunoblots of nettle pollen extract, identification of allergens by mass spectrometry, and database queries. The results of biological and immunochemical analyses revealed that the allergic rhinitis was due to Urtica dioica pollen in both patients. The allergomic analysis of nettle pollen extract allowed the characterization of 4 basic protein allergens: a thaumatin-like protein (osmotin) with a relative molecular mass of 27 to 29 kDa, a pectinesterase (relative molecular mass, 40 kDa), and 2 other basic proteins with relative molecular masses of 14 to 16 kDa and 43 kDa. There is no or only very weak allergen associations between pellitory and nettle pollen. Exposure to nettle pollen can be responsible of allergic symptoms, and several allergens were characterized. Unravelling the allergens of this underestimated allergy might help to improve diagnosis and care for patients, to predict cross-reactivities and design adapted specific immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Urtica dioica Extract Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis and Related Gene Expression of Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Ali; Mansoori, Behzad; Baradaran, Pooneh Chokhachi; Khaze, Vahid; Aghapour, Mahyar; Farhadi, Mehrdad; Baradaran, Behzad

    2017-10-01

    Currently, because the prevalence of breast cancer and its consequent mortality has increased enormously in the female population, a number of studies have been designed to identify natural products with special antitumor properties. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of Urtica dioica on triggering apoptosis and diminishing growth, size, and weight of the tumor in an allograft model of BALB/c mice. In the present study, a BALB/c mouse model of breast cancer (4T1) was used. After emergence of tumor, 2 groups of mice received the extract, 1 group at a dose of 10 mg/kg and 1 group at a dose of 20 mg/kg, by intraperitoneal injection for 28 days. During the test and after removal of the tumor mass, the size and weight of the tumor were measured. To assess the induction of apoptosis in the cancer cells, the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling) assay was performed. The Ki-67 test was used to evaluate tumor proliferation. The results showed that the tumor size in the mice treated with the extract decreased significantly. The weight of the tumor mass in the treated mice after resection was less than that in the control group. The TUNEL assay findings revealed that apoptosis occurred in the treated group. The Ki-67 test findings also demonstrated that administration of the extract suppressed the growth of tumor cells. These results suggest that U. dioica extract can decrease the growth of breast tumors and induce apoptosis in tumor cells; thus, it might represent an ideal therapeutic tool for breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (UD) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of UD. Two biochemical markers viz., β-sitosterol and scopoletin, were isolated and characterised in the extracts utilising High-performance thin layer chromatographic, FTIR, NMR and overlain UV spectral studies. Hyperplasia was induced in rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) for 28 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and isolated β-sitosterol (10 and 20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was undertaken. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg kg(-1) p.o.). Measurement of prostate/body weight ratio, weekly urine output and serum testosterone levels, prostate-specific antigen levels (on day 28) and histological examinations carried out on prostates from each group led us to conclude that UD can be used as an effective drug for the management of BPH. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc (Lin.) Roxb.

    PubMed

    Arif, Tasleem; Mandal, T K; Kumar, Naresh; Bhosale, J D; Hole, Archana; Sharma, G L; Padhi, M M; Lavekar, G S; Dabur, Rajesh

    2009-05-04

    Caesalpinia bonduc (Lin.) Roxb. is a known drug in Ayurveda to treat various diseases specifically tumors, cysts and cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this study was to assess in vitro as well as in vivo antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia bonduc seeds. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of seed coat and seed kernel extracts were investigated by microbroth dilution assay. In vivo activities of hydro-alcoholic extracts were investigated in rat models of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia mimicking that in patients with cystic fibrosis. Various extracts of plant seeds exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activities in a range of 22-350 microg/ml. The extracts also showed activity against methicillin resistant (MR) Staphylococcus aureus and ampicillin resistant (AR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa as in the sensitive strains. In rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, hydro-alcoholic extracts of Caesalpinia bonduc seed kernel (CBSK) and Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat (CBSC) were injected subcutaneously in the test groups of animals. The control groups were treated with cortisone and saline. Two weeks after challenge with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the CBSK treated animals showed a significant bacterial clearance from the lungs (P<0.04) and less severe incidence of lung abscess (P<0.05). Results showed that Caesalpinia bonduc may have the potential to be promising natural medicine, with other forms of treatments, for CF patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections.

  12. Essential Oil of Amomum maximum Roxb. and Its Bioactivities against Two Stored-Product Insects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Liang, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Du, Shu-Shan; Lei, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Amomum maximum Roxb. is a perennial herb distributed in South China and Southeast Asia. The objective of this work was to analyze the chemical constituents and assess insecticidal and repellent activities of the essential oil from Amomum maximum fruits against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel). The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be β-pinene (23.39%), β-caryophyllene (16.43%), α-pinene (7.55%), sylvestrene (6.61%) and ç-cadinene (4.19%). It was found that the essential oil of A. maximum fruits possessed contact and fumigant toxicities against T. castaneum adults (LD50 = 29.57 μg/adult and LC(50) = 23.09 mg/L air, respectively) and showed contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila (LD(50) = 67.46 μg/cm(2)). Repellency of the crude oil was also evaluated. After 2 h treatment, the essential oil possessed 100% repellency at 78.63 nL/cm(2) against T. castaneum and 84% repellency at 63.17 nL/cm(2) against L. bostrychophila. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. maximum fruits had the potential to be developed as a natural insecticide and repellent for control of T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila.

  13. Chitosan films incorporated with nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extract-loaded nanoliposomes: I. Physicochemical characterisation and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Haghju, Sara; Beigzadeh, Sara; Almasi, Hadi; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-07-17

    The objective of this study was to characterise and compare physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of chitosan-based films, containing free or nanoencapsulated nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extract (NE) at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% w/w. Nanoliposomes were prepared using soy-lecithin by thin-film hydration and sonication method to generate an average size of 107-136 nm with 70% encapsulation efficiency. The information on FT-IR reflected that some new interaction have occurred between chitosan and nanoliposomes. Despite the increasing yellowness and decreasing whiteness indexes, the nanoliposomes incorporation improved the thermal properties and mechanical stiffness and caused to decrease water vapour permeability (WVP), moisture uptake and water solubility. The possible antimicrobial activity of the films containing NE-loaded nanoliposomes against Staphylococcus aureus was decreased in comparison to free NE-incorporated films, which could be due to the inhibition effect of the encapsulation that prevents the release of NE from the matrix.

  14. Urtica dioica agglutinin, a V beta 8.3-specific superantigen, prevents the development of the systemic lupus erythematosus-like pathology of MRL lpr/lpr mice.

    PubMed

    Musette, P; Galelli, A; Chabre, H; Callard, P; Peumans, W; Truffa-Bachi, P; Kourilsky, P; Gachelin, G

    1996-08-01

    The V beta 8.3-specific superantigenic lectin Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) was used to delete the V beta 8.3+ T cells in MRL lpr/lpr mice. In contrast to the systemic lupus erythematosus-like pathology which progresses with age in the phosphate-buffered saline-injected MRL lpr/lpr controls, UDA-treated animals did not develop overt clinical signs of lupus and nephritis. The pathogenic T cell clones thus reside within the V beta 8.3+ T cell population, which includes an expanded T cell clone described previously. Finally, UDA alters the production of autoantibodies in a sex-dependent manner.

  15. Bioavailability and bioaccumulation characterization of essential and heavy metals contents in R. acetosa, S. oleracea and U. dioica from copper polluted and referent areas.

    PubMed

    Balabanova, Biljana; Stafilov, Trajče; Bačeva, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability of metals occurring in soil is the basic source of its accumulation in vegetables and herbs. The impact of soil pollution (due to urban and mining areas) on the food chain presents a challenge for many investigations. Availability of metals in a potentially polluted soil and their possible transfer and bioaccumulation in sorrel (Rumex acetosa), spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and common nettle (Urtica dioica), were examined. Microwave digestion was applied for total digestion of the plant tissues, while on the soil samples open wet digestion with a mixture of acids was applied. Three extraction methods were implemented for the bioavailable metals in the soil. Atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma was used for determination of the total contents of 21 elements. Significant enrichments in agricultural soil for As, Pb and Zn (in urban area), Cd, Cu and Ni (in a copper mine area), compared with the respective values from European standards were detected. On the basis of three different extraction methods, higher availability was assumed for both lithogenic and anthropogenic elements. Translocation values >1 were obtained for As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Higher bioconcentrating value was obtained only for Cd, while the bioaccumulation values vary from 0.17 for Cd to 0.82 for Zn. The potential availability of hazardous metals in urban and mining soils is examined using DTPA-TEA-CaCl2 (urban) and HCl (Cu-mines areas). Our results suggested that S. oleracea and R. acetosa have a phytostabilization potential for Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb, while U. dioica only for Cu. R. acetosa has a potential for phytoextraction of Cd in urban and copper polluted areas.

  16. Insulinotrophic and insulin-like effects of a high molecular weight aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. hardwood.

    PubMed

    Mohankumar, Suresh K; O'Shea, Tim; McFarlane, James R

    2012-05-07

    Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (PM) is an Ayurvedic traditional medicine well known for its antidiabetic potential. To fractionate the antidiabetic constituent(s) of the aqueous of extract of PM hardwood (PME). Bio-assay methods including, insulin secretion from mouse pancreas and glucose uptake by mouse skeletal muscle, were used to determine and fractionate the antidiabetic activity of PME. Results obtained from the in vitro experiments were then verified by examining the effect of PME on glucose clearance in normoglycemic, non-diabetic sheep in vivo. Exposure of mouse pancreatic and muscle tissues to PME stimulated the insulin secretion and glucose uptake, respectively, in a concentration-dependent manner. PME-mediated muscle glucose uptake was not potentiated in the presence of insulin indicating that PME acts via pathways which are utilized by insulin. Bio-assay-guided fractionation of PME yielded a high molecular weight fraction which had potent antidiabetic properties in vitro, and in in vivo. Our findings, we believe for the first time, provide novel insights for the antidiabetic constituents of PM and demonstrate that a high molecular weight constituent(s) of PM has potent insulinotrophic and insulin-like properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modifications of chemical functional groups of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb and its effect towards biosorption of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Mohd Zamri, E-mail: zamriab@petronas.com.my; Ismail, Siti Salwa

    2015-07-22

    The utilization of non-living biomass as an alternative biosorbent for heavy metal removal has gain a tremendous consideration through the years. Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb or pandan leaves, which is widely used as food additives in the South East Asia region, has been selected for its viability in the said effort due to the presence of chemical functional groups on its cellular network that enables the sorption to occur. In order to elucidate the possible mechanisms participated during the heavy metal removal process, the biosorbent undergone a series of modification techniques to alter the chemical functional groups present on its constituent.more » From the outcome of the chemically-modified biosorbent being subjected to the contact with metal cations, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups present on the biosorbent are believed to be responsible for the metal uptake to occur through complexation mechanism. Modifying amine groups causes 14% reduction of Cu(II) uptake, whereas removing protein element increases the uptake to 26% as compared to the unmodified biosorbent. Also, scanning electron micrographs further suggested that the adsorption mechanism could perform in parallel, as attributed to the evidence of porous structure throughout the biosorbent fibrous nature.« less

  18. Modifications of chemical functional groups of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb and its effect towards biosorption of heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohd. Zamri; Ismail, Siti Salwa

    2015-07-01

    The utilization of non-living biomass as an alternative biosorbent for heavy metal removal has gain a tremendous consideration through the years. Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb or pandan leaves, which is widely used as food additives in the South East Asia region, has been selected for its viability in the said effort due to the presence of chemical functional groups on its cellular network that enables the sorption to occur. In order to elucidate the possible mechanisms participated during the heavy metal removal process, the biosorbent undergone a series of modification techniques to alter the chemical functional groups present on its constituent. From the outcome of the chemically-modified biosorbent being subjected to the contact with metal cations, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups present on the biosorbent are believed to be responsible for the metal uptake to occur through complexation mechanism. Modifying amine groups causes 14% reduction of Cu(II) uptake, whereas removing protein element increases the uptake to 26% as compared to the unmodified biosorbent. Also, scanning electron micrographs further suggested that the adsorption mechanism could perform in parallel, as attributed to the evidence of porous structure throughout the biosorbent fibrous nature.

  19. Urtica dioica modulates hippocampal insulin signaling and recognition memory deficit in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Gupta, Sahil; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been associated with functional abnormalities in the hippocampus and performance of cognitive function. Urtica dioica (UD) has been used in the treatment of diabetes. In our previous report we observed that UD extract attenuate diabetes mediated associative and spatial memory dysfunction. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of UD extract on mouse model of diabetes-induced recognition memory deficit and explore the possible mechanism behind it. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p. consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes followed by UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) or rosiglitazone (ROSI) (5 mg/kg, oral) administration for 8 weeks. STZ induced diabetic mice showed significant decrease in hippocampal insulin signaling and translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) to neuronal membrane resulting in cognitive dysfunction and hypolocomotion. UD treatment effectively improved hippocampal insulin signaling, glucose tolerance and recognition memory performance in diabetic mice, which was comparable to ROSI. Further, diabetes mediated oxidative stress and inflammation was reversed by chronic UD or ROSI administration. UD leaves extract acts via insulin signaling pathway and might prove to be effective for the diabetes mediated central nervous system complications.

  20. Anticancer potential and mechanism of action of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) supercritical CO₂ extract in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Lollett, Ivonne V; Escalon, Enrique; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is among the less-investigated species of Curcuma for anticancer properties. We have investigated the anticancer potential and the mechanism of action of a supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (CA) in the U-87MG human glioblastoma cell line. CA demonstrated higher cytotoxicity than temozolomide, etoposide, curcumin, and turmeric force with IC50, IC75, and IC90 values of 4.92 μg/mL, 12.87 μg/mL, and 21.30 μg/mL, respectively. Inhibitory concentration values of CA for normal embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell line (mHypoE-N1) is significantly higher than glioblastoma cell line, indicating the specificity of CA against brain tumor cells. CompuSyn analysis indicates that CA acts synergistically with temozolomide and etoposide for the cytotoxicity with combination index values of <1. CA treatment also induces apoptosis in glioblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and downregulates genes associated with apoptosis, cell proliferation, telomerase activity, oncogenesis, and drug resistance in glioblastoma cells. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Effect of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. fruit extract on cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Megala, Jayaraman; Geetha, Arumugam

    2015-10-01

    The edible fruits of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. are traditionally used for various gastric complications in India. Here, we investigated the antiulcer activity of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of P. dulce (HAEPD) by applying cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer model in rats. Duodenal ulcer was induced in male albino Wistar rats by oral administration of cysteamine @ 420 mg/kg body wt. as a single dose. The rats were pre-administered orally with HAEPD @ 200 mg/kg body wt. for 30 days prior to ulcer induction. Rats pre-administered with ranitidine @ 30 mg/kg body wt. served as reference drug control. Ulcer score, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glycoproteins, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were measured in the duodenum. Rats pre-administered with the HAEPD showed significantly reduced ulcer score comparable to that of ranitidine pretreated rats. The co-administration of HAEPD lowered the TBARS level and also restored the levels of glycoproteins, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Histopathological observations confirmed the presence of inflammation, necrosis and hemorrhagic spots in the duodenum of ulcer control rats which were significantly reduced due to HAEPD treatment. No abnormal alterations were observed in normal rats treated with HAEPD at the dosage studied. The results demonstrated antioxidant and cytoprotective nature of P. dulce, and thereby its significant anti ulcer property.

  2. Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. fruit mitigates CCl4 induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, Jayesh; Lal Raisa, Helen; A, Vysakh; Eldhose, Binil; M S, Latha

    2017-09-01

    Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various ailments in the traditional system of medicine like Ayurveda where it has been prescribed as a rejuvenator and general health tonic. The fruit of the plant is one of the components of the age old ayurvedic formulation-'Triphala'. The present study evaluates curative effect of aqueous acetone extract of Terminalia bellirica fruits (AATB) against CCl 4 induced oxidative stress and liver damage in an animal model. Two doses of the fruit extract (200mg/kg body weight and 400mg/kg body weight) were investigated for the beneficial effects. At the end of the treatment, liver function markers (ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, LDH, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin-globulin ratio) as well as hepatic oxidative stress markers (SOD, CAT, GSH) were evaluated. Treatment with AATB significantly restored the parameters towards normal level as compared to the elevated biochemical markers in the CCl 4 treated animals. Reversal to normal tissue architecture was observed in histological evaluation. The results of AATB (400mg/kg) were found comparable with that of standard drug silymarin in all the parameters. The above findings suggest the therapeutic potential of the plant in alleviating hepatic oxidative stress and tissue damage, hence the traditional use of the plant in this regard stands justified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Onset of puberty and ovarian steroidogenesis following adminstration of methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. stem and Corchorus olitorius Linn. seed in mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Mazumder, U K; Pal, D K; Bhattacharya, S

    2003-11-01

    The effect of methanolic extract (ME) of Cuscuta reflexa stem Roxb. and Corchorus olitorius Linn. seed on the onset of reproductive maturity and the ovarian steroidogenesis was studied by means of biochemical techniques. ME of Cuscuta reflexa stem and Corchorus olitorius seed treatment causes a remarkable delay in sexual maturation as evidenced by the age at vaginal opening and appearance of first estrus (cornified smear). The same treatment also results in a significant diminution of Delta(5)-3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) activity along with a reduction in the weight of ovary, uterus and pituitary. On the basis of above data, it is assumed that the probable cause of delayed maturation in ME of Cuscuta reflexa stem and Corchorus olitorius seed treated mice is due to the suppressed ovarian steroidogenesis.

  4. Plant extracts from stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), an antirheumatic remedy, inhibit the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Riehemann, K; Behnke, B; Schulze-Osthoff, K

    1999-01-08

    Activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB is elevated in several chronic inflammatory diseases and is responsible for the enhanced expression of many proinflammatory gene products. Extracts from leaves of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are used as antiinflammatory remedies in rheumatoid arthritis. Standardized preparations of these extracts (IDS23) suppress cytokine production, but their mode of action remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that treatment of different cells with IDS23 potently inhibits NF-kappaB activation. An inhibitory effect was observed in response to several stimuli, suggesting that IDS23 suppressed a common NF-kappaB pathway. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by IDS23 was not mediated by a direct modification of DNA binding, but rather by preventing degradation of its inhibitory subunit IkappaB-alpha. Our results suggests that part of the antiinflammatory effect of Urtica extract may be ascribed to its inhibitory effect on NF-kappaB activation.

  5. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.).

    PubMed

    Rutto, Laban K; Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth; Brandt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96-98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L(-1)). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%-100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets.

  6. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L−1). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%–100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets. PMID:26904610

  7. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Closely Related Species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sivasothy, Yasodha; Nagoor, Noor Hasima; Jamil, Natasha; Awang, Khalijah

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%), camphene (16.6% and 10.2%), β-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%), and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%), respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9%) and β-pinene (20.2% and 19.0%) were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits. PMID:24987733

  8. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activities of two closely related species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Halijah; Sivasothy, Yasodha; Syamsir, Devi Rosmy; Nagoor, Noor Hasima; Jamil, Natasha; Awang, Khalijah

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%), camphene (16.6% and 10.2%), β-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%), and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%), respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9%) and β-pinene (20.2% and 19.0%) were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits.

  9. Urtica dioica agglutinin. A superantigenic lectin from stinging nettle rhizome.

    PubMed

    Galelli, A; Truffa-Bachi, P

    1993-08-15

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) is an unusual plant lectin that differs from all other known plant lectins with respect to its molecular structure and its extremely low specific agglutination activity. We recently reported that this small lectin (8.5 kDa) is a T cell mitogen distinguishable from classical T cell lectin mitogens by its ability to discriminate a particular population of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as its capacity to induce an original pattern of T cell activation and cytokine production. The mechanism by which UDA activates T cells was investigated and compared with the conventional T cell mitogen Con A and the known superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Our data show that T cell proliferation induced by UDA is strictly dependent on AC expressing MHC class II molecules but is not MHC restricted. This proliferation can be partially inhibited by anti-I-A or anti-I-E mAb and completely blocked by a mAb recognizing monomorphic determinants on the Ia molecule. UDA indeed binds to specific carbohydrate structures present on class II molecules. UDA-induced T cell stimulation is dependent on TCR recognition of the unprocessed intact molecule in association with various Ia molecules. T cell response to UDA is clonally expressed and correlates with particular TCR V beta gene families usage. This stimulation leads to a sixfold enrichment of V beta 8.3+ T cells within 3 days. Therefore, UDA appears to use the same molecular mechanism as structurally unrelated bacterial or retroviral superantigens and we propose that this lectin is a superantigen. UDA, which is not a pathogenicity factor, could provide a useful probe for the analysis of T cell activation by superantigens.

  10. Extraction and HPLC analysis of phenolic compounds in leaves, stalks, and textile fibers of Urtica dioica L.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, Patrizia; Ieri, Francesca; Vignolini, Pamela; Bacci, Laura; Baronti, Silvia; Romani, Annalisa

    2008-10-08

    In the present study the phenolic composition of leaves, stalks, and textile fiber extracts from Urtica dioica L. is described. Taking into account the increasing demand for textile products made from natural fibers and the necessity to create sustainable "local" processing chains, an Italian project was funded to evaluate the cultivation of nettle fibers in the region of Tuscany. The leaves of two nettle samples, cultivated and wild (C and W), contain large amounts of chlorogenic and 2- O-caffeoylmalic acid, which represent 71.5 and 76.5% of total phenolics, respectively. Flavonoids are the main class in the stalks: 54.4% of total phenolics in C and 31.2% in W samples. Anthocyanins are second in quantitative importance and are present only in nettle stalks: 28.6% of total phenolics in C and 24.4% in W extracts. Characterization of phenolic compounds in nettle extracts is an important result with regard to the biological properties (antioxidant and antiradical) of these metabolites for their possible applications in various industrial activities, such as food/feed, cosmetics, phytomedicine, and textiles.

  11. Chitosan films incorporated with nettle (Urtica Dioica L.) extract-loaded nanoliposomes: II. Antioxidant activity and release properties.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Hadi; Zandi, Mohsen; Beigzadeh, Sara; Haghju, Sara; Mehrnow, Nazila

    2016-07-14

    Chitosan films were loaded with NE nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extract (NE) at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5%w/w in the free or nanoliposomal form to obtain active and nanoactive films, respectively. The antioxidant potential of the films containing NE-loaded nanoliposomes was decreased in comparison of free NE incorporated films. Diffusion of NE to soybean oil was enough to delay the induction of the oxidation of soybean oil stored for 60 days in contact with chitosan based films. Release studies indicated that the release rate of NE in 95% ethanol simulant significantly decreased by the nanoencapsulation of NE. The diffusion coefficient (D) for chitosan films containing 1.5%w/w of free and encapsulated NE at 25 °C was 18.80 and 3.68 × 10 -7 cm 2  s -1 , respectively. Moreover, the formation of nanoliposomes diminished the increasing effect of temperature on the release rate as when storage temperature increased from 4 °C to 40 °C.

  12. Effect of Urtica dioica on memory dysfunction and hypoalgesia in an experimental model of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Udayabanu, M

    2013-09-27

    Diabetic neuropathy is considered as a disease of the peripheral nervous system, but recent evidences suggest the involvement of central nervous system as well. In this study we evaluated the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) extract against memory dysfunction and hypoalgesia on a mouse model of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic neuropathy. STZ (50 mg/kg, i.p. consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes, followed by treatment with the UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) and rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, oral) for 8 weeks. Cognitive functions were evaluated using Morris water maze and passive avoidance step through task. Pain thresholds were measured using thermal, mechanical and chemical induced hyperalgesia. We observed that chronic diabetes resulted in a decline in circulating insulin level, elevated blood glucose, reduced body weight, increased water intake, cognitive impairment and hypoalgesia. UD significantly reduced the blood glucose and polydypsia, as well as improved the body weight, insulin level, cognition and insensate neuropathy. In conclusion, UD showed results comparable to rosiglitazone in reversing the long standing diabetes induced complications such as central and peripheral neuronal dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypervariable and highly divergent intron-exon organizations in the chordate Oikopleura dioica.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Rolf B; Lerat, Emmanuelle; Maeland, Anne Dorthea; Flåt, Mette; Tewari, Rita; Jensen, Marit F; Lehrach, Hans; Reinhardt, Richard; Seo, Hee-Chan; Chourrout, Daniel

    2004-10-01

    Oikopleura dioica is a pelagic tunicate with a very small genome and a very short life cycle. In order to investigate the intron-exon organizations in Oikopleura, we have isolated and characterized ribosomal protein EF-1alpha, Hox, and alpha-tubulin genes. Their intron positions have been compared with those of the same genes from various invertebrates and vertebrates, including four species with entirely sequenced genomes. Oikopleura genes, like Caenorhabditis genes, have introns at a large number of nonconserved positions, which must originate from late insertions or intron sliding of ancient insertions. Both species exhibit hypervariable intron-exon organization within their alpha-tubulin gene family. This is due to localization of most nonconserved intron positions in single members of this gene family. The hypervariability and divergence of intron positions in Oikopleura and Caenorhabditis may be related to the predominance of short introns, the processing of which is not very dependent upon the exonic environment compared to large introns. Also, both species have an undermethylated genome, and the control of methylation-induced point mutations imposes a control on exon size, at least in vertebrate genes. That introns placed at such variable positions in Oikopleura or C. elegans may serve a specific purpose is not easy to infer from our current knowledge and hypotheses on intron functions. We propose that new introns are retained in species with very short life cycles, because illegitimate exchanges including gene conversion are repressed. We also speculate that introns placed at gene-specific positions may contribute to suppressing these exchanges and thereby favor their own persistence.

  14. Evaluation of analgesic activity of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight and Arn bark: A tribal claim.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anurag; Nishteswar, K; Shukla, Vinay J; Ashok, B K

    2014-01-01

    Plants occupy an important place in folk medicine all over the world for centuries and indigenous communities have developed their own specific knowledge on plant resources, uses, management, and conservation. Research interest and activities in the area of ethno medicine have increased tremendously in the last decade. Currently, scientists are evincing keen interest in the scientific evaluation of ethno medical claims. Bark powder of Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna [Roxb.] Wight and Arn) is used by tribals for the management of some painful conditions. To evaluate analgesic activity of T. arjuna bark in rodents. For evaluation of analgesic activity, different experimental models, that is, the acetic acid-induced writhing syndrome in mice, formaldehyde-induced paw licking response and tail flick test in rats were designed. Experiments were carried out at two-dose levels, that is, therapeutically equivalent dose (TED) and TED × 2. Animals were divided into three groups (six animals in each group), first group serving as a control group, second and third group labeled as test drug group. Test drug at both the doses significantly decreased the writhing syndrome in comparison to control the group. In comparison to control the group, incidences of formalin-induced paw licking were reduced in test drug groups in both early and late phases of pain. In tail flick response, threshold was significantly increased in both test drug groups at every time intervals. Study showed that stem bark of T. arjuna possesses analgesic activity in all experimental models.

  15. Urtica dioica leaves modulates muscarinic cholinergic system in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder and has been associated with cognitive dysfunction. In our earlier study, chronic Urtica dioica (UD) treatment significantly ameliorated diabetes induced associative and spatial memory deficit in mice. The present study was designed to explore the effect of UD leaves extract on muscarinic cholinergic system, which has long been known to be involved in cognition. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p., consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes followed by treatment with UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) or rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, oral) for 8 weeks. STZ-induced diabetic mice showed significant reduction in hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-1 and choline acetyltransferase expressions. Chronic diabetes significantly up-regulated the protein expression of acetylcholinesterase associated with oxidative stress in hippocampus. Besides, STZ-induced diabetic mice showed hypolocomotion with up-regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. Chronic UD treatment significantly attenuated the cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of diabetic mice. UD had no effect on locomotor activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. In conclusion, UD leaves extract has potential to reverse diabetes mediated alteration in muscarinic cholinergic system in hippocampus and thereby improve memory functions.

  16. Effects of Urtica dioica on oxidative stress, proliferation and apoptosis after partial hepatectomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Serhat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Toydemir, Toygar; Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Onur, Hatice

    2015-05-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats. A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated, PH and PH + UD; each group contains eight animals. The rats in UD-treated groups were given UD oils (2 ml/kg/day) once a day orally for 7 days starting 3 days prior to hepatectomy operation. At day 7 after resection, liver samples were collected. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated in liver homogenates. Moreover, histopathological examination, mitotic index (MI), proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling, proliferation index (PI), transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling assay, apoptotic index (AI) were evaluated at day 7 after hepatectomy. As a result, UD significantly increased MI and PI, significantly decreased AI and also attenuated hepatic vacuolar degeneration and sinusoidal congestion in PH rats. UD treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue MDA level and increased the reduced SOD activity and GSH level in the tissues. These results suggest that UD pretreatment was beneficial for rat liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Contact urticaria due to the common stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)--histological, ultrastructural and pharmacological studies.

    PubMed

    Oliver, F; Amon, E U; Breathnach, A; Francis, D M; Sarathchandra, P; Black, A K; Greaves, M W

    1991-01-01

    A frequent cause of contact urticaria is skin exposure to the common stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). The urticaria is accompanied by a stinging sensation lasting longer than 12 h. Little is known of the cellular and molecular mechanism of stinging-nettle urticaria. After preliminary pharmacological analysis of pro-inflammatory activity in nettle stings, the cellular response of mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear cells and mast cells was examined in six people 5 min and 12 h after nettle contact. Only mast cell numbers were significantly increased at 12 h. Ultrastructurally, some mast cells showed evidence of degranulation at 5 min and 12 h. At 12 h mast cells were closely associated with dermal dendritic cells and lymphocytes suggesting a functional unit. The mean histamine and serotonin contents of a nettle hair were found to be 6.1 ng and 33.25 pg, respectively. Nettle-sting extracts did not demonstrate histamine release from dispersed rat mast cells in vitro. These results suggest that part of the immediate reaction to nettle stings is due to histamine introduced by the nettle. However, the persistence of the stinging sensation might suggest the presence of substances in nettle fluid directly toxic to nerves or capable of secondary release of other mediators.

  18. Protective effects of Urtica dioica L. on experimental testicular ischaemia reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Aktas, C; Erboga, M; Fidanol Erboga, Z; Bozdemir Donmez, Y; Topcu, B; Gurel, A

    2017-05-01

    In this study, it was aimed to examine the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UD) that has antioxidant feature in the experimental testicular I/R model in rats in terms of anti-apoptotic and antioxidative effects. In our study, 24 male rats were divided into three groups: control group, I/R group and I/R + UD (2 mg kg -1 ) group. Seminiferous tubule calibre measurement, Johnson score, haematoxylin-eosin staining, proliferative cell nucleus antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemical staining and TUNEL as histopathological have been conducted. The structural deterioration in the testicular on I/R group has reduced after the treatment of UD. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the activity of in situ identification of apoptosis using terminal dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL), and there was a rise in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in testis tissues of UD-treated rats in the I/R group. The I/R + UD group showed a decrease in malondialdehyde levels and an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in comparison with the I/R group. It could be concluded that protective effects of UD on the I/R testicles are via reduction of histological damage, apoptosis, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Use of lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Awad, E; Austin, B

    2010-05-01

    Feeding rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with 1% lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, or stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, for 14 days led to reductions in mortality after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, there was significant enhancement in serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst and lysozyme activity in the treatment groups compared to the controls. Use of lupin and mango led to the highest number of red blood and white blood cells in recipient fish, with use of stinging nettle leading to the highest haematocrit and haemoglobin values; the highest value of mean corpuscular volume and haemoglobin was in the control groups and those fed with stinging nettle.

  20. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    PubMed

    Siouda, Wafa; Abdennour, Cherif

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD) against Hg-induced toxicity. A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet), the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage), and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 ml) was obtained and then it was administrated by gavage. Biochemical and reproductive markers, in addition to glutathione (GSH) level (liver, kidney and testis) and the histological profiles (testis and epididymis) were evaluated after 1 month exposure. Compared to the control, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly raised in the Hg group. In the latter group, the concentrations of Mg, Fe, and Ca were significantly decreased. Besides, Hg+UD group has only showed raised AST activity and reduced Mg level. Concerning the fertility markers, Hg has provoked a significant decrease in the spermatozoa's concentration and motility and in plasma testosterone level as well. Furthermore, hepatic, renal and testicular GSH concentrations have declined significantly in the Hg treated rat compared to the control. A remarkable enhancement of the GSH level was observed in all organs of the UD group. The histological examinations of the Hg group have revealed marked testicular degeneration of the most seminiferous tubules, and showed few sperms in the lumen of epididymis ducts. However, the Hg+UD rats have demonstrated an improved histological structure with the presence of important numbers of sperms in the lumen. In addition, a clear stabilization of organized seminiferous tubules and an increased sperms' numbers were noted in the UD supplemented rats. Nettle leaves have not only played a clear

  1. Anti-inflammatory activity studies on the stems and roots of Jasminum lanceolarium Roxb.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wen-xia; Zhang, Jian-hua; Zhang, Yi; Meng, Da-li; Yan, Dan

    2015-08-02

    Jasminum lanceolarium Roxb is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Its stems and roots have been used for the treatment of rheumatism and fever while the leaves are used as an anti-inflammatory agent to relieve pain. In order to support its traditional Chinese medicinal uses, five animal models were designed and the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the 70% EtOH-H2O extracts of J. lanceolarium (EJL) were investigated. Meanwhile, biochemical parameters such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) in blood serum of rats exposed to acute (carrageenan) inflammation model were evaluated. At doses of 400 mg/kg, EJL exhibited higher anti-inflammation effect than that of indomethacin and better analgesic activity than that of aspirin (P<0.001). Furthermore, eleven isolated compounds including six lignanoids (1, 2, 6, 7, 8, and 11) and five iridoids (3, 4, 5, 9, and 10) were isolated from the active extracts and showed significant anti-inflammatory activities with the IC50 values of 1.76-5.22 mg/mL, respectively, when testing their inhibitory effects on phospholipase A2 in vitro. The results demonstrated that the possible anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be attributed to inhibit the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids, production on both COX-2 and 5-LOX, and then finally inhibit the release of prostaglandins (PGs), which suggested that EJL had a non-selective inhibitory effect on the release or actions of these mediators, and might be a dual LOX-COX inhibitor for the treatment of inflammation from the natural resource. The studies on the animals and the inflammatory mediators, along with the bioactive compounds presumed that the existences of iridoids and lignanoids could be response for their bioactivities of the whole plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacological evaluation of phytochemicals from South Indian Black Turmeric (Curcuma caesia Roxb.) to target cancer apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mukunthan, K S; Satyan, R S; Patel, T N

    2017-09-14

    Curcuma caesia Roxb. (Black turmeric), a perennial herb of the family Zingiberaceae is indigenous to India. C. caesia is used as a spice, food preservative and coloring agent commonly in the Indian subcontinent. Functional parametric pharmacological evaluations like drug ability and toxicity profile of this endangered species is poorly documented. In our present study, among all the extracts of dried C. caesia rhizome viz- hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water tested for free radical scavenging capacity by total antioxidant activity (TAO) method, Hexane Rhizome Extract (HRE) was found to possess remarkable activity (1200mg ascorbic acid equivalent/100g). In MTT assay across three cancer cell lines and a control cell line, HRE exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition only in cancer cells, with notable activity in HepG2 cell lines (IC50: 0976µg/mL). Further, western blotting and flow cytometry experiments proved that HRE induces cell arrest at G2/M phase along with cellular apoptosis as suggestive by multiple-point mitochondrial mediated intrinsic pathway of Programmed Cell Death (PCD). Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis of HRE suggested twenty compounds that when docked in silico with Tubulin (1SA0) and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/ EGFR (1XKK) showed very intimate binding with the original ligands. Our results provided significant evidence of the toxicity mechanisms of HRE that may be beneficial for more rational applications of drug discovery for slowing down cancer progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ameliorative influence of Urtica dioica L against cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Özkol, Halil; Musa, Davut; Tuluce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2012-07-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used cytotoxic agent against cancer, and high doses of CP have been known to cause nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Some reports claim that antioxidants can reduce CP-induced toxicity. This study investigated the hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and antioxidant activity of Urtica dioica L methanolic extract (UDME) against CP toxicity in Erhlich ascites tumor (EAT)-bearing mice. Levels of serum hepatic enzymes, renal function markers, and oxidant/antioxidant parameters of liver tissue were measured. Mice were inoculated with EAT on day 0 and treated with nothing else for 24 hours. After a single dose of CP administration on day 1, the extract was given at the doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight daily during 6 days. Almost all doses of UDME performed a significant (P < 0.05) preventive role against CP toxicity by decreasing aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation levels, and myeloperoxidase activity, as well as increasing reduced glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase activities. This suggests that UDME has a protective capacity and antioxidant activity against CP toxicity in EAT-bearing mice, probably by promoting antioxidative defense systems.

  4. Combined extracts of Urtica dioica and Pygeum africanum in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: double-blind comparison of two doses.

    PubMed

    Krzeski, T; Kazón, M; Borkowski, A; Witeska, A; Kuczera, J

    1993-01-01

    The 134 patients (aged 53 to 84 years) with symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia were drawn from two medical centers in Warsaw. The patients were randomly assigned to receive two capsules of the standard dose of an urtica/pygeum preparation (300 mg of Urtica dioica root extract combined with 25 mg of Pygeum africanum bark extract) or two capsules containing half the standard dose twice daily for 8 weeks. After 28 days' treatment, urine flow, residual urine, and nycturia were significantly reduced in both treatment groups. After 56 days' treatment, further significant decreases were found in residual urine (half-dose group) and in nycturia (both groups). There were no between-group differences in these measures of efficacy. Five patients reported adverse effects of treatment; treatment was not discontinued in any patient because of side effects. It is concluded that half doses of the urtica/pygeum extract are as safe and effective as the recommended full doses.

  5. 2D FTIR correlation spectroscopy and EPR analysis of Urtica dioica leaves from areas of different environmental pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskal, Paulina; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Łabanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Filek, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Leaves of Urtica dioica collected from two areas of different environmental pollution were analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Analysis of FTIR spectra allows to describe main component of plant like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Although the FTIR spectra of plants from these two geographical locations of different environmental pollution appear to be relatively similar, 2D correlation shows completely different patterns. Synchronous and asynchronous correlation maps showed sequences of changes occurring during development of plant, manly in Amide I and Amide II, lignin, lipids and cellulose. In addition, 2D analysis revealed another sequence of changes as the function of plant growth depending on the degree of the environmental pollution. Two various kinds of paramagnetic species, transition metal ions (Mn(II), Fe(III)) and stable organic radicals (chlorophyll, semiquinone, tyrosyl and carbon centered) were found in leaves of nettle collected at different stages of development and growing in clean and polluted environment. In plants growing in polluted area the injuries of protein molecules bonding metal ions and the disturbances of photosynthesis and redox equilibrium in cells, as well as instability of polysaccharide structure of cell walls were observed.

  6. A comprehensive analysis on Symplocos racemosa Roxb.: Traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Niyati; Acharya, Sanjeev; Shah, Unnati; Shah, Ripal; Hingorani, Lal

    2016-04-02

    Symplocos racemosa Roxb. belongs to a unigeneric family Symplocaceae, known as lodhra in Sanskrit; is a small evergreen tree, found throughout the tropical and sub-tropical countries. Ethnobotanical literature indicates use of S. racemosa in treatment of eye disease, skin diseases, ear diseases, liver and bowel complaints, tumors, uterine disorders, spongy and bleeding gums, asthma, fever, snake-bite, gonorrhea and arthritis. The main aim of this review is to provide detailed phytopharmacological profile on S. racemosa in support with the traditional practices and ethnomedicinal uses. All relevant worldwide accepted databases have been searched for the name "S. racemosa" along with other literature from Indian Classical texts and Pharmacopoeias. The accessible literatures available on S. racemosa, were collected through electronic search on Pub med, Scopus, Science direct and traditional reports. S. racemosa is important Indian traditional drug used in many Ayurvedic and herbal formulations for treatment of liver as well as uterine disorders and leucorrhea. Majority of phytopharmacological reports are on stem bark of the plant which include anti-cancer, hepatoprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-androgenic effect, anti-inflammatory, wound healing activity and anti-diabetic effects. Phytochemical studies indicated presence of many phenolic glycosides like symplocoside, triterpenoids like betulinic acid, acetyloleanolic acid and oleanolic acid and flavonoids like quercetin which might have contributed to the observed protective effects. Many ethnobotanical claims have been confirmed through systematic in-vitro and in-vivo pharmacological studies on different extracts of stem bark and isolated constituents. However, systematic studies on the bio-markers are desirable to establish mode of action and to validate the traditional claim in clinical practice after proper safety assessment. The conservation data of genus Symplocos showed risk of extinction due to restricted

  7. Protective effects of Urtica dioica seed extract in aflatoxicosis: histopathological and biochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Uyar, A; Yener, Z; Dogan, A

    2016-04-01

    The ameliorative potential and antioxidant capacity of an extract of Urtica dioica seeds (UDS) was investigated using histopathological changes in liver and kidney, measuring serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defence systems and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)) content in various tissues of broilers exposed to aflatoxin (AF). A total of 32 broilers were divided randomly into 4 groups: control, UDS extract-treated, AF-treated and AF+UDS extract-treated. Broilers in control and UDS extract-treated groups were fed on a diet without AF. The AF-treated group and AF+UDS extract-treated groups were treated with an estimated 1 mg total AF/kg feed. The AF+UDS extract groups received in addition 30 ml UDS extract/kg diet for 21 d. The AF-treated group had significantly decreased body weight gain when compared to the other groups. Biochemical analysis showed a small increase in the concentrations of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase in the AF-treated group compared to that of the control group, whereas concentrations of these enzymes were decreased in the AF+UDS group compared to that of the AF-treated group. Administration of supplementary UDS extract helped restore the AF-induced increase in MDA and reduced the antioxidant system towards normality, particularly in the liver, brain, kidney and heart. Hepatorenal protection by UDS extracts was further supported by the almost normal histology in AF+UDS extract-treated group as compared to the degenerative changes in the AF-treated broilers. It was concluded that UDS extract has a protective hepatorenal effect in broilers affected by aflatoxicosis, probably acting by promoting the antioxidative defence systems.

  8. Major histocompatibility class I molecules present Urtica dioica agglutinin, a superantigen of vegetal origin, to T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Rovira, P; Buckle, M; Abastado, J P; Peumans, W J; Truffa-Bachi, P

    1999-05-01

    The Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) shares with the superantigens the property of activating T cell subsets bearing particular Vbeta segments of the TCR. However, UDA is a lectin capable of binding to many glycoproteins on cell membranes. The implication of MHC versus other glycoproteins in UDA presentation was presently studied. Using mutant mice lacking MHC class I (MHC-I), MHC class II (MHC-II) or both MHC antigens, we provided evidence that MHC-I and MHC-II molecules serve as UDA receptors. Presentation by either one of these molecules ensured similar T cell responses and co-stimulatory signals were mandatory for optimal T cell activation and proliferation both in MHC-I and MHC-II contexts. Remarkably, in the absence of MHC molecules, UDA could not be efficiently presented to T cells by other glycosylated proteins. Surface plasmon resonance studies were used to confirm the binding of UDA to MHC-I molecules using a fusion protein consisting of MHC-I domains and beta2-microglobulin. The results indicated that the interaction between UDA and MHC-I molecules implicated lectin-binding site(s) of UDA. Taken together, our data demonstrate that, in addition to MHC-II antigens, MHC-I molecules serve as an alternative ligand for UDA.

  9. Screening of analgesic activity of Tunisian Urtica dioica and analysis of its major bioactive compounds by GCMS.

    PubMed

    Dhouibi, Raouia; Moalla, Dorsaf; Ksouda, Kamilia; Ben Salem, Maryem; Hammami, Serria; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir; Affes, Hanen

    2017-11-20

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic properties of Urtica dioica (UD) and to profile phytochemicals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The ethanolic extracts were prepared by maceration method and extraction using rotary evaporator. The analgesic activity was analysed by hot plate method, formalin test, acetic acid-induced writhing test and the tail-flick test with different doses of the ethanolic extract. In all tests, the leaf's ethanolic extract exhibited significant analgesic activity (p < .001) at a dose of 400 mg/kg. Even with a low dose, we noticed an analgesic activity with many tests. The GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract of leaf revealed many compounds; 2-methyltetradecane dodecane, 2,6,11-trimethyl-; 2,6,11-trimethyldodecane, and trimethylhexane which are pharmaceutically the most important. These findings justify that UD can be a valuable natural analgesic source which seemed to provide potential phototherapeutics against various ailments. The analysis of ethanolic extract of UD by GCMS revealed the presence of several compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, triterpenes which can explain the analgesic effect of UD and its mechanism of action. Hence, UD could be another therapeutic alternative for relieving pain and for minimising the use of drugs that have long-term secondary effects.

  10. Structure of Urtica dioica agglutinin isolectin I: dimer formation mediated by two zinc ions bound at the sugar-binding site.

    PubMed

    Harata, K; Schubert, W D; Muraki, M

    2001-11-01

    Ultica dioica agglutinin, a plant lectin from the stinging nettle, consists of a total of seven individual isolectins. One of these structures, isolectin I, was determined at 1.9 A resolution by the X-ray method. The crystals belong to the space group P2(1) and the asymmetric unit contains two molecules related by local twofold symmetry. The molecule consists of two hevein-like chitin-binding domains lacking distinct secondary structure, but four disulfide bonds in each domain maintain the tertiary structure. The backbone structure of the two independent molecules is essentially identical and this is similarly true of the sugar-binding sites. In the crystal, the C-terminal domains bind Zn(2+) ions at the sugar-binding site. Owing to their location near a pseudo-twofold axis, the two zinc ions link the two independent molecules in a tail-to-tail arrangement: thus, His47 of molecule 1 and His67 of molecule 2 coordinate the first zinc ion, while the second zinc ion links Asp75 of molecule 1 and His47 of molecule 2.

  11. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    PubMed Central

    Siouda, Wafa; Abdennour, Cherif

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD) against Hg-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet), the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage), and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 ml) was obtained and then it was administrated by gavage. Biochemical and reproductive markers, in addition to glutathione (GSH) level (liver, kidney and testis) and the histological profiles (testis and epididymis) were evaluated after 1 month exposure. Results: Compared to the control, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly raised in the Hg group. In the latter group, the concentrations of Mg, Fe, and Ca were significantly decreased. Besides, Hg+UD group has only showed raised AST activity and reduced Mg level. Concerning the fertility markers, Hg has provoked a significant decrease in the spermatozoa’s concentration and motility and in plasma testosterone level as well. Furthermore, hepatic, renal and testicular GSH concentrations have declined significantly in the Hg treated rat compared to the control. A remarkable enhancement of the GSH level was observed in all organs of the UD group. The histological examinations of the Hg group have revealed marked testicular degeneration of the most seminiferous tubules, and showed few sperms in the lumen of epididymis ducts. However, the Hg+UD rats have demonstrated an improved histological structure with the presence of important numbers of sperms in the lumen. In addition, a clear stabilization of organized seminiferous tubules and an increased sperms’ numbers were noted in the UD supplemented rats

  12. The effect of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) seed oil on experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Genc, Zeynep; Yarat, Aysen; Tunali-Akbay, Tugba; Sener, Goksel; Cetinel, Sule; Pisiriciler, Rabia; Caliskan-Ak, Esin; Altıntas, Ayhan; Demirci, Betul

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of Urtica dioica, known as stinging nettle, seed oil (UDO) treatment on colonic tissue and blood parameters of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Experimental colitis was induced with 1 mL of TNBS in 40% ethanol by intracolonic administration with a 8-cm-long cannula with rats under ether anesthesia, assigned to a colitis group and a colitis+UDO group. Rats in the control group were given saline at the same volume by intracolonic administration. UDO (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the colitis+UDO group by oral administration throughout a 3-day interval, 5 minutes later than colitis induction. Saline (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the control and colitis groups at the same volume by oral administration. At the end of the experiment macroscopic lesions were scored, and the degree of oxidant damage was evaluated by colonic total protein, sialic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione levels, collagen content, tissue factor activity, and superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activities. Colonic tissues were also examined by histological and cytological analysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6), lactate dehydrogenase activity, and triglyceride and cholesterol levels were analyzed in blood samples. We found that UDO decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, lactate dehydrogenase, triglyceride, and cholesterol, which were increased in colitis. UDO administration ameliorated the TNBS-induced disturbances in colonic tissue except for MDA. In conclusion, UDO, through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions, merits consideration as a potential agent in ameliorating colonic inflammation.

  13. The J beta segment of the T cell receptor contributes to the V beta-specific T cell expansion caused by staphylococcal enterotoxin B and Urtica dioica superantigens.

    PubMed

    Musette, P; Galelli, A; Truffa-Bachi, P; Peumans, W; Kourilsky, P; Gachelin, G

    1996-03-01

    We have used a new polymerase chain reaction-based technique to analyze at the clonal level the CDR3 diversity and the J beta usage associated with the V beta-dependent T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of two superantigens: the staphylococcal enterotoxin B and the Urtica dioica agglutinin. Our results show that subset of J beta elements is preferentially expanded in a given V beta family, independently of the nature of the superantigen. By contrast, the CDR3 loop does not contribute significantly to the T cell expansion induced by the superantigens. We conclude that the J beta segment of the TCR beta chain, but not the CDR3 region, participates in superantigen binding, presumably by influencing the quaternary structure of the TCR beta chain.

  14. Antioxidative Role of Hatikana (Leea macrophylla Roxb.) Partially Improves the Hepatic Damage Induced by CCl4 in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Samina; Rahman, Md. Atiar; Aklima, Jannatul; Hasan, Md. Rakibul; Hasan Chowdhury, J. M. Kamirul

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the protective role of Leea macrophylla extract on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.) crude extract were subjected to analysis for antioxidative effects. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as normal control, hepatic control, and reference control (silymarin) group and treatment group. Evaluations were made for the effects of the fractions on serum enzymes and biochemical parameters of CCl4-induced albino rat. Histopathological screening was also performed to evaluate the changes of liver tissue before and after treatment. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla showed very potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing effect, superoxide scavenging effect, and iron chelating effect. Carbon tetrachloride induction increased the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. In contrast, treatment of Leea macrophylla reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as biochemical parameters activities. L. macrophylla partially restored the lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. Histopathology showed the treated liver towards restoration. Results evidenced that L. macrophylla can be prospective source of hepatic management in liver injury. PMID:26221590

  15. Plant parts substitution based approach as a viable conservation strategy for medicinal plants: A case study of Premna latifolia Roxb.

    PubMed

    Jena, Ashish Kumar; Karan, Maninder; Vasisht, Karan

    Rapid population growth and catastrophic harvesting methods of wild medicinal plants especially trees, result in the exploitation of natural sources and its management is the need of the hour. Dashamoolarishta is an amalgam of roots of ten plants of a popular Ayurvedic FDC formulation consisting of the root of Premna latifolia Roxb. as one of its ingredients. Presently, their populations like many other trees are under threat due to extensive use of the roots by the herbal drug industry. With an aim to conserve the biodiversity, a systematic study based on a rational approach by substituting root/root bark with alternative and renewable parts was conducted. The fingerprint profile together with anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of different parts of the plant was established for comparison. The results based on chemical and biological study indicated close similarity between the roots and the leaves and suggest the possible use of latter over root/root bark. The study proposes that the substitution of the root with alternate renewable parts of the same plant shall form the best strategy towards conservation of the trees like P. latifolia. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2017-02-01

    This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn2+ and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  17. In vitro bioaccessibility, transepithelial transport and antioxidant activity of Urtica dioica L. phenolic compounds in nettle based food products.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Gianpiero; Tedeschi, Paola; Meca, Giuseppe; Bertelli, Davide; Mañes, Jordi; Brandolini, Vincenzo; Maietti, Annalisa

    2016-10-12

    Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant with a wide historical background use of stems, roots and leaves. Nettle leaves are an excellent source of phenolic compounds, principally 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) and rutin. The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioaccessibility (BAC), the bioavailability (BAV) and the antioxidant activity of nettle phenolic compounds present in foods and supplements. The BAC of nettle phenolics was evaluated with an in vitro dynamic digestion of real food matrices: the type of food matrix and chemical characteristic affected the kinetics of release and solubilization, with the highest BAC after duodenal digestion. A study of duodenal trans epithelial transport evidenced low bioavailability of native forms of 3-CQA, CMA and rutin. Simulation of colonic metabolism confirmed that phenolic compounds are fermented by gut microflora, confirming the need for further investigations on the impact of phenolic compounds at the large intestine level. Photochemiluminescence assay of the simulated digestion fluids demonstrated that ingestion of Urtica based foods contributes to create an antioxidant environment against superoxide anion radicals in the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT).

  18. Dietary Supplementation with Allspice Pimenta dioica Reduces the Occurrence of Streptococcal Disease during First Feeding of Mozambique Tilapia Fry.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Sevdan; Ergün, Sebahattin

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Allspice Pimenta dioica as a feed additive was studied for its effects on growth performance and disease resistance in Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Five isonitrogenous (36% crude protein) and isocaloric (18.5 kJ/g) diets were formulated to contain 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, or 20 g of allspice/kg of fish feed. In a 50-d feeding trial, 15 plastic tanks (21 L) were stocked with 35 fish fry (0.012 g) each. After the feeding trial, fish were exposed to Streptococcus iniae and mortalities were recorded. The second-order polynomial regression indicated that the dietary allspice level of 10 g/kg provided the best growth performance and feed utilization. The greatest survival after pathogen challenge was also obtained from the diet supplemented with allspice at 10 g/kg. Therefore, allspice acts as a growth promoter to improve feed utilization and weight gain in Mozambique Tilapia fry and acts an antimicrobial agent to enhance disease resistance during first feeding of fry. These results suggest that allspice can be used as an alternative to antibiotics in controlling streptococcal disease in tilapia culture. Received October 19, 2012; accepted January 20, 2014.

  19. [Associating Serenoa repens, Urtica dioica and Pinus pinaster. Safety and efficacy in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms. Prospective study on 320 patients].

    PubMed

    Pavone, C; Abbadessa, D; Tarantino, M L; Oxenius, I; Laganà, A; Lupo, A; Rinella, M

    2010-01-01

    Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) has been employed for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) for several years. Its mechanism of action is believed to be due to antiandrogenic, antiproliferative and antinflammatory properties. An association of Serenoa with the nettle "Urtica dioica" showing antiproliferative activity and the pine "Pinus pinaster" derivative, showing antinflammatory action, has been proposed in recent years. Such an action is hoped to act not only by reducing LUTS but also by preventing the development of prostate cancer. During the years 2007 and 2008, 320 patients suffering from LUTS were treated with an association of Serenoa repens 320 mg, Urtica dioica 120 mg and Pinus pinaster 5 mg, named IPBTRE. This treatment was administered to all patients for a minimal duration of 30 days to a maximum of a year, either alone or in association with antibiotics or alpha-blockers, if needed. Outcome analysis was based on evaluation of symptoms, prostate volume and maximum flow rate (Qmax). From a careful analysis of the data collected in our database, the following observations can be made: ages varied between 19 and 78 years. The patients were affected by BPH in 46% of cases, chronic prostatitis syndrome in 43%, chronic genital-pelvic pain in 7% and other conditions in 4%, the absolute numbers being 147, 138, 22 and 7 patients, respectively. No untoward side effect was reported in any case. Variations in symptom score could be fully evaluated only in 80 of 320 patients (25%), of whom 68 (85%) reported a significant benefit, with special reference to an improvement of pain, urgency, strangury and nocturia. Data on variations in prostate volume, as measured by digital rectal examination, were available in 84 (26.5%) patients. No significant change was observed. Qmax after treatment was measured in 83 (26%) patients. It did not show significant changes from the initial values. The association tested in our study appeared to be safe and well

  20. Germacrone and sesquiterpene-enriched extracts from Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. increase skin penetration of minoxidil, a hair growth promoter.

    PubMed

    Srivilai, Jukkarin; Waranuch, Neti; Tangsumranjit, Anothai; Khorana, Nantaka; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2018-02-01

    Minoxidil is approved for topical treatment of androgenic alopecia but hampered by poor cutaneous absorption. Recently, the randomized control trial showed that hair loss treatment of minoxidil was improved by co-application of the anti-androgen, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extract. Here, we aimed to show that the apparent synergism arises from improved cutaneous penetration of minoxidil by bioactive compound, germacrone or C. aeruginosa (as an n-hexane extract, or essential oil). The partition coefficient of germacrone was determined by HPLC. Skin penetration was measured ex vivo on Franz diffusion cells using full thickness human foreskin as membranes. The receiver solution was sampled hourly for 8 h after which the skin was removed, the stratum corneum separated, and minoxidil assayed in this and in the remaining viable skin layer by HPLC. Skin penetration of minoxidil with 0.2 and 2% extract was increased ~ 4-fold (accumulated amount in receiver + skin viable layer after 8 h). Furthermore, germacrone enhanced minoxidil flux by ~ 10-fold and C. aeruginosa essential oil by ~ 20-fold. This work suggests three clinical consequences: (i) minoxidil efficacy is promoted, (ii) lower doses of minoxidil suffice, and (iii) C. aeruginosa extract/essential oil or germacrone can supplement treatment outcomes by acting as anti-androgen, thereby introducing a more effective topical treatment strategy for androgenic alopecia.

  1. Anti-inflammatory activity of niosomes entrapped with Plai oil (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.) by therapeutic ultrasound in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Manorsoi, Jiradej; Manorsoi, Aranya

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Plai oil–encapsulated niosomes (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.) on inflamed subcutaneous Wistar rat skin by therapeutic ultrasound. Methods Pure oil from Plai rhizomes was extracted by steam distillation, and antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Bioactive compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Niosome particles containing Plai oil were prepared by chloroform film method with sonication before testing for anti-inflammatory activity on locally inflamed subcutaneous rat skin after inducement from lipopolysaccharide with ultrasound once a day for 3 days. Skin temperatures and blood flow were evaluated. Results Plai oil presented antioxidant activity that inhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals. Four active compounds found in the essential oil were sabinene, γ-terpinene, terpinene-4-ol, and (E)-1-(3,4-dimethyoxy phenyl) butadiene. Application of ultrasound (0.2 W/cm2, 20%, 3 min) with gel containing Plai oil–encapsulated niosomes decreased skin temperature and blood flow to the lowest level compared to the application of neurofen drug or gel-based control. Conclusion Plai oil, which consists of four main bioactive compounds and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, can be applied against local subcutaneous inflammation when used with therapeutic ultrasound via entrapped niosomes. PMID:28408818

  2. 2D FTIR correlation spectroscopy and EPR analysis of Urtica dioica leaves from areas of different environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Moskal, Paulina; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Łabanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Filek, Maria

    2018-01-15

    Leaves of Urtica dioica collected from two areas of different environmental pollution were analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Analysis of FTIR spectra allows to describe main component of plant like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Although the FTIR spectra of plants from these two geographical locations of different environmental pollution appear to be relatively similar, 2D correlation shows completely different patterns. Synchronous and asynchronous correlation maps showed sequences of changes occurring during development of plant, manly in Amide I and Amide II, lignin, lipids and cellulose. In addition, 2D analysis revealed another sequence of changes as the function of plant growth depending on the degree of the environmental pollution. Two various kinds of paramagnetic species, transition metal ions (Mn(II), Fe(III)) and stable organic radicals (chlorophyll, semiquinone, tyrosyl and carbon centered) were found in leaves of nettle collected at different stages of development and growing in clean and polluted environment. In plants growing in polluted area the injuries of protein molecules bonding metal ions and the disturbances of photosynthesis and redox equilibrium in cells, as well as instability of polysaccharide structure of cell walls were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecological Niche Modelling using satellite data for assessing distribution of threatened species Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Kulloli, R. N.; Tewari, J. C.; Singh, J. P.; Singh, A.

    2014-11-01

    Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. is a narrow endemic, tuberous twiner of Asclepiadaceae family. It is medicinally important: tubers are nutritive and edible, leaves are digestive and a cure for dysentery and diarrhea. Exploitation for its tubers and poor regeneration of this species has shrunk its distribution. In order to know its present status, we report here the results of its appraisal in Rajasthan, using remote sensing and ground truthing in the past five years (2009-14). A base map of C. bulbosa was prepared using Geographical Information System (GIS), open source software Quantum GIS, SAGA. The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) +Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) Satellite Data were used in this study. ASTER and GDEM Data was clipped with district boundary and provided color range to get elevation information. A digital elevation model of Rajasthan physiography was developed from ASTER GDEM of 30-m resolution. GIS layers of Area of occurrences for C. bulbosa plant and elevation were created. This map along with topographic sheets of 1:50000 were used for field traversing and ground truthing as per GPS location inferred from map. Its geographic distribution was assessed using MaxEnt distribution modelling algorithm that employed 12 presence locality data, 19 bioclimatic variables, and elevation data. Results of this modelling predicted occurrence of C. bulbosa in the districts of Sirohi, Jalore, Barmer, Pali, Ajmer, Jhalawar, Dungarpur, Banswara, Baran, Kota, Bundi and Chittorgarh. Ground validation in these districts revealed its presence only at four places in three districts confirming its rarity. Analysis of dominance at their sites of occurrence revealed their poor populations and sub dominant status (RIV = 20-32) and very low density (2-12 plants per tenth ha).

  4. Antioxidant properties of some medicinal plants: Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae), Sedum sempervivoides (Crassulaceae), Malva neglecta (Malvaceae), Cruciata taurica (Rubiaceae), Rosa pimpinellifolia (Rosaceae), Galium verum subsp. verum (Rubiaceae), Urtica dioica (Urticaceae).

    PubMed

    Mavi, Ahmet; Terzi, Zeynep; Ozgen, Ufuk; Yildirim, Ali; Coşkun, Maksut

    2004-05-01

    Antioxidant and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, reducing powers and the amount of total phenolic compounds of aqueous and/or methanolic extracts of some medicinal plants used in Eastern Turkey were studied. These plants are Prangos ferulacea (CASIR), Sedum sempervivoides (HOROZ LELESI), Malva neglecta (EBEMGUMECI), Cruciata taurica (SARILIK OTU), Rosa pimpinellifolia (KOYUN GOZU), Galium verum subsp. verum (MADAVUR OTU), Urtica dioica (ISIRGAN). The highest peroxidation inhibitions were shown by aqueous extracts of C. taurica and R. pimpinellifolia (IC(50): 0.00022 mg/l and IC(50): 23 mg/l, respectively). However, the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and the amount of phenolic compounds were shown by R. pimpinellifolia. The lowest antioxidant properties were shown by aqueous extract of M. neglecta.

  5. [The influence of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts on the activity of catalase in THP1 monocytes/macrophages].

    PubMed

    Wolska, Jolanta; Janda, Katarzyna; Szkyrpan, Sylwia; Gutowska, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioicd L.) is one of the most valuable plants used in phytotherapy. The herbal raw material is a herb (Urticae herba), leaves (Urticae folium), roots (Urticae radix) and seeds (Urticae semina). This plant is a good source of vitamins, minerals, fibre, protein and biologically active compounds with antioxidant properties. The literature provides limited information about the chemical composition and properties of the seed heads. No papers are available on the effect of extracts of this plant on catalase activity in human cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts on the antioxidant activity of catalase in THP1 macrophages. Two types of extracts: water and alcohol, at two different concentrations, were used in experiments. Nettle was collected in September and October in 2012 in the area of Szczecin. The collected plant material was frozen and lyophilized. After those procedures water and alcohol extracts of nettle were prepared and then added to THP1 cells. The antioxidant activity of catalase was established with the spectrophotometric method. The study showed that both extracts (water and alcohol) significantly increased the antioxidant activity of catalase in THP1 cells. The increase in catalase was directly proportional to the concentration of the added alcohol extract.

  6. In vitro activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from the rhizome of Javanese turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) against Candida albicans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Rukayadi, Yaya; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. on Candida albicans biofilms at adherent, intermediate, and mature phase of growth. C. albicans biofilms were formed in flat-bottom 96-well microtiter plates. The biofilms of C. albicans at different phases of development were exposed to xanthorrhizol at different concentrations (0.5 µg/mL-256 µg/mL) for 24 h. The metabolic activity of cells within the biofilms was quantified using the XTT reduction assay. Sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (SMICs) were determined at 50% and 80% reduction in the biofilm OD₄₉₀ compared to the control wells. The SMIC₅₀ and SMIC₈₀ of xanthorrhizol against 18 C. albicans biofilms were 4--16 µg/mL and 8--32 µg/mL, respectively. The results demonstrated that the activity of xanthorrhizol in reducing C. albicans biofilms OD₄₉₀ was dependent on the concentration and the phase of growth of biofilm. Xanthorrhizol at concentration of 8 µg/mL completely reduced in biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at adherent phase, whereas 32 µg/mL of xanthorrhizol reduced 87.95% and 67.48 % of biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at intermediate and mature phases, respectively. Xanthorrhizol displayed potent activity against C. albicans biofilms in vitro and therefore might have potential therapeutic implication for biofilm-associated candidal infections. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Occurrence of a novel tannase (tan B LP ) in endophytic Streptomyces sp. AL1L from the leaf of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sudipta; Parvin, Rubia; Ghosh, Subhadeep; Bhattacharya, Somesankar; Maity, Santanu; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2018-01-01

    The tannase production ability by endophytic actinobacteria and the genetic identity of responsible tannase gene were determined. The studied strains were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf discs of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. Four strains were found to hydrolyze tannic acid on solid media containing 0.4% tannic acid. The strain AL1L was found as tan B LP indicating production of tannase with diverse of substrate affinity. The tannase production from the potential strain AL1L was performed in liquid tannic acid broth (0.4%, w/v). The strain was later identified as Streptomyces sp. AL1L on the basis of 16S rDNA homology. Highest enzyme activity was observed at 48 h of incubation at the exponential growth phase. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by dialysis (15 kD cut off). This enzyme, with molecular weight 180 kD shows highest catalytic activity at 35 °C, pH 6 with substrate concentration 0.1 g%. The purified enzyme possesses 1.4 × 10 -3   K m and 11.15 U/ml as V max . The above study indicates high industrial prospective of endophytic actinobacteria as source of tannase of potential biotechnological applications.

  8. Computational and in vitro insights on snake venom phospholipase A2 inhibitor of phytocompound ikshusterol3-O-glucoside of Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Karthikeyan; Chinnasamy, Sathishkumar; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu

    2017-12-14

    Ikshusterol3-O-glucoside was isolated from Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC. root. A structure of the isolated compound was determined on the basis of various spectroscopic interpretations (UV, NMR, FTIR, and GC-MS-EI). This structure was submitted in the PubChem compound database (SID 249494133). SID 249494133 was carried out by density functional theory calculation to observe the chemical stability and electrostatic potential of this compound. The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion property of this compound was predicted to evaluate the drug likeness and toxicity. In addition, molecular docking, quantum polarized ligand docking, prime MMGBSA calculation, and induced fit docking were performed to predict the binding status of SID 249494133 with the active site of phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) (PDB ID: 1A3D). The stability of the compound in the active site of PLA 2 was carried out using molecular dynamics simulation. Further, the anti-venom activity of the compound was assessed using the PLA 2 assay against Naja naja (Indian cobra) crude venom. The results strongly show that Ikshusterol3-O-glucoside has a potent snake-venom neutralizing capacity and it might be a potential molecule for the therapeutic treatment for snakebites.

  9. Particle shape impacts export and fate in the ocean through interactions with the globally abundant appendicularian Oikopleura dioica.

    PubMed

    Conley, Keats R; Sutherland, Kelly R

    2017-01-01

    Marine microbes exhibit highly varied, often non-spherical shapes that have functional significance for essential processes, including nutrient acquisition and sinking rates. There is a surprising absence of data, however, on how cell shape affects grazing, which is crucial for predicting the fate of oceanic carbon. We used synthetic spherical and prolate spheroid microbeads to isolate the effect of particle length-to-width ratios on grazing and fate in the ocean. Here we show that the shape of microbe-sized particles affects predation by the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica, a globally abundant marine grazer. Using incubation experiments, we demonstrate that shape affects how particles are retained in the house and that the minimum particle diameter is the key variable determining how particles are ingested. High-speed videography revealed the mechanism behind these results: microbe-sized spheroids oriented with the long axis parallel to fluid streamlines, matching the speed and tortuosity of spheres of equivalent width. Our results suggest that the minimum particle diameter determines how elongated prey interact with the feeding-filters of appendicularians, which may help to explain the prevalence of ellipsoidal cells in the ocean, since a cell's increased surface-to-volume ratio does not always increase predation. We provide the first evidence that grazing by appendicularians can cause non-uniform export of different shaped particles, thereby influencing particle fate.

  10. The gene for stinging nettle lectin (Urtica dioica agglutinin) encodes both a lectin and a chitinase.

    PubMed

    Lerner, D R; Raikhel, N V

    1992-06-05

    Chitin-binding proteins are present in a wide range of plant species, including both monocots and dicots, even though these plants contain no chitin. To investigate the relationship between in vitro antifungal and insecticidal activities of chitin-binding proteins and their unknown endogenous functions, the stinging nettle lectin (Urtica dioica agglutinin, UDA) cDNA was cloned using a synthetic gene as the probe. The nettle lectin cDNA clone contained an open reading frame encoding 374 amino acids. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed a 21-amino acid putative signal sequence and the 86 amino acids encoding the two chitin-binding domains of nettle lectin. These domains were fused to a 19-amino acid "spacer" domain and a 244-amino acid carboxyl extension with partial identity to a chitinase catalytic domain. The authenticity of the cDNA clone was confirmed by deduced amino acid sequence identity with sequence data obtained from tryptic digests, RNA gel blot, and polymerase chain reaction analyses. RNA gel blot analysis also showed the nettle lectin message was present primarily in rhizomes and inflorescence (with immature seeds) but not in leaves or stems. Chitinase enzymatic activity was found when the chitinase-like domain alone or the chitinase-like domain with the chitin-binding domains were expressed in Escherichia coli. This is the first example of a chitin-binding protein with both a duplication of the 43-amino acid chitin-binding domain and a fusion of the chitin-binding domains to a structurally unrelated domain, the chitinase domain.

  11. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L. on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat.

    PubMed

    Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Kanter, Mehmet; Oguz, Serhat; Erboga, Mustafa

    2012-12-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury may occur after renal transplantation, thoracoabdominal aortic surgery, and renal artery interventions. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica L. (UD), in I/R induced renal injury. A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, UD alone, I/R and I/R + UD; each group contain 8 animals. A rat model of renal I/R injury was induced by 45-min occlusion of the bilateral renal pedicles and 24-h reperfusion. In the UD group, 3 days before I/R, UD (2 ml/kg/day intraperitoneal) was administered by gastric gavage. All animals were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion and kidney tissues samples were obtained for histopathological investigation in all groups. To date, no more histopathological changes on intestinal I/R injury in rats by UD treatment have been reported. Renal I/R caused severe histopathological injury including tubular damage, atrophy dilatation, loss of brush border and hydropic epithelial cell degenerations, renal corpuscle atrophy, glomerular shrinkage, markedly focal mononuclear cell infiltrations in the kidney. UD treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury and significantly lowered tubulointerstitial damage score than the I/R group. The number of PCNA and TUNEL positive cells in the control and UD alone groups was negligible. When kidney sections were PCNA and TUNEL stained, there was a clear increase in the number of positive cells in the I/R group rats in the renal cortical tissues. However, there is a significant reduction in the activity of PCNA and TUNEL in kidney tissue of renal injury induced by renal I/R with UD therapy. Our results suggest that administration of UD attenuates renal I/R injury. These results suggest that UD treatment has a protective effect against renal damage induced by renal I/R. This protective effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit I/R induced renal damage, apoptosis and cell proliferation.

  12. Molecular cloning and tissue-specific transcriptional regulation of the first peroxidase family member, Udp1, in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).

    PubMed

    Douroupi, Triantafyllia G; Papassideri, Issidora S; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2005-12-05

    A full-length cDNA clone, designated Udp1, was isolated from Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), using a polymerase chain reaction based strategy. The putative Udp1 protein is characterized by a cleavable N-terminal signal sequence, likely responsible for the rough endoplasmic reticulum entry and a 310 amino acids mature protein, containing all the important residues, which are evolutionary conserved among different members of the plant peroxidase family. A unique structural feature of the Udp1 peroxidase is defined into the short carboxyl-terminal extension, which could be associated with the vacuolar targeting process. Udp1 peroxidase is differentially regulated at the transcriptional level and is specifically expressed in the roots. Interestingly, wounding and ultraviolet radiation stress cause an ectopic induction of the Udp1 gene expression in the aerial parts of the plant. A genomic DNA fragment encoding the Udp1 peroxidase was also cloned and fully sequenced, revealing a structural organization of three exons and two introns. The phylogenetic relationships of the Udp1 protein to the Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase family members were also examined and, in combination with the homology modelling approach, dictated the presence of distinct structural elements, which could be specifically involved in the determination of substrate recognition and subcellular localization of the Udp1 peroxidase.

  13. Enhancing freezing tolerance of Brassica napus L. by overexpression of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene (SAD) from Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dan; Zhou, Bo; Jiang, Yueqiao; Tan, XiaoFeng; Yuan, DeYi; Zhang, Lin

    2018-07-01

    Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. is an important woody oil tree and traditional herbal medicine in China. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD) is a dehydrogenase enzyme that plays a key role in the transformation of saturated fatty acids into unsaturated fatty acids in oil; these fatty acids greatly influence the freezing tolerance of plants. However, it remains unclear whether freezing tolerance can be regulated by the expression level of SsSAD in S. sebiferum L. Our research indicated that SsSAD expression in S. sebiferum L. increased under freezing stress. To further confirm this result, we constructed a pEGAD-SsSAD vector and transformed it into B. napus L. W10 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants that overexpressed the SsSAD gene exhibited significantly higher linoleic (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3) content and advanced freezing tolerance. These results suggest that SsSAD overexpression in B. napus L. can increase the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as linoleic (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3), which are likely pivotal in improving freezing tolerance in B. napus L. plants. Thus, SsSAD overexpression could be useful in the production of freeze-tolerant varieties of B. napus L. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, and Neuroprotective Properties of Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) Fruit Extracts from Different Ripening Stages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiufang; Liu, Xuanjun; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Qing; Li, Jingming

    2016-10-01

    The present work investigated the phenolic profiles (including nonanthocyanin and anthocyanin phenolics), antioxidant activities, and neuroprotective potential of mulberry fruit (MF) (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) grown in China at different ripening stages. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds. The antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total monomeric anthocyanin content (TAC) were determined using spectrophotometric methods. The neuroprotective effects of MFs at different ripening stages were investigated using Aβ 25-35 -treated PC12 cells as the cellular model of Alzheimer's disease. Of the 19 phenolic compounds characterized from the MF extracts, the contents of rutin and anthocyanins increased and that of chlorogenic acid decreased significantly with maturity. At the fully ripened stage, MF extracts showed the highest amounts of TPC (11.23 mg gallic acid equivalents/g fresh weight), TFC (15.1 mg rutin equivalents/g fresh weight), and TAC (1177 mg cyanidin 3-O-glucoside equivalents/100 g fresh weight). Meanwhile, antioxidant activity of MF extracts at this stage was highest according to ABTS (an IC50 value of 4.11 μg/mL) and DPPH (an IC50 value of 10.08 μg/mL) assays. Cellular assays revealed increased cell viability in cells treated with the ripe MF extracts; compared with the control groups, the ripening fruits also increased the antioxidant enzyme levels in PC12 cells. Together, these results suggest that the antioxidant activities and neuroprotective properties of ripening MFs are related to the contents and types of phenolic compounds that are present in the fruits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Determination of Extraction Process Conditions of Gambier Catechin (Uncaria Gambier Roxb) from Solok Bio Bio Lima Puluh Kota District – West Sumatera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desni Rahman, Elly; Sari, Ellyta; Burmawi; Frizka; Endah

    2018-03-01

    Catechin content is the determinant key of quality in gambier trade. The required Catechin content of gambier extracts as a herbal medicinal ingridient is greater than 90%. Mostly, Local gambier that produced by community is not uniform and low quality, thus lowering the price in the export markets. The quality improvement of gambier can be done by extraction and purification processes. This study aims to determine the best extraction process of catechin from Gambier (Uncaria Roxb) which derived from Solok Bio Bio Lima Puluh Kota, West Sumatra. The research methodology includes pre purification: raw materials preparation, washing, filtration, extraction, drying and testing. Washing was done on 100 gr gambier with a variation of water at 500, 600, 700, and 800 ml, heating for an hour at a temperature of 70°C, screened, filtered, and allow to stand until a precipitate is formed, wash repeatedly, filtered, and dried. Further, extract with a solvent variation of : water, etyl acetate, heated at 70°C temperature for 1 hour, then filtered. Filtrate then thickened by using a Rotary evaporator, dried at 50°C temperature for 48 hours and analyzed. The results showed that the best conditions of the extraction process is by using a solvent etyl acetate, at a temperature of 70°C, grading 97.40% catechins.

  16. Urtica dioica attenuates ovalbumin-induced inflammation and lipid peroxidation of lung tissues in rat asthma model.

    PubMed

    Zemmouri, Hanene; Sekiou, Omar; Ammar, Sonda; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Messarah, Mahfoud; Boumendjel, Amel

    2017-12-01

    To find bioactive medicinal herbs exerting anti-asthmatic activity, we investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) leaves (UD), the closest extract to the Algerian traditional use. In this study, we investigated the in vivo anti-asthmatic and antioxidant activities of nettle extract. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group I: negative control; group II: Ovalbumin sensitized/challenged rats (positive control); group III: received UD extract (1.5 g/kg/day) orally along the experimental protocol; group IV: received UD extract (1.5 g/kg/day) orally along the experimental protocol and sensitized/challenged with ovalbumin. After 25 days, blood and tissue samples were collected for haematological and histopathological analysis, respectively. The oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in the lungs, liver and erythrocytes. Then, correlations between markers of airway inflammation and markers of oxidative stress were explored. UD extract significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited eosinophilia increases in BALF (-60%) and the levels of leucocytes (-32.75%) and lymphocytes (-29.22%) in serum, and effectively suppressed inflammatory cells recruitment in the asthmatic rat model. Besides, the lipid peroxidation generated by allergen administration was significantly (p < 0.05) diminished by UD treatment in lung tissue (-48.58%). The nettle extract was also investigated for the total phenolic content (30.79 ± 0.96 mg gallic acid/g dry extract) and shows DPPH radical scavenging activity with 152.34 ± 0.37 μg/mL IC 50 value. The results confirmed that UD administration might be responsible for the protective effects of this extract against airway inflammation.

  17. Micropropagation and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agent boswellic acid production in callus cultures of Boswellia serrata Roxb.

    PubMed

    Nikam, Tukaram D; Ghorpade, Ravi P; Nitnaware, Kirti M; Ahire, Mahendra L; Lokhande, Vinayak H; Chopra, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation through cotyledonary and leaf node and boswellic acid production in stem callus of a woody medicinal endangered tree species Boswellia serrata Roxb. is reported. The response for shoots, roots and callus formation were varied in cotyledonary and leafy nodal explants from in vitro germinated seeds, if inoculated on Murshige and Skoog's (MS) medium fortified with cytokinins and auxins alone or together. A maximum of 8.0 ± 0.1 shoots/cotyledonary node explant and 6.9 ± 0.1 shoots/leafy node explants were produced in 91 and 88 % cultures respectively on medium with 2.5 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 200 mg l(-1) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Shoots treated with 2.5 μM IBA showed the highest average root number (4.5) and the highest percentage of rooting (89 %). Well rooted plantlets were acclimatized and 76.5 % of the plantlets showed survival upon transfer to field conditions. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of the micropropagated plants compared with mother plant revealed true-to-type nature. The four major boswellic acid components in calluses raised from root, stem, cotyledon and leaf explants were analyzed using HPLC. The total content of four boswellic acid components was higher in stem callus obtained on MS with 15.0 μM IAA, 5.0 μM BA and 200 mg l(-1) PVP. The protocol reported can be used for conservation and exploitation of in vitro production of medicinally important non-steroidal anti-inflammatory metabolites of B. serrata.

  18. Evaluation of Land Suitability and Potential Production of Gambir Uncaria gambir Roxb. L) at Salido Saribulan, Pesisir Selatan Regency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuni, Juniarti

    2017-04-01

    Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb. L) is a specific commodity of export in West Sumatra. Area of Gambir tree increases about 8 % per year in West Sumatera and until 1998 its production increased about 17% per year. However, in 1999 its area does not parallel with its production. In the last five years, the volume of export increases about 82.81%, while its value of export reaches US 2.5/kg. Therefore, this commodity has a strategic value for city's earnings. One of predicted causes is the use of unappropriated land. The aim of this research is to measure levels of land suitability in the buffer zone. TNKS (The National Park Kerinci-Seblat) in order to get the area, which is suitable for growing commodity of Gambir tree. To evaluate land suitability, quantitative model from FAO is used by combining environmental data, climate and condition of land (physical and chemical characteristic of the land). Estimation of Radiation Thermal Production Potential (RPP). Every data is measured (rating) individually and included in several mathematical formulas. After that, potential production of a land based on climate (Climate Production Potential) = CPP) is obtained quantitatively. By changing certain variant of this model program, it can predict the result of the plant in another area. By entering the real data of a land plant production, this model can predict the real plant production of land (Land Production Potential= LPP). Salido Saribulan area is included in class of land suitability S3f which is suitable for growing Gambir tree with a limitation factor of nutrient retention. Potential of actual gambir production at Salido Saribulan is 5 ton/ha, which is higher than actual gambir production.

  19. Inhibition of AKT signaling by supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Portalatin, Gilda; Quirin, Karl-W; Escalon, Enrique; Khatib, Ziad; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a less-investigated herb for anticancer properties than other related Curcuma species. AKT (a serine/threonine protein kinase B, originally identified as an oncogene in the transforming retrovirus AKT8) plays a central role in the development and promotion of cancer. In this investigation, we have analyzed the effect of supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (CA) on the genetic pathways associated with AKT signaling in human glioblastoma cells. The inhibitory effect of supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada) on AKT signaling was investigated in U-87MG glioblastoma cells. CA was highly cytotoxic to glioblastoma cell line (IC50=4.92±0.81 µg/mL) compared to mHypoE-N1 normal mouse hypothalamus cell line (IC50=40.57±0.06 µg/mL). CA inhibits AKT (protein Kinase B) and adenosine monophophate -activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) phosphorylation significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The cell migration which is necessary for invasion and metastasis was also inhibited by CA treatment, with about 43% reduction at 20 µg/mL concentration. Analysis of mRNA and protein expression of genes associated with apoptosis, cell proliferation and angiogenesis showed that CA modulates expression of genes associated with apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-X, BNIP3, caspase-3, mutant p53 and p21), cell proliferation (Ki67) and angiogenesis vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Additionally, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and AMPKα genes interacting with the AKT signaling pathway were also downregulated by CA treatment. These results indicate the molecular targets and mechanisms underlying the anticancer effect of CA in human glioblastoma cells.

  20. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb extract alleviates pathophysiological changes in experimental in vivo and in vitro models of high fat diet/fatty acid induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Dandekar, Deven S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-03-01

    The present study was aim to evaluate protective role of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) extract against high fat diet/fatty acid induced pathophysiological alterations in experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Effect of SR extract on plasma levels of markers of hepatic damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress, status of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and histopathological changes in liver tissue were evaluated in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice. Also, the effect of SR supplementation on lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and cell viability were evaluated in oleic acid treated HepG2 cells. Supplementation of NASH mice with SR extract prevented high fat diet induced elevation in plasma marker enzymes of liver damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress and compromised enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status. Further, addition of SR extract to in vitro HepG2 cells minimized oleic acid induced lipid accumulation, higher lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and reduced cell viability. These in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SR extract has the potential of preventing high fat/fatty acid induced NASH mainly due to its hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of in-vitro Antioxidant Properties of Hydroalcoholic Solution Extracts Urtica dioica L., Malva neglecta Wallr. and Their Mixture.

    PubMed

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic solution extracts of Urtica dioica L. (UD), Malva neglecta Wallr. (MN) plants and their mixture. In this study, flower (UDF), root (UDR), seed (UDS) and leaf (UDL) parts of UD and flower (MNF) and leaf (MNL) parts of MN were used. The antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic extracts and their mixture were evaluated using different antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, free radical scavenging, and metal chelating activity for comparison. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the extracts of both plants were determined as catechin equivalent. The various antioxidant activities were compared to natural and synthetic standard antioxidants such as BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol. According to FTC method, the both extracts exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. At the concentration of 100 μg/mL, Hydroalcoholic extracts of UDS, UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, MNL, and UD-MN showed 81.7%, 79.8%, 78.3%, 76.4%, 77.3%, 74.1%, and 80.7%, respectively. Comparable, 100 μg/mL of standard antioxidants BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol exhibited 66.2%, 70.6%, and 50.1% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, UD-MN showed strong superoxide anion radical scavenging activity comparable with UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, and MNL. Based on the findings, plants mixture was commonly found to have synergistically higher antioxidant activity.

  2. Evaluation of in-vitro Antioxidant Properties of Hydroalcoholic Solution Extracts Urtica dioica L., Malva neglecta Wallr. and Their Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic solution extracts of Urtica dioica L. (UD), Malva neglecta Wallr. (MN) plants and their mixture. In this study, flower (UDF), root (UDR), seed (UDS) and leaf (UDL) parts of UD and flower (MNF) and leaf (MNL) parts of MN were used. The antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic extracts and their mixture were evaluated using different antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, free radical scavenging, and metal chelating activity for comparison. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the extracts of both plants were determined as catechin equivalent. The various antioxidant activities were compared to natural and synthetic standard antioxidants such as BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol. According to FTC method, the both extracts exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. At the concentration of 100 μg/mL, Hydroalcoholic extracts of UDS, UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, MNL, and UD-MN showed 81.7%, 79.8%, 78.3%, 76.4%, 77.3%, 74.1%, and 80.7%, respectively. Comparable, 100 μg/mL of standard antioxidants BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol exhibited 66.2%, 70.6%, and 50.1% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, UD-MN showed strong superoxide anion radical scavenging activity comparable with UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, and MNL. Based on the findings, plants mixture was commonly found to have synergistically higher antioxidant activity. PMID:24250519

  3. Mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to diabetic neurotoxicity induced by streptozocin in mice: protective effect of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone.

    PubMed

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Mirshafa, Atefeh; Yekta Moghaddam, Niusha; Birjandian, Behnoosh; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2018-04-18

    Uncontrolled chronic hyperglycemia in diabetic patients could result in various complications, including neurotoxicity. Urtica dioica L. (UD) is known for its hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of UD and pioglitazone (PIO) in reduction of neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice. Male mice were divided into seven groups: control, diabetic, dimethyl sulfoxide-treated control, PIO-treated, UD-treated, UD-PIO-treated, and vitamin E-treated. For induction of diabetes, streptozocin was injected in a single dose (65 mg/kg, i.p.). All treatments were performed for 5 weeks. Neurotoxicity was evaluated through hot plate and formalin test. Then, animals were killed, brain tissue was separated and the mitochondrial fraction was isolated with different centrifuge technique. Also, oxidative stress markers (reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl, glutathione) were measured in brain. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by MTT test in brain isolated mitochondria. Elevation of oxidative stress markers and mitochondrial damage were observed in diabetic mice compared to control group. Administration of PIO and UD ameliorated the oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage (p < 0.05) in diabetic mice. Also increase in pain score was shown in diabetic mice that treatment with UD and PIO diminished elevation of pain score in diabetic mice. Interestingly, simultaneous administration of PIO and UD showed synergism effect in attenuation of oxidative stress and hyperglycemia. UD showed a therapeutic potential for the attenuation of oxidative stress and diabetes-induced hyperglycemia that can be considered as co-treatment in treatment of diabetic neurotoxicity.

  4. Antidiarrheal and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract and its chloroform and pet ether fraction of Phrynium imbricatum (Roxb.) leaves in mice.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammed Munawar; Kabir, Mohammad Shah Hafez; Dinar, Md Abu Monsur; Arman, Md Saiful Islam; Rahman, Md Mominur; Hosen, S M Zahid; Dash, Raju; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir

    2017-09-26

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the antidiarrheal and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract and its chloroform and pet ether fraction of Phrynium imbricatum (Roxb.) leaves in mice. In the present study, the dried leaves of P. imbricatum were subjected to extraction with ethanol, and then it was fractioned by chloroform and pet ether solvent. Antidiarrheal effects were tested by using castor oil-induced diarrhea, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal transit test. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated by using the acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced paw licking test. The standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg) showed significant (p<0.001) inhibitory activity against castor oil-induced diarrhea, in which all the examined treatments decreased the frequency of defecation and were found to possess an anti-castor oil-induced enteropooling effect in mice by reducing both weight and volume of intestinal content significantly, and reducing the propulsive movement in castor oil-induced gastrointestinal transit using charcoal meal in mice. The results showed that the ethanol extract of P. imbricatum leaves has significant dose-dependent antinociceptive activity, and among its two different fractions, the pet ether fraction significantly inhibited the abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid and the licking times in formalin test at both phases. These findings suggest that the plant may be a potential source for the development of a new antinociceptive drug and slightly suitable for diarrhea, as it exhibited lower activity. Our observations resemble previously published data on P. imbricatum leaves.

  5. Salix transect of Europe: variation in ploidy and genome size in willow-associated common nettle, Urtica dioica L. sens. lat., from Greece to arctic Norway.

    PubMed

    Cronk, Quentin; Hidalgo, Oriane; Pellicer, Jaume; Percy, Diana; Leitch, Ilia J

    2016-01-01

    The common stinging nettle, Urtica dioica L. sensu lato, is an invertebrate "superhost", its clonal patches maintaining large populations of insects and molluscs. It is extremely widespread in Europe and highly variable, and two ploidy levels (diploid and tetraploid) are known. However, geographical patterns in cytotype variation require further study. We assembled a collection of nettles in conjunction with a transect of Europe from the Aegean to Arctic Norway (primarily conducted to examine the diversity of Salix and Salix -associated insects). Using flow cytometry to measure genome size, our sample of 29 plants reveals 5 diploids and 24 tetraploids. Two diploids were found in SE Europe (Bulgaria and Romania) and three diploids in S. Finland. More detailed cytotype surveys in these regions are suggested. The tetraploid genome size (2C value) varied between accessions from 2.36 to 2.59 pg. The diploids varied from 1.31 to 1.35 pg per 2C nucleus, equivalent to a haploid genome size of c. 650 Mbp. Within the tetraploids, we find that the most northerly samples (from N. Finland and arctic Norway) have a generally higher genome size. This is possibly indicative of a distinct population in this region.

  6. Antidepressant and anxiolytic like effects of Urtica dioica leaves in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Ray, R S; Sharma, Arun; Mehta, Vineet; Katyal, Anju; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2018-04-27

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica Linn. (UD) extract against chronic diabetes mediated anxiogenic and depressive like behavior in mice. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 consecutive days was used to induce diabetes followed by treatment with UD leaves extract (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and rosiglitazone (ROSI) (5 mg/kg, p.o.) for 8 weeks. STZ induced chronic diabetes significantly induced anxiety and depressive like behavior in mice. Chronic diabetes significantly downregulated BDNF (p < 0.001), TrKB (p < 0.001), Cyclin D1 (p < 0.001), Bcl2 (p < 0.05) and autophagy7 (p < 0.001), while upregulated iNOS (p < 0.05) mRNA expression in the hippocampus as compared to control mice. In addition, chronic diabetes significantly increased the expression of TNF-α in CA1 (p < 0.001), CA2 (p < 0.01), CA3 (p < 0.001) and DG (p < 0.001) regions of hippocampus as compared to control mice. Chronic diabetes mediated neuronal damage in the CA2, CA3 and DG regions of hippocampus. Chronic administration of UD leaves extract significantly reversed diabetes mediated anxiogenic and depressive like behavior in mice. Further, UD treatment significantly upregulated BDNF (p < 0.01), TrKB (p < 0.001), Cyclin D1 (p < 0.001), Bcl2 (p < 0.01), autophagy5 (p < 0.01) and autophagy7 (p < 0.001), while downregulated iNOS (p < 0.05) mRNA expression in the hippocampus of diabetic mice. Concomitantly, UD administration significantly decreased the expression of TNF-α in hippocampal CA1 (p < 0.001), CA2 (p < 0.01), CA3 (p < 0.001) and DG (p < 0.001) regions of diabetic mice. Diabetes mediated neuronal damage and DNA fragmentation in the hippocampus was substantially attenuated following UD treatment. UD leaves extract might prove to be effective for diabetes mediated anxiety and depressive like behavior.

  7. Crystal structure of Urtica dioica agglutinin, a superantigen presented by MHC molecules of class I and class II.

    PubMed

    Saul, F A; Rovira, P; Boulot, G; Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Truffa-Bachi, P; Bentley, G A

    2000-06-15

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA), a monomeric lectin extracted from stinging nettle rhizomes, is specific for saccharides containing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). The lectin behaves as a superantigen for murine T cells, inducing the exclusive proliferation of Vbeta8.3(+) lymphocytes. UDA is unique among known T cell superantigens because it can be presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules of both class I and II. The crystal structure of UDA has been determined in the ligand-free state, and in complex with tri-acetylchitotriose and tetra-acetylchitotetraose at 1.66 A, 1.90 A and 1.40 A resolution, respectively. UDA comprises two hevein-like domains, each with a saccharide-binding site. A serine and three aromatic residues at each site form the principal contacts with the ligand. The N-terminal domain binding site can centre on any residue of a chito-oligosaccharide, whereas that of the C-terminal domain is specific for residues at the nonreducing terminus of the ligand. We have shown previously that oligomers of GlcNAc inhibit the superantigenic activity of UDA and that the lectin binds to glycans on the MHC molecule. We show that UDA also binds to glycans on the T cell receptor (TCR). The presence of two saccharide-binding sites observed in the structure of UDA suggests that its superantigenic properties arise from the simultaneous fixation of glycans on the TCR and MHC molecules of the T cell and antigen-presenting cell, respectively. The well defined spacing between the two binding sites of UDA is probably a key factor in determining the specificity for Vbeta8.3(+) lymphocytes.

  8. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic effects of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb. leaf extract on Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) and Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda)

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Shyamalima; Yadav, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb. have been traditionally used as an herbal remedy to treat the intestinal helminthic infections in traditional medicine of India. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic effects of C. bonducella leaf extract against Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda) and Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda). Materials and Methods: The in vitro anthelmintic activity of the extract was investigated on adult worms of S. obvelata (Nematoda) and H. diminuta (Cestoda) in terms of physical motility and mortality of parasites. The in vivo study was performed in H. diminuta-rat model and S. obvelata-mice model, by monitoring the egg per gram of feces count and worm count of animals following the treatment with different doses of plant extract. Results: The study recorded significant and dose-dependent anthelmintic effects of the extract on both the parasites. In the in vitro study, 30 mg/ml concentration of extract caused mortality of H. diminuta in 2.5 ± 0.2 h and S. obvelata in 3.57 ± 0.16 h. In the in vivo study, the extract showed a comparatively better efficacy on S. obvelata, where its 800 mg/kg dose revealed 93% reduction of worm load in mice, as compared to 85% worm load reduction of H. diminuta in rats. Conclusions: The findings suggest that leaf extract of C. bonducella possesses significant anthelmintic effects and supports its use as an anthelmintic in traditional medicine. This appears to be the first report of in vivo anthelmintic activity of C. bonducella against these parasites. PMID:27757275

  9. Structural characterization and comparative modeling of PD-Ls 1-3, type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins from summer leaves of Phytolacca dioica L.

    PubMed

    Di Maro, Antimo; Chambery, Angela; Carafa, Vincenzo; Costantini, Susan; Colonna, Giovanni; Parente, Augusto

    2009-03-01

    The amino acid sequence and glycan structure of PD-L1, PD-L2 and PD-L3, type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins isolated from Phytolacca dioica L. leaves, were determined using a combined approach based on peptide mapping, Edman degradation and ESI-Q-TOF MS in precursor ion discovery mode. The comparative analysis of the 261 amino acid residue sequences showed that PD-L1 and PD-L2 have identical primary structure, as it is the case of PD-L3 and PD-L4. Furthermore, the primary structure of PD-Ls 1-2 and PD-Ls 3-4 have 81.6% identity (85.1% similarity). The ESI-Q-TOF MS analysis confirmed that PD-Ls 1-3 were glycosylated at different sites. In particular, PD-L1 contained three glycidic chains with the well known paucidomannosidic structure (Man)(3) (GlcNAc)(2) (Fuc)(1) (Xyl)(1) linked to Asn10, Asn43 and Asn255. PD-L2 was glycosylated at Asn10 and Asn43, and PD-L3 was glycosylated only at Asn10. PD-L4 was confirmed to be not glycosylated. Despite an overall high structural similarity, the comparative modeling of PD-L1, PD-L2, PD-L3 and PD-L4 has shown potential influences of the glycidic chains on their adenine polynucleotide glycosylase activity on different substrates.

  10. Micropropagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth-a multipurpose leguminous tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Pooja; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

    2012-04-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth (a multipurpose leguminous tree) from field grown nodal segments (axillary bud). Shoot bud induction occurred from nodal explants of 15-years-old tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and multiplication was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM phenylacetic acid (PAA) i.e. up to 7 shoot buds in the period of 5-6 weeks. Addition of adenine sulphate (AdS) to this medium further enhanced the number of shoot buds up to 10. Proliferating shoot cultures were established by repeatedly subculturing primary culture on fresh medium (MS + 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM PAA) after every 25 days. In vitro rooting was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.46 μM Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 41.63 μM activated charcoal (AC). The micropropagated shoots with well developed roots were acclimatized in green house in pots containing sand, soil and manure (1:1:1). Genetic stability of micropropagated clones was evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The amplification products were monomorphic in micropropagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. This is the first report of an efficient protocol for regeneration of P. dulce through organogenesis, which can be used for further genetic transformation and pharmaceutical purposes.

  11. Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. essential oil slows hair-growth and lightens skin in axillae; a randomised, double blinded trial.

    PubMed

    Srivilai, Jukkarin; Phimnuan, Preeyawass; Jaisabai, Jiraporn; Luangtoomma, Nantakarn; Waranuch, Neti; Khorana, Nantaka; Wisuitiprot, Wudtichai; Scholfield, C Norman; Champachaisri, Katechan; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2017-02-15

    Androgenic hair-growth contributes to secondary gender characteristics but can be troublesome in women. Inhibiting axillary hair-growth via 5-α-reductases using the Thai medicinal plant, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. is an attractive treatment strategy. C. aeruginosa essential oil (CA-oil) formulated as a lotion is an efficacious and safe inhibitor of axillary hair growth. This trial was a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled 10 weeks, intervention in 60 women (18-23 years) and 2 weeks washout with axillary hair length was the primary end-point. Bioactive-enriched essential oil of C. aeruginosa was formulated with a base lotion. All participants were pre-challenged with lotions by 4-h patch irritation tests to exclude skin reactions. Participants were randomly allocated to use either 1 or 5%w/w CA-oil lotion on one axilla and base-lotion (placebo) to the other for 10 weeks followed by placebo in both axillae for 2 weeks. Every week, the axillae were photographed to measure hair lengths, shaved, and roll-on applicators containing appropriate lotion replaced. Also, skin melanin by spectrophotometry and hair density were measured. From weeks 5-11 of trial, 1 and 5%w/w CA-oil retarded growth by 13 ± 1.5% and 16 ± 0.9% respectively, while placebo was ineffective. CA-oil had no influence on hair density. Both concentrations of CA-oil rapidly and equally effectively brightened skin within 3 weeks which persisted 2 weeks after treatment ceased while placebo darkened the skin. Adherence appeared good as judged by consistency of lotion consumption and between axillae. Participants were satisfied with the treatment and reported reduced hairiness, freedom from any discomforts, but product odour attracted some negative comment. No adverse reactions ascribed to CA-oil were detected or reported. This study points to a safe and efficacious dual action on retarding hair-growth and skin lightening by CA-oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  12. Safety assessment of Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. essential oil, its antifungal, antiaflatoxin, antioxidant activity and efficacy as antimicrobial in preservation of Piper nigrum L. fruits.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Priyanka; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Dubey, N K

    2012-02-01

    The investigation deals with antifungal, antiaflatoxin and antioxidant efficacy of Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. essential oil (EO), its two major constituents and their comparison with five commonly used organic acid preservatives. The chemical profile of EO, characterized through GC and GC-MS analysis, revealed linalool (56.10%) and methyl cinnamate (19.73%) as major components. The EO, linalool and methyl cinnamate completely inhibited the growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus (LHP-10) as well as aflatoxin B(1) secretion at different concentrations. Methyl cinnamate was found to be more efficacious than EO, linalool and five organic acid preservatives, showing antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy at a low concentration (0.6 μl/ml) and the nature of its toxicity was fungicidal. However, EO showed strong antioxidant activity with an IC(50) value at 5.6 μl/ml. Moreover, EO was found to have negligible mammalian toxicity as its LD(50) value, determined through oral administration on mice, was calculated to be 6124μl/kg body weight during safety profile assessment. During in vivo investigation on fruit systems, the Zanthoxylum EO, when tested as fumigant, provided 66.27% and 86.33% protection respectively at 1.25 μl/ml and 2.5 μl/ml against fungi infesting Piper nigrum L. fruits demonstrating its practical efficacy as a plant based antimicrobial for post harvest application. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization of Reflux Conditions for Total Flavonoid and Total Phenolic Extraction and Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity in Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), and high antioxidant capacity (AC) in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%–80%), extraction temperature (ET, 40–70°C), and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20–40 mL/g) on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio) were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4 mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8 mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601 mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan. PMID:25147852

  14. Development of the central nervous system in the larvacean Oikopleura dioica and the evolution of the chordate brain.

    PubMed

    Cañestro, Cristian; Bassham, Susan; Postlethwait, John

    2005-09-15

    In non-vertebrate chordates, central nervous system (CNS) development has been studied in only two taxa, the Cephalochordata and a single Class (Ascidiacea) of the morphologically diverse Urochordata. To understand development and molecular regionalization of the brain in a different deeply diverging chordate clade, we isolated and determined the expression patterns of orthologs of vertebrate CNS markers (otxa, otxb, otxc, pax6, pax2/5/8a, pax2/5/8b, engrailed, and hox1) in Oikopleura dioica (Subphylum Urochordata, Class Larvacea). The three Oikopleura otx genes are expressed similarly to vertebrate Otx paralogs, demonstrating that trans-homologs converged on similar evolutionary outcomes by independent neo- or subfunctionalization processes during the evolution of the two taxa. This work revealed that the Oikopleura CNS possesses homologs of the vertebrate forebrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord, but not the midbrain. Comparing larvacean gene expression patterns to published results in ascidians disclosed important developmental differences and similarities that suggest mechanisms of development likely present in their last common ancestor. In contrast to ascidians, the lack of a radical reorganization of the CNS as larvaceans become adults allows us to relate embryonic gene expression patterns to three subdivisions of the adult anterior brain. Our study of the Oikopleura brain provides new insights into chordate CNS evolution: first, the absence of midbrain is a urochordate synapomorphy and not a peculiarity of ascidians, perhaps resulting from their drastic CNS metamorphosis; second, there is no convincing evidence for a homolog of a midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) organizer in urochordates; and third, the expression pattern of "MHB-genes" in the urochordate hindbrain suggests that they function in the development of specific neurons rather than in an MHB organizer.

  15. Inter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.

    PubMed

    Alhmedi, A; Haubruge, E; Bodson, B; Francis, F

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species and the differential pesticide application (treated plot and control). Insects were visually observed every week during all the cultivation season. Two main families of aphidophagous predators were found in all field crops and nettle, the Coccinellidae and Syrphidae. The diversity of the aphidophagous predators was shown to be higher on nettle than in field crops, particularly the Chrysopidae, the Anthocoridae and the Miridae. However, a striking difference of ladybird abundance was observed according to the aphid host plant. In one side, Coccinella septempunctata was much more abundant on Acyrthosiphon pisum infested green pea than on the other host plant species. At the opposite, higher occurrence of Harmonia axyridis was observed on the aphid infested nettle plants than on the crop plants. In particular, none of H. axyridis was found in wheat crop. Also, more than only a significant positive correlation between predator and aphid abundance, specialised relations between particular aphid species and some so-called generalist predators was determined in the fields. Finally, intraguild interactions between the aphidophagous predators was assessed and shown that only a significant negative correlation between Episyrphus balteatus and H. axyridis related to the nettle aphid, Micrlophium carnosum, was observed. The relative distribution of the ladybirds, namely C. septempunctata and H. axyridis according to the host plant, nettle strips and crop plots was discussed in relation to

  16. Biochemical and hemato-immunological parameters in juvenile beluga (Huso huso) following the diet supplemented with nettle (Urtica dioica).

    PubMed

    Binaii, Mohammad; Ghiasi, Maryam; Farabi, Seyed Mohammad Vahid; Pourgholam, Reza; Fazli, Hasan; Safari, Reza; Alavi, Seyed Eshagh; Taghavi, Mohammad Javad; Bankehsaz, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different dietary nettle (Urtica dioica) levels on biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in beluga (Huso huso). Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed for 8 weeks with 0%, 3%, 6% and 12% of nettle. The blood samples were collected on week 4 and 8. The use of nettle did not significantly change the mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, lymphocytes, eosinophils, albumin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lysozyme activity on week 4 and 8. After 4 weeks, the total red blood cell (RBC) and hematocrit (Ht) showed a significant increase in 12% nettle group compared to the 3% nettle and control groups but haemoglobin (Hb) had a significant change in 12% nettle compared to the control. At the same time was not found a significant change in the mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, respiratory burst activity (RB), total immunoglobulin (Ig) and total protein (TP), triglyceride (Tri) and cholesterol (Chol). After 8 weeks, the fish treated with nettle exhibited significantly increase in neutrophil and Hb levels compared to the control and between treatment groups, 12% nettle group shown the highest Hb while RBC and Hct values significantly rose in fish fed by 12% compared to the control. Supplementing 6% and 12% nettle increased the WBC and MCHC compared to the other groups. The group fed 12% showed a highly significant difference in RB, TP and Ig after 8 weeks. However, Tri and Chol were significantly decreased in the juvenile beluga fed by the 6% and 12% nettle diet compared to the other groups. The results suggest that by using this herb there will be an improvement in hemato-biochemical parameters and immune function of juvenile beluga.

  17. An extract of Urtica dioica L. mitigates obesity induced insulin resistance in mice skeletal muscle via protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A).

    PubMed

    Obanda, Diana N; Ribnicky, David; Yu, Yongmei; Stephens, Jacqueline; Cefalu, William T

    2016-02-26

    The leaf extract of Urtica dioica L. (UT) has been reported to improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but definitive studies on efficacy and mechanism of action are lacking. We investigated the effects of UT on obesity- induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD supplemented with UT. Body weight, body composition, plasma glucose and plasma insulin were monitored. Skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) was analyzed for insulin sensitivity, ceramide accumulation and the post translational modification and activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). PP2A is activated by ceramides and dephosphorylates Akt. C2C12 myotubes exposed to excess free fatty acids with or without UT were also evaluated for insulin signaling and modulation of PP2A. The HFD induced insulin resistance, increased fasting plasma glucose, enhanced ceramide accumulation and PP2A activity in skeletal muscle. Supplementation with UT improved plasma glucose homeostasis and enhanced skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity without affecting body weight and body composition. In myotubes, UT attenuated the ability of FFAs to induce insulin resistance and PP2A hyperactivity without affecting ceramide accumulation and PP2A expression. UT decreased PP2A activity through posttranslational modification that was accompanied by a reduction in Akt dephosphorylation.

  18. Expression of heavy metal tolerance in pollen and implications for gametophytic selection. [The plants used were clones of Silene dioica and Mimulus guttatus

    SciTech Connect

    Searcy, K.B.

    Many genes are expressed in both sporophytic and microgametophytic phases of the angiosperm life cycle. Thus, selection in one phase could modify gene frequency in both phases. An attempt was made to investigate microgametophytic selection in response to toxic concentrations of heavy metals and the effect of this selection upon the resultant sporophyte generation. The plants used were clones of a zinc-tolerant Silene dioica, closely related nontolerant S. alba, and copper tolerant and non-tolerant clones of Mimulus guttatus. First, the expression of metal tolerance in pollen was established by in vitro pollen germination and tube growth, and was found tomore » be associated with the tolerance of the pollen source. Second, to test the extent to which the parallel expression of metal tolerance was determined by the gametophytic genotype, tolerant but segregating clones were grown with and without added metals. Finally, selection was applied during pollen germination, tube growth and fertilization. In Silene, neither the tolerance of the pollen nor the metal content of the styles affected pollen tube growth rate. In Mimulus, pollen from the nontolerant source grew faster, but the metal content of the floral tissue had no significant effect on pollen tube growth rate, and only slightly reduced the fertilization ability of pollen from the nontolerant clone.« less

  19. An extract of Urtica dioica L. mitigates obesity induced insulin resistance in mice skeletal muscle via protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)

    PubMed Central

    Obanda, Diana N.; Ribnicky, David; Yu, Yongmei; Stephens, Jacqueline; Cefalu, William T.

    2016-01-01

    The leaf extract of Urtica dioica L. (UT) has been reported to improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but definitive studies on efficacy and mechanism of action are lacking. We investigated the effects of UT on obesity- induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD supplemented with UT. Body weight, body composition, plasma glucose and plasma insulin were monitored. Skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) was analyzed for insulin sensitivity, ceramide accumulation and the post translational modification and activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). PP2A is activated by ceramides and dephosphorylates Akt. C2C12 myotubes exposed to excess free fatty acids with or without UT were also evaluated for insulin signaling and modulation of PP2A. The HFD induced insulin resistance, increased fasting plasma glucose, enhanced ceramide accumulation and PP2A activity in skeletal muscle. Supplementation with UT improved plasma glucose homeostasis and enhanced skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity without affecting body weight and body composition. In myotubes, UT attenuated the ability of FFAs to induce insulin resistance and PP2A hyperactivity without affecting ceramide accumulation and PP2A expression. UT decreased PP2A activity through posttranslational modification that was accompanied by a reduction in Akt dephosphorylation. PMID:26916435

  20. Salix transect of Europe: variation in ploidy and genome size in willow-associated common nettle, Urtica dioica L. sens. lat., from Greece to arctic Norway

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Oriane; Pellicer, Jaume; Percy, Diana; Leitch, Ilia J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The common stinging nettle, Urtica dioica L. sensu lato, is an invertebrate "superhost", its clonal patches maintaining large populations of insects and molluscs. It is extremely widespread in Europe and highly variable, and two ploidy levels (diploid and tetraploid) are known. However, geographical patterns in cytotype variation require further study. New information We assembled a collection of nettles in conjunction with a transect of Europe from the Aegean to Arctic Norway (primarily conducted to examine the diversity of Salix and Salix-associated insects). Using flow cytometry to measure genome size, our sample of 29 plants reveals 5 diploids and 24 tetraploids. Two diploids were found in SE Europe (Bulgaria and Romania) and three diploids in S. Finland. More detailed cytotype surveys in these regions are suggested. The tetraploid genome size (2C value) varied between accessions from 2.36 to 2.59 pg. The diploids varied from 1.31 to 1.35 pg per 2C nucleus, equivalent to a haploid genome size of c. 650 Mbp. Within the tetraploids, we find that the most northerly samples (from N. Finland and arctic Norway) have a generally higher genome size. This is possibly indicative of a distinct population in this region. PMID:27932918

  1. Flower bud transcriptome analysis of Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. and primary investigation of drought induced flowering: pathway construction and G-quadruplex prediction based on transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minglei; Wu, Ying; Jin, Shan; Hou, Jinyan; Mao, Yingji; Liu, Wenbo; Shen, Yangcheng; Wu, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. (Chinese Tallow Tree) is a perennial woody tree and its seeds are rich in oil which hold great potential for biodiesel production. Despite a traditional woody oil plant, our understanding on S. sebiferum genetics and molecular biology remains scant. In this study, the first comprehensive transcriptome of S. sebiferum flower has been generated by sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 149,342 unigenes were generated from raw reads, of which 24,289 unigenes were successfully matched to public database. A total of 61 MADS box genes and putative pathways involved in S. sebiferum flower development have been identified. Abiotic stress response network was also constructed in this work, where 2,686 unigenes are involved in the pathway. As for lipid biosynthesis, 161 unigenes have been identified in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Besides, the G-Quadruplexes in RNA of S. sebiferum also have been predicted. An interesting finding is that the stress-induced flowering was observed in S. sebiferum for the first time. According to the results of semi-quantitative PCR, expression tendencies of flowering-related genes, GA1, AP2 and CRY2, accorded with stress-related genes, such as GRX50435 and PRXⅡ39562. This transcriptome provides functional genomic information for further research of S. sebiferum, especially for the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile period and improve yield by regulating flower development. It also offers a useful database for the research of other Euphorbiaceae family plants.

  2. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of the effects of Urtica dioica and swimming activity on diabetic factors and pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Ranjbari, Abbas; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Yusof, Ashril; Halim Mokhtar, Abdul; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Ibrahim, Mohamed Yousif; Tarverdizadeh, Bahman; Farzadinia, Parviz; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Dehghan, Firouzeh

    2016-03-15

    Urtica dioica (UD) has been identified as a traditional herbal medicine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of UD extract and swimming activity on diabetic parameters through in vivo and in vitro experiments. Adult WKY male rats were randomly distributed in nine groups: intact control, diabetic control, diabetic + 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, diabetic + 100 mg/kg Metformin, diabetic + swimming, diabetic + swimming 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, and diabetic +100 mg/kg Metformin + swimming. The hearts of the animals were punctured, and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The entire pancreas was exposed for histologic examination. The effect of UD on insulin secretion by RIN-5F cells in 6.25 or 12.5 mM glucose dose was examined. Glucose uptake by cultured L6 myotubes was determined. The serum glucose concentration decreased, the insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity significantly increased in treated groups. These changes were more pronounced in the group that received UD extract and swimming training. Regeneration and less beta cell damage of Langerhans islets were observed in the treated groups. UD treatment increased insulin secretion in the RIN-5F cells and glucose uptake in the L6 myotubes cells. Swimming exercises accompanied by consuming UD aqueous extracts effectively improved diabetic parameters, repaired pancreatic tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetics in vivo, and increased glucose uptake or insulin in UD-treated cells in vitro.

  3. Improved glycemic control in patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus taking Urtica dioica leaf extract: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kianbakht, Saeed; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Dabaghian, Fataneh Hashem

    2013-01-01

    Advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) needing insulin therapy is common. Most conventional anti-hyperglycemic drugs have limited efficacies and significant side effects, so that better anti-hyperglycemic agents are needed. Urtica dioica L. (nettle) leaves have insulin secretagogue, PPARgamma agonistic, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Moreover, nettle leaves are used in traditional medicine as an anti-hyperglycemic agent to treat diabetes mellitus. Thus, efficacy and safety of nettle in the treatment of patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus needing insulin were studied. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the effects of taking nettle leaf extract (one 500 mg capsule every 8 hours for 3 months) combined with the conventional oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs on the blood levels of fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), creatinine and liver enzymes SGOT and SGPT, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures in 46 patients and compared with the placebo group (n = 46). At the endpoint, the extract lowered the blood levels of fasting glucose, 2 hours postprandial glucose, and HbA1c significantly (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p = 0.006, respectively) without any significant effects on the other parameters (p > 0.05) compared with placebo. Nettle may safely improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients needing insulin therapy.

  4. Evaluation of acute toxicity and anti-ulcerogenic study of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.).

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Ashok, B K; Sharma, Parmeshwar P; Ravishankar, B

    2014-01-01

    Disorders like hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently now days because of a faulty lifestyle. Starches (Satwa) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely, Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used in folklore practice, as Tugaksheeree, for the treatment of the above-mentioned complaints. To assess the acute toxicity potential of the C. angustifolia and M. arundinacea along with their assessment for adaptogenic activity, by noting their effect on forced swimming-induced hypothermia and gastric ulceration in rats. For acute toxicity study, the effect of test drugs C. angustifolia and M. arundinacea rhizome starch were studied after a single administration of up to three dose levels, with 4400 mg/kg as the maximum dose. The animals were observed for 72 hours periodically and mortality was recorded up to seven days. The adaptogenic and anti-ulcer activities were assessed by determining and comparing the changes in rectal temperature, ponderal changes, ulcer index and histopathological parameters in the test drug group with that of stress control group. Both the drugs did not produce any toxic symptoms or mortality even up to the maximum dose level of 4400 mg/kg. Both the test drugs significantly reversed the stress-induced gastric ulceration in comparison to stress-control rats. Starch from rhizome of C. angustifolia reversed forced swimming-induced hypothermia apparently, but not to a significant extent. However, the reversal of hypothermia found statistically significant in the rhizome starch of the M. arundinacea treated group. M. arundinacea had better anti-stress activity in comparision to C. angustifolia.

  5. Concurrent suppression of NF-κB, p38 MAPK and reactive oxygen species formation underlies the effect of a novel compound isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb. in LPS-activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Jiamvoraphong, Nittaya; Jantaratnotai, Nattinee; Sanvarinda, Pantip; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Thampithak, Anusorn; Sanvarinda, Pimtip

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of (3S)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol, also known as compound 092, isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated highly aggressive proliferating immortalized (HAPI) microglial cell lines. Nitric oxide (NO) production was determined using the Griess reaction, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA. Western blotting was used to determine the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and their related upstream proteins. Compound 092 suppressed NO production and iNOS expression in LPS-stimulated HAPI cells. These effects originated from the ability of compound 092 to attenuate the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB as determined by the reduction in p-NF-κB and p-IκB kinase (IKK) protein levels. Compound 092 also significantly lowered LPS-activated intracellular reactive oxygen species production and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Compound 092 suppresses microglial activation through attenuation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation. Compound 092 thus holds the potential to treat neurodegenerative disorders associated with neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Extracts from fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata) and roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica): viable alternatives in the medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tracts symptoms.

    PubMed

    Koch, E

    2001-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are very common disorders in aging men. Despite the great clinical importance, many aspects of their aetiology remain uncertain although it is generally accepted that advanced age and testicular androgens are important requirements for the development of these complaints. The currently available therapeutic options include watchful waiting, changes of life style, medical treatments and invasive therapies. In many European countries the use of phytopharmaceuticals for the management of BPH and related LUTS is common and these products represent up to 80 % of all drugs prescribed for this disorder. In particularly, extracts from the fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata, syn. Serenoa repens) and the roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are popular. During the last years numerous papers have been published which elaborated on the pharmacological activities and the clinical assessment of these herbal remedies. These investigations have not only broadened the scientific basis for the rational use of phytotherapeutics but have also provided evidence for their therapeutic efficacy and favourable safety profile.

  7. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb aqueous extract down-regulates in vivo expression of vascular cell adhesion molecules in atherogenic rats and inhibits in vitro macrophage differentiation and foam cell formation.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Salunke, Sunita P; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluates efficacy of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) leaves extract in ameliorating experimental atherosclerosis using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Atherogenic (ATH) diet fed rats recorded significant increment in the serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL (VLDL), autoantibody against oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL), markers of LDL oxidation and decrement in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) along with increment in aortic TC and TG. The ex vivo LDL oxidation assay revealed an increased susceptibility of LDL isolated from ATH rats to undergo copper mediated oxidation. These set of changes were minimized by simultaneous co-supplementation of SR extract to ATH diet fed rats. Histopathology of aorta and immunolocalization studies recorded pronounced atheromatous plaque formation, vascular calcification, significant elastin derangements and higher expression of macrophage surface marker (F4/80), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and p-selectin in ATH rats. Whereas, ATH+SR rats depicted minimal evidence of atheromatous plaque formation, calcium deposition, distortion/defragmentation of elastin and accumulation of macrophages along with lowered expression of VCAM-1 and P-selectin compared to ATH rats. Further, monocyte to macrophage differentiation and in vitro foam cell formation were significantly attenuated in presence of SR extract. In conclusion, SR extract has the potency of controlling experimental atherosclerosis and can be used as promising herbal supplement in combating atherosclerosis.

  8. Factorial design of essential oil extraction from Fagraea fragrans Roxb. flowers and evaluation of its biological activities for perfumery and cosmetic applications.

    PubMed

    Yingngam, B; Brantner, A H

    2015-06-01

    To optimize the extraction yields of essential oil from Fagraea fragrans Roxb. flowers in hydro-distillation using a central composite design (CCD) and to evaluate its biological activities for perfumery and cosmetic applications. Central composite design was applied to study the influences of operational parameters [water to flower weight (X(1)) and distillation time (X(2))] on the yields of essential oil (Y). Chemical compositions of the essential oil extracted from the optimized condition were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activities of the essential oil were determined against ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•) radicals, and the cytotoxic effects were assessed on human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells by the use of the MTT assay. Also, the aromatic properties of the essential oil were evaluated by five healthy trained volunteers. The best conditions to obtain the maximum essential oil yield were 7.5 mL g(-1) (X(1)) and 215 min (X(2)). The experimental yield of the essential oil (0.35 ± 0.02% v/w) was close to the value predicted by a mathematical model (0.35 ± 0.01% v/w). 3-Octadecyne, Z,Z,Z-7,10,13-hexadecatrienal, E-nerolidol, pentadecanal and linalool were the major constituents of the essential oil. The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant capacities with no toxic effects on HEK293 cells at 1-250 μg mL(-1). Also, the essential oil exhibited a very strong aroma and was classified to be top- to middle-notes. The results offer the effectively operational conditions in the extraction of essential oil from F. fragrans using hydro-distillation. The essential oil could be used as a natural fragrance, having antioxidant activity with slight cytotoxicity, for perfumery and cosmetic applications. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in Response to the Bacterial Wilt Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in

  10. Comparison of the transcriptomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in response to the bacterial wilt infection.

    PubMed

    Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in

  11. The treatment of jaundice with medicinal plants in indigenous communities of the Sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jyotsana; Gairola, Sumeet; Gaur, R D; Painuli, R M

    2012-08-30

    Inspite of tremendous advances made in allopathic medical practices, herbs still play an important role in the management of various liver diseases. A large number of plants and formulations have been claimed to have hepatoprotective activity. Jaundice is a symptom, indicative of the malfunctioning of the liver. This paper provides ethnomedicinal information on the plants used to treat jaundice by three important indigenous communities, i.e., nomadic Gujjars, Tharu and Bhoxa of Sub-Himalayan region, Uttarakhand, India. To record herbal preparations used by the studied indigenous communities in treatment of jaundice and discuss hepatoprotective properties of the recorded plants. The traditional knowledge of the studied indigenous communities on herbal preparations used for treating jaundice was collected through structured questionnaire and personal interviews. The interviews were conducted with 91 traditional healers (29 Bhoxa, 35 Tharu and 27 nomadic Gujjars) in Sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India. More than 250 research papers reporting ethnomedicinal information on the hepatoprotective plants used by various communities from different parts of India were extensively reviewed. A total of 40 medicinal plants belonging to 31 families and 38 genera were recorded to be used by the studied communities in 45 formulations as a remedy of jaundice. Bhoxa, nomadic Gujjars and Tharu communities used 15, 23 and 9 plants, respectively. To our knowledge eight plants reported in the present survey viz., Amaranthus spinosus L., Cissampelos pareira L., Ehretia laevis Roxb., Holarrhena pubescens Wall., Ocimum americanum L., Physalis divaricata D. Don, Solanum incanum L. and Trichosanthes cucumerina L. have not been reported earlier as remedy of jaundice in India. Literature review revealed that a total of 214 (belonging to 181 genus and 78 families), 19 (belonging to 18 genus and 12 families) and 14 (belonging to 14 genus and 11 families) plant species are used as internal

  12. Efficacy of Supportive Therapy of Allergic Rhinitis by Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica) root extract: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo- Controlled, Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Mohammad pour, Amir Hooshang; Esmaeili, Majid; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Alipour Talesh, Ghazal; Salehi, Maryam; Noorollahian Mohajer, Morteza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the exact benefit of this herb in the management of clinical and laboratory signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis. In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 74 patients with the signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis and a positive skin prick test were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups who were taken Urtica dioica 150-mg, Urtidin® F.C Tablet) or placebo for one month. Their signs and symptoms, eosinophil percentage on nasal smear, serum IgE, and interleukin IL-4, IL-5, interferon- γ) levels were recorded. Forty patients completed the trial. Based on the Sino- Nasal Outcome Test 22 SNOT-22), a significant improvement in clinical symptom severity was observed in both groups P < .001). Furthermore, a statistically significant reduction in mean nasal smear eosinophil count was observed after treatment with Nettle P < .01). However, the mean IgE and IL4 and IL5 levels in the study group before and after treatment with Nettle saw no significant changes P > .1). Intergroup pre- and post-treatment laboratory findings suggested that there was a significant difference in post-treatment changes of mean IFN γ levels between the study and placebo group P = 0.017). Although the current study showed certain positive effects of Nettle in the management of allergic rhinitis on controlling the symptoms based on the SNOT-22, similar effects were demonstrated by placebo as well. We believe that our limitations underscore the need for larger, longer term studies of Nettle for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. PMID:29844782

  13. Efficacy of Supportive Therapy of Allergic Rhinitis by Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica) root extract: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo- Controlled, Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Mohammad Pour, Amir Hooshang; Esmaeili, Majid; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Alipour Talesh, Ghazal; Salehi, Maryam; Noorollahian Mohajer, Morteza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the exact benefit of this herb in the management of clinical and laboratory signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis. In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 74 patients with the signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis and a positive skin prick test were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups who were taken Urtica dioica 150-mg, Urtidin ® F.C Tablet) or placebo for one month. Their signs and symptoms, eosinophil percentage on nasal smear, serum IgE, and interleukin IL-4, IL-5, interferon- γ) levels were recorded. Forty patients completed the trial. Based on the Sino- Nasal Outcome Test 22 SNOT-22), a significant improvement in clinical symptom severity was observed in both groups P < .001). Furthermore, a statistically significant reduction in mean nasal smear eosinophil count was observed after treatment with Nettle P < .01). However, the mean IgE and IL4 and IL5 levels in the study group before and after treatment with Nettle saw no significant changes P > .1). Intergroup pre- and post-treatment laboratory findings suggested that there was a significant difference in post-treatment changes of mean IFN γ levels between the study and placebo group P = 0.017). Although the current study showed certain positive effects of Nettle in the management of allergic rhinitis on controlling the symptoms based on the SNOT-22, similar effects were demonstrated by placebo as well. We believe that our limitations underscore the need for larger, longer term studies of Nettle for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

  14. Decomposition dynamic of two aquatic macrophytes Trapa bispinosa Roxb. and Nelumbo nucifera detritus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaohong; Feng, Deyou; Wen, Chunzi; Liu, Dan

    2018-03-29

    In freshwater ecosystems, aquatic macrophytes play significant roles in nutrient cycling. One problem in this process is nutrient loss in the tissues of untimely harvested plants. In this study, we used two aquatic species, Nelumbo nucifera and Trapa bispinosa Roxb., to investigate the decomposition dynamics and nutrient release from detritus. Litter bags containing 10 g of stems (plus petioles) and leaves for each species detritus were incubated in the pond from November 2016 to May 2017. Nine times litterbags were retrieved on days 6, 14, 25, 45, 65, 90, 125, 145, and 165 after the decomposition experiment for the monitoring of biomass loss and nutrient release. The results suggested that the dry masses of N. nucifera and T. bispinosa decomposed by 49.35-69.40 and 82.65-91.65%, respectively. The order of decomposition rate constants (k) is as follows: leaves of T. bispinosa (0.0122 day -1 ) > stems (plus petioles) of T. bispinosa (0.0090 day -1 ) > leaves of N. nucifera (0.0060 day -1 ) > stems (plus petioles) of N. nucifera (0.0030 day -1 ). Additionally, the orders of time for 50% dry mass decay, time for 95% dry mass decay, and turnover rate are as follows: leaves < stems (plus petioles) and T. bispinosa < N. nucifera, respectively. This result indicated that the dry mass loss, k values, and other parameters related to k values are significantly different in species- and tissue-specific. The C, N, and P concentration and the C/N, C/P, and N/P ratios presented the irregular temporal changes trends during the whole decay period. In addition, nutrient accumulation index (AI) was significantly changed depending on the dry mass remaining and C, N, and P concentration in detritus at different decomposition times. The nutrient AIs were 36.72, 8.08, 6.35, and 2.56% for N; 31.25, 9.85, 4.00, and 1.63% for P; 25.15, 16.96, 7.36, and 6.16% for C in the stems (plus petioles) of N. nucifera, leaves of N. nucifera, stems (plus petioles) of T. bispinosa, and leaves of T

  15. Hypolipidemic activity and mechanisms of the total phenylpropanoid glycosides from Ligustrum robustum (Roxb.) Blume by AMPK-SREBP-1c pathway in hamsters fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runmei; Chu, Xinxin; Sun, Le; Kang, Zhuoying; Ji, Min; Yu, Ying; Liu, Ying; He, Zhendan; Gao, Nannan

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect and mechanisms of total phenylpropanoid glycosides extracted from Ligustrum robustum (Roxb.) Blume (LRTPG) in hamsters fed a high-fat diet and to discover bioactive components in HepG2 cell model induced by oleic acid. LRTPG of high (1.2 g/kg), medium (0.6 g/kg), and low (0.3 g/kg) doses was administrated daily for 21 consecutive days in hamsters. We found that in hamsters fed a high-fat diet, LRTPG effectively reduced the concentrations of plasma triglycerides (TG), free fatty acid, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and hepatic TG and total cholesterol. And the compounds acteoside, ligupurpuroside A, ligupurpuroside C, and ligupurpuroside D significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in HepG2 cell at the concentration of 50 μmol/L. Mechanism research demonstrated that LRTPG increased the levels of phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase and phospho-sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c in liver, further to suppress the downstream lipogenic genes as stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2. In addition, LRTPG increased the hydrolysis of circulating TG by up-regulating lipoprotein lipase activities. These results indicate that LRTPG prevents hyperlipidemia via activation of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase-sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c pathway. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Photocatalytic degradation of synthetic food dye, sunset yellow FCF (FD&C yellow no. 6) by Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. possessing antioxidant and cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Deepika, Subramanyam; Harishkumar, Rajendran; Dinesh, Murugesan; Abarna, Rajadurai; Anbalagan, Moorthy; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Selvaraj, Chinnadurai Immanuel

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of our work is to identify the bioactive compounds of bark and leaves extract from Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. and to explore its effectiveness against synthetic food dye. The presence of primary and secondary metabolites was confirmed by carrying out phytochemicals analysis. With the prior knowledge accessible on the indispensable secondary metabolites holding antioxidant and cytotoxicity activity, the quantitative screening of total phenolic and flavonoid content in methanolic and aqueous extract of bark and leaves from Ailanthus excelsa were done. Comparatively, a higher value of flavonoid (161±0.3μg/mg) and phenolic acid content (152.4±0.14μg/mg) was found in bark extract. By FTIR analysis, the characteristic peak was obtained at 1581.63 and 1598.99cm -1 confirmed the presence of functional groups associated to flavonoids and other phenolic groups respectively. In bark extract, 81% of DPPH inhibition was observed when compared to ascorbic acid (standard) 92% of free radical scavenging activity. Bark extract from Ailanthus excelsa exhibited 71% cytotoxicity against HeLa cell line (cervical cancer). In examining the toxicity level of crude extracts with red blood cells (RBC), the bark extract was showed a very less (2.8%) haemolytic activity. They also showed maximum zone of inhibition in antibacterial activity i.e. 13±0.5mm against Escherichia coli culture. At a concentration of 10mg/mL of crude extract from A. excelsa, 55% degradation of sunset yellow dye was observed. It concludes that, the compounds present in the A. excelsa, especially the bark extract showed better photocatalytic, haemolytic, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity when compared to leaves extract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb., an Indian medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Sen, Saikat; De, Biplab; Devanna, N; Chakraborty, Raja

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of different leaf extracts of Meyna spinosa Roxb. ex Link, a traditional medicinal plant of India. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential of the methanol, ethyl acetate, and petroleum ether extracts of Meyna spinosa leaves were investigated using several in vitro and ex vivo assays, including the 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, superoxide anion scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, nitric oxide radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, metal chelating assay, and reducing power ability method. Total antioxidant activity of the extracts was estimated by the ferric thiocyanate method. Inhibition assay of lipid peroxidation and oxidative hemolysis were also performed to confirm the protective effect of the extracts. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were estimated using standard chemical assay procedures. Methanol extracts showed the highest polyphenolic content and possessed the better antioxidant activity than the other two extracts. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the methanol extract were (90.08 ± 0.44) mg gallic acid equivalents/g and (58.50 ± 0.09) mg quercetin equivalents/g, respectively. The IC50 of the methanol extract in the DPPH(·), superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and metal chelating assays were (16.4 ± 0.41), (35.9 ± 0.19), (24.1 ± 0.33), (23.7 ± 0.09), (126.8 ± 2.92), and (117.2 ± 1.01) μg·mL(-1), respectively. The methanol extract showed potent reducing power ability, total antioxidant activity, and significantly inhibit lipid peroxidation and oxidative hemolysis which was similar to that of standards. The results indicated a direct correlation between the antioxidant activity and the polyphenolic content of the extracts, which may the foremost

  18. Response of Stem Respiration of Two Tropical Species to an Imposed Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham, L.; Van Haren, J. L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Increased instances of drought are predicted for tropical forests; therefore, it is important to better understand how drought will affect individual aspects of the forest carbon cycle. Through photosynthesis, CO2 is assimilated into sugars, a dominant portion of which goes to the stems where it is used for growth and cell maintenance. Both processes produce CO2 through respiration, which leaves the stem through the bark. This investigation focused on how stem CO2 efflux differs between two tree species in the tropical rainforest biome of Biosphere 2 in Oracle, Arizona—a species of legume (Clitoria racemosa) and a species of non-legume (Phytolacca dioica). A flexible chamber was strapped to each tree and the CO2 that diffused across the bark was measured with a LI-7000. A 4-week long drought was imposed in an effort to simulate future conditions resulting from climate change. It was found that C. racemosa had an overall higher CO2 efflux than P. dioica. C. racemosa has thinner bark than P. dioica, which displays a secondary thickening of its stem as a result of successive cambia; therefore, CO2 could more easily diffuse from the stems of C. racemosa. The results also indicate that decreased soil moisture, as a result of the drought, leads to a significantly lower CO2 efflux from C. racemosa whereas no significant change was observed in P. dioica. This suggests that C. racemosa is more sensitive to water stress than P. dioica, which may have greater water storage capabilities due to its successive cambia. The differing reactions of C. racemosa and P. dioica to decreased soil moisture could be important for calculating carbon stocks and modeling the response of tropical trees to drought.

  19. Identification and phenology of Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cixiidae) nymphal instars.

    PubMed

    Cargnus, E; Pavan, F; Mori, N; Martini, M

    2012-10-01

    Urtica dioica and Convolvulus arvensis are the main host plants of Hyalesthes obsoletus and play an important role in the epidemiology of Bois noir of grapevines. The earliest survey, which was carried out to compare the phenology of nymphal instars on U. dioica and C. arvensis, had highlighted some problems in the identification of the instars. Therefore, the correct identification of nymphs to species and instar level became a preliminary aim of this research. Adults and nymphs attributable to H. obsoletus were collected during 2008-2010 in three flatland vineyard habitats of northern Italy on U. dioica, C. arvensis and Artemisia verlotorum. Nymphs and morphologically identified adults of H. obsoletus were submitted to molecular identification. Morphometric and morphological studies were carried out on nymphs collected in the field or obtained in laboratory rearings. Molecular methods not only confirmed the identity of adults, but also allowed the assignment of the nymphs to this species. Morphometric and morphological characteristics (e.g. body and head-thoracic lengths, number of thoracic pits) showed the existence of five nymphal instars. Morphometric differences between newly hatched and older first-instar nymphs were observed. A key to distinguish the five instars was proposed. Evident differences between H. obsoletus nymphs studied here and elsewhere were identified. According to differences in adult-flight period, an earlier phenology of nymphs on C. arvensis than on U. dioica was observed. In particular, the typical overwintering instar was the second on U. dioica and the third on C. arvensis.

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Mehmet; Coskun, Omer; Budancamanak, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS) and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats. METHODS: Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated) and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals. All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc, twice a week for 60 d). In addition, B, C and D groups also received daily i.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment. RESULTS: The CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (alone or combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. The weight of rats decreased in group A, and increased in groups B, C and D. CONCLUSION: NS and UD decrease the lipid per-oxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the anti-oxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats. PMID:16425366

  1. Effects of a triplex mixture of Peganum harmala, Rhus coriaria, and Urtica dioica aqueous extracts on metabolic and histological parameters in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Abedi Gaballu, Fereydoon; Abedi Gaballu, Yousef; Moazenzade Khyavy, Omid; Mardomi, Alireza; Ghahremanzadeh, Kazem; Shokouhi, Behrooz; Mamandy, Himan

    2015-08-01

    Several therapeutic effects such as antioxidant and blood glucose-lowering activities have been reported for Peganum harmala L (Zygophyllaceae) (PH) seeds, Rhus coriaria L (Anacardiaceae) (RC) fruits, and Urtica dioica L (Urticaceae) (UD) leaves. This study investigates the effects of a triplex mixture (1:1:1) of these medicinal plants on metabolic and histological parameters in diabetic rats. Aqueous extracts of PH, RC and UD were administered as either monotherapy or in combination at a final dose of 200 mg/kg to alloxan-induced diabetic rats by daily gavage. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, liver function-related enzymes, lipid profile, and creatinine were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. Tissues from the liver and kidney stained with hematoxylin/eosin were histologically examined. The results obtained from the exposure groups were compared to either healthy or diabetic control groups. Compared with the diabetic control rats, all aqueous extracts (ED50 = 11.5 ± 2.57 mg/ml) led to significant decreases in the levels of ALP (1.39-2.23-fold, p < 0.05), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (1.79-3.26-fold, p < 0.05), and blood glucose (1.27-4.16-fold, p < 0.05). The serum concentrations of TG was decreased only by treatment with UD and triplex mixture (1.25- and 1.20-fold, respectively, p < 0.05). Among the studied parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), LDL-C, TG, and creatinine recovered to healthy control levels after 4 weeks of treatment with the extract mixture. This study showed that PH, RC, and UD extracts, especially their combination, had significant antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, and liver and renal damage recovering effects.

  2. Phytochemical, phylogenetic, and anti-inflammatory evaluation of 43 Urtica accessions (stinging nettle) based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS metabolomic profiles.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed A; Weigend, Maximilian; Luebert, Federico; Brokamp, Grischa; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2013-12-01

    Several species of the genus Urtica (especially Urtica dioica, Urticaceae), are used medicinally to treat a variety of ailments. To better understand the chemical diversity of the genus and to compare different accessions and different taxa of Urtica, 63 leaf samples representing a broad geographical, taxonomical and morphological diversity were evaluated under controlled conditions. A molecular phylogeny for all taxa investigated was prepared to compare phytochemical similarity with phylogenetic relatedness. Metabolites were analyzed via UPLC-PDA-MS and multivariate data analyses. In total, 43 metabolites were identified, with phenolic compounds and hydroxy fatty acids as the dominant substance groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) provides a first structured chemotaxonomy of the genus. The molecular data present a highly resolved phylogeny with well-supported clades and subclades. U. dioica is retrieved as both para- and polyphyletic. European members of the U. dioica group and the North American subspecies share a rather similar metabolite profile and were largely retrieved as one, nearly exclusive cluster by metabolite data. This latter cluster also includes - remotely related - Urtica urens, which is pharmaceutically used in the same way as U. dioica. However, most highly supported phylogenetic clades were not retrieved in the metabolite cluster analyses. Overall, metabolite profiles indicate considerable phytochemical diversity in the genus, which largely falls into a group characterized by high contents of hydroxy fatty acids (e.g., most Andean-American taxa) and another group characterized by high contents of phenolic acids (especially the U. dioica-clade). Anti-inflammatory in vitro COX1 enzyme inhibition assays suggest that bioactivity may be predicted by gross metabolic profiling in Urtica. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. A Rosa canina - Urtica dioica - Harpagophytum procumbens/zeyheri Combination Significantly Reduces Gonarthritis Symptoms in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Study.

    PubMed

    Moré, Margret; Gruenwald, Joerg; Pohl, Ute; Uebelhack, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    The special formulation MA212 (Rosaxan) is composed of rosehip ( Rosa canina L.) puree/juice concentrate, nettle ( Urtica dioica L.) leaf extract, and devil's claw ( Harpagophytum procumbens DC. ex Meisn. or Harpagophytum zeyheri Decne.) root extract and also supplies vitamin D. It is a food for special medical purposes ([EU] No 609/2013) for the dietary management of pain in patients with gonarthritis.This 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind parallel-design study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of MA212 versus placebo in patients with gonarthritis.A 3D-HPLC-fingerprint (3-dimensional high pressure liquid chromatography fingerprint) of MA212 demonstrated the presence of its herbal ingredients. Ninety-two randomized patients consumed 40 mL of MA212 (n = 46) or placebo (n = 44) daily. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), quality-of-life scores at 0, 6, and 12 weeks, and analgesic consumption were documented. Statistically, the initial WOMAC subscores/scores did not differ between groups. During the study, their means significantly improved in both groups. The mean pre-post change of the WOMAC pain score (primary endpoint) was 29.87 in the MA212 group and 10.23 in the placebo group. The group difference demonstrated a significant superiority in favor of MA212 (p U  < 0.001; p t  < 0.001). Group comparisons of all WOMAC subscores/scores at 6 and 12 weeks reached same significances. Compared to placebo, both physical and mental quality of life significantly improved with MA212. There was a trend towards reduced analgesics consumption with MA212, compared to placebo. In the final efficacy evaluation, physicians (p Chi  < 0.001) and patients (p Chi  < 0.001) rated MA212 superior to placebo. MA212 was well tolerated.This study demonstrates excellent efficacy for MA212 in gonarthritis patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Effects of Nigella sativa L. and Urtica dioica L. on selected mineral status and hematological values in CCl4-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Meral, Ismail; Kanter, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L. (NS), known as black seed, or/and Urtica dioica L. (UD), known as stinging nettle root, treatments on serum Na, K, Cl, and Ca levels and some hematological values of CCl4-treated rats. Sixty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250-300 g, were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated), and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 15 animals. All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, subcutaneously, twice a week for 90 d starting d 1). In addition, B, C, and D groups also received the daily ip injection of 0.2 mL/kg NS and/or 2 mL/kg UD oils for 45 d starting d 46. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 45 d starting d 46. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from five randomly chosen rats in each treatment group at the beginning, d 45, and d 90 of the experiment. The CCl4 treatment for 45 d significantly (p<0.05) increased the serum K and Ca and decreased (p<0.05) the red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), and Hb levels without changing (p>0.05) the serum Na and Cl levels. NS or UD treatments (alone or combination) for 45 d starting d 46 significantly (p<0.05) decreased the elevated serum K and Ca levels and also increased (p<0.05) the reduced RBC, WBC, PCV, and Hb levels. It is concluded that NS and/or UD treatments might ameliorate the CCl4-induced disturbances of anemia, some minerals, and body's defense mechanism in CCl4-treated rats.

  5. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  6. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles. PMID:22474508

  7. DNA barcoding and NMR spectroscopy-based assessment of species adulteration in the raw herbal trade of Saraca asoca (Roxb.) Willd, an important medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Urumarudappa, Santhosh Kumar Jayanthinagar; Gogna, Navdeep; Newmaster, Steven G; Venkatarangaiah, Krishna; Subramanyam, Ragupathy; Saroja, Seethapathy Gopalakrishnan; Gudasalamani, Ravikanth; Dorai, Kavita; Ramanan, Uma Shaanker

    2016-11-01

    Saraca asoca (Roxb.) Willd, commonly known as "Asoka" or "Ashoka," is one of the most important medicinal plants used in raw herbal trade in India. The bark extracts of the tree are used in the treatment of leucorrhea and other uterine disorders besides also having anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-pyretic, anti-helminthic, and analgesic activity. The indiscriminate and rampant extraction of the wood to meet the ever-increasing market demand has led to a sharp decline in naturally occurring populations of the species in the country. Consequently, the species has recently been classified as "vulnerable" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Increasing deforestation and increasing demand for this medicinal plant have resulted in a limited supply and suspected widespread adulteration of the species in the raw herbal trade market. Adulteration is a serious concern due to: (i) reduction in the efficacy of this traditional medicine, (ii) considerable health risk to consumers, and (iii) fraudulent product substitution that impacts the economy for the Natural Health Product (NHP) Industry and consumers. In this paper, we provide the first attempt to assess the extent of adulteration in the raw herbal trade of S. asoca using DNA barcoding validated by NMR spectroscopic techniques. Analyzing market samples drawn from 25 shops, mostly from peninsular India, we show that more than 80 % of the samples were spurious, representing plant material from at least 7 different families. This is the first comprehensive and large-scale study to demonstrate the widespread adulteration of market samples of S. asoca in India. These results pose grave implications for the use of raw herbal drugs, such as that of S. asoca, on consumer health and safety. Based on these findings, we argue for a strong and robust regulatory framework to be put in place, which would ensure the quality of raw herbal trade products and reassure consumer confidence in indigenous

  8. Urtica dioica leaves modulates hippocampal smoothened-glioma associated oncogene-1 pathway and cognitive dysfunction in chronically stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Mahindroo, Neeraj; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2016-10-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) extract against chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced associative memory dysfunction and attempted to explore the possible mechanism. Male Swiss albino mice (25-30g) were divided into six groups, viz. group-I received 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose and served as control (CTRL), group II was exposed to CUS (21days) and received vehicle (CUS), group III was subjected to CUS and received Hypericum perforatum extract (350mg/kg, p.o.) (CUS+HYP), group IV received Hypericum perforatum extract (350mg/kg, p.o.) (CTRL+HYP); group V was subjected to CUS and received UD extract (50mg/kg, p.o.) (CUS+UD), group VI received UD extract (50mg/kg, p.o.) (CTRL+UD). CUS significantly induced body weight loss (p<0.05) and associative memory impairment in step down task (p<0.05) as compared to control mice. CUS significantly downregulated Smo (p<0.05), Gli1 (p<0.01), cyclin D1 (p<0.05), BDNF (p<0.01), TrKB (p<0.01) and MAPK1 (p<0.01) mRNA expression in hippocampus as compared to control mice. CUS significantly increased the levels of TBARS (p<0.01) and nitric oxide (p<0.001), and decreased catalase (p<0.001) and total thiol (p<0.01) in plasma resulting in oxidative stress and inflammation. Chronic UD administration significantly reverted CUS mediated body weight loss (p<0.05) and cognitive impairment (p<0.05). UD administration significantly decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.01) and nitric oxide (p<0.05), and increased the levels of catalase (p<0.01) and total thiol (p<0.05) in plasma. Chronic UD administration significantly upregulated hippocampal Smo (p<0.05), Gli1 (p<0.001), cyclin D1 (p<0.05), BDNF (p<0.05), TrKB (p<0.05) and MAPK1 (p<0.05) in stressed mice. Further, UD extract did not reverse cyclopamine induced downregulation of Gli1 and Ptch1 mRNA in hippocampal slices. UD modulated Smo-Gli1 pathway in the hippocampus as well as exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. UD extract might prove

  9. Effects of Methanolic Extracts of Annona Species on the Development and Reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Freitas, A F; Pereira, F F; Formagio, A S N; Lucchetta, J T; Vieira, M C; Mussury, R M

    2014-10-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) causes significant losses in corn crops and necessitates the use of alternative control strategies, such as the application of bioinsecticides. We report the effect of methanolic leaf extracts of Annona dioica, Annona cacans, and Annona coriacea on the development and reproduction of S. frugiperda. A quantitative analysis was carried out to determine the total concentration of phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannin (CT) in leaf extracts. Corn leaves were immersed in a 1% methanolic leaf extract solution and fed to second instars of S. frugiperda. Leaf disks dipped in the synthetic insecticide Connect® (Bayer CropScience Ltda) composed of a neonicotinoid (imidacloprid) and a pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), which are harmful to S. frugiperda, was used as positive control. Distilled water was used as a negative control treatment. The leaf extract of A. coriacea decreased larval survivorship, arrested pupal development, and affected the weight gain of S. frugiperda. A. dioica also affected larval survivorship, but its effects were more pronounced for the adult stage, as fecundity, fertility, egg hatchability, and embryonic development were severely affected. Leaf extracts from A. cacans had no effect on S. frugiperda. The leaf extracts of A. dioica and A. coriacea showed a higher content of flavonoids and phenols, respectively. Our results indicated that both A. dioica and A. coriacea have the potential for development as botanical insecticides.

  10. Chemical and toxicological evaluation of methanol extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. stem and Corchorus olitorius Linn. seed on hematological parameters and hepatorenal functions in mice.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Upal Kanti; Gupta, Malaya; Pal, Dilipkumar; Bhattacharya, Shiladitya

    2003-01-01

    Methanol extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. stem (MECR) contain flavonoids (0.2%) and Corchorus olitorius Linn. seed (MECO) was found to contain steroids and cardenolide glycosides. Effects of multiple weekly dose of MECR (25, 50, 75 mg/kg, i.p.) and MECO (15, 20, 25 mg/kg, i.p.) on liver and kidney functions and hematological parameters in mice were studied. No significant alteration of RBC count and hemoglobin content was observed in all dose level of treatment in MECR and MECO treated mice whereas significant increase of clotting time was seen in moderate and high doses in both case. MECR and MECO both caused significant increase in WBC count only in high dose level of treatment. Both the extracts in medium and high dose level increased SGOT, SGPT, NPN and plasma cholesterol significantly. Serum alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin were also increased by both moderate and high dose level of treatments in MECR and MECO treated mice respectively. Low dose of both the extract did not exhibit any significant change of creatinine and serum protein level. But high dose level of MECR and MECO significantly increased creatinine level. Increase in plasma cholesterol may be due to decrease in cholesterol catabolism owing to liver dysfunction of due to the intake of MECO itself as it was found to be steroid in nature. Elevated level of SGOT, SGPT and serum alkaline phosphatase activity in moderate and high dose level of weekly treated mice may be due to improper liver function following the treatment. Increased urea, non protein nitrogen and creatinine content in blood have been observed with impaired renal function. The slightly higher toxicity in case of MECO treated mice may be due to the presence of cardenolide glycosides in the ME of C. olitorius seed. However, low doses of MECR and MECO (25 and 15 mg/kg, i.p. respectively) did not exhibit any remarkable change on liver and kidney functions and hematological parameters.

  11. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor-binding antagonist activity of Malaysian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jantan, I; Rafi, I A A; Jalil, J

    2005-01-01

    Forty-nine methanol extracts of 37 species of Malaysian medicinal plants were investigated for their inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF) binding to rabbit platelets, using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Among them, the extracts of six Zingiberaceae species (Alpinia galanga Swartz., Boesenbergia pandurata Roxb., Curcuma ochorrhiza Val., C. aeruginosa Roxb., Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Z. zerumbet Koenig.), two Cinnamomum species (C. altissimum Kosterm. and C. pubescens Kochummen.), Goniothalamus malayanus Hook. f. Momordica charantia Linn. and Piper aduncum L. are potential sources of new PAF antagonists, as they showed significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging from 1.2 to 18.4 microg ml(-1).

  12. Polyphenol-rich extract of Pimenta dioica berries (Allspice) kills breast cancer cells by autophagy and delays growth of triple negative breast cancer in athymic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Shamaladevi, Nagarajarao; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K.; Patil, Bhimu S.; Lokeshwar, Bal L.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from edible plants have limited efficacy in treating advanced cancers, but they have potential to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs in a combined treatment. An aqueous extract of berries of Pimenta dioica (Allspice) shows promise as one such candidate for combination therapy or chemoprevention. An aqueous extract of Allspice (AAE) was tested against human breast cancer (BrCa) cells in vitro and in vivo. AAE reduced the viability and clonogenic growth of several types of BrCa cells (IC50 ≤ 100 μg/ml) with limited toxicity in non-tumorigenic, quiescent cells (IC50 >200 μg/ml). AAE induced cytotoxicity in BrCa was inconsistent with apoptosis, but was associated with increased levels of autophagy markers LC3B and LC3B-positive puncta. Silencing the expression of autophagy related genes (ATGs) prevented AAE-induced cell death. Further, AAE caused inhibition of Akt/mTOR signaling, and showed enhanced cytotoxicity when combined with rapamycin, a chemotherapy drug and an inhibitor of mTOR signaling. Oral administration (gavage) of AAE into athymic mice implanted with MDA-MB231 tumors inhibited tumor growth slightly but not significantly (mean decrease ~ 14%, p ≥ 0.20) if mice were gavaged post-tumor implant. Tumor growth showed a significant delay (38%) in tumor palpability and growth rate (time to reach tumor volume ≥ 1,000 mm3) when mice were pre-dosed with AAE for two weeks. Analysis of tumor tissues showed increased levels of LC3B in AAE treated tumors, indicating elevated autophagic tumor cell death in vivo in treated mice. These results demonstrate antitumor and chemo-preventive activity of AAE against BrCa and potential for adjuvant to mTOR inhibition. PMID:25945840

  13. Activity based evaluation of a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant: Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde flowers as estrogenic agents using ovariectomized rat model.

    PubMed

    Swar, Gauri; Shailajan, Sunita; Menon, Sasikumar

    2017-01-04

    Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde, Ashok, is a popular traditional plant used for gynecological disorders. In India, the juice of Ashok flowers is traditionally consumed as a tonic by women in case of uterine disorders. But despite the use, its estrogenic potency is not yet evaluated and thus lacks the scientific recognition and acclaim. This study is designed to investigate the estrogenic potential of standardized ethanolic extract of Saraca asoca flowers (SAF) using ovariectomized (OVX) female albino Wistar rat model. Saraca asoca flowers were extracted in ethanol using hot maceration technique and the extract was standardized in terms of content of four phytoestrogens like quercetin, kaempferol, β-sitosterol and luteolin using HPTLC technique. Safety of the extract was evaluated at a dose of 2000mg/kg body weight in female albino Wistar rats as per the OECD guidelines. Bilateral ovariectomy surgery was performed for the excision of both the ovaries. The OVX animals were treated with the ethanolic extract of SAF at three dose levels- 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight in distilled water as a vehicle, orally once a day for two weeks. Estradiol valerate was employed as a modern drug for comparative evaluation of the results. Estrogenic potency was studied by assaying the activities of serum and plasma marker enzymes and hormones viz. G6PDH, LDH, 17β-estradiol, progesterone along with cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL, and vaginal cornification. The uterotrophic effect was evaluated by studying the histoarchitecture of the uterus, effect on uterine weight and changes in the levels of uterine glycogen content. HPTLC revealed the presence of markers like quercetin, kaempferol, β-sitosterol and luteolin from the ethanolic extract of SAF. The content of the four markers was found to be 1.543mg/g, 0.924mg/g, 4.481mg/g and 2.349mg/g, respectively. SAF extract was found to be safe at an oral dose of 2000mg/kg body weight in rats. Among the three doses administered

  14. Urtica spp.: Phenolic composition, safety, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana Rita; Costa, Gustavo; Figueirinha, Artur; Liberal, Joana; Prior, João A V; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2017-09-01

    Urtica dioica and other less studied Urtica species (Urticaceae) are often used as a food ingredient. Fifteen hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and sixteen flavonoids, flavone and flavonol-type glycosides were identified in hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts of Urtica dioica L., Urtica urens L. and Urtica membranacea using HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS n . Among them, the 4-caffeoyl-5-p-coumaroylquinic acid and three statin-like 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl flavone derivatives were identified for the first time in Urtica urens and U. membranacea respectively. Urtica membranacea showed the higher content of flavonoids, mainly luteolin and apigenin C-glycosides, which are almost absent in the other species studied. In vitro, Urtica dioica exhibited greater antioxidant activity but Urtica urens exhibited stronger anti-inflammatory potential. Interestingly, statin-like compounds detected in Urtica membranacea have been associated with hypocholesterolemic activity making this plant interesting for future investigations. None of the extracts were cytotoxic to macrophages and hepatocytes in bioactive concentrations (200 and 350μg/mL), suggesting their safety use in food applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatial distribution of Aglais urticae (L.) and its host plant Urtica dioica (L.) in an agricultural landscape: implications for Bt maize risk assessment and post-market monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gathmann, Achim; Wirooks, Ludger; Eckert, Jörg; Schuphan, Ingolf

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decades, genes of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) (Bt) coding for protein toxins have been engineered into maize for protection against the European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hbn.)). However, these transgenic plants may have an impact on non-target organisms. In particular, a potential hazard was identified for non-target lepidopteran larvae, if they consume Bt maize pollen on their host plants. Risk can be defined as a function of the effect of an event (hazard) and the likelihood of this event occurring. Although data on toxicity (hazard) are available from many lab and field studies, knowledge about the environmental exposure of European lepidopteran larvae is incomplete at the population level. Therefore we studied the distribution of small tortoiseshell caterpillars (Aglais urticae (L.)) and its host plant in an agricultural landscape in Germany, to estimate the potential population exposure to maize pollen. The results showed that larvae of the small tortoiseshell developed primarily on freshly sprouted nettle stands (Urtica dioica (L.)) in field margins, rather than adjacent to hedges and groves. However, the main distribution was at margins of cereal (non-maize) fields, where 70% of all larvae were found. This may be due the fact that cereals covered 54% of the survey area, while maize only covered 6.1%. On the other hand, maize fields seem so show higher food plant densities than cereal crops. The results must be interpreted carefully, as the data basis of the present study is very small, and the situation can vary between years due to crop rotation or other changes in agricultural practices. Therefore it is still questionable whether the small tortoiseshell is significantly exposed to maize pollen. For a conclusive risk assessment, more replications and surveys of larger areas in different intensively managed agricultural landscapes over several years are needed.

  16. Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract down-regulates expression of PPARγ2 and leptin genes in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J Mice and retards in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Ramani, Umed V; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-01-01

    Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract (SRLE) is being used by the populace of North-East India to alleviate symptoms of diabetes and obesity. We have previously reported its hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, we report the effect of SRLE on (i) in vivo modulation of genes controlling high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and (ii) in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and leptin release. Supplementation with SRLE significantly prevented HFD induced increment in bodyweight, plasma lipids and leptin, visceral adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. Also, SRLE supplementation reduced food intake, down regulated PPARγ2, SREBP1c, FAS and LEP expressions and up-regulated CPT-1 in epididymal adipose tissue compared to obese mice. In vitro adipogenesis of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes was significantly retarded in the presence of SRLE extract. Also decreased triglyceride accumulation, leptin release and glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with higher glycerol release without significant alteration of viability of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes, was recorded. Our findings suggest that prevention of HFD induced visceral adiposity is primarily by down regulation of PPARγ2 and leptin gene expression coupled with attenuation of food intake in C57BL/6J mice. SRLE induced prevention of pre-adipocytes differentiation, and leptin release further substantiated these findings and scientifically validates the potential application of SRLE as a therapeutic agent against obesity.

  17. Sida rhomboidea. Roxb Leaf Extract Down-Regulates Expression of PPARγ2 and Leptin Genes in High Fat Diet Fed C57BL/6J Mice and Retards in Vitro 3T3L1 Pre-Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Thounaojam, Menaka C.; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N.; Ramani, Umed V.; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V.; Ramachandran, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract (SRLE) is being used by the populace of North-East India to alleviate symptoms of diabetes and obesity. We have previously reported its hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, we report the effect of SRLE on (i) in vivo modulation of genes controlling high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and (ii) in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and leptin release. Supplementation with SRLE significantly prevented HFD induced increment in bodyweight, plasma lipids and leptin, visceral adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. Also, SRLE supplementation reduced food intake, down regulated PPARγ2, SREBP1c, FAS and LEP expressions and up-regulated CPT-1 in epididymal adipose tissue compared to obese mice. In vitro adipogenesis of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes was significantly retarded in the presence of SRLE extract. Also decreased triglyceride accumulation, leptin release and glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with higher glycerol release without significant alteration of viability of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes, was recorded. Our findings suggest that prevention of HFD induced visceral adiposity is primarily by down regulation of PPARγ2 and leptin gene expression coupled with attenuation of food intake in C57BL/6J mice. SRLE induced prevention of pre-adipocytes differentiation, and leptin release further substantiated these findings and scientifically validates the potential application of SRLE as a therapeutic agent against obesity. PMID:21845103

  18. Leaf and stem CO/sub 2/ uptake in the three subfamilies of the Cactaceae. [Pereskia aculeata; Pereskia grandifolia; Maihuenia poeppigii; Carnegiea gigantea; Ferocactus acanthodes; Coryphantha vivipara; Mammillaria dioica; Opuntia ficus-inidica; Pereskiopsis porteri; Quiabentia chacoensis; Austrocylindropuntia subulata

    SciTech Connect

    Nobel, P.S.; Hartsock, T.L.

    Net CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24-hour periods was examined for the leaves and for the stems of 11 species of cacti representing all three subfamilies. For Pereskia aculeata, Pereskia grandifolia, and Maihuenia poeppigii (subfamily Pereskioideae), all the net shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the leaves and during the daytime. In contrast, for the leafless species Carnegiea gigantea, Ferocactus acanthodes, Coryphantha vivipara, and Mammillaria dioica (subfamily Cactoideae), all the shoot net CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the stems and at night. Similarly, for leafless Opuntia ficus-indica (subfamily Opuntioideae), all net CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. For leafy members ofmore » the Opuntioideae (Pereskiopsis porteri, Quiabentia chacoensis, Austrocylindropuntia subulata), at least 88% of the shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24 hours was by the leaves and some CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. Leaves responded to the instantaneous level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime, as occurs for C/sub 3/ plants, whereas nocturnal CO/sub 2/ uptake by stems of O. ficus-indica and F. acanthodes responded to the total daily PAR, as occurs for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants. Thus, under the well-watered conditions employed, the Pereskioideae behaved as C/sub 3/ plants, the Cactoideae behaved as CAM plants, and the Opuntioideae exhibited characteristics of both pathways.« less

  19. Secretory structure and histochemistry test of some Zingiberaceae plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indriyani, Serafinah

    2017-11-01

    A secretory structure is a structure that produces a plant's metabolite substances. Secretory structures are grouped into an internal and external. Zingiberaceae plants are known as traditional medicine plants and as spice plants due to secretory structures in their tissues. The objective of the research were to describe the secretory structure of Zingiberaceae plants and to discover the qualitatively primary metabolite substances in plant's tissues via histochemistry test. The research was conducted by observation descriptive design, quantitative data including the density of secretory cells per mm². The quantitative data were analyzed by ANOVA and continued by Duncan at α = 5 %. The results showed that the secretory structures in leaves, rhizome, and the root of 14 species of Zingiberaceae plants are found in the mesophyll of leaves and cortex, and also pith in rhizome and roots. The type of secretory structure is internal. Within the root of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.(bengle), Curcuma domestica Val. (kunyit), Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Roscoe (kunyit putih), Zingiber zerumbet (L.) J.E. Smith (lempuyang), Alpiniapurpurata K. Schum (lengkuas merah), and Curcuma aeruginosa Val. (temu ireng) were found amylum grains, while in Kaemferia galanga L. (kencur), Boesen bergiapandurata L. (temu kunci), and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (temulawak) there were no amylum grains in the root as well as in the leaves. The roots of bengle had the greatest density of amylum grain, it had 248.1 ± 9.8 secretory cells of amylum grains per mm². Lipids (oil droplets) were found in the root of bengle, Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. emprit (jahe emprit), Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. Gajah (jahe gajah), Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. Rubrum (jahe merah), Keampferia angustifolia L. (kunci pepet), kunyit, kunyit putih, lempuyang, lengkua smerah, Curcuma aeruginosa Val. (temu ireng), and Curcuma mangga Val. and van Zijp (temu mangga); the root of lempuyang had the greatest density of oil

  20. Feeding of the Dominant Herbivorous Plankton Species in the Black Sea and Their Role in Coccolithophorid Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelina, A. B.; Sergeeva, V. M.; Arashkevich, E. G.; Drits, A. V.; Louppova, N. E.; Solovyev, K. A.

    2017-11-01

    The feeding of abundant herbivore plankton species has been investigated during different stages of coccolithophorid development in the northeastern Black Sea, namely, at the initial stage of development (March 2009) and at the massive bloom stage (June 2011 and May 2013). The role of coccolithophorids as a food source for Black Sea copepods Calanus euxinus, Acartia clausi, and Pseudocalanus elongatus; the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans; and the larvacean Oikopleura dioica has been characterized for the first time. The contribution of coccolithophorids to copepod ration was low (0.2 to 13% of total carbon intake) during all study periods. The content of these organisms in the diet of N. scintillans ranged from 17 to 100%. The coccolithophorid bloom apparently had a stronger positive effect on the nutrition of fine filter feeders, such as N. scintillans and O. dioica, than on copepod nutrition. Daily coccolithophorid consumption by zooplankton ranged from 0.7 to 39.4% of the biomass in different study periods. The grazing of N. scintillans and O. dioica populations made the greatest contribution to coccolithophorid consumption (up to 26 and 23% of the coccolithophorid biomass, respectively).

  1. Pro-toxic 1,2-Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid esters, including unprecedented 10-membered macrocyclic diesters, in the medicinally-used Alafia cf. caudata and Amphineurion marginatum (Apocynaceae: Apocynoideae: Nerieae and Apoc

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The attraction of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous insects indicated the presence of pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in Alafia cf. caudata Stapf (Nerieae: Alafinae) and Amphineurion marginatum (Roxb.) D.J. Middleton (Apocyneae: Amphineuriinae). Subsequently, monoesters of retronecine ...

  2. Botanical medicines for the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Four important categories of urologic herbs, their history, and modern scientific investigations regarding them are reviewed. Botanical diuretics are discussed with a focus on Solidago spp (goldenrod) herb, Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) herb. Urinary antiseptic and anti-adhesion herbs, particularly Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (uva-uri) leaf, Juniperus spp (juniper) leaf, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) fruit are reviewed. The antinephrotoxic botanicals Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) root and Lespedeza capitata (round-head lespedeza) herb are surveyed, followed by herbs for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, most notably Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) fruit, Urtica dioica root, and Prunus africana (pygeum) bark.

  3. Evaluating the efficiency of a combination of Pygeum africanum and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) extracts in treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Melo, Ezer A; Bertero, Eduardo B; Rios, Luiz A S; Mattos, Demerval

    2002-01-01

    In spite of its historical use, published data about phytotherapic products is characterized by the absence of well conducted studies, leading to conflictive and indefinite results about efficiency and safety of theses drugs. In that sense, we have analyzed the results of a combination of Pygeum africanum and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) extracts in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), based in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled protocol. We have selected, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, only patients with >or=50 years, presenting urinary symptoms assessed by the International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS), with minimum score of 12, and Quality of Life (QoL) index of at least 3 points, rectal examination consistent with BPH, and maximum urinary flow rate (Q(max)) between 5 and 15 mL/s. Phytotherapic and placebo groups were formed by 27 and 22 patients, respectively. The major variables analyzed during the study were IPSS variation, Q(max), and side effects. Reduction of >or=30% and >or=50% in IPSS were the parameters used to define a clinically significant response (CSR). We have also analyzed >or=30% and >or=50% Q(max) increases. After six months of treatment we did not observe significant differences in clinical improvement potential between the phytotherapic combination and placebo groups. Percent IPSS drop of 21.6% in the phytotherapic group was similar to 19.7% obtained in the placebo group (p=0.928). Neither we observed any difference (p=0.530) for QoL improvement between phytotherapic (9.26%) and placebo (5.98%) groups. The alterations of Q(max) followed the trend line observed in clinical data, with no significant difference (p=0.463) in Q(max) increasing percent between phytotherapic (17.2%) and placebo (13.3%) groups. The CSR evaluation of clinical and urodynamic data was also similar between the groups. The combination of 25mg Pygeum africanum and 300mg stinging nettle extracts produced clinical and urodynamic

  4. Isolation, characterization and antifungal activity of very long chain alkane derivatives from Cinnamomum obtusifolium, Elaeocarpus lanceifolius and Baccaurea sapida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordoloi, Manobjyoti; Saikia, Surovi; Bordoloi, Prasanta K.; Kolita, Bhaskor; Dutta, Partha P.; Bhuyan, Purnajyoti D.; Dutta, Subhas C.; Rao, Paruchuri G.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize bioactive secondary metabolites from the flora of the Indo-Burma biodiversity belt for controlling leaf blight disease of Solanum khasianum Clarke (Solanaceae) caused by Alternaria tenuissima and Alternaria alternata during commercial cultivation, the berries of which contains 1.80-3.45% solasodine, a major raw material for steroid drug industries. Three new and two white powdered compounds were extracted from Cinnamomum obtusifolium (Roxb.) Nees (Lauraceae), Elaeocarpus lanceifolius (Roxb.) (Elaeocarpaceae) and Baccaurea sapida (Roxb.) Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae). New compounds were characterized as Triacontanoic acid (1), octatriacontan-1-ol (2) and dotriacontane (3) isolated from C. obtusfolium and E. lanceofolius by 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopy respectively. Other two known compounds were palmitic acid (4) and oleic acid (5) and from B. sapida. Complete inhibition of pathogenic fungi A.tenuissima and A. alternata were observed for compound 2 and 3. Further, in-silico molecular binding analysis of these compounds towards endopolygalacturonase, β-isopropyl dehydrogenase, plasma membrane ATPase, calmodulin, ACR-toxin biosynthesis hydroxylase and synthatase peptide (transcription regulator of Amt-gene) of A. tenuissima and A.alternata revealed that they are effective in inhibiting multiple targets. The antifungal potential of three new isolated compounds from C. obtusifolium and E. lanceifolius is reported for the first time. The results indicate the possible use of triacontanoic acid, octatriacontan-1-ol and dotriacontane as potential antifungal agents.

  5. Thai plants with high antioxidant levels, free radical scavenging activity, anti-tyrosinase and anti-collagenase activity.

    PubMed

    Chatatikun, Moragot; Chiabchalard, Anchalee

    2017-11-09

    Ultraviolet radiation from sunlight induces overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in skin photoaging and hyperpigmentation disorders. Novel whitening and anti-wrinkle compounds from natural products have recently become of increasing interest. The purpose of this study was to find products that reduce ROS in 14 Thai plant extracts. To determine total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, anti-tyrosinase activity and anti-collagenase activity, we compared extracts of 14 Thai plants prepared using different solvents (petroleum ether, dichloromethane and ethanol). Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. Total phenolic content of the 14 Thai plants extracts was found at the highest levels in ethanol followed by dichloromethane and petroleum ether extracts, respectively, while flavonoid content was normally found in the dichloromethane fraction. Scavenging activity ranged from 7 to 99% scavenging as assessed by DPPH and ABTS assays. The ethanol leaf extract of Ardisia elliptica Thunb. had the highest phenolic content, antioxidant activity and collagenase inhibition, while Cassia alata (L.) Roxb. extract had the richest flavonoid content. Interestingly, three plants extracts, which were the ethanolic fractions of Annona squamosa L., Ardisia elliptica Thunb. and Senna alata (L.) Roxb., had high antioxidant content and activity, and significantly inhibited both tyrosinase and collagenase. Our finding show that the ethanol fractions of Annona squamosa L., Ardisia elliptica Thunb. and Senna alata (L.) Roxb. show promise as potential ingredients for cosmetic products such as anti-wrinkle agents and skin whitening products.

  6. Investigation on Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Some Thai Edible Plants as an Alternative for Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. H.; Cho, S.; Paik, H. D.; Choi, C. W.; Nam, K. T.; Hwang, S. G.; Kim, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime) fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania) leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal) leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric) roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry) leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia) leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut) peels. The plants were extracted by methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by agar diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Burkholderia sp., Haemopilus somnus, Haemopilus parasuis, and Clostridium perfringens that were considered pathogenic strains in livestock infection. Methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and leaves showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activities except for C. perfringens. Butanol extract of S. grandiflora L. leaves showed the strongest activity against Burkholderia sp. with MIC, 135 μg/mL. P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, Burkholderia sp. and H. parasuis. Ethyl acetate and water extracts from C. domesitca Valeton roots showed MIC of 306 μg/mL and 183 μg/mL, respectively against only C. perfringens. Antioxidative activity was determined by 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl photometric assay. The methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity among all the extracts with 3.46 mg/mL and 2.70 mg/mL effective concentration 50% (EC50) values, respectively. Total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were measured from the plant extracts. Methanol extracts of S. grandiflora L. and chloroform extracts of C. domestica Valeton were found to have the highest amount of total phenolics, 41.7 and 47.8

  7. The effects of natural and induced short-term floods on four sugarcane accessions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was initiated at the USDA/ARS Subtropical Horticulture Research Station, Miami, FL to evaluate the potential for flood tolerance in several accessions from Saccharum barberi (Jeswiet) and S. sinense (Roxb. Amend. Jeswiet) sugarcane genera. The experimental design included 4 accessions, Kewal...

  8. Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation Capability of Woody Plants in Mine wasteland of Karst Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiuru, Wang; Zhongliang, Huang; Xuan, Zhang; Zijian, Wu

    2017-04-01

    The bioaccumulation capability and transfer characteristics of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in soil and 6 different woody plants collected from a typical lead-zinc mine wasteland of Karst area, Hunan province were investigated, including Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.) Hook., Swida wilsoniana (Wanger.), Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia., Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl., and Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. The results showed that the 6 plants could adapt to the heavy metal polluted environment, and there was a positive correlation between the heavy metal content in plants and soil.Swida wilsoniana (Wanger.) and Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. had the largest Pb bioaccumulation factor of 0.03; Paulownia. had the highest Zn bioaccumulation factor of 0.37; the largest Pb transfer factor of 1.31 were found in Koelreuteria paniculata; and Zn transfer factor of Paulownia. reached 1.45. These 4 woody plants are suitable for phytoremediation of mine wasteland of Karst areas.

  9. Constituents from Terminalia species increase PPAR-Alpha and PPAR-Gamma levels and stimulate glucose uptake without enhancing adipocyte differentiation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fruits of Terminalia bellerica Roxb.(Combretaceae) and T. chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) are important components of triphala, a popular Ayurvedic formulation, for treating diabetes in Indian traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the constituents of T. belleric...

  10. Evaluation of larvicidal, adulticidal, and anticholinesterase activities of essential oils of Illicium verum Hook. f., Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr., and Myristica fragrans Houtt. against Zika virus vectors.

    PubMed

    Gomes da Rocha Voris, Diego; Dos Santos Dias, Luciana; Alencar Lima, Josélia; Dos Santos Cople Lima, Keila; Pereira Lima, José Bento; Dos Santos Lima, Antônio Luís

    2018-05-28

    Aedes aegypti is the vector responsible for transmitting pathogens that cause various infectious diseases, such as dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and chikungunya, worrying health authorities in the tropics. Due to resistance of mosquitoes to synthetic insecticides, the search for more effective insecticidal agents becomes crucial. The aim of this study was to verify the larvicidal, adulticidal, and anticholinesterase activities of the essential oils of the Illicium verum (EOIV), Pimenta dioica (EOPD), and Myristica fragrans (EOMF) against Ae. aegypti. The essential oils (EOs) were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The larvicidal and adulticidal activities of EOs were evaluated against third instar larvae and Ae. aegypti adult females, respectively, using the procedures of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the anticholinesterase activity of the EOs by the modified Ellman method. The following major components were identified: (E)-anethole (90.1%) for EOIV, methyl eugenol (55.0%) for EOPD, and sabinene (52.1%) for EOMF. All EOs exhibited larvicidal and adulticidal activity against Ae. aegypti. The highest larval mortality was observed in EOMF with LC 50  = 28.2 μg mL -1 . Adult mortality was observed after 1 (knockdown) and 24 h exposure, with the highest potential established by the EOIV, KC 50  = 7.3 μg mg female -1 and LC 50  = 10.3 μg mg female -1 . EOIV (IC 50  = 4800 μg mL -1 ), EOMF (IC 50  = 4510 μg mL -1 ), and EOPD (IC 50  = 1320 μg mL -1 ) inhibited AChE. EOMF (4130 μg mL -1 ) and EOPD (IC 50  = 3340 μg mL -1 ) inhibited BChE whereas EOIV showed no inhibition. The EOs were toxic to larvae and adults of Ae. aegypti, as well as being less toxic to humans than the currently used insecticides, opening the possibility of elaboration of a natural, safe, and ecological bioinsecticide for vector control.

  11. Host plant utilization in the comma butterfly: sources of variation and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Janz, Niklas; Nylin, Sören; Wedell, Nina

    1994-09-01

    A major challenge in the study of insect-host plant interactions is to understand how the different aspects of offspring performance interact to produce a preference hierarchy in the ovipositing females. In this paper we investigate host plant preference of the polyphagous butterfly Polygonia c-album (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and compare it with several aspects of the life history of its offspring (growth rate, development time, adult size, survival and female fecundity). Females and offspring were tested on four naturally used host plants (Urtica dioica, Ulmus glabra, Salix caprea, and Betula pubescens). There was substantial individual variation in host plant preference, including reversals in rank order, but the differences were largely confined to differences in the ranking of Urtica dioica and S. caprea. Different aspects of performance on these two plants gave conflicting and complementary results, implying a trade-off between short development time on U. dioica, and larger size and higher fecundity on S. caprea. As all performance components showed low individual variation the large variation in host plant preference was interpreted as due to alternative oviposition strategies on the basis of similar 'performance hierarchies'. This indicates that the larval performance component of host-plant utilization may be more conservative to evolutionary change than the preference of ovipositing females. Possible macro-evolutionary implications of this are discussed.

  12. Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB/c mouse model by stinging nettle lectin, Urtica dioica agglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Kumaki, Yohichi; Wandersee, Miles K.; Smith, Aaron J.; Zhou, Yanchen; Simmons, Graham; Nelson, Nathan M.; Bailey, Kevin W.; Vest, Zachary G.; Li, Joseph K.-K.; Chan, Paul Kay-Sheung; Smee, Donald F.; Barnard, Dale L.

    2011-01-01

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) is a small plant monomeric lectin, 8.7 kDa in size, with an N-acetylglucosamine specificity that inhibits viruses from Nidovirales in vitro. In the current study, we first examined the efficacy of UDA on the replication of different SARS-CoV strains in Vero 76 cells. UDA inhibited virus replication in a dose-dependent manner and reduced virus yields of the Urbani strain by 90% at 1.1 ± 0.4 µg/ml in Vero 76 cells. Then, UDA was tested for efficacy in a lethal SARS-CoV-infected BALB/c mouse model. BALB/c mice were infected with two LD50 (575 PFU) of virus for 4 hours before the mice were treated intraperitoneally with UDA at 20, 10, 5 or 0 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Treatment with UDA at 5 mg/kg significantly protected the mice against a lethal infection with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (p<0.001), but did not significantly reduce virus lung titers. All virus-infected mice receiving UDA treatments were also significantly protected against weight loss (p<0.001). UDA also effectively reduced lung pathology scores. At day 6 after virus exposure, all groups of mice receiving UDA had much lower lung weights than did the placebo-treated mice. Thus, our data suggest that UDA treatment of SARS infection in mice leads to a substantial therapeutic effect that protects mice against death and weight loss. Furthermore, the mode of action of UDA in vitro was further investigated using live SARS-CoV Urbani strain virus and retroviral particles pseudotyped with SARS-CoV spike (S). UDA specifically inhibited the replication of live SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus when added just before, but not after, adsorption. These data suggested that UDA likely inhibits SARS-CoV infection by targeting early stages of the replication cycle, namely, adsorption or penetration. In addition, we demonstrated that UDA neutralizes the virus infectivity, presumably by binding to the SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein. Finally, the target molecule for inhibition of virus

  13. An investigation of the vegetative anatomy of Piper sarmentosum, and a comparison with the anatomy of Piper betle (Piperaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (synonym, P. lolot C.DC.) is a southeast Asian medicinal plant valued for its medicinal and culinary uses. Hand-sections of the vegetative parts of P. sarmentosum were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Th...

  14. Registration of ‘HoCP 04-838’ sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘HoCP 04-838’ sugarcane (an interspecific hybrid of S. officinarum, S. barberi Jeswiet, S. spontaneum, and S. sinense Roxb. amend. Jeswiet) was selected and evaluated by scientists at the USDA-ARS, working cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and the American Sugar ...

  15. AROMATIC METABOLISM IN PLANTS. I. A STUDY OF THE PREPHENATE DEHYDROGENASE FROM BEAN PLANTS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    achieved in the pH range from 7 to 8. The enzyme is inhibited by sulphydryl complexing compounds. Addition of phenylalanine, tyrosine, or cinnamate ...mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.). A study was made of the variation in the amount of prephenate dehydrogenase and aromatic amino acid transaminase in

  16. Registration of ‘Ho 00-961’ sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Ho 00-961’ (Reg. No., PI) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum officinarum L., S. spontaneum L., S. barberi Jeswiet, and S. sinense Roxb. amend. Jeswiet) was selected by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit, and evaluated cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, an...

  17. Environmental Assessment Tent City at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-15

    animals such as sponges, flatworms, nematode worms, segmented worms, snails, clams, and immature and adult insects , fish, amphibians, turtles, and... nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), beggars’ ticks (Bidens frondosa), and waterleaf (Hydrophyllum viginianum) are

  18. Dietary administration of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. Willd.) DC water extract enhances immune response and survival rate against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Chang, Yueh-Ping; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Liu, Chun-Hung; Wong, Saou-Lien; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC., a perennial plant belonging to the Asteraceae family, is originated from the tropical area of Asia. The total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity were examined after white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the water extract of G. bicolor at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) for 7-28 days. The results indicated that these parameters increased accordingly with the amount of extract and time. THCs of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) were significantly higher than that fed the control diet for 14-28 days. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1), the PO, RBs, and lysozyme activities reached the highest levels after 7 days, whereas SOD activity reached the highest levels after 14 days. In a separate experiment, white shrimp L. vannamei fed the diets containing the G. bicolor extract for 28 days were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 3 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 1 × 10(3) copies shrimp(-1). The survival rate of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets was significantly higher than that of the shrimp fed the control diet at 48-144 h post challenge V. alginolyticus and WSSV. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1 and 2 g (kg diet)(-1) under challenges of V. alginolyticus and WSSV, their LPS- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA expressions were significantly higher than those of the challenged control shrimp at 12-96 and 24-144 h post-challenge, respectively. We concluded that dietary administration of a G. bicolor extract could enhance the innate immunity within 28 days as evidenced by the increases in immune parameters (PO, RBs, and lysozyme) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD) activities of shrimp to against V. alginolyticus and WSSV

  19. Janceolaroside A and janceoside A, two new compounds from the stems and roots of Jasminum lanceolarium.

    PubMed

    Lou, Lili; Han, Lingfei; Meng, Dali; Li, Ning; Li, Xian

    2011-06-01

    From the stems and roots of Jasminum lanceolarium Roxb., two new compounds, janceolaroside A and janceoside A, have been isolated along with three known compounds, (-)olivil 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (+)-cycloolivil-6-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and syringin. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods.

  20. Trappeindia himalayensis gen. et sp. nov., a sequestrate fungus with potential affinity to Strobilomyces (Basidiomycotina, Boletales)

    Treesearch

    M.A. Castellano; S.L. Miller; L. Singh; T.N. Lakhanpal

    2012-01-01

    An unusual sequestrate fungus forming ectomycorrhizae with Cedrus deodora (Roxb.) Laud. forms sporocarps in the northwestern Himalayas of India during spring. It has a dark brown to black peridium with a solid, white to brown, loculate gleba containing spherical, reticulate spores. It resembles no described genus and is described here as ...

  1. Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum) utilization: characterization of extractives and cell-wall chemistry

    Treesearch

    Thomasl L. Eberhardt; Xiaobo Li; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    2007-01-01

    Wood, bark, and the wax-coated seeds from Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) Small), an invasive tree species in the southeastern United States, were subjected to extractions and degradative chemical analyses in an effort to better understand the mechanism(s) by which this tree species...

  2. Recombination changes at the boundaries of fully and partially sex-linked regions between closely related Silene species pairs

    PubMed Central

    Campos, J L; Qiu, S; Guirao-Rico, S; Bergero, R; Charlesworth, D

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of a region of suppressed recombination is a critical change during sex chromosome evolution, leading to such properties as Y (and W) chromosome genetic degeneration, accumulation of repetitive sequences and heteromorphism. Although chromosome inversions can cause large regions to have suppressed recombination, and inversions are sometimes involved in sex chromosome evolution, gradual expansion of the non-recombining region could potentially sometimes occur. We here test whether closer linkage has recently evolved between the sex-determining region and several genes that are partially sex-linked in Silene latifolia, using Silene dioica, a closely related dioecious plants whose XY sex chromosome system is inherited from a common ancestor. The S. latifolia pseudoautosomal region (PAR) includes several genes extremely closely linked to the fully Y-linked region. These genes were added to an ancestral PAR of the sex chromosome pair in two distinct events probably involving translocations of autosomal genome regions causing multiple genes to become partially sex-linked. Close linkage with the PAR boundary must have evolved since these additions, because some genes added in both events now show almost complete sex linkage in S. latifolia. We compared diversity patterns of five such S. latifolia PAR boundary genes with their orthologues in S. dioica, including all three regions of the PAR (one gene that was in the ancestral PAR and two from each of the added regions). The results suggest recent recombination suppression in S. latifolia, since its split from S. dioica. PMID:27827389

  3. Bruguiera Species in Hawai'i: Systematic Considerations and Ecological Implications

    Treesearch

    James A. Allen; Ken W. Krauss; Norman C. Duke; Derral R. Herbst; Olle Bjorkman; Connie Shih

    2000-01-01

    At least two mangrove tree species in the genus (Bruguiera) were introduced into Hawai'i from the Philippines in 1922. The two are described in the most current manual on the flora of Hawai'i as (B. gymnorrhiza) (L.) Lamk. and (B. parviflora) (Roxb.) W. & A. ex. Griff. There has, however, been...

  4. Environmental Assessment: North Ditch Crossing Culvert Replacement at West of Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-09

    this area. Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), beggars’ ticks (Bidens frondosa), and waterleaf (Hydrophyllum viginianum...materials, herbicides, and insecticides from entering public waters (this includes eliminating sediment from entering the storm drain inlets). Water used

  5. Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB/c mouse model by stinging nettle lectin, Urtica dioica agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Kumaki, Yohichi; Wandersee, Miles K; Smith, Aaron J; Zhou, Yanchen; Simmons, Graham; Nelson, Nathan M; Bailey, Kevin W; Vest, Zachary G; Li, Joseph K-K; Chan, Paul Kay-Sheung; Smee, Donald F; Barnard, Dale L

    2011-04-01

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) is a small plant monomeric lectin, 8.7 kDa in size, with an N-acetylglucosamine specificity that inhibits viruses from Nidovirales in vitro. In the current study, we first examined the efficacy of UDA on the replication of different SARS-CoV strains in Vero 76 cells. UDA inhibited virus replication in a dose-dependent manner and reduced virus yields of the Urbani strain by 90% at 1.1 ± 0.4 μg/ml in Vero 76 cells. Then, UDA was tested for efficacy in a lethal SARS-CoV-infected BALB/c mouse model. BALB/c mice were infected with two LD50 (575 PFU) of virus for 4 h before the mice were treated intraperitoneally with UDA at 20, 10, 5 or 0 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Treatment with UDA at 5 mg/kg significantly protected the mice against a lethal infection with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (p < 0.001), but did not significantly reduce virus lung titers. All virus-infected mice receiving UDA treatments were also significantly protected against weight loss (p < 0.001). UDA also effectively reduced lung pathology scores. At day 6 after virus exposure, all groups of mice receiving UDA had much lower lung weights than did the placebo-treated mice. Thus, our data suggest that UDA treatment of SARS infection in mice leads to a substantial therapeutic effect that protects mice against death and weight loss. Furthermore, the mode of action of UDA in vitro was further investigated using live SARS-CoV Urbani strain virus and retroviral particles pseudotyped with SARS-CoV spike (S). UDA specifically inhibited the replication of live SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus when added just before, but not after, adsorption. These data suggested that UDA likely inhibits SARS-CoV infection by targeting early stages of the replication cycle, namely, adsorption or penetration. In addition, we demonstrated that UDA neutralizes the virus infectivity, presumably by binding to the SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein. Finally, the target molecule for the inhibition of virus

  6. Clinical efficacy of water extract of stem bark of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. in patients of chronic heart failure: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Maulik, Subir K; Wilson, Vinu; Seth, Sandeep; Bhargava, Balram; Dua, Pamila; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Katiyar, Chandra K

    2016-10-15

    The stem bark of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight and Arn. (Arjuna) is used in Indian system of medicine (Ayurveda) for treatment of various cardiac diseases, including heart failure. However, well designed clinical trials exploring its efficacy and safety in chronic heart failure (CHF) are lacking. To ascertain the add-on efficacy and safety of a standardized water extract of stem bark of Arjuna (Arjuna extract) in CHF patients on standard pharmacotherapy. Double-blind, parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled add-on clinical trial. After approval of institutional ethics committee, 100 patients of CHF of New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II on standard pharmacotherapy having an echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40% were consecutively recruited with informed consent and randomized 1:1 to Arjuna extract 750 mg or matching placebo twice daily. The primary outcome measure was change in LVEF at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included changes in (i) NYHA functional class, (ii) distance covered in 6 min walk test (6MWT), (iii) quality of life (QoL), as determined by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), (iv) plasma brain natriuretic peptide, (v) plasma cytokines (interleukin-6, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α) and (vi) oxidative stress markers [serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), red blood cell (RBC) superoxide dismutase (SOD), RBC catalase and RBC glutathione (GSH)] at 6 and 12 weeks. Safety assessment was done by adverse event monitoring and laboratory investigations. Results were expressed as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range) and analysed with intention-to- treat principle using appropriate two-sided statistical tests. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Arjuna extract was well-tolerated, but did not change LVEF (24.3 ± 7.1 versus 25.5 ± 7.7%; p = 0.4) or secondary outcome measures except preservation of RBC catalase

  7. Allometric biomass models and applications for branches of Chinese tallow in a Mississippi Bottomland Forest

    Treesearch

    Allison M. Stoklosa; Nana Tian; Zhaofei Fan

    2015-01-01

    Chinese tallow [Triadica sebifera (L.) Small, formerly Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.] is a non-native invader moving through the southeastern United States. Tallow can invade a multitude of habitats, from coastal prairies to closed-canopy forests, forming monospecific stands and driving out native flora and fauna (Bruce and others 1997). Tallow has large impacts, both...

  8. Leaf micro-morphology of Lepisanthes Blume (Sapindaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazalli, Mohd Norfaizal; Talib, Noraini; Mohammad, Abdul Latiff

    2018-04-01

    A detail comparative study on leaf micro-morphology was conducted on the genus Lepisanthes from Peninsular Malaysia, five chosen species namely as L. amoena (Hassk.) Leenh., L. fruticosa (Roxb.) Leenh., L. rubiginosa (Roxb.) Leenh., L. senegalensis (Juss. ex Poir.) Leenh. and L. tetraphylla (Vahl.) Radlk. The objective of this study is to identify the leaf micro-morphological characteristics that can give significance impact for species identification and classification. Lepisanthes is an important tropical rare fruit genus in Malaysia and it is important to characterize and documenting additional taxonomic evidences that can be useful in Sapindaceae taxonomy information which is still lacked. The methods involved dehydration process, critical point drying, gold coated and observation under scanning electron microscope. Leaf micro-morphology showed significance taxonomic value in the genus Lepisanthes and can be used as additional data for species identification. Diagnostic character was found in L. fruticosa via the presence of four different types of trichomes on the abaxial and adaxial epidermal surfaces. As a conclusion, variation in cuticular striation, stomata structure, type of waxes and trichome morphology can be used in Lepisanthes species identification.

  9. Herbal Extract SH003 Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metastasis of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells by Inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Sang-Mi; Park, Sunju; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Cancer inflammation promotes cancer progression, resulting in a high risk of cancer. Here, we demonstrate that our new herbal extract, SH003, suppresses both tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 signaling path. Our new herbal formula, SH003, mixed extract from Astragalus membranaceus, Angelica gigas, and Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz, suppressed MDA-MB-231 tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo and reduced the viability and metastatic abilities of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Furthermore, SH003 inhibited STAT3 activation, which resulted in a reduction of IL-6 production. Therefore, we conclude that SH003 suppresses highly metastatic breast cancer growth and metastasis by inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 signaling path. PMID:24976685

  10. Invasibility of major forest types by non-native Chinese tallow in East Texas

    Treesearch

    Zhaofei Fan

    2015-01-01

    Non-native invasive Chinese tallow trees [Triadica sebifera (L.) Small,formerly Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.] are rapidly spreading into natural ecosystems such as forests in the southeastern United States. Using the 2001-2010 USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data and forest land cover data, we estimated the regional invasibility of major forest...

  11. Growth pf Chinese tallow in a bottomland forest in Southern Mississippi

    Treesearch

    Nana Tian; Zhaofei Fan

    2015-01-01

    Chinese tallow tree [Triadica sebifera (L.) Small, formerly Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.] is a monoecious and deciduous tree, native to central and southern China. As a nonnative invasive tree species, it has aggressively invaded forestlands in southeastern United States, particularly the low- and bottom-land forests along the coastal region of the Gulf of Mexico. This...

  12. Experimental hybridization and backcrossing reveal forces of reproductive isolation in Microbotryum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hybridization and reproductive isolation are central to the origin and maintenance of species, and especially for sympatric species, gene flow is often inhibited through barriers that depend upon mating compatibility factors. The anther-smut fungi (genus Microbotryum) serve as models for speciation in the face of sympatry, and previous studies have tested for but not detected assortative mating. In addition, post-mating barriers are indicated by reduced fitness of hybrids, but sources of those barriers (i.e. ecological maladaptation or genetic incompatibilities) have not yet been detected. Here, backcrossing experiments, specifically controlling for the fungal species origins of the mating compatibility factors, were used to investigate reproductive isolation in the recently-derived species Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae and Microbotryum silenes-dioicae. Results Assortative mating was detected during backcrossing and was manifested by the preferential conjugation of the hybrid-produced gametes with non-hybrid gametes containing mating compatibility factors from the same parental species. Patterns of post-mating performance supported either a level of extrinsic isolation mechanism, where backcross progeny with a higher proportion of the pathogen genome adapted to the particular host environment were favored, or an infection advantage attributed to greater genetic contribution to the hybrid from the M. lychnidis-dioicae genome. Conclusion The use of controlled backcrossing experiments reveals significant species-specific mating type effects on conjugations between recently-derived sister species, which are likely to play important roles in both maintaining species separation and the nature of hybrids lineages that emerge in sympatry between Microbotryum species. PMID:24112452

  13. High-antibacterial activity of Urtica spp. seed extracts on food and plant pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Körpe, Didem Aksoy; İşerı, Özlem Darcansoy; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Cabi, Evren; Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R) and seed (S) extracts of Urtica dioica L. (Ud; stinging nettle) and Urtica pilulifera L. (Up; Roman nettle) on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA). MetOH extracts of leaves and roots of U. dioica had the highest DRSA. Extracts with high antibacterial activity were in the order Up-LMetOH (13/16) > Ud-SMetOH (11/16) > Up-SMetOH (9/16). Results obtained with Up-SMetOH against food spoiling Bacillus pumilus, Shigella spp. and Enterococcus gallinarum with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in 128-1024 μg/ml range seem to be promising. Up-SMetOH also exerted strong inhibition against Clavibacter michiganensis with a considerably low MIC (32 μg/ml). Ud-SMetOH and Up-LMetOH were also effective against C. michiganensis (MIC = 256 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Ud-SMetOH and Ud-RMetOH had also antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria (MIC = 512 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Results presented here demonstrate high-antibacterial activity of U. pilulifera extracts and U. dioica seed extract against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening of U. pilulifera against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be of agricultural importance.

  14. In Vitro Activities of Panduratin A against Clinical Staphylococcus Strains▿

    PubMed Central

    Rukayadi, Yaya; Lee, Kwanghyung; Han, Sunghwa; Yong, Dongeun; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2009-01-01

    In vitro antistaphylococcal activities of panduratin A, a natural chalcone compound isolated from Kaempferia pandurata Roxb, were compared to those of commonly used antimicrobials against clinical staphylococcal isolates. Panduratin A had a MIC at which 90% of bacteria were inhibited of 1 μg/ml for clinical staphylococcal isolates and generally was more potent than commonly used antimicrobials. PMID:19651906

  15. Phylogenetic study of Oryzoideae species and related taxa of the Poaceae based on atpB-rbcL and ndhF DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xu; Yuan, Zhengrong; Tong, Xin; Li, Qiushi; Gao, Weiwei; Qin, Minjian; Liu, Zhihua

    2012-05-01

    Oryzoideae (Poaceae) plants have economic and ecological value. However, the phylogenetic position of some plants is not clear, such as Hygroryza aristata (Retz.) Nees. and Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka (syn. Oryza coarctata). Comprehensive molecular phylogenetic studies have been carried out on many genera in the Poaceae. The different DNA sequences, including nuclear and chloroplast sequences, had been extensively employed to determine relationships at both higher and lower taxonomic levels in the Poaceae. Chloroplast DNA ndhF gene and atpB-rbcL spacer were used to construct phylogenetic trees and estimate the divergence time of Oryzoideae, Bambusoideae, Panicoideae, Pooideae and so on. Complete sequences of atpB-rbcL and ndhF were generated for 17 species representing six species of the Oryzoideae and related subfamilies. Nicotiana tabacum L. was the outgroup species. The two DNA datasets were analyzed, using Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian analysis methods. The molecular phylogeny revealed that H. aristata (Retz.) Nees was the sister to Chikusichloa aquatica Koidz. Moreover, P. coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka was in the genus Oryza. Furthermore, the result of evolution analysis, which based on the ndhF marker, indicated that the time of origin of Oryzoideae might be 31 million years ago.

  16. An evaluation of the inhibitory effects against rotavirus infection of edible plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rotaviruses are the single most important cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. The developments of specific, potent and accessible antiviral treatments that restrain rotavirus infection remain important to control rotavirus disease. Methods 150 plant extracts with nutritional applications were screened in vitro on MA-104 cells for their antiviral activity against rhesus rotavirus (RRV). One extract (Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren) was also tested for its effect on the loss of transepithelial resistance (TER) of Caco-2 cells caused by simian rotavirus (SA-11) infection. Results Aqueous extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. fruit, Urtica dioica L. root, Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren leaves, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. root and Olea europaea L. leaves were found to have strong significant antiviral activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) < 300 μg/ml. The pure compound 18ß-glycyrrhetinic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra was found to have the strongest antiviral activity (IC50 46 μM), followed by luteolin and vitexin from Aspalathus linearis (IC50 respectively 116 μM and 129 μM) and apigenin-7-O-glucoside from Melissa officinalis (IC50 150 μM). A combination of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. + Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. and Urtica dioica L. + Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. showed synergy in their anti-viral activities. Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren showed no positive effect on the maintenance of the TER. Conclusions These results indicate that nutritional intervention with extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren, Urtica dioica L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Olea europaea L. might be useful in the treatment of diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection. PMID:22834653

  17. Histone variant innovation in a rapidly evolving chordate lineage.

    PubMed

    Moosmann, Alexandra; Campsteijn, Coen; Jansen, Pascal Wtc; Nasrallah, Carole; Raasholm, Martina; Stunnenberg, Henk G; Thompson, Eric M

    2011-07-15

    Histone variants alter the composition of nucleosomes and play crucial roles in transcription, chromosome segregation, DNA repair, and sperm compaction. Modification of metazoan histone variant lineages occurs on a background of genome architecture that shows global similarities from sponges to vertebrates, but the urochordate, Oikopleura dioica, a member of the sister group to vertebrates, exhibits profound modification of this ancestral architecture. We show that a histone complement of 47 gene loci encodes 31 histone variants, grouped in distinct sets of developmental expression profiles throughout the life cycle. A particularly diverse array of 15 male-specific histone variants was uncovered, including a testes-specific H4t, the first metazoan H4 sequence variant reported. Universal histone variants H3.3, CenH3, and H2A.Z are present but O. dioica lacks homologs of macroH2A and H2AX. The genome encodes many H2A and H2B variants and the repertoire of H2A.Z isoforms is expanded through alternative splicing, incrementally regulating the number of acetylatable lysine residues in the functionally important N-terminal "charge patch". Mass spectrometry identified 40 acetylation, methylation and ubiquitylation posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and showed that hallmark PTMs of "active" and "repressive" chromatin were present in O. dioica. No obvious reduction in silent heterochromatic marks was observed despite high gene density in this extraordinarily compacted chordate genome. These results show that histone gene complements and their organization differ considerably even over modest phylogenetic distances. Substantial innovation among all core and linker histone variants has evolved in concert with adaptation of specific life history traits in this rapidly evolving chordate lineage.

  18. Carabid larvae as predators of weed seeds: granivory in larvae of Amara eurynota (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Saska, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Up to date we do not have much information about predation on seeds by larvae of ground beetles. One of the reasons why such knowledge is important is that granivorous larvae contribute to predation of weed seeds. In this study, the food requirements of larvae of autumn breeding carabid species Amara eurynota (Panzer) were investigated in the laboratory and a hypothesis, that they are granivorous was tested. Insect diet (Tenebrio molitor larvae), three seed diets (seeds of Artemisia vulgaris, Tripleurospermum inodorum or Urtica dioica or a mixed diet (T. molitor + A. uulgaris) were used as food. For larvae of A. eurynota, seeds are essential for successful completion of development, because all those fed pure insect diet died before pupation. However, differences in suitability were observed between pure seed diets. Larvae fed seeds of A. vulgaris had the lowest mortality and fastest development of the seed diets. Those fed seeds of T. inodorum had also low mortality, but the development was prolonged in the third instar. In contrast, development of larvae reared on seeds of U. dioica was slowest of the tested diets and could not be completed, as all individuals died before pupation. When insects were included to seed diet of A. vulgaris (mixed diet), the duration of development shortened, but mortality remained the same when compared to seed diet of A. vulgaris. According to the results it was concluded that larvae of A. eurynota are granivorous. A mixed diet and seed diets of A. uulgaris and T. inodorum were suitable and insect diet and seeds of U. dioica were unsuitable diets in this experiment.

  19. An evaluation of the inhibitory effects against rotavirus infection of edible plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Knipping, Karen; Garssen, Johan; van't Land, Belinda

    2012-07-26

    Rotaviruses are the single most important cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. The developments of specific, potent and accessible antiviral treatments that restrain rotavirus infection remain important to control rotavirus disease. 150 plant extracts with nutritional applications were screened in vitro on MA-104 cells for their antiviral activity against rhesus rotavirus (RRV). One extract (Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren) was also tested for its effect on the loss of transepithelial resistance (TER) of Caco-2 cells caused by simian rotavirus (SA-11) infection. Aqueous extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. fruit, Urtica dioica L. root, Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren leaves, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. root and Olea europaea L. leaves were found to have strong significant antiviral activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) < 300 μg/ml. The pure compound 18ß-glycyrrhetinic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra was found to have the strongest antiviral activity (IC50 46 μM), followed by luteolin and vitexin from Aspalathus linearis (IC50 respectively 116 μM and 129 μM) and apigenin-7-O-glucoside from Melissa officinalis (IC50 150 μM). A combination of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. + Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. and Urtica dioica L. + Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. showed synergy in their anti-viral activities. Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren showed no positive effect on the maintenance of the TER. These results indicate that nutritional intervention with extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren, Urtica dioica L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Olea europaea L. might be useful in the treatment of diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection.

  20. The prediction of gross calorific value using infrared (IR) spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Treesearch

    Chi-Leung So; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2011-01-01

    The gross calorific value (GCV) of a fuel, also known as the higher heating value (HHV) or gross heat of combustion, is the amount of heat released by a specified quantity (initially at 25°C) once it is com-busted and the products returned to that temperature. Fuwape (1989) noted that extractive-free wood from Gmelina arborea (Roxb), a hardwood, had a lower gross heat...

  1. Rapid screening of tannase producing microbes by using natural tannin.

    PubMed

    Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Halder, Suman Kumar; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

    2012-07-01

    Use of natural tannin in the screening of tannase producing microbes is really promising. The present work describes about the possibility and integrity of the newly formulated method over the previously reported methods. Tannin isolated from Terminalia belerica Roxb. (Bahera) was used to differentiate between tanninolytic and nontanninolytic microbes. The method is simple, sensitive and superior for the rapid screening and isolation of tannase-producing microbes.

  2. Rapid screening of tannase producing microbes by using natural tannin

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Halder, Suman Kumar; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

    2012-01-01

    Use of natural tannin in the screening of tannase producing microbes is really promising. The present work describes about the possibility and integrity of the newly formulated method over the previously reported methods. Tannin isolated from Terminalia belerica Roxb. (Bahera) was used to differentiate between tanninolytic and nontanninolytic microbes. The method is simple, sensitive and superior for the rapid screening and isolation of tannase-producing microbes. PMID:24031931

  3. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Republic of Macedonia using a plant assay.

    PubMed

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova-Panovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2011-02-01

    Different plant organs (leaves, flowers, stems, or roots) from four plant species-Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae), Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae), and Matricaria recutita (Asteraceae)-were evaluated as possible bioindicators of heavy-metal pollution in Republic of Macedonia. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, and Zn were determined in unwashed plant parts collected from areas with different degrees of metal pollution by ICP-AES. All these elements were found to be at high levels in samples collected from an industrial area. Maximum Pb concentration was 174.52 ± 1.04 mg kg⁻¹ in R. pseudoacacia flowers sampled from the Veles area, where lead and zinc metallurgical activities were present. In all control samples, the Cd concentrations were found to be under the limit of detection (LOD <0.1 mg kg⁻¹) except for R. pseudoacacia flowers and T. officinale roots. The maximum Cd concentration was 7.97 ± 0.15 mg kg⁻¹ in R. pseudoacacia flowers from the Veles area. Nickel concentrations were in the range from 1.90 ± 0.04 to 5.74 ± 0.03 mg kg⁻¹. For U. dioica leaves and R. pseudoacacia flowers sampled near a lead-smelting plant, concentrations of 465.0 ± 0.55 and 403.56 ± 0.34 mg kg⁻¹ Zn were detected, respectively. In all control samples, results for Zn were low, ranging from 10.2 ± 0.05 to 38.70 ± 0.18 mg kg⁻¹. In this study, it was found that the flower of R. pseudoacacia was a better bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution than other plant parts. Summarizing the results, it can be concluded that T. officinale, U. dioica, and R. pseudoacacia were better metal accumulators and M. recutita was a metal avoider.

  4. Environmental Assessment: 13th Street Bridge Emergency Repair and Retrofit Vandenberg Air Force Base California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-23

    white sweet clover (Melilotus alba), telegraph weed (Heterotheca grand{flora), horseweed (Conyza spp.), cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium ), and western...Urtica dioica Xanthium strumarium 1 Wetland Indicator Status (WIS)- PLANT SPECIES COMMON NAME WIS1 Box elder FACW Western ragweed FAC...Melilotus alba). telegraph weed (Heterotheca grandUlora). horseweed (C’onyza spp.). cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium ). and western ragweed (Ambrosia

  5. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from Dioscorea (Yam) leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Shi, Xinmin; Ren, Xiangmei; Qin, Zhihong

    2018-05-01

    This study was aimed to assess the potential of Dioscorea (yam) leaves as a source of antioxidants. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) process was used to prepare the extracts. The phenolic compounds in Dioscorea leaves extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method and the contents of major compounds were determined. Results indicated that a total of 17 phenolic compounds were separated identified by means of UV and mass spectra compared with authentic reference substances and/or reported values in the literature. The main phenolic compound was rosmarinic acid and its highest amount was found in Dioscorea glabra Roxb. leaves (22.31±1.33 mg/g DW). Rutin was the dominant flavonoid followed by quercetin which highest amount was found in Dioscorea alata leaves (8.66±0.29 mg/g DW). Antioxidant activity of the extracts was estimated by the use of DPPH and ABTS assays. Both kinds of leaves exhibited satisfied antioxidant capacity which was correlated with phenolic contents. In the cytoprotective effect on HUVECs viability assay, Dioscorea glabra Roxb. leaves extract was found to be more active than that of Dioscorea alata against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress. Our findings support the promising role of Dioscorea leaves that can be used as an interesting source of phenolic antioxidants.

  6. US Department of Agriculture/Corps of Engineers Cooperative Aquatic Plant Control Research. Annual Report for FY 1982. Biological and Chemical Control Technologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    Habeck (1975) says that it is the most common nymphuline in Florida. He lists 32 species of host plants in the genera Azolla, Bacopa , Brasenia...Common salvinia 100 2 A 0 Lemna minor Common duckweed 100 2 A 0 Bacopa caroliniana Bacopa 179 4 A, H 0 *Azolla caroliniana Waterfern 150 4 A, B 0...Royle Hygrophila Hygrophila polyaperma (Roxb.) Anderson Lemon bacopa Bacopa caroliniana (Walt.) Robins. Sago pondweed Potamogetonpectinatus L. Southern

  7. Potential ecosystem service delivery by endemic plants in New Zealand vineyards: successes and prospects.

    PubMed

    Shields, Morgan W; Tompkins, Jean-Marie; Saville, David J; Meurk, Colin D; Wratten, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Vineyards worldwide occupy over 7 million hectares and are typically virtual monocultures, with high and costly inputs of water and agro-chemicals. Understanding and enhancing ecosystem services can reduce inputs and their costs and help satisfy market demands for evidence of more sustainable practices. In this New Zealand work, low-growing, endemic plant species were evaluated for their potential benefits as Service Providing Units (SPUs) or Ecosystem Service Providers (ESPs). The services provided were weed suppression, conservation of beneficial invertebrates, soil moisture retention and microbial activity. The potential Ecosystem Dis-services (EDS) from the selected plant species by hosting the larvae of a key vine moth pest, the light-brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), was also quantified. Questionnaires were used to evaluate winegrowers' perceptions of the value of and problems associated with such endemic plant species in their vineyards. Growth and survival rates of the 14 plant species, in eight families, were evaluated, with Leptinella dioica (Asteraceae) and Acaena inermis 'purpurea' (Rosaceae) having the highest growth rates in terms of area covered and the highest survival rate after 12 months. All 14 plant species suppressed weeds, with Leptinella squalida, Geranium sessiliforum (Geraniaceae), Hebe chathamica (Plantaginaceae), Scleranthus uniflorus (Caryophyllaceae) and L. dioica, each reducing weed cover by >95%. Plant species also differed in the diversity of arthropods that they supported, with the Shannon Wiener diversity index (H') for these taxa ranging from 0 to 1.3. G. sessiliforum and Muehlenbeckia axillaris (Polygonaceae) had the highest invertebrate diversity. Density of spiders was correlated with arthropod diversity and G. sessiliflorum and H. chathamica had the highest densities of these arthropods. Several plant species associated with higher soil moisture content than in control plots. The best performing species in this context

  8. Environmental Assessment - Construct a Ground-to-Air Transmitter and Receiver (GATR) Facility at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-06

    sponges, flatworms, nematode worms, segmented worms, snails, clams, and immature and adult insects , fish, amphibians, turtles, and aquatic birds and...buckthorn (a highly invasive exotic species), chokecherry, and wood rose (Rosa woodsii) are common in the under story in this area. Wood nettle ...Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), beggars’ ticks (Bidens frondosa), and waterleaf (Hydrophyllum viginianum) are typical forbes. A

  9. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 2. A Physical Description of Main Stem Levee Borrow Pits along the Lower Mississippi River

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    Eastern cottonwood, green ash, sugarberry. box elder, bald cypress, willow honey locust, slippery elm , overcup oak and bitter pecan. Principle...vines and understory. Woody vegetation surrounds the borrow pit and consists of American and slippery elms , silver maple, black willow, cottonwood, pin...aquatica Water elm Ulmus rubra Slippery elm Urtica dioica Stinging nettle Vaccinium sp. Blueberry Vaccinium spp. Vaccinum Vernonia altissima Ironweed

  10. EASTERN DODDER (CUSCUTA MONOGYNA VAHL.) SEED GERMINATION AFFECTED BY SOME HERBACEOUS DISTILLATES.

    PubMed

    Movassaghi, M; Hassannejad, S

    2015-01-01

    Eastern dodder (Cuscuta monogyna Vahl.) is one of the noxious parasitic weeds that infected many ornamental trees in green spaces and gardens. Our purpose is to find natural inhibitors for prevention of its seed germination. In order to reach this aim, laboratory studies were conducted by using of herbaceous distillates of Dracocephalum moldavica, Nasturtium officinalis, Malva neglecta, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Rosa damascene, Ziziphora tenuior, and Urtica dioica on seed germination of C. monogyna. Z. tenuior distillate stimulated C. monogyna seed germination, whereas others reduced this parasitic weed's seed germination. D. moldavica caused maximum inhibition on weed seed germination. Seedling growth of C. monogyna was more affected than its seed germination. All of these herbaceous distillates reduced C. monogyna seedling length so that the latter decreased from 28.2 mm in distilled water to 4.5, 3.97, 3.85, 3.67, 3.1, 2.87, 2.57, 1.9, and 1.17 in M. pulegium, M. piperita, F. officinalis, Z. tenuior, N. officinalis, M. neglecta, R. damascene, U. dioica and D. moldavica, respectively. By using these medicinal plants distillates instead of herbicides, the parasitic weed seedling length and host plant infection will reduce.

  11. Evaluation of Aromatic Plants and Compounds Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections

    PubMed Central

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100 μg of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

  12. Identification of white campion (Silene latifolia) guaiacol O-methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of veratrole, a key volatile for pollinator attraction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Silene latifolia and its pollinator, the noctuid moth Hadena bicruris, represent an open nursery pollination system wherein floral volatiles, especially veratrole (1, 2-dimethoxybenzene), lilac aldehydes, and phenylacetaldehyde are of key importance for floral signaling. Despite the important role of floral scent in ensuring reproductive success in S. latifolia, the molecular basis of scent biosynthesis in this species has not yet been investigated. Results We isolated two full-length cDNAs from S. latifolia that show similarity to rose orcinol O-methyltransferase. Biochemical analysis showed that both S. latifolia guaiacol O-methyltransferase1 (SlGOMT1) &S. latifolia guaiacol O-methyltransferase2 (SlGOMT2) encode proteins that catalyze the methylation of guaiacol to form veratrole. A large Km value difference between SlGOMT1 (~10 μM) and SlGOMT2 (~501 μM) resulted that SlGOMT1 is 31-fold more catalytically efficient than SlGOMT2. qRT-PCR expression analysis showed that the SlGOMT genes are specifically expressed in flowers and male S. latifolia flowers had 3- to 4-folds higher level of GOMT gene transcripts than female flower tissues. Two related cDNAs, S. dioica O-methyltransferase1 (SdOMT1) and S. dioica O-methyltransferase2 (SdOMT2), were also obtained from the sister species Silene dioica, but the proteins they encode did not methylate guaiacol, consistent with the lack of veratrole emission in the flowers of this species. Our evolutionary analysis uncovered that SlGOMT1 and SlGOMT2 genes evolved under positive selection, whereas SdOMT1 and SdOMT2 genes show no evidence for selection. Conclusions Altogether, we report the identification and functional characterization of the gene, SlGOMT1 that efficiently catalyzes veratrole formation, whereas another copy of this gene with only one amino acid difference, SlGOMT2 was found to be less efficient for veratrole synthesis in S. latifolia. PMID:22937972

  13. Paleolithic human exploitation of plant foods during the last glacial maximum in North China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Bestel, Sheahan; Shi, Jinming; Song, Yanhua; Chen, Xingcan

    2013-01-01

    Three grinding stones from Shizitan Locality 14 (ca. 23,000–19,500 calendar years before present) in the middle Yellow River region were subjected to usewear and residue analyses to investigate human adaptation during the last glacial maximum (LGM) period, when resources were generally scarce and plant foods may have become increasingly important in the human diet. The results show that these tools were used to process various plants, including Triticeae and Paniceae grasses, Vigna beans, Dioscorea opposita yam, and Trichosanthes kirilowii snakegourd roots. Tubers were important food resources for Paleolithic hunter–gatherers, and Paniceae grasses were exploited about 12,000 y before their domestication. The long tradition of intensive exploitation of certain types of flora helped Paleolithic people understand the properties of these plants, including their medicinal uses, and eventually led to the plants' domestication. This study sheds light on the deep history of the broad spectrum subsistence strategy characteristic of late Pleistocene north China before the origins of agriculture in this region. PMID:23509257

  14. Paleolithic human exploitation of plant foods during the last glacial maximum in North China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Bestel, Sheahan; Shi, Jinming; Song, Yanhua; Chen, Xingcan

    2013-04-02

    Three grinding stones from Shizitan Locality 14 (ca. 23,000-19,500 calendar years before present) in the middle Yellow River region were subjected to usewear and residue analyses to investigate human adaptation during the last glacial maximum (LGM) period, when resources were generally scarce and plant foods may have become increasingly important in the human diet. The results show that these tools were used to process various plants, including Triticeae and Paniceae grasses, Vigna beans, Dioscorea opposita yam, and Trichosanthes kirilowii snakegourd roots. Tubers were important food resources for Paleolithic hunter-gatherers, and Paniceae grasses were exploited about 12,000 y before their domestication. The long tradition of intensive exploitation of certain types of flora helped Paleolithic people understand the properties of these plants, including their medicinal uses, and eventually led to the plants' domestication. This study sheds light on the deep history of the broad spectrum subsistence strategy characteristic of late Pleistocene north China before the origins of agriculture in this region.

  15. SH003 represses tumor angiogenesis by blocking VEGF binding to VEGFR2

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyeong Sim; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Kangwook; Lee, Kang Min; Choi, Youn Kyung; Shin, Yong Cheol; Cho, Sung-Gook; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is a key feature of cancer progression, because a tumor requires abundant oxygen and nutrition to grow. Here, we demonstrate that SH003, a mixed herbal extract containing Astragalus membranaceus (Am), Angelica gigas (Ag) and Trichosanthes Kirilowii Maximowicz (Tk), represses VEGF-induced tumor angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. SH003 inhibited VEGF-induced migration, invasion and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with no effect on the proliferation. SH003 reduced CD31-positive vessel numbers in tumor tissues and retarded tumor growth in our xenograft mouse tumor model, while SH003 did not affect pancreatic tumor cell viability. Consistently, SH003 inhibited VEGF-stimulated vascular permeability in ears and back skins. Moreover, SH003 inhibited VEGF-induced VEGFR2-dependent signaling by blocking VEGF binding to VEGFR2. Therefore, our data conclude that SH003 represses tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting VEGF-induced VEGFR2 activation, and suggest that SH003 may be useful for treating cancer. PMID:27105528

  16. Abbreviated Environmental Assessment for the Northwest Infrastructure, Phase II Spangdahlem Air Base, Germany

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Impact to flying insect species could be generated by artificial lightning. 2.1.5.2.3 Biotope connecting travel corridors would be impacted by the...well as applying lamps with light that is less attractive to night- active insects (e.g. gaslight, fluorescent tube). Mitigation measures for the...Devi l~bit (Scabious) symphytum officinale agg. Gew6hnlichcr Beinwcll Common Comfrey urtica dioica GroJ3e Brennesscl Stinging Nettle

  17. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  18. Senna alata.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Thierry; Weniger, Bernard; Joseph, Henry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

    2009-10-01

    A review is made of chemical, ethnopharmacological and pharmacological papers dealing with Senna alata (L.) Roxb., a plant that belongs to the Creole traditional system of medicine and that has recently been introduced in the French Pharmacopoeia. The proofs existing for its various usages are presented. The species is mainly used against constipation and skin diseases. The laxative activity is supported by scientific findings. In contrast the dermatologic use requires further investigation. The species can be considered as safe for short-term or topical use.

  19. Bisindole alkaloids from Tabernaemontana corymbosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Jie; Lu, Jing-Song; Bao, Mei-Fen; Zhong, Xiu-Hong; Ni, Ling; Wu, Jing; Cai, Xiang-Hai

    2018-05-11

    Continued study in bioactive monoterpenoid alkaloids led to the isolation of nine undescribed alkaloids, taberyunines A-I, together with 32 known ones from the aerial parts of Tabernaemontana corymbosa Roxb. ex Wall (Apocynaceae). Among the undescribed alkaloids, taberyunines A-G and H-I were assigned to Aspidosperma-Aspidosperma and Vobasinyl-Ibogan type bisindoles, respectively. Their structures were determined by NMR spectra, MS data and X-ray diffraction. Taberyunine B showed significant cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical Constituents of Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb Fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanti, V.; Marliyana, S. D.; Astuti, I. Y.

    2017-04-01

    The phytochemical screening conducted on ethanol extract of Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb’s fruit revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, carotenoids and terpenoids and the absence of flavonoids, tannins and anthraquinones. The GC-MS of the analysis L. acutangula (L.) Roxb’s fraction resulted in the identification of six compounds. The compounds that could be identified were 2,3-dihydro,3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-(4H)-pyran-4-one; 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol; (3β, 20R)-cholest-5-en-3-ol; n-hexadecanoic acid; 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester and citronellyl tiglate. The present study provides evidence that L. acutangula’s fruit contains medicinally important bioactive compounds and this justifies the possibly use of these fruits as traditional medicine for treatment of various diseases.

  1. Common plants as alternative analytical tools to monitor heavy metals in soil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Herbaceous plants are common vegetal species generally exposed, for a limited period of time, to bioavailable environmental pollutants. Heavy metals contamination is the most common form of environmental pollution. Herbaceous plants have never been used as natural bioindicators of environmental pollution, in particular to monitor the amount of heavy metals in soil. In this study, we aimed at assessing the usefulness of using three herbaceous plants (Plantago major L., Taraxacum officinale L. and Urtica dioica L.) and one leguminous (Trifolium pratense L.) as alternative indicators to evaluate soil pollution by heavy metals. Results We employed Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to assess the concentration of selected heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cr and Pd) in soil and plants and we employed statistical analyses to describe the linear correlation between the accumulation of some heavy metals and selected vegetal species. We found that the leaves of Taraxacum officinale L. and Trifolium pratense L. can accumulate Cu in a linearly dependent manner with Urtica dioica L. representing the vegetal species accumulating the highest fraction of Pb. Conclusions In this study we demonstrated that common plants can be used as an alternative analytical tool for monitoring selected heavy metals in soil. PMID:22594441

  2. Antioxidant activity of commonly consumed cereals, millets, pulses and legumes in India.

    PubMed

    Sreeramulu, D; Reddy, C Vijaya Kumar; Raghunath, M

    2009-02-01

    Plant foods are important due to their antioxidant activity (AOA) attributed to the phenolics which are known to protect organisms against harmful effects of oxygen radicals. However, information on antioxidant activity of Indian plant foods is scanty. Therefore, the present study evaluated the AOA of cereals, millets, pulses and legumes, commonly consumed in India and assessed the relationship with their total phenolic content (TPC). AOA was assessed by DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and reducing power. DPPH scavenging activity ranged from 0.24 and 1.73 mg/g, whereas FRAP ranged from 16.21 to 471.71 micromoles/g. Finger millet (Eleusine cora cana) and Rajmah (Phaseolus vulgaris) had the highest FRAP 471.71, 372.76 and DPPH scavenging activity 1.73, 1.07. Similar trends were observed with reducing power. Among cereals and legumes, Finger millet (Ragi) and black gram dhal (Phaseolus mungo Roxb) had the highest TPC, the values being 373 and 418 mg/100 g respectively, while rice (Oryza sativa) and green gram dhal (Phaseolus aureus Roxb) showed the least (47.6 and 62.4 mg/100 g). In the present study, FRAP (r = 0.91) and reducing power (r = 0.90) showed significant correlation with TPC in cereals and millets, but not in pulses and legumes. The results suggest that TPC contributes significantly to the AOA of Indian cereals and millets.

  3. The synthesis of acetylcholine by plants.

    PubMed Central

    Smallman, B N; Maneckjee, A

    1981-01-01

    Choline acetyltransferase was demonstrated in nettles (Urtica dioica), peas (Pisum sativum), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and blue--green algae by using a Sepharose--CoASH affinity column. The column effected a 1500-fold purification of the enzyme from nettle homogenates and was required for demonstrating activity in the other higher plants. Demonstration of the enzyme in blue-green algae suggests that acetylcholine was a biochemical necessity in the earliest photosynthetic organisms. PMID:6796060

  4. The synthesis of acetylcholine by plants.

    PubMed

    Smallman, B N; Maneckjee, A

    1981-01-15

    Choline acetyltransferase was demonstrated in nettles (Urtica dioica), peas (Pisum sativum), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and blue--green algae by using a Sepharose--CoASH affinity column. The column effected a 1500-fold purification of the enzyme from nettle homogenates and was required for demonstrating activity in the other higher plants. Demonstration of the enzyme in blue-green algae suggests that acetylcholine was a biochemical necessity in the earliest photosynthetic organisms.

  5. Floristic Inventories of Confined Disposal Facilities in the Great Lakes Area of Concern

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Salix interior (C = 1 Sandbar Willow), and Urtica procera (C = 2 Tall Nettle ), which represent a mean C value of 1.0. In areas that were scarcely...with an undergrowth of Urtica dioica (Tall Nettle , C = 1). All of these dominant species are wind pollinated. Figure 2. Recent lift of dredged...5 ERDC TN-DOER-D7 September 2005 Figure 3. Older, higher elevation of dredged material dominated by sandbar willow and tall nettle Figure

  6. Cultural Resources Survey and Testing Along Ditch 19 and Extensive Testing of 23DU289, Dunklin and Stoddard Counties, Missouri.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-30

    Carya illinoensis ) 1 1 Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Pl.um (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw (Crataegus sp.) T 1 11 Red Mulberry (Morus rubra) T...2 Cherry (Prunus sp.) T Cottonwood (Populus sp.) 1 3 Dogwood (Cornus sp.) 1 Hackberry (Celtus occidentalis) 12 9 Hickory, ( Carya sp.) 5 4 Shellhark... Carya laciniosa) T Hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree( Gymnoeladus dioica)T Locust, T Black (Robinia pseudo-acacia) T Honey

  7. Stinging nettle dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Bryan E; Miller, Christopher J; Adams, David R

    2003-03-01

    The stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a common weed that can cause a wide range of cutaneous reactions. Contact with the hairs or spines on the stems and leaves of the stinging nettle causes the release of several biologically active substances. The released chemicals act to cause itching, dermatitis, and urticaria within moments of contact. Extracts from the stinging nettle may provide therapeutic value for some inflammatory medical conditions. There is no standard treatment for stinging nettle dermatitis.

  8. Choline acetyltransferase in the nettle Urtica dioica L

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Richard B.; Dixon, Robert O. D.

    1973-01-01

    Extracts of acetone-dried powders prepared from nettle leaves were shown to catalyse the synthesis of acetylcholine. The specific activity of the enzyme in these extracts is of the same order as that of extracts from mammalian sources, such as ox brain, and the effects of temperature and pH are similar to those reported for mammalian choline acetyltransferase. Synthesis is not restricted to the younger leaves but appears to be continuous up to senescence. PMID:4737362

  9. In Vitro Evaluations of Cytotoxicity of Eight Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants and Their Effect on GLUT4 Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Kadan, Sleman; Saad, Bashar; Sasson, Yoel; Zaid, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous achievements in conventional medicine, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. Trigonella foenum-graecum, Atriplex halimus, Olea europaea, Urtica dioica, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Nigella sativa, and Cinnamomum cassia are strongly recommended in the Greco-Arab and Islamic medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. Cytotoxicity (MTT and LDH assays) of the plant extracts was assessed using cells from the liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and cells from the rat L6 muscle cell line. The effects of the plant extracts (50% ethanol in water) on glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane was tested in an ELISA test on L6-GLUT4myc cells. Results obtained indicate that Cinnamomon cassia is cytotoxic at concentrations higher than 100 μg/mL, whereas all other tested extracts exhibited cytotoxic effects at concentrations higher than 500 μg/mL. Exposing L6-GLUT4myc muscle cell to extracts from Trigonella foenum-graecum, Urtica dioica, Atriplex halimus, and Cinnamomum verum led to a significant gain in GLUT4 on their plasma membranes at noncytotoxic concentrations as measured with MTT assay and the LDH leakage assay. These findings indicate that the observed anti-diabetic properties of these plants are mediated, at least partially, through regulating GLUT4 translocation. PMID:23606883

  10. The green synthesis of Ag/ZnO in montmorillonite with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Seifi, A.

    2016-11-01

    The Ag/ZnO-MMT nanocomposite was prepared using urtica dioica leaf extract. To improve the photocatalytic properties of ZnO-MMT nanocomposite, silver metal nanoparticles was deposited over nanocomposite. Zn(CH3COO)2, AgNO3 and Urtica dioica leaf extract were used as a zinc, silver precursor and reducing agent, respectively. The nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The powder X-ray diffraction showed that Ag/ZnO nanoparticles located on the surface MMT layers. The diffuse reflectance spectra of nanocomposite indicated a strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band in the visible region, resulting from metallic Ag nanoparticles. TEM image demonstrated the presence of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 2-4 nm over both MMT and flower-shape ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of nanocomposite was studied for destructive reaction methylene blue dye under visible light. In addition, the effects of different parameters such as amount of nanocomposite, concentration of the dye and pH of the solution were studied. The results showed that modiffication of ZnO-MMT nanocomposite with silver nanoparticles increased the percentage of discoloration methylene blue (MB) from 38.95 to 91.95. MMT matrix showed an important role in the reduction of recombination of electron-hole in nanocomposite.

  11. Do flower color and floral scent of silene species affect host preference of Hadena bicruris, a seed-eating pollinator, under field conditions?

    PubMed

    Page, Paul; Favre, Adrien; Schiestl, Florian P; Karrenberg, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Specialization in plant-insect interactions is an important driver of evolutionary divergence; yet, plant traits mediating such interactions are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how flower color and floral scent are related to seed predation by a seed-eating pollinator. We used field-transplanted recombinant F2 hybrids between Silene latifolia and S. dioica that are the preferred and alternative hosts of the moth Hadena bicruris and crosses within these species for comparison. We scored seed predation and flower color and analyzed floral scent. Pinker S. dioica-like flowers and emission of α-pinene decreased the odds of seed predation while emission of benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one increased the odds of seed predation. Emission of these compounds did not differ significantly between the two Silene species. Our results suggest that flower color plays an important role in the specific interaction of H. bicruris with its preferred host S. latifolia. The compounds α-pinene, benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one could represent non-specific deterrents and attractants to ovipositing moths. Alternatively, emission of these compounds could be related to herbivory or pathogen attack and act as a signal for host quality. This would weaken the predictability of the plant's costs and benefits of the interaction and act to maintain an imperfect degree of specialization.

  12. Do Flower Color and Floral Scent of Silene Species affect Host Preference of Hadena bicruris, a Seed-Eating Pollinator, under Field Conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Page, Paul; Favre, Adrien; Schiestl, Florian P.; Karrenberg, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Specialization in plant–insect interactions is an important driver of evolutionary divergence; yet, plant traits mediating such interactions are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how flower color and floral scent are related to seed predation by a seed-eating pollinator. We used field-transplanted recombinant F2 hybrids between Silene latifolia and S. dioica that are the preferred and alternative hosts of the moth Hadena bicruris and crosses within these species for comparison. We scored seed predation and flower color and analyzed floral scent. Pinker S. dioica-like flowers and emission of α-pinene decreased the odds of seed predation while emission of benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one increased the odds of seed predation. Emission of these compounds did not differ significantly between the two Silene species. Our results suggest that flower color plays an important role in the specific interaction of H. bicruris with its preferred host S. latifolia. The compounds α-pinene, benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one could represent non-specific deterrents and attractants to ovipositing moths. Alternatively, emission of these compounds could be related to herbivory or pathogen attack and act as a signal for host quality. This would weaken the predictability of the plant's costs and benefits of the interaction and act to maintain an imperfect degree of specialization. PMID:24905986

  13. Hypotensive effect of aqueous extract of jamu antiatherosclerosis in male rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tristantini, Dewi; Amelinda, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    For many years, Averrhoa carambola L leaves, Mimusops elengi Linn leaves and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb are used empirically in Indonesian traditional medicine to treat hypertension. This study was conducted to investigate the hypotensive effect of Averrhoa carambola L leaves, Mimusops elengi Linn leaves, and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb extract (Jamu Antiatherosclerosis) in hypertensive induced rats. The effect of aqueous extract of jamu antiatherosclerosis on diastolic and systolic blood pressure was determined in sodium chloride induced rats. Twenty-four male rats weighted 160-200 g were randomly divided into 6 groups of 4 rats. The groups are consisting of normal control (without treatment), positive control (induced and given captopril 1.35 mg / 200 g body weight of rats), negative control (induced and standard feed), dosage controls (induced and given the extract of jamu antiatherosclerosis) each group with 3 different doses. The composition is dose I (13.2 mg / 200 g body weight of rats), dose II (26.4 mg / 200 g body weight of rats ml) and dose III (52.8 mg / 200 g body weight of rats). Blood pressure were measured via non-invasive blood pressure. The blood pressure was decreased in all dose. However, dose III has the highest blood pressure reducing effect that is 29.42 mmHg or 25.14% for diastolic blood pressure and 34.58 mmHg or 22.03% for systolic blood pressure. This performance equals to 91.15% and 93.56% of captopril activity in decreasing diastolic and systolic blood pressure. The aqueous extract has blood pressure lowering property that can be used as antihypertension herbal medicine.

  14. Antioxidant Effects of Four Heartwood Extractives on Midgut Enzyme Activity in Heterotermes indicola (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Hassan, Babar; Ahmed, Sohail; Kirker, Grant; Mankowski, Mark E; Misbah-Ul-Haq, Muhammad

    2018-06-06

    Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) is a species of subterranean termite that is a destructive pest of wood and wood products in Pakistan. This study evaluated the antioxidant and antienzyme potential of heartwood extractives against H. indicola. Heartwood extractives of four durable wood species, Tectona grandis (L.f), Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.), Cedrus deodara (Roxb.), and Pinus roxburghii (Sarg.) were removed from wood shavings via soxhlet extraction with an ethanol:toluene solvent system. The antioxidant potential of the extractive compounds was determined using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging test. Results showed maximum antioxidant activity for extractives of D. sissoo. D. sissoo had the lowest IC50 (the concentration where 50% inhibition of the DPPH radical is obtained) at 28.83 µg/ml among the heartwood extractives evaluated. This antioxidant activity, however, was not concentration dependent as was observed in the other heartwood extractives tested. At the maximum test concentration, T. grandis showed the highest percent inhibition at 89.7%, but this inhibition was lower compared to the positive control antioxidant compounds butylated hydroxytoluene and quercetin. When termites were fed filter paper treated with IC50s of the extractives and control compounds, glutathione S-transferase activity in the guts of H. indicola workers was significantly reduced by T. grandis and D. sissoo extractives. Similarly, esterase activity was reduced more by P. roxburghii extractives compared to control antioxidant treatments and other tested extractives. However, none of the extractives examined significantly reduced the activity of catalase enzymes in H. indicola compared to treatments with the antioxidant control compounds.

  15. [Data mining analysis of professor Li Fa-zhi AIDS herpes zoster medical record].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Ni; Li, Zhen; Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-Jun

    2013-08-01

    Analysis of professor Li Fa-zhi in the treatment of AIDS drug laws of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia, provide reference for the use of Chinese medicine treatment of AIDS, herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. By using the method of analyzing the complex network of Weishi county, Henan in 2007 October to 2011 July during an interview with professor Li Fa-zhi treatment of AIDS of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia patients, patients are input structured clinical information collection system, into the analysis of the data, carries on the research analysis theory of traditional Chinese medicine compatibility system algorithm and complex network analysis the use of complex networks. The use of multi-dimensional query analysis of AIDS drugs, the core of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia treated in this study are Scutellariae Radix, Glucyrrhizae Radix, Carthame Flos, Plantaginis Semen, Trichosamthis Fructus, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Gentianae Radix; core prescription for Longdan Xiegan decoction and Trichosanthes red liquorice decoction. Professor Li Fa-zhi treatment of AIDS, herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia by clearing heat and removing dampness and activating blood circulation to.

  16. Chemical constituents of the leaf of Alpinia mutica Roxb.

    PubMed

    Sirat, Hasnah Mohd; Jani, Nor Akmalazura

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodistillation of the fresh leaves of Alpinia mutica afforded 0.005% colourless essential oil. GC and GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 33 components accounting for 92.9% of the total oil, dominated by 20 sesquiterpenes (76.7%) and 10 monoterpenes (8.3%). The major constituent was found to be β-sesquiphellandrene which was 29.2% of the total oil. Soxhlet extraction, followed by repeated column chromatography of the dried leaves yielded two phenolic compounds, identified as 5,6-dehydrokawain and aniba dimer A, together with one amide assigned as auranamide. The structures of these compounds were determined by using spectroscopic analysis. Antibacterial screening of the essential oil, the crude and isolated compounds showed weak to moderate inhibitory activity.

  17. Microtubules in root hairs.

    PubMed

    Traas, J A; Braat, P; Emons, A M; Meekes, H; Derksen, J

    1985-06-01

    The microtubules of root hairs of Raphanus sativus, Lepidium sativum, Equisetum hyemale, Limnobium stoloniferum, Ceratopteris thalictroides, Allium sativum and Urtica dioica were investigated using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Arrays of cortical microtubules were observed in all hairs. The microtubules in the hairs show net axial orientations, but in Allium and Urtica helical microtubule patterns are also present. Numerical parameters of microtubules in Raphanus, Equisetum and Limnobium were determined from dry-cleave preparations. The results are discussed with respect to cell wall deposition and cell morphogenesis.

  18. A new Australian species of Luffa (Cucurbitaceae) and typification of two Australian Cucumis names, all based on specimens collected by Ferdinand Mueller in 1856

    PubMed Central

    Telford, Ian R. H.; Schaefer, Hanno; Greuter, Werner; Renner, Susanne S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract As a result of his botanical explorations in northern Australia, Ferdinand von Mueller named several Cucurbitaceae that molecular data now show to be distinct, requiring their resurrection from unjustified synonymy. We here describe and illustrate Luffa saccata F. Muell. ex I.Telford, validating a manuscript name listed under Luffa graveolens Roxb. since 1859, and we lectotypify Cucumis picrocarpus F. Muell. and Cucumis jucundus F. Muell. The lectotype of the name Cucumis jucundus, a synonym of Cucumis melo, is mounted on the same sheet as the lectotype of Cucumis picrocarpus, which is the sister species of the cultivated Cucumis melo as shown in a recent publication. PMID:22171190

  19. Genetic Differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Populations on Cultivated Cowpea and Wild Host Plants: Implications for Insect Resistance Management and Biological Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Coates, Brad S.; Datinon, Benjamin; Djouaka, Rousseau; Sun, Weilin; Tamò, Manuele; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on a variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata collected from cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), and alternative host plants Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. var. javanica (Benth.) Baker, Loncocarpus sericeus (Poir), and Tephrosia candida (Roxb.). Analyses of microsatellite data revealed a significant global FST estimate of 0.05 (P≤0.001). The program STRUCTURE estimated 2 genotypic clusters (co-ancestries) on the four host plants across 3 geographic locations, but little geographic variation was predicted among genotypes from different geographic locations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; among group variation −0.68%) or F-statistics (F ST Loc = −0.01; P = 0.62). These results were corroborated by mitochondrial haplotype data (φSTLoc = 0.05; P = 0.92). In contrast, genotypes obtained from different host plants showed low but significant levels of genetic variation (F ST Host = 0.04; P = 0.01), which accounted for 4.08% of the total genetic variation, but was not congruent with mitochondrial haplotype analyses (φSTHost = 0.06; P = 0.27). Variation among host plants at a location and host plants among locations showed no consistent evidence for M. vitrata population subdivision. These results suggest that host plants do not significantly influence the genetic structure of M. vitrata, and this has implications for biocontrol agent releases as well as insecticide resistance management (IRM) for M. vitrata in West Africa. PMID:24647356

  20. Carotenoid metabolic profiling and transcriptome-genome mining reveal functional equivalence among blue-pigmented copepods and appendicularia.

    PubMed

    Mojib, Nazia; Amad, Maan; Thimma, Manjula; Aldanondo, Naroa; Kumaran, Mande; Irigoien, Xabier

    2014-06-01

    The tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas are characterized by high water transparency and annual solar radiation. Under these conditions, a large number of phylogenetically diverse mesozooplankton species living in the surface waters (neuston) are found to be blue pigmented. In the present study, we focused on understanding the metabolic and genetic basis of the observed blue phenotype functional equivalence between the blue-pigmented organisms from the phylum Arthropoda, subclass Copepoda (Acartia fossae) and the phylum Chordata, class Appendicularia (Oikopleura dioica) in the Red Sea. Previous studies have shown that carotenoid-protein complexes are responsible for blue coloration in crustaceans. Therefore, we performed carotenoid metabolic profiling using both targeted and nontargeted (high-resolution mass spectrometry) approaches in four different blue-pigmented genera of copepods and one blue-pigmented species of appendicularia. Astaxanthin was found to be the principal carotenoid in all the species. The pathway analysis showed that all the species can synthesize astaxanthin from β-carotene, ingested from dietary sources, via 3-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, adonirubin or adonixanthin. Further, using de novo assembled transcriptome of blue A. fossae (subclass Copepoda), we identified highly expressed homologous β-carotene hydroxylase enzymes and putative carotenoid-binding proteins responsible for astaxanthin formation and the blue phenotype. In blue O. dioica (class Appendicularia), corresponding putative genes were identified from the reference genome. Collectively, our data provide molecular evidences for the bioconversion and accumulation of blue astaxanthin-protein complexes underpinning the observed ecological functional equivalence and adaptive convergence among neustonic mesozooplankton. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Three new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) associated with seed pods of Pithecellobium dulce (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Pikart, Tiago G; Costa, Valmir A; Hansson, Christer; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, José E

    2015-08-04

    Horismenus abnormicaulis sp. nov., H. patensis sp. nov. and H. zuleidae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), all authored by Pikart, Costa & Hansson, are described from material obtained from seed pods of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) collected in Northeastern Brazil. The seed pods were infested with larvae of Coleoptera (Chrysomelidae (Bruchinae) and Curculionidae). The associations of the Horismenus species and the beetle larvae have not been established. Morphological similarities between these new species and previously described species with host known suggest that H. patensis and H. zuleidae are primary parasitoids of Bruchinae, whereas H. abnormicaulis may act as a hyperparasitoid on other Horismenus species. The three species are compared with similar species of Horismenus.

  2. Curcuma longa extract as a histological dye for collagen fibres and red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Avwioro, O G; Onwuka, S K; Moody, J O; Agbedahunsi, J M; Oduola, T; Ekpo, O E; Oladele, A A

    2007-01-01

    Crude ethanolic extract and column chromatographic fractions of the Allepey cultivar of Curcuma longa Roxb, commonly called turmeric (tumeric) in commerce, were used as a stain for tissue sections. Staining was carried out under basic, acidic and neutral media conditions. Inorganic and organic dissolution solvents were used. The stain was used as a counterstain after alum and iron haematoxylins. C. longa stained collagen fibres, cytoplasm, red blood cells and muscle cells yellow. It also stained in a fashion similar to eosin, except for its intense yellow colour. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation of the active column fraction revealed that it contained flavonoids, free anthraquinone and deoxy sugar. A cheap, natural dye can thus be obtained from C. longa. PMID:17451535

  3. Influence of Multiple Infection and Relatedness on Virulence: Disease Dynamics in an Experimental Plant Population and Its Castrating Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Buono, Lorenza; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The level of parasite virulence, i.e., the decrease in host's fitness due to a pathogen, is expected to depend on several parameters, such as the type of the disease (e.g., castrating or host-killing) and the prevalence of multiple infections. Although these parameters have been extensively studied theoretically, few empirical data are available to validate theoretical predictions. Using the anther smut castrating disease on Silene latifolia caused by Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, we studied the dynamics of multiple infections and of different components of virulence (host death, non-recovery and percentage of castrated stems) during the entire lifespan of the host in an experimental population. We monitored the number of fungal genotypes within plants and their relatedness across five years, using microsatellite markers, as well as the rates of recovery and host death in the population. The mean relatedness among genotypes within plants remained at a high level throughout the entire host lifespan despite the dynamics of the disease, with recurrent new infections. Recovery was lower for plants with multiple infections compared to plants infected by a single genotype. As expected for castrating parasites, M. lychnidis-dioicae did not increase host mortality. Mortality varied across years but was generally lower for plants that had been diseased the preceding year. This is one of the few studies to have empirically verified theoretical expectations for castrating parasites, and to show particularly i) that castrated hosts live longer, suggesting that parasites can redirect resources normally used in reproduction to increase host lifespan, lengthening their transmission phase, and ii) that multiple infections increase virulence, here in terms of non-recovery and host castration. PMID:24892951

  4. An abundant 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' tuf b strain is associated with grapevine, stinging nettle and Hyalesthes obsoletus.

    PubMed

    Aryan, A; Brader, G; Mörtel, J; Pastar, M; Riedle-Bauer, M

    2014-10-01

    Bois noir (BN) associated with ' Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' (Stolbur) is regularly found in Austrian vine growing regions. Investigations between 2003 and 2008 indicated sporadic presence of the confirmed disease vector Hyalesthes obsoletus and frequent infections of bindweed and grapevine. Infections of nettles were rare. In contrast present investigations revealed a mass occurrence of H. obsoletus almost exclusively on stinging nettle. The high population densities of H. obsoletus on Urtica dioica were accompanied by frequent occurrence of ' Ca. P. solani' in nettles and planthoppers. Sequence analysis of the molecular markers secY, stamp, tuf and vmp1 of stolbur revealed a single genotype named CPsM4_At1 in stinging nettles and more than 64 and 90 % abundance in grapevine and H. obsoletus , respectively. Interestingly, this genotype showed tuf b type restriction pattern previously attributed to bindweed associated ' Ca. P. solani' strains, but a different sequence assigned as tuf b2 compared to reference tuf b strains. All other marker genes of CPsM4_At1 clustered with tuf a and nettle derived genotypes verifying distinct nettle phytoplasma genotypes. Transmission experiments with H. obsoletus and Anaceratagallia ribauti resulted in successful transmission of five different strains including the major genotype to Catharanthus roseus and in transmission of the major genotype to U. dioica . Altogether, five nettle and nine bindweed associated genotypes were described. Bindweed types were verified in 34 % of grapevine samples, in few positive Reptalus panzeri , rarely in bindweeds and occasionally in Catharanthus roseus infected by H. obsoletus or A. ribauti . ' Candidatus Phytoplasma convolvuli' (bindweed yellows) was ascertained in nettle and bindweed samples.

  5. Widespread plant specialization in the polyphagous planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Cixiidae), a major vector of stolbur phytoplasma: Evidence of cryptic speciation.

    PubMed

    Kosovac, Andrea; Johannesen, Jes; Krstić, Oliver; Mitrović, Milana; Cvrković, Tatjana; Toševski, Ivo; Jović, Jelena

    2018-01-01

    The stolbur phytoplasma vector Hyalesthes obsoletus is generally considered as a polyphagous species associated with numerous wild and cultivated plants. However, recent research in southeastern Europe, the distribution centre of H. obsoletus and the area of most stolbur-inflicted crop diseases, points toward specific host-plant associations of the vector, indicating specific vector-based transmission routes. Here, we study the specificity of populations associated with four host-plants using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and we evaluate the evolution of host-shifts in H. obsoletus. Host-plant use was confirmed for Convolvulus arvensis, Urtica dioica, Vitex agnus-castus and Crepis foetida. Mitochondrial genetic analysis showed sympatric occurrence of three phylogenetic lineages that were ecologically delineated by host-plant preference, but were morphologically inseparable. Nuclear data supported the existence of three genetic groups (Evanno's ΔK(3) = 803.72) with average genetic membership probabilities > 90%. While populations associated with C. arvensis and U. dioica form a homogenous group, populations affiliated with V. agnus-castus and C. foetida constitute two independent plant-associated lineages. The geographical signal permeating the surveyed populations indicated complex diversification processes associated with host-plant selection and likely derived from post-glacial refugia in the eastern Mediterranean. This study provides evidence for cryptic species diversification within H. obsoletus sensu lato: i) consistent mitochondrial differentiation (1.1-1.5%) among host-associated populations in syntopy and in geographically distant areas, ii) nuclear genetic variance supporting mitochondrial data, and iii) average mitochondrial genetic distances among host-associated meta-populations are comparable to the most closely related, morphologically distinguishable species, i.e., Hyalesthes thracicus (2.1-3.3%).

  6. Estrogenic effects of herbal medicines from Costa Rica used for the management of menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Brian J; Frasor, Jonna; Bellows, Lauren E; Locklear, Tracie D; Perez, Alice; Gomez-Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail B

    2009-01-01

    Outcomes from the Women's Health Initiative have demonstrated adverse effects associated with hormone therapy and have prioritized the need to develop new alternative treatments for the management of menopause and osteoporosis. To this end, we have been investigating natural herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to manage menopausal symptoms. Seventeen plant species were collected and extracted in Costa Rica. To establish possible mechanisms of action and to determine their potential future use for menopause or osteoporosis, we investigated the estrogenic activities of the herbal extracts in an estrogen-reporter gene estrogen receptor (ER) beta-Chemically Activated Luciferase Expression assay in U2-OS cells and in reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 cells. Six of the plant extracts bound to the ERs. Four of the six extracts stimulated reporter gene expression in the ER-beta-Chemically Activated Luciferase Expression assay. All six extracts modulated expression of endogenous genes in MCF-7 cells, with four extracts acting as estrogen agonists and two extracts, Pimenta dioica and Smilax domingensis, acting as partial agonist/antagonists by enhancing estradiol-stimulated pS2 mRNA expression but reducing estradiol-stimulated PR and PTGES mRNA expression. Both P. dioica and S. domingensis induced a 2ERE-luciferase reporter gene in transient transfected MCF-7 cells, which was inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI 182,780. This work presents a plausible mechanism of action for many of the herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to treat menopausal symptoms. However, it further suggests that studies of safety and efficacy are needed before these herbs should be used as alternative therapies to hormone therapy.

  7. Widespread plant specialization in the polyphagous planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Cixiidae), a major vector of stolbur phytoplasma: Evidence of cryptic speciation

    PubMed Central

    Kosovac, Andrea; Johannesen, Jes; Krstić, Oliver; Cvrković, Tatjana; Toševski, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    The stolbur phytoplasma vector Hyalesthes obsoletus is generally considered as a polyphagous species associated with numerous wild and cultivated plants. However, recent research in southeastern Europe, the distribution centre of H. obsoletus and the area of most stolbur-inflicted crop diseases, points toward specific host-plant associations of the vector, indicating specific vector-based transmission routes. Here, we study the specificity of populations associated with four host-plants using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and we evaluate the evolution of host-shifts in H. obsoletus. Host-plant use was confirmed for Convolvulus arvensis, Urtica dioica, Vitex agnus-castus and Crepis foetida. Mitochondrial genetic analysis showed sympatric occurrence of three phylogenetic lineages that were ecologically delineated by host-plant preference, but were morphologically inseparable. Nuclear data supported the existence of three genetic groups (Evanno’s ΔK(3) = 803.72) with average genetic membership probabilities > 90%. While populations associated with C. arvensis and U. dioica form a homogenous group, populations affiliated with V. agnus-castus and C. foetida constitute two independent plant-associated lineages. The geographical signal permeating the surveyed populations indicated complex diversification processes associated with host-plant selection and likely derived from post-glacial refugia in the eastern Mediterranean. This study provides evidence for cryptic species diversification within H. obsoletus sensu lato: i) consistent mitochondrial differentiation (1.1–1.5%) among host-associated populations in syntopy and in geographically distant areas, ii) nuclear genetic variance supporting mitochondrial data, and iii) average mitochondrial genetic distances among host-associated meta-populations are comparable to the most closely related, morphologically distinguishable species, i.e., Hyalesthes thracicus (2.1–3.3%). PMID:29738577

  8. Choerosponins A and B, Two New Cytotoxic Bridged-Ring Ketones and the Determination of Their Absolute Configurations.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Wei; Han, Bing; Cai, Bing; Cui, Cheng-Bin

    2017-03-27

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of antitumor compounds from the stem barks of Choerospondias axillaries (Roxb.) Burtt et Hill (Anacardiaceae) afforded two new cytotoxic bridged-ring ketones, choerosponins A ( 1 ) and B ( 2 ), and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods; their stereochemistry was determined by NOE difference experiments, CD spectra and the modified Mosher's method. Compound 1 has a rare dioxatricyclo skeleton. Flow cytometry and SRB methods were employed to evaluate the antitumor activity of the two compounds against tsFT210, HCT-15, HeLa, A2780 and MCF-7 cell lines, and both of them showed strong cytotoxicity. MTT and paper disc methods were also used to evaluate their anti-hypoxia and antibacterial activities, and both of them showed no apparent activities.

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Biological Activities of Cissus adnata (Roxb.)

    PubMed Central

    Shoibe, Mohammed; Alam, Morshed; Adnan, Md.; Islam, Md. Zobidul; Nihar, Shababa Wajida; Rahman, Nishat

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro polyphenol content, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antibacterial, anthelmintic properties, and in vivo antinociceptive activity of the ethanol extract of Cissus adnata leaves (EECA) in different experimental models. Polyphenol contents were investigated using spectrophotometric techniques. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) radical-scavenging, ferric reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity assays. Cytotoxicity was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay and disc diffusion method was used for the antibacterial activity. Anthelmintic activity was studied using aquarium worm (Tubifex tubifex) whereas antinociceptive activity was evaluated in mice by acetic acid and formalin test. Phytochemical screening of EECA revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, saponins, and tannins. EECA showed strong antioxidant activity with high polyphenol contents. It was observed that EECA possessed significant antibacterial activity with a low toxicity profile. EECA also demonstrated dose-dependent and statistically significant anthelmintic and antinociceptive activities. Our study shows that ethanol extract of C. adnata leaves possess strong antioxidant, antibacterial, anthelmintic and antinociceptive activities with lower toxicity. Further studies are needed to identify bioactive phytomolecules and to understand the mechanism of such actions better. PMID:29084168

  10. Bioactive Lignans from Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. stem bark with cytotoxic potential.

    PubMed

    Mukhija, Minky; Lal Dhar, Kanaya; Nath Kalia, Ajudhia

    2014-02-27

    Zanthoxylum alatum is used in traditional medicinal systems for number of disorders like cholera, diabetes, cough, diarrhea, fever, headache, microbial infections, toothache, inflammation and cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Zanthoxylum alatum stem bark for its cytotoxic potential and to isolate the bioactive constituents. Cytotoxicity of the different extracts and isolated compounds was studied on lung carcinoma cell line (A549) and pancreatic carcinoma cell line (MIA-PaCa) using MTT assay. Isolation of compounds from most active extract (petroleum ether) was done on silica gel column. Structure elucidation was done by using various spectrophotometric techniques like UV, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectroscopy. The type of cell death caused by most active compound C was explored by fluorescence microscopy using the acridine orange/ethidium bromide method. Petroleum ether extract of plant has shown significant cytotoxic potential. Three lignans sesamin (A), kobusin (B), and 4'O demethyl magnolin (C) has been isolated. All lignans showed cytotoxic activities in different ranges. Compound C was the novel bioactive compound from a plant source and found to be most active. In apoptosis study, treatment caused typical apoptotic morphological changes. It enhances the apoptosis at IC50 dose (21.72 µg/mL) however showing necrotic cell death at higher dose after 24h on MIA-PaCa cell lines. Petroleum ether extract (60-80 °C) of Zanthoxylum alatum has cytotoxic potential. The lignans isolated from the petroleum ether extract were responsible for the cytotoxic potential of the extract. 4'O demethyl magnolin was novel compound from Zanthoxylum alatum. Hence the Zanthoxylum alatum can be further explored for the development of anticancer drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytochemical investigations and antioxidant potential of roots of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Zobaer Al; Bachar, Sitesh C; Hasan, Choudhury Mahmood; Emran, Talha Bin; Qais, Nazmul; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir

    2017-07-06

    Oleanolic acid (NZ-15), 7 α, 28-olean diol (NZ-38) and Stigmasterol (NZ-14) were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of the roots of Leea macrophylla (Family: Leeaceae) by using chromatographic analysis. This is the first report of isolation of these compounds from this plant. Their structures were constructed by spectroscopic analysis and by comparing the data with the published one. Subsequently the ethanolic extract was fractionated with two organic solvents and all the fractions were studied to evaluate their in vitro antioxidant property. The ethanolic extract was fractionated with two organic solvents and all the fractions were studied to evaluate their in vitro antioxidant property by DPPH free radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, and reducing power assay. In the DPPH free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay, the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanolic extract revealed the highest free radical scavenging activity with IC 50 value of 2.65 and 155.62 μg/ml, respectively as compared to standard ascorbic acid (IC 50 value of 5.8 and 99.66 μg/ml). Ethyl acetate fraction also possessed highest reducing power activity with an EC50 value of 15.27 μg/ml compared to ascorbic acid (EC 50 0.91 μg/ml). On the other hand, the carbon tetrachloride fraction exhibited most significant NO scavenging activity with IC 50 value of 277.8 μg/ml that was even higher than that of standard ascorbic acid (IC 50 value 356.04 μg/ml). In addition, the total phenolic contents of these extract and fractions were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and varied from 7.93 to 50.21 mg/g dry weight expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). This study showed that different extracts of roots of L. macrophylla possess potential DPPH, superoxide, and NO free radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activities of the plant extracts might be due to the presence of oleanolic acid, oleanolic acid derivative 7 α, 28-olean diol and stigmasterol.

  12. Pancreatic lipase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of plants used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).

    PubMed

    2016-07-07

    To find new, plant based drugs for the treatment of obesity and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 through the inhibition of essential digestive enzymes, in vitro tests were carried out on selected plants or fungi with weight-reducing, blood glucose-reducing or related potential, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Aqueous and methanolic extracts of 32 Chinese herbal medicines were assayed for their in vitro inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase (PL) and α-amylase (PA). PL activity was measured by using an enzymatic in vitro assay based on the hydrolysis kinetics of an oleate ester of 4-methylumbelliferone. For the determination of α-amylase activity an enzyme assay based on the hydrolytic cleavage of a modified starch derivative was used. Our findings have shown that the methanolic extract of Lycopus lucidus Turcz. var. hirtus Regel (Lamiaceae) was a very effective PL inhibitor (IC50: 88.3±4.1 μg/mL). A high anti-amylase activity showed the methanolic extract of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. (Curcurbitaceae, IC50: 248.8±67.3 μg/mL). This work provides a priority list of interesting plants for further study with respect to the treatment of obesity and associated metabolic diseases.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a rhizobacterial antagonist of root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lihui; Shao, Ying; Wan, Jingwang; Feng, Hui; Zhu, Hua; Huang, Huiwen; Zhou, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    The rhizobacterial strain Jdm2 was isolated from the rhizosphere of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Trichosanthes kirilowii in Jiangsu province, China, and was identified as Bacillus subtilis. Exposure of cell-free filtrate of the strain to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita under in vitro conditions caused substantial mortality of the second stage juvenile (J2) and significantly reduced egg hatchability. A greenhouse trial demonstrated that 56 days after treatment with Jdm2, the number of galls associated with M. incognita infection in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots was significantly reduced compared to controls, and the disease severity of infected plants was lower in treated plants (36%) compared to water control (75%). Consistently, in the field trial, the biocontrol efficacy of Jdm2 reached 69%, 51% and 48% after 30, 60 and 90 days post-transplantation, respectively. As indicated by PCR-DGGE analysis, inoculation with Jdm2 strain had an effect on the bacterial community of the tomato rhizosphere at the first stage, but was not able to imperil the bacterial community stability for long time. The novel bacterial strain Jdm2 enhances plant growth and inhibits nematode activity, and has the potential to be a safe and effective microbial pesticide.

  14. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies.

  15. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies. PMID:27458467

  16. Gene Presence-Absence Polymorphism in Castrating Anther-Smut Fungi: Recent Gene Gains and Phylogeographic Structure.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Fanny E; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; Brandenburg, Jean-Tristan; Carpentier, Fantin; Giraud, Tatiana

    2018-04-01

    Gene presence-absence polymorphisms segregating within species are a significant source of genetic variation but have been little investigated to date in natural populations. In plant pathogens, the gain or loss of genes encoding proteins interacting directly with the host, such as secreted proteins, probably plays an important role in coevolution and local adaptation. We investigated gene presence-absence polymorphism in populations of two closely related species of castrating anther-smut fungi, Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae (MvSl) and M. silenes-dioicae (MvSd), from across Europe, on the basis of Illumina genome sequencing data and high-quality genome references. We observed presence-absence polymorphism for 186 autosomal genes (2% of all genes) in MvSl, and only 51 autosomal genes in MvSd. Distinct genes displayed presence-absence polymorphism in the two species. Genes displaying presence-absence polymorphism were frequently located in subtelomeric and centromeric regions and close to repetitive elements, and comparison with outgroups indicated that most were present in a single species, being recently acquired through duplications in multiple-gene families. Gene presence-absence polymorphism in MvSl showed a phylogeographic structure corresponding to clusters detected based on SNPs. In addition, gene absence alleles were rare within species and skewed toward low-frequency variants. These findings are consistent with a deleterious or neutral effect for most gene presence-absence polymorphism. Some of the observed gene loss and gain events may however be adaptive, as suggested by the putative functions of the corresponding encoded proteins (e.g., secreted proteins) or their localization within previously identified selective sweeps. The adaptive roles in plant and anther-smut fungi interactions of candidate genes however need to be experimentally tested in future studies.

  17. Lifespan Extension in a Semelparous Chordate Occurs via Developmental Growth Arrest Just Prior to Meiotic Entry

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Gunasekaran; Campsteijn, Coen; Thompson, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    It is proposed that the ageing process is linked to signaling from the germline such that the rate of ageing can be adjusted to the state of the reproductive system, allowing these two processes to co-evolve. Mechanistic insight into this link has been primarily derived from iteroparous reproductive models, the nematode C. elegans, and the arthropod Drosophila. Here, we examined to what extent these mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved in a semelparous chordate, Oikopleura dioica, where we identify a developmental growth arrest (GA) in response to crowded, diet-restricted conditions, which can extend its lifespan at least three-fold. Under nutritional stress, the iteroparative models sacrifice germ cells that have entered meiosis, while maintaining a reduced pool of active germline stem cells (GSCs). In contrast, O. dioica only entered GA prior to meiotic entry. Stress conditions encountered after this point led to maturation in a normal time frame but with reduced reproductive output. During GA, TOR signaling was inhibited, whereas MAPK, ERK1/2 and p38 pathways were activated, and under such conditions, activation of these pathways was shown to be critical for survival. Direct inhibition of TOR signaling alone was sufficient to prevent meiotic entry and germline differentiation. This inhibition activated the p38 pathway, but did not activate the ERK1/2 pathway. Thus, the link between reproductive status and lifespan extension in response to nutrient-limited conditions is interpreted in a significantly different manner in these iteroparative versus semelparous models. In the latter case, meiotic entry is a definitive signal that lifespan extension can no longer occur, whereas in the former, meiotic entry is not a unique chronological event, and can be largely erased during lifespan extension in response to nutrient stress, and reactivated from a pool of maintained GSCs when conditions improve. PMID:24695788

  18. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by potential native plants and their microscopic observation of root growing on stabilised distillery sludge as a prospective tool for in situ phytoremediation of industrial waste.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    The safe disposal of post-methanated distillery sludge (PMDS) in the environment is challenging due to high concentrations of heavy metals along with other complex organic pollutants. The study has revealed that PMDS contained high amounts of Fe (2403), Zn (210), Mn (126), Cu (73.62), Cr (21.825), Pb (16.33) and Ni (13.425 mg kg -1 ) along with melanoidins and other co-pollutants. The phytoextraction pattern in 15 potential native plants growing on sludge showed that the Blumea lacera, Parthenium hysterophorous, Setaria viridis, Chenopodium album, Cannabis sativa, Basella alba, Tricosanthes dioica, Amaranthus spinosus L., Achyranthes sp., Dhatura stramonium, Sacchrum munja and Croton bonplandianum were noted as root accumulator for Fe, Zn and Mn, while S. munja, P. hysterophorous, C. sativa, C. album, T. dioica, D. stramonium, B. lacera, B. alba, Kalanchoe pinnata and Achyranthes sp. were found as shoot accumulator for Fe. In addition, A. spinosus L. was found as shoot accumulator for Zn and Mn. Similarly, all plants found as leaf accumulator for Fe, Zn and Mn except A. spinosus L. and Ricinus communis. Further, the BCF of all tested plants were noted <1, while the TF showed >1. This revealed that metal bioavailability to plant is poor due to strong complexation of heavy metals with organic pollutants. This gives a strong evidence of hyperaccumulation for the tested metals from complex distillery waste. Furthermore, the TEM observations of root of P. hysterophorous, C. sativa, Solanum nigrum and R. communis showed formation of multi-nucleolus, multi-vacuoles and deposition of metal granules in cellular component of roots as a plant adaptation mechanism for phytoextraction of heavy metal-rich polluted site. Hence, these native plants may be used as a tool for in situ phytoremediation and eco-restoration of industrial waste-contaminated site.

  19. Gene Presence–Absence Polymorphism in Castrating Anther-Smut Fungi: Recent Gene Gains and Phylogeographic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; Brandenburg, Jean-Tristan; Carpentier, Fantin; Giraud, Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Gene presence–absence polymorphisms segregating within species are a significant source of genetic variation but have been little investigated to date in natural populations. In plant pathogens, the gain or loss of genes encoding proteins interacting directly with the host, such as secreted proteins, probably plays an important role in coevolution and local adaptation. We investigated gene presence–absence polymorphism in populations of two closely related species of castrating anther-smut fungi, Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae (MvSl) and M. silenes-dioicae (MvSd), from across Europe, on the basis of Illumina genome sequencing data and high-quality genome references. We observed presence–absence polymorphism for 186 autosomal genes (2% of all genes) in MvSl, and only 51 autosomal genes in MvSd. Distinct genes displayed presence–absence polymorphism in the two species. Genes displaying presence–absence polymorphism were frequently located in subtelomeric and centromeric regions and close to repetitive elements, and comparison with outgroups indicated that most were present in a single species, being recently acquired through duplications in multiple-gene families. Gene presence–absence polymorphism in MvSl showed a phylogeographic structure corresponding to clusters detected based on SNPs. In addition, gene absence alleles were rare within species and skewed toward low-frequency variants. These findings are consistent with a deleterious or neutral effect for most gene presence–absence polymorphism. Some of the observed gene loss and gain events may however be adaptive, as suggested by the putative functions of the corresponding encoded proteins (e.g., secreted proteins) or their localization within previously identified selective sweeps. The adaptive roles in plant and anther-smut fungi interactions of candidate genes however need to be experimentally tested in future studies. PMID:29722826

  20. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Algae-Derived Lipid Extracts on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Stimulated Human THP-1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Ruairi C.; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Bahar, Bojlul; Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Algae contain a number of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and chlorophyll a, hence as dietary ingredients, their extracts may be effective in chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of lipid extracts from three red seaweeds (Porphyra dioica, Palmaria palmata and Chondrus crispus) and one microalga (Pavlova lutheri) were assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 macrophages. Extracts contained 34%–42% total fatty acids as n-3 PUFA and 5%–7% crude extract as pigments, including chlorophyll a, β-carotene and fucoxanthin. Pretreatment of the THP-1 cells with lipid extract from P. palmata inhibited production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.05) and IL-8 (p < 0.05) while that of P. lutheri inhibited IL-6 (p < 0.01) production. Quantitative gene expression analysis of a panel of 92 genes linked to inflammatory signaling pathway revealed down-regulation of the expression of 14 pro-inflammatory genes (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, TRAF5, TRAF6, TNFSF18, IL6R, IL23, CCR1, CCR4, CCL17, STAT3, MAP3K1) by the lipid extracts. The lipid extracts effectively inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling pathways mediated via toll-like receptors, chemokines and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling molecules. These results suggest that lipid extracts from P. lutheri, P. palmata, P. dioica and C. crispus can inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory pathways in human macrophages. Therefore, algal lipid extracts should be further explored as anti-inflammatory ingredients for chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases. PMID:26308008

  1. Ethnomedicinal plants used to treat skin diseases by Tharu community of district Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jyotsana; Gairola, Sumeet; Sharma, Yash Pal; Gaur, R D

    2014-12-02

    of the claims made by the Tharu community regarding treatment of various skin diseases by the reported plants. The literature review has also revealed that products from very few of the reported plants are available in market, while most of the reported plants are still under preclinical or clinical trials. There are various known phytochemicals, and antibiotic, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal agents present in these plants which may be synthesized or transformed to make pharmaceuticals. Some of the reported plants have shown promising results in preclinical trails and there is a need of clinical trials to see their safety and efficacy in treating various skin diseases. These plants may be targeted for development of new medicines, ointments or drugs for the treatment of skin diseases. However further toxicological, preclinical and clinical studies are needed to validate claims about little worked out plant species reported in the present study viz., Sida cordata (Burm. F.) Borss. Waalk., Millettia extensa (Benth.) Baker, Caesulia axillaris Roxb., Ehretia laevis Roxb., Vanda tessellate (Roxb.) Hook. Ex G.Don. and Eualaliopsis binata (Retz.) C.E. Hubb. Further studies on these plants are recommended to assess their potential in development of new skin care products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of some plant extracts by GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordache, A.; Culea, M.; Gherman, C.; Cozar, O.

    2009-01-01

    Different types of herbs often used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method validation parameters showed good linearity, precision and recovery for a standard mixture. Herbs from different zones of Romania were studied: melissa (Melissa officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica, Lamium album), camomile (Matricaria chamomilla). The study was applied for fingerprint chromatograms to characterize the flavors extracted from herb plants of different sources. The identity and quantity of the measured active compounds was correlated with the expected therapeutic effects. The active principles content was determined for the same herb, and different amounts of the active principles were determined for plants of different origin.

  3. [Drug therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Vahlensieck, W; Fabricius, P G; Hell, U

    1996-11-10

    BPH patients with Vahlensieck stage II or III disease are suitable for drug treatment. The points of attack are reduction of testosterone, conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, conversion of testosterone to estrogen using GnRH analogues, antiandrogens and alpha reductase inhibitors or aromatose inhibitors. Furthermore a reduction in obstruction is achieved through the use of phytopharmaceuticals containing 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase inhibitors. At present, Curcurbitae pepo seeds, Urtica dioica root, Pollinis siccae extract and Sabal serrulata seed extract are approved for the treatment of prostatic diseases in Germany. The use of alpha-1-sympathicolytic treatment may reduce muscular tone in the prostate. Combination of the various modes of action may also offer an effective form of treatment.

  4. Carbohydrate binding properties of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) rhizome lectin.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, N; Goldstein, I J; Shafer, J A; Peumans, W J; Broekaert, W F

    1986-08-15

    The interaction of the stinging nettle rhizome lectin (UDA) with carbohydrates was studied by using the techniques of quantitative precipitation, hapten inhibition, equilibrium dialysis, and uv difference spectroscopy. The Carbohydrate binding site of UDA was determined to be complementary to an N,N',N"-triacetylchitotriose unit and proposed to consist of three subsites, each of which has a slightly different binding specificity. UDA also has a hydrophobic interacting region adjacent to the carbohydrate binding site. Equilibrium dialysis and uv difference spectroscopy revealed that UDA has two carbohydrate binding sites per molecule consisting of a single polypeptide chain. These binding sites either have intrinsically different affinities for ligand molecules, or they may display negative cooperativity toward ligand binding.

  5. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

    PubMed

    Suresh, V; Sruthi, V; Padmaja, B; Asha, V V

    2011-04-12

    To determine anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of Cuscuta reflexa in cell lines (in vitro). Anti-inflammatory activity of the water extract was analysed in vitro using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory reactions in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. The expression of COX-2 and TNF-α genes involved in inflammation was analysed by SQ RT-PCR. EMSA was conducted to analyse the influence of the extract on NF-κB signalling. Anti-cancer activity was analysed on Hep3B cells by MTT assay, DAPI staining, annexin V staining and SQ-RT PCR analysis of BAX, Bcl-2, p53 and survivin. The extract down regulated LPS induced over expression of TNF-α and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells; blocked NF-κB binding to its motifs and induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells as evidenced from MTT, DAPI staining and annexin V staining assays. The extract up regulated pro-apoptotic factors BAX and p53, and down regulated anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and survivin. The study showed that Cuscuta reflexa inhibits LPS induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells through interplay of TNF-α, COX-2 and NF-κB signalling. It induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells through the up regulation of p53, BAX and down regulation of Bcl-2 and survivin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: A Review of Its Ethnobotany, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Yadav, Surender Singh

    2014-01-01

    Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, β-amyrin, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines. PMID:24949441

  7. The Cucurbitaceae of India: Accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Susanne S.; Pandey, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The most recent critical checklists of the Cucurbitaceae of India are 30 years old. Since then, botanical exploration, online availability of specimen images and taxonomic literature, and molecular-phylogenetic studies have led to modified taxon boundaries and geographic ranges. We present a checklist of the Cucurbitaceae of India that treats 400 relevant names and provides information on the collecting locations and herbaria for all types. We accept 94 species (10 of them endemic) in 31 genera. For accepted species, we provide their geographic distribution inside and outside India, links to online images of herbarium or living specimens, and information on publicly available DNA sequences to highlight gaps in the current understanding of Indian cucurbit diversity. Of the 94 species, 79% have DNA sequences in GenBank, albeit rarely from Indian material. The most species-rich genera are Trichosanthes with 22 species, Cucumis with 11 (all but two wild), Momordica with 8, and Zehneria with 5. From an evolutionary point of view, India is of special interest because it harbors a wide range of lineages, many of them relatively old and phylogenetically isolated. Phytogeographically, the north eastern and peninsular regions are richest in species, while the Jammu Kashmir and Himachal regions have few Cucurbitaceae. Our checklist probably underestimates the true diversity of Indian Cucurbitaceae, but should help focus efforts towards the least known species and regions. PMID:23717193

  8. Identification of cell surface glycoprotein markers for glioblastoma-derived stem-like cells using a lectin microarray and LC-MS/MS approach

    PubMed Central

    He, Jintang; Liu, Yashu; Xie, Xiaolei; Zhu, Thant; Soules, Mary; DiMeco, Francesco; Vescovi, Angelo L.; Fan, Xing; Lubman, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite progress in the treatment of glioblastoma, more than 95% of patients suffering from this disease still die within two years. Recent findings support the belief that cancer stem-like cells are responsible for tumor formation and ongoing growth. Here a method combining lectin microarray and LC-MS/MS was used to discover the cell surface glycoprotein markers of a glioblastoma-derived stem-like cell line. Lectin microarray analysis of cell surface glycans showed that two galactose-specific lectins Trichosanthes kirilowii agglutinin (TKA) and Peanut agglutinin (PNA) could distinguish the stem-like glioblastoma neurosphere culture from a traditional adherent glioblastoma cell line. Agarose-bound TKA and PNA were used to capture the glycoproteins from the two cell cultures, which were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The glycoproteins were quantified by spectral counting, resulting in the identification of 12 and 11 potential glycoprotein markers from the TKA and PNA captured fractions respectively. Almost all of these proteins were membrane proteins. Differential expression was verified by Western blotting analysis of 6 interesting proteins, including the up-regulated Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase zeta, Tenascin-C, Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2, Podocalyxin-like protein 1 and CD90, and the down-regulated CD44. An improved understanding of these proteins may be important for earlier diagnosis and better therapeutic targeting of glioblastoma. PMID:20235609

  9. Multifunctional properties of polysaccharides from Dalbergia sissoo, Tectona grandis and Mimosa diplotricha.

    PubMed

    Rana, Vikas; Das, Manuj K; Gogoi, Satyabrat; Kumar, Vineet

    2014-02-15

    Three water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated and purified from the leaves of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (DSLP), bark of Tectona grandis L. f (TGBP) and seeds of Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha Sauvalle (MDSP). Antioxidant and moisture preserving activities of these three polysaccharides were investigated using in vitro methods. The antioxidant activities studied include superoxide (O2(*-)), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(*+)), hydroxyl (OH(-)), nitric oxide (NO*), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD(+)) radical scavenging activities, ferric ion (Fe(3+)) reducing ability, ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating and lipid peroxidation activities. The study revealed higher activity of TGBP in all antioxidant assays than DSLP and MDSP. Further, the three polysaccharides showed effective moisture retention properties in comparison with hyaluronic acid and glycerol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Report: Studies on antibacterial activity of some traditional medicinal plants used in folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Israr, Fozia; Hassan, Fouzia; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum; Azhar, Iqbal; Jabeen, Sabahat; Hasan, S M Farid

    2012-07-01

    Ethanolic extracts of eight medicinal plants commonly used in folk medicine were tested for their antibacterial activity against four Gram positive strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and six Gram negative strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis. Salmonella typhi para A, Salmonella typhi para B and Shigella dysenteriae) that were obtained from different pathological laboratories located in Karachi, Pakistan. Disc diffusion method was used to analyze antibacterial activity. Out of eight, five medicinal plants showed antibacterial activity against two or more than two microbial species. The most effective antimicrobial plant found to be Punica granatum followed by Curcuma zedoaria Rosc, Grewia asiatica L and Carissa carandas L, Curcuma caesia Roxb respectively. From these results, it is evident that medicinal plants could be used as a potential source of new antibacterial agents.

  11. Dillapiol: a pyrethrum synergist for control of the Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    Liu, S Q; Scott, I M; Pelletier, Y; Kramp, K; Durst, T; Sims, S R; Arnason, J T

    2014-04-01

    Dillapiol, the main constituent in dill Anethum sowa Roxb. ex Fleming (Apiaceae) oil and wild pepper, Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae), is an effective cytochrome P450 inhibitor similar to piperonylbutoxide (PBO). Laboratory and field trials with pyrethrum Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium (Trevir.) vis. extracts combined with dillapiol (1:5 and 1:16 ratio) were effective against both insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). In the laboratory, pyrethrum efficacy was increased 2.2-fold with the SS strain and 9.1-fold with the RS strains by using pyrethrum + dillapiol. Two field trials with the pyrethrum + dillapiol formulation demonstrated efficacy > or = 10 times than that of pyrethrum alone. The residual activity (half-life) of the combination exposed to direct sunlight was 3 h but it increased to 10.7 h by adding 2% of the sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate.

  12. Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, A; Menéndez, H; Méndez, E; Cohobón, E; Samayoa, B E; Jauregui, E; Peralta, E; Carrillo, G

    1995-10-01

    Plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of gonorrhoea were macerated in 50% alcohol and the tincture tested for in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae using strains isolated from symptomatic patients and confirmed by standard bacteriological procedures. From 46 plants investigated, 13 (28.3%) showed evident inhibition zones (> 9 mm), seven (15.2%) showed small activity (6.1-8.9 mm) and 26 (56.5%) showed no activity; nine of these plants inhibited five strains of N. gonorrhoea freshly isolated. The most active plants of American origin were: bark of Bixa orellana fruits of Parmentiera edulis, leaf of Diphysa robinioides, Eupatorium odoratum, Gliricidia sepium, Physalis angulata, Piper aduncum and Prosopis juliflora, root of Casimiroa edulis, and whole Clematis dioica.

  13. Remarkable, overlooked and new microfungi in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

    PubMed

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Linke, K

    2001-01-01

    During our investigations of the micro flora in NRW in the years of 1999 and 2000 we were able to collect and identify some new and rare species of micro fungi as parasites and saprophytes on wild and ornamental plants. Some of them are new for Germany: Podosphaera xanthii on Coreopsis verticillata; Cercospora traversiana on Trigonella foenum-graecum; Passalora dubia on Atriplex hortensis; Ophiobolus cirsii on Carduus spec.; Periconia britannica on Polemonium coeruleum; Ascochyta leptospora on Agropyron repens; Apomelasmia urticae on Urtica dioica; Cryptodiaporthe salicina on Salix caprea; Dasyscyphus nidulus on Anemone hupehensis; Rhopographus filicinus on Pteridium aquilinum; Sillia ferruginea on Corylus avellana; Sirococcus spiraeae on Spiraea spec. and Forsythia x intermedia. Examples of these findings are in the Herbarium ESS (Mycotheca Parva, Slg. Feige/Ale-Agha).

  14. Comparative analysis of procoagulant and fibrinogenolytic activity of crude protease fractions of turmeric species.

    PubMed

    Shivalingu, B R; Vivek, H K; Nafeesa, Zohara; Priya, B S; Swamy, S Nanjunda

    2015-08-22

    Turmeric rhizome is a traditional herbal medicine, which has been widely used as a remedy to stop bleeding on fresh cuts and for wound healing by the rural and tribal population of India. To validate scientific and therapeutic application of turmeric rhizomes to stop bleeding on fresh cuts and its role in wound healing process. The water extracts of thoroughly scrubbed and washed turmeric rhizomes viz., Curcuma aromatica Salisb., Curcuma longa L., Curcuma caesia Roxb., Curcuma amada Roxb. and Curcuma zedoria (Christm.) Roscoe. were subjected to salting out and dialysis. The dialyzed crude enzyme fractions (CEFs) were assessed for proteolytic activity using casein as substrate and were also confirmed by caseinolytic zymography. Its coagulant activity and fibrinogenolytic activity were assessed using human citrated plasma and fibrinogen, respectively. The type of protease(s) in CEFs was confirmed by inhibition studies using specific protease inhibitors. The CEFs of C. aromatica, C. longa and C. caesia showed 1.89, 1.21 and 1.07 folds higher proteolytic activity, respectively, compared to papain. In contrast to these, C. amada and C. zedoria exhibited moderate proteolytic activity. CEFs showed low proteolytic activities compared to trypsin. The proteolytic activities of CEFs were confirmed by caseinolytic zymography. The CEFs of C. aromatica, C. longa and C. caesia showed complete hydrolysis of Aα, Bβ and γ subunits of human fibrinogen, while C. amada and C. zedoria showed partial hydrolysis. The CEFs viz., C. aromatica, C. longa, C. caesia, C. amada and C. zedoria exhibited strong procoagulant activity by reducing the human plasma clotting time from 172s (Control) to 66s, 84s 88s, 78s and 90s, respectively. The proteolytic activity of C. aromatica, C. longa, C. caesia and C. amada was inhibited (>82%) by PMSF, suggesting the possible presence of a serine protease(s). However, C. zedoria showed significant inhibition (60%) against IAA and moderate inhibition (30

  15. Phytochemical overview and medicinal importance of Coffea species from the past until now.

    PubMed

    Patay, Éva Brigitta; Bencsik, Tímea; Papp, Nóra

    2016-12-01

    Coffea (coffee) species are grown in almost all countries along the Equator. Many members of the genus have a large production history and an important role both in the global market and researches. Seeds (Coffeae semen) are successfully used in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries due to its caffeine and high polyphenol content. Nowadays, the three best-known coffee species are Arabic (Coffea arabica L.), Robusta (Coffea robusta L. Linden), and Liberian coffees (Coffea liberica Hiern.). Even though, many records are available on coffee in scientific literature, wild coffee species like Bengal coffee (Coffea benghalensis Roxb. Ex Schult.) could offer many new opportunities and challenges for phytochemical and medical studies. In this comprehensive summary, we focused on the ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and medical significance of coffee species up to the present. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulling the sting out of nettle systematics - A comprehensive phylogeny of the genus Urtica L. (Urticaceae).

    PubMed

    Grosse-Veldmann, Bernadette; Nürk, Nicolai M; Smissen, Rob; Breitwieser, Ilse; Quandt, Dietmar; Weigend, Maximilian

    2016-09-01

    The genus Urtica L. is subcosmopolitan, found on all continents (except Antarctica) and most extratropical islands and ranges from Alaska to Patagonia, Spitzbergen to the Cape and Camtschatka to the subantarctic islands. However, throughout its geographical range morphologically nearly indistinguishable species are found alongside morphologically quite disparate species, with the overall diversity of morphological characters extremely limited. The systematics of Urtica have puzzled scientists for the past 200years and no single comprehensive attempt at understanding infrageneric relationships has been published in the past, nor are species delimitations unequivocally established. We here provide the first comprehensive phylogeny of the genus including 61 of the 63 species recognized, represented by 144 ingroup accessions and 14 outgroup taxa. The markers ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, psbA-trnH intergenic spacer, trnL-trnF and trnS-trnG are used. The phylogeny is well resolved. The eastern Asian Zhengyia shennongensis T. Deng, D.G. Zhang & H. Sun is retrieved as sister to Urtica. Within Urtica, a clade comprising the western Eurasian species U. pilulifera L. and U. neubaueri Chrtek is sister to all other species of the genus. The phylogenetic analyses retrieve numerous well-supported clades, suggesting previously unsuspected relationships and implying that classically used taxonomic characters such as leaf morphology and growth habit are highly homoplasious. Species delimitation is problematical, and several accessions assigned to Urtica dioica L. (as subspecies) are retrieved in widely different places in the phylogeny. The genus seems to have undergone numerous dispersal-establishment events both between continents and onto different islands. Three recent species radiations are inferred, one in America centered in the Andes, one in New Zealand, and one in northern Eurasia which includes Urtica dioica s.str. sensu Henning et al. (2014). The present study provides the basis of a

  17. The sequence and structure of snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina) seed lectin, a three-chain nontoxic homologue of type II RIPs.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Bobbili, Kishore Babu; Jeyaprakash, A Arockia; Chandran, Thyageshwar; Mormann, Michael; Swamy, Musti J; Vijayan, M

    2013-08-01

    The sequence and structure of snake gourd seed lectin (SGSL), a nontoxic homologue of type II ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), have been determined by mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography, respectively. As in type II RIPs, the molecule consists of a lectin chain made up of two β-trefoil domains. The catalytic chain, which is connected through a disulfide bridge to the lectin chain in type II RIPs, is cleaved into two in SGSL. However, the integrity of the three-dimensional structure of the catalytic component of the molecule is preserved. This is the first time that a three-chain RIP or RIP homologue has been observed. A thorough examination of the sequence and structure of the protein and of its interactions with the bound methyl-α-galactose indicate that the nontoxicity of SGSL results from a combination of changes in the catalytic and the carbohydrate-binding sites. Detailed analyses of the sequences of type II RIPs of known structure and their homologues with unknown structure provide valuable insights into the evolution of this class of proteins. They also indicate some variability in carbohydrate-binding sites, which appears to contribute to the different levels of toxicity exhibited by lectins from various sources.

  18. Sennosides A and B production by hairy roots of Senna alata (L.) Roxb.

    PubMed

    Putalun, Waraporn; Pimmeuangkao, Suwat; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2006-01-01

    Hairy roots of Senna alata transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, strain ATCC 15834 were induced and grown in half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Effects of sucrose contents and hormones on the growth and sennosides A, B production were investigated. Hairy roots cultured on hormone-free half-strength MS medium containing 5% sucrose under dark condition mostly stimulated the growth of hairy roots and increased the content of sennosides A and B yielding (169 +/- 4) and (34 +/- 3) microg g(-1) dry wt, respectively.

  19. Antitermitic Activities of Shisham (Dalbergia Sissoo Roxb.) Heartwood Extractives against two Termite Species

    Treesearch

    Barbar Hassan; Mark Mankowski; Grant T. Kirker; Sohail Ahmed; Muhammad Misbah ul Haq

    2016-01-01

    Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) heartwood extractives were investigated for antitermitic activities against Heterotermes indicola and Reticulitermes flavipes. Heartwood extractives were removed from wood shavings by soxhlet extraction using (2:1) ethanol: toluene as the solvent system. Filter paper bioassays...

  20. Randomized controlled trial of nettle sting for treatment of base-of-thumb pain.

    PubMed Central

    Randall, C; Randall, H; Dobbs, F; Hutton, C; Sanders, H

    2000-01-01

    There are numerous published references to use of nettle sting for arthritis pain but no randomized controlled trials have been reported. We conducted a randomized controlled double-blind crossover study in 27 patients with osteoarthritic pain at the base of the thumb or index finger. Patients applied stinging nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) daily for one week to the painful area. The effect of this treatment was compared with that of placebo, white deadnettle leaf (Lamium album), for one week after a five-week washout period. Observations of pain and disability were recorded for the twelve weeks of the study. After one week's treatment with nettle sting, score reductions on both visual analogue scale (pain) and health assessment questionnaire (disability) were significantly greater than with placebo (P = 0.026 and P = 0.0027). PMID:10911825

  1. Rapid flow cytometry analysis of antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattuniemi, Maarit; Korhonen, Johanna; Jaakkola, Mari; Räty, Jarkko; Virtanen, Vesa

    2010-11-01

    Both nettle (Urtica dioica) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus) are widely known to have good influence on health. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and monitor the growth of the bacteria by a rapid flow cytometry (FCM) method. For FCM measurements samples were stained with fluorescent dyes. The inhibitory effects of plant material on growth of E. coli were estimated by comparing the results of control sample (E. coli) to E. coli samples with plant material. FCM offers both a brilliant tool to investigate the kinetics of the growth of bacterium, since subsamples can be taken from the same liquid medium during the growing period and with fluorescent dyes a rapid method to investigate viability of the bacterium.

  2. Complication of cesarean section: pregnancy on the cicatrix of a previous cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weimin; Long, Wenqing; Yu, Qunhuan

    2002-02-01

    To probe into the clinical manifestation, diagnosis, as well as treatment of pregnancy on the cicatrix of a previous cesarean section at the uterine isthmus in the first trimester. Analysis of 14 patients with pregnancy on the cicatrix of a previous cesarean section at the uterine isthmus in the first trimester was made after conservative treatment by drugs from January 1996 to December 1999. The 14 patients with a pregnancy on the cicatrix of a previous cesarean section at the uterine isthmus in the first trimester were painless, had slight vaginal bleeding, and concurrently had increased serum beta-subunit human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG). Doppler ultrasonic examination revealed an obvious enlargement of the previous cesarean section cicatrix in the uterine isthmus, and found a gestational sac or mixed mass attached to the cicatrice, with a very thin myometrium between the gestational sac and bladder walls. Among the 14 patients, 12 patients had crystalline trichosanthes injected into the cervix, mifepristone taken orally, or methotrexate in the form of intramuscular injection. Following this procedure, their serum beta-HCG dropped to normal. The other 2 patients had a total hysterectomy. Pregnancy on the cicatrix of a previous cesarean section at the uterine isthmus in the first trimester is a complication of cesarean section. Early diagnosis and effective conservative treatment by drugs are instrumental in decreasing the potential occurrence of uterine rupture, which is also conducive to preserving the patient's future fertility.

  3. The potential of turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) in agroforestry system based on silk tree (Albizia chinensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, D.; Budiastuti, M. S.; Sakya, A. T.; Cholid, M. I.

    2018-03-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) is a traditional medicinal plant. In Indonesia, it is generally cultivated in village home gardens. Famers conducted very simpple cultivation method of turmeric, without specific maintenance and below varies tree. The experiment was conducted by cultivating turmeric below silk trees as in agroforetry system. The experiment was arranged split plot design, the first factor was three level of irradiation (turmeric monoculture/full irradiation, turmeric below silktree with pruning canopy, and turmeric below silk tree no pruning). The second factor was fertilizer NPK 15-15-15 with three levels of doses (100, 150, and 200 kg ha-1). Cultivating turmeric in agroforestry system based on silk tree which were one year old and not yet needed pruning, application of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer 100 kg ha-1 was enough. The rhizome yield of turmeric 3 months age reaches 139 g per plant (fresh weight). Litter fall from a silk tree one year old in one year is 30 kg per tree per year.

  4. Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach dynamics and succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (east Africa): implications for water quality and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities.

  5. A novel flow injection spectrophotometric method using plant extracts as green reagent for the determination of doxycycline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamy, Sysay; Ruengsitagoon, Wirat

    2017-01-01

    A novel flow injection spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of doxycycline in pharmaceutical preparations using iron(III) contained in extracts from plants. The assay was based on the complex formed between doxycycline and iron(III) characterized by an absorption maximum at 435 nm. The calibration graphs obtained over the doxycycline concentration range 5-250 μg mL- 1 gave correlation coefficients of 0.9979, 0.9987 and 0.9987 with the three green reagents prepared from Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (S. alata), Polygonum hydropiper L. (P. hydropiper) or Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. (D. esculentum), respectively. The relative standard deviations of the repeatability was < 2.00%. The percentage recoveries were in the range of 98.27-101.03%. Doxycycline contents obtained by this new method and by the reference methods reported in literature were in agreement at 95% confidence level with the paired t-test. The sample throughput was 36 h- 1 for each green reagent.

  6. Antioxidant Activity in the Extracts of Two Edible Aroids

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, P.; Misra, T. K.; Singh, I. D.

    2010-01-01

    Two neglected species of Araceae, Alocasia macrorhiza (Linn.) G. Don and Alocasia fornicata (Roxb.) Schott are important as food and ethno medicine in Asia and Africa. Their bioefficacy is documented in the Ayurveda. The solvent extracts of different edible parts of these two species like rhizomes, leaves, roots and stolons were screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using standard procedures. The successive extracts in hexane, benzene, toluene, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and water fraction exhibited IC50 values in the following order, roots>rhizome>leaves for Alocasia macrorhiza and leaves>stolon for Alocasia fornicate, respectively in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl antioxidant inhibition assay. Maximum antioxidant activity was observed in diethyl ether extracts for both species. The IC50 values were comparable with those of quercetine and ascorbic acid as standards. These results suggest that the two aroid species have antioxidant activity in their edible parts and should be extracted using diethyl ether solvent. PMID:20582198

  7. Chemical studies on the polysaccharides of Salicornia brachiata.

    PubMed

    Sanandiya, Naresh D; Siddhanta, A K

    2014-11-04

    A group of 12 polysaccharide extracts were prepared from the tips, stem and roots of an Indian halophyte Salicornia brachiata Roxb. obtained by sequential extractions with cold water (CW), hot water (HW), aqueous ammonium oxalate (OX) and aqueous sodium hydroxide (ALK) solutions. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that all the polysaccharide extract samples consisted primarily of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, glucose, whereas ribose and xylose were present only in some of the extracts. All the extracts exhibited low apparent viscosity (1.47-2.02 cP) and sulphate and contained no prominent toxic metal ions. Fucose was detected only in OX extract of the roots. These polysaccharides were found to be heterogeneous and highly branched (glycoside linkage analysis, size-exclusion chromatography, (13)C-NMR, FT-IR, circular dichroism and optical rotation data). Physico-chemical analyses of these polysaccharides including uronic acid, sulphate and protein contents were also carried out. This constitutes the first report on the profiling of Salicornia polysaccharides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat's prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone subcutaneously, G3 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally, G4 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally and 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone, G5 received 10 mg kg(-1) almond oil (Almond oil was used as testosterone solvent) subcutaneously. After six weeks, volume and weight of each lobe were measured and samples were taken. The 5 to 6 µm thickness sections were made using paraffin embedding method and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff. The results showed that prostate volume and ratio of prostate to body weight were increased significantly in the testosterone. Histological and histometrical results showed that dorsal and lateral type 1 and 2 lobes were not changed significantly but the ventral and anterior lobes have changed significantly. Over all, the nettle root could prevent from some of prostatic hyperplasia effects, so that percentage of folded alveoli in ventral lobe reduced insignificantly.

  9. Chemical Composition and Immuno-Modulatory Effects of Urtica dioica L. (Stinging Nettle) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Francišković, Marina; Gonzalez-Pérez, Raquel; Orčić, Dejan; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Svirčev, Emilija; Simin, Nataša; Mimica-Dukić, Neda

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the chemical profile of stinging nettle and to provide an insight into the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the immune response. Qualitative and quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses indicated that phenolic acids (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid as dominant) and flavonol glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) are present in the aerial parts, while lignans (secoisolariciresinol, 9,9'-bisacetyl-neo-olivil and their glucosides) were detected in the root. Herb and root extracts expressed selective inhibition toward cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase branches in human platelets: root extracts were better at inhibiting thromboxane production, while herb extracts were more specific toward inhibition of 12-lipoxygenase pathway. Stinging nettle extracts mildly increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and growth-related oncogene release from nonstimulated intestinal epithelial cells, stimulating MyD88/NF-κB/p38 signaling, hence preserving the epithelial integrity and enhancing intestinal steady-state defense. Additionally, root extract reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/growth-related oncogene secretion and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in intestinal epithelial cells, thus showing the potential protective effect against tissue damage caused by inflammation processes. These observations suggest that stinging nettle is an interesting candidate for the development of phytopharmaceuticals or dietary supplements for cotreatment of various inflammatory diseases, particularly inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Flow through Free-swimming Appendicularians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, K.; Conley, K. R.; Gemmell, B. J.; Thompson, E.; Bouquet, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    Appendicularians are pelagic tunicates (Phylum: Chordata, Subphylum: Tunicata) that frequently dominate the mesozooplankton community and are key grazers in both coastal shallow seas and oligotrophic environments. Understanding of their feeding mechanisms, specifically selective feeding, has important ramifications for predicting their impact on particle distributions in the upper ocean. The goal of the current study was to determine the role of flow morphology in regulating particle capture within the houses of free-swimming appendicularians (Oikopleura dioica). We used two methods— standard Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) with laser sheet illumination and bright field micro-PIV— to gain unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution of body kinematics and fluid motion through the mucous-mesh house. Analysis of small-scale fluid interactions at various parts of the house provided insight into factors that influence particle capture and selection in these important grazers.

  11. Assessment of phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory potential of Boerhavia procumbens Banks ex Roxb.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, Jasia; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Haq, Ihsan Ul

    2016-08-01

    Boerhavia procumbens is traditionally used in the treatment of various disorders including jaundice and gonorrhea, is a refrigerant, and exhibits anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the phytochemical classes, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract (BPME) and different fractions (n-hexane (BPHE), ethyl acetate (BPEE), n-butanol (BPBE), and residual aqueous fraction (BPAE)) of B. procumbens against carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of B. procumbens, 42 Sprague Dawley male rats (150-200 g) were randomly divided into seven groups. Group I received distilled water and group II was treated with diclofenac potassium (10 mg/kg) body weight (bw) orally. Groups III, IV, V, VI, and VII were administered BPME, BPHE, BPEE, BPBE, and BPAE (200 mg/kg bw) orally, 1 h before the treatment with carrageenan (10 mg/kg bw) in rats. Anti-inflammatory effects of B. procumbens were determined by estimating the inhibition of edema at 1st, 2nd, and 3rd hour after carrageenan injection. Qualitative analysis of methanol extract indicated the composition of diverse classes, namely, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, phlobatannins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, terpenoids, and anthraquinones. Quantitative determination illustrated that BPBE and BPEE possessed the highest concentration of total phenolic (60.45 ± 2.1 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram sample) and total flavonoid content (68.05 ± 2.3 mg rutin equivalent per gram sample), respectively. A dose-dependent response for antioxidant activity was exhibited by all the samples. The sample with the highest aptitude for antioxidant activity was the BPBE for 2,2-azobis,3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited by BPBE and BPME at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd hour and was comparable to control drug diclofenac potassium. Results revealed that various fractions of B. procumbens manifested the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential and accredit the local use of B. procumbens in various disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts and isolated compound from Dalbergia stipulacea Roxb. leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Bhat, Tahir Ahmad; Singh, Rattan Deep

    2017-07-01

    The study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of extracts and isolated compound of Dalbergia stipulacea. Combined extracts (chloroform and methanol) of plant leaves fractionated with n-butanol loaded with column afforded a flavonoid glycoside compound identified as luteolin 4'-rutinoside. Different extracts and isolated compound exhibited pronounced antibacterial and antifungal varied activities against four bacteria (Clostridium acetobutylinium, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mutans, and Pseudomonas sp.) and one fungus (Candida albicans) susceptibility were determined using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extracts and isolated compounds was determined by broth dilution method. The maximum activity was shown by chloroform extract against C. albicans with a zone of inhibition of 17 mm and minimum activity was displayed by methanolic extract against Pseudomonas sp. with 5 mm. However, isolated compound has shown maximum activity against Pseudomonas sp. with 15 mm. The MIC values higher in methanol extract against Pseudomonas sp. and isolated compound shows good against Pseudomonas sp. and B. subtilis. Our findings indicate that plant could be used as a good antimicrobial agent in food, pharmaceutical and bio-pesticide industries.

  13. Ripening of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. [Guamúchil] Fruit: Physicochemical, Chemical and Antioxidant Changes.

    PubMed

    Wall-Medrano, Abraham; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe F; López-Díaz, José A; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica A; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Olivas-Aguirre, Francisco J; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón

    2016-12-01

    The fruit of Guamúchil is an excellent source of bioactive compounds for human health although their natural occurrence could be affected by the ripening process. The aim was to evaluate some physicochemical, chemical and antioxidant changes in guamúchil fruit during six ripening stages (I to VI). A defined trend (p ≤ 0.003) was observed for color [°Hue, 109 (light green) to 20 (dark red)], anthocyanins (+571 %), soluble solids (+0.33 o Brix), ash (+16 %), sucrose (-91 %), proanthocyanidins (63 %), ascorbic acid (-52 %) and hydrolysable PC (-21 %). Carotenoids were not detected and chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic compound. Maximal availability of these bioactives per ripening stage (p ≤ 0.03) was as follows: I (protein/ lipids/ sucrose/ proanthocyanidins/ hydrolysable phenolics), II (total sugars/ascorbic acid), III (total phenolics), IV (flavonoids/ chlorogenic acid) and VI (fructose/ glucose/ anthocyanins). Color change was explained by sucrose (β = 0.47) and anthocyanin (β = 0.20) contents (p < 0.001). Radical scavenging capacity (ORAC, DPPH and TEAC) strongly correlated with total PC (r = 0.49-0.65, p ≤ 0.001) but 89 % of ORAC's associated variance was explained by anthocyanin + sucrose + ascorbic acid (p ≤ 0.0001). Guamúchil fruit could be a more convenient source of specific bioactive compounds if harvested at different ripening stages.

  14. Purification and characterization of novel fibrin(ogen)olytic protease from Curcuma aromatica Salisb.: Role in hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Shivalingu, B R; Vivek, H K; Priya, B S; Soujanya, K N; Swamy, S Nanjunda

    2016-12-01

    The proteases from turmeric species have procoagulant and fibrinogenolytic activity. This provides a scientific basis for traditional use of turmeric to stop bleeding and promote wound healing processes. Our previous studies revealed that fibrinogenolytic action of crude enzyme fraction of Curcuma aromatica Salisb., was found to be more influential than those of Curcuma longa L., Curcuma caesia Roxb., Curcuma amada Roxb. and Curcuma zedoria (Christm.) Roscoe. Hence, the purpose of this study is to purify and characterize protease from C. aromatica and to explore its role in wound healing process. The protease was purified by Sephadex G-50 gel permeation chromatography. Peak with potent proteolytic activity was subjected to rechromatography and then checked for homogeneity by SDS-PAGE and native PAGE. Furthermore purity of the peak was assessed by RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF. The biochemical properties, type of protease, kinetic studies, fibrinogenolytic, coagulant and fibrinolytic activities were carried out. The two proteolytic peaks were fractionated in gel permeation chromatography. Among these, the peak-II showed potent proteolytic activity with specific activity of 10units/mg/min and named as C. aromatica protease-II (CAP-II). This protein resolved into a single sharp band both in SDS-PAGE (reducing and non-reducing) as well as in native (acidic) PAGE. It is a monomeric protein, showing sharp peak in RP-HPLC and its relative molecular mass was found to be 12.378kDa. The caseinolytic and fibrinolytic activity of CAP-II was completely inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF). The CAP-II exhibited optimum temperature of 45°C and optimum pH of 7.5. The Km and Vmax of CAP-II was found to be 1.616µg and 1.62units/mg/min respectively. The CAP-II showed hydrolysis of all three subunits of fibrinogen in the order Aα>Bß>γ. The CAP-II exhibited strong procoagulant activity by reducing the human plasma clotting time. It also showed fibrinolytic activity by complete

  15. Role of larval host plants in the climate-driven range expansion of the butterfly Polygonia c-album.

    PubMed

    Braschler, Brigitte; Hill, Jane K

    2007-05-01

    1. Some species have expanded their ranges during recent climate warming and the availability of breeding habitat and species' dispersal ability are two important factors determining expansions. The exploitation of a wide range of larval host plants should increase an herbivorous insect species' ability to track climate by increasing habitat availability. Therefore we investigated whether the performance of a species on different host plants changed towards its range boundary, and under warmer temperatures. 2. We studied the polyphagous butterfly Polygonia c-album, which is currently expanding its range in Britain and apparently has altered its host plant preference from Humulus lupulus to include other hosts (particularly Ulmus glabra and Urtica dioica). We investigated insect performance (development time, larval growth rate, adult size, survival) and adult flight morphology on these host plants under four rearing temperatures (18-28.5 degrees C) in populations from core and range margin sites. 3. In general, differences between core and margin populations were small compared with effects of rearing temperature and host plant. In terms of insect performance, host plants were generally ranked U. glabra > or = U. dioica > H. lupulus at all temperatures. Adult P. c-album can either enter diapause or develop directly and higher temperatures resulted in more directly developing adults, but lower survival rates (particularly on the original host H. lupulus) and smaller adult size. 4. Adult flight morphology of wild-caught individuals from range margin populations appeared to be related to increased dispersal potential relative to core populations. However, there was no difference in laboratory reared individuals, and conflicting results were obtained for different measures of flight morphology in relation to larval host plant and temperature effects, making conclusions about dispersal potential difficult. 5. Current range expansion of P. c-album is associated with the

  16. Some popular medicinal plants and diseases of the Upper Palaeolithic in Western Georgia.

    PubMed

    Martkoplishvili, Inga; Kvavadze, Eliso

    2015-05-26

    Palynological studies of cultural layers of cave sediments have been used in order to better understand traditional practices. The Upper Palaeolithic in Georgia (36,000-11,000 cal. BP) provides a rich source of such material. However, up to day from such sediments the identification of medicinal plants has hardly been achieved. Large quantities of pollen most notably from entomophilous taxa in fossil spectra can serve as a tool to identify traditionally important species. As these plants are used in modern popular medicine on the territory of Georgia (like Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia annua L., Artemisia absinthium L., Centaurea jacea L., Urtica dioica L.) can be served as an indirect evidence for their medicinal relevance from the Palaeolithic Period up to days. Their modern uses may point that the main diseases during the Upper Palaeolithic were the same as today. The Upper Palaeolithic sediments were studied palynologically come from four caves: Dzudzuana, Satsurblia, Kotias Klde and Bondi. Modern sediments were investigated from 6 caves. Fossil and modern samples were taken according to the standard procedure in palynology. The laboratory treatment was carried out as follows: first, 50g of the sample was boiled in 10% KOH. At the second stage, centrifuging of the material in cadmium liquid was performed. At the final stage, acetolysis treatment was used. Pollen of A. absinthium L. (Asteraceae), A. annua L. (Asteraceae), A. millefolium L. (Asteraceae), C. jacea L. (Asteraceae), and U. dioica L. (Urticaceae) are identified to species level. This species are not edible and are popular in present-day folk medicine. In the Upper Palaeolithic layers, significant amounts of studies species pollen were recorded in the cave, likely due to their flowering branches being brought in by humans for use. Detailed consideration of the pharmacological characteristics of the examined species showed that almost all of them have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial

  17. Copper and cadmium in bottom sediments dredged from Wyścigi Pond, Warsaw, Poland--contamination and bioaccumulation study.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Karwowska, Ewa; Chmielewska, Iwona; Bekenova, Kundyz; Wanot, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    This research covered an evaluation of the copper and cadmium concentrations in bottom sediments dredged from one of the ponds in Warsaw. The samples of sediments, soil, and plants were analyzed in terms of Cu and Cd content. The research concerned the heap of dredged bottom sediments from Wyścigi Pond, Warsaw, Poland. Two boreholes were made to obtain sediment cores with depths of A 162.5 cm and B 190.0 cm. The cores were divided into 10 sub-samples with a thickness of about 15-20 cm. A control sample of soil was taken from the horse racecourse several hundred meters away from the heap. The vegetation was sampled directly from the heap. The predominating plants were tested: Urtica dioica, Glechoma hederacea, Euonymus verrucosus, and Drepanocladus aduncus. A control sample of U. dioica taken outside of the heap was also tested. The commercial PHYTOTOXKIT microbiotest was applied to evaluate the influence of heavy metal-contaminated sediments (used as soil) on germination and growth of the chosen test plants. The analyses of cadmium and copper concentrations revealed that the metal concentration in sediments was diverse at different depths of sampling, probably reflecting their concentration in stored layers of sediments. Moreover, the metal content in core A was four to five times lower than that in core B, which reveals heterogeneity of the sediments in the tested heap. In core A, the copper concentration ranged from 4.7 to 13.4 mg/kg d.w. (average 8.06 ± 0.71 mg/kg d.w.), while in core B, it ranged from 9.2 to 82.1 mg/kg d.w. (average 38.56 ± 2.6 mg/kg d.w.). One of the results of the heavy metal presence in soils is their bioaccumulation in plants. Comparing plant growth, more intensive growth of roots was observed in the case of plants growing on the control (reference) soil than those growing on sediments. The intensive development of both primary and lateral roots was noticed. During this early growth, metal accumulation in plants occurred.

  18. Trichosanthin inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation in both cell lines and nude mice by promotion of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Zhang, Chris Zhi Yi; Zhang, Lin; Wong, Jack Ho; Chan, Yau Sang; Pan, Wen Liang; Dan, Xiu Li; Yin, Cui Ming; Cho, Chi Hin; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer ranks as a common and severe neoplasia in women with increasing incidence as well as high risk of metastasis and relapse. Translational and laboratory-based clinical investigations of new/novel drugs are in progress. Medicinal plants are rich sources of biologically active natural products for drug development. The 27-kDa trichosanthin (TCS) is a ribosome inactivating protein purified from tubers of the Chinese herbal plant Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz (common name Tian Hua Fen). In this study, we extended the potential medicinal applications of TCS from HIV, ferticide, hydatidiform moles, invasive moles, to breast cancer. We found that TCS manifested anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities in both estrogen-dependent human MCF-7 cells and estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 cells. Flow cytometric analysis disclosed that TCS induced cell cycle arrest. Further studies revealed that TCS-induced tumor cell apoptosis was attributed to activation of both caspase-8 and caspase-9 regulated pathways. The subsequent events including caspase-3 activation, and increased PARP cleavage. With regard to cell morphology, stereotypical apoptotic features were observed. Moreover, in comparison with control, TCS- treated nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors exhibited significantly reduced tumor volume and tumor weight, due to the potent effect of TCS on tumor cell apoptosis as determined by the increase of caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, and DNA fragmentation using immunohistochemistry. Considering the clinical efficacy and relat