Sample records for trigger point dry

  1. Neurophysiological and clinical effects of dry needling in patients with upper trapezius myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadeh-Amirdehi, Maryam; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Dry needling (DN) is a widely used in treatment of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The purpose of this pretest-posttest clinical trial was to investigate the neurophysiological and clinical effects of DN in patients with MTrPs. A sample of 20 patients (3 man, 17 women; mean age 31.7 ± 10.8) with upper trapezius MTrPs received one session of deep DN. The outcomes of neuromuscular junction response (NMJR), sympathetic skin response (SSR), pain intensity (PI) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were measured at baseline and immediately after DN. There were significant improvements in SSR latency and amplitude, pain, and PPT after DN. The NMJR decreased and returned to normal after DN. A single session of DN to the active upper trapezius MTrP was effective in improving pain, PPT, NMJR, and SSR in patients with myofascial trigger points. Further studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathophysiology of Trigger Points in Myofascial Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Money, Sarah

    2017-06-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. Trigger point pathophysiology in myofascial pain syndrome, which involves muscle stiffness, tenderness, and pain that radiates to other areas of the body, is considered. The causes of trigger points and several theories about how they develop are reviewed, and treatment approaches, including stretching, physical therapy, dry needling, and injections, are offered.

  3. Rehabilitation of proximal hamstring tendinopathy utilizing eccentric training, lumbopelvic stabilization, and trigger point dry needling: 2 case reports.

    PubMed

    Jayaseelan, Dhinu J; Moats, Nick; Ricardo, Christopher R

    2014-03-01

    Case report. Proximal hamstring tendinopathy is a relatively uncommon overuse injury seen in runners. In contrast to the significant amount of literature guiding the evaluation and treatment of hamstring strains, there is little literature about the physical therapy management of proximal hamstring tendinopathy, other than the general recommendations to increase strength and flexibility. Two runners were treated in physical therapy for proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Each presented with buttock pain with running and sitting, as well as tenderness to palpation at the ischial tuberosity. Each patient was prescribed a specific exercise program focusing on eccentric loading of the hamstrings and lumbopelvic stabilization exercises. Trigger point dry needling was also used with both runners to facilitate improved joint motion and to decrease pain. Both patients were treated in 8 to 9 visits over 8 to 10 weeks. Clinically significant improvements were seen in pain, tenderness, and function in each case. Each patient returned to running and sitting without symptoms. Proximal hamstring tendinopathy can be difficult to treat. In these 2 runners, eccentric loading of the hamstrings, lumbopelvic stabilization exercises, and trigger point dry needling provided short- and long-term pain reduction and functional benefits. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of this cluster of interventions for this condition. Therapy, level 4.

  4. Myofascial trigger points: spontaneous electrical activity and its consequences for pain induction and propagation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Active myofascial trigger points are one of the major peripheral pain generators for regional and generalized musculoskeletal pain conditions. Myofascial trigger points are also the targets for acupuncture and/or dry needling therapies. Recent evidence in the understanding of the pathophysiology of myofascial trigger points supports The Integrated Hypothesis for the trigger point formation; however unanswered questions remain. Current evidence shows that spontaneous electrical activity at myofascial trigger point originates from the extrafusal motor endplate. The spontaneous electrical activity represents focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials depending on trigger point sensitivity. Local pain and tenderness at myofascial trigger points are largely due to nociceptor sensitization with a lesser contribution from non-nociceptor sensitization. Nociceptor and non-nociceptor sensitization at myofascial trigger points may be part of the process of muscle ischemia associated with sustained focal muscle contraction and/or muscle cramps. Referred pain is dependent on the sensitivity of myofascial trigger points. Active myofascial trigger points may play an important role in the transition from localized pain to generalized pain conditions via the enhanced central sensitization, decreased descending inhibition and dysfunctional motor control strategy. PMID:21439050

  5. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture. PMID:23115475

  6. Postneedling soreness after deep dry needling of a latent myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle: Characteristics, sex differences and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Martín-Pintado-Zugasti, Aitor; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel Luis; Fernandez-Carnero, Josue

    2016-04-27

    Postneedling soreness is considered the most frequent secondary effect associated to dry needling. A detailed description of postneedling soreness characteristics has not been previously reported. (1) to assess the intensity and duration of postneedling soreness and tenderness after deep dry needling of a trapezius latent myofascial trigger point (MTrP), (2) to evaluate the possible differences in postneedling soreness between sexes and (3) to analyze the influence on postneedling soreness of factors involved in the dry needling process. Sixty healthy subjects (30 men, 30 women) with latent MTrPs in the upper trapezius muscle received a dry needling intervention in the MTrP. Pain and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were assessed during a 72 hours follow-up period. Repeated measures analysis of covariance showed a significant effect for time in pain and in PPT. An interaction between sex and time in pain was obtained: women exhibited higher intensity in postneedling pain than men. The pain during needling and the number of needle insertions significantly correlated with postneedling soreness. Soreness and hyperalgesia are present in all subjects after dry needling of a latent MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle. Women exhibited higher intensity of postneedling soreness than men.

  7. Trigger point-related sympathetic nerve activity in chronic sciatic leg pain: a case study.

    PubMed

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Rychlik, Michał; Pawelec, Wiktoria; Bednarek, Agata; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2014-10-01

    Sciatica has classically been associated with irritation of the sciatic nerve by the vertebral disc and consequent inflammation. Some authors suggest that active trigger points in the gluteus minimus muscle can refer pain in similar way to sciatica. Trigger point diagnosis is based on Travel and Simons criteria, but referred pain and twitch response are significant confirmatory signs of the diagnostic criteria. Although vasoconstriction in the area of a latent trigger point has been demonstrated, the vasomotor reaction of active trigger points has not been examined. We report the case of a 22-year-old Caucasian European man who presented with a 3-year history of chronic sciatic-type leg pain. In the third year of symptoms, coexistent myofascial pain syndrome was diagnosed. Acupuncture needle stimulation of active trigger points under infrared thermovisual camera showed a sudden short-term vasodilatation (an autonomic phenomenon) in the area of referred pain. The vasodilatation spread from 0.2 to 171.9 cm(2) and then gradually decreased. After needling, increases in average and maximum skin temperature were seen as follows: for the thigh, changes were +2.6°C (average) and +3.6°C (maximum); for the calf, changes were +0.9°C (average) and +1.4°C (maximum). It is not yet known whether the vasodilatation observed was evoked exclusively by dry needling of active trigger points. The complex condition of the patient suggests that other variables might have influenced the infrared thermovision camera results. We suggest that it is important to check if vasodilatation in the area of referred pain occurs in all patients with active trigger points. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Therapeutic effects of dry needling in patients with upper trapezius myofascial trigger points

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh-Amirdehi, Maryam; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background Active myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are major pain generators in myofascial pain syndrome. Dry needling (DN) is an effective method for the treatment of MTrPs. Objective To assess the immediate neurophysiological and clinical effects of DN in patients with upper trapezius MTrPs. Methods This was a prospective, clinical trial study of 20 patients with upper trapezius MTrPs and 20 healthy volunteers (matched for height, weight, body mass index and age), all of whom received one session of DN. Primary outcome measures were neuromuscular junction response (NMJR) and sympathetic skin response (SSR). Secondary outcomes were pain intensity (PI) and pressure pain threshold (PPT). Data were collected at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Results At baseline, SSR amplitude was higher in patients versus healthy volunteers (p<0.003). With respect to NMJR, a clinically abnormal increment and normal reduction was observed in patients and healthy volunteers, respectively. Moreover, PPT of patients was less than healthy volunteers (p<0.0001). After DN, SSR amplitude decreased significantly in patients (p<0.01), but did not change in healthy volunteers. A clinically important reduction in the NMJR of patients and increment in healthy volunteers was demonstrated after DN. PPT increased after DN in patients, but decreased in healthy volunteers (p<0.0001). PI improved after DN in patients (p<0.001). Conclusions The results of this study showed that one session of DN targeting active MTrPs appears to reduce hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and irritability of the motor endplate. DN seems effective at improving symptoms and deactivating active MTrPs, although further research is needed. Trial registration number IRCT20130316128. PMID:27697768

  9. Therapeutic effects of dry needling in patients with upper trapezius myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadeh-Amirdehi, Maryam; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-04-01

    Active myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are major pain generators in myofascial pain syndrome. Dry needling (DN) is an effective method for the treatment of MTrPs. To assess the immediate neurophysiological and clinical effects of DN in patients with upper trapezius MTrPs. This was a prospective, clinical trial study of 20 patients with upper trapezius MTrPs and 20 healthy volunteers (matched for height, weight, body mass index and age), all of whom received one session of DN. Primary outcome measures were neuromuscular junction response (NMJR) and sympathetic skin response (SSR). Secondary outcomes were pain intensity (PI) and pressure pain threshold (PPT). Data were collected at baseline and immediately post-intervention. At baseline, SSR amplitude was higher in patients versus healthy volunteers (p<0.003). With respect to NMJR, a clinically abnormal increment and normal reduction was observed in patients and healthy volunteers, respectively. Moreover, PPT of patients was less than healthy volunteers (p<0.0001). After DN, SSR amplitude decreased significantly in patients (p<0.01), but did not change in healthy volunteers. A clinically important reduction in the NMJR of patients and increment in healthy volunteers was demonstrated after DN. PPT increased after DN in patients, but decreased in healthy volunteers (p<0.0001). PI improved after DN in patients (p<0.001). The results of this study showed that one session of DN targeting active MTrPs appears to reduce hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and irritability of the motor endplate. DN seems effective at improving symptoms and deactivating active MTrPs, although further research is needed. IRCT20130316128. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. The neurophysiological effects of dry needling in patients with upper trapezius myofascial trigger points: study protocol of a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh-Amirdehi, Maryam; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dry needling (DN) is an effective method for the treatment of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). There is no report on the neurophysiological effects of DN in patients with MTrPs. The aim of the present study will be to assess the immediate neurophysiological efficacy of deep DN in patients with upper trapezius MTrPs. Methods and analysis A prospective, controlled clinical trial was designed to include patients with upper trapezius MTrPs and volunteered healthy participants to receive one session of DN. The primary outcome measures are neuromuscular junction response and sympathetic skin response. The secondary outcomes are pain intensity and pressure pain threshold. Data will be collected at baseline and immediately after intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study protocol has been approved by the Research Council, School of Rehabilitation and the Ethics Committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The results of the study will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. PMID:23793673

  11. Effectiveness of dry needling of rectus abdominis trigger points for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a randomised parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Gaubeca-Gilarranz, Alberto; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Medina-Torres, José Raúl; Seoane-Ruiz, José M; Company-Palonés, Aurelio; Cleland, Joshua A; Arias-Buría, Jose L

    2018-05-02

    To compare the effectiveness of trigger point dry needling (TrP-DN) versus placebo needling, relative to an untreated control group, on pain and quality of life in primary dysmenorrhoea. In this randomised, single blind, parallel-group trial, 56 females with primary dysmenorrhoea were randomly allocated to TrP-DN (n=19), placebo needling (n=18) or no treatment (n=19). Patients in both groups were asked to undertake a stretching exercise of the rectus abdominis daily. The needling group received a single session of TrP-DN to trigger points (TrPs) in the rectus abdominis, and the placebo group received placebo needling. The primary outcome was pain intensity (visual analogue scale). Secondary outcomes were quality of life, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the number of days with pain, and self-perceived improvement, measured using a Global Rate of Change. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, and 1 and 2 months after the treatment. Females receiving TrP-DN exhibited greater decreases (P<0.001) in pain than those receiving placebo (1 month: Δ-19.8 mm, 25.9 to -13.7; 2 months: Δ-26.0 mm, -33.1 to -18.9) or assigned to the untreated control group (1 month: Δ-26.0mm, -32.5 to -19.5; 2 months: Δ-20.1 mm, -26.4 to -13.8). Females in the TrP-DN group also exhibited a greater decrease in the amount of medications (P<0.001). No differences in the number of days with pain or quality of life were found (all P>0.1). This trial suggests that a single session of TrP-DN of the rectus abdominis combined with stretching was more effective than placebo needling and stretching alone at reducing pain and the amount of medication used in primary dysmenorrhoea. ACTRN12616000170426. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Determination of end point of primary drying in freeze-drying process control.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal M; Doen, Takayuki; Pikal, Michael J

    2010-03-01

    Freeze-drying is a relatively expensive process requiring long processing time, and hence one of the key objectives during freeze-drying process development is to minimize the primary drying time, which is the longest of the three steps in freeze-drying. However, increasing the shelf temperature into secondary drying before all of the ice is removed from the product will likely cause collapse or eutectic melt. Thus, from product quality as well as process economics standpoint, it is very critical to detect the end of primary drying. Experiments were conducted with 5% mannitol and 5% sucrose as model systems. The apparent end point of primary drying was determined by comparative pressure measurement (i.e., Pirani vs. MKS Baratron), dew point, Lyotrack (gas plasma spectroscopy), water concentration from tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, condenser pressure, pressure rise test (manometric temperature measurement or variations of this method), and product thermocouples. Vials were pulled out from the drying chamber using a sample thief during late primary and early secondary drying to determine percent residual moisture either gravimetrically or by Karl Fischer, and the cake structure was determined visually for melt-back, collapse, and retention of cake structure at the apparent end point of primary drying (i.e., onset, midpoint, and offset). By far, the Pirani is the best choice of the methods tested for evaluation of the end point of primary drying. Also, it is a batch technique, which is cheap, steam sterilizable, and easy to install without requiring any modification to the existing dryer.

  13. THE USE OF TRIGGER POINT DRY NEEDLING AND INTRAMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION FOR A SUBJECT WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Study Design: Case Report. Background and Purpose: Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are widely accepted by clinicians and researchers as a primary source of regional neuromusculoskeletal pain. Trigger point dry needling (TrP‐DN) is an invasive procedure that involves stimulation of MTrPs using an monofilament needle. The purpose of this case report is to report the outcomes of TrP‐DN and intramuscular electrical stimulation (IES) as a primary treatment intervention in a subject with chronic low back pain. Case Description: The subject was a 30‐year‐old female, active duty military, who was referred to physical therapy for low back and right posterolateral hip pain. She noticed symptoms after suffering a lumbar flexion injury while picking up a barbell during weight training. Physical examination demonstrated findings that supported the diagnosis of lumbar segmental instability with a right hip stability dysfunction. Objective findings included a multi‐segmental flexion movement pattern dysfunction and MTrPs in the right gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles with deep palpation. The subject was treated with TrP‐DN and IES for a total of two visits. Bilateral L3 and L5 multifidus and right gluteus maximus and medius muscles were treated, along with implementing a home exercise program consisting of core stability exercises. Outcomes: The subject reported no existing pain and disability on the Numerical Pain Rating Scale and Oswestry Disability Questionnaire and a large perceived change in recovery on the Global Rating of Change at final follow‐up. Physical examination was normal, demonstrating no observed impairments or functional limitations, including normal multi‐segmental flexion and no MTrPs with deep palpation. Discussion: The subject was able to return to full military active duty without any physical limitations and resumed pre‐injury activity levels, including the ability to resume all activities without pain. There is much promise

  14. Changes in blood flow and cellular metabolism at a myofascial trigger point with trigger point release (ischemic compression): a proof-of-principle pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Moraska, Albert F.; Hickner, Robert C.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Brewer, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate proof-of-principle measurement for physiological change within an active myofascial trigger point (MTrP) undergoing trigger point release (ischemic compression). Design Interstitial fluid was sampled continuously at a trigger point before and after intervention. Setting A biomedical research clinic at a university hospital. Participants Two subjects from a pain clinic presenting with chronic headache pain. Interventions A single microdialysis catheter was inserted into an active MTrP of the upper trapezius to allow for continuous sampling of interstitial fluid before and after application of trigger point therapy by a massage therapist. Main Outcome Measures Procedural success, pain tolerance, feasibility of intervention during sample collection, determination of physiologically relevant values for local blood flow, as well as glucose and lactate concentrations. Results Both patients tolerated the microdialysis probe insertion into the MTrP and treatment intervention without complication. Glucose and lactate concentrations were measured in the physiological range. Following intervention, a sustained increase in lactate was noted for both subjects. Conclusions Identifying physiological constituents of MTrP’s following intervention is an important step toward understanding pathophysiology and resolution of myofascial pain. The present study forwards that aim by showing proof-of-concept for collection of interstitial fluid from an MTrP before and after intervention can be accomplished using microdialysis, thus providing methodological insight toward treatment mechanism and pain resolution. Of the biomarkers measured in this study, lactate may be the most relevant for detection and treatment of abnormalities in the MTrP. PMID:22975226

  15. [Manual trigger point therapy of shoulder pain : Randomized controlled study of effectiveness].

    PubMed

    Sohns, S; Schnieder, K; Licht, G; von Piekartz, H

    2016-12-01

    Although chronic shoulder pain is highly prevalent and myofascial trigger points (mTrP) are thought to be found in the majority of patients with shoulder complaints, the influence on the pain mechanism remains unclear. There are only very few controlled clinical studies on the effects of manual trigger point compression therapy. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared the short-term effects of manual trigger point compression therapy (n = 6) with manual sham therapy (n = 6) in patients with unilateral shoulder pain due to myofascial syndrome (MFS). The measurement data were collected before and after two sessions of therapy. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) of mTrP and symmetrically located points on the asymptomatic side were measured together with neutral points in order to detect a potential unilateral or generalized hyperalgesia. Additionally, the pain was assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS) at rest and during movement and the neck disability index (NDI) and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaires were also completed and evaluated. Both treatment modalities led to a significant improvement; however, the manual trigger point compression therapy was significantly more effective in comparison to sham therapy, as measured by different parameters. The significant improvement of PPT values in the interventional group even at sites that were not directly treated, indicates central mechanisms in pain threshold modulation induced by manual compression therapy. The weaker but still measurable effects of sham therapy might be explained by the sham modality being a hands on technique or by sufficient stimulation of the trigger point region during the diagnostics and PPT measurements.

  16. The effect of trigger point management by positional release therapy on tension type headache.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Ali; Rahimijaberi, Abbas; Mohamadi, Marzieh; Abbasi, Leila; Sarvestani, Fahimeh Kamali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of trigger points' management by Positional Release Therapy (PRT) and routine medical therapy in treatment of Tension Type Headache. Tension Type Headache is the most frequent headache with the basis of myofascial and trigger point disorders. PRT is an indirect technique that treats trigger points. 30 Patients with active trigger points in cervical muscles entered to the study. They were randomly assigned to PRT or medical therapy group. Headache frequency, intensity and duration and tablet count were recorded by use of a daily headache diary. Sensitivity of trigger points was assessed by numeric pain intensity and by use of a digital force gauge (FG 5020). Both groups showed significant reduction in headache frequency and duration and tablet count after treatment phase. However, the reduction of study variables was persisted only in PRT group after follow up phase. There was no significant reduction in headache intensity, neither in PRT and nor in medication group. Sensitivity of trigger points was significantly reduced. In comparison of the two study groups, there was no significant difference in headache frequency, intensity, duration and tablet count (p> 0.05). Both procedures were equally effective according to the study. Thus, PRT can be a treatment choice for patients with T.T.H.

  17. Comparison of shoulder strength in males with and without myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius.

    PubMed

    Kim, H A; Hwang, U J; Jung, S H; Ahn, S H; Kim, J H; Kwon, O Y

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted in order to compare the strength of scapular elevator and shoulder abductor with and without restricted scapular elevation between male subjects with and without myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius. In total, 15 male subjects with myofascial trigger points, and 15age- and weight-matched male subjects without myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius. Each subject was measured in the strength of maximum isometric scapular elevation and shoulder abduction with and without restricted scapular elevation. Maximum isometric contractions were measured using the Smart KEMA strength measurement system. Independent t-tests were used to compare shoulder strength values between the myofascial trigger points and non- myofascial trigger points groups. The results showed that shoulder abductor strength in the group with myofascial trigger points (5.64kgf) was significantly lower than in the group without myofascial trigger points (11.96kgf) when scapular elevation was restricted (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the strength of the scapular elevator or shoulder abductor between groups (p>0.05). These findings suggest that decreased strength in the shoulder abductor with restricted scapular elevation should be considered in evaluating and treating individuals with myofascial trigger points of the upper trapezius. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Is There an Association Between Lumbosacral Radiculopathy and Painful Gluteal Trigger Points?: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Adelmanesh, Farhad; Jalali, Ali; Jazayeri Shooshtari, Seyed Mostafa; Raissi, Gholam Reza; Ketabchi, Seyed Mehdi; Shir, Yoram

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of gluteal trigger point in patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy with that in healthy volunteers. In a cross-sectional, multistage sampling method, patients with clinical, electromyographic, and magnetic resonance imaging findings consistent with lumbosacral radiculopathy were examined for the presence of gluteal trigger point. Age- and sex-matched clusters of healthy volunteers were selected as the control group. The primary outcome of the study was the presence or absence of gluteal trigger point in the gluteal region of the patients and the control group. Of 441 screened patients, 271 met all the inclusion criteria for lumbosacral radiculopathy and were included in the study. Gluteal trigger point was identified in 207 (76.4%) of the 271 patients with radiculopathy, compared with 3 (1.9%) of 152 healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). The location of gluteal trigger point matched the side of painful radiculopathy in 74.6% of patients with a unilateral radicular pain. There was a significant correlation between the side of the gluteal trigger point and the side of patients' radicular pain (P < 0.001). Although rare in the healthy volunteers, most of the patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy had gluteal trigger point, located at the painful side. Further studies are required to test the hypothesis that specific gluteal trigger point therapy could be beneficial in these patients.

  19. Reliability of physical examination for diagnosis of myofascial trigger points: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Nicholas; Macaskill, Petra; Irwig, Les; Moran, Robert; Bogduk, Nikolai

    2009-01-01

    Trigger points are promoted as an important cause of musculoskeletal pain. There is no accepted reference standard for the diagnosis of trigger points, and data on the reliability of physical examination for trigger points are conflicting. To systematically review the literature on the reliability of physical examination for the diagnosis of trigger points. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other sources were searched for articles reporting the reliability of physical examination for trigger points. Included studies were evaluated for their quality and applicability, and reliability estimates were extracted and reported. Nine studies were eligible for inclusion. None satisfied all quality and applicability criteria. No study specifically reported reliability for the identification of the location of active trigger points in the muscles of symptomatic participants. Reliability estimates varied widely for each diagnostic sign, for each muscle, and across each study. Reliability estimates were generally higher for subjective signs such as tenderness (kappa range, 0.22-1.0) and pain reproduction (kappa range, 0.57-1.00), and lower for objective signs such as the taut band (kappa range, -0.08-0.75) and local twitch response (kappa range, -0.05-0.57). No study to date has reported the reliability of trigger point diagnosis according to the currently proposed criteria. On the basis of the limited number of studies available, and significant problems with their design, reporting, statistical integrity, and clinical applicability, physical examination cannot currently be recommended as a reliable test for the diagnosis of trigger points. The reliability of trigger point diagnosis needs to be further investigated with studies of high quality that use current diagnostic criteria in clinically relevant patients.

  20. TREATMENT OF SUBACUTE POSTERIOR KNEE PAIN IN AN ADOLESCENT BALLET DANCER UTILIZING TRIGGER POINT DRY NEEDLING: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Tansey, Kimberly A.; Westrick, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design: Case Report. Background and Purpose: Dry needling (DN) is an increasingly popular intervention used by clinicians as a treatment of regional neuromusculoskeletal pain. DN is an invasive procedure that involves insertion of a thin monofilament needle directly into a muscle trigger point (MTP) with the intent of stimulating a local twitch response. Current evidence is somewhat limited, but recent literature supports the use of this intervention in specific neuromusculoskeletal conditions. The purpose of this case report is to present the outcomes of DN as a primary treatment intervention in an adolescent subject with subacute posterior knee pain. Case Description: The subject was a 16‐year‐old female competitive ballet dancer referred to physical therapy with a two month history of right posterior knee pain. Palpation identified MTPs which reproduced the patient’s primary symptoms. In addition to an exercise program promoting lower extremity flexibility and hip stability, the subject was treated with DN to the right gastrocnemius, soleus, and popliteus muscles. Outcomes: The subject reported being pain free on the Numerical Pain Scale and a +7 improvement in perceived change in recovery on the Global Rating of Change at final follow‐up. Physical examination demonstrated no observed impairments or functional limitations, including normal mobility, full strength, and unrestricted execution of dance maneuvers. Discussion: The patient was able to return to high level dance training and competition without physical limitations and resumed pre‐injury dynamic movement activities including dancing, running, jumping, and pivoting without pain. DN can be an effective and efficient intervention to assist patients in decreasing pain and returning to high intensity physical activity. Additional research is needed to determine if DN is effective for other body regions and has long‐term positive outcomes. Level of Evidence: Level 4 PMID:24567862

  1. Treatment of temporomandibular myofascial pain with deep dry needling

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Perez, Luis M.; Granados-Nuñez, Mercedes; Urresti-Lopez, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of deep dry needling in the treatment of temporomandibular myofascial pain. Study Design: We selected 36 patients with myofascial pain located in the external pterygoid muscle (30 women/6 men, mean age=27 years with SD±6,5). We studied differences in pain with a visual analog scale and range of mandibular movements before and after intervention. Results: We found a statistically significant relationship (p<0,01) between therapeutic intervention and the improvement of pain and jaw movements, which continued up to 6 months after treatment. Pain reduction was greater the higher was the intensity of pain at baseline. Conclusions: Although further studies are needed, our findings suggest that deep dry needling in the trigger point in the external pterygoid muscle can be effective in the management of patients with myofascial pain located in that muscle. Key words:Temporomandibular joint, myofascial pain, external pterygoid muscle, trigger point, deep dry needling. PMID:22549679

  2. Contribution of myofascial trigger points to migraine symptoms.

    PubMed

    Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Tafuri, Emmanuele; Savini, Antonella; Fabrizio, Alessandra; Affaitati, Giannapia; Lerza, Rosanna; Di Ianni, Livio; Lapenna, Domenico; Mezzetti, Andrea

    2007-11-01

    This study evaluated the contribution of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) to migraine pain. Seventy-eight migraine patients with cervical active TrPs whose referred areas (RAs) coincided with migraine sites (frontal/temporal) underwent electrical pain threshold measurement in skin, subcutis, and muscle in TrPs and RAs at baseline and after 3, 10, 30, and 60 days; migraine pain assessment (number and intensity of attacks) for 60 days before and 60 days after study start. Fifty-four patients (group 1) underwent TrP anesthetic infiltration on the 3rd, 10th, 30th, and 60th day (after threshold measurement); 24 (group 2) received no treatment. Twenty normal subjects underwent threshold measurements in the same sites and time points as patients. At baseline, all patients showed lower than normal thresholds in TrPs and RAs in all tissues (P < .001). During treatment in group 1, all thresholds increased progressively in TrPs and RAs (P < .0001), with sensory normalization of skin/subcutis in RAs at the end of treatment; migraine pain decreased (P < .001). Threshold increase in RAs and migraine reduction correlated linearly (.0001 < P < .006). In group 2 and normal subjects, no changes occurred. Cervical TrPs with referred areas in migraine sites thus contribute substantially to migraine symptoms, the peripheral nociceptive input from TrPs probably enhancing the sensitization level of central sensory neurons. This article shows the beneficial effects of local therapy of active myofascial trigger points (TrPs) on migraine symptoms in patients in whom migraine sites coincide with the referred areas of the TrPs. These results suggest that migraine pain is often contributed to by myofascial inputs that enhance the level of central neuronal excitability.

  3. Neuroscience education in addition to trigger point dry needling for the management of patients with mechanical chronic low back pain: A preliminary clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Téllez-García, Mario; de-la-Llave-Rincón, Ana I; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Palacios-Ceña, Maria; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the short-term effects of trigger point dry needling (TrP-DN) alone or combined with neuroscience education on pain, disability, kinesiophobia and widespread pressure sensitivity in patients with mechanical low back pain (LBP). Twelve patients with LBP were randomly assigned to receive either TrP-DN (TrP-DN) or TrP-DN plus neuroscience education (TrP-DN + EDU). Pain intensity (Numerical Pain Rating Scale, 0-10), disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire-RMQ-, Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index-ODI), kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia-TSK), and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, transverse process of L3 vertebra, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle were collected at baseline and 1-week after the intervention. Patients treated with TrP-DN + EDU experienced a significantly greater reduction of kinesiophobia (P = 0.008) and greater increases in PPT over the transverse process of L3 (P = 0.049) than those patients treated only with TrP-DN. Both groups experienced similar decreases in pain, ODI and RMQ, and similar increases in PPT over the C5/C6 joint, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior after the intervention (all, P > 0.05). The results suggest that TrP-DN was effective for improving pain, disability, kinesiophobia and widespread pressure sensitivity in patients with mechanical LBP at short-term. The inclusion of a neuroscience educational program resulted in a greater improvement in kinesiophobia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Retrosternal abscess after trigger point injections in a pregnant woman: a case report.

    PubMed

    Usman, Faisal; Bajwa, Abubakr; Shujaat, Adil; Cury, James

    2011-08-23

    Although retrosternal abscess is a well known complication of sternotomy and intravenous drug abuse, to date it has not been described as a consequence of trigger point injections. There are reported cases of serious complications as a result of this procedure including epidural abscess, necrotizing fasciitis, osteomyelitis and gas gangrene. A 37-year-old African-American woman, who was 20 weeks pregnant, presented to our emergency room with complaints of progressively worsening chest pain and shortness of breath over the course of the last two months. She was undergoing trigger point injections at multiple different sites including the sternoclavicular joint for chest pain and dystonia. Two years previously she had developed a left-sided pneumothorax as a result of this procedure, requiring chest tube placement and subsequent pleurodesis. Her vital signs in our emergency room were normal except for resting tachycardia, with a pulse of 100 beats per minute. A physical examination revealed swelling and tenderness of the sternal notch with tenderness to palpation over the left sternoclavicular joint. Laboratory data was significant for a white blood count of 13.3 × 109/L with 82% granulocytes. A chest radiograph revealed left basilar scarring with blunting of the left costophrenic angle. A computed tomography angiogram showed a 4.7 cm abscess in the retrosternal region behind the manubrium with associated sclerosis and cortical irregularity of the manubrium and left clavicle. Trigger point injection is generally considered very safe. However, there are reported cases of serious complications as a result of this procedure. A computed tomography scan of the chest should strongly be considered in the evaluation of chest pain and shortness of breath of unclear etiology in patients with even a remote history of trigger point injections.

  5. The Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Point-of-Care Test in Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Nicole L; Valenzuela, Felipe; Perez, Victor L; Galor, Anat

    2016-04-01

    Dry eye is a common, multifactorial disease currently diagnosed by a combination of symptoms and signs. However, the subjective symptoms of dry eye poorly correlate to the current gold standard for diagnostic tests, reflecting the need to develop better objective tests for the diagnosis of dry eye. This review considers the role of ocular surface matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in dry eye and the implications of a novel point-of-care test that measures MMP-9 levels, InflammaDry (RPS, Sarasota, FL) on choosing appropriate therapeutic treatments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Children with migraine: Provocation of headache via pressure to myofascial trigger points in the trapezius muscle? - A prospective controlled observational study.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, M N; Biebl, J T; Langhagen, T; Hannibal, I; Eggert, T; Vill, K; Gerstl, L; Albers, L; von Kries, R; Straube, A; Heinen, F

    2018-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate a supposed clinical interdependency of myofascial trigger points and migraine in children. Such interdependency would support an interaction of spinal and trigeminal afferences in the trigemino-cervical complex as a contributing factor in migraine. Children ≤18 years with the confirmed diagnosis of migraine were prospectively investigated. Comprehensive data on medical history, clinical neurological and psychological status were gathered. Trigger points in the trapezius muscle were identified by palpation and the threshold of pressure pain at these points was measured. Manual pressure was applied to the trigger points, and the occurrence and duration of induced headache were recorded. At a second consultation (4 weeks after the first), manual pressure with the detected pressure threshold was applied to non-trigger points within the same trapezius muscle (control). Headache and related parameters were again recorded and compared to the results of the first consultation. A total of 13 girls and 13 boys with migraine and a median age of 14.5 (Range 6.3-17.8) years took part in the study. Manual pressure to trigger points in the trapezius muscle led to lasting headache after termination of the manual pressure in 13 patients while no patient experienced headache when manual pressure was applied to non-trigger points at the control visit (p < 0.001). Headache was induced significantly more often in children ≥12 years and those with internalizing behavioural disorder. We found an association between trapezius muscle myofascial trigger points and migraine, which might underline the concept of the trigemino-cervical complex, especially in adolescents. In children with migraine headache can often be induced by pressure to myofascial trigger points, but not by pressure to non-trigger points in the trapezius muscle. This supports the hypothesis of a trigemino-cervical-complex in the pathophysiology of migraine, which might have

  7. Decreased Spontaneous Electrical Activity and Acetylcholine at Myofascial Trigger Spots after Dry Needling Treatment: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing-Guang; Liu, Lin; Huang, Qiang-Min; Nguyen, Thi-Tham; Ma, Yan-Tao; Zhao, Jia-Min

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the changes in spontaneous electrical activities (SEAs) and in acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholine receptor (AChR), and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) levels after dry needling at myofascial trigger spots in model rats. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Thirty-six rats were assigned to three model groups, which underwent MTrSs modeling intervention. Twelve rats were assigned to the blank control (BC) group. After model construction, the 36 model rats were randomly subdivided into three groups according to treatment: MTrSs model control (MC) and two dry needling groups. One dry needling group received puncturing at MTrSs (DN-M), whereas the other underwent puncturing at non-MTrSs (DN-nM). Dry needling treatment will last for two weeks, once a week. SEAs and ACh, AChR, and AChE levels were measured after one-week rest of dry needling treatment. The amplitudes and frequencies of endplate noise (EPN) and endplate spike (EPS) significantly decreased after dry needling treatment in the DN-M group. Moreover, ACh and AChR levels significantly decreased, whereas AChE significantly increased after dry needling treatment in the DN-M group. Dry needling at the exact MTrSs is more effective than dry needling at non-MTrSs.

  8. Decreased Spontaneous Electrical Activity and Acetylcholine at Myofascial Trigger Spots after Dry Needling Treatment: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study are to investigate the changes in spontaneous electrical activities (SEAs) and in acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholine receptor (AChR), and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) levels after dry needling at myofascial trigger spots in model rats. Materials and Methods Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Thirty-six rats were assigned to three model groups, which underwent MTrSs modeling intervention. Twelve rats were assigned to the blank control (BC) group. After model construction, the 36 model rats were randomly subdivided into three groups according to treatment: MTrSs model control (MC) and two dry needling groups. One dry needling group received puncturing at MTrSs (DN-M), whereas the other underwent puncturing at non-MTrSs (DN-nM). Dry needling treatment will last for two weeks, once a week. SEAs and ACh, AChR, and AChE levels were measured after one-week rest of dry needling treatment. Results The amplitudes and frequencies of endplate noise (EPN) and endplate spike (EPS) significantly decreased after dry needling treatment in the DN-M group. Moreover, ACh and AChR levels significantly decreased, whereas AChE significantly increased after dry needling treatment in the DN-M group. Conclusion Dry needling at the exact MTrSs is more effective than dry needling at non-MTrSs. PMID:28592980

  9. Risk analysis for dry snow slab avalanche release by skier triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClung, David

    2013-04-01

    Risk analysis is of primary importance for skier triggering of avalanches since human triggering is responsible for about 90% of deaths from slab avalanches in Europe and North America. Two key measureable quantities about dry slab avalanche release prior to initiation are the depth to the weak layer and the slope angle. Both are important in risk analysis. As the slope angle increases, the probability of avalanche release increases dramatically. As the slab depth increases, the consequences increase if an avalanche releases. Among the simplest risk definitions is (Vick, 2002): Risk = (Probability of failure) x (Consequences of failure). Here, these two components of risk are the probability or chance of avalanche release and the consequences given avalanche release. In this paper, for the first time, skier triggered avalanches were analyzed from probability theory and its relation to risk for both the D and . The data consisted of two quantities : (,D) taken from avalanche fracture line profiles after an avalanche has taken place. Two data sets from accidentally skier triggered avalanches were considered: (1) 718 for and (2) a set of 1242 values of D which represent average values along the fracture line. The values of D were both estimated (about 2/3) and measured (about 1/3) by ski guides from Canadian Mountain Holidays CMH). I also analyzed 1231 accidentally skier triggered avalanches reported by CMH ski guides for avalanche size (representing destructive potential) on the Canadian scale. The size analysis provided a second analysis of consequences to verify that using D. The results showed that there is an intermediate range of both D and with highest risk. ForD, the risk (product of consequences and probability of occurrence) is highest for D in the approximate range 0.6 m - 1.0 m. The consequences are low for lower values of D and the chance of release is low for higher values of D. Thus, the highest product is in the intermediate range. For slope angles

  10. Myofascial trigger points, pain, disability, and sleep quality in individuals with mechanical neck pain.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Muñoz, Sonsoles; Muñoz-García, María T; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of active myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in a greater number of muscles than previous studies and the relation between the presence of MTrPs, the intensity of pain, disability, and sleep quality in mechanical neck pain. Fifteen patients with mechanical neck pain (80% women) and 12 comparable controls participated. Myofascial trigger points were bilaterally explored in the upper trapezius, splenius capitis, semispinalis capitis, sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae, and scalene muscles in a blinded design. Myofascial trigger points were considered active if the subject recognized the elicited referred pain as a familiar symptom. Myofascial trigger points were considered latent if the elicited referred pain was not recognized as a symptom. Pain was collected with a numerical pain rate scale (0-10); disability was assessed with Neck Disability Index; and sleep quality, with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Patients exhibited a greater disability and worse sleep quality than controls (P < .001). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was associated with the worst intensity of pain (r = 0.589; P = .021) and disability (r = 0.552; P = .033). Patients showed a greater (P = .002) number of active MTrPs (mean, 2 ± 2) and similar number (P = .505) of latent MTrPs (1.6 ± 1.4) than controls (latent MTrPs, 1.3 ± 1.4). No significant association between the number of latent or active MTrPs and pain, disability, or sleep quality was found. The referred pain elicited by active MTrPs in the neck and shoulder muscles contributed to symptoms in mechanical neck pain. Patients exhibited higher disability and worse sleep quality than controls. Sleep quality was associated with pain intensity and disability. No association between active MTrPs and the intensity of pain, disability, or sleep quality was found. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation and Test-Retest Reliability of New Thermographic Technique Called Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling for Gluteus Minimus Trigger Points in Sciatica Subjects and TrPs-Negative Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Rychlik, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and test-retest reliability of Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling (TTDN) for the gluteus minimus muscle. TTDN is a new thermography approach used to support trigger points (TrPs) diagnostic criteria by presence of short-term vasomotor reactions occurring in the area where TrPs refer pain. Method. Thirty chronic sciatica patients (n=15 TrP-positive and n=15 TrPs-negative) and 15 healthy volunteers were evaluated by TTDN three times during two consecutive days based on TrPs of the gluteus minimus muscle confirmed additionally by referred pain presence. TTDN employs average temperature (T avr), maximum temperature (T max), low/high isothermal-area, and autonomic referred pain phenomenon (AURP) that reflects vasodilatation/vasoconstriction. Validity and test-retest reliability were assessed concurrently. Results. Two components of TTDN validity and reliability, T avr and AURP, had almost perfect agreement according to κ (e.g., thigh: 0.880 and 0.938; calf: 0.902 and 0.956, resp.). The sensitivity for T avr, T max, AURP, and high isothermal-area was 100% for everyone, but specificity of 100% was for T avr and AURP only. Conclusion. TTDN is a valid and reliable method for T avr and AURP measurement to support TrPs diagnostic criteria for the gluteus minimus muscle when digitally evoked referred pain pattern is present. PMID:26137486

  12. Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of trigger point sensitivity in chronic neck pain sufferers: A controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Bablis, Peter; Pollard, Henry; Bonello, Rod

    2008-01-01

    Background Trigger points have been shown to be active in many myofascial pain syndromes. Treatment of trigger point pain and dysfunction may be explained through the mechanisms of central and peripheral paradigms. This study aimed to investigate whether the mind/body treatment of Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) could significantly relieve pain sensitivity of trigger points presenting in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers. Methods Sixty participants presenting to a private chiropractic clinic with chronic cervical pain as their primary complaint were sequentially allocated into treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment group received a short course of Neuro Emotional Technique that consists of muscle testing, general semantics and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The control group received a sham NET protocol. Outcome measurements included pain assessment utilizing a visual analog scale and a pressure gauge algometer. Pain sensitivity was measured at four trigger point locations: suboccipital region (S); levator scapulae region (LS); sternocleidomastoid region (SCM) and temporomandibular region (TMJ). For each outcome measurement and each trigger point, we calculated the change in measurement between pre- and post- treatment. We then examined the relationships between these measurement changes and six independent variables (i.e. treatment group and the above five additional participant variables) using forward stepwise General Linear Model. Results The visual analog scale (0 to 10) had an improvement of 7.6 at S, 7.2 at LS, 7.5 at SCM and 7.1 at the TMJ in the treatment group compared with no improvement of at S, and an improvement of 0.04 at LS, 0.1 at SCM and 0.1 at the TMJ point in the control group, (P < 0.001). Conclusion After a short course of NET treatment, measurements of visual analog scale and pressure algometer recordings of four trigger point locations in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers were significantly improved when

  13. [Pneumothorax following dry needling treatment: legal and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Ronconi, Gianpaolo; De Giorgio, Fabio; Ricci, Eleonora; Maggi, Loredana; Spagnolo, Antonio G; Ferrara, Paola Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Trigger point "dry needling" is a technique used to treat myofascial pain. It involves using filiform needles which are inserted into muscles to give local pain relief. Few cases of serious adverse events following this treatment have been reported in the literature. In this paper we describe the case of a professional swimmer who developed pneumothorax after dry needling treatment and discuss the medicolegal and ethical aspects related to competencies and responsibilities of medical doctors and physiotherapists performing the procedure.

  14. Assessment of the Short-Term Effectiveness of Kinesiotaping and Trigger Points Release Used in Functional Disorders of the Masticatory Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Lietz-Kijak, Danuta; Kopacz, Łukasz; Grzegocka, Marta

    2018-01-01

    Chronic face pain syndrome is a diagnostic and therapeutic problem for many specialists, and this proves the interdisciplinary and complex nature of this ailment. Physiotherapy is of particular importance in the treatment of pain syndrome in the course of temporomandibular joint functional disorders. In patients with long-term dysfunction of masticatory muscles, the palpation examination can localize trigger points, that is, thickening in the form of nodules in the size of rice grains or peas. Latent trigger points located in the muscles can interfere with muscular movement patterns, cause cramps, and reduce muscle strength. Because hidden trigger points can spontaneously activate, they should be found and released to prevent further escalation of the discomfort. Kinesiotaping (KT) is considered as an intervention that can be used to release latent myofascial trigger points. It is a method that involves applying specific tapes to the patient's skin in order to take advantage of the natural self-healing processes of the body. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the kinesiotaping method and trigger points inactivation on the nonpharmacological elimination of pain in patients with temporomandibular disorders. The study was conducted in 60 patients (18 to 35 years old). The subjects were randomly divided into two subgroups of 30 people each. Group KT (15 women and 15 men) were subjected to active kinesiotaping application. Group TrP, composed of 16 women and 14 men, was subjected to physiotherapy with the release of trigger points by the ischemic compression method. The results show that the KT method and TrP inactivation brought significant therapeutic analgesic effects in the course of pain-related functional disorders of the muscles of mastication. The more beneficial outcomes of the therapy were observed after using the KT method, which increased the analgesic effect in dysfunctional patients. PMID:29861804

  15. Short-term changes in neck pain, widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and cervical range of motion after the application of trigger point dry needling in patients with acute mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mejuto-Vázquez, María J; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Truyols-Domínguez, Sebastián; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2014-04-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To determine the effects of trigger point dry needling (TrPDN) on neck pain, widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and cervical range of motion in patients with acute mechanical neck pain and active trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. TrPDN seems to be effective for decreasing pain in individuals with upper-quadrant pain syndromes. Potential effects of TrPDN for decreasing pain and sensitization in individuals with acute mechanical neck pain are needed. Methods Seventeen patients (53% female) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: a single session of TrPDN or no intervention (waiting list). Pressure pain thresholds over the C5-6 zygapophyseal joint, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle; neck pain intensity; and cervical spine range-of-motion data were collected at baseline (pretreatment) and 10 minutes and 1 week after the intervention by an assessor blinded to the treatment allocation of the patient. Mixed-model analyses of variance were used to examine the effects of treatment on each outcome variable. Patients treated with 1 session of TrPDN experienced greater decreases in neck pain, greater increases in pressure pain threshold, and higher increases in cervical range of motion than those who did not receive an intervention at both 10 minutes and 1 week after the intervention (P<.01 for all comparisons). Between-group effect sizes were medium to large immediately after the TrPDN session (standardized mean score differences greater than 0.56) and large at the 1-week follow-up (standardized mean score differences greater than 1.34). The results of the current randomized clinical trial suggest that a single session of TrPDN may decrease neck pain intensity and widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and also increase active cervical range of motion, in patients with acute mechanical neck pain. Changes in pain, pressure pain threshold, and cervical range of motion surpassed their respective minimal detectable change

  16. Anaesthetic injection versus ischemic compression for the pain relief of abdominal wall trigger points in women with chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Mary L L S; Braz, Carolina A; Rosa-e-Silva, Julio C; Candido-dos-Reis, Francisco J; Nogueira, Antonio A; Poli-Neto, Omero B

    2015-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is a common condition among women, and 10 to 30 % of causes originate from the abdominal wall, and are associated with trigger points. Although little is known about their pathophysiology, variable methods have been practiced clinically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of local anaesthetic injections versus ischemic compression via physical therapy for pain relief of abdominal wall trigger points in women with chronic pelvic pain. We conducted a parallel group randomized trial including 30 women with chronic pelvic pain with abdominal wall trigger points. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups. One group received an injection of 2 mL 0.5 % lidocaine without a vasoconstrictor into a trigger point. In the other group, ischemic compression via physical therapy was administered at the trigger points three times, with each session lasting for 60 s, and a rest period of 30 s between applications. Both treatments were administered during one weekly session for four weeks. Our primary outcomes were satisfactory clinical response rates and percentages of pain relief. Our secondary outcomes are pain threshold and tolerance at the trigger points. All subjects were evaluated at baseline and 1, 4, and 12 weeks after the interventions. The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital that was associated with a university providing assistance predominantly to working class women who were treated by the public health system. Clinical response rates and pain relief were significantly better at 1, 4, and 12 weeks for those receiving local anaesthetic injections than ischemic compression via physical therapy. The pain relief of women treated with local anaesthetic injections progressively improved at 1, 4, and 12 weeks after intervention. In contrast, women treated with ischemic compression did not show considerable changes in pain relief after intervention. In the local anaesthetic injection group, pain threshold

  17. Dry needling: a literature review with implications for clinical practice guidelines1

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, James; Butts, Raymond; Mourad, Firas; Young, Ian; Flannagan, Sean; Perreault, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wet needling uses hollow-bore needles to deliver corticosteroids, anesthetics, sclerosants, botulinum toxins, or other agents. In contrast, dry needling requires the insertion of thin monofilament needles, as used in the practice of acupuncture, without the use of injectate into muscles, ligaments, tendons, subcutaneous fascia, and scar tissue. Dry needles may also be inserted in the vicinity of peripheral nerves and/or neurovascular bundles in order to manage a variety of neuromusculoskeletal pain syndromes. Nevertheless, some position statements by several US State Boards of Physical Therapy have narrowly defined dry needling as an ‘intramuscular’ procedure involving the isolated treatment of ‘myofascial trigger points’ (MTrPs). Objectives: To operationalize an appropriate definition for dry needling based on the existing literature and to further investigate the optimal frequency, duration, and intensity of dry needling for both spinal and extremity neuromusculoskeletal conditions. Major findings: According to recent findings in the literature, the needle tip touches, taps, or pricks tiny nerve endings or neural tissue (i.e. ‘sensitive loci’ or ‘nociceptors’) when it is inserted into a MTrP. To date, there is a paucity of high-quality evidence to underpin the use of direct dry needling into MTrPs for the purpose of short and long-term pain and disability reduction in patients with musculoskeletal pain syndromes. Furthermore, there is a lack of robust evidence validating the clinical diagnostic criteria for trigger point identification or diagnosis. High-quality studies have also demonstrated that manual examination for the identification and localization of a trigger point is neither valid nor reliable between-examiners. Conclusions: Several studies have demonstrated immediate or short-term improvements in pain and/or disability by targeting trigger points (TrPs) using in-and-out techniques such as ‘pistoning’ or

  18. Effectiveness of dry needling versus a classical physiotherapy program in patients with chronic low-back pain: a single-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tüzün, Emİne Handan; Gıldır, Sıla; Angın, Ender; Tecer, Büşra Hande; Dana, Kezban Öztürk; Malkoç, Mehtap

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] We compared the effectiveness of dry needling with a classical physiotherapy program in patients with chronic low-back pain caused by lumbar disc hernia (LHNP). [Subjects and Methods] In total, 34 subjects were allocated randomly to the study (n=18) and control groups (n=16). In the study group, dry needling was applied using acupuncture needles. The control group performed a home exercise program in addition to hot pack, TENS, and ultrasound applications. Pain was assessed with the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire. The number of trigger points and their pressure sensitivity were evaluated with a physical examination (palpation). The Beck Depression Inventory was used to assess depression. The Tampa Kinesiophobia Scale was used to assess fear of movement. [Results] In the study group, the calculated Cohen's effect sizes were bigger than those in the control group in terms of pain, trigger point-related variables, and fear of movement. Effect sizes for reducing depressive symptoms were similar in both groups. [Conclusion] These results suggest that dry needling can be an effective treatment for reducing pain, number of trigger points, sensitivity, and kinesiophobia in patients with chronic low-back pain caused by lumbar disc hernia.

  19. Effectiveness of dry needling for chronic nonspecific neck pain: a randomized, single-blinded, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cerezo-Téllez, Ester; Torres-Lacomba, María; Fuentes-Gallardo, Isabel; Perez-Muñoz, Milagros; Mayoral-Del-Moral, Orlando; Lluch-Girbés, Enrique; Prieto-Valiente, Luis; Falla, Deborah

    2016-09-01

    Chronic neck pain attributed to a myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by the presence of muscle contractures referred to as myofascial trigger points. In this randomized, parallel-group, blinded, controlled clinical trial, we examined the effectiveness of deep dry needling (DDN) of myofascial trigger points in people with chronic nonspecific neck pain. The study was conducted at a public Primary Health Care Centre in Madrid, Spain, from January 2010 to December 2014. A total of 130 participants with nonspecific neck pain presenting with active myofascial trigger points in their cervical muscles were included. These participants were randomly allocated to receive: DDN plus stretching (n = 65) or stretching only (control group [n = 65]). Four sessions of treatment were applied over 2 weeks with a 6-month follow-up after treatment. Pain intensity, mechanical hyperalgesia, neck active range of motion, neck muscle strength, and perceived neck disability were measured at baseline, after 2 sessions of intervention, after the intervention period, and 15, 30, 90, and 180 days after the intervention. Significant and clinically relevant differences were found in favour of dry needling in all the outcomes (all P < 0.001) at both short and long follow-ups. Deep dry needling and passive stretching is more effective than passive stretching alone in people with nonspecific neck pain. The results support the use of DDN in the management of myofascial pain syndrome in people with chronic nonspecific neck pain.

  20. Friction massage versus kinesiotaping for short-term management of latent trigger points in the upper trapezius: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mohamadi, Marzieh; Piroozi, Soraya; Rashidi, Iman; Hosseinifard, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Latent trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle may disrupt muscle movement patterns and cause problems such as cramping and decreased muscle strength. Because latent trigger points may spontaneously become active trigger points, they should be addressed and treated to prevent further problems. In this study we compared the short-term effect of kinesiotaping versus friction massage on latent trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Fifty-eight male students enrolled with a stratified sampling method participated in this single-blind randomized clinical trial (Registration ID: IRCT2016080126674N3) in 2016. Pressure pain threshold was recorded with a pressure algometer and grip strength was recorded with a Collin dynamometer. The participants were randomly assigned to two different treatment groups: kinesiotape or friction massage. Friction massage was performed daily for 3 sessions and kinesiotape was used for 72 h. One hour after the last session of friction massage or removal of the kinesiotape, pressure pain threshold and grip strength were evaluated again. Pressure pain threshold decreased significantly after both friction massage (2.66 ± 0.89 to 2.25 ± 0.76; P  = 0.02) and kinesiotaping (2.00 ± 0.74 to 1.71 ± 0.65; P  = 0.01). Grip strength increased significantly after friction massage (40.78 ± 9.55 to 42.17 ± 10.68; P  = 0.03); however there was no significant change in the kinesiotape group (39.72 ± 6.42 to 40.65 ± 7.3; P  = 0.197). There were no significant differences in pressure pain threshold (2.10 ± 0.11 & 1.87 ± 0.11; P  = 0.66) or grip strength (42.17 ± 10.68 & 40.65 ± 7.3; P  = 0.53) between the two study groups. Friction massage and kinesiotaping had identical short-term effects on latent trigger points in the upper trapezius. Three sessions of either of these two interventions did not improve latent trigger points. Registration ID in IRCT: IRCT2016080126674N3.

  1. Reliability of different methodologies of infrared image analysis of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle

    PubMed Central

    Dibai-Filho, Almir V.; Guirro, Elaine C. O.; Ferreira, Vânia T. K.; Brandino, Hugo E.; Vaz, Maíta M. O. L. L.; Guirro, Rinaldo R. J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infrared thermography is recognized as a viable method for evaluation of subjects with myofascial pain. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability of infrared image analysis of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. METHOD: A reliability study was conducted with 24 volunteers of both genders (23 females) between 18 and 30 years of age (22.12±2.54), all having cervical pain and presence of active myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle. Two trained examiners performed analysis of point, line, and area of the infrared images at two different periods with a 1-week interval. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) was used to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability. RESULTS: With regard to the intra-rater reliability, ICC values were between 0.591 and 0.993, with temperatures between 0.13 and 1.57 °C for values of standard error of measurement (SEM) and between 0.36 and 4.35 °C for the minimal detectable change (MDC). For the inter-rater reliability, ICC ranged from 0.615 to 0.918, with temperatures between 0.43 and 1.22 °C for the SEM and between 1.19 and 3.38 °C for the MDC. CONCLUSION: The methods of infrared image analyses of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle employed in the present study are suitable for clinical and research practices. PMID:25993626

  2. Muscle trigger point therapy in tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; de-la-Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that active trigger points (TrPs) in neck and shoulder muscles contribute to tension-type headache. Active TrPs within the suboccipital, upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, temporalis, superior oblique and lateral rectus muscles have been associated with chronic and episodic tension-type headache forms. It seems that the pain profile of this headache may be provoked by referred pain from active TrPs in the posterior cervical, head and shoulder muscles. In fact, the presence of active TrPs has been related to a higher degree of sensitization in tension-type headache. Different therapeutic approaches are proposed for proper TrP management. Preliminary evidence indicates that inactivation of TrPs may be effective for the management of tension-type headache, particularly in a subgroup of patients who may respond positively to this approach. Different treatment approaches targeted to TrP inactivation are discussed in the current paper, focusing on tension-type headache. New studies are needed to further delineate the relationship between muscle TrP inactivation and tension-type headache.

  3. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy of gastroc-soleus trigger points in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Alireza; Khosrawi, Saeid; Dehghan, Farnaz

    2014-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is an alternative treatment for refractory cases of plantar fasciitis. Studies also demonstrated that ESWT may be an appropriate treatment for myofascial trigger points. This study was designed to evaluate its effectiveness by comparing the ESWT of Gastrocnemius/Soleus (gastroc-soleus) trigger points and heel region with the ESWT of the heel region alone. The study was carried out among 40 patients with a clinical diagnosis of plantar fasciitis, divided randomly to case (n = 20) and control (n = 20) groups. The case group received ESWT for the heel region and for the gastroc-soleus trigger points. The control group received ESWT just for the heel region. The protocol was the same in both groups and they were treated for three sessions every week. The pain score (100 mm visual analog score [VAS]) and the modified Roles and Maudsley score was evaluated before the first session and eight weeks after the last session. Eight weeks after the last session, although the mean VAS had decreased significantly in both groups, this decrement was more significant in the case group. (P = 0.04). According to the modified Roles and Maudsley score, there was a significant improvement in both the case (P < 0.001) and control (P = 0.01) groups, eight weeks after treatment, but there were significantly better results in the case group. The combination of ESWT for both plantar fasciitis and gastroc-soleus trigger points in treating patients with plantar fasciitis is more effective than utilizing it solely for plantar fasciitis.

  4. The effectiveness of manual versus algometer pressure release techniques for treating active myofascial trigger points of the upper trapezius.

    PubMed

    Abu Taleb, Walaa; Rehan Youssef, Aliaa; Saleh, Amir

    2016-10-01

    Manual pressure release (MPR) is a popular treatment of trigger points. Yet, treatment response may be influenced by inconsistent application of pressure. Further, it may contribute to increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the wrist and hand in therapists. Therefore, this study aimed at introducing a novel method to apply pressure using the algometer and to compare its effectiveness to MPR. Forty-five volunteers with active trigger points of the upper trapezius received algometer pressure release (APR), MPR, or sham ultrasound (US). Pain pressure threshold (PPT) and contralateral active and passive neck side-bending ranges were assessed at baseline and immediately after a single session. Results showed no significant differences in post-treatment PPT between the study groups (p > 0.05). The APR group showed a significant increase in passive side-bending range compared with the two other groups, whereas active range improved in the APR compared with the US group (p < 0.05). Our results show that using algometer to apply pressure release to upper trapezius trigger points is more effective compared with manual release and sham US. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic pain in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): The role of myofascial trigger point injections.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Saipriya; Madabushi, Rajashree; Agarwal, Anil; Gautam, Sujeet K; Khuba, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain is a cardinal symptom in hypermobility type of Ehler Danlos Syndrome (EDS type III). The management of pain in EDS, however, has not been studied in depth. A 30 year old female, known case of EDS, presented to the pain clinic with complaints of severe upper back pain for 6 months. Physical examination of the back revealed two myofascial trigger points over the left rhomboids and the left erector spinae. Local anaesthetic trigger point injections were given at these points, followed by stretching exercises under analgesic cover for the first week. After 1 week the patient reported 60-80% pain relief. This case highlights that we must keep a high index of suspicion for the more treatable causes of pain like myofascial pain syndrome in patients suffering from EDS, and should address it promptly and appropriately in order to maximise patient comfort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ELECTRONIC TRIGGER CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.A.G.

    1958-01-01

    An electronic trigger circuit is described of the type where an output pulse is obtained only after an input voltage has cqualed or exceeded a selected reference voltage. In general, the invention comprises a source of direct current reference voltage in series with an impedance and a diode rectifying element. An input pulse of preselected amplitude causes the diode to conduct and develop a signal across the impedance. The signal is delivered to an amplifier where an output pulse is produced and part of the output is fed back in a positive manner to the diode so that the amplifier produces a steep wave front trigger pulsc at the output. The trigger point of the described circuit is not subject to variation due to the aging, etc., of multi-electrode tabes, since the diode circuit essentially determines the trigger point.

  7. The influence of shrinkage-cracking on the drying behaviour of White Portland cement using Single-Point Imaging (SPI).

    PubMed

    Beyea, S D; Balcom, B J; Bremner, T W; Prado, P J; Cross, A R; Armstrong, R L; Grattan-Bellew, P E

    1998-11-01

    The removal of water from pores in hardened cement paste smaller than 50 nm results in cracking of the cement matrix due to the tensile stresses induced by drying shrinkage. Cracks in the matrix fundamentally alter the permeability of the material, and therefore directly affect the drying behaviour. Using Single-Point Imaging (SPI), we obtain one-dimensional moisture profiles of hydrated White Portland cement cylinders as a function of drying time. The drying behaviour of White Portland cement, is distinctly different from the drying behaviour of related concrete materials containing aggregates.

  8. Evaluation of point-of-care test for elevated tear matrix metalloproteinase 9 in post-LASIK dry eyes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tommy C Y; Ye, Cong; Chan, Kwok Ping; Chu, Kai On; Jhanji, Vishal

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of a point-of-care test for detection of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) levels in post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) dry eyes. A comparative study between patients with mild to moderate post-LASIK dry eyes and age-matched normal subjects was conducted. Ocular surface disease index (OSDI), tear break-up time (TBUT), and tear film MMP-9 and total protein levels were compared between the two groups. A point-of-care test device (RPS InflammaDry, Sarasota, Florida, USA) was utilised to confirm elevated MMP-9 levels in tear film. Fourteen post-LASIK dry eyes and 34 normal eyes were included. There was no significant difference in age and gender between both groups (p>0.175). The OSDI was significantly higher (25.5±7.7 vs 7.4±2.5; p<0.001) and TBUT levels were significantly lower (5.4±0.9 vs 13.5±2.3; p<0.001) in patients with dry eye compared with normal subjects. The tear film MMP-9 levels were 52.7±32.5 ng/mL in dry eyes and 4.1±2.1 ng/mL in normal eyes (p<0.001). MMP-9 levels were >40 ng/mL in 7/14 (50.0%) post-LASIK dry eyes. The InflammaDry was positive in 8/14 (57.1%) post-LASIK eyes. All positive cases had tear film MMP-9 levels ≥38.03 ng/mL. Agreement between InflammaDry and MMP-9 was excellent with Cohen κ value of 0.857 in post-LASIK dry eyes. Only half of post-LASIK dry eyes were found to have significant inflammation associated with elevated MMP-9. The OSDI is useful to non-specifically identify patients with symptomatic dry eye while the InflammaDry determined which patients with dry eye were associated with significant inflammation that may guide therapeutic management decisions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Effectiveness of dry needling on the lower trapezius in patients with mechanical neck pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pecos-Martín, Daniel; Montañez-Aguilera, F Javier; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Urraca-Gesto, Alicia; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of dry needling into a myofascial trigger point (MTrP) in the lower trapezius muscle of patients with mechanical idiopathic neck pain. A single-center, randomized, double-blinded controlled study. Patients were recruited from the student population of a local hospital by advertisement in the university clinic from January 2010 to December 2011. Patients (N=72) with unilateral neck pain, neck pain for ≥3 months, and active trigger points in the lower trapezius muscle were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups. All the patients completed the study. Dry needling in an MTrP in the lower trapezius muscle, or dry needling in the lower trapezius muscle but not at an MTrP. The visual analog scale (VAS), Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ), and pressure-pain threshold (PPT) were assessed before the intervention and 1 week and 1 month postintervention. Treatment with dry needling of the lower trapezius muscle close to the MTrP showed decreases in pain and PPT as well as an improvement in the degree of disability (P<.001) compared with the baseline and control group measurements (P<.001). The dry-needling technique performed in the MTrP showed more significant therapeutic effects (P<.001). The application of dry needling into an active MTrP of the lower trapezius muscle induces significant changes in the VAS, NPQ, and PPT levels compared with the application of dry needling in other locations of the same muscle in patients with mechanical neck pain. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia: the overlap of two common problems.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hong-You

    2010-10-01

    With the objective evidence of their existence, myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) contribute to an increasing number of chronic regional and widespread pain conditions. The widespread spontaneous pain pattern in fibromyalgia (FM) is a summation of multiple regional pains due to active MTrPs. A regional pain in FM is from local active MTrPs and/or referred from remote active MTrPs. Positive tender points specified in FM are MTrPs, either active or latent. Manual stimulation of active MTrPs located in the muscles in different body regions completely reproduced overall spontaneous FM pain pattern. Active MTrPs as tonic peripheral nociceptive input contribute tremendously to the initiation and maintenance of central sensitization, to the impairment of descending inhibition, to the increased excitability of motor units, and to the induction of sympathetic hyperactivity observed in FM. The considerable overlap of MTrPs and FM in pain characteristics and pathophysiology suggests that FM pain is largely due to MTrPs.

  11. The relationship between latent trigger points and depression levels in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Celik, Derya; Kaya Mutlu, Ebru

    2012-06-01

    Our purpose was to study the relationship between latent trigger points (LTrP) and levels of depression in healthy subjects. A total of 76 healthy subjects consisting of 40 men and 36 women (mean age, 25.4 ± 4.8 years; age range, 19-42 years) from the School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation and the Orthopaedics and Traumatology Department of Istanbul University Medical Faculty were selected for the study. Latent trigger points on the scapular muscles of each subject were evaluated. The upper and middle trapezius, supraspinatus, serratus anterior, and rhomboideus muscles were examined respectively, by palpation with the thumb, to determine whether there was pain. The first group consisted of 30 subjects (20 men and 10 women; mean age, 24.2 ± 5.02 years) who had previously been diagnosed as negative after an LTrP examination (control group), while the second group consisted of 28 subjects (12 men and 16 women; mean age, 23.6 ± 2.24 years) who had been diagnosed with at least five LTrPs. The third group consisted of 18 subjects (8 men and 10 women; mean age, 26. 9 ± 7.23 years) who had been diagnosed with more than five LTrPs. All groups were assessed, using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean BDI value was found to be 8.0 ± 4.2 in the first group, 10.3 ± 3.4 in the second, and 28.5 ± 4.8 in the third. A significant difference was found between the mean BDI values of the first and second groups and also between the first and third groups. The mean BDI values of the second and third groups were also found to be statistically significant (p = 0.042). We observed a close relationship between the presence of LTrPs and depression levels in healthy people.

  12. AMPLITUDE DISCRIMINATOR HAVING SEPARATE TRIGGERING AND RECOVERY CONTROLS UTILIZING AUTOMATIC TRIGGERING

    DOEpatents

    Chase, R.L.

    1962-01-23

    A transistorized amplitude discriminator circuit is described in which the initial triggering sensitivity and the recovery threshold are separately adjustable in a convenient manner. The discriminator is provided with two independent bias components, one of which is for circuit hysteresis (recovery) and one of which is for trigger threshold level. A switching circuit is provided to remove the second bias component upon activation of the trigger so that the recovery threshold is always at the point where the trailing edge of the input signal pulse goes through zero or other desired value. (AEC)

  13. Improving understanding of trigger points and widespread pressure pain sensitivity in tension-type headache patients: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Fernández-De-Las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-09-01

    The underlying etiology of tension type headache (TTH) is not understood. The current paper highlights the etiologic role of muscle trigger points (TrPs) to the development and maintenance of central sensitization in TTH and its clinical repercussion for proper management of these patients. Areas covered: A literature search on Pub Med for English-language published papers between 1990 and May 2017 to provide the most updated data on the topic was conducted. Current literature suggests that the referred pain elicited by active trigger points (TrPs) contributes to the manifestations of TTH. There is also evidence supporting that TrPs represent a peripheral source of nociception and thereby a driver in the development of central sensitization. In fact, TrPs have been found to be associated with widespread pressure pain sensitivity in TTH. Temporal and spatial summation of TrP nociception suggests that inactivating TrP in the neck, head and shoulder muscles could help these patients; however, current evidence supporting the therapeutic role of TrPs in TTH is conflicting. Expert commentary: Understanding the role of TrPs in TTH in widespread pain sensitization may help to develop better management regimes and possibly prevent TTH from developing into more chronic conditions.

  14. Thermographic and clinical correlation of myofascial trigger points in the masticatory muscles

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, D S; Brioschi, M L; Arita, E S

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to identify and correlate myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the masticatory muscles, using thermography and algometry. Methods 26 female volunteers were recruited. The surface facial area over the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles was divided into 15 subareas on each side (n = 780). This investigation consisted of three steps. The first step involved thermographic facial examination, using lateral views. The second step involved the pressure pain threshold (PPT), marking the MTP pattern areas for referred pain (n = 131) and local pain (n = 282) with a coloured pencil, and a photograph of the lateral face with the head in the same position as the infrared imaging. The last step was the fusion of these two images, using dedicated software (Reporter® 8.5—SP3 Professional Edition and QuickReport® 1.2, FLIR Systems, Wilsonville, OR); and the calculation of the temperature of each point. Results PPT levels measured at the points of referred pain in MTPs (1.28 ± 0.45 kgf) were significantly lower than the points of local pain in MTPs (1.73 ± 0.59 kgf; p < 0.05). Infrared imaging indicated differences between referred and local pain in MTPs of 0.5 °C (p < 0.05). Analysis of the correlation between the PPT and infrared imaging was done using the Spearman non-parametric method, in which the correlations were positive and moderate (0.4 ≤ r < 0.7). The sensitivity and specificity in MTPs were 62.5% and 71.3%, respectively, for referred pain, and 43.6% and 60.6%, respectively, for local pain. Conclusion Infrared imaging measurements can provide a useful, non-invasive and non-ionizing examination for diagnosis of MTPs in masticatory muscles. PMID:23166359

  15. [Clinical observation on therapeutic effect of cupping combined with acupuncture stimulation at trigger points for lumbar myofascial pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong

    2014-08-01

    To observe the clinical effect of cupping combined with acupuncture stimulation of trigger points on lumbar myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Sixty MPS patients were randomly divided into acupuncture + TDP group (n = 30), and cupping + acupuncture group (n = 30). Patients in the acupuncture + TDP group were treated by acupuncture stimulation of trigger points and local TDP irradiation, and patients of the cupping + acupuncture group treated by intensive cupping applied to the myofascial band and acupuncture stimulation of the locus according to the position of muscular tension band. The therapeutic effects were assessed according to the score of the McGill pain questionnaire composing of pain rating index (PRI), visual analogue scale (VAS) and present pain intensity (PPI) before, immediately and 1 month after the treatment. After the treatment, the total effective rates of the acupuncture+ TDP and cupping + acupuncture groups were 83.3% (25/30) and 96.6% (29/30), respectively, without significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). One month's follow-up showed that the total effective rates of the acupuncture + TDP and cupping + acupuncture groups were 40.0% and 90.0% respectively, and the latter group was significantly better than the acupuncture + TDP group in the therapeutic effect (P < 0.05). The scores of PRI, VAS, PPI after the treatment were markedly decreased in both groups (P < 0.05). One month later, the scores of PRI, VAS and PPI in the cupping + acupuncture group were obviously lower than those of the acupuncture group (P < 0.05). Both acupuncture stimulation of trigger points plus TDP and cupping plus acupuncture can effectively relieve pain in MPS patients, while the therapeutic effect of cupping plus acupuncture treatment lasts longer analgesic effect.

  16. Skin Resistivity Value of Upper Trapezius Latent Trigger Points

    PubMed Central

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Zawadziński, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The skin resistivity (SkR) measurement is commonly recommended for acupoints measurement, but for trigger points (TrPs) only one study is available. The purpose of the study was to evaluate SkR for latent TrPs compared to non-TrPs and the surrounding tissue. Material and Methods. Forty-two healthy volunteers with unilateral latent upper trapezius TrPs (12 men, 30 women) aged 21–23 (mean age: 22.1 ± 0.6 y) participated in the study. Keithley electrometer 610B was used for measuring SkR (Ag/AgCl self-adhesive, disposable ground electrode: 30 mm diameter). SkR was measured for latent TrPs and compared to opposite non-TrPs sites and the surrounding tissue. Results. The SkR decrease of TrPs-positive sites as compared to TrPs-negative sites and the surrounding tissue was confirmed. However, no statistically significant difference in the SkR value occurred when all data were analyzed. The same was confirmed after gender division and for TrPs-positive subjects examined for referred pain and twitch response presence. Conclusion. SkR reactive changes at latent TrPs are possible but the results were not consistent with the previous study. Thus, caution in applying SkR to latent TrPs isolation is recommended and its clinical use should not be encouraged yet. Further studies, especially on active TrPs, are yet required. PMID:26180796

  17. Freeze-dried plasma at the point of injury: from concept to doctrine.

    PubMed

    Glassberg, Elon; Nadler, Roy; Gendler, Sami; Abramovich, Amir; Spinella, Philip C; Gerhardt, Robert T; Holcomb, John B; Kreiss, Yitshak

    2013-12-01

    While early plasma transfusion for the treatment of patients with ongoing major hemorrhage is widely accepted as part of the standard of care in the hospital setting, logistic constraints have limited its use in the out-of-hospital setting. Freeze-dried plasma (FDP), which can be stored at ambient temperatures, enables early treatment in the out-of-hospital setting. Point-of-injury plasma transfusion entails several significant advantages over currently used resuscitation fluids, including the avoidance of dilutional coagulopathy, by minimizing the need for crystalloid infusion, beneficial effects on endothelial function, physiological pH level, and better maintenance of intravascular volume compared with crystalloid-based solutions. The Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps policy is that plasma is the resuscitation fluid of choice for selected, severely wounded patients and has thus included FDP as part of its armamentarium for use at the point of injury by advanced life savers, across the entire military. We describe the clinical rationale behind the use of FDP at the point-of-injury, the drafting of the administration protocol now being used by Israel Defense Forces advanced life support providers, the process of procurement and distribution, and preliminary data describing the first casualties treated with FDP at the point of injury. It is our hope that others will be able to learn from our experience, thus improving trauma casualty care around the world.

  18. COMPARISON OF DRY NEEDLING VS. SHAM ON THE PERFORMANCE OF VERTICAL JUMP.

    PubMed

    Bandy, William D; Nelson, Russell; Beamer, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Dry needling has been reported to decrease pain in subjects having myofascial trigger points, as well as pain in muscle and connective tissue. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects on the ability to perform a two-legged vertical jump between a group who received one bout of dry needling and a group who received one bout of a sham treatment. Thirty-five healthy students (19 males, 16 females) were recruited to participate in this study (mean age 22.7+/- 2.4 years). The subjects were randomly divided into two groups- dry needling (n=18) vs sham (n=17). The dry needling group received needling to four sites on bilateral gastrocnemius muscles; two at the medial head and two at the lateral head. The sham group had the four areas of the gastrocnemius muscle pressed with the tube housing the needle, but the needle was never inserted into the skin. Two-legged vertical jump was measured with chalk marks on the wall before and after the dry needling and sham treatments. Analysis with a t-test indicated that the dry needling group significantly increased vertical jump height 1.2 inches over the sham group. One bout of dry needling showed an immediate effect at significantly increasing vertical jump height in healthy, young adults. Future research is needed to determine if dry needling has any long-term effects. 2b.

  19. COMPARISON OF DRY NEEDLING VS. SHAM ON THE PERFORMANCE OF VERTICAL JUMP

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Russell; Beamer, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dry needling has been reported to decrease pain in subjects having myofascial trigger points, as well as pain in muscle and connective tissue. Objective The purpose of the study was to compare the effects on the ability to perform a two-legged vertical jump between a group who received one bout of dry needling and a group who received one bout of a sham treatment. Methods Thirty-five healthy students (19 males, 16 females) were recruited to participate in this study (mean age 22.7+/- 2.4 years). The subjects were randomly divided into two groups- dry needling (n=18) vs sham (n=17). The dry needling group received needling to four sites on bilateral gastrocnemius muscles; two at the medial head and two at the lateral head. The sham group had the four areas of the gastrocnemius muscle pressed with the tube housing the needle, but the needle was never inserted into the skin. Two-legged vertical jump was measured with chalk marks on the wall before and after the dry needling and sham treatments. Results Analysis with a t-test indicated that the dry needling group significantly increased vertical jump height 1.2 inches over the sham group. Conclusion One bout of dry needling showed an immediate effect at significantly increasing vertical jump height in healthy, young adults. Future research is needed to determine if dry needling has any long-term effects. Level of Evidence 2b PMID:29181252

  20. Comparing Trigger Point Dry Needling and Manual Pressure Technique for the Management of Myofascial Neck/Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    De Meulemeester, Kayleigh E; Castelein, Birgit; Coppieters, Iris; Barbe, Tom; Cools, Ann; Cagnie, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate short-term and long-term treatment effects of dry needling (DN) and manual pressure (MP) technique with the primary goal of determining if DN has better effects on disability, pain, and muscle characteristics in treating myofascial neck/shoulder pain in women. In this randomized clinical trial, 42 female office workers with myofascial neck/shoulder pain were randomly allocated to either a DN or MP group and received 4 treatments. They were evaluated with the Neck Disability Index, general numeric rating scale, pressure pain threshold, and muscle characteristics before and after treatment. For each outcome parameter, a linear mixed-model analysis was applied to reveal group-by-time interaction effects or main effects for the factor "time." No significant differences were found between DN and MP. In both groups, significant improvement in the Neck Disability Index was observed after 4 treatments and 3 months (P < .001); the general numerical rating scale also significantly decreased after 3 months. After the 4-week treatment program, there was a significant improvement in pain pressure threshold, muscle elasticity, and stiffness. Both treatment techniques lead to short-term and long-term treatment effects. Dry needling was found to be no more effective than MP in the treatment of myofascial neck/shoulder pain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; NA62 Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    both in an input or an output mode. The trigger rates will be permanently monitored by reading counters at regular intervals. This paper describes the overall NA62 trigger system focusing on the setup for the dry and technical runs in 2012.

  2. Improvement in clinical outcomes after dry needling versus myofascial release on pain pressure thresholds, quality of life, fatigue, pain intensity, quality of sleep, anxiety, and depression in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Castro Sánchez, Adelaida M; García López, Hector; Fernández Sánchez, Manuel; Pérez Mármol, José Manuel; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, María Encarnación; Luque Suárez, Alejandro; Matarán Peñarrocha, Guillermo Adolfo

    2018-04-23

    To compare the effectiveness of dry needling versus myofascial release on myofascial trigger points pain in cervical muscles, quality of life, impact of symptoms pain, quality of sleep, anxiety, depression, and fatigue in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted. Sixty-four subjects with fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to a dry needling group or a myofascial release group. Pain pressure thresholds of myofascial trigger points were evaluated in the cervical muscles. In addition, quality of life, impact of fibromyalgia symptoms, quality of sleep, intensity of pain, anxiety and depression symptoms, impact of fatigue at baseline and post treatment after four weeks of intervention were evaluated. Significant improvement was found in most pain pressure thresholds of the myofascial trigger points in cervical muscles in the dry needling group compared to myofascial release (p < 0.05). Similarly, these differences between groups were found for the components of quality of life of physical function (F = 12.74, p = 0.001), physical role (F = 11.24, p = 0.001), body pain (F =30.26, p < 0.001), general health (F = 15.83, p < 0.001), vitality (F = 13.51, p = 0.001), social function (F = 4.73, p = 0.034), emotional role (F = 8.01, p = 0.006), and mental health (F = 4.95, p = 0.030). Similar results were achieved for total impact of FMS symptoms (F = 42.91, p < 0.001), quality of sleep (F = 11.96, p = 0.001), state anxiety (F = 7.40, p = 0.009), and trait anxiety (F = -14.63, p < 0.001), hospital anxiety and depression (F = 20.60, p < 0.001), general pain intensity (F = 29.59, p < 0.001), and fatigue (F = -25.73, p < 0.001). The dry needling therapy showed higher improvements in comparison with myofascial release therapy for pain pressure thresholds, the components of quality of life of physical role

  3. Simulating Ice Shelf Response to Potential Triggers of Collapse Using the Material Point Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, A.; Smith, B. E.

    2017-12-01

    Weakening or collapse of an ice shelf can reduce the buttressing effect of the shelf on its upstream tributaries, resulting in sea level rise as the flux of grounded ice into the ocean increases. Here we aim to improve sea level rise projections by developing a prognostic 2D plan-view model that simulates the response of an ice sheet/ice shelf system to potential triggers of ice shelf weakening or collapse, such as calving events, thinning, and meltwater ponding. We present initial results for Larsen C. Changes in local ice shelf stresses can affect flow throughout the entire domain, so we place emphasis on calibrating our model to high-resolution data and precisely evolving fracture-weakening and ice geometry throughout the simulations. We primarily derive our initial ice geometry from CryoSat-2 data, and initialize the model by conducting a dual inversion for the ice viscosity parameter and basal friction coefficient that minimizes mismatch between modeled velocities and velocities derived from Landsat data. During simulations, we implement damage mechanics to represent fracture-weakening, and track ice thickness evolution, grounding line position, and ice front position. Since these processes are poorly represented by the Finite Element Method (FEM) due to mesh resolution issues and numerical diffusion, we instead implement the Material Point Method (MPM) for our simulations. In MPM, the ice domain is discretized into a finite set of Lagrangian material points that carry all variables and are tracked throughout the simulation. Each time step, information from the material points is projected to a Eulerian grid where the momentum balance equation (shallow shelf approximation) is solved similarly to FEM, but essentially treating the material points as integration points. The grid solution is then used to determine the new positions of the material points and update variables such as thickness and damage in a diffusion-free Lagrangian frame. The grid does not store

  4. Lake drying and livelihood dynamics in Lake Chad: Unravelling the mechanisms, contexts and responses.

    PubMed

    Okpara, Uche T; Stringer, Lindsay C; Dougill, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    This article examines lake drying and livelihood dynamics in the context of multiple stressors through a case study of the "Small Lake Chad" in the Republic of Chad. Livelihoods research in regions experiencing persistent lake water fluctuations has largely focused on the well-being and security of lakeshore dwellers. Little is known about the mechanisms through which lake drying shapes livelihood drawbacks and opportunities, and whether locally evolved responses are enhancing livelihoods. Here we address these gaps using empirical, mixed-methods field research couched within the framework of livelihoods and human well-being contexts. The analysis demonstrates that limited opportunities outside agriculture, the influx of mixed ethnic migrants and the increasing spate of violence all enhance livelihood challenges. Livelihood opportunities centre on the renewal effects of seasonal flood pulses on lake waters and the learning opportunities triggered by past droughts. Although drying has spurred new adaptive behaviours predicated on seasonality, traditional predictive factors and the availability of assets, responses have remained largely reactive. The article points to where lake drying fits amongst changes in the wider socio-economic landscape in which people live, and suggests that awareness of the particularities of the mechanisms that connect lake drying to livelihoods can offer insights into the ways local people might be assisted by governments and development actors.

  5. Optimization of the secondary drying step in freeze drying using TDLAS technology.

    PubMed

    Schneid, Stefan C; Gieseler, Henning; Kessler, William J; Luthra, Suman A; Pikal, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    The secondary drying phase in freeze drying is mostly developed on a trial-and-error basis due to the lack of appropriate noninvasive process analyzers. This study describes for the first time the application of Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy, a spectroscopic and noninvasive sensor for monitoring secondary drying in laboratory-scale freeze drying with the overall purpose of targeting intermediate moisture contents in the product. Bovine serum albumin/sucrose mixtures were used as a model system to imitate high concentrated antibody formulations. First, the rate of water desorption during secondary drying at constant product temperatures (-22 °C, -10 °C, and 0 °C) was investigated for three different shelf temperatures. Residual moisture contents of sampled vials were determined by Karl Fischer titration. An equilibration step was implemented to ensure homogeneous distribution of moisture (within 1%) in all vials. The residual moisture revealed a linear relationship to the water desorption rate for different temperatures, allowing the evaluation of an anchor point from noninvasive flow rate measurements without removal of samples from the freeze dryer. The accuracy of mass flow integration from this anchor point was found to be about 0.5%. In a second step, the concept was successfully tested in a confirmation experiment. Here, good agreement was found for the initial moisture content (anchor point) and the subsequent monitoring and targeting of intermediate moisture contents. The present approach for monitoring secondary drying indicated great potential to find wider application in sterile operations on production scale in pharmaceutical freeze drying. © 2011 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  6. Remote Effect of Lower Limb Acupuncture on Latent Myofascial Trigger Point of Upper Trapezius Muscle: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai-Hua; Hsiao, Kuang-Yu; Lin, Chu-Hsu; Chang, Wen-Ming; Hsu, Hung-Chih; Hsieh, Wei-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To demonstrate the use of acupuncture in the lower limbs to treat myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscles via a remote effect. Methods. Five adults with latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) of bilateral upper trapezius muscles received acupuncture at Weizhong (UB40) and Yanglingquan (GB34) points in the lower limbs. Modified acupuncture was applied at these points on a randomly selected ipsilateral lower limb (experimental side) versus sham needling on the contralateral lower limb (control side) in each subject. Each subject received two treatments within a one-week interval. To evaluate the remote effect of acupuncture, the range of motion (ROM) upon bending the contralateral side of the cervical spine was assessed before and after each treatment. Results. There was significant improvement in cervical ROM after the second treatment (P = 0.03) in the experimental group, and the increased ROM on the modified acupuncture side was greater compared to the sham needling side (P = 0.036). Conclusions. A remote effect of acupuncture was demonstrated in this pilot study. Using modified acupuncture needling at remote acupuncture points in the ipsilateral lower limb, our treatments released tightness due to latent MTrPs of the upper trapezius muscle. PMID:23710218

  7. Additional Effect of Static Ultrasound and Diadynamic Currents on Myofascial Trigger Points in a Manual Therapy Program for Patients With Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira, Alessandra Kelly; Girasol, Carlos Eduardo; Dias, Fabiana Rodrigues Cancio; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2017-04-01

    To assess the additional effect of static ultrasound and diadynamic currents on myofascial trigger points in a manual therapy program to treat individuals with chronic neck pain. A single-blind randomized trial was conducted. Both men and women, between ages 18 and 45, with chronic neck pain and active myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius were included in the study. Subjects were assigned to 3 different groups: group 1 (n = 20) was treated with manual therapy; group 2 (n = 20) was treated with manual therapy and static ultrasound; group 3 (n = 20) was treated with manual therapy and diadynamic currents. Individuals were assessed before the first treatment session, 48 hours after the first treatment session, 48 hours after the tenth treatment session, and 4 weeks after the last session. There was no group-versus-time interaction for Numeric Rating Scale, Neck Disability Index, Pain-Related Self-Statement Scale, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion, and skin temperature (F-value range, 0.089-1.961; P-value range, 0.106-0.977). Moreover, we found no differences between groups regarding electromyographic activity (P > 0.05). The use of static ultrasound or diadynamic currents on myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius associated with a manual therapy program did not generate greater benefits than manual therapy alone.

  8. Pure F-actin networks are distorted and branched by steps in the critical-point drying method.

    PubMed

    Resch, Guenter P; Goldie, Kenneth N; Hoenger, Andreas; Small, J Victor

    2002-03-01

    Elucidation of the ultrastructural organization of actin networks is crucial for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying actin-based motility. Results obtained from cytoskeletons and actin comets prepared by the critical-point procedure, followed by rotary shadowing, support recent models incorporating actin filament branching as a main feature of lamellipodia and pathogen propulsion. Since actin branches were not evident in earlier images obtained by negative staining, we explored how these differences arise. Accordingly, we have followed the structural fate of dense networks of pure actin filaments subjected to steps of the critical-point drying protocol. The filament networks have been visualized in parallel by both cryo-electron microscopy and negative staining. Our results demonstrate the selective creation of branches and other artificial structures in pure F-actin networks by the critical-point procedure and challenge the reliability of this method for preserving the detailed organization of actin assemblies that drive motility. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  9. Convergent and Divergent Signaling in PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Effector-Triggered Immunity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yujun; van Wersch, Rowan; Zhang, Yuelin

    2018-04-01

    Plants use diverse immune receptors to sense pathogen attacks. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors localized on the plasma membrane leads to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Detection of pathogen effectors by intracellular or plasma membrane-localized immune receptors results in effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Despite the large variations in the magnitude and duration of immune responses triggered by different PAMPs or pathogen effectors during PTI and ETI, plasma membrane-localized immune receptors activate similar downstream molecular events such as mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, oxidative burst, ion influx, and increased biosynthesis of plant defense hormones, indicating that defense signals initiated at the plasma membrane converge at later points. On the other hand, activation of ETI by immune receptors localized to the nucleus appears to be more directly associated with transcriptional regulation of defense gene expression. Here, we review recent progress in signal transductions downstream of different groups of plant immune receptors, highlighting the converging and diverging molecular events.

  10. The Effects of Natural Chinese Medicine Aconite Root, Dried Ginger Rhizome, and Coptis on Rectal and Skin Temperatures at Acupuncture Points

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Wang, Min; Jin, Yi-Xi; Zhang, Shu-Jing; Wu, Meng-Yao

    2017-01-01

    The 4 properties of Chinese materia medica refer to cold, hot, warm, and cool. In the present study, the effects of the Coptis, the prepared aconite root, and dried ginger rhizome were compared with regard to the rectal and skin temperature changes of the related body surface acupuncture points (Dazhui, Zhiyang, Mingmen, Zhongwan, and Shenque). The investigation aimed to explore the thermal sensitive points, which can reflect the cold and hot properties of the Chinese herbs. This study showed that the prepared aconite root and dried ginger rhizome exhibited a warming effect on the body temperature, whereas the warming sensitive points were Zhongwan, Shenque, Dazhui, and Zhiyang. Coptis exhibited both a warming and a cooling effect on the body temperature, and the cooling sensitive point was Dazhui. The concomitant effect of these three Chinese herbs on the regulation of the body temperature was reflected by Dazhui. However, there are still some limitations and one-sidedness. For instance, the cold and hot property of some herbs cannot be fully reflected through relevant acupoints on the conception and governor vessels. More detecting sites such as ears and internal organs will be selected for further exploration of Chinese herbs' cold and hot property. PMID:29259648

  11. Myofascial Trigger Points Then and Now: A Historical and Scientific Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jay P.; Thaker, Nikki; Heimur, Juliana; Aredo, Jacqueline V.; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Gerber, Lynn H.

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to discuss the evolving role of the myofascial trigger point (MTrP) in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) from both a historical and scientific perspective. MTrPs are hard, discrete, palpable nodules in a taut band of skeletal muscle that may be spontaneously painful (i.e. active), or painful only on compression (i.e. latent). MPS is a term used to describe a pain condition which can be acute or, more commonly, chronic and involves the muscle and its surrounding connective tissue (e.g. fascia). According to Travell and Simons, MTrPs are central to the syndrome—but are they necessary? Although the clinical study of muscle pain and MTrPs has proliferated over the past two centuries, the scientific literature often seems disjointed and confusing. Unfortunately, much of the terminology, theories, concepts, and diagnostic criteria are inconsistent, incomplete, or controversial. In order to address these deficiencies, investigators have recently applied clinical, imaging (of skeletal muscle and brain), and biochemical analyses to systematically and objectively study the MTrP and its role in MPS. Data suggest that the soft tissue milieu around the MTrP, neurogenic inflammation, sensitization, and limbic system dysfunction may all play a role in the initiation, amplification, and perpetuation of MPS. The authors will chronicle the advances that have led to the current understanding of MTrP pathophysiology and its relationship to MPS, and review the contributions of clinicians and researchers who have influenced and expanded our contemporary level of clinical knowledge and practice. PMID:25724849

  12. Kinesio taping and manual pressure release: Short-term effects in subjects with myofasical trigger point.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yu Wen; Lin, Jiu Jenq; Yang, Jing Lan; Wang, Wendy Tzyy-Jiuan

    2016-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial. Myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and fascia tenderness. We investigated the effects of manual pressure release (MPR) alone or in combination with taping (MPR/MKT) in subjects with MTrPs. Fifteen and 16 subjects received MPR and MPR/MKT respectively. Outcomes including Pressure pain threshold, muscle stiffness, mechanomyography were assessed at baseline, post-intervention and 7-days later. Pressure pain threshold improved significantly (d = 1.79, p < 0.005) in both groups. Significant improvement in muscle stiffness in the MPR/MKT group (0.27-0.49 mm) as compared to the MPR group (-0.02-0.23 mm). Mechanomyography amplitude in the MPR/MKT group was significantly higher than that of the MPR group (p < 0.05). MPR and MPR/MKT are effective in reducing pain in these subjects. MPR/MKT has a greater effect on muscle stiffness and contraction amplitude. IV. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The consecutive dry days to trigger rainfall over West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    In order to resolve contradictions in addressing a soil moisture-precipitation feedback mechanism over West Africa and to clarify the impact of antecedent soil moisture on subsequent rainfall evolution, we first validated various data sets (SMOS satellite soil moisture observations, NOAH land surface model, TRMM rainfall, CMORPH rainfall and HadGEM climate models) with the Analyses Multidisciplinaires de la Mousson Africaine (AMMA) field campaign data. Based on this analysis, it was suggested that biases of data sets might cause contradictions in studying mechanisms. Thus, by taking into account uncertainties in data, it was found that the approach of consecutive dry days (i.e. a relative comparison of time-series) showed consistency across various data sets, while the direct comparison approach for soil moisture state and rainfall did not. Thus, it was discussed that it may be difficult to directly relate rain with soil moisture as the absolute value, however, it may be reasonable to compare a temporal progress of the variables. Based upon the results consistently showing a positive relationship between the consecutive dry days and rainfall, this study supports a negative feedback often neglected by climate model structure. This approach is less sensitive to interpretation errors arising from systematic errors in data sets, as this measures a temporal gradient of soil moisture state.

  14. Eclogitization of dry granulite triggers deep crustal seismicity in Southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Feng; Wang, Yanbin; Yu, Tony; Zhu, Lupei; Gasc, Julien; Zhang, Junfeng; Jin, Zhenmin

    2017-04-01

    Intermediate-depth earthquakes (IDEQs) occur at focal depths from about 50 km to 300 km. Their physical mechanism has been enigmatic, because as pressure and temperature increase with depth, brittle failure should be suppressed, and rocks tend to flow plastically. IDEQs have been recorded down to depths of 80 - 100 km in Southern Tibet, where the lower crust is considered hot and dry [1]. It is questionable whether such seismicity can be produced by unassisted brittle shear fracture or frictional sliding. Pseudotachylytes that formed under conditions corresponding to the eclogitic facies are ubiquitously observed in western Norway [2], demonstrating that faulting took place in granulite, which is the main constituent of lower continental crust at pressures approaching 3 GPa. These observations suggest strongly that eclogitization is potentially involved in the seismicity in the deep continental crust. Here we conduct deformation experiments on natural and nominally dry granulite in a deformation-DIA (DDIA) apparatus and Griggs apparatus within the thermal stability fields of both granulite and eclogite, to investigate the mechanism of intermediate earthquake. The D-DIA, installed at the synchrotron beamline of GSECARS, is interfaced with an acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system, allowing in-situ detection of mechanical instability along with the progress of eclogitization based on x-ray diffraction. We found that granulite deformed within its own stability field (< 2 GPa and 1000°C) behaved in a ductile fashion without any AE activity. Unstable fault slip, on the other hand, occurred during deformation of metastable granulite in the eclogite field above 2 GPa. Numerous AE events were observed. Microstructural observation on recovered samples shows conjugated macroscopic faults. Strain is highly localized along the fault, and microcracks observed along grain boundary likely involve with eclogitization products. The fault zones consist of fine- grained (<< 1

  15. Myofascial trigger point-focused head and neck massage for recurrent tension-type headache: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Moraska, Albert F.; Stenerson, Lea; Butryn, Nathan; Krutsch, Jason P.; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Mann, J. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are focal disruptions in skeletal muscle that can refer pain to the head and reproduce the pain patterns of tension-type headache (TTH). The present study applied massage focused on MTrPs of subjects with TTH in a placebo-controlled, clinical trial to assess efficacy on reducing headache pain. Methods Fifty-six subjects with TTH were randomized to receive 12 massage or placebo (detuned ultrasound) sessions over six weeks, or to wait-list. Trigger point release (TPR) massage focused on MTrPs in cervical musculature. Headache pain (frequency, intensity and duration) was recorded in a daily headache diary. Additional outcome measures included self-report of perceived clinical change in headache pain and pressure-pain threshold (PPT) at MTrPs in the upper trapezius and sub-occipital muscles. Results From diary recordings, group differences across time were detected in headache frequency (p=0.026), but not for intensity or duration. Post hoc analysis indicated headache frequency decreased from baseline for both massage (p<0.0003) and placebo (p=0.013), but no difference was detected between massage and placebo. Subject report of perceived clinical change was a greater reduction in headache pain for massage than placebo or wait-list groups (p=0.002). PPT improved in all muscles tested for massage only (all p's<0.002). Discussion Two findings from this study are apparent: 1) MTrPs are important components in the treatment of TTH, and 2) TTH, like other chronic conditions, is responsive to placebo. Clinical trials on headache that do not include a placebo group are at risk for overestimating the specific contribution from the active intervention. PMID:25329141

  16. Myofascial trigger point-focused head and neck massage for recurrent tension-type headache: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Moraska, Albert F; Stenerson, Lea; Butryn, Nathan; Krutsch, Jason P; Schmiege, Sarah J; Mann, John D

    2015-02-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are focal disruptions in the skeletal muscle that can refer pain to the head and reproduce the pain patterns of tension-type HA (TTH). The present study applied massage focused on MTrPs of patients with TTH in a placebo-controlled, clinical trial to assess efficacy on reducing headache (HA) pain. Fifty-six patients with TTH were randomized to receive 12 massage or placebo (detuned ultrasound) sessions over 6 weeks, or to wait-list. Trigger point release massage focused on MTrPs in cervical musculature. HA pain (frequency, intensity, and duration) was recorded in a daily HA diary. Additional outcome measures included self-report of perceived clinical change in HA pain and pressure-pain threshold at MTrPs in the upper trapezius and suboccipital muscles. From diary recordings, group differences across time were detected in HA frequency (P=0.026), but not for intensity or duration. Post hoc analysis indicated that HA frequency decreased from baseline for both massage (P<0.0003) and placebo (P=0.013), but no difference was detected between massage and placebo. Patient report of perceived clinical change was greater reduction in HA pain for massage than placebo or wait-list groups (P=0.002). Pressure-pain threshold improved in all muscles tested for massage only (all P's<0.002). Two findings from this study are apparent: (1) MTrPs are important components in the treatment of TTH, and (2) TTH, like other chronic conditions, is responsive to placebo. Clinical trials on HA that do not include a placebo group are at risk for overestimating the specific contribution from the active intervention.

  17. Comparison of the Efficacy of Dry Needling and High-Power Pain Threshold Ultrasound Therapy with Clinical Status and Sonoelastography in Myofascial Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aridici, Rifat; Yetisgin, Alparslan; Boyaci, Ahmet; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Bozdogan, Erol; Sen Dokumaci, Dilek; Kilicaslan, Nihat; Boyaci, Nurefsan

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of high-power pain threshold (HPPT) ultrasound therapy applied to the trigger points and dry needling (DN) in myofascial pain syndrome. Sixty-one patients were randomly assigned to an HPPT (n = 30) and dry needling (n = 31) groups. The primary outcome measures were the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPDS), both at 1 week and 4 weeks after treatment. The secondary outcome measures were the number of painful trigger points, range of the tragus-acromioclavicular joint, the Short Form-36, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and sonoelastographic tests after a 1-week treatment. More improvement was seen in anxiety in the HPPT group (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were found between the groups with regard to other parameters (P > 0.05). A decrease in tissue stiffness was only seen in the HPPT group (P < 0.05). Significant posttreatment improvements were seen on all clinical scales in both groups (P < 0.05). After a treatment period of 4 weeks, a significant improvement was also observed on the visual analog scale and NPDS (P < 0.05). Our study favors the efficacy of both treatment methods in myofascial pain syndrome. Although a significant decrease was shown in tissue stiffness with HPPT, neither of these treatments had an apparent superiority.

  18. Evidence for the use of dry needling and physiotherapy in the management of cervicogenic or tension-type headache: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    France, Stacey; Bown, Jenna; Nowosilskyj, Matthew; Mott, Megan; Rand, Stephanie; Walters, Julie

    2014-10-01

    There is good evidence in the literature supporting physiotherapy in the management of some forms of headache. Dry needling of myofascial trigger points is becoming an increasingly common approach despite a paucity of research evidence supporting its use. The purpose of this review was to determine the evidence supporting the use of dry needling in addition to conventional physiotherapy in the management of tension-type and cervicogenic headache. Ten databases were searched for evidence of the effect of dry needling on the severity and frequency of tension and cervicogenic headache based ICHD classifications. Three relevant studies were identified and all three showed statistically significant improvements following dry needling, but no significant differences between groups. Only one study reported on headache frequency or intensity, reporting a 45 mm improvement in VAS score following the addition of dry needling to conventional physiotherapy. Two studies showed significant improvements with dry needling over 4-5 weeks of treatment. No adverse events were reported. The literature suggests that while there is insufficient evidence to strongly advocate for the use of dry needling, it may be a useful addition to conventional physiotherapy in headache management. Further research with a stronger methodological design is required. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Triggering Factor of Strong Earthquakes and Its Prediction Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Z. Q.; Ren, S. H.

    After 30 yearsS research, we have found that great earthquakes are triggered by tide- generation force of the moon. ItSs not the tide-generation force in classical view- points, but is a non-classical viewpoint tide-generation force. We call it as TGFR (Tide-Generation ForcesS Resonance). TGFR strongly depends on the tide-generation force at time of the strange astronomical points (SAP). The SAP mostly are when the moon and another celestial body are arranged with the earth along a straight line (with the same apparent right ascension or 180o difference), the other SAP are the turning points of the moonSs relatively motion to the earth. Moreover, TGFR have four different types effective areas. Our study indicates that a majority of earthquakes are triggering by the rare superimposition of TGFRsS effective areas. In China the great earthquakes in the plain area of Hebei Province, Taiwan, Yunnan Province and Sichuan province are trigger by the decompression TGFR; Other earthquakes are trig- gered by compression TGFR which are in Gansu Province, Ningxia Provinces and northwest direction of Beijing. The great earthquakes in Japan, California, southeast of Europe also are triggered by compression of the TGFR. and in the other part of the world like in Philippines, Central America countries, and West Asia, great earthquakes are triggered by decompression TGFR. We have carried out examinational immediate prediction cooperate TGFR method with other earthquake impending signals such as suggested by Professor Li Junzhi. The successful ratio is about 40%(from our fore- cast reports to the China Seismological Administration). Thus we could say the great earthquake can be predicted (include immediate earthquake prediction). Key words: imminent prediction; triggering factor; TGFR (Tide-Generation ForcesS Resonance); TGFR compression; TGFR compression zone; TGFR decompression; TGFR decom- pression zone

  20. Evolution of the methodological quality of controlled clinical trials for myofascial trigger point treatments for the period 1978-2015: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stoop, Rahel; Clijsen, Ron; Leoni, Diego; Soldini, Emiliano; Castellini, Greta; Redaelli, Valentina; Barbero, Marco

    2017-08-01

    The methodological quality of controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of physiotherapeutic treatment modalities for myofascial trigger points (MTrP) has not been investigated yet. To detect the methodological quality of CCTs for physiotherapy treatments of MTrPs and demonstrating the possible increase over time. Systematic review. A systematic search was conducted in two databases, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Medicine Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System online (MEDLINE), using the same keywords and selection procedure corresponding to pre-defined inclusion criteria. The methodological quality, assessed by the 11-item PEDro scale, served as outcome measure. The CCTs had to compare at least two interventions, where one intervention had to lay within the scope of physiotherapy. Participants had to be diagnosed with myofascial pain syndrome or trigger points (active or latent). A total of n = 230 studies was analysed. The cervico-thoracic region was the most frequently treated body part (n = 143). Electrophysical agent applications was the most frequent intervention. The average methodological quality reached 5.5 on the PEDro scale. A total of n = 6 studies scored the value of 9. The average PEDro score increased by 0.7 points per decade between 1978 and 2015. The average PEDro score of CCTs for MTrP treatments does not reach the cut-off of 6 proposed for moderate to high methodological quality. Nevertheless, a promising trend towards an increase of the average methodological quality of CCTs for MTrPs was recorded. More high-quality CCT studies with thorough research procedures are recommended to enhance methodological quality. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Dry needling for the management of thoracic spine pain

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Layton, Michelle; Dommerholt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic spine pain is as disabling as neck and low back pain without receiving the same level of attention in the scientific literature. Among the different structures that can refer pain to the thoracic spine, muscles often play a relevant role. Trigger points (TrPs) from neck, shoulder and spinal muscles can induce pain in the region of the thoracic spine. There is a lack of evidence reporting the presence of TrPs in the region of the thoracic spine, but clinical evidence suggests that TrPs can be a potential source of thoracic spine pain. The current paper discusses the role of TrPs in the thoracic spine and dry needling (DN) for the management of TrPs in the thoracic multifidi and longissimus thoracis. This paper also includes a brief discussion of the application of DN in other tissues such as tendons, ligaments and scars. PMID:26309385

  2. Customized Interactive Robotic Treatment for Stroke: EMG-Triggered Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dipietro, Laura; Ferraro, Mark; Palazzolo, Jerome Joseph; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Volpe, Bruce T.; Hogan, Neville

    2009-01-01

    A system for electromyographic (EMG) triggering of robot-assisted therapy (dubbed the EMG game) for stroke patients is presented. The onset of a patient’s attempt to move is detected by monitoring EMG in selected muscles, whereupon the robot assists her or him to perform point-to-point movements in a horizontal plane. Besides delivering customized robot-assisted therapy, the system can record signals that may be useful to better understand the process of recovery from stroke. Preliminary experiments aimed at testing the proposed system and gaining insight into the potential of EMG-triggered, robot-assisted therapy are reported. PMID:16200756

  3. Nonlinear electric reaction arising in dry bone subjected to 4-point bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murasawa, Go; Cho, Hideo; Ogawa, Kazuma

    2007-04-01

    Bone is a smart, self-adaptive and also partly self-repairing tissue. In recent years, many researchers seek to find how to give the effective mechanical stimulation to bone, because it is the predominant loading that determines the bone shape and macroscopic structure. However, the trial of regeneration of bone is still under way. On the other hand, it has been known that electrical potential generates from bone by mechanical stimulation (Yasuda, 1977; Williams, 1982; Starkebaum, 1979; Cochran, 1968; Lanyon, 1977; Salzstein, 1987a,b; Friedenberg, 1966). This is called "stress-generated potential (SGP)". The process of information transfer between "strain" and "cells" is not still clear. But, there is some possibility that SGP has something to do with the process of information transfer. If the electrical potential is more clear under some mechanical loadings, we will be able to regenerate bone artificially and freely. Therefore, it is important to investigate SGP in detail. The aim of present study is to investigate the electric reaction arising in dry bone subjected to mechanical loadings at high amplitude and low frequency strain. Firstly, specimen is fabricated from femur of cow. Next, the speeds of wave propagation in bone are tried to measure by laser ultra sonic technique and wavelet transform, because these have relationship with bone density. Secondary, 4-point bending test is conducted up to fracture. Then, electric reaction arising in bone is measured during loading. Finally, cyclic 4-point bending tests are conducted to investigate the electric reaction arising in bone at low frequency strain.

  4. Novel Applications of Ultrasound Technology to Visualize and Characterize Myofascial Trigger Points and Surrounding Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sikdar, Siddhartha; Shah, Jay P.; Gebreab, Tadesse; Yen, Ru-Huey; Gilliams, Elizabeth; Danoff, Jerome; Gerber, Lynn H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Apply ultrasound (US) imaging techniques to better describe the characteristics of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and the immediately adjacent soft tissue. Design Descriptive (exploratory) study. Setting Biomedical research center. Participants 9 subjects meeting Travell and Simons’s criteria for MTrPs in a taut band in the upper trapezius. Interventions (None) Main Outcome Measures MTrPs were evaluated by 1) physical examination, 2) pressure algometry, and 3) three types of ultrasound imaging including grayscale (2D US), vibration sonoelastography (VSE), and Doppler. Methods Four sites in each patient were labeled based on physical examination as either active MTrP (spontaneously-painful, A-MTrP), latent MTrP (non-painful, L-MTrP), or normal myofascial tissue. US examination was performed on each subject by a team blinded to the physical findings. A 12-5 MHz US transducer was used. VSE was performed by color Doppler variance imaging while simultaneously inducing vibrations (~92Hz) with a handheld massage vibrator. Each site was assigned a tissue imaging score (TIS) as follows: 0 = uniform echogenicity and stiffness; 1 = focal hypoechoic region with stiff nodule; 2 = multiple hypoechoic regions with stiff nodules. Blood flow in the neighborhood of MTrPs was assessed using Doppler imaging. Each site was assigned a blood flow waveform score (BFS) as follows: 0 = normal arterial flow in muscle; 1 = elevated diastolic flow; 2 = high-resistance flow waveform with retrograde diastolic flow. Results MTrPs appeared as focal, hypoechoic regions on 2D US, indicating local changes in tissue echogenicity, and as focal regions of reduced vibration amplitude on VSE, indicating a localized stiff nodule. MTrPs were elliptical in shape, with a size of 0.16 ± 0.11 cm2. There were no significant differences in size between A-MTrPs and L-MTrPs. Sites containing MTrPs were more likely to have higher TIS compared to normal myofascial tissue (p<0.002). Small arteries (or

  5. Air drying of softwood lumber, Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Treesearch

    George R Sampson; Forrest A. Ruppert

    1985-01-01

    Air-drying rates for two stacks of 2-inch-thick white spruce were observed in the Fairbanks area during summer 1982. The air-drying rate for the same size lumber was also observed during winter 1982-83. Very little drying occurred during the winter. Drying rates in summer were correlated with average daily temperature and average daily dew point to derive predictive...

  6. Acoustically induced slip in sheared granular layers: Application to dynamic earthquake triggering: TRIGGERED SLIP IN SHEARED GRANULAR GOUGE

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ferdowsi, Behrooz; Griffa, Michele; Guyer, Robert A.

    A fundamental mystery in earthquake physics is “how can an earthquake be triggered by distant seismic sources?” We use discrete element method simulations of a granular layer, during stick slip, that is subject to transient vibrational excitation to gain further insight into the physics of dynamic earthquake triggering. We also observe delayed triggering of slip in the granular gouge, using Coulomb friction law for grains interaction. We find that at a critical vibrational amplitude (strain) there is an abrupt transition from negligible time-advanced slip (clock advance) to full clock advance; i.e., transient vibration and triggered slip are simultaneous. Moreover, themore » critical strain is of order 10 -6, similar to observations in the laboratory and in Earth. The transition is related to frictional weakening of the granular layer due to a dramatic decrease in coordination number and the weakening of the contact force network. Associated with this frictional weakening is a pronounced decrease in the elastic modulus of the layer. The study has important implications for mechanisms of triggered earthquakes and induced seismic events and points out the underlying processes in response of the fault gouge to dynamic transient stresses.« less

  7. Acoustically induced slip in sheared granular layers: Application to dynamic earthquake triggering: TRIGGERED SLIP IN SHEARED GRANULAR GOUGE

    DOE PAGES

    Ferdowsi, Behrooz; Griffa, Michele; Guyer, Robert A.; ...

    2015-11-19

    A fundamental mystery in earthquake physics is “how can an earthquake be triggered by distant seismic sources?” We use discrete element method simulations of a granular layer, during stick slip, that is subject to transient vibrational excitation to gain further insight into the physics of dynamic earthquake triggering. We also observe delayed triggering of slip in the granular gouge, using Coulomb friction law for grains interaction. We find that at a critical vibrational amplitude (strain) there is an abrupt transition from negligible time-advanced slip (clock advance) to full clock advance; i.e., transient vibration and triggered slip are simultaneous. Moreover, themore » critical strain is of order 10 -6, similar to observations in the laboratory and in Earth. The transition is related to frictional weakening of the granular layer due to a dramatic decrease in coordination number and the weakening of the contact force network. Associated with this frictional weakening is a pronounced decrease in the elastic modulus of the layer. The study has important implications for mechanisms of triggered earthquakes and induced seismic events and points out the underlying processes in response of the fault gouge to dynamic transient stresses.« less

  8. Point-of-injury Use of Reconstituted Freeze Dried Plasma as a Resuscitative Fluid: A Special Report for Prehospital Trauma Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Point-of-injury use of reconstituted freeze dried plasma as a resuscitative fluid: A special report for prehospital trauma care Elon Glassberg, MD...in- jury as part of the multidisciplinary efforts to improve trauma victims’ outcome. BACKGROUND Trauma is the leading cause of death among adults be...diabetes.1 Managing the burden of injuries from decades of wars has underscored the importance of trauma research aimed at reducing morbidity and

  9. Dynamic Pointing Triggers Shifts of Visual Attention in Young Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Longo, Matthew R.; Bertenthal, Bennett I.

    2012-01-01

    Pointing, like eye gaze, is a deictic gesture that can be used to orient the attention of another person towards an object or an event. Previous research suggests that infants first begin to follow a pointing gesture between 10 and 13 months of age. We investigated whether sensitivity to pointing could be seen at younger ages employing a technique…

  10. Compact dry chemistry instruments.

    PubMed

    Terashima, K; Tatsumi, N

    1999-01-01

    Compact dry chemistry instruments are designed for use in point-of-care-testing (POCT). These instruments have a number of advantages, including light weight, compactness, ease of operation, and the ability to provide accurate results in a short time with a very small sample volume. On the other hand, reagent costs are high compared to liquid method. Moreover, differences in accuracy have been found between dry chemistry and the liquid method in external quality assessment scheme. This report examines reagent costs and shows how the total running costs associated with dry chemistry are actually lower than those associated with the liquid method. This report also describes methods for minimizing differences in accuracy between dry chemistry and the liquid method. Use of these measures is expected to increase the effectiveness of compact dry chemistry instruments in POCT applications.

  11. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MATSUSHITA, Takashi; CMS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41 fb-1 with a peak luminosity of 1.5 × 1034 cm-2s-1 and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implementation of more algorithms at a time than previously possible, allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the available trigger bandwidth. Algorithms for a trigger menu, including topological requirements on multi-objects, can be realised in the Global Trigger using the newly developed trigger menu specification grammar. Analysis-like trigger algorithms can be represented in an intuitive manner and the algorithms are translated to corresponding VHDL code blocks to build a firmware. The grammar can be extended in future as the needs arise. The experience of implementing trigger menus on the upgraded Global Trigger system will be presented.

  12. Objective measurement of tissue tension in myofascial trigger point areas before and during the administration of anesthesia with complete blocking of neuromuscular transmission.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Johannes; Neustadt, Beate; Buchmann-Barthel, Katharina; Rudolph, Soeren; Klauer, Thomas; Reis, Olaf; Smolenski, Ulrich; Buchmann, Hella; Wagner, Klaus F; Haessler, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTPs) are extremely frequent in the human musculoskeletal system. Despite this, little is known about their etiology. Increased muscular tension in the trigger point area could be a major factor for the development of MTPs. To investigate the impact of muscular tension in the taut band with an MTP and thereby, the spinal excitability of associated segmental neurons, we objectively measured the tissue tension in MTPs before and during the administration of anesthesia using a transducer. Three target muscles (m. temporalis, upper part of m. trapezius, and m. extensor carpi radialis longus) with an MTP and 1 control muscle without an MTP were examined in 62 patients scheduled for an operation. We found significant 2-way interactions (ANOVA, P<0.05) between the analyzed regions of the target muscles dependent on the time of measurement, that is, before and during a complete blocking of neuromuscular transmission. These effects could be demonstrated for each target muscle separately. An increased muscle tension in MTPs, and not a primary local inflammation with enhanced viscoelasticity, was the main result of our investigation. We interpret this increased muscular tension in the taut band with an MTP as increased spinal segmental excitability. In line with this, we assume a predominant, but not unique, impact of increased spinal excitability resulting in an augmented tension of segmental-associated muscle fibers for the etiology of MTP. Consequently, postisometric relaxation might be a promising therapeutic option for MTPs.

  13. Firearm trigger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  14. Utilization of lime-dried sludge for eco-cement clinker production: effects of different feeding points.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haihua; Liu, Wei; Xu, Jingcheng; Liu, Jia; Huang, Juwen; Huang, Xiangfeng; Li, Guangming

    2018-02-01

    Co-processing lime-dried sludge (LDS) in cement kilns is an appropriate technique to solve the problem of LDS disposal and promote the sustainable development for cement industry. However, there were limited studies that investigated the effects of feeding points on product quality and cement kiln emissions. In this study, simulated experiments were conducted by dividing the feeding points into high-temperature zones (HTZs) and raw mill (RM). Cement quality and major cement kiln emission characteristics were comprehensively investigated. The results showed that in terms of burnability, compressive strength and microstructure, the optimum co-processing amount of LDS were 9 wt% when feeding at RM, while 6% when feeding at HTZs. Meanwhile, the organic emissions of RM samples were mainly low environmental risk compounds of amides and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds. Inorganic gaseous pollutions of NO X and SO 2 , respectively, were 8.11 mg/g DS and 12.89 mg/g DS, compared with 7.61 mg/g DS and 4.44 mg/g DS for HTZs. However, all the cement kiln emissions concentration were still much lower than standard requirements. Overall, RM had a bigger LDS co-processing capacity and higher, but acceptable, cement kiln emissions. Feeding LDS via RM could dispose larger amounts of sludge and provide more alternative materials for cement manufacturing.

  15. Advancements in anti-inflammatory therapy for dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Erin; Narayanan, Srihari

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this literature review is to discuss recent discoveries in the pathophysiology of dry eye and the subsequent evolution of diagnostic and management techniques. The mechanisms of various anti-inflammatory treatments are reviewed, and the efficacy of common pharmacologic agents is assessed. Anti-inflammatory therapy is evaluated in terms of its primary indications, target population, and utility within a clinical setting. The Medline PubMed database and the World Wide Web were searched for current information regarding dry eye prevalence, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. After an analysis of the literature, major concepts were integrated to generate an updated portrayal of the status of dry eye syndrome. Inflammation appears to play a key role in perpetuating and sustaining dry eye. Discoveries of inflammatory markers found within the corneal and conjunctival epithelium of dry eye patients have triggered recent advancements in therapy. Pharmacologic anti-inflammatory therapy for dry eye includes 2 major categories: corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents. Fatty acid and androgen supplementation and oral antibiotics have also shown promise in dry eye therapy because of their anti-inflammatory effects. Anti-inflammatory pharmacologic agents have shown great success in patients with moderate to severe dry eye when compared with alternative treatment modalities. A deeper understanding of the link between inflammation and dry eye validates the utilization of anti-inflammatory therapy in everyday optometric practice.

  16. LHCb detector and trigger performance in Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesca, Dordei

    2017-12-01

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the LHC, designed to perform high precision studies of b- and c- hadrons. In Run II of the LHC, a new scheme for the software trigger at LHCb allows splitting the triggering of events into two stages, giving room to perform the alignment and calibration in real time. In the novel detector alignment and calibration strategy for Run II, data collected at the start of the fill are processed in a few minutes and used to update the alignment, while the calibration constants are evaluated for each run. This allows identical constants to be used in the online and offline reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and offline selected events. The required computing time constraints are met thanks to a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger. The larger timing budget, available in the trigger, allows to perform the same track reconstruction online and offline. This enables LHCb to achieve the best reconstruction performance already in the trigger, and allows physics analyses to be performed directly on the data produced by the trigger reconstruction. The novel real-time processing strategy at LHCb is discussed from both the technical and operational point of view. The overall performance of the LHCb detector on the data of Run II is presented as well.

  17. Validity and Reliability of Clinical Examination in the Diagnosis of Myofascial Pain Syndrome and Myofascial Trigger Points in Upper Quarter Muscles.

    PubMed

    Mayoral Del Moral, Orlando; Torres Lacomba, María; Russell, I Jon; Sánchez Méndez, Óscar; Sánchez Sánchez, Beatriz

    2017-12-15

    To determine whether two independent examiners can agree on a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). To evaluate interexaminer reliability in identifying myofascial trigger points in upper quarter muscles. To evaluate the reliability of clinical diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of MPS. To evaluate the validity of clinical diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of MPS. Validity and reliability study. Provincial Hospital. Toledo, Spain. Twenty myofascial pain syndrome patients and 20 healthy, normal control subjects, enrolled by a trained and experienced examiner. Ten bilateral muscles from the upper quarter were evaluated by two experienced examiners. The second examiner was blinded to the diagnosis group. The MPS diagnosis required at least one muscle to have an active myofascial trigger point. Three to four days separated the two examinations. The primary outcome measure was the frequency with which the two examiners agreed on the classification of the subjects as patients or as healthy controls. The kappa statistic (K) was used to determine the level of agreement between both examinations, interpreted as very good (0.81-1.00), good (0.61-0.80), moderate (0.41-0.60), fair (0.21-0.40), or poor (≤0.20). Interexaminer reliability for identifying subjects with MPS was very good (K = 1.0). Interexaminer reliability for identifying muscles leading to a diagnosis of MPS was also very good (K = 0.81). Sensitivity and specificity showed high values for most examination tests in all muscles, which confirms the validity of clinical diagnostic criteria in the diagnosis of MPS. Interrater reliability between two expert examiners identifying subjects with MPS involving upper quarter muscles exhibited substantial agreement. These results suggest that clinical criteria can be valid and reliable in the diagnosis of this condition. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Dynamic triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stresses propagating as seismic waves from large earthquakes trigger a spectrum of responses at global distances. In addition to locally triggered earthquakes in a variety of tectonic environments, dynamic stresses trigger tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor in the brittle–plastic transition zone along major plate-boundary faults, activity changes in hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and, in hydrologic domains, changes in spring discharge, water well levels, soil liquefaction, and the eruption of mud volcanoes. Surface waves with periods of 15–200 s are the most effective triggering agents; body-wave trigger is less frequent. Triggering dynamic stresses can be < 1 kPa.

  19. Meteorological conditions for the triggering of landslides in Asturias (NW Spain). A preliminary analysis of synoptic patterns.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Pablo; Iglesias, Miguel; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Mora García, Manuel Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Asturias is one of the most landslide prone areas in the NW of Spain, where those phenomena cause every year large economic loses and sometimes personal injuries or fatalities. Most of landslides take place during intense rainfall events, which point out precipitation as the main triggering factor. Regional climate is characterized by average annual precipitation and temperature of 960 mm and 13.3°C respectively. Rainfall distribution throughout the year allows the definition of a humid period between October and May, characterized by the succession of frontal systems, and a considerable dry period between June and September, when heavy short storm episodes are usual. BAPA landslide database (http://geol.uniovi.es/BAPA) gathers more than 500 landslide records located with high temporal reliability for eight hydrological years between October 2008 and September 2016. Eight periods with a high concentration of landslides and significant precipitation records have been selected for the study within this time span. Meteorological conditions which took place during each period have been characterized by using data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the EEUU (NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis 1) through the free software Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS). Seven parameters have been used to characterize each synoptic situation: (i) 500 hPa temperature, (ii) 500 hPa geopotential height, (iii) 850 hPa temperature, (iv) 850 hPa geopotential height, (v) 925hPa wind, (vi) specific humidity, and (vii) sea level pressure. The final goal is to establish a conceptual model of the most frequent synoptic meteorological patterns which generate rainfall-triggered landslide events in Asturias during the humid and dry periods.

  20. A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruytenberg, T.; Webb, A. G.; Beenakker, J. W. M.

    2014-10-01

    Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points.

  1. SU-E-J-141: Assessment of the Magnitude and Impact of Trigger Delay in Respiratory Triggered Real-Time Imaging during Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Duan, J; Shen, S; Popple, R; Wu, X; Cardan, R; Brezovich, I

    2012-06-01

    To assess the trigger delay in respiratory triggered real-time imaging and its impact on image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) with Varian TrueBeam System. A sinusoidal motion phantom with 2cm motion amplitude was used. The trigger delay was determined directly with video image, and indirectly by the distance between expected and actual triggering phantom positions. For the direct method, a fluorescent screen was placed on the phantom to visualize the x-ray. The motion of the screen was recorded at 60 frames/second. The number of frames between the time when the phantom reached expected triggering position and the time when the screen was illuminated by the x-ray was used to determine the trigger delay. In the indirect method, triggered kV x-ray images were acquired in real-time during 'treatment' with triggers set at 25% and 75% respiratory phases where the phantom moved at the maximum speed. 39-40 triggered images were acquired continuously in each series. The distance between the expected and actual triggering points, d, was measured on the images to determine the delay time t by d=Asin(wt), where w=2π/T, T=period and A=amplitude. Motion periods of 2s and 4s were used in the measurement. The trigger delay time determined with direct video imaging was 125ms (7.5 video frames). The average distance between the expected and actual triggering positions determined by the indirect method was 3.93±0.74mm for T=4s and 7.02±1.25mm for T=2s, yielding mean trigger delay times of 126±24ms and 120±22ms, respectively. Although the mean over-travel distance is significant at 25% and 75% phases, clinically, the target over-travel resulted from the trigger delay at the end of expiration (50% phase) is negligibly small(< 0.5mm). The trigger delay in respiration-triggered imaging is in the range of 120-126ms. This delay has negligible clinical effect on gated IGRT. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Preservation of flavor in freeze dried green beans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Davis, D.

    1973-01-01

    Before freeze drying, green beans are heated to point at which their cell structure is altered. Beans freeze dried with altered cell structure have improved rehydration properties and retain color, flavor, and texture.

  3. PERTINENT DRY NEEDLING CONSIDERATIONS FOR MINIMIZING ADVERSE EFFECTS – PART ONE

    PubMed Central

    Halle, Rob J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Dry needling is an evidence-based treatment technique that is accepted and used by physical therapists in the United States. This treatment approach focuses on releasing or inactivating muscular trigger points to decrease pain, reduce muscle tension, and assist patients with an accelerated return to active rehabilitation. Issue While commonly used, the technique has some patient risk and value of the treatment should be based on benefit compared to the potential risk. Adverse effects (AEs) with dry needling can be mild or severe, with overall incidence rates varying from zero to rates of approximately 10 percent. While mild AEs are the rule, any procedure that involves a needle insertion has the potential for an AE, with select regions and the underlying anatomy increasing the risk. Known significant AEs from small diameter needle insertion include pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, hematoma, infection, central nervous system injury, and other complications. Purpose/Objective Underlying anatomy across individuals has variability, requiring an in-depth knowledge of anatomy prior to any needle placement. This commentary is an overview of pertinent anatomy in the region of the thorax, with a ‘part two’ that addresses the abdomen, pelvis, back, vasovagal response, informed consent and other pertinent issues. The purpose of the commentary is to minimize the risk of a dry needling AE. Conclusions/Implications Dry needling is an effective adjunct treatment procedure that is within the recognized scope of physical therapy practice. Physical therapy education and training provides practitioners with the anatomy, basic sciences, and clinical foundation to use this intervention safely and effectively. A safe and evidenced-based implementation of the procedure is based on a thorough understanding of the underlying anatomy and the potential risks, with risks coordinated with patients via informed consent. Levels of Evidence Level 5 PMID:27525188

  4. Antiviral immune responses: triggers of or triggered by autoimmunity?

    PubMed Central

    Münz, Christian; Lünemann, Jan D.; Getts, Meghann Teague; Miller, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Several common autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and multiple sclerosis, are genetically linked to distinct human MHC class II molecules and other immune modulators. However, genetic predisposition is only one risk factor for the development of these diseases, and low concordance rates in monozygotic twins as well as geographical distribution of disease risk point towards environmental factors in the genesis of these diseases. Among these environmental factors, infections have been implicated in the onset and/or promotion of autoimmunity. In this review, we outline mechanisms by which pathogens can trigger autoimmune disease, and also pathways by which infection and immune control of infectious disease might be dysregulated during autoimmunity. PMID:19319143

  5. Predictors of upper trapezius pain with myofascial trigger points in food service workers

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ui-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Ha, Sung-Min

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Shoulder pain occurs commonly in food service workers (FSWs) who repetitively perform motions of the upper limbs. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) on the upper trapezius (UT) are among the most common musculoskeletal shoulder pain syndromes. This study determined the psychological, posture, mobility, and strength factors associated with pain severity in FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs. In this cross-sectional study, we measured 17 variables in 163 FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs: a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, age, sex, Borg rating of perceived exertion (BRPE) scale, beck depression inventory, forward head posture angle, rounded shoulder angle (RSA), shoulder slope angle, scapular downward rotation ratio, cervical lateral-bending side difference angle, cervical rotation side difference angle, glenohumeral internal rotation angle, shoulder horizontal adduction angle, serratus anterior (SA) strength, lower trapezius (LT) strength, bicep strength, and glenohumeral external rotator strength, in 163 FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs. The model for factors influencing UT pain with MTrPs included SA strength, age, BRPE, LT strength, and RSA as predictor variables that accounted for 68.7% of the variance in VAS (P < .001) in multiple regression models with a stepwise selection procedure. The following were independent variables influencing the VAS in the order of standardized coefficients: SA strength (β = −0.380), age (β = 0.287), BRPE (β = 0.239), LT strength (β = −0.195), and RSA (β = 0.125). SA strength, age, BRPE, LT strength, and RSA variables should be considered when evaluating and intervening in UT pain with MTrPs in FSWs. PMID:28658117

  6. Patterns of Use of Peripheral Nerve Blocks and Trigger Point Injections for Pediatric Headache: Results of a survey of the American Headache Society Pediatric & Adolescent Section

    PubMed Central

    Szperka, Christina L.; Gelfand, Amy A.; Hershey, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe current patterns of use of nerve blocks and trigger point injections for treatment of pediatric headache. Background Peripheral nerve blocks are often used to treat headaches in adults and children, but the available studies and practice data from adult headache specialists have shown wide variability in diagnostic indications, sites injected, and medication(s) used. The purpose of this study was to describe current practice patterns in the use of nerve blocks and trigger point injections for pediatric headache disorders. Methods A survey was created in REDCap, and sent via email to the 82 members of the Pediatric & Adolescent Section of the American Headache Society in June 2015. The survey queried about current practice and use of nerve blocks, as well as respondents’ opinions regarding gaps in the evidence for use of nerve blocks in this patient population. Results Forty-one complete, 5 incomplete, and 3 duplicate responses were submitted (response rate complete 50%). Seventy-eight percent of the respondents identified their primary specialty as Child Neurology, and 51% were certified in headache medicine. Twenty-six (63%) respondents perform nerve blocks themselves, and 7 (17%) refer patients to another provider for nerve blocks. Chronic migraine with status migrainosus was the most common indication for nerve blocks (82%), though occipital neuralgia (79%), status migrainosus (73%), chronic migraine without flare (70%), post-traumatic headache (70%), and new daily persistent headache (67%) were also common indications. The most commonly selected clinically meaningful response for status migrainosus was ≥50% reduction in severity, while for chronic migraine this was a ≥50% decrease in frequency at 4 weeks. Respondents inject the following locations: 100% inject the greater occipital nerve, 69% lesser occipital nerve, 50% supraorbital, 46% trigger point injections, 42% auriculotemporal, and 34% supratrochlear. All respondents used

  7. A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Ruytenberg, T; Webb, A G; Beenakker, J W M

    2014-10-01

    Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The trigger system of the JEM-EUSO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaina, M.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Hamada, T.; Ikeda, H.; Kawasai, Y.; Sawabe, T.; Takahashi, Y.; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    The trigger system of JEM-EUSO should face different major challenging points: a) cope with the limited down-link transmission rate from the ISS to Earth, by operating a severe on-board and on-time data reduction; b) use very fast, low power consuming and radiation hard electronics; c) have a high signal-over-noise performance and flexibility in order to lower as much as possible the energy threshold of the detector, adjust the system to a variable nightglow background, and trigger on different categories of events (images insisting on the same pixels or crossing huge portions of the entire focal surface). Based on the above stringent requirements, the main ingredients for the trigger logic are: the Gate Time Unit (GTU); the minimum number Nthresh of photo-electrons piling up in a GTU in a pixel to be fired; the persistency level Npers, in which fired pixels are over threshold; the localization and correlation in space and time of the fired pixels, that distinguish a real EAS from an accidental background enhancement. The core of the trigger logic is the Track Trigger Algorithm that has been specifically developed for this purpose. Its characteristics, preliminary performance and its possible implementation on FPGA or DSP will be discussed together with a general overview of the architecture of the triggering system of JEM-EUSO.

  9. 40 CFR 405.100 - Applicability; description of the dry milk subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of dry whole milk, dry skim milk and dry... milk subcategory. 405.100 Section 405.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dry Milk...

  10. Twelve tips for creating trigger images for problem-based learning cases.

    PubMed

    Azer, Samy A

    2007-03-01

    A trigger is the starting point of problem-based learning (PBL) cases. It is usually in the form of 5-6 text lines that provide the key information about the main character (usually the patient), including 3-4 of patient's presenting problems. In addition to the trigger text, most programs using PBL include a visual trigger. This might be in the form of a single image, a series of images, a video clip, a cartoon, or even one of the patient's investigation results (e.g. chest X-ray, pathology report, or urine sample analysis). The main educational objectives of the trigger image are as follows: (1) to introduce the patient to the students; (2) to enhance students' observation skills; (3) to provide them with new information to add to the cues obtained from the trigger text; and (4) to stimulate students to ask questions as they develop their enquiry plan. When planned and delivered effectively, trigger images should be engaging and stimulate group discussion. Understanding the educational objectives of using trigger images and choosing appropriate images are the keys for constructing successful PBL cases. These twelve tips highlight the key steps in the successful creation of trigger images.

  11. EMIC triggered chorus emissions in Cluster data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grison, B.; SantolíK, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Masson, A.; Engebretson, M. J.; Pickett, J. S.; Omura, Y.; Robert, P.; Nomura, R.

    2013-03-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) triggered chorus emissions have recently been a subject of several experimental, theoretical and simulation case studies, noting their similarities with whistler-mode chorus. We perform a survey of 8 years of Cluster data in order to increase the database of EMIC triggered emissions. The results of this is that EMIC triggered emissions have been unambiguously observed for only three different days. These three events are studied in detail. All cases have been observed at the plasmapause between 22 and 24 magnetic local time (MLT) and between - 15° and 15° magnetic latitude (λm). Triggered emissions are also observed for the first time below the local He+ gyrofrequency (fHe+). The number of events is too low to produce statistical results, nevertheless we point out a variety of common properties of those waves. The rising tones have a high level of coherence and the waves propagate away from the equatorial region. The propagation angle and degree of polarization are related to the distance from the equator, whereas the slope and the frequency extent vary from one event to the other. From the various spacecraft separations, we determine that the triggering process is a localized phenomenon in space and time. However, we are unable to determine the occurrence rates of these waves. Small frequency extent rising tones are more common than large ones. The newly reported EMIC triggered events are generally observed during periods of large AE index values and in time periods close to solar maximum.

  12. Possible impacts of the pre-monsoon dry line and sea breeze front on nocturnal rainfall over northeast Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller-Reeve, Mathew; Toniazzo, Thomas; Kolstad, Erik; Spengler, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The northeast region of Bangladesh receives a large amount of rainfall before the large-scale monsoon circulation begins. For example, in April (a "pre-monsoon" month) 2010, 804 mm of rain fell in the regional capital Sylhet. It was the second wettest month of the entire year. From our conversations with the local people, we know that this pre-monsoon rainfall is extremely important to their livelihoods. We therefore need to understand it's triggering mechanisms. Several theories have been published, all of which are likely to be at play. However, in this work we look more closely at how the sea breeze front and prominent pre-monsoonal dry line in this region may play a role. If these mechanisms play a role in the convection, then it is likely that they trigger convection further afield, and then the resulting systems then propagate towards northeast Bangladesh. We believe this because rainfall associated with dry line/sea-breeze front convection often occurs during the late afternoon, but the rainfall over northeast Bangladesh shows a clear late-night/early-morning maxima. At present, the temporal and spatial resolution of the regional observations is inappropriate for examining these possible mechanisms. We therefore use a numerical model (WRF) to investigate the possible links between the convection and the sea breeze front and dry line. We use April 2010 as a case study since it was such a wet pre-monsoon month. The simulation shows that a sea breeze circulation often develops during the day in the coastal zone of Bangladesh and northeast India. After sunset the sea breeze front propagates inland pushing back the hot, dry air over India. On several days during the simulation, convection is triggered along the sea breeze front, which then propagates towards northeast Bangladesh and intensifies across the topography surrounding the Sylhet region. From our simulations, it appears that nocturnal convection over northeast Bangladesh is triggered by several

  13. Conflict-Triggered Top-Down Control: Default Mode, Last Resort, or No Such Thing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugg, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    The conflict monitoring account posits that globally high levels of conflict trigger engagement of top-down control; however, recent findings point to the mercurial nature of top-down control in high conflict contexts. The current study examined the potential moderating effect of associative learning on conflict-triggered top-down control…

  14. Effects of three drying methods of post space dentin bonding used in a direct resin composite core build-up method.

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Taichi; Mine, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Mariko; Nakatani, Hayaki; Higashi, Mami; Kawaguchi-Uemura, Asuka; Kabetani, Tomoshige; Tajiri, Yuko; Imai, Dai; Hagino, Ryosuke; Miura, Jiro; Minamino, Takuya; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2018-06-14

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate drying methods for post space dentin bonding in a direct resin composite core build-up method. Experiment 1: Four root canal plastic models, having diameters of 1.0 or 1.8mm and parallel or tapered shapes, were prepared. After drying each post space using three drying methods (air drying, paper-point drying, or ethanol drying, which involves filling the space with 99.5 vol% ethanol followed by air drying), the residual liquid in the models was weighed. Experiment 2: Thirty endodontically treated single-root teeth were dried using the above-described drying methods and filled with dual-cure resin composite. The bonded specimens were sectioned into square beams of approximately 1mm 2 for microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing. Nine teeth were observed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro computed tomography (μCT). The weight of residual liquid and μTBS were analyzed using Scheffé multiple comparison. Experiment 1: The results of air drying were significantly different from those of paper-point drying (p<0.001) and ethanol drying (p<0.001), and no significant difference was observed between paper-point drying and ethanol drying. Experiment 2: The μTBS significantly decreased in the order of ethanol drying, paper-point drying, and air drying (air drying/ethanol drying: p<0.001, air drying/paper-point drying: p=0.048, ethanol drying/paper-point drying: p=0.032). TEM and μCT observation revealed a sufficient dentin/adhesive interface in the ethanol drying group. Ethanol drying was found to be more effective for post space dentin bonding, as compared with air drying and paper-point drying. Copyright © 2018 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of the compositional changes in Orthosiphon stamineus leaves triggered by different drying techniques using 1 H NMR metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Pariyani, Raghunath; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Ahmad Azam, Amalina; Abas, Faridah; Shaari, Khozirah

    2017-09-01

    Java tea is a well-known herbal infusion prepared from the leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS). The biological properties of tea are in direct correlation with the primary and secondary metabolite composition, which in turn largely depends on the choice of drying method. Herein, the impact of three commonly used drying methods, i.e. shade, microwave and freeze drying, on the metabolite composition and antioxidant activity of OS leaves was investigated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate classification and regression analysis tools. A total of 31 constituents comprising primary and secondary metabolites belonging to the chemical classes of fatty acids, amino acids, sugars, terpenoids and phenolic compounds were identified. Shade-dried leaves were identified to possess the highest concentrations of bioactive secondary metabolites such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, orthosiphol and apigenin, followed by microwave-dried samples. Freeze-dried leaves had higher concentrations of choline, amino acids leucine, alanine and glutamine and sugars such as fructose and α-glucose, but contained the lowest levels of secondary metabolites. Metabolite profiling coupled with multivariate analysis identified shade drying as the best method to prepare OS leaves as Java tea or to include in traditional medicine preparation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Wet needling of myofascial trigger points in abdominal muscles for treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiang-Min; Liu, Lin

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of wet needling (related to acupuncture) and home stretching exercises on myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in abdominal muscles for the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. The effect of wet needing of MTrPs in abdominal muscles, supplemented by home stretching exercises, was observed in 65 patients with moderate and severe primary dysmenorrhoea. The MTrPs in the abdominal region were localised and repeatedly needled with lidocaine injection. Menstrual pain was evaluated with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score after every treatment, with the final evaluation made at a 1-year follow-up. Treatment was stopped when the VAS pain score reduced to ≤3. Symptoms scores were analysed with one-way analysis of variance. The mean VAS pain score before treatment was 7.49±1.16. After a single wet needling session, 41 patients had a reduction in their VAS pain score to <3 during their following menstrual cycle, with a mean of 1.63±0.49. Twenty-four patients who needed two treatments showed a reduction in menstrual pain scores to 0.58±0.50. After 1 year, the mean VAS pain score among all patients was 0.28±0.45, with a response rate of 100%. Primary dysmenorrhoea was significantly reduced 1 year after wet needling to MTrPs in the abdominal region and home stretching exercises, justifying further research with controlled trials. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Changes in masseter muscle trigger points following strain-counterstrain or neuro-muscular technique.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-García, Jordi; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Girao, Didac; Atienza-Meseguer, Albert; Planella-Abella, Sergi; Fernández-de-Las Peñas, César

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the immediate effects, on pressure pain sensitivity and active mouth opening, following the application of neuromuscular or strain/counter-strain technique in latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the masseter muscle. Seventy-one subjects, 34 men and 37 women, aged 20-65 years old, participated in this study. Subjects underwent a screening process to establish the presence of MTrPs in the masseter muscle. Subjects were divided randomly into three groups: group A which was treated with a neuromuscular intervention, group B treated with the strain/counter-strain technique, and group C as control group. Each treatment group received a weekly treatment session during 3 consecutive weeks. Outcomes measures were pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), active mouth opening and local pain (visual analogue scale, VAS) elicited by the application of 2.5kg/cm(2) of pressure over the MTrP. They were captured at baseline and 1 week after discharge by an assessor blinded to the treatment allocation of the subject. The ANOVA found a significant groupxtime interaction (F=25.3; p<0.001) for changes in PPT, changes in active mouth opening (F=10.5; p<0.001), and local pain evoked by 2.5kg/cm(2) of pressure (F=10.1; p<0.001). Within-group effect sizes were large (d>1) for PPT and mouth opening, and moderate for local pain (d<0.7, 0.5) in both intervention groups; but small (d<0.2) for the control group in all outcomes. No significant differences between both intervention groups were found for any outcome (p>0.8). Our results suggest that neuromuscular or strain/counter-strain technique might be employed in the management of latent MTrPs in the masseter muscle.

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Single Botulinum Toxin Type A (Botox®) Injection for Relief of Upper Trapezius Myofascial Trigger Point: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Kwanchuay, Photsawee; Petchnumsin, Thavatchai; Yiemsiri, Pichet; Pasuk, Nakkamol; Srikanok, Wannarat; Hathaiareerug, Chanasak

    2015-12-01

    Botulinum toxin injection has been applied for pain relief in various chronic pain syndromes. Recently, systematic review studies reported inconclusive effects of Botulinum toxin in myofascial pain management. The present study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of Botulinum toxin type A (BTxA) (Botox®) injection for pain reduction in myofascial trigger point (MTrP) of the upper trapezius muscle. Thirty-three patients with 48 MTrP on the upper trapezius muscles over three months with moderate to severe pain intensity diagnosed at physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatient department were recruited between December 2011 and March 2012. Eligible patients were blinded and randomly injected with single 0.2 ml (20 IU) of BTxA for 24 MTrP and 0.2 ml of 0.9% NaCl solution for 24 MTrP at the most tender trigger point on the upper trapezius muscle. All patients were advised for stretching exercise and ergonomic adaptation throughout the study. At 3- and 6-week after injections, visual analogue scale (VAS), the pressure pain threshold (PPT), and reported adverse effects were measured. Both BTxA and control groups demonstrated statistically significant differences in VAS reduction and increased PPT after 3 weeks and 6 weeks compared with before treatment. There were no statistically significant differences in VAS reduction from baseline between the two groups at 3- and 6-week after treatment. A statistically significant difference in improvement of PPT from baseline and 6-week after BTxA injection compared with 0.9% NaCl group was shown (1.0 ± 0.9 and 0.5 ± 0.7, p = 0.036). There was mild degree side-effects that spontaneous resolved within one week in both groups without significant difference in percentage. No severe adverse effects were reported during the study. The efficacy in VAS reduction of a single 20 IU of Botulinum toxin type A (Botox®) injection was not different from 0.9% NaCl for myofascial trigger point at the upper trapezius muscle. However

  19. Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and sensory quality of dried jujube fruits as affected by cultivar and drying method.

    PubMed

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Figiel, Adam; Legua, Pilar; Lech, Krzysztof; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different dying methods, such as convective drying (CD: 50, 60, 70 °C), vacuum-microwave drying (VMD: 120, 480, 480-120 W), a combination of convective pre-drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying [(CPD (60 °C)-VMFD (480-120 W)], and freeze-drying (FD) on key quality parameters of dried jujube fruits (cv. "GAL", "MSI", and "PSI"). The parameters studied included bioactive compounds (flavan-3-ols and flavonols, identified by LC-PDA-MS, and vitamin C), antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP), and sensory attributes (e.g. hardness, jujube-ID, and sweetness). The best quality of the dried product (high contents of bioactive compounds and high intensity of key sensory attributes) was found in fruits treated by FD and VMD 480-120 W. The best cultivars were "PSI" and "GAL" from the point of view of bioactive content and sensory quality, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Implementation of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) in dried anchovy production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citraresmi, A. D. P.; Wahyuni, E. E.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to inspect the implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) for identification and prevention of potential hazards in the production process of dried anchovy at PT. Kelola Mina Laut (KML), Lobuk unit, Sumenep. Cold storage process is needed in each anchovy processing step in order to maintain its physical and chemical condition. In addition, the implementation of quality assurance system should be undertaken to maintain product quality. The research was conducted using a survey method, by following the whole process of making anchovy from the receiving raw materials to the packaging of final product. The method of data analysis used was descriptive analysis method. Implementation of HACCP at PT. KML, Lobuk unit, Sumenep was conducted by applying Pre Requisite Programs (PRP) and preparation stage consisting of 5 initial stages and 7 principles of HACCP. The results showed that CCP was found in boiling process flow with significant hazard of Listeria monocytogenesis bacteria and final sorting process with significant hazard of foreign material contamination in the product. Actions taken were controlling boiling temperature of 100 – 105°C for 3 - 5 minutes and training for sorting process employees.

  1. Mid-Holocene drying of the U.S. Great Basin recorded in Nevada speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steponaitis, Elena; Andrews, Alexandra; McGee, David; Quade, Jay; Hsieh, Yu-Te; Broecker, Wallace S.; Shuman, Bryan N.; Burns, Stephen J.; Cheng, Hai

    2015-11-01

    Lake level records point to dramatic changes in Great Basin water balance over the last 25 ka, but the timing and pace of Holocene drying in the region remains poorly documented. Here we present stable isotope and trace metal data from two Lehman Caves, NV speleothems that provide a well-dated record of latest Pleistocene to mid-Holocene hydroclimate in the U.S. Great Basin. Together the stalagmites span the interval between 16.4 ka and 3.8 ka, with a hiatus from 15.0 ka to 12.7 ka. Mg/Ca and δ13C covary throughout the records, consistent with control by the extent of degassing and prior calcite precipitation (PCP); measurements of modern cave and soil waters support PCP as the primary control on drip-water trace-element composition. We therefore interpret Mg/Ca and δ13C as reflecting infiltration rates, with higher values corresponding to drier periods. Both Mg/Ca and δ13C indicate a wet period at the beginning of the record (12.7-8.2 ka) followed by pronounced drying after 8.2 ka. This mid-Holocene drying is consistent with records from around the western United States, including a new compilation of Great Basin lake-level records. The strong temporal correspondence with the collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet over Hudson Bay suggests that this drying may have been triggered by northward movement of the winter storm track as a result of ice sheet retreat. However, we cannot rule out an alternative hypothesis that wet early Holocene conditions are related to equatorial Pacific sea-surface temperature. Regardless, our results suggest that Great Basin water balance in the early Holocene was driven by factors other than orbital changes.

  2. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Contingency Drogue Deploy Velocity Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gay, Robert S.; Stochowiak, Susan; Smith, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    As a backup to the GPS-aided Kalman filter and the Barometric altimeter, an "adjusted" velocity trigger is used during entry to trigger the chain of events that leads to drogue chute deploy for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Even though this scenario is multiple failures deep, the Orion Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) software makes use of a clever technique that was taken from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) program, which recently successfully landing the Curiosity rover on Mars. MSL used this technique to jettison the heat shield at the proper time during descent. Originally, Orion use the un-adjusted navigated velocity, but the removal of the Star Tracker to save costs for EFT-1, increased attitude errors which increased inertial propagation errors to the point where the un-adjusted velocity caused altitude dispersions at drogue deploy to be too large. Thus, to reduce dispersions, the velocity vector is projected onto a "reference" vector that represents the nominal "truth" vector at the desired point in the trajectory. Because the navigation errors are largely perpendicular to the truth vector, this projection significantly reduces dispersions in the velocity magnitude. This paper will detail the evolution of this trigger method for the Orion project and cover the various methods tested to determine the reference "truth" vector; and at what point in the trajectory it should be computed.

  3. Sliding-surface-liquefaction of sand-dry ice mixture and submarine landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, H.; Tsukui, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the historic records of off-shore mega-earthquakes along the subduction zone offshore Japan, there are a lot of witnesses about large-scale burning of flammable gas possibly ejected from sea floor. This gas was supposed to be the dissolved methane hydrates (MH), which have been found in the soundings of IODP and other oceanology projects. Since the vast distribution of the BSR in the continental margins, a lot of papers have been published which pointed out the possibilities of that gasification of those hydrates could have triggered gigantic submarine landslides. Global warming or large earthquake or magma intrusion may trigger extremely deep gigantic landslides in continental margins that which could cause catastrophic tsunami. However, recent triaxial compression tests on artificially prepared sand-MH-mixture samples revealed that the they have slightly higher strength than the ones of only sands and MH’s endothermal characteristics may resist against accelerating shear and large-displacement landslides as well. While, the stress-controlled undrained ring shear apparatuses have been developed by Sassa and Fukuoka at Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University to reproduce subaerial landslides induced by earthquakes and rainfalls. Using the apparatuses, they found localized liquefaction phenomenon along the deep saturated potential sliding surface due to excess pore pressure generation during the grain crushing induced bulk volume change. This phenomenon was named as “sliding surface liquefaction.” Similar sudden large pore pressure generation was observed in pore pressure control test simulating rain-induced landslides. In this paper, authors examined the shear behavior of the dry sand-dry ice mixture under constant normal stress and shear speed control tests using the latest ring shear apparatus. Sample was mixture of silica sands and dry-ice pellets (frozen carbon-dioxide). Those mixtures are often used for studying the mechanism of the

  4. Recovery of Waste Heat from Propellant Forced-Air Dry House

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    function of bulk air side film heat transfer coefficient and diffusivity 66 15. Dry house waste heat recovery system instrumentation 67 16. Sample data...inlet condition by, maintaining the exhaust temperature above the NG dew point. The set point is adjustable to accommodate various propel- lant and...system. In dry cycle operation, an overall energy recovery effectiveness of about 40% was measured for winter operation when the exhaust temperature

  5. Key composition optimization of meat processed protein source by vacuum freeze-drying technology.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Wu, Xingzhuang; Zhang, Qi; Giovanni, Vigna; Meng, Xianjun

    2018-05-01

    Vacuum freeze-drying technology is a high technology content, a wide range of knowledge of technology in the field of drying technology is involved, it is also a method of the most complex drying equipment, the largest energy consumption, the highest cost of drying method, but due to the particularity of its dry goods: the freeze-drying food has the advantages of complex water performance is good, cooler and luster of freezing and drying food to maintain good products, less nutrient loss, light weight, easy to carry transportation, easy to long-term preservation, and on the quality is far superior to the obvious advantages of other dried food, making it become the forefront of drying technology research and development. The freeze-drying process of Chinese style ham and western Germany fruit tree tenderloin is studied in this paper, their eutectic point, melting point and collapse temperature, freeze-drying curve and its heat and mass transfer characteristics are got, then the precool temperature and the highest limiting temperature of sublimation interface are determined. The effect of system pressure on freeze-dried rate in freeze-drying process is discussed, and the method of regulating pressure circularly is determined.

  6. Effect of Latent Myofascial Trigger Points on Strength Measurements of the Upper Trapezius: A Case-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Anshul

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this article was to determine whether strength is altered in the upper trapezius in the presence of latent myofascial trigger points (MTrP). Methods: This study was case controlled and used convenience sampling. The sample recruited was homogeneous with respect to age, sex, height, and body mass. Participants were assessed for the presence of latent MTrP in the upper trapezius and placed into two groups: an experimental group that had latent MTrP in the upper trapezius and a control group that did not. Eighteen women (mean age 21.4 y, SD 1.89; mean height 156.9 cm, SD 4.03; and mean body mass 51.7 kg, SD 5.84) made up the experimental group, and 19 women (mean age 20.3 y, SD 1.86; mean height 158.6 cm, SD 3.14; and mean body mass 53.2 kg, SD 5.17) made up the control group. We obtained strength measurements of the non-dominant arm using a handheld dynamometer and compared them between the two groups. Results: The difference in the strength measurements between the two groups was not statistically significant (p=0.59). Conclusions: The presence of latent MTrPs may not affect the strength of the upper trapezius. PMID:22942517

  7. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Real Time Stereoscopic Array Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrum, K.; Anderson, J.; Buckley, J.; Cundiff, T.; Dawson, J.; Drake, G.; Duke, C.; Haberichter, B.; Krawzcynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Madhavan, A.; Schroedter, M.; Smith, A.

    2009-05-01

    Future large arrays of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) such as AGIS and CTA are conceived to comprise of 50 - 100 individual telescopes each having a camera with 10**3 to 10**4 pixels. To maximize the capabilities of such IACT arrays with a low energy threshold, a wide field of view and a low background rate, a sophisticated array trigger is required. We describe the design of a stereoscopic array trigger that calculates image parameters and then correlates them across a subset of telescopes. Fast Field Programmable Gate Array technology allows to use lookup tables at the array trigger level to form a real-time pattern recognition trigger tht capitalizes on the multiple view points of the shower at different shower core distances. A proof of principle system is currently under construction. It is based on 400 MHz FPGAs and the goal is for camera trigger rates of up to 10 MHz and a tunable cosmic-ray background suppression at the array level.

  8. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Versus Trigger Point Injection in the Treatment of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in the Quadratus Lumborum

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and trigger point injection (TPI) for the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome in the quadratus lumborum. Methods In a retrospective study at our institute, 30 patients with myofascial pain syndrome in the quadratus lumborum were assigned to ESWT or TPI groups. We assessed ESWT and TPI treatment according to their affects on pain relief and disability improvement. The outcome measures for the pain assessment were a visual analogue scale score and pain pressure threshold. The outcome measures for the disability assessment were Oswestry Disability Index, Roles and Maudsley, and Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale scores. Results Both groups demonstrated statistically significant improvements in pain and disability measures after treatment. However, in comparing the treatments, we found ESWT to be more effective than TPI for pain relief. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to disability. Conclusion Compared to TPI, ESWT showed superior results for pain relief. Thus, we consider ESWT as an effective treatment for myofascial pain syndrome in the quadratus lumborum. PMID:28971042

  9. SiC/Si diode trigger circuit provides automatic range switching for log amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    SiC/Si diode pair provides automatic range change to extend the operating range of a logarithmic amplifier-conversion circuit and assures stability at or near the range switch-over point. the diode provides hysteresis for a trigger circuit that actuates a relay at the desired range extension point.

  10. The CMS High-Level Trigger and Trigger Menus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetisyan, Aram

    2008-04-01

    The CMS experiment is one of the two general-purpose experiments due to start operation soon at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC will collide protons at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV, with a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. The online event selection for the CMS experiment is carried out in two distinct stages. At Level-1 the trigger electronics reduces the 40 MHz collision rate to provide up to 100 kHz of interesting events, based on objects found using its calorimeter and muon subsystems. The High Level Trigger (HLT) that runs in the Filter Farm of the CMS experiment is a set of sophisticated software tools that run in a real-time environment to make a further selection and archive few hundred Hz of interesting events. The coherent tuning of the HLT algorithms to accommodate multiple physics channels is a key issue for CMS, one that literally defines the reach of the experiment's physics program. In this presentation we will discuss the strategies and trigger configuration developed for startup physics program of the CMS experiment, up to a luminosity of 10^31 s-1cm-2. Emphasis will be given to the full trigger menus, including physics and calibration triggers.

  11. Development towards compact nitrocellulose interferometric biochips for dry eye diagnosis based on MMP9, S100A6 and CST4 biomarkers using a Point-of-Care device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamaría, Beatriz; Laguna, María. Fe; López-Romero, David; López-Hernandez, A.; Sanza, F. J.; Lavín, A.; Casquel, R.; Maigler, M.; Holgado, M.

    2018-02-01

    A novel compact optical biochip based on a thin layer-sensing BICELL surface of nitrocellulose is used for in-situ labelfree detection of dry eye disease (DED). In this work the development of a compact biosensor that allows obtaining quantitative diagnosis with a limited volume of sample is reported. The designed sensors can be analyzed with an optical integrated Point-of-Care read-out system based on the "Increase Relative Optical Power" principle which enhances the performance and Limit of Detection. Several proteins involved with dry eye dysfunction have been validated as biomarkers. Presented biochip analyzes three of those biomarkers: MMP9, S100A6 and CST4. BICELLs based on nitrocellulose permit to immobilize antibodies for each biomarker recognition. The optical response obtained from the biosensor through the readout platform is capable to recognize specifically the desired proteins in the concentrations range for control eye (CE) and dry eye syndrome (DES). Preliminary results obtained will allow the development of a dry eye detection device useful in the area of ophthalmology and applicable to other possible diseases related to the eye dysfunction.

  12. [Anesthesia unrelated triggering of a fatal malignant hyperthermia crisis].

    PubMed

    Olthoff, D; Vonderlind, C

    1997-12-01

    For incidents of malignant hyperthermia (MH) outside the hospital, a high number of unrecorded cases must be reckoned with because of an insufficient knowledge of emergency services and poor identification and documentation that make it impossible to classify acute situations under the diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia crisis. As a result, there are no statistical data in this field, and only case reports with a broad spectrum of suspected trigger mechanisms have been published. The case described in this report is a proved example of a non-anesthesia-related triggering of MH in a 21-year-old man who had had an anesthetic-induced MH manifestation in childhood, which was confirmed with an in vitro contracture test. After visiting a restaurant, he became unconscious and convulsive after consuming a high level of alcohol (2.9/1000). The first cardiocirculatory arrest occurred directly before hospitalization. After admission, the patient showed a full-blown MH episode whose subsequent fatality was unavoidable in spite of adapted and optimal therapy. Suspected trigger mechanisms seem to be multifactoral (excessive alcohol consumption, over-heating, mental stress) as a forensic investigation did not point to any particular signs of typical trigger substances. The case demonstrates again that an MH attack might be triggered under certain non-anaesthesia-related situations. For patients with an MH disposition, additional information on their behavior outside the hospital is required.

  13. Triggering Mechanism for Neutron Induced Single-Event Burnout in Power Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Tomoyuki; Nishida, Shuichi; Hamada, Kimimori

    2013-04-01

    Cosmic ray neutrons can trigger catastrophic failures in power devices. It has been reported that parasitic transistor action causes single-event burnout (SEB) in power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). However, power diodes do not have an inherent parasitic transistor. In this paper, we describe the mechanism triggering SEB in power diodes for the first time using transient device simulation. Initially, generated electron-hole pairs created by incident recoil ions generate transient current, which increases the electron density in the vicinity of the n-/n+ boundary. The space charge effect of the carriers leads to an increase in the strength of the electric field at the n-/n+ boundary. Finally, the onset of impact ionization at the n-/n+ boundary can trigger SEB. Furthermore, this failure is closely related to diode secondary breakdown. It was clarified that the impact ionization at the n-/n+ boundary is a key point of the mechanism triggering SEB in power devices.

  14. Model-Based Adaptive Event-Triggered Control of Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Xin; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2018-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the adaptive event-triggered control problem of nonlinear continuous-time systems in strict-feedback form. By using the event-sampled neural network (NN) to approximate the unknown nonlinear function, an adaptive model and an associated event-triggered controller are designed by exploiting the backstepping method. In the proposed method, the feedback signals and the NN weights are aperiodically updated only when the event-triggered condition is violated. A positive lower bound on the minimum intersample time is guaranteed to avoid accumulation point. The closed-loop stability of the resulting nonlinear impulsive dynamical system is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis under an adaptive event sampling condition. In comparing with the traditional adaptive backstepping design with a fixed sample period, the event-triggered method samples the state and updates the NN weights only when it is necessary. Therefore, the number of transmissions can be significantly reduced. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  15. A Topological Array Trigger for AGIS, the Advanced Gamma ray Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krennrich, F.; Anderson, J.; Buckley, J.; Byrum, K.; Dawson, J.; Drake, G.; Haberichter, W.; Imran, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Kreps, A.; Schroedter, M.; Smith, A.

    2008-12-01

    Next generation ground based γ-ray observatories such as AGIS1 and CTA2 are expected to cover a 1 km2 area with 50-100 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The stereoscopic view ol air showers using multiple view points raises the possibility to use a topological array trigger that adds substantial flexibility, new background suppression capabilities and a reduced energy threshold. In this paper we report on the concept and technical implementation of a fast topological trigger system, that makes use of real time image processing of individual camera patterns and their combination in a stereoscopic array analysis. A prototype system is currently under construction and we discuss the design and hardware of this topological array trigger system.

  16. Effects of Varying CDS Levels and Drying and Cooling Temperatures on Flowability Properties of DDGS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Demand for alternative fuels and the need to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, have triggered the growth of corn-based ethanol production, and this is expected to rise in future years. Transportation of the co-product distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from this industry occurs under vari...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3830 - Endodontic paper point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endodontic paper point. 872.3830 Section 872.3830...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3830 Endodontic paper point. (a) Identification. An endodontic paper point is a device made of paper intended for use during endodontic therapy to dry...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3830 - Endodontic paper point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic paper point. 872.3830 Section 872.3830...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3830 Endodontic paper point. (a) Identification. An endodontic paper point is a device made of paper intended for use during endodontic therapy to dry...

  19. Comparison of drying characteristic and uniformity of banana cubes dried by pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying, freeze drying and microwave freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Lim, Rui-Xin

    2014-07-01

    To overcome the flaws of high energy consumption of freeze drying (FD) and the non-uniform drying of microwave freeze drying (MFD), pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying (PSMVD) was developed. The results showed that the drying time can be dramatically shortened if microwave was used as the heating source. In this experiment, both MFD and PSMVD could shorten drying time by 50% as compared to the FD process. Depending on the heating method, MFD and PSMVD dried banana cubes showed trends of expansion while FD dried samples demonstrated trends of shrinkage. Shrinkage also brought intensive structure and highest fracturability of all three samples dried by different methods. The residual ascorbic acid content of PSMVD dried samples can be as high as in FD dried samples, which were superior to MFD dried samples. The tests confirmed that PSMVD could bring about better drying uniformity than MFD. Besides, compared with traditional MFD, PSMVD can provide better extrinsic feature, and can bring about improved nutritional features because of the higher residual ascorbic acid content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Analysis of maizena drying system using temperature control based fuzzy logic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arief, Ulfah Mediaty; Nugroho, Fajar; Purbawanto, Sugeng; Setyaningsih, Dyah Nurani; Suryono

    2018-03-01

    Corn is one of the rice subtitution food that has good potential. Corn can be processed to be a maizena, and it can be used to make type of food that has been made from maizena, viz. Brownies cake, egg roll, and other cookies. Generally, maizena obtained by drying process carried out 2-3 days under the sun. However, drying process not possible during the rainy season. This drying process can be done using an automatic drying tool. This study was to analyze the design result and manufacture of maizena drying system with temperature control based fuzzylogic method. The result show that temperature of drying system with set point 40°C - 60°C work in suitable condition. The level of water content in 15% (BSN) and temperatureat 50°C included in good drying process. Time required to reach the set point of temperature in 50°C is 7.05 minutes. Drying time for 500 gr samples with temperature 50°C and power capacity 127.6 watt was 1 hour. Based on the result, drying process using temperature control based fuzzy logic method can improve energy efficiency than the conventional method of drying using a direct sunlight source with a temperature that cannot be directly controlled by human being causing the quality of drying result of flour is erratic.

  1. Lessons from (triggered) tremor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    I test a “clock-advance” model that implies triggered tremor is ambient tremor that occurs at a sped-up rate as a result of loading from passing seismic waves. This proposed model predicts that triggering probability is proportional to the product of the ambient tremor rate and a function describing the efficacy of the triggering wave to initiate a tremor event. Using data mostly from Cascadia, I have compared qualitatively a suite of teleseismic waves that did and did not trigger tremor with ambient tremor rates. Many of the observations are consistent with the model if the efficacy of the triggering wave depends on wave amplitude. One triggered tremor observation clearly violates the clock-advance model. The model prediction that larger triggering waves result in larger triggered tremor signals also appears inconsistent with the measurements. I conclude that the tremor source process is a more complex system than that described by the clock-advance model predictions tested. Results of this and previous studies also demonstrate that (1) conditions suitable for tremor generation exist in many tectonic environments, but, within each, only occur at particular spots whose locations change with time; (2) any fluid flow must be restricted to less than a meter; (3) the degree to which delayed failure and secondary triggering occurs is likely insignificant; and 4) both shear and dilatational deformations may trigger tremor. Triggered and ambient tremor rates correlate more strongly with stress than stressing rate, suggesting tremor sources result from time-dependent weakening processes rather than simple Coulomb failure.

  2. Freeze-drying process design by manometric temperature measurement: design of a smart freeze-dryer.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaolin Charlie; Nail, Steven L; Pikal, Michael J

    2005-04-01

    To develop a procedure based on manometric temperature measurement (MTM) and an expert system for good practices in freeze drying that will allow development of an optimized freeze-drying process during a single laboratory freeze-drying experiment. Freeze drying was performed with a FTS Dura-Stop/Dura-Top freeze dryer with the manometric temperature measurement software installed. Five percent solutions of glycine, sucrose, or mannitol with 2 ml to 4 ml fill in 5 ml vials were used, with all vials loaded on one shelf. Details of freezing, optimization of chamber pressure, target product temperature, and some aspects of secondary drying are determined by the expert system algorithms. MTM measurements were used to select the optimum shelf temperature, to determine drying end points, and to evaluate residual moisture content in real-time. MTM measurements were made at 1 hour or half-hour intervals during primary drying and secondary drying, with a data collection frequency of 4 points per second. The improved MTM equations were fit to pressure-time data generated by the MTM procedure using Microcal Origin software to obtain product temperature and dry layer resistance. Using heat and mass transfer theory, the MTM results were used to evaluate mass and heat transfer rates and to estimate the shelf temperature required to maintain the target product temperature. MTM product dry layer resistance is accurate until about two-thirds of total primary drying time is over, and the MTM product temperature is normally accurate almost to the end of primary drying provided that effective thermal shielding is used in the freeze-drying process. The primary drying times can be accurately estimated from mass transfer rates calculated very early in the run, and we find the target product temperature can be achieved and maintained with only a few adjustments of shelf temperature. The freeze-dryer overload conditions can be estimated by calculation of heat/mass flow at the target product

  3. Effectiveness and relevant factors of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension treatment in dry eye.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kaori; Matsumiya, Wataru; Otsuka, Keiko; Maeda, Yoshifumi; Nagai, Takayuki; Nakamura, Makoto

    2015-06-06

    Rebamipide with mucin secretagogue activity was recently approved for the treatment of dry eye. The efficacy and safety in the treatment of rebamipide were shown in two pivotal clinical trials. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the effect of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension in patients with dry eye and analyze relevant factors for favorable effects of rebamipide in clinical practice. This was a retrospective cohort study of 48 eyes from 24 patients with dry eye treated with 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. Dry eye-related symptom score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), fluorescein ocular surface staining score (FOS) and the Schirmer test were used to collect the data from patients at baseline, and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 week visits. To determine the relevant factors, multiple regression analyses were then performed. Mean dry eye-related symptom score showed a significant improvement from the baseline (14.5 points) at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks (9.80, 7.04, 7.04 and 7.83 points, corrected P value < 0.001, respectively). Median FOS showed a significant improvement from the baseline (3.0 points) at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks (2.0, 2.0, 1.0 and 1.0 points, corrected P value < 0.001, respectively). TBUT and Schirmer test values were not significantly improved after the treatment. For ocular symptoms, three parameters (foreign body sensation, dry eye sensation and ocular discomfort) showed significant improvements at all visits. The multiple regression analyses showed that the fluorescein conjunctiva staining score was significantly correlated with the changes of dry eye-related symptom score at 12 weeks (P value = 0.017) and dry eye-related symptom score was significantly correlated with independent variables for the changes of FOS at 12 weeks (P value = 0.0097). Two percent rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was an effective therapy for dry eye patients. Moreover the fluorescein conjunctiva staining score and dry eye-related symptom score might be good relevant factors for

  4. From containment to community: Trigger points from the London pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza incident response.

    PubMed

    Balasegaram, S; Glasswell, A; Cleary, V; Turbitt, D; McCloskey, B

    2011-02-01

    In the UK, during the first wave of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza, a national 'containment' strategy was employed from 25 April to 2 July 2009, with case finding, treatment of cases, contact tracing and prophylaxis of close contacts. The aim of the strategy was to delay the introduction and spread of pandemic flu in the UK, provide a better understanding of the course of the novel disease, and thereby allow more time for the development of treatment and vaccination options. Descriptive study of the management of the containment phase of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza. Analysis of data reported to the London Flu Response Centre (LFRC). The average number of telephone calls and faxes per day from health professionals before 15 June 2009 was 188, but this started to rise from 363 on 12 June, to 674 on 15 June, and peaked on 22 June at 2206 calls. The number of cases confirmed [by pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza specific H1 and N1 polymerase chain reaction] in London rose to a peak of 200 cases per day. There were widespread school outbreaks reporting large numbers of absences with influenza-like illnesses. Activity in the LFRC intensified to a point where London was declared a 'hot spot' for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza on 19 June 2009 because of sustained community transmission. The local incident response was modified to the 'outbreak management phase' of the containment phase. The sharp rise in the number of telephone calls and the rise in school outbreaks appeared to be trigger points for community transmission. These indicators should inform decisions on modifying public health strategy in pandemic situations. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Triggerable electro-optic amplitude modulator bias stabilizer for integrated optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.; Haigh, Ronald E.; Hugenberg, Keith F.

    1995-01-01

    An improved Mach-Zehnder integrated optical electro-optic modulator is achieved by application and incorporation of a DC bias box containing a laser synchronized trigger circuit, a DC ramp and hold circuit, a modulator transfer function negative peak detector circuit, and an adjustable delay circuit. The DC bias box ramps the DC bias along the transfer function curve to any desired phase or point of operation at which point the RF modulation takes place.

  6. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trigger Finger Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Trigger Finger Animation Trigger Finger Close Popup Close ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...

  7. Optimization on drying conditions of a solar electrohydrodynamic drying system based on desirability concept

    PubMed Central

    Dalvand, Mohammad Jafar; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Rafiee, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to present a new drying method for agricultural products. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) has been applied for drying of agricultural materials due to several advantages such as energy saving, low cost equipment, low drying temperatures, and superior material quality. To evaluate this method, an EHD dryer based on solar (photovoltaic) energy was designed and fabricated. Moreover, the optimum condition for the EHD drying of kiwi fruit was studied by applying the Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology. The desirability function was applied for optimization in case of single objective and multiobjective functions. By using the multiobjective optimization method, maximum desirability value of 0.865 was obtained based on the following: applied voltage of 15 kV, field strength of 5.2 kV cm−1, without forced air stream, and finally a combination of 17 discharge electrodes (needles). The results indicated that increasing the applied voltage from 6 to 15 kV, moisture ratio (MR) decreased, though energy efficiency and energy consumption were increasing. On the other hand, field strength of 5.2 kV cm−1 was the optimal point in terms of MR. PMID:25493195

  8. Optimization on drying conditions of a solar electrohydrodynamic drying system based on desirability concept.

    PubMed

    Dalvand, Mohammad Jafar; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Rafiee, Shahin

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to present a new drying method for agricultural products. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) has been applied for drying of agricultural materials due to several advantages such as energy saving, low cost equipment, low drying temperatures, and superior material quality. To evaluate this method, an EHD dryer based on solar (photovoltaic) energy was designed and fabricated. Moreover, the optimum condition for the EHD drying of kiwi fruit was studied by applying the Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology. The desirability function was applied for optimization in case of single objective and multiobjective functions. By using the multiobjective optimization method, maximum desirability value of 0.865 was obtained based on the following: applied voltage of 15 kV, field strength of 5.2 kV cm(-1), without forced air stream, and finally a combination of 17 discharge electrodes (needles). The results indicated that increasing the applied voltage from 6 to 15 kV, moisture ratio (MR) decreased, though energy efficiency and energy consumption were increasing. On the other hand, field strength of 5.2 kV cm(-1) was the optimal point in terms of MR.

  9. Epigallocatechin Gallate-Loaded Gelatin-g-Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide) as a New Ophthalmic Pharmaceutical Formulation for Topical Use in the Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li-Jyuan; Lai, Jui-Yang

    2017-08-24

    Given that biodegradable in situ gelling delivery systems may have potential applications in the design of ophthalmic pharmaceutical formulations, this study, for the first time, aims to develop gelatin-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (GN) carriers for topical epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) administration in the treatment of dry eye disease (DED). By temperature triggered sol-gel phase transition of copolymers, EGCG-loaded GN was prepared at 32 °C and characterized by FTIR, NMR, and HPLC analyses. Results of WST-1 and live/dead assays showed that GN materials have good compatibility with corneal epithelial cells. Gradual biodegradation of delivery carriers allowed sustained release of EGCG without drug toxicity. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity studies also indicated effective therapeutic drug levels at each time point within 3 days of release. In a rabbit dry eye model, corneal epithelial defects was ameliorated by treatment with single-dose administration of EGCG-containing GN. Furthermore, drug molecules released from carrier materials could prevent further tear evaporation and loss of mucin-secreting goblet cells in diseased animals. Our findings suggest that GN carrier is responsible for enhanced pharmacological efficacy of topically instilled EGCG, thereby demonstrating the benefits of using biodegradable in situ gelling delivery system to overcome the drawbacks of limited dry eye relief associated with eye drop dosage form.

  10. 40 CFR 405.120 - Applicability; description of the dry whey subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... whey subcategory. 405.120 Section 405.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dry Whey Subcategory § 405.120 Applicability; description of the dry whey subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. Botulinum toxin a in the treatment of chronic tension-type headache with cervical myofascial trigger points: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Harden, R Norman; Cottrill, Jerod; Gagnon, Christine M; Smitherman, Todd A; Weinland, Stephan R; Tann, Beverley; Joseph, Petra; Lee, Thomas S; Houle, Timothy T

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin A (BT-A) as a prophylactic treatment for chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) with myofascial trigger points (MTPs) producing referred head pain. Although BT-A has received mixed support for the treatment of TTH, deliberate injection directly into the cervical MTPs very often found in this population has not been formally evaluated. Patients with CTTH and specific MTPs producing referred head pain were assigned randomly to receive intramuscular injections of BT-A or isotonic saline (placebo) in a double-blind design. Daily headache diaries, pill counts, trigger point pressure algometry, range of motion assessment, and responses to standardized pain and psychological questionnaires were used as outcome measures; patients returned for follow-up assessment at 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months post injection. After 3 months, all patients were offered participation in an open-label extension of the study. Effect sizes were calculated to index treatment effects among the intent-to-treat population; individual time series models were computed for average pain intensity. The 23 participants reported experiencing headache on a near-daily basis (average of 27 days/month). Compared with placebo, patients in the BT-A group reported greater reductions in headache frequency during the first part of the study (P = .013), but these effects dissipated by week 12. Reductions in headache intensity over time did not differ significantly between groups (P = .80; maximum d = 0.13), although a larger proportion of BT-A patients showed evidence of statistically significant improvements in headache intensity in the time series analyses (62.5% for BT-A vs 30% for placebo). There were no differences between the groups on any of the secondary outcome measures. The evidence for BT-A in headache is mixed, and even more so in CTTH. However, the putative technique of injecting BT-A directly into the ubiquitous MTPs in CTTH is partially supported

  12. Triggerable electro-optic amplitude modulator bias stabilizer for integrated optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Conder, A.D.; Haigh, R.E.; Hugenberg, K.F.

    1995-09-26

    An improved Mach-Zehnder integrated optical electro-optic modulator is achieved by application and incorporation of a DC bias box containing a laser synchronized trigger circuit, a DC ramp and hold circuit, a modulator transfer function negative peak detector circuit, and an adjustable delay circuit. The DC bias box ramps the DC bias along the transfer function curve to any desired phase or point of operation at which point the RF modulation takes place. 7 figs.

  13. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.150 Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  14. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180 Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  15. Triggered creep as a possible mechanism for delayed dynamic triggering of tremor and earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelly, David R.; Peng, Zhigang; Hill, David P.; Aiken, Chastity

    2011-01-01

    The passage of radiating seismic waves generates transient stresses in the Earth's crust that can trigger slip on faults far away from the original earthquake source. The triggered fault slip is detectable in the form of earthquakes and seismic tremor. However, the significance of these triggered events remains controversial, in part because they often occur with some delay, long after the triggering stress has passed. Here we scrutinize the location and timing of tremor on the San Andreas fault between 2001 and 2010 in relation to distant earthquakes. We observe tremor on the San Andreas fault that is initiated by passing seismic waves, yet migrates along the fault at a much slower velocity than the radiating seismic waves. We suggest that the migrating tremor records triggered slow slip of the San Andreas fault as a propagating creep event. We find that the triggered tremor and fault creep can be initiated by distant earthquakes as small as magnitude 5.4 and can persist for several days after the seismic waves have passed. Our observations of prolonged tremor activity provide a clear example of the delayed dynamic triggering of seismic events. Fault creep has been shown to trigger earthquakes, and we therefore suggest that the dynamic triggering of prolonged fault creep could provide a mechanism for the delayed triggering of earthquakes. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. Immediate and short-term effects of the combination of dry needling and percutaneous TENS on post-needling soreness in patients with chronic myofascial neck pain

    PubMed Central

    León-Hernández, Jose V.; Martín-Pintado-Zugasti, Aitor; Frutos, Laura G.; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel M.; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana I.; Fernandez-Carnero, Josue

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Dry needling (DN) and percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS) are widely used techniques in the treatment of myofascial pain. Objective To investigate the immediate and short-term effects of the combination of DN and PENS compared to DN alone on the upper trapezius muscle. Method This is a 72-hour follow-up single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Sixty-two volunteer patients with chronic myofascial neck pain with active Myofascial Trigger Points (MTrPs) in the upper trapezius muscle were recruited. Randomization was performed, and 31 patients received DN treatment (DN group) and 31 received DN and PENS (DN+PENS group). The primary outcomes were neck disability index (NDI) and visual analog scale for pain for both post-needling soreness (PNS) and neck pain intensity (NPI). Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and cervical range of motion (CROM) were the secondary outcomes. Results We detected between-group differences in NPI and PNS in favor of the DN+PENS group immediately after treatment. No between-group differences in NDI were observed. Conclusion PENS application after dry needling treatment is more effective than dry needling alone for decreasing soreness in the short term and improving neck pain intensity immediately in patients with myofascial chronic neck pain. PMID:27410163

  17. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in common shoulder disorders by physical therapy: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN75722066].

    PubMed

    Bron, Carel; Wensing, Michel; Franssen, Jo Lm; Oostendorp, Rob Ab

    2007-11-05

    Shoulder disorders are a common health problem in western societies. Several treatment protocols have been developed for the clinical management of persons with shoulder pain. However available evidence does not support any protocol as being superior over others. Systematic reviews provide some evidence that certain physical therapy interventions (i.e. supervised exercises and mobilisation) are effective in particular shoulder disorders (i.e. rotator cuff disorders, mixed shoulder disorders and adhesive capsulitis), but there is an ongoing need for high quality trials of physical therapy interventions. Usually, physical therapy consists of active exercises intended to strengthen the shoulder muscles as stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint or perform mobilisations to improve restricted mobility of the glenohumeral or adjacent joints (shoulder girdle). It is generally accepted that a-traumatic shoulder problems are the result of impingement of the subacromial structures, such as the bursa or rotator cuff tendons. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in shoulder muscles may also lead to a complex of symptoms that are often seen in patients diagnosed with subacromial impingement or rotator cuff tendinopathy. Little is known about the treatment of MTrPs in patients with shoulder disorders.The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether physical therapy modalities to inactivate MTrPs can reduce symptoms and improve shoulder function in daily activities in a population of chronic a-traumatic shoulder patients when compared to a wait-and-see strategy. In addition we investigate the recurrence rate during a one-year-follow-up period. This paper presents the design for a randomized controlled trial to be conducted between September 2007 - September 2008, evaluating the effectiveness of a physical therapy treatment for non-traumatic shoulder complaints. One hundred subjects are included in this study. All subjects have unilateral shoulder pain for at least six months

  18. Triggers of oral lichen planus flares and the potential role of trigger avoidance in disease management.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hannah X; Blasiak, Rachel; Kim, Edwin; Padilla, Ricardo; Culton, Donna A

    2017-09-01

    Many patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) report triggers of flares, some of which overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, including oral allergy syndrome and oral contact dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of commonly reported triggers of OLP flares, their overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, and the potential role of trigger avoidance as a management strategy. Questionnaire-based survey of 51 patients with biopsy-proven lichen planus with oral involvement seen in an academic dermatology specialty clinic and/or oral pathology clinic between June 2014 and June 2015. Of the participants, 94% identified at least one trigger of their OLP flares. Approximately half of the participants (51%) reported at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral allergy syndrome, and 63% identified at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral contact dermatitis. Emotional stress was the most commonly reported trigger (77%). Regarding avoidance, 79% of the study participants reported avoiding their known triggers in daily life. Of those who actively avoided triggers, 89% reported an improvement in symptoms and 70% reported a decrease in the frequency of flares. Trigger identification and avoidance can play a potentially effective role in the management of OLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Arctic climate tipping points.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the Arctic are briefly reviewed. Then, the current behaviour of a range of Arctic systems is summarised. Looking ahead, a range of potential tipping phenomena are described. This leads to a revised and expanded list of potential Arctic climate tipping elements, whose likelihood is assessed, in terms of how much warming will be required to tip them. Finally, the available responses are considered, especially the prospects for avoiding Arctic climate tipping points.

  20. Regional dry-season climate changes due to three decades of Amazonian deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Jaya; Medvigy, David; Fueglistaler, Stephan; Walko, Robert

    2017-02-01

    More than 20% of the Amazon rainforest has been cleared in the past three decades, triggering important hydroclimatic changes. Small-scale (a few kilometres) deforestation in the 1980s has caused thermally triggered atmospheric circulations that increase regional cloudiness and precipitation frequency. However, these circulations are predicted to diminish as deforestation increases. Here we use multi-decadal satellite records and numerical model simulations to show a regime shift in the regional hydroclimate accompanying increasing deforestation in Rondônia, Brazil. Compared with the 1980s, present-day deforested areas in downwind western Rondônia are found to be wetter than upwind eastern deforested areas during the local dry season. The resultant precipitation change in the two regions is approximately +/-25% of the deforested area mean. Meso-resolution simulations robustly reproduce this transition when forced with increasing deforestation alone, showing that large-scale climate variability plays a negligible role. Furthermore, deforestation-induced surface roughness reduction is found to play an essential role in the present-day dry-season hydroclimate. Our study illustrates the strong scale sensitivity of the climatic response to Amazonian deforestation and suggests that deforestation is sufficiently advanced to have caused a shift from a thermally to a dynamically driven hydroclimatic regime.

  1. [Textural research on the origin and evolution of the"theory of drying dampness"and its initiator].

    PubMed

    Zhou, X M; Hu, J P

    2016-07-28

    There are two different records, namely,"vulnerability to dampness in autumn"and"dryness prevailing"in autumn, in the Neijing ( Inner Canon ). In the Jin and Yuan Dynasties, Liu Wansu supplemented the pathogenesis of dryness pathogen, whereas Wang Andao explained the contradictory records in the Neijing . In the Qing Dynasty, Yu Chang definitely challenged the theory"vulnerability to dampness in autumn"of the Neijing ,triggering a debate on the recognition of"drying dampness". In fact, Yu Guopei was the initiator of"theory of drying dampness", who discussed the nature of Yin and Yang of"drying dampness"based on the laws of correspondence between human body and natural environment, elucidating that drying dampness should be the root of both exogenous disease and internal damage, and elaborating the etiology and pathogenesis of"drying dampness", the diagnosis and the nature of the drugs for drying dampness. Shi Shoutang inherited Yu's theory and made a further development. In modern times, some scholars advocated that"drying dampness"should be consideredalong with Yin and Yang, superficies and interior, excess and deficiency, cold and heat, as the guiding principle for syndrome differentiation.

  2. Defining a procedure for predicting the duration of the approximately isothermal segments within the proposed drying regime as a function of the drying air parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasić, M.; Radojević, Z.

    2017-08-01

    One of the main disadvantages of the recently reported method, for setting up the drying regime based on the theory of moisture migration during drying, lies in a fact that it is based on a large number of isothermal experiments. In addition each isothermal experiment requires the use of different drying air parameters. The main goal of this paper was to find a way how to reduce the number of isothermal experiments without affecting the quality of the previously proposed calculation method. The first task was to define the lower and upper inputs as well as the output of the “black box” which will be used in the Box-Wilkinson’s orthogonal multi-factorial experimental design. Three inputs (drying air temperature, humidity and velocity) were used within the experimental design. The output parameter of the model represents the time interval between any two chosen characteristic points presented on the Deff - t. The second task was to calculate the output parameter for each planed experiments. The final output of the model is the equation which can predict the time interval between any two chosen characteristic points as a function of the drying air parameters. This equation is valid for any value of the drying air parameters which are within the defined area designated with lower and upper limiting values.

  3. The Topo-trigger: a new concept of stereo trigger system for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Coto, R.; Mazin, D.; Paoletti, R.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Cortina, J.

    2016-04-01

    Imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) such as the Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes endeavor to reach the lowest possible energy threshold. In doing so the trigger system is a key element. Reducing the trigger threshold is hampered by the rapid increase of accidental triggers generated by ambient light (the so-called Night Sky Background NSB). In this paper we present a topological trigger, dubbed Topo-trigger, which rejects events on the basis of their relative orientation in the telescope cameras. We have simulated and tested the trigger selection algorithm in the MAGIC telescopes. The algorithm was tested using MonteCarlo simulations and shows a rejection of 85% of the accidental stereo triggers while preserving 99% of the gamma rays. A full implementation of this trigger system would achieve an increase in collection area between 10 and 20% at the energy threshold. The analysis energy threshold of the instrument is expected to decrease by ~ 8%. The selection algorithm was tested on real MAGIC data taken with the current trigger configuration and no γ-like events were found to be lost.

  4. Multiple active myofascial trigger points and pressure pain sensitivity maps in the temporalis muscle are related in women with chronic tension type headache.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Caminero, Ana B; Madeleine, Pascal; Guillem-Mesado, Amparo; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    To describe the common locations of active trigger points (TrPs) in the temporalis muscle and their referred pain patterns in chronic tension type headache (CTTH), and to determine if pressure sensitivity maps of this muscle can be used to describe the spatial distribution of active TrPs. Forty women with CTTH were included. An electronic pressure algometer was used to assess pressure pain thresholds (PPT) from 9 points over each temporalis muscle: 3 points in the anterior, medial and posterior part, respectively. Both muscles were examined for the presence of active TrPs over each of the 9 points. The referred pain pattern of each active TrP was assessed. Two-way analysis of variance detected significant differences in mean PPT levels between the measurement points (F=30.3; P<0.001), but not between sides (F=2.1; P=0.2). PPT scores decreased from the posterior to the anterior column (P<0.001). No differences were found in the number of active TrPs (F=0.3; P=0.9) between the dominant side the nondominant side. Significant differences were found in the distribution of the active TrPs (chi2=12.2; P<0.001): active TrPs were mostly found in the anterior column and in the middle of the muscle belly. The analysis of variance did not detect significant differences in the referred pain pattern between active TrPs (F=1.1, P=0.4). The topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps showed the distinct distribution of the TrPs indicated by locations with low PPTs. Multiple active TrPs in the temporalis muscle were found, particularly in the anterior column and in the middle of the muscle belly. Bilateral posterior to anterior decreased distribution of PPTs in the temporalis muscle in women with CTTH was found. The locations of active TrPs in the temporalis muscle corresponded well to the muscle areas with lower PPT, supporting the relationship between multiple active muscle TrPs and topographical pressure sensitivity maps in the temporalis muscle in women with CTTH.

  5. Predictors of upper trapezius pain with myofascial trigger points in food service workers: The STROBE study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ui-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Ha, Sung-Min

    2017-06-01

    Shoulder pain occurs commonly in food service workers (FSWs) who repetitively perform motions of the upper limbs. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) on the upper trapezius (UT) are among the most common musculoskeletal shoulder pain syndromes. This study determined the psychological, posture, mobility, and strength factors associated with pain severity in FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs.In this cross-sectional study, we measured 17 variables in 163 FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs: a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, age, sex, Borg rating of perceived exertion (BRPE) scale, beck depression inventory, forward head posture angle, rounded shoulder angle (RSA), shoulder slope angle, scapular downward rotation ratio, cervical lateral-bending side difference angle, cervical rotation side difference angle, glenohumeral internal rotation angle, shoulder horizontal adduction angle, serratus anterior (SA) strength, lower trapezius (LT) strength, bicep strength, and glenohumeral external rotator strength, in 163 FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs.The model for factors influencing UT pain with MTrPs included SA strength, age, BRPE, LT strength, and RSA as predictor variables that accounted for 68.7% of the variance in VAS (P < .001) in multiple regression models with a stepwise selection procedure. The following were independent variables influencing the VAS in the order of standardized coefficients: SA strength (β = -0.380), age (β = 0.287), BRPE (β = 0.239), LT strength (β = -0.195), and RSA (β = 0.125).SA strength, age, BRPE, LT strength, and RSA variables should be considered when evaluating and intervening in UT pain with MTrPs in FSWs.

  6. Causality and headache triggers

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  7. Photon-triggered nanowire transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungkil; Lee, Hoo-Cheol; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Min-Soo; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Jung Min; So, Jae-Pil; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Kwon, Soon-Hong; Barrelet, Carl J.; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2017-10-01

    Photon-triggered electronic circuits have been a long-standing goal of photonics. Recent demonstrations include either all-optical transistors in which photons control other photons or phototransistors with the gate response tuned or enhanced by photons. However, only a few studies report on devices in which electronic currents are optically switched and amplified without an electrical gate. Here we show photon-triggered nanowire (NW) transistors, photon-triggered NW logic gates and a single NW photodetection system. NWs are synthesized with long crystalline silicon (CSi) segments connected by short porous silicon (PSi) segments. In a fabricated device, the electrical contacts on both ends of the NW are connected to a single PSi segment in the middle. Exposing the PSi segment to light triggers a current in the NW with a high on/off ratio of >8 × 106. A device that contains two PSi segments along the NW can be triggered using two independent optical input signals. Using localized pump lasers, we demonstrate photon-triggered logic gates including AND, OR and NAND gates. A photon-triggered NW transistor of diameter 25 nm with a single 100 nm PSi segment requires less than 300 pW of power. Furthermore, we take advantage of the high photosensitivity and fabricate a submicrometre-resolution photodetection system. Photon-triggered transistors offer a new venue towards multifunctional device applications such as programmable logic elements and ultrasensitive photodetectors.

  8. Photon-triggered nanowire transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungkil; Lee, Hoo-Cheol; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Min-Soo; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Jung Min; So, Jae-Pil; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Kwon, Soon-Hong; Barrelet, Carl J; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2017-10-01

    Photon-triggered electronic circuits have been a long-standing goal of photonics. Recent demonstrations include either all-optical transistors in which photons control other photons or phototransistors with the gate response tuned or enhanced by photons. However, only a few studies report on devices in which electronic currents are optically switched and amplified without an electrical gate. Here we show photon-triggered nanowire (NW) transistors, photon-triggered NW logic gates and a single NW photodetection system. NWs are synthesized with long crystalline silicon (CSi) segments connected by short porous silicon (PSi) segments. In a fabricated device, the electrical contacts on both ends of the NW are connected to a single PSi segment in the middle. Exposing the PSi segment to light triggers a current in the NW with a high on/off ratio of >8 × 10 6 . A device that contains two PSi segments along the NW can be triggered using two independent optical input signals. Using localized pump lasers, we demonstrate photon-triggered logic gates including AND, OR and NAND gates. A photon-triggered NW transistor of diameter 25 nm with a single 100 nm PSi segment requires less than 300 pW of power. Furthermore, we take advantage of the high photosensitivity and fabricate a submicrometre-resolution photodetection system. Photon-triggered transistors offer a new venue towards multifunctional device applications such as programmable logic elements and ultrasensitive photodetectors.

  9. The influence of Positional Release Therapy on the myofascial trigger points of the upper trapezius muscle in computer users.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi Kojidi, M; Okhovatian, F; Rahimi, A; Baghban, A A; Azimi, H

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Positional Release Therapy (PRT) in computer users via latent trigger points (LTrPs) of the upper trapezius muscle. Twenty-eight women with the upper trapezius MTrPs participated in this study. Subjects were randomly classified into two groups (14 in each group): the subjects in the Group 1 received PRT in shortened position while those in the group 2 received sham control in the neutral position of the upper trapezius muscle. They received three therapy sessions every other day for one week. The local pain intensity and Pressure pain threshold (PPT) were measured via Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and algometry, respectively, before interventions and repeated 5 min after the first and third treatment sessions in each group. One-way ANOVA was used for data analysis. After treatment, between groups comparison revealed that for PPT and VAS, there were significant differences between the two groups (VAS and PPT; P < 0.05). Both groups (PRT and sham control) showed alleviation of pain and increase in PPT during three sessions of therapy although PRT showed to be more effective in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Testing in Dry Eye Disease Using a Commercially Available Point-of-Care Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Messmer, Elisabeth M; von Lindenfels, Victoria; Garbe, Alexandra; Kampik, Anselm

    2016-11-01

    To measure matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in the tear film of patients with dry eye disease (DED) compared with controls and to correlate clinical findings. In a prospective study, 101 patients and controls underwent MMP-9 testing of the tear film. Thereafter, they were evaluated for symptoms and signs of DED. Included patients were those who showed 3 of the following 4 dry eye criteria: ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score of more than 12, tear film break-up time (TBUT) of 10 seconds or less, Schirmer test results without anesthesia of less than 10 mm/5 minutes, and corneal staining results of 1 or more. Fifty-four healthy eyes and 47 eyes fulfilling diagnostic criteria for DED of various levels of severity were included in this study. The tear film was analyzed for MMP-9 by a commercially available test (InflammaDry; Rapid Pathogen Screening, Inc, Sarasota, FL) detecting MMP-9 levels of more than 40 ng/ml. Symptoms and signs of DED were evaluated using the OSDI questionnaire, TBUT, conjunctival and corneal staining, Schirmer test results without anesthesia, and meibomian gland examination. These findings were correlated to results of the MMP-9 test in tears. Positive MMP-9 results in tears. In 19 of 47 patients confirmed with dry eye (40.4%) and in 3 of 54 controls (5.6%), the MMP-9 results were positive. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Thus, the MMP-9 results indicated a clinically significant inflammation in 40% of dry eye patients. Positive results correlated well with subjective symptoms of DED evaluated by OSDI (P = 0.001), TBUT of less than 5 seconds (P < 0.013), Schirmer test results (P < 0.001), conjunctival staining (P < 0.001), and corneal staining (P = 0.007). Moreover, MMP-9 results correlated with the number of obstructed meibomian ducts (P = 0.005) and a pathologic meibomian gland secretion (P = 0.001). The MMP-9 results were increased significantly in women (P < 0.001) and in patients with autoimmune disease

  11. Simulation of rockfalls triggered by earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kobayashi, Y.; Harp, E.L.; Kagawa, T.

    1990-01-01

    A computer program to simulate the downslope movement of boulders in rolling or bouncing modes has been developed and applied to actual rockfalls triggered by the Mammoth Lakes, California, earthquake sequence in 1980 and the Central Idaho earthquake in 1983. In order to reproduce a movement mode where bouncing predominated, we introduced an artificial unevenness to the slope surface by adding a small random number to the interpolated value of the mid-points between the adjacent surveyed points. Three hundred simulations were computed for each site by changing the random number series, which determined distances and bouncing intervals. The movement of the boulders was, in general, rather erratic depending on the random numbers employed, and the results could not be seen as deterministic but stochastic. The closest agreement between calculated and actual movements was obtained at the site with the most detailed and accurate topographic measurements. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  12. AMY trigger system

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sakai, Yoshihide

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  13. Developing a pulse trigger generator for a three-electrode spark-gap switch in a transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyuan; Guo, Lihong; Zhang, Xingliang

    2016-04-01

    To improve the probability and stability of breakdown discharge in a three-electrode spark-gap switch for a high-power transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser and to improve the efficiency of its trigger system, we developed a high-voltage pulse trigger generator based on a two-transistor forward converter topology and a multiple-narrow-pulse trigger method. Our design uses a narrow high-voltage pulse (10 μs) to break down the hyperbaric gas between electrodes of the spark-gap switch; a dry high-voltage transformer is used as a booster; and a sampling and feedback control circuit (mainly consisting of a SG3525 and a CD4098) is designed to monitor the spark-gap switch and control the frequency and the number of output pulses. Our experimental results show that this pulse trigger generator could output high-voltage pulses (number is adjusted) with an amplitude of >38 kV and a width of 10 μs. Compared to a conventional trigger system, our design had a breakdown probability increased by 2.7%, an input power reduced by 1.5 kW, an efficiency increased by 0.12, and a loss reduced by 1.512 kW.

  14. Microbial analysis and survey test of gamma-irradiated freeze-dried fruits for patient's food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Nam; Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong; Byun, Eui-Baek; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Kyung-A.; Son, Eun-Joo; Lyu, Eun-Soon

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the microbiological and organoleptic qualities of gamma-irradiated freeze-dried apples, pears, strawberries, pineapples, and grapes, and evaluated the organoleptic acceptability of the sterilized freeze-dried fruits for hospitalized patients. The freeze-dried fruits were gamma-irradiated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 12, and 15 kGy, and their quality was evaluated. Microorganisms were not detected in apples after 1 kGy, in strawberries and pears after 4 kGy, in pineapples after 5 kGy, and in grapes after 12 kGy of gamma irradiation. The overall acceptance score, of the irradiated freeze-dried fruits on a 7-point scale at the sterilization doses was 5.5, 4.2, 4.0, 4.1, and 5.1 points for apples, strawberries, pears, pineapples, and grapes, respectively. The sensory survey of the hospitalized cancer patients (N=102) resulted in scores of 3.8, 3.7, 3.9, 3.9, and 3.7 on a 5-point scale for the gamma-irradiated freeze-dried apples, strawberries, pears, pineapples, and grapes, respectively. The results suggest that freeze-dried fruits can be sterilized with a dose of 5 kGy, except for grapes, which require a dose of 12 kGy, and that the organoleptic quality of the fruits is acceptable to immuno-compromised patients. However, to clarify the microbiological quality and safety of freeze-dried fruits should be verified by plating for both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms.

  15. Impact of an Unusual Dry Spell on the Energy Balance of a Residential Neighbourhood in a Tropical City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, E.; Harshan, S.; Roth, M.

    2014-12-01

    Singapore experienced an unprecedented 2-month dry spell at the beginning of 2014. A paltry 0.2 mm of rain in February, compared to the long-term monthly average of 161 mm, resulted in the driest month since 1869. Clear symptoms of water stress were observed in the evergreen vegetation of Singapore's garden city, a number of bush fires broke out in vegetated areas, water reservoirs shrank substantially in size, and the dry weather in the region triggered wildfires in neighboring countries. The fires in peninsular Malaysia combined with the prevailing north-easterly winds generated hazy conditions with subsequent deterioration of the local air quality. In response to this rare climatological event, and contrary to other countries in the region, little action was taken to preserve water in Singapore. Water consumption actually increased 5%, likely due to increased bathing for relief during the hot and hazy days and increased watering of managed green spaces. The reasons which resulted in increased water consumption are investigated in this paper from a climatological point of view. Using eddy covariance flux measurements of the different radiative and non-radiate (latent and sensible heat) fluxes conducted over a low-rise neighborhood, the changes in the components of the energy balance associated with the dry spell are investigated. An increase of 17% in net radiation and drier daytime conditions produced an increase of 45% in sensible and reduction of 14% in latent heat fluxes, respectively. The heat stored in the urban canopy increased by 3% compared to previous years. Although the projected impacts of climate change for Singapore are uncertain, an increase in frequency of dry periods like the 2014 episode are possible in Southeast Asia. A holistic approach, which includes aspects of the urban microclimate, is necessary to implement effective measures to reduce water demand and assure the water resilience of Singapore.

  16. 40 CFR 406.20 - Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory. 406.20 Section 406.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling...

  17. 40 CFR 417.170 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. 417.170 Section 417.170 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.170 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  18. The trigger mechanism of low-frequency earthquakes on Montserrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberg, J. W.; Tuffen, H.; Collier, L.; Green, D.; Powell, T.; Dingwell, D.

    2006-05-01

    A careful analysis of low-frequency seismic events on Soufrièere Hills volcano, Montserrat, points to a source mechanism that is non-destructive, repetitive, and has a stationary source location. By combining these seismological clues with new field evidence and numerical magma flow modelling, we propose a seismic trigger model which is based on brittle failure of magma in the glass transition. Loss of heat and gas from the magma results in a strong viscosity gradient across a dyke or conduit. This leads to a build-up of shear stress near the conduit wall where magma can rupture in a brittle manner, as field evidence from a rhyolitic dyke demonstrates. This brittle failure provides seismic energy, the majority of which is trapped in the conduit or dyke forming the low-frequency coda of the observed seismic signal. The trigger source location marks the transition from ductile conduit flow to friction-controlled magma ascent. As the trigger mechanism is governed by the depth-dependent magma parameters, the source location remains fixed at a depth where the conditions allow brittle failure. This is reflected in the fixed seismic source locations.

  19. The cellular mechanisms of dry eye: from pathogenesis to treatment.

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Flavio; Massaro-Giordano, Mina; Macchi, Ilaria; Lambiase, Alessandro; Bonini, Stefano

    2013-12-01

    Dry eye is a complex disease characterized by changes in the ocular surface epithelia related to reduced quality and/or quantity of tears, inflammatory reaction, and impairment of ocular surface sensitivity. It has recently been proposed that increased tear osmolarity represents a main trigger to the altered cellular mechanisms leading to epithelial damage in dry eye. However, dry eye pathogenesis is multifactorial, with cytotoxic inflammatory mediators, altered lacrimal gland secretion and nerve function, squamous metaplasia of the conjunctival epithelium and decrease of goblet cells density, all playing a role in a detrimental loop that perpetuates and worsens damage to the corneal and conjunctival epithelia. Current topical treatments for dry eye patients include the use of lubricants and anti-inflammatory drugs. However, lubricants only improve symptoms temporarily, and chronic use of topical steroids is associated to severe ocular side effects such as cataract and glaucoma. The deeper understanding of the cellular mechanisms that are altered in dry eye is opening novel perspectives for patients and physicians, who are seeking treatments capable not only of improving symptoms but also of restoring the homeostasis of the ocular surface. In this review, we will focus on novel anti-inflammatory agents and on nerve growth factor, a neurotrophin that is altered in dry eye and has been suggested as a main player in the neuroimmune cross-talk of the ocular surface as well as in the stimulation of corneal sensitivity, epithelial proliferation and differentiation, and stimulation of mucin production by goblet cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 228: 2253-2256, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. 16. Detail, lower chord connection point on downstream side at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail, lower chord connection point on downstream side at end panel showing lower chord eye bars, vertical tension eye bar, original and supplemental floor beams, turnbuckled lower laterals. View to northwest. - Dry Creek Bridge, Spanning Dry Creek at Cook Road, Ione, Amador County, CA

  1. Stabilization of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines by Freeze Drying, Spray Drying, and Foam Drying.

    PubMed

    Lovalenti, Phillip M; Anderl, Jeff; Yee, Luisa; Nguyen, Van; Ghavami, Behnaz; Ohtake, Satoshi; Saxena, Atul; Voss, Thomas; Truong-Le, Vu

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this research is to develop stable formulations for live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) by employing the drying methods freeze drying, spray drying, and foam drying. Formulated live attenuated Type-A H1N1 and B-strain influenza vaccines with a variety of excipient combinations were dried using one of the three drying methods. Process and storage stability at 4, 25 and 37°C of the LAIV in these formulations was monitored using a TCID50 potency assay. Their immunogenicity was also evaluated in a ferret model. The thermal stability of H1N1 vaccine was significantly enhanced through application of unique formulation combinations and drying processes. Foam dried formulations were as much as an order of magnitude more stable than either spray dried or freeze dried formulations, while exhibiting low process loss and full retention of immunogenicity. Based on long-term stability data, foam dried formulations exhibited a shelf life at 4, 25 and 37°C of >2, 1.5 years and 4.5 months, respectively. Foam dried LAIV Type-B manufactured using the same formulation and process parameters as H1N1 were imparted with a similar level of stability. Foam drying processing methods with appropriate selection of formulation components can produce an order of magnitude improvement in LAIV stability over other drying methods.

  2. 40 CFR 406.20 - Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the corn... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.20 Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory. (a) The provisions of...

  3. Unique concurrent observations of whistler mode hiss, chorus, and triggered emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Poorya; Gołkowski, Mark; Turner, Drew L.

    2017-06-01

    We present a unique 2 h ground-based observation of concurrent magnetospheric hiss, chorus, VLF triggered emissions as well as ELF/VLF signals generated locally by the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility. Eccentricity of observed wave polarization is used as a criteria to identify magnetospheric emissions and estimate their ionospheric exit points. The observations of hiss and chorus in the unique background of coherent HAARP ELF/VLF waves and triggered emissions allow for more accurate characterization of hiss and chorus properties than in typical ground-based observations. Eccentricity and azimuth results suggest a moving ionospheric exit point associated with a single ducted path at L 5. The emissions exhibit dynamics in time suggesting an evolution of a magnetospheric source from hiss generation to chorus generation or a moving plasmapause location. We introduce a frequency band-limited autocorrelation method to quantify the relative coherency of the emissions. A range of coherency was observed from high order of coherency in local HAARP transmissions and their echoes to lower coherency in natural chorus and hiss emissions.

  4. 40 CFR 428.90 - Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.90 Section 428.90 Protection of... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pan, Dry Digestion, and Mechanical Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.90 Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. The...

  5. 40 CFR 428.90 - Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.90 Section 428.90 Protection of... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pan, Dry Digestion, and Mechanical Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.90 Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. The...

  6. Headache triggers in the US military.

    PubMed

    Theeler, Brett J; Kenney, Kimbra; Prokhorenko, Olga A; Fideli, Ulgen S; Campbell, William; Erickson, Jay C

    2010-05-01

    Headaches can be triggered by a variety of factors. Military service members have a high prevalence of headache but the factors triggering headaches in military troops have not been identified. The objective of this study is to determine headache triggers in soldiers and military beneficiaries seeking specialty care for headaches. A total of 172 consecutive US Army soldiers and military dependents (civilians) evaluated at the headache clinics of 2 US Army Medical Centers completed a standardized questionnaire about their headache triggers. A total of 150 (87%) patients were active-duty military members and 22 (13%) patients were civilians. In total, 77% of subjects had migraine; 89% of patients reported at least one headache trigger with a mean of 8.3 triggers per patient. A wide variety of headache triggers was seen with the most common categories being environmental factors (74%), stress (67%), consumption-related factors (60%), and fatigue-related factors (57%). The types of headache triggers identified in active-duty service members were similar to those seen in civilians. Stress-related triggers were significantly more common in soldiers. There were no significant differences in trigger types between soldiers with and without a history of head trauma. Headaches in military service members are triggered mostly by the same factors as in civilians with stress being the most common trigger. Knowledge of headache triggers may be useful for developing strategies that reduce headache occurrence in the military.

  7. Microbe associated molecular patterns from rhizosphere bacteria trigger germination and Papaver somniferum metabolism under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, A; Sarria, A L F; Algar, E; Muñoz Ledesma, F J; Ramos Solano, B; Fernandes, J B; Gutierrez Mañero, F J

    2014-01-01

    Ten PGPR from different backgrounds were assayed on Papaver somniferum var. Madrigal to evaluate their potential as biotic elicitors to increase alkaloid content under the rationale that some microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) are able to trigger plant metabolism. First, the 10 strains and their culture media at two different concentrations were tested for their ability to trigger seed germination. Then, the best three strains were tested for their ability to increase seedling growth and alkaloid levels under greenhouse conditions. Only three strains and their culture media enhanced germination. Then, germination enhancing capacity of these best three strains, N5.18 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aur9 Chryseobacterium balustinum and N21.4 Pseudomonas fluorescens was evaluated in soil. Finally, the three strains were applied on seedlings at two time points, by soil drench or by foliar spray. Photosynthesis was measured, plant height was recorded, capsules were weighted and alkaloids analyzed by HPLC. Only N5.18 delivered by foliar spray significantly increased plant height coupled to an increase in total alkaloids and a significant increase in opium poppy straw dry weight; these increases were supported by a better photosynthetic efficiency. The relative contents of morphine, thebaine, codeine and oripavine were affected by this treatment causing a significant increase in morphine coupled to a decrease in thebaine, demonstrating the effectivity of MAMPs from N5.18 in this plant species. Considering the increase in capsule biomass and alkaloids together with the acceleration of germination, strain N5.18 appears as a good candidate to elicit plant metabolism and consequently, to increase productivity of Papaver somniferum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. The CMS trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Damiao, D. De Jesus; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; El Sawy, M.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Jain, Sa.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Chowdhury, S. Roy; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Kothekar, K.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Najafabadi, M. Mohammadi; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellato, M.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Montecassiano, F.; Passaseo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Pegoraro, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Ali, M. A. B. Md; Mohamad Idris, F.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Yusli, M. N.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. 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    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, τ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  9. Changes in pressure pain sensitivity in latent myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle after a cervical spine manipulation in pain-free subjects.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sáez, Mariana; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Blanco, Cleofás Rodríguez; Martínez-Segura, Raquel; García-León, Rafael

    2007-10-01

    This study analyzed the immediate effects on pressure pain threshold (PPT) in latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the upper trapezius muscle of a single cervical spine manipulation directed at the C3 through C4 level. Seventy-two volunteers (27 men and 46 women; mean age, 31 years; SD, 10 years) participated in this study. Subjects underwent a screening process to establish both the presence of MTrPs in the upper trapezius muscle as described by Simons et al (Myofascial pain and dysfunction: the trigger point manual, vol 2. 3rd ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1999. p. 23-34) and the presence of intervertebral joint dysfunction at the C3 through C4 level by the lateral gliding test for the cervical spine. Subjects were divided randomly into 2 groups: manipulative group, which received a cervical spine manipulation directed at the C3 through C4 level, and a placebo group, which received a sham manual procedure. The outcome measure was the PPT on the MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle ipsilateral to the side of the joint dysfunction, which was assessed pretreatment and 1, 5, and 10 minutes posttreatment by an assessor blinded to the treatment allocation of the subject. The analysis of variance showed a significant effect for time (F = 5.157; P = .02) but not for side (F = 0.234; P = .63). Furthermore, an interaction between group and time was also found (F = 37.240; P < .001). The experimental group showed a trend toward an increase in PPT levels after the manipulative procedure, whereas the control group showed a trend toward a decrease in PPT. Positive within-group effect sizes ranging from medium to small were found in the manipulative group (0.1

  10. Image-guided automatic triggering of a fractional CO2 laser in aesthetic procedures.

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, Sławomir; Koprowski, Robert; Wiernek, Barbara K; Błońska-Fajfrowska, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Laser procedures in dermatology and aesthetic medicine are associated with the need for manual laser triggering. This leads to pulse overlapping and side effects. Automatic laser triggering based on image analysis can provide a secure fit to each successive doses of radiation. A fractional CO2 laser was used in the study. 500 images of the human skin of healthy subjects were acquired. Automatic triggering was initiated by an application together with a camera which tracks and analyses the skin in visible light. The tracking algorithm uses the methods of image analysis to overlap images. After locating the characteristic points in analysed adjacent areas, the correspondence of graphs is found. The point coordinates derived from the images are the vertices of graphs with respect to which isomorphism is sought. When the correspondence of graphs is found, it is possible to overlap the neighbouring parts of the image. The proposed method of laser triggering owing to the automatic image fitting method allows for 100% repeatability. To meet this requirement, there must be at least 13 graph vertices obtained from the image. For this number of vertices, the time of analysis of a single image is less than 0.5s. The proposed method, applied in practice, may help reduce the number of side effects during dermatological laser procedures resulting from laser pulse overlapping. In addition, it reduces treatment time and enables to propose new techniques of treatment through controlled, precise laser pulse overlapping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stepwise drying of medicinal plants as alternative to reduce time and energy processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuervo-Andrade, S. P.; Hensel, O.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of drying medicinal plants is to extend the shelf life and conserving the fresh characteristics. This is achieved by reducing the water activity (aw) of the product to a value which will inhibit the growth and development of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, significantly reducing enzyme activity and the rate at which undesirable chemical reactions occur. The technical drying process requires an enormous amount of thermal and electrical energy. An improvement in the quality of the product to be dried and at the same time a decrease in the drying cost and time are achieved through the utilization of a controlled conventional drying method, which is based on a good utilization of the renewable energy or looking for other alternatives which achieve lower processing times without sacrificing the final product quality. In this work the method of stepwise drying of medicinal plants is presented as an alternative to the conventional drying that uses a constant temperature during the whole process. The objective of stepwise drying is the decrease of drying time and reduction in energy consumption. In this process, apart from observing the effects on decreases the effective drying process time and energy, the influence of the different combinations of drying phases on several characteristics of the product are considered. The tests were carried out with Melissa officinalis L. variety citronella, sowed in greenhouse. For the stepwise drying process different combinations of initial and final temperature, 40/50°C, are evaluated, with different transition points associated to different moisture contents (20, 30, 40% and 50%) of the product during the process. Final quality of dried foods is another important issue in food drying. Drying process has effect in quality attributes drying products. This study was determining the color changes and essential oil loses by reference the measurement of the color and essential oil content of the fresh product was

  12. 40 CFR 428.90 - Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.90 Section 428.90 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pan, Dry Digestion, and Mechanical Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.90 Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. The...

  13. 40 CFR 428.90 - Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.90 Section 428.90 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pan, Dry Digestion, and Mechanical Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.90 Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. The...

  14. 40 CFR 428.90 - Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.90 Section 428.90 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pan, Dry Digestion, and Mechanical Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.90 Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. The...

  15. Drying techniques for the visualisation of agarose-based chromatography media by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nweke, Mauryn C; Turmaine, Mark; McCartney, R Graham; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2017-03-01

    The drying of chromatography resins prior to scanning electron microscopy is critical to image resolution and hence understanding of the bead structure at sub-micron level. Achieving suitable drying conditions is especially important with agarose-based chromatography resins, as over-drying may cause artefact formation, bead damage and alterations to ultrastructural properties; and under-drying does not provide sufficient resolution for visualization under SEM. This paper compares and contrasts the effects of two drying techniques, critical point drying and freeze drying, on the morphology of two agarose based resins (MabSelect™/d w ≈85 µm and Capto™ Adhere/d w ≈75 µm) and provides a complete method for both. The results show that critical point drying provides better drying and subsequently clearer ultrastructural visualization of both resins under SEM. Under this protocol both the polymer fibers (thickness ≈20 nm) and the pore sizes (diameter ≈100 nm) are clearly visible. Freeze drying is shown to cause bead damage to both resins, but to different extents. MabSelect resin encounters extensive bead fragmentation, whilst Capto Adhere resin undergoes partial bead disintegration, corresponding with the greater extent of agarose crosslinking and strength of this resin. While freeze drying appears to be the less favorable option for ultrastructural visualization of chromatography resin, it should be noted that the extent of fracturing caused by the freeze drying process may provide some insight into the mechanical properties of agarose-based chromatography media. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Early warning of climate tipping points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, Timothy M.

    2011-07-01

    A climate 'tipping point' occurs when a small change in forcing triggers a strongly nonlinear response in the internal dynamics of part of the climate system, qualitatively changing its future state. Human-induced climate change could push several large-scale 'tipping elements' past a tipping point. Candidates include irreversible melt of the Greenland ice sheet, dieback of the Amazon rainforest and shift of the West African monsoon. Recent assessments give an increased probability of future tipping events, and the corresponding impacts are estimated to be large, making them significant risks. Recent work shows that early warning of an approaching climate tipping point is possible in principle, and could have considerable value in reducing the risk that they pose.

  17. Study on the fixed point in crustal deformation before strong earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, A.; Li, Y.; Yan, W. Mr

    2017-12-01

    earthquake rupture precursor. 1) The observations for crust deformation in natural conditions are different with dry and static experiments, and the former had the meaning of stress wave.2)The earthquake rupture has a special triggering mechanism that is different from the experiment with limited scale rock fracture.

  18. A Trigger Mechanism for Volcanic Low-Frequency Seismic Events on Montserrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberg, J. W.; Tuffen, H.; Jolly, A.; Green, D.

    2003-12-01

    Seismic observations of low-frequency earthquake swarms on Montserrat point to a non-destructive, repeatable source mechanism in a confined area inside or near the conduit. While the seismic wave propagation pattern of the subsequent resonance in and around the conduit is well studied, the trigger mechanism has remained elusive. In this contribution we suggest a trigger mechanism based on new field evidence for fracture and healing of magma in volcanic conduits, together with seismic observations from Montserrat and finite element modelling of magma deformation during conduit flow. As a seismic trigger we suggest a stick-slip motion of highly-viscous magma in the glass transition, that periodically generates networks of seismogenic shear fractures a few metres in length. These fractures are rapidly filled by fine-grained material [cataclasite] that is generated by friction processes on the fracture surfaces, such as corner abrasion, and is locally redeposited by gas flowing within the fracture system. Filled fractures are then swiftly healed as reloading leads to annealing and a return to cohesive viscous deformation. Such a fast healing process, probably on the order of tens of seconds, leads to a repeatable trigger mechanism. Due to a strong lateral viscosity gradient in the conduit, highly-viscous magma near the conduit walls, which can exhibit brittle behaviour, co-exists with low-viscosity, fluid magma in the conduit centre; such that brittle failure provides the seismic trigger mechanism while the fluid part can still act as a seismic resonator.

  19. Dry and Semi-Dry Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, T.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of dynamics in our real moist atmosphere is strongly informed by idealized dry models. It is widely believed that tropical cyclones (TCs) are an intrinsically moist phenomenon - relying fundamentally on evaporation and latent heat release - yet recent numerical modeling work has found formation of dry axisymmetric tropical cyclones from a state of dry radiative-convective equilibrium. What can such "dry hurricanes" teach us about intensity, structure, and size of real moist tropical cyclones in nature? Are dry TCs even stable in 3D? What about surfaces that are nearly dry but have some latent heat flux - can they also support TCs? To address these questions, we use the SAM cloud-system resolving model to simulate radiative-convective equilibrium on a rapidly rotating f-plane, subject to constant tropospheric radiative cooling. We use a homogeneous surface with fixed temperature and with surface saturation vapor pressure scaled by a factor 0-1 relative to that over pure water - allowing for continuous variation between moist and dry limits. We also explore cases with surface enthalpy fluxes that are uniform in space and time, where partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes is specified directly. We find that a completely moist surface yields a TC-world where multiple vortices form spontaneously and persist for tens of days. A completely dry surface can also yield a parallel dry TC-world with many vortices that are even more stable and persistent. Spontaneous cyclogenesis, however, is impeded for a range of low to intermediate surface wetness values, and by the combination of large rotation rates and a dry surface. We discuss whether these constraints on spontaneous cyclogenesis might arise from: 1) rain evaporation in the subcloud layer limiting the range of viable surface wetness values, and 2) a natural convective Rossby number limiting the range of viable rotation rates. Finally, we discuss simulations with uniform surface enthalpy

  20. Test-retest reliability of myofascial trigger point detection in hip and thigh areas.

    PubMed

    Rozenfeld, E; Finestone, A S; Moran, U; Damri, E; Kalichman, L

    2017-10-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrP's) are a primary source of pain in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Nevertheless, they are frequently underdiagnosed. Reliable MTrP palpation is the necessary for their diagnosis and treatment. The few studies that have looked for intra-tester reliability of MTrPs detection in upper body, provide preliminary evidence that MTrP palpation is reliable. Reliability tests for MTrP palpation on the lower limb have not yet been performed. To evaluate inter- and intra-tester reliability of MTrP recognition in hip and thigh muscles. Reliability study. 21 patients (15 males and 6 females, mean age 21.1 years) referred to the physical therapy clinic, 10 with knee or hip pain and 11 with pain in an upper limb, low back, shin or ankle. Two experienced physical therapists performed the examinations, blinded to the subjects' identity, medical condition and results of the previous MTrP evaluation. Each subject was evaluated four times, twice by each examiner in a random order. Dichotomous findings included a palpable taut band, tenderness, referred pain, and relevance of referred pain to patient's complaint. Based on these, diagnosis of latent MTrP's or active MTrP's was established. The evaluation was performed on both legs and included a total of 16 locations in the following muscles: rectus femoris (proximal), vastus medialis (middle and distal), vastus lateralis (middle and distal) and gluteus medius (anterior, posterior and distal). Inter- and intra-tester reliability (Cohen's kappa (κ)) values for single sites ranged from -0.25 to 0.77. Median intra-tester reliability was 0.45 and 0.46 for latent and active MTrP's, and median inter-tester reliability was 0.51 and 0.64 for latent and active MTrPs, respectively. The examination of the distal vastus medialis was most reliable for latent and active MTrP's (intra-tester k = 0.27-0.77, inter-tester k = 0.77 and intra-tester k = 0.53-0.72, inter-tester k = 0.72, correspondingly

  1. Problem-Based Assignments as a Trigger for Developing Ethical and Reflective Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euler, Dieter; Kühner, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    The following research question serves as the starting point of this research and development project: How, in the context of a didactic design, can problem-based assignments trigger learning activities for the development of ethical and reflective competencies in students in economics courses? This paper focuses on the design of problem-based…

  2. The CMS trigger system

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, tau lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during datamore » taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.« less

  3. The CMS trigger system

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2017-01-24

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, tau lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during datamore » taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.« less

  4. Drying and decontamination of raw pistachios with sequential infrared drying, tempering and hot air drying.

    PubMed

    Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Brandl, Maria T; Wang, Bini; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Ruihong; Pan, Zhongli

    2017-04-04

    Pistachio nuts have been associated with outbreaks of foodborne disease and the industry has been impacted by numerous product recalls due to contamination with Salmonella enterica. The current hot air drying of pistachios has low energy efficiency and drying rates, and also does not guarantee the microbial safety of products. In the study described herein, dehulled and water-sorted pistachios with a moisture content (MC) of 38.14% (wet basis) were dried in a sequential infrared and hot air (SIRHA) drier to <9% MC. The decontamination efficacy was assessed by inoculating pistachios with Enterococcus faecium, a surrogate of Salmonella enterica used for quality control in the almond industry. Drying with IR alone saved 105min (34.4%) of drying time compared with hot air drying. SIRHA drying of pistachios for 2h with infrared (IR) heat followed by tempering at a product temperature of 70°C for 2h and then by hot air drying shortened the drying time by 40min (9.1%) compared with drying by hot air only. This SIRHA method also reduced the E. faecium cell population by 6.1-logCFU/g kernel and 5.41-logCFU/g shell of pistachios. The free fatty acid contents of SIRHA dried pistachios were on par with that of hot air dried samples. Despite significant differences in peroxide values (PV) of pistachio kernels dried with the SIRHA method compared with hot air drying at 70°C, the PV were within the permissible limit of 5Meq/kg for edible oils. Our findings demonstrate the efficacy of SIRHA drying in achieving simultaneous drying and decontamination of pistachios. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. On the controls of daytime precipitation in the Amazonian dry season

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ghate, Virendra P.; Kollias, Pavlos

    The Amazon plays an important role in the global energy and hydrological budgets. The precipitation during the dry season (June–September) plays a critical role in maintaining the extent of the rain forest. The deployment of the first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF-1) in the context of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAmazon) field campaign at Manacapuru, Brazil, provided comprehensive measurements of surface, cloud, precipitation, radiation, and thermodynamic properties for two complete dry seasons (2014 and 2015). The precipitation events occurring during the nighttime were associated with propagating storm systems (nonlocal effects), while the daytime precipitation events were primarily amore » result of local land–atmosphere interactions. During the two dry seasons, precipitation was recorded at the surface on 106 days (43%) from 158 rain events with 82 daytime precipitation events occurring on 64 days (60.37%). Detailed comparisons between the diurnal cycles of surface and profile properties between days with and without daytime precipitation suggested the increased moisture at low and midlevels to be responsible for lowering the lifting condensation level, reducing convective inhibition and entrainment, and thus triggering the transition from shallow to deep convection. Although the monthly accumulated rainfall decreased during the progression of the dry season, the contribution of daytime precipitation to it increased, suggesting the decrease to be mainly due to reduction in propagating squall lines. Lastly, the control of daytime precipitation during the dry season on large-scale moisture advection above the boundary layer and the total rainfall on propagating squall lines suggests that coarse-resolution models should be able to accurately simulate the dry season precipitation over the Amazon basin.« less

  6. On the controls of daytime precipitation in the Amazonian dry season

    DOE PAGES

    Ghate, Virendra P.; Kollias, Pavlos

    2016-12-16

    The Amazon plays an important role in the global energy and hydrological budgets. The precipitation during the dry season (June–September) plays a critical role in maintaining the extent of the rain forest. The deployment of the first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF-1) in the context of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAmazon) field campaign at Manacapuru, Brazil, provided comprehensive measurements of surface, cloud, precipitation, radiation, and thermodynamic properties for two complete dry seasons (2014 and 2015). The precipitation events occurring during the nighttime were associated with propagating storm systems (nonlocal effects), while the daytime precipitation events were primarily amore » result of local land–atmosphere interactions. During the two dry seasons, precipitation was recorded at the surface on 106 days (43%) from 158 rain events with 82 daytime precipitation events occurring on 64 days (60.37%). Detailed comparisons between the diurnal cycles of surface and profile properties between days with and without daytime precipitation suggested the increased moisture at low and midlevels to be responsible for lowering the lifting condensation level, reducing convective inhibition and entrainment, and thus triggering the transition from shallow to deep convection. Although the monthly accumulated rainfall decreased during the progression of the dry season, the contribution of daytime precipitation to it increased, suggesting the decrease to be mainly due to reduction in propagating squall lines. Lastly, the control of daytime precipitation during the dry season on large-scale moisture advection above the boundary layer and the total rainfall on propagating squall lines suggests that coarse-resolution models should be able to accurately simulate the dry season precipitation over the Amazon basin.« less

  7. Sensor-triggered sampling to determine instantaneous airborne vapor exposure concentrations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip A; Simmons, Michael K; Toone, Phillip

    2018-06-01

    It is difficult to measure transient airborne exposure peaks by means of integrated sampling for organic chemical vapors, even with very short-duration sampling. Selection of an appropriate time to measure an exposure peak through integrated sampling is problematic, and short-duration time-weighted average (TWA) values obtained with integrated sampling are not likely to accurately determine actual peak concentrations attained when concentrations fluctuate rapidly. Laboratory analysis for integrated exposure samples is preferred from a certainty standpoint over results derived in the field from a sensor, as a sensor user typically must overcome specificity issues and a number of potential interfering factors to obtain similarly reliable data. However, sensors are currently needed to measure intra-exposure period concentration variations (i.e., exposure peaks). In this article, the digitized signal from a photoionization detector (PID) sensor triggered collection of whole-air samples when toluene or trichloroethylene vapors attained pre-determined levels in a laboratory atmosphere generation system. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of whole-air samples (with both 37 and 80% relative humidity) collected using the triggering mechanism with rapidly increasing vapor concentrations showed good agreement with the triggering set point values. Whole-air samples (80% relative humidity) in canisters demonstrated acceptable 17-day storage recoveries, and acceptable precision and bias were obtained. The ability to determine exceedance of a ceiling or peak exposure standard by laboratory analysis of an instantaneously collected sample, and to simultaneously provide a calibration point to verify the correct operation of a sensor was demonstrated. This latter detail may increase the confidence in reliability of sensor data obtained across an entire exposure period.

  8. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Asthma Contact Us Share Asthma Triggers: Gain Control Breathing Freely: Controlling Asthma Triggers This video features ... Air Quality: Biological Pollutants Help Your Child Gain Control Over Asthma Top of Page Molds About Molds ...

  9. [Hyperosmolarity: Intracellular effects and implication in dry eye disease].

    PubMed

    Warcoin, E; Clouzeau, C; Brignole-Baudouin, F; Baudouin, C

    2016-09-01

    Dry eye disease is a multifactorial disease affecting the lacrimal functional unit and which has a significant impact on the quality of life of patients. This pathology works as a vicious circle at the ocular surface in which hyperosmolarity of the tear film plays a key role. This review intends to describe the different reported intracellular effects induced by hyperosmolarity in cells: alteration of cytoskeleton, cell cycle slowdown, adaptation mechanisms triggered as restoration of cell volume and accumulation of compatible osmolytes, the crucial role of the osmoprotectant factor Nuclear Factor of the Activated T cells-5 (NFAT5), apoptosis, as well as oxidative stress and inflammatory responses caused by this particular condition. Reported effects of hyperosmolarity in the experimental studies specific of dry eye disease concerning ocular surface cells will be described in parallel. Indeed, these data allow to understand a part of the pathophysiology of the disease, and specially the links between tear hyperosmolarity and inflammation of the ocular surface, the second key of the pathology phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Trehalose and sorbitol alter the kinetic pattern of inactivation of glutamate dehydrogenase during drying in levitated microdroplets.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Elke; Lee, Geoffrey

    2013-12-01

    A single-droplet acoustic levitator was used to determine the drying rate and the kinetics of inactivation of glutamate dehydrogenase in the presence of added trehalose or sorbitol. The solution was also spray dried under the same process condition of drying gas temperature on a bench-top machine. Both trehalose and sorbitol delay the point of onset of enzyme inactivation which lies after the critical point of drying. Both carbohydrates also reduce the apparent rate constant of inactivation calculated during the subsequent inactivation phase. The carbohydrates stabilise, therefore, the enzyme during droplet drying and particle formation mainly during the falling rate drying period. There is no difference between the stabilising effects of the two carbohydrates when examined as levitated single droplets. This suggests the importance of water replacement as a stabilising mechanism in the levitated droplets/particles. On spray drying, the trehalose stabilises the enzyme better than does the sorbitol at a drying gas (outlet) temperature of 60°C. This suggests glass formation with the trehalose but not the sorbitol during the very rapid drying process of small-atomised droplets in the spray dryer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  11. A rating scale is a proper method to evaluate changes in quality of life due to dry eye symptoms.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenwen; Xu, Xian; Zou, Haidong

    2018-02-07

    To determine which utility value assessment method is more suitable to evaluate changes in the quality of life due to dry eye symptoms. Dry eye outpatients with a presenting visual acuity of 20/25 or better in the worse-seeing eye were recruited. Presenting distance visual acuity, tear film break-up time, Schirmer I test and fluorescein were assessed. The severity of dry eye symptoms was assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), and utility values were measured using the time trade-off (TTO), standard gamble (SG1 and SG2) and rating scale (RS) methods. Different utility values were compared with each other. The most appropriate utility value method to evaluate quality-of-life changes solely due to dry eye symptoms is determined by calculating the correlation between the OSDI score and different utility values. A total of 104 patients were enrolled. The three sections of OSDI in the order of high to low scores were as follows: "environmental trigger," "eye discomfort" and "visual function." The utility scores measured with TTO, SG1, SG2 and RS were 0.95 ± 0.11, 0.96 ± 0.10, 0.99 ± 0.07 and 0.89 ± 0.10, respectively. The utility scores evaluated by the TTO, SG1, SG2 and RS methods were significantly different from each other (p < 0.05). Only the utility scores measured with RS were significantly correlated with the composite OSDI score, "environmental trigger" and "eye discomfort" section scores (p < 0.05). RS is more sensitive than TTO and SG for the evaluation of altered quality of life due to dry eye symptoms.

  12. Remote Dynamic Earthquake Triggering in Shale Gas Basins in Canada and Implications for Triggering Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Rebecca M.; Liu, Yajing; Wang, Bei; Kao, Honn; Yu, Hongyu

    2017-04-01

    Here we investigate the occurrence of remote dynamic triggering in three sedimentary basins in Canada where recent fluid injection activity is correlated with increasing numbers of earthquakes. In efforts to count as many small, local earthquakes as possible for the statistical test of triggering, we apply a multi-station matched-filter detection method to continuous waveforms to detect uncataloged local earthquakes in 10-day time windows surrounding triggering mainshocks occurring between 2013-2015 with an estimated local peak ground velocity exceeding 0.01 cm/s. We count the number of earthquakes in 24-hour bins and use a statistical p-value test to determine if the changes in seismicity levels after the mainshock waves have passed are statistically significant. The p-value tests show occurrences of triggering following transient stress perturbations of < 10 kPa at all three sites that suggest local faults may remain critically stressed over periods similar to the time frame of our study ( 2 years) or longer, potentially due to maintained high pore pressures in tight shale formations following injection. The time window over which seismicity rates change varies at each site, with more delayed triggering occurring at sites where production history is longer. The observations combined with new modeling results suggest that the poroelastic response of the medium may be the dominant factor influencing instantaneous triggering, particularly in low-permeability tight shales. At sites where production history is longer and permeabilities have been increased, both pore pressure diffusion and the poroelastic response of the medium may work together to promote both instantaneous and delayed triggering. Not only does the interplay of the poroelastic response of the medium and pore pressure diffusion have implications for triggering induced earthquakes near injection sites, but it may be a plausible explanation for observations of instantaneous and delayed earthquake

  13. Triggering soft bombs at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Knapen, Simon; Griso, Simone Pagan; Papucci, Michele; ...

    2017-08-18

    Very high multiplicity, spherically-symmetric distributions of soft particles, with p T ~ few×100 MeV, may be a signature of strongly-coupled hidden valleys that exhibit long, efficient showering windows. With traditional triggers, such ‘soft bomb’ events closely resemble pile-up and are therefore only recorded with minimum bias triggers at a very low efficiency. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a high-level triggering strategy that efficiently separates soft bombs from pile-up by searching for a ‘belt of fire’: a high density band of hits on the innermost layer of the tracker. Seeding our proposed high-level trigger with existing jet, missing transverse energy ormore » lepton hardware-level triggers, we show that net trigger efficiencies of order 10% are possible for bombs of mass several × 100 GeV. We also consider the special case that soft bombs are the result of an exotic decay of the 125 GeV Higgs. The fiducial rate for ‘Higgs bombs’ triggered in this manner is marginally higher than the rate achievable by triggering directly on a hard muon from associated Higgs production.« less

  14. Triggering soft bombs at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapen, Simon; Griso, Simone Pagan; Papucci, Michele; Robinson, Dean J.

    2017-08-01

    Very high multiplicity, spherically-symmetric distributions of soft particles, with p T ˜ few×100 MeV, may be a signature of strongly-coupled hidden valleys that exhibit long, efficient showering windows. With traditional triggers, such `soft bomb' events closely resemble pile-up and are therefore only recorded with minimum bias triggers at a very low efficiency. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a high-level triggering strategy that efficiently separates soft bombs from pile-up by searching for a `belt of fire': a high density band of hits on the innermost layer of the tracker. Seeding our proposed high-level trigger with existing jet, missing transverse energy or lepton hardware-level triggers, we show that net trigger efficiencies of order 10% are possible for bombs of mass several × 100 GeV. We also consider the special case that soft bombs are the result of an exotic decay of the 125 GeV Higgs. The fiducial rate for `Higgs bombs' triggered in this manner is marginally higher than the rate achievable by triggering directly on a hard muon from associated Higgs production.

  15. Triggering soft bombs at the LHC

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Knapen, Simon; Griso, Simone Pagan; Papucci, Michele

    Very high multiplicity, spherically-symmetric distributions of soft particles, with p T ~ few×100 MeV, may be a signature of strongly-coupled hidden valleys that exhibit long, efficient showering windows. With traditional triggers, such ‘soft bomb’ events closely resemble pile-up and are therefore only recorded with minimum bias triggers at a very low efficiency. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a high-level triggering strategy that efficiently separates soft bombs from pile-up by searching for a ‘belt of fire’: a high density band of hits on the innermost layer of the tracker. Seeding our proposed high-level trigger with existing jet, missing transverse energy ormore » lepton hardware-level triggers, we show that net trigger efficiencies of order 10% are possible for bombs of mass several × 100 GeV. We also consider the special case that soft bombs are the result of an exotic decay of the 125 GeV Higgs. The fiducial rate for ‘Higgs bombs’ triggered in this manner is marginally higher than the rate achievable by triggering directly on a hard muon from associated Higgs production.« less

  16. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern. The current study investigated whether the overall spontaneous FM pain pattern can be reproduced by local and referred pain from active MTPs located in different muscles. Methods A spontaneous pain pattern in FM was recorded in 30 FM patients and 30 healthy subjects served as controls. Local and referred pain patterns induced from active (patients) and latent (controls) MTPs were recorded following manual stimulation. The existence of MTPs was confirmed by intramuscular electromyographical registration of spontaneous electrical activity. Results Local and referred pain areas induced from key active MTPs in FM were larger than pain areas from latent MTPs in healthy controls (P < 0.001), but were similar to the overall spontaneous FM pain area in FM (P > 0.05). The induced pain area was positively associated with current spontaneous pain intensity in FM (P < 0.01). The locations of key active MTPs in FM patients were found to have latent MTPs in healthy subjects. The muscles containing key active MTPs in FM are often observed in the muscles of extensor digitorum, trapezius, infraspinatus in the upper part of the body and of quadratus lumborum, gluteus medius in the lower part of the body. Conclusions The overall spontaneous FM pain pattern can be reproduced by mechanical stimulation of active MTPs located in different muscles, suggesting that fibromyalgia pain is largely composed of pain arising from muscle pain and spasm. Targeting active MTPs and related perpetuating factors may be an important strategy in FM pain control. Trial registration ISRCTN ISRCTN43167547. PMID:21426569

  17. High prevalence of shoulder girdle muscles with myofascial trigger points in patients with shoulder pain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Shoulder pain is reported to be highly prevalent and tends to be recurrent or persistent despite medical treatment. The pathophysiological mechanisms of shoulder pain are poorly understood. Furthermore, there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of current treatment protocols. Although myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are rarely mentioned in relation to shoulder pain, they may present an alternative underlying mechanism, which would provide new treatment targets through MTrP inactivation. While previous research has demonstrated that trained physiotherapists can reliably identify MTrPs in patients with shoulder pain, the percentage of patients who actually have MTrPs remains unclear. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of muscles with MTrPs and the association between MTrPs and the severity of pain and functioning in patients with chronic non-traumatic unilateral shoulder pain. Methods An observational study was conducted. Subjects were recruited from patients participating in a controlled trial studying the effectiveness of physical therapy on patients with unilateral non-traumatic shoulder pain. Sociodemographic and patient-reported symptom scores, including the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Questionnaire, and Visual Analogue Scales for Pain were compared with other studies. To test for differences in age, gender distribution, and education level between the current study population and the populations from Dutch shoulder studies, the one sample T-test was used. One observer examined all subjects (n = 72) for the presence of MTrPs. Frequency distributions, means, medians, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for descriptive purposes. The Spearman's rank-order correlation (ρ) was used to test for association between variables. Results MTrPs were identified in all subjects. The median number of muscles with MTrPs per subject was 6 (active MTrPs) and 4 (latent MTr

  18. Output Consensus of Heterogeneous Linear Multi-Agent Systems by Distributed Event-Triggered/Self-Triggered Strategy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenfeng; Liu, Lu; Feng, Gang

    2016-09-02

    This paper addresses the output consensus problem of heterogeneous linear multi-agent systems. We first propose a novel distributed event-triggered control scheme. It is shown that, with the proposed control scheme, the output consensus problem can be solved if two matrix equations are satisfied. Then, we further propose a novel self-triggered control scheme, with which continuous monitoring is avoided. By introducing a fixed timer into both event- and self-triggered control schemes, Zeno behavior can be ruled out for each agent. The effectiveness of the event- and self-triggered control schemes is illustrated by an example.

  19. Wired and Wireless Camera Triggering with Arduino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauhanen, H.; Rönnholm, P.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronous triggering is an important task that allows simultaneous data capture from multiple cameras. Accurate synchronization enables 3D measurements of moving objects or from a moving platform. In this paper, we describe one wired and four wireless variations of Arduino-based low-cost remote trigger systems designed to provide a synchronous trigger signal for industrial cameras. Our wireless systems utilize 315 MHz or 434 MHz frequencies with noise filtering capacitors. In order to validate the synchronization accuracy, we developed a prototype of a rotating trigger detection system (named RoTriDeS). This system is suitable to detect the triggering accuracy of global shutter cameras. As a result, the wired system indicated an 8.91 μs mean triggering time difference between two cameras. Corresponding mean values for the four wireless triggering systems varied between 7.92 and 9.42 μs. Presented values include both camera-based and trigger-based desynchronization. Arduino-based triggering systems appeared to be feasible, and they have the potential to be extended to more complicated triggering systems.

  20. Rate of Change in Lake Level and its Impact on Reservoir-triggered Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    With recent interest in increased seismicity related to fluid injection, it is useful to review cases of reservoir-triggered earthquakes to explore common characteristics and seek ways to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic impacts. Three reservoirs - Koyna, India; Nurek, Tajikistan; and Aswan, Egypt - are well-documented cases of triggered earthquakes with recorded time series of seismicity and water levels that extend for more than 30 years. The geological setting, regional tectonics and modes of reservoir utilization, along with the characteristics of the reservoir-seismicity interaction, are distinctly different in each of these three cases. Similarities and differences between these three cases point to regional and local geological and hydrological structures and the rate of changes in reservoir water level as important factors controlling the presence and timing of triggered seismicity. In a manner similar to the way in which the rate of fluid injection influences injection-related seismicity, the rate of change in reservoir water level is a significant factor in determining whether or not reservoir-triggered seismicity occurs. The high rate of annual water level rise may be important in sustaining the exceptionally long sequence of earthquakes at Koyna. In addition to the rate of filling being a determining factor in whether or not earthquakes are triggered, changes in the rate of filling may influence the time of occurrence of individual earthquakes.

  1. AIDS radio triggers.

    PubMed

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  2. Relationship of active trigger points with related disability and anxiety in people with tension-type headache

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Ceña, María; Castaldo, Matteo; Wang, Kelun; Catena, Antonella; Torelli, Paola; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the differences in the presence of trigger points (TrPs) and their association with headache-related disability and mood disorders in people with frequent episodic tension-type headache (TTH) (FETTH) and chronic TTH (CTTH). One hundred twenty-two individuals with TTH participated. Clinical features of headache (i.e., intensity, duration, and frequency) were recorded on a headache diary. Headache-related disability was assessed with the Headache Disability Inventory, trait and state anxiety levels with State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and depression with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. TrPs were bilaterally explored in the temporalis, masseter, suboccipital, upper trapezius, splenius capitis, and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Sixty-two (51%) patients were classified as FETTH, whereas 60 (49%) were classified as CTTH. Individuals with CTTH showed higher burden of headache and depression than FETTH (P < 0.001). Subjects with FETTH showed similar number of TrPs (total number: 5.9 ± 3.1, active TrPs: 4.7 ± 2.5, and latent TrPs: 1.2 ± 1.9) than those with CTTH (total number: 5.7 ± 3.2, active TrPs: 4.2 ± 3.0, and latent TrPs: 1.5 ± 1.8). The number of active TrPs was significantly associated with the burden of headache (r = 0.189; P = 0.037) and trait anxiety (r = 0.273; P = 0.005): the higher the number of active TrPs, the greater the physical burden of headache or the more the trait anxiety level. No association with the depression was observed. The presence of active TrPs in head and neck/shoulder muscles was similar between individuals with FETTH and CTTH and associated with the physical burden of headache and trait anxiety levels independently of the subgroup of TTH. PMID:28353618

  3. 5. Aerial view (altitude 5,000 ft.) looking southeast showing Dry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Aerial view (altitude 5,000 ft.) looking southeast showing Dry Dock No. 4. completed (top center). Note major expansion of land mass to south of Dry Dock No. 4 resulting from placement of excavated soils and rock prior to and during construction (8/3/43). Photographer: Mr. Rudnick, PHoM 2/C. - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. CDF trigger interface board 'FRED'

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Campbell, M.; Dell' Orso, M.; Giannetti, P.

    1985-08-01

    We describe FASTBUS boards which interface sixteen different trigger interrupts to the Collider Detector Facility (CDF) data acquisition system. The boards are known to CDF by the acronym 'FRED'. The data acquisition scheme for CDF allows for up to 16 different parts of the detector, called 'Partitions', to run independently. Four partitions are reserved for physics runs and sophisticated calibration and debugging: they use the common Level 1 and Level 2 trigger logic and have access to information from all the components of the CDF detector. These four partitions are called ''CDF Partitions''. The remaining twelve partitions have no accessmore » to the common trigger logic and provide their own Level 1 and Level 2 signals: they are called ''Autonomous Partitions''. Fred collects and interprets signals from independent parts of the CDF trigger system and delivers Level 1 and Level 2 responses to the Trigger Supervisors (FASTBUS masters which control the data acquisition process in each partition).« less

  5. LIGO-VIRGO Triggered Follow-Up with NASA High Energy Photon Survey Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the proposed use of LIGO-VIRGO S6 triggers from comparatively loud events to search for both prompt and afterglow EM counterparts with RXTE, SWIFT and FERMI. Using a 2 or 3-fold coincident trigger from the two LIGO and one VIRGO detectors to provide sky position information, we can search the data from these missions within a limited time window and a constrained portion of their respective FOVs, allowing us to look at a level below the threshold normally used to publicly indicate an event. Since we propose to use these missions in their survey mode, no re-pointing of the missions is envisioned. The search for a coincidence between the data from LIGO-VIRGO and the EM survey missions can then be analyzed off-line; if a coincident EM signal is found it would have a significant effect in establishing the validity of the GW trigger. We discuss some relevant aspects of the NASA missions and give some preliminary estimates of thresholds and coincident background rates.

  6. External triggering and triggered targeting strategies for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanfei; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2017-06-01

    Drug delivery systems that are externally triggered to release drugs and/or target tissues hold considerable promise for improving the treatment of many diseases by minimizing nonspecific toxicity and enhancing the efficacy of therapy. These drug delivery systems are constructed from materials that are sensitive to a wide range of external stimuli, including light, ultrasound, electrical and magnetic fields, and specific molecules. The responsiveness conferred by these materials allows the release of therapeutics to be triggered on demand and remotely by a physician or patient. In this Review, we describe the rationales for such systems and the types of stimuli that can be deployed, and provide an outlook for the field.

  7. Global search of triggered non-volcanic tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tzu-Kai Kevin

    Deep non-volcanic tremor is a newly discovered seismic phenomenon with low amplitude, long duration, and no clear P- and S-waves as compared with regular earthquake. Tremor has been observed at many major plate-boundary faults, providing new information about fault slip behaviors below the seismogenic zone. While tremor mostly occurs spontaneously (ambient tremor) or during episodic slow-slip events (SSEs), sometimes tremor can also be triggered during teleseismic waves of distance earthquakes, which is known as "triggered tremor". The primary focus of my Ph.D. work is to understand the physical mechanisms and necessary conditions of triggered tremor by systematic investigations in different tectonic regions. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I conduct a systematic survey of triggered tremor beneath the Central Range (CR) in Taiwan for 45 teleseismic earthquakes from 1998 to 2009 with Mw ≥ 7.5. Triggered tremors are visually identified as bursts of high-frequency (2-8 Hz), non-impulsive, and long-duration seismic energy that are coherent among many seismic stations and modulated by the teleseismic surface waves. A total of 9 teleseismic earthquakes has triggered clear tremor in Taiwan. The peak ground velocity (PGV) of teleseismic surface waves is the most important factor in determining tremor triggering potential, with an apparent threshold of ˜0.1 cm/s, or 7-8 kPa. However, such threshold is partially controlled by the background noise level, preventing triggered tremor with weaker amplitude from being observed. In addition, I find a positive correlation between the PGV and the triggered tremor amplitude, which is consistent with the prediction of the 'clock-advance' model. This suggests that triggered tremor can be considered as a sped-up occurrence of ambient tremor under fast loading from the passing surface waves. Finally, the incident angles of surface waves also play an important rule in controlling the tremor triggering potential. The next

  8. Use of a soft sensor for the fast estimation of dried cake resistance during a freeze-drying cycle.

    PubMed

    Bosca, Serena; Barresi, Antonello A; Fissore, Davide

    2013-07-15

    This paper deals with the determination of dried cake resistance in a freeze-drying process using the Smart Soft Sensor, a process analytical technology recently proposed by the authors to monitor the primary drying stage of a freeze-drying process. This sensor uses the measurement of product temperature, a mathematical model of the process, and the Kalman filter algorithm to estimate the residual amount of ice in the vial as a function of time, as well as the coefficient of heat transfer between the shelf and the product and the resistance of the dried cake to vapor flow. It does not require expensive (additional) hardware in a freeze-dryer, provided that thermocouples are available. At first, the effect of the insertion of the thermocouple in a vial on the structure of the product is investigated by means of experimental tests, comparing both sublimation rate and cake structure in vials with and without thermocouple. This is required to assess that the temperature measured by the thermocouple is the same of the product in the non-monitored vials, at least in a non-GMP environment, or when controlled nucleation methods are used. Then, results about cake resistance obtained in an extended experimental campaign with aqueous solutions containing different excipients (sucrose, mannitol and polyvinylpyrrolidone), processed in various operating conditions, are presented, with the goal to point out the accuracy of the proposed methodology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Methods for automatic trigger threshold adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Benjamin J; Partridge, Michael E

    2014-03-18

    Methods are presented for adjusting trigger threshold values to compensate for drift in the quiescent level of a signal monitored for initiating a data recording event, thereby avoiding false triggering conditions. Initial threshold values are periodically adjusted by re-measuring the quiescent signal level, and adjusting the threshold values by an offset computation based upon the measured quiescent signal level drift. Re-computation of the trigger threshold values can be implemented on time based or counter based criteria. Additionally, a qualification width counter can be utilized to implement a requirement that a trigger threshold criterion be met a given number of times prior to initiating a data recording event, further reducing the possibility of a false triggering situation.

  10. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): A Nanosecond Time Scale Stereoscopic Array Trigger System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krennrich, Frank; Buckley, J.; Byrum, K.; Dawson, J.; Drake, G.; Horan, D.; Krawzcynski, H.; Schroedter, M.

    2008-04-01

    Imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope arrays (VERITAS, HESS) have shown unprecedented background suppression capabilities for reducing cosmic-ray induced air showers, muons and night sky background fluctuations. Next-generation arrays with on the order of 100 telescopes offer larger collection areas, provide the possibility to see the air shower from more view points on the ground, have the potential to improve the sensitivity and give additional background suppression. Here we discuss the design of a fast array trigger system that has the potential to perform a real time image analysis allowing substantially improved background rate suppression at the trigger level.

  11. Infrared Drying as a Quick Preparation Method for Dried Tangerine Peel

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mingyue; Zhao, Chengying; Ahmad, Aftab; Zhang, Huijuan; Xiao, Hang

    2017-01-01

    To establish the most convenient and effective method to dry tangerine peels, different methods (sun drying, hot-air drying, freeze drying, vacuum drying, and medium- and short-wave infrared drying) were exploited. Our results indicated that medium- and short-wave infrared drying was the best method to preserve nutraceutical components; for example, vitamin C was raised to 6.77 mg/g (D.W.) from 3.39 mg/g (sun drying). Moreover, the drying time can be shortened above 96% compared with sun drying. Importantly, the efficiency of DPPH radical scavenging was enhanced from 26.66% to 55.92%. These findings would provide a reliable and time-saving methodology to produce high-quality dried tangerine peels. PMID:29348752

  12. Are triggering rates of labquakes universal? Inferring triggering rates from incomplete information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baró, Jordi; Davidsen, Jörn

    2017-12-01

    The acoustic emission activity associated with recent rock fracture experiments under different conditions has indicated that some features of event-event triggering are independent of the details of the experiment and the materials used and are often even indistinguishable from tectonic earthquakes. While the event-event triggering rates or aftershock rates behave pretty much identical for all rock fracture experiments at short times, this is not the case for later times. Here, we discuss how these differences can be a consequence of the aftershock identification method used and show that the true aftershock rates might have two distinct regimes. Specifically, tests on a modified Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence model show that the model rates cannot be correctly inferred at late times based on temporal information only if the activity rates or the branching ratio are high. We also discuss both the effect of the two distinct regimes in the aftershock rates and the effect of the background rate on the inter-event time distribution. Our findings should be applicable for inferring event-event triggering rates for many other types of triggering and branching processes as well.

  13. Fundamentals of freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Nail, Steven L; Jiang, Shan; Chongprasert, Suchart; Knopp, Shawn A

    2002-01-01

    --the dominant mechanism of heat transfer in freeze-drying--is inefficient at the pressures used in freeze-drying. Steps should be taken to improve the thermal contact between the product and the shelf of the freeze dryer, such as eliminating metal trays from the drying process. Quantitation of the heat transfer coefficient for the geometry used is a useful way of assessing the impact of changes in the system such as elimination of product trays and changes in the vial. Because heat transfer by conduction through the vapor increases with increasing pressure, the commonly held point of view that "the lower the pressure, the better" is not true with respect to process efficiency. The optimum pressure for a given product is a function of the temperature at which freeze-drying is carried out, and lower pressures are needed at low product temperatures. The controlling resistance to mass transfer is almost always the resistance of the partially dried solids above the submination interface. This resistance can be minimized by avoiding fill volumes of more than about half the volume of the container. The development scientist should also recognize that very high concentrations of solute may not be appropriate for optimum freeze-drying, particularly if the resistance of the dried product layer increases sharply with concentration. Although the last 10 years has seen the publication of a significant body of literature of great value in allowing development scientists and engineers to "work smarter," there is still much work needed in both the science and the technology of freeze-drying. Scientific development is needed for improving analytical methodology for characterization of frozen systems and freeze-dried solids. A better understanding of the relationship between molecular mobility and reactivity is needed to allow accurate prediction of product stability at the intended storage temperature based on accelerated stability at higher temperatures. This requires that the temperature

  14. Chemical and physical pretreatments of fruits and vegetables: Effects on drying characteristics and quality attributes - a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li-Zhen; Mujumdar, Arun S; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Xu-Hai; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Zhi-An; Gao, Zhen-Jiang; Xiao, Hong-Wei

    2017-12-20

    Pretreatment is widely used before drying of agro-products to inactivate enzymes, enhance drying process and improve quality of dried products. In current work, the influence of various pretreatments on drying characteristics and quality attributes of fruits and vegetables is summarized. They include chemical solution (hyperosmotic, alkali, sulfite and acid, etc.) and gas (sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and ozone) treatments, thermal blanching (hot water, steam, super heated steam impingement, ohmic and microwave heating, etc), and non-thermal process (ultrasound, freezing, pulsed electric field, and high hydrostatic pressure, etc). Chemical pretreatments effectively enhance drying kinetics, meanwhile, it causes soluble nutrients losing, trigger food safety issues by chemical residual. Conventional hot water blanching has significant effect on inactivating various undesirable enzymatic reactions, destroying microorganisms, and softening the texture, as well as facilitating drying rate. However, it induces undesirable quality of products, e.g., loss of texture, soluble nutrients, pigment and aroma. Novel blanching treatments, such as high-humidity hot air impingement blanching, microwave and ohmic heat blanching can reduce the nutrition loss and are more efficient. Non-thermal technologies can be a better alternative to thermal blanching to overcome these drawbacks, and more fundamental researches are needed for better design and scale up.

  15. The effects of arm movement on reaction time in patients with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Marzieh; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Maroufi, Nader; Ahmadi, Amir; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Emrani, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is a significant source of mechanical pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of arm movement on reaction time in females with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point. In this interventional study, a convenience sample of fifteen women with one active MTP, fifteen women with one latent MTP in the upper trapezius, and fifteen normal healthy women were participated. Participants were asked to stand for 10 seconds in an erect standing position. Muscle reaction times were recorded including anterior deltoid (AD), cervical paraspinal (CP) lumbar paraspinal (LP), both of upper trapezius (UT), sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and medial head of gastrocnemius (GcM). Participants were asked to flex their arms in response to a sound stimulus preceded by a warning sound stimulus. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA Test. There was significant differences in motor time and reaction time between active and control groups (p< 0.05) except for GcM. There was no significant difference in motor time between active and passive groups except for UT without MTP and SCM (p< 0.05). Also, there were no significant differences in motor times between latent MTP and control groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in premotor times between the three groups. The present study shows that patients with active MTP need more time to react to stimulus, but patients with latent MTP are similar to healthy subjects in the reaction time. Patients with active MTP had less compatibility with environmental stimulations, and they responded to a specific stimulation with variability in Surface Electromyography (SEMG).

  16. Tremors Triggered along the Queen Charlotte Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, C.; Peng, Z.; Chao, K.

    2012-12-01

    In the past decade, deep tectonic tremors have been observed in numerous tectonic environments surrounding the Pacific and Caribbean plates. In these regions, tremors triggered by both regional and distant earthquakes have also been observed. Despite the ubiquitous observations of triggered tremors, tremors triggered in differing strike-slip environments are less understood. Here, we conduct a preliminary search of tremors triggered by teleseismic earthquakes along the transpressive Queen Charlotte Fault (QCF) located between the Cascadia subduction zone and Alaska. Tectonic tremors have not been previously reported along the QCF. We select teleseismic earthquakes during the 1990-2012 period as having magnitude M ≥ 6.5 and occurring at least 1,000 km away from the region. We reduce the number of mainshocks by selecting those that generate greater than 1 kPa dynamic stress estimated from surface-wave magnitude equations [e.g. van der Elst and Brodsky, 2010]. Our mainshock waveforms are retrieved from the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN), processed, and filtered for triggered tremor observations. We characterize triggered tremors as high-frequency signals visible among several stations and coincident with broadband surface wave peaks. So far, we have found tremors triggered along the QCF by surface waves of five great earthquakes - the 2002/11/03 Mw7.9 Denali Fault, 2004/12/26 Mw9.0 Sumatra, 2010/02/27 Mw8.8 Chile, 2011/03/11 Mw9.0 Japan, and 2012/04/11 Mw8.6 Sumatra earthquakes. We compare our results to tremors triggered by teleseismic earthquakes on strike-slip faults in central and southern California, as well as Cuba [Peng et al., 2012]. Among strike-slip faults in these regions, we also compare triggered tremor amplitudes to peak ground velocities from the mainshocks and compute dynamic stresses to determine a triggering threshold for the QCF. We find that in most cases tremors in the QCF are triggered primarily by the Love waves, and additional

  17. Drying and decontamination of pistachios with sequential infrared drying, tempering and hot air drying

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pistachio industry is in need of improved drying technology as the current hot air drying has low energy efficiency and drying rate and high labor cost and also does not produce safe products against microbial contamination. In the current study, dehulled and water- sorted pistachios with a mois...

  18. On the conditions for nonlinear growth in magnetospheric chorus and triggered emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołkowski, Mark; Gibby, Andrew R.

    2017-09-01

    The nonlinear whistler mode instability associated with magnetospheric chorus and VLF triggered emissions continues to be poorly understood. Following up on formulations of other authors, an analytical exploration of the stability of the phenomenon from a new vantage point is given. This exploration derives an additional requirement on the anisotropy of the energetic electron distribution relative to the linear treatment of the instability, and shows that the nonlinear instability is most favorable to increasing growth rate when electrons become initially trapped in the wave potential of a constant frequency wave. These results imply that the initiation of the nonlinear instability at the equator requires a positive frequency sweep rate, while the initiation of the instability by a constant frequency triggering wave must occur at a location downstream of the geomagnetic equator.

  19. Drying hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    Joseph Denig; Eugene M. Wengert; William T. Simpson

    2000-01-01

    Drying Hardwood Lumber focuses on common methods for drying lumber of different thickness, with minimal drying defects, for high quality applications. This manual also includes predrying treatments that, when part of an overall quality-oriented drying system, reduce defects and improve drying quality, especially of oak lumber. Special attention is given to drying white...

  20. 37. PWD Drawing 11,654M35 (1987), 'Dry Dock No. 4 Utility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. PWD Drawing 11,654-M-35 (1987), 'Dry Dock No. 4 Utility Low Pressure Sensors-Hunters Point'; showing basic plan view at upper level of pump room. - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. Triggering processes of microseismic events associated with water injection in Okuaizu Geothermal Field, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kyosuke; Yi, Li; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Okabe, Takashi; Abe, Yasuyuki; Tsuzuki, Masatoshi

    2018-02-01

    A continuous water injection test was conducted to halt the reduction in steam production in the Okuaizu Geothermal Field, Japan. Understanding the factors triggering microseismicity associated with water injection is essential to ensuring effective steam production. We identified possible triggering processes by applying methods based on microseismic monitoring, including a new method to determine the presence of water in local fractures using scattered P-waves. We found that the evolving microseismicity near the injection point could be explained by a diffusion process and/or water migration. We also found that local microseismicity on a remote fault was likely activated by stress fluctuations resulting from changes in the injection rate. A mediator of this fluctuation might be water remaining in the fracture zone. After the injection was terminated, microseismicity possibly associated with the phase transition of the liquid was found. We conclude that a variety of triggering processes associated with water injection may exist.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Investigation of index finger triggering force using a cadaver experiment: Effects of trigger grip span, contact location, and internal tendon force.

    PubMed

    Chang, Joonho; Freivalds, Andris; Sharkey, Neil A; Kong, Yong-Ku; Mike Kim, H; Sung, Kiseok; Kim, Dae-Min; Jung, Kihyo

    2017-11-01

    A cadaver study was conducted to investigate the effects of triggering conditions (trigger grip span, contact location, and internal tendon force) on index finger triggering force and the force efficiency of involved tendons. Eight right human cadaveric hands were employed, and a motion simulator was built to secure and control the specimens. Index finger triggering forces were investigated as a function of different internal tendon forces (flexor digitorum profundus + flexor digitorum superficialis = 40, 70, and 100 N), trigger grip spans (40, 50, and 60 mm), and contact locations between the index finger and a trigger. Triggering forces significantly increased when internal tendon forces increased from 40 to 100 N. Also, trigger grip spans and contact locations had significant effects on triggering forces; maximum triggering forces were found at a 50 mm span and the most proximal contact location. The results revealed that only 10-30% of internal tendon forces were converted to their external triggering forces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Drying and control of moisture content and dimensional changes

    Treesearch

    Richard Bergman

    2010-01-01

    The discussion in this chapter is concerned with moisture content determination, recommended moisture content values, drying methods, methods of calculating dimensional changes, design factors affecting such changes in structures, and moisture content control during transit, storage, and construction. Data on green moisture content, fiber saturation point, shrinkage,...

  4. [Drying characteristics and apparent change of sludge granules during drying].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xue-Wen; Weng, Huan-Xin; Zhang, Jin-Jun

    2011-08-01

    Three different weight grades of sludge granules (2.5, 5, 10 g) were dried at constant temperature of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 degrees C, respectively. Then characteristics of weight loss and change of apparent form during sludge drying were analyzed. Results showed that there were three stages during sludge drying at 100-200 degrees C: acceleration phase, constant-rate phase, and falling-rate phase. At 300-500 degrees C, there were no constant-rate phase, but due to lots of cracks generated at sludge surface, average drying rates were still high. There was a quadratic nonlinear relationship between average drying rate and drying temperature. At 100-200 degrees C, drying processes of different weight grade sludge granules were similar. At 300-500 degrees C, drying processes of same weight grade of sludge granules were similar. Little organic matter decomposed till sludge burning at 100-300 degrees C, while some organic matter began to decompose at the beginning of sludge drying at 400-500 degrees C.

  5. Intraplate triggered earthquakes: Observations and interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence that at least two of the three 1811-1812 New Madrid, central United States, mainshocks and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake triggered earthquakes at regional distances. In addition to previously published evidence for triggered earthquakes in the northern Kentucky/southern Ohio region in 1812, we present evidence suggesting that triggered events might have occurred in the Wabash Valley, to the south of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and near Charleston, South Carolina. We also discuss evidence that earthquakes might have been triggered in northern Kentucky within seconds of the passage of surface waves from the 23 January 1812 New Madrid mainshock. After the 1886 Charleston earthquake, accounts suggest that triggered events occurred near Moodus, Connecticut, and in southern Indiana. Notwithstanding the uncertainty associated with analysis of historical accounts, there is evidence that at least three out of the four known Mw 7 earthquakes in the central and eastern United States seem to have triggered earthquakes at distances beyond the typically assumed aftershock zone of 1-2 mainshock fault lengths. We explore the possibility that remotely triggered earthquakes might be common in low-strain-rate regions. We suggest that in a low-strain-rate environment, permanent, nonelastic deformation might play a more important role in stress accumulation than it does in interplate crust. Using a simple model incorporating elastic and anelastic strain release, we show that, for realistic parameter values, faults in intraplate crust remain close to their failure stress for a longer part of the earthquake cycle than do faults in high-strain-rate regions. Our results further suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes occur preferentially in regions of recent and/or future seismic activity, which suggests that faults are at a critical stress state in only some areas. Remotely triggered earthquakes may thus serve as beacons that identify regions of

  6. Jumping liquid metal droplet in electrolyte triggered by solid metal particles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tang, Jianbo; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049; Wang, Junjie

    2016-05-30

    We report the electron discharge effect due to point contact between liquid metal and solid metal particles in electrolyte. Adding nickel particles induces drastic hydrogen generating and intermittent jumping of a sub-millimeter EGaIn droplet in NaOH solution. Observations from different orientations disclose that such jumping behavior is triggered by pressurized bubbles under the assistance of interfacial interactions. Hydrogen evolution around particles provides clear evidence that such electric instability originates from the varied electric potential and morphology between the two metallic materials. The point-contact-induced charge concentration significantly enhances the near-surface electric field intensity at the particle tips and thus causes electricmore » breakdown of the electrolyte.« less

  7. A quantitative evaluation of dry-sensor electroencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uy, E. Timothy

    Neurologists, neuroscientists, and experimental psychologists study electrical activity within the brain by recording voltage fluctuations at the scalp. This is electroencephalography (EEG). In conventional or "wet" EEG, scalp abrasion and use of electrolytic paste are required to insure good electrical connection between sensor and skin. Repeated abrasion quickly becomes irritating to subjects, severely limiting the number and frequency of sessions. Several groups have produced "dry" EEG sensors that do not require abrasion or conductive paste. These, in addition to sidestepping the issue of abrasion, promise to reduce setup time from about 30 minutes with a technician to less than 30 seconds without one. The availability of such an instrument would (1) reduce the cost of brain-related medical care, (2) lower the barrier of entry on brain experimentation, and (3) allow individual subjects to contribute substantially more data without fear of abrasion or fatigue. Accuracy of the EEG is paramount in the medical diagnosis of epilepsy, in experimental psychology and in the burgeoning field of brain-computer interface. Without a sufficiently accurate measurement, the advantages of dry sensors remain a moot point. However, even after nearly a decade, demonstrations of dry EEG accuracy with respect to wet have been limited to visual comparison of short snippets of spontaneous EEG, averaged event-related potentials or plots of power spectrum. In this dissertation, I propose a detailed methodology based on single-trial EEG classification for comparing dry EEG sensors to their wet counterparts. Applied to a set of commercially fabricated dry sensors, this work reveals that dry sensors can perform as well their wet counterparts with careful screening and attention to the bandwidth of interest.

  8. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM; Schare, Joshua M [Albuquerque, NM; Bunch, Kyle [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  9. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in patients with chronic shoulder pain: a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal problem that is often chronic or recurrent. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) cause shoulder pain and are prevalent in patients with shoulder pain. However, few studies have focused on MTrP therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of multimodal treatment of MTrPs in patients with chronic shoulder pain. Methods A single-assessor, blinded, randomized, controlled trial was conducted. The intervention group received comprehensive treatment once weekly consisting of manual compression of the MTrPs, manual stretching of the muscles and intermittent cold application with stretching. Patients were instructed to perform muscle-stretching and relaxation exercises at home and received ergonomic recommendations and advice to assume and maintain good posture. The control group remained on the waiting list for 3 months. The Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire score (primary outcome), Visual Analogue Scale for Pain (VAS-P), Global Perceived Effect (GPE) scale and the number of muscles with MTrPs were assessed at 6 and 12 weeks in the intervention group and compared with those of a control group. Results Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant improvement (P < 0.05) on the DASH after 12 weeks (mean difference, 7.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.2 to 14.2), on the VAS-P1 for current pain (mean difference, 13.8; 95% CI, 2.6 to 25.0), on the VAS-P2 for pain in the past 7 days (mean difference, 10.2; 95% CI, 0.7 to 19.7) and VAS-P3 most severe pain in the past 7 days (mean difference, 13.8; 95% CI, 0.8 to 28.4). After 12 weeks, 55% of the patients in the intervention group reported improvement (from slightly improved to completely recovered) versus 14% in the control group. The mean number of muscles with active MTrPs decreased in the intervention group compared with the control group (mean difference, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.2). Conclusions The

  10. Intermediate-Depth Subduction Earthquakes Recorded by Pseudotachylyte in Dry Eclogite-Facies Oceanic Lithosphere from the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scambelluri, M.; Pennacchioni, G.; Gilio, M.; Bestmann, M.

    2016-12-01

    While geophysical studies and laboratory experiments provide much information on subduction earthquakes, field studies identifying the rock types for earthquake development and the deep seismogenic environments are still scarce. To date, fluid overpressure and volume decrease during hydrous mineral breakdown the widely favoured trigger of subduction earthquakes in serpentinized lithospheric mantle and hydrated low-velocity layers atop slabs. Here we document up to 40 cm-thick pseudotachylyte (PST) in Alpine oceanic gabbro and peridotite (2-2.5 GPa-550-620°C), the analogue of a modern cold subducting oceanic lithosphere. These rocks mostly remained unaltered dry systems; only very minor domains (<1%) record partial hydration and static eclogitic metamorphism. Meta-peridotite shows high-pressure olivine + antigorite (garnet + zoisite + chlorite after mantle plagioclase); meta-gabbro develops omphacite + zoisite + talc + chloritoid + garnet. Abundant syn-eclogitic pseudotachylyte cut the dry gabbro-peridotite and the eclogitized domains. In meta-peridotite, PST shows olivine, orthopyroxene, spinel microliths and clasts of high-pressure olivine + antigorite and garnet + zoisite + chlorite aggregates. In metagabbro, microfaults in damage zones near PST cut brecciated igneous pyroxene cemented by omphacite. In unaltered gabbro, glassy PST contains micron-scale garnet replacing plagioclase microliths during, or soon after, PST cooling. In the host rock, garnet coronas between igneous olivine and plagioclase only occur near PST and between closely spaced PST veins. Absence of garnet away from PST indicates that garnet growth was triggered by mineral seeds and by heat released by PST. The above evidence shows that pseudotachylyte formed at eclogite-facies conditions. In such setting, strong, dry, metastable gabbro-peridotite concentrate stress to generate large intermediate depth subduction earthquakes without much involvement of free fluid.

  11. Acupuncture in Treating Dry Mouth Caused By Radiation Therapy in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    RATIONALE: Acupuncture may help relieve dry mouth caused by radiation therapy. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying to see how well one set of acupuncture points work in comparison to a different set of acupuncture points or standard therapy in treating dry mouth caused by radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer. |

  12. A comparative structural study of wet and dried ettringite

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Renaudin, G.; CNRS, UMR 6002, LMI, F-63177 Aubiere; Filinchuk, Y.

    2010-03-15

    Two different techniques were used to compare structural characteristics of 'wet' ettringite (stored in the synthesis mother liquid) and 'dried' ettringite (dried to 35% relative humidity over saturated CaCl{sub 2} solution). Lattice parameters and the water content in the channel region of the structure (site occupancy factor of the water molecule not bonded to cations) as well as microstructure parameters (size and strain) were determined from a Rietveld refinement on synchrotron powder diffraction data. Local environment of sulphate anions and of the hydrogen bonding network was characterized by Raman spectroscopy. Both techniques led to the same conclusion: the 'wet' ettringitemore » sample immersed in the mother solution from the synthesis presents similar structural features as ettringite dried to 35% relative humidity. An increase of the a lattice parameter combined with a decrease of the c lattice parameter occurs on drying. The amount of structural water, the point symmetry of sulphate and the hydrogen bond network are unchanged when passing from the wet to the dried ettringite powder. Ettringite does not form a high-hydrate polymorph in equilibrium with alkaline solution, in contrast to the AFm phases that lose water molecules on drying. According to these results we conclude that ettringite precipitated in aqueous solution at the early hydration stages is of the same chemical composition as ettringite present in the hardening concrete.« less

  13. The LHCb trigger and its upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziurda, A.; LHCb Trigger Group

    2016-07-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a farm of 20 k parallel-processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. We review the performance of the LHCb trigger system during Run I of the LHC. Special attention is given to the use of multivariate analyses in the High Level Trigger. The major bottleneck for hadronic decays is the hardware trigger. LHCb plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018, enabling a purely software based trigger to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. We demonstrate that the planned architecture will be able to meet this challenge.

  14. Potential Environmental Triggers of Myositis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Myositis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert Goldberg CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The...TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 12September2011-11September2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Environmental Triggers of Myositis 5a...10 INTRODUCTION: The Potential Environmental Triggers of Myositis

  15. Trigger Finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a bent position. People whose work or hobbies require repetitive gripping actions are at higher risk ... developing trigger finger include: Repeated gripping. Occupations and hobbies that involve repetitive hand use and prolonged gripping ...

  16. Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

    2009-04-01

    change so much except for the one of the sludges, which experienced an important reduction. According to the results, and from a point of view of future soil applications, the balance of the drying process could be considered as positive. It is using a free, renewable and clean energy, which reduces the water content and odours of sludge, thereby improving their management. Except for the water content, there was little modification of the behaviour in soil of greenhouse dried sludges compared to the dehydrated sludges, maintaining its large amount of available nitrogen after drying. Acknowledgements: Jose. M. Soriano-Disla gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Culture for a research fellowship (AP2005-0320).

  17. 15. Detail, lower chord connection point on downstream side, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail, lower chord connection point on downstream side, showing pinned connection of lower chord eye bars, laced vertical compression member, diagonal eye bar tension members, turnbuckled diagonal counters, and floor beam. Note also timber floor stringers supported by floor beam, and exposed ends of timber deck members visible at left above lower chord eye bar. View to northwest. - Dry Creek Bridge, Spanning Dry Creek at Cook Road, Ione, Amador County, CA

  18. Evaluation of Heat Flux Measurement as a New Process Analytical Technology Monitoring Tool in Freeze Drying.

    PubMed

    Vollrath, Ilona; Pauli, Victoria; Friess, Wolfgang; Freitag, Angelika; Hawe, Andrea; Winter, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the suitability of heat flux measurement as a new technique for monitoring product temperature and critical end points during freeze drying. The heat flux sensor is tightly mounted on the shelf and measures non-invasively (no contact with the product) the heat transferred from shelf to vial. Heat flux data were compared to comparative pressure measurement, thermocouple readings, and Karl Fischer titration as current state of the art monitoring techniques. The whole freeze drying process including freezing (both by ramp freezing and controlled nucleation) and primary and secondary drying was considered. We found that direct measurement of the transferred heat enables more insights into thermodynamics of the freezing process. Furthermore, a vial heat transfer coefficient can be calculated from heat flux data, which ultimately provides a non-invasive method to monitor product temperature throughout primary drying. The end point of primary drying determined by heat flux measurements was in accordance with the one defined by thermocouples. During secondary drying, heat flux measurements could not indicate the progress of drying as monitoring the residual moisture content. In conclusion, heat flux measurements are a promising new non-invasive tool for lyophilization process monitoring and development using energy transfer as a control parameter. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tidal triggering of moonquakes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    It is argued that the moonquakes recorded by sensors at the Apollo 12 landing site between December 1969 and December 1970, and which according to Latham et al. (1971) are believed to be triggered by the anomalistic lunar tide, could be triggered just as well by the latitudinal (or declination) tidal wave. Considerations are set forth which indicate that a combined latitudinal-anomalistic tidal mechanism is supported by Latham's data.

  20. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor "sweet spots"—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (< 0.03 Hz), may enhance the probability of triggering tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  1. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (<~0.03 Hz), may enhance the probability of triggering tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  2. The ATLAS high level trigger steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, N.; Bold, T.; Eifert, T.; Fischer, G.; George, S.; Haller, J.; Hoecker, A.; Masik, J.; Nedden, M. Z.; Reale, V. P.; Risler, C.; Schiavi, C.; Stelzer, J.; Wu, X.

    2008-07-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider receives events which pass the LVL1 trigger at ~75 kHz and has to reduce the rate to ~200 Hz while retaining the most interesting physics. It is a software trigger and performs the reduction in two stages: the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter (EF). At the heart of the HLT is the Steering software. To minimise processing time and data transfers it implements the novel event selection strategies of seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. The HLT is seeded by regions of interest identified at LVL1. These and the static configuration determine which algorithms are run to reconstruct event data and test the validity of trigger signatures. The decision to reject the event or continue is based on the valid signatures, taking into account pre-scale and pass-through. After the EF, event classification tags are assigned for streaming purposes. Several new features for commissioning and operation have been added: comprehensive monitoring is now built in to the framework; for validation and debugging, reconstructed data can be written out; the steering is integrated with the new configuration (presented separately), and topological and global triggers have been added. This paper will present details of the final design and its implementation, the principles behind it, and the requirements and constraints it is subject to. The experience gained from technical runs with realistic trigger menus will be described.

  3. Cranial sutures and craniometric points detected on MRI.

    PubMed

    Cotton, François; Rozzi, Fernando Ramirez; Vallee, Bernard; Pachai, Chahin; Hermier, Marc; Guihard-Costa, Anne-Marie; Froment, Jean-Claude

    2005-03-01

    The main goal of the study was to determine on MRI the cranial sutures, the craniometric points and craniometric measurements, and to correlate these results with classical anthropometric measurements. For this purpose, we reviewed 150 cerebral MRI examinations considered as normal (Caucasian population aged 20-49 years). For each examination we individualized 11 craniometric landmarks (Glabella, Bregma, Lambda, Opisthocranion, Opisthion, Basion, Inion, Porion, Infra-orbital, Eurion) and three measurements. Measurements were also calculated independently on 498 dry crania (Microscribe 3-DX digitizer). To validate the MRI procedure, we measured four dry crania by MRI and with compass or digital caliper gauges. Cranial sutures always appeared without signal (black), whatever the MRI sequence used, and they are better visualized with a 5 mm slice thickness (compact bone overlapping). Slice dynamic analysis and multiplanar reformatting allowed the detection of all craniometric points, some of these being more difficult to detect than others (Porion, Infra-orbital). The measurements determined by these points were as follows: Vertex-Basion height=135.66+/-6.56 mm; Eurion-Eurion width=141.17+/-5.19 mm; Glabella-Opisthocranion length=181.94+/-6.40 mm. On the midline T1-weighted sagittal image, all median craniometric landmarks can be individualized and the Glabella-Opisthocranion length, Vertex-Basion height and parenchyma indices can be calculated. Craniometric points and measurements between these points can be estimated with a standard cerebral MRI examination, with results that are similar to anthropometric data.

  4. Combined Electrocardiography- and Respiratory-Triggered CT of the Lung to Reduce Respiratory Misregistration Artifacts between Imaging Slabs in Free-Breathing Children: Initial Experience.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Allmendinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac and respiratory motion artifacts degrade the image quality of lung CT in free-breathing children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined electrocardiography (ECG) and respiratory triggering on respiratory misregistration artifacts on lung CT in free-breathing children. In total, 15 children (median age 19 months, range 6 months-8 years; 7 boys), who underwent free-breathing ECG-triggered lung CT with and without respiratory-triggering were included. A pressure-sensing belt of a respiratory gating system was used to obtain the respiratory signal. The degree of respiratory misregistration artifacts between imaging slabs was graded on a 4-point scale (1, excellent image quality) on coronal and sagittal images and compared between ECG-triggered lung CT studies with and without respiratory triggering. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Lung CT with combined ECG and respiratory triggering showed significantly less respiratory misregistration artifacts than lung CT with ECG triggering only (1.1 ± 0.4 vs. 2.2 ± 1.0, p = 0.003). Additional respiratory-triggering reduces respiratory misregistration artifacts on ECG-triggered lung CT in free-breathing children.

  5. Combined Electrocardiography- and Respiratory-Triggered CT of the Lung to Reduce Respiratory Misregistration Artifacts between Imaging Slabs in Free-Breathing Children: Initial Experience

    PubMed Central

    Allmendinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Objective Cardiac and respiratory motion artifacts degrade the image quality of lung CT in free-breathing children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined electrocardiography (ECG) and respiratory triggering on respiratory misregistration artifacts on lung CT in free-breathing children. Materials and Methods In total, 15 children (median age 19 months, range 6 months–8 years; 7 boys), who underwent free-breathing ECG-triggered lung CT with and without respiratory-triggering were included. A pressure-sensing belt of a respiratory gating system was used to obtain the respiratory signal. The degree of respiratory misregistration artifacts between imaging slabs was graded on a 4-point scale (1, excellent image quality) on coronal and sagittal images and compared between ECG-triggered lung CT studies with and without respiratory triggering. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Lung CT with combined ECG and respiratory triggering showed significantly less respiratory misregistration artifacts than lung CT with ECG triggering only (1.1 ± 0.4 vs. 2.2 ± 1.0, p = 0.003). Conclusion Additional respiratory-triggering reduces respiratory misregistration artifacts on ECG-triggered lung CT in free-breathing children. PMID:28860904

  6. Generation of 1:1 Carbamazepine:Nicotinamide cocrystals by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shashank P; Modi, Sameer R; Bansal, Arvind K

    2014-10-01

    The present study investigates the potential of spray drying as a technique for generation of pharmaceutical cocrystals. Carbamazepine-Nicotinamide cocrystal (CNC) was chosen as model cocrystal system for this study. Firstly, CNC was generated using liquid assisted grinding and used for generation of phase solubility diagram (PSD) and ternary phase diagram (TPD). Both PSD and TPD were carefully evaluated for phase behavior of CNC when equilibrated with solvent. The undersaturated region with respect to CNC, as depicted by TPD, was selected as target region to initiate cocrystallization experiments. Various points in this region, representative of different compositions of Carbamazepine, Nicotinamide and CNC, were selected and spray drying was carried out. The spray dried product was characterized for solid state properties and was compared with CNC generated by liquid assisted grinding. Spray drying successfully generated CNC of similar quality as those generated by liquid assisted grinding. Moreover, there was no significant impact of process variables on formation of CNC. Spray drying, owing to its simplicity and industrial scalability, can be a promising method for large scale cocrystal generation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Global Search of Triggered Tectonic Tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z.; Aiken, C.; Chao, K.; Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Wang, B.; Ojha, L.; Yang, H.

    2013-05-01

    Deep tectonic tremor has been observed at major plate-boundary faults around the Pacific Rim. While regular or ambient tremor occurs spontaneously or accompanies slow-slip events, tremor could be also triggered by large distant earthquakes and solid earth tides. Because triggered tremor occurs on the same fault patches as ambient tremor and is relatively easy to identify, a systematic global search of triggered tremor could help to identify the physical mechanisms and necessary conditions for tremor generation. Here we conduct a global search of tremor triggered by large teleseismic earthquakes. We mainly focus on major faults with significant strain accumulations where no tremor has been reported before. These includes subduction zones in Central and South America, strike-slip faults around the Caribbean plate, the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system and the Denali fault in the western Canada and Alaska, the Sumatra-Java subduction zone, the Himalaya frontal thrust faults, as well as major strike-slip faults around Tibet. In each region, we first compute the predicted dynamic stresses σd from global earthquakes with magnitude>=5.0 in the past 20 years, and select events with σd > 1 kPa. Next, we download seismic data recorded by stations from local or global seismic networks, and identify triggered tremor as a high-frequency non-impulsive signal that is in phase with the large-amplitude teleseismic waves. In cases where station distributions are dense enough, we also locate tremor based on the standard envelope cross-correlation techniques. Finally, we calculate the triggering potential for the Love and Rayleigh waves with the local fault orientation and surface-wave incident angles. So far we have found several new places that are capable of generating triggered tremor. We will summarize these observations and discuss their implications on physical mechanisms of tremor and remote triggering.

  8. Tremor, remote triggering and earthquake cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Deep tectonic tremor and episodic slow-slip events have been observed at major plate-boundary faults around the Pacific Rim. These events have much longer source durations than regular earthquakes, and are generally located near or below the seismogenic zone where regular earthquakes occur. Tremor and slow-slip events appear to be extremely stress sensitive, and could be instantaneously triggered by distant earthquakes and solid earth tides. However, many important questions remain open. For example, it is still not clear what are the necessary conditions for tremor generation, and how remote triggering could affect large earthquake cycle. Here I report a global search of tremor triggered by recent large teleseismic earthquakes. We mainly focus on major subduction zones around the Pacific Rim. These include the southwest and northeast Japan subduction zones, the Hikurangi subduction zone in New Zealand, the Cascadia subduction zone, and the major subduction zones in Central and South America. In addition, we examine major strike-slip faults around the Caribbean plate, the Queen Charlotte fault in northern Pacific Northwest Coast, and the San Andreas fault system in California. In each place, we first identify triggered tremor as a high-frequency non-impulsive signal that is in phase with the large-amplitude teleseismic waves. We also calculate the dynamic stress and check the triggering relationship with the Love and Rayleigh waves. Finally, we calculate the triggering potential with the local fault orientation and surface-wave incident angles. Our results suggest that tremor exists at many plate-boundary faults in different tectonic environments, and could be triggered by dynamic stress as low as a few kPas. In addition, we summarize recent observations of slow-slip events and earthquake swarms triggered by large distant earthquakes. Finally, we propose several mechanisms that could explain apparent clustering of large earthquakes around the world.

  9. Hole-ness of point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronz, Oliver; Seeger, Manuel; Klaes, Björn; Casper, Markus C.; Ries, Johannes B.

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and dense 3D models of soil surfaces can be used in various ways: They can be used as initial shapes for erosion models. They can be used as benchmark shapes for erosion model outputs. They can be used to derive metrics, such as random roughness... One easy and low-cost method to produce these models is structure from motion (SfM). Using this method, two questions arise: Does the soil moisture, which changes the colour, albedo and reflectivity of the soil, influence the model quality? How can the model quality be evaluated? To answer these questions, a suitable data set has been produced: soil has been placed on a tray and areas with different roughness structures have been formed. For different moisture states - dry, medium, saturated - and two different lighting conditions - direct and indirect - sets of high-resolution images at the same camera positions have been taken. From the six image sets, 3D point clouds have been produced using VisualSfM. The visual inspection of the 3D models showed that all models have different areas, where holes of different sizes occur. But it is obviously a subjective task to determine the model's quality by visual inspection. One typical approach to evaluate model quality objectively is to estimate the point density on a regular, two-dimensional grid: the number of 3D points in each grid cell projected on a plane is calculated. This works well for surfaces that do not show vertical structures. Along vertical structures, many points will be projected on the same grid cell and thus the point density rather depends on the shape of the surface but less on the quality of the model. Another approach has been applied by using the points resulting from Poisson Surface Reconstructions. One of this algorithm's properties is the filling of holes: new points are interpolated inside the holes. Using the original 3D point cloud and the interpolated Poisson point set, two analyses have been performed: For all Poisson points, the

  10. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    DOEpatents

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  11. Drying behaviour, effective diffusivity and energy of activation of olive leaves dried by microwave, vacuum and oven drying methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhussein, Elaf Abdelillah Ali; Şahin, Selin

    2018-07-01

    Drying is the crucial food processing for bioactive components from plant materials before strating extraction in addition to preservation of raw plant materials during storage period. Olive leaves were dried by various methods such as microwave drying (MD), oven drying (OD) and vacuum drying (VD) at several temperature values in the present study. Mathematical models allow to develop, design and control the processes. 14 emprical equations were used to estimate the drying behaviour and the time required for drying. Convenience of the models were evaluated according to the correlation coefficient ( R 2 ), varience ( S 2 ) and root mean square deviation ( D RMS ). On the other hand, the effective diffusion coefficient and energy for activation were also calculated. Effects of the drying methods on the total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC) and oleuropein contents and free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) of the olive leaves were also investigated to take into considiration the quality of the dried product. MD has proved to be the fastest drying method having the highest effective diffusivity and the lowest activation energy with a more qualitive product.

  12. Drying behaviour, effective diffusivity and energy of activation of olive leaves dried by microwave, vacuum and oven drying methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhussein, Elaf Abdelillah Ali; Şahin, Selin

    2018-01-01

    Drying is the crucial food processing for bioactive components from plant materials before strating extraction in addition to preservation of raw plant materials during storage period. Olive leaves were dried by various methods such as microwave drying (MD), oven drying (OD) and vacuum drying (VD) at several temperature values in the present study. Mathematical models allow to develop, design and control the processes. 14 emprical equations were used to estimate the drying behaviour and the time required for drying. Convenience of the models were evaluated according to the correlation coefficient (R 2 ), varience (S 2 ) and root mean square deviation (D RMS ). On the other hand, the effective diffusion coefficient and energy for activation were also calculated. Effects of the drying methods on the total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC) and oleuropein contents and free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) of the olive leaves were also investigated to take into considiration the quality of the dried product. MD has proved to be the fastest drying method having the highest effective diffusivity and the lowest activation energy with a more qualitive product.

  13. Seeing Your Error Alters My Pointing: Observing Systematic Pointing Errors Induces Sensori-Motor After-Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ronchi, Roberta; Revol, Patrice; Katayama, Masahiro; Rossetti, Yves; Farnè, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    During the procedure of prism adaptation, subjects execute pointing movements to visual targets under a lateral optical displacement: As consequence of the discrepancy between visual and proprioceptive inputs, their visuo-motor activity is characterized by pointing errors. The perception of such final errors triggers error-correction processes that eventually result into sensori-motor compensation, opposite to the prismatic displacement (i.e., after-effects). Here we tested whether the mere observation of erroneous pointing movements, similar to those executed during prism adaptation, is sufficient to produce adaptation-like after-effects. Neurotypical participants observed, from a first-person perspective, the examiner's arm making incorrect pointing movements that systematically overshot visual targets location to the right, thus simulating a rightward optical deviation. Three classical after-effect measures (proprioceptive, visual and visual-proprioceptive shift) were recorded before and after first-person's perspective observation of pointing errors. Results showed that mere visual exposure to an arm that systematically points on the right-side of a target (i.e., without error correction) produces a leftward after-effect, which mostly affects the observer's proprioceptive estimation of her body midline. In addition, being exposed to such a constant visual error induced in the observer the illusion “to feel” the seen movement. These findings indicate that it is possible to elicit sensori-motor after-effects by mere observation of movement errors. PMID:21731649

  14. To determine the end point of wet granulation by measuring powder energies and thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Dave, Rutesh H; Wu, Stephen H; Contractor, Labdhi D

    2012-04-01

    Wet granulation has been widely used in pharmaceutical industry as a tablet manufacturing process. However, end-point determination of wet granulation process has always remained a challenge. Many traditional methods are available for end-point determination, yet accuracy and reproducibility still remain a challenge. Microcrystalline cellulose, widely used as an excipient in pharmaceutical industry, was granulated using water. Wet mass was passed through sieve # 12 and dried till constant percentage loss on drying was obtained and dried granules were obtained. Wet and dried granules collected were subjected to basic flow energy, specific energy, bulk density, pressure drop, differential scanning calorimetry and effusivity measurements. Analysis of data revealed various stages of granule growth from initial seed formation by adding 200-400 g of water, granule growth was observed by adding 600-800 g of water and over wetting was observed at 1155 g of water. In this work, we have justified our work to properly identify and utilize this technique for practical purpose to correctly identify the end-point determination of microcrystalline cellulose and explain various principles underlying energies associated with powder and thermal measurements.

  15. Antimicrobial and water-triggered release characteristics of a copper sulfate-polyvinyl acetate adhesive composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesus, A. P. O.; Roxas-Villanueva, R. M. L.; Herrera, M. U.

    2017-05-01

    Water-triggered release of antimicrobial solutions is advantageous in inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi in moist and wet environments. In this study, we fabricated a composite, by mixing polyvinyl acetate adhesive with copper sulfate solution, which exhibits antimicrobial activities against bacteria. Polyvinyl acetate adhesive serves as the binder and water soluble substance while copper sulfate serves as the antimicrobial agent. The composite was coated in an acetate film and air-dried. To monitor the rate of release of copper ions, the composite was submerged in water and the conductivity was measured. The conductivity saturation time was determined. The composite showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive).

  16. Pressure-Drop Considerations in the Characterization of Dew-Point Transfer Standards at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitter, H.; Böse, N.; Benyon, R.; Vicente, T.

    2012-09-01

    During calibration of precision optical dew-point hygrometers (DPHs), it is usually necessary to take into account the pressure drop induced by the gas flow between the "point of reference" and the "point of use" (mirror or measuring head of the DPH) either as a correction of the reference dew-point temperature or as part of the uncertainty estimation. At dew-point temperatures in the range of ambient temperature and below, it is sufficient to determine the pressure drop for the required gas flow, and to keep the volumetric flow constant during the measurements. In this case, it is feasible to keep the dry-gas flow into the dew-point generator constant or to measure the flow downstream the DPH at ambient temperature. In normal operation, at least one DPH in addition to the monitoring DPH are used, and this operation has to be applied to each instrument. The situation is different at high dew-point temperatures up to 95 °C, the currently achievable upper limit reported in this paper. With increasing dew-point temperatures, the reference gas contains increasing amounts of water vapour and a constant dry-gas flow will lead to a significant enhanced volume flow at the conditions at the point of use, and therefore, to a significantly varying pressure drop depending on the applied dew-point temperature. At dew-point temperatures above ambient temperature, it is also necessary to heat the reference gas and the mirror head of the DPH sufficiently to avoid condensation which will additionally increase the volume flow and the pressure drop. In this paper, a method is provided to calculate the dry-gas flow rate needed to maintain a known wet-gas flow rate through a chilled mirror for a range of temperature and pressures.

  17. BIOMASS DRYING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the d...

  18. Fast Plasma Investigation for MMS: Simulation of the Burst Triggering System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrie, A. C.; Dorelli, J. C.; Winkert, G. E.; Lobell, J. V.; Holland, M. P.; Adrian, M. L.; Pollock, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    quantities are then combined at the instrument, spacecraft, and observatory level leading to a final ranking of data based on expected scientific interest. Here, we present simulations of the fixed point burst trigger system for the FPI. A variety of data sets based on previous mission data as well as analytical formulations are tested. Comparisons of floating point calculations versus the fixed point hardware simulation are shown. Analysis of the potential sources of error from overflows, quantization, etc. are examined and mitigation methods are presented. Finally a series of calibration curves are presented, showing the expected error in pseudo quantities based solely on the scale parameters chosen and the expected data range. We conclude with a presentation of the current base-lined FPI burst trigger approach.

  19. Remote Triggering of Microseismicity in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, M.; Li, C.; Peng, Z.; Walter, J. I.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that large distant earthquakes can trigger microearthquakes/tectonic tremors during or immediately following their surface waves. Globally, triggered seismicity is mostly found in active plate boundary regions. Recent studies have shown that icequakes in Antartica can also be triggered by teleseismic events. However, it is still not clear how widespread this phenomenon is and whether there are any connections between large earthquakes and subsequent glacial movements. In this study, we conduct a systematic search for remotely triggered activity in Antarctica following recent large earthquakes, including the 2004 Mw9.1 Sumatra, 2011 Mw9.1 Tohoku, 2012 Mw8.6 Indian Ocean and 2014-2015 Chile earthquakes. We download seismic data recorded at the POLENET (YT) and the Argentina Antarctica Network (AI) from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC). We apply a 2-8 Hz band-pass-filter to the continuous waveforms and visually identify local events during and immediately after the large amplitude surface waves. Spectrograms are computed as additional tools to identify triggered seismicity and are further confirmed by comparing the signals before and after the distant mainshocks. So far we have identified possible triggered seismicity in both networks' area following the 2010 Chile and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes. Our next step is to apply a waveform matching method to automatically detect possible triggered seismicity and check through all the available networks in Antarctica for the last decades, which should help to better understand the potential interaction between large earthquakes and icequakes in this region.

  20. Large scale synthesis of nanostructured zirconia-based compounds from freeze-dried precursors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gomez, A.; Villanueva, R.; Vie, D.

    2013-01-15

    Nanocrystalline zirconia powders have been obtained at the multigram scale by thermal decomposition of precursors resulting from the freeze-drying of aqueous acetic solutions. This technique has equally made possible to synthesize a variety of nanostructured yttria or scandia doped zirconia compositions. SEM images, as well as the analysis of the XRD patterns, show the nanoparticulated character of those solids obtained at low temperature, with typical particle size in the 10-15 nm range when prepared at 673 K. The presence of the monoclinic, the tetragonal or both phases depends on the temperature of the thermal treatment, the doping concentration and themore » nature of the dopant. In addition, Rietveld refinement of the XRD profiles of selected samples allows detecting the coexistence of the tetragonal and the cubic phases for high doping concentration and high thermal treatment temperatures. Raman experiments suggest the presence of both phases also at relatively low treatment temperatures. - Graphical abstract: Zr{sub 1-x}A{sub x}O{sub 2-x/2} (A=Y, Sc; 0{<=}x{<=}0.12) solid solutions have been prepared as nanostructured powders by thermal decomposition of precursors obtained by freeze-drying, and this synthetic procedure has been scaled up to the 100 g scale. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zr{sub 1-x}A{sub x}O{sub 2-x/2} (A=Y, Sc; 0{<=}x{<=}0.12) solid solutions have been prepared as nanostructured powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthetic method involves the thermal decomposition of precursors obtained by freeze-drying. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature of the thermal treatment controls particle sizes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The preparation procedure has been scaled up to the 100 g scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method is appropriate for the large-scale industrial preparation of multimetallic systems.« less

  1. Relationship between longitudinal stress wave transit time and moisture content of lumber during kiln-drying

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson; Xiping. Wang

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between longitudinal stress wave transit time and wood moisture content (MC) was examined as a potential means of estimating MC control points in dry kiln schedules for lumber. A linear relationship was found between the relative transit time and the average MC of sugar maple and ponderosa pine boards dried according to typical kiln schedules.

  2. Freeze drying for morphological control of inter-penetrating polymer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Marion G.; Pater, Ruth H.

    1990-01-01

    The intrinsic brittleness of BMI resins can be reduced through the creation of an interpenetrating network (IPN) of BMI with a reactive-encapped thermoplastic, such as the presently considered polyimidesulfone, PISO2. The PISO2 and BMI were dissolved in a common solvent, which was then removed from the constituents by freeze drying; in an alternative method, an IPN was formed through dissolution of the constituent in a common solvent with either high or low melting point, followed by evaporative removal of the solvent. The effectiveness of the freeze-drying approach for morphological control is evaluated.

  3. Defining when to initiate massive transfusion: a validation study of individual massive transfusion triggers in PROMMTT patients.

    PubMed

    Callcut, Rachael A; Cotton, Bryan A; Muskat, Peter; Fox, Erin E; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B; Schreiber, Martin A; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Cohen, Mitchell J; Knudson, M Margaret; Brasel, Karen J; Bulger, Eileen M; Del Junco, Deborah J; Myers, John G; Alarcon, Louis H; Robinson, Bryce R H

    2013-01-01

    Early predictors of massive transfusion (MT) would prevent undertriage of patients likely to require MT. This study validates triggers using the Prospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) study. All enrolled patients in PROMMTT were analyzed. The initial emergency department value for each trigger (international normalized ratio [INR], systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, base deficit, positive result for Focused Assessment for the Sonography of Trauma examination, heart rate, temperature, and penetrating injury mechanism) was compared for patients receiving MT (≥ 10 U of packed red blood cells in 24 hours) versus no MT. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for MT are reported using multiple logistic regression. If all triggers were known, a Massive Transfusion Score (MTS) was created, with 1 point assigned for each met trigger. A total of 1,245 patients were prospectively enrolled with 297 receiving an MT. Data were available for all triggers in 66% of the patients including 67% of the MTs (199 of 297). INR was known in 87% (1,081 of 1,245). All triggers except penetrating injury mechanism and heart rate were valid individual predictors of MT, with INR as the most predictive (adjusted OR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-3.7). For those with all triggers known, a positive INR trigger was seen in 49% receiving MT. Patients with an MTS of less than 2 were unlikely to receive MT (negative predictive value, 89%). If any two triggers were present (MTS ≥ 2), sensitivity for predicting MT was 85%. MT was present in 33% with an MTS of 2 greater compared with 11% of those with MTS of less than 2 (OR, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-5.8; p < 0.0005). Parameters that can be obtained early in the initial emergency department evaluation are valid predictors for determining the likelihood of MT. Diagnostic, level II.

  4. Triggering active galactic nuclei in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Madeline A.; Shabala, Stanislav S.; Krause, Martin G. H.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Croton, Darren J.; Owers, Matt S.

    2018-03-01

    We model the triggering of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in galaxy clusters using the semi-analytic galaxy formation model SAGE. We prescribe triggering methods based on the ram pressure galaxies experience as they move throughout the intracluster medium, which is hypothesized to trigger star formation and AGN activity. The clustercentric radius and velocity distribution of the simulated active galaxies produced by these models are compared with those of AGN and galaxies with intense star formation from a sample of low-redshift relaxed clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The ram pressure triggering model that best explains the clustercentric radius and velocity distribution of these observed galaxies has AGN and star formation triggered if 2.5 × 10-14 Pa < Pram < 2.5 × 10-13 Pa and Pram > 2Pinternal; this is consistent with expectations from hydrodynamical simulations of ram-pressure-induced star formation. Our results show that ram pressure is likely to be an important mechanism for triggering star formation and AGN activity in clusters.

  5. Variation of Farmer Stock Grade Factors in Semi-Drying Trailers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanuts are increasingly being loaded into flat bottom semi-drying trailers in the field and transported to peanut buying points for curing, grading, and marketing. Conveyances in excess of 15 t are probed 15 times using the pneumatic sampler requiring considerable time for probing and reducing the...

  6. Transient triggering of near and distant earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Blanpied, M.L.; Beeler, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrate qualitatively that frictional instability theory provides a context for understanding how earthquakes may be triggered by transient loads associated with seismic waves from near and distance earthquakes. We assume that earthquake triggering is a stick-slip process and test two hypotheses about the effect of transients on the timing of instabilities using a simple spring-slider model and a rate- and state-dependent friction constitutive law. A critical triggering threshold is implicit in such a model formulation. Our first hypothesis is that transient loads lead to clock advances; i.e., transients hasten the time of earthquakes that would have happened eventually due to constant background loading alone. Modeling results demonstrate that transient loads do lead to clock advances and that the triggered instabilities may occur after the transient has ceased (i.e., triggering may be delayed). These simple "clock-advance" models predict complex relationships between the triggering delay, the clock advance, and the transient characteristics. The triggering delay and the degree of clock advance both depend nonlinearly on when in the earthquake cycle the transient load is applied. This implies that the stress required to bring about failure does not depend linearly on loading time, even when the fault is loaded at a constant rate. The timing of instability also depends nonlinearly on the transient loading rate, faster rates more rapidly hastening instability. This implies that higher-frequency and/or longer-duration seismic waves should increase the amount of clock advance. These modeling results and simple calculations suggest that near (tens of kilometers) small/moderate earthquakes and remote (thousands of kilometers) earthquakes with magnitudes 2 to 3 units larger may be equally effective at triggering seismicity. Our second hypothesis is that some triggered seismicity represents earthquakes that would not have happened without the transient load (i

  7. A novel in situ trigger combination method

    DOE PAGES

    Buzatu, Adrian; Warburton, Andreas; Krumnack, Nils; ...

    2013-01-30

    Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and system performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding ofmore » the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, that were combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a $W$ boson at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We briefly review the existing techniques for combining triggers, namely the inclusion, division, and exclusion methods. We introduce and describe a novel fourth in situ method whereby, for each candidate event, only the trigger chain with the highest a priori probability of selecting the event is considered. We compare the inclusion and novel in situ methods for signal event yields in the CDF $WH$ search. This new combination method, by virtue of its scalability to large numbers of differing trigger chains and insensitivity to correlations between triggers, will benefit future long-running collider experiments, including those currently operating on the Large Hadron Collider.« less

  8. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  9. A novel in situ trigger combination method

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Buzatu, Adrian; Warburton, Andreas; Krumnack, Nils

    Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and system performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding ofmore » the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, that were combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a $W$ boson at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We briefly review the existing techniques for combining triggers, namely the inclusion, division, and exclusion methods. We introduce and describe a novel fourth in situ method whereby, for each candidate event, only the trigger chain with the highest a priori probability of selecting the event is considered. We compare the inclusion and novel in situ methods for signal event yields in the CDF $WH$ search. This new combination method, by virtue of its scalability to large numbers of differing trigger chains and insensitivity to correlations between triggers, will benefit future long-running collider experiments, including those currently operating on the Large Hadron Collider.« less

  10. Legacy Effect of Amazonian Drought Delays the Season Transition from Dry to Wet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, M.; Liu, J.; Wong, S.; Worden, J. R.; Fisher, J.; Frankenberg, C.

    2017-12-01

    The long-term drought effect on forest coverage, so-called legacy effect, has been observed in ground and remote sensing measurements. Drought and forest loss may amplify each other through vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks. In this study, we investigate the impact of the reduced growth of southern Amazonian forest from the 2005 drought on dry-to-wet season transition and its variations in 2005 and 2006. We quantified the vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a control and a sensitivity experiments. We further investigate the mechanism of vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks with data-constrained evapotranspiration (ET) and HDO/H2O observations from the Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) and from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES). Our results show that the dry season end (DSE) in southern Amazonian forest was delayed by 15 days in 2005 and by 25 days in 2006 with drought induced leaf carbon pool reduction. The postponed DSE is triggered by the reduced evapotranspiration (ET), but amplified by change of large-scale circulation. The reduction of ET and its delaying effect on dry-wet season transition is further confirmed with SCIAMACHY and TES HDO/H2O measurements.

  11. Dual-mode disturbance-accommodating pointing controller for Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addington, Stewart I.; Johnson, C. D.

    1995-03-01

    Cyclic thermal expansions and mechanical stiction effects in the solar arrays on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are triggering repeated occurrences of damped, relaxation-type flex-body vibrations of the solar arrays. Those solar array vibrations are, in turn, causing unwanted deviations of the telescope from its specified pointing direction. In this paper we propose two strategies one can adopt in designing a telescope-pointing controller to cope with the aforementioned disturbances: 1) a total isolation (TI) control strategy whereby the HST controller torques are designed to adaptively counteract and cancel out the persistent disturbing torques that are causing the unwanted telescope motions and 2) an array damping (AD) control strategy whereby the HST controller torques are used to actively augment the natural dampening of the solar array vibrations and the attendant telescope motions, between triggerings of the stiction-related flex-body relaxation oscillations. Using the principles of disturbance accommodation control theory, a dual-mode controller for a generic, planar-motion (single-axis) model of the HST is proposed. This controller incorporates both the TI and AD modes of disturbance accommodation. Simulation studies of the closed-loop system using generic parameter values clearly indicate, qualitatively, the enhanced pointing performance such a controller can achieve.

  12. Graphical processors for HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2017-02-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to employ GPUs as accelerators in offline computations. With the steady decrease of GPU latencies and the increase in link and memory throughputs, time is ripe for real-time applications using GPUs in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low level trigger systems, focusing on tests performed on the trigger of the CERN NA62 experiment. Latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Moreover, we discuss how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelised and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen LHC luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be crucial to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup.

  13. Is the Amazon Rainforest Drying Out?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatchi, S.; Xu, L.; Bloom, A. A.; Konings, A. G.; Yang, Y.; Aragão, L. E.; Fu, R.; Worden, J. R.; Schimel, D.

    2017-12-01

    Hotter droughts are the emerging characteristics of recent climate conditions, causing increased aridity over many land areas, broad-scale die-off, and pervasive mortality in forest ecosystems globally. Using a suite of eco-hydrological measurements from satellite observations combined with ecosystem data assimilation model, we show the Amazon forests, under recent changes in climate, have been consistently losing water in vegetation from increased leaf temperature. These long-term changes have caused a decline in evapotranspiration with consequences of changing the seasonality of precipitation by increasing the dry season length and delaying the wet season arrival. Three severe droughts (2005, 2010, 2015), occurring on the background of this long-term warming have an unprecedented legacy resulting in longer delays in recharging of water storage and recovery of forests after drought induced disturbances (4-5 years after each drought). The paper discusses the evidences of eco-hydrological changes pointing to the drying of forests of Amazonia.

  14. Accounting for the social triggers of sexual compulsivity.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Kelly, Brian C; Bimbi, David S; Muench, Frederick; Morgenstern, Jon

    2007-01-01

    To examine the social triggers of sexual compulsivity amongst a diverse sample of gay and bisexual men. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 180 gay and bisexual men in the United States who self-identified that their sex lives were spinning out of control. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach to explore the range of social triggers that were driving sexual compulsions. An open-ended interview and a structured clinical interview were conducted with each participant. The interviews examined their experiences with sexual compulsivity over time and the impact of their problematic sexual behaviors on their lives. Two types of social triggers emerged from the data: event-centered triggers and contextual triggers. Event-centered triggers arise from sudden, unforeseen events. Two major event-centered triggers were identified: relationship turmoil and catastrophes. Contextual triggers, on the other hand, have a certain element of predictability, and included such things as location, people, the use of drugs, and pornography. This framework of triggers has clinical implications for the prevention and treatment of sexual compulsivity. Clinicians can utilize the framework of social triggers in the therapeutic process to provide insight into ways to effectively work through symptoms of sexual compulsivity. Awareness of the contextual aspects of sexual compulsivity may be critical to understanding the behaviors of sexually compulsive clients. Thus, therapeutic assessments should focus upon the social context in addition to the psychological components of the disorder.

  15. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  16. Robotically assisted velocity-sensitive triggered focused ultrasound surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Florian; Brunner, Alexander; Jenne, Jürgen W.; Krafft, Axel J.; Semmler, Wolfhard; Bock, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (FUS) of abdominal organs is challenging due to breathing motion and limited patient access in the MR environment. In this work, an experimental robotically assisted FUS setup was combined with a MR-based navigator technique to realize motion-compensated sonications and online temperature imaging. Experiments were carried out in a static phantom, during periodic manual motion of the phantom without triggering, and with triggering to evaluate the triggering method. In contrast to the non-triggered sonication, the results of the triggered sonication show a confined symmetric temperature distribution. In conclusion, the velocity sensitive navigator can be employed for triggered FUS to compensate for periodic motion. Combined with the robotic FUS setup, flexible treatment of abdominal targets might be realized.

  17. Triggering collective oscillations by three-flavor effects

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Raffelt, Georg G.; Tamborra, Irene

    2010-04-01

    Collective flavor transformations in supernovae, caused by neutrino-neutrino interactions, are essentially a two-flavor phenomenon driven by the atmospheric mass difference and the small mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}. In the two-flavor approximation, the initial evolution depends logarithmically on {theta}{sub 13} and the system remains trapped in an unstable fixed point for {theta}{sub 13}=0. However, any effect breaking exact {nu}{sub {mu}-{nu}{tau}}equivalence triggers the conversion. Such three-flavor perturbations include radiative corrections to weak interactions, small differences between the {nu}{sub {mu}}and {nu}{sub {tau}}fluxes, or nonstandard interactions. Therefore, extremely small values of {theta}{sub 13} are in practice equivalent, the fate of the system depending onlymore » on the neutrino spectra and their mass ordering.« less

  18. Emotional triggers in myocardial infarction: do they matter?

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Donald; Newman, Jonathan D; Whang, William; Davidson, Karina W

    2013-01-01

    Considerable excitement and interest have arisen recently concerning the role that acute emotional triggers may play in precipitating a myocardial infarction (MI). Observational studies have found repeatedly that patients report excessive anger, anxiety, sadness, grief, or acute stress immediately prior to onset of MI, and recent meta-analyses summarizing these findings reported strong associations between MI occurrence and many of these acute emotions. However, it is unclear whether and through what mechanisms acute emotional triggers might influence MI, and whether there is any clinical utility in knowing if or how emotions trigger MI. We debate whether emotional triggers matter by reviewing the recent evidence for the association between acute emotional triggers and MI and by describing the potential pathophysiological characteristics and mechanisms underlying this association and the preventive strategies that could be used to mitigate the risk of acute MI. We also examine whether the study of emotional triggers could influence clinical risk management or changes in clinical practice/management. We offer suggestions for research that might shed light on whether emotional triggers could initiate a paradigm shift in preventive cardiology, or whether acute emotional triggers are either intractable catalysts for, or merely an epiphenomenon of, some MIs.

  19. Hysteresis of Soil Point Water Retention Functions Determined by Neutron Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perfect, E.; Kang, M.; Bilheux, H.; Willis, K. J.; Horita, J.; Warren, J.; Cheng, C.

    2010-12-01

    Soil point water retention functions are needed for modeling flow and transport in partially-saturated porous media. Such functions are usually determined by inverse modeling of average water retention data measured experimentally on columns of finite length. However, the resulting functions are subject to the appropriateness of the chosen model, as well as the initial and boundary condition assumptions employed. Soil point water retention functions are rarely measured directly and when they are the focus is invariably on the main drying branch. Previous direct measurement methods include time domain reflectometry and gamma beam attenuation. Here we report direct measurements of the main wetting and drying branches of the point water retention function using neutron radiography. The measurements were performed on a coarse sand (Flint #13) packed into 2.6 cm diameter x 4 cm long aluminum cylinders at the NIST BT-2 (50 μm resolution) and ORNL-HFIR CG1D (70 μm resolution) imaging beamlines. The sand columns were saturated with water and then drained and rewetted under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. 2048 x 2048 pixel images of the transmitted flux of neutrons through the column were acquired at each imposed suction (~10-15 suction values per experiment). Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert’s law in conjunction with beam hardening and geometric corrections. The pixel rows were averaged and combined with information on the known distribution of suctions within the column to give 2048 point drying and wetting functions for each experiment. The point functions exhibited pronounced hysteresis and varied with column height, possibly due to differences in porosity caused by the packing procedure employed. Predicted point functions, extracted from the hanging water column volumetric data using the TrueCell inverse modeling procedure, showed very good agreement with the range of point

  20. Investigating on the Differences between Triggered and Background Seismicity in Italy and Southern California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallone, A.; Marzocchi, W.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquake occurrence may be approximated by a multidimensional Poisson clustering process, where each point of the Poisson process is replaced by a cluster of points, the latter corresponding to the well-known aftershock sequence (triggered events). Earthquake clusters and their parents are assumed to occur according to a Poisson process at a constant temporal rate proportional to the tectonic strain rate, while events within a cluster are modeled as generations of dependent events reproduced by a branching process. Although the occurrence of such space-time clusters is a general feature in different tectonic settings, seismic sequences seem to have marked differences from region to region: one example, among many others, is that seismic sequences of moderate magnitude in Italian Apennines seem to last longer than similar seismic sequences in California. In this work we investigate on the existence of possible differences in the earthquake clustering process in these two areas. At first, we separate the triggered and background components of seismicity in the Italian and Southern California seismic catalog. Then we study the space-time domain of the triggered earthquakes with the aim to identify possible variations in the triggering properties across the two regions. In the second part of the work we focus our attention on the characteristics of the background seismicity in both seismic catalogs. The assumption of time stationarity of the background seismicity (which includes both cluster parents and isolated events) is still under debate. Some authors suggest that the independent component of seismicity could undergo transient perturbations at various time scales due to different physical mechanisms, such as, for example, viscoelastic relaxation, presence of fluids, non-stationary plate motion, etc, whose impact may depend on the tectonic setting. Here we test if the background seismicity in the two regions can be satisfactorily described by the time

  1. Conflict-triggered top-down control: default mode, last resort, or no such thing?

    PubMed

    Bugg, Julie M

    2014-03-01

    The conflict monitoring account posits that globally high levels of conflict trigger engagement of top-down control; however, recent findings point to the mercurial nature of top-down control in high conflict contexts. The current study examined the potential moderating effect of associative learning on conflict-triggered top-down control engagement by testing the Associations as Antagonists to Top-Down Control (AATC) hypothesis. In 4 experiments, list-wide proportion congruence was manipulated, and conflict-triggered top-down control engagement was examined by comparing interference for frequency-matched, 50% congruent items across mostly congruent (low conflict) and mostly incongruent (high conflict) lists. Despite the fact that global levels of conflict were varied identically across experiments, evidence of conflict-triggered top-down control engagement was selective to those experiments in which responses could not be predicted on the majority of trials via simple associative learning, consistent with the AATC hypothesis. In a 5th experiment, older adults showed no evidence of top-down control engagement under conditions in which young adults did, a finding that refined the interpretation of the patterns observed in the prior experiments. Collectively, these findings suggest that top-down control engagement in high conflict contexts is neither the default mode nor an unused (or nonexistent) strategy. Top-down control is best characterized as a last resort that is engaged when reliance on one's environment, and in particular associative responding, is unproductive for achieving task goals.

  2. Conflict-Triggered Top-Down Control: Default Mode, Last Resort, or No Such Thing?

    PubMed Central

    Bugg, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    The conflict monitoring account posits that globally high levels of conflict trigger engagement of top-down control; however, recent findings point to the mercurial nature of top-down control in high conflict contexts. The current study examined the potential moderating effect of associative learning on conflict-triggered top-down control engagement by testing the Associations as Antagonists to Top-Down Control (AATC) hypothesis. In 4 experiments, list-wide proportion congruence was manipulated, and conflict-triggered top-down control engagement was examined by comparing interference for 50% congruent items across mostly congruent (low conflict) and mostly incongruent (high conflict) lists. Despite the fact that global levels of conflict were varied identically across experiments, evidence of conflict-triggered top-down control engagement was selective to those experiments in which responses could not be predicted on the majority of trials via simple associative learning, consistent with the AATC hypothesis. In a fifth experiment, older adults showed no evidence of top-down control engagement under conditions in which young adults did, a finding that refined the interpretation of the patterns observed in the prior experiments. Collectively, these findings suggest that top-down control engagement in high conflict contexts is neither the default mode nor an unused (or non-existent) strategy. Top-down control is best characterized as a last resort that is engaged when reliance on one’s environment, and in particular associative responding, is unproductive for achieving task goals. PMID:24274385

  3. Immune-spaying as an alternative to surgical spaying in Iberian x Duroc females: Effect on the sensory traits and volatile organic compound profile of dry-cured shoulders and dry-cured loins.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Negrón, Rafael; García, Carmen; Reina, Raquel; Sánchez Del Pulgar, José

    2018-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of immune-spaying on sensory characteristics and the volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of dry-cured shoulders and loins by comparing Iberian × Duroc surgically spayed females, immune-spayed females and entire females. VOC profile of dry-cured shoulders was not significantly affected by the reproductive status, probably due to the large heterogeneity of dry-cured shoulders as a product. Correspondingly, dry-cured shoulders showed little differences among treatment groups, with better scores for marbling, hardness and chewiness attributes in the immune-spayed females. Dry-cured loin sensory traits such as brightness, marbling, chewiness and juiciness, presented better scores in immune-spayed females. Moreover, dry-cured loins showed a higher homogeneity that allowed the effects of spaying to be observed, thus the Principal Component Analysis performed on VOC profile data indicated a better separation of samples among treatment groups. Consequently, immune-spaying could be a viable alternative to surgical spaying from the point of view of meat quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mutations in the Parainfluenza Virus 5 Fusion Protein Reveal Domains Important for Fusion Triggering and Metastability

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Sayantan; Heath, Carissa M.; Shah, Priya A.; Alayyoubi, Maher; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2013-01-01

    Paramyxovirus membrane glycoproteins F (fusion protein) and HN, H, or G (attachment protein) are critical for virus entry, which occurs through fusion of viral and cellular envelopes. The F protein folds into a homotrimeric, metastable prefusion form that can be triggered by the attachment protein to undergo a series of structural rearrangements, ultimately folding into a stable postfusion form. In paramyxovirus-infected cells, the F protein is activated in the Golgi apparatus by cleavage adjacent to a hydrophobic fusion peptide that inserts into the target membrane, eventually bringing the membranes together by F refolding. However, it is not clear how the attachment protein, known as HN in parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), interacts with F and triggers F to initiate fusion. To understand the roles of various F protein domains in fusion triggering and metastability, single point mutations were introduced into the PIV5 F protein. By extensive study of F protein cleavage activation, surface expression, and energetics of fusion triggering, we found a role for an immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain, where multiple hydrophobic residues on the PIV5 F protein may mediate F-HN interactions. Additionally, destabilizing mutations of PIV5 F that resulted in HN trigger-independent mutant F proteins were identified in a region along the border of F trimer subunits. The positions of the potential HN-interacting region and the region important for F stability in the lower part of the PIV5 F prefusion structure provide clues to the receptor-binding initiated, HN-mediated F trigger. PMID:24089572

  5. Efficacy of Several Therapeutic Agents in a Murine Model of Dry Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Servet; Kulualp, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we used 56 female BALB/c mice with induced dry eye syndrome to evaluate the therapeutic effects of formal saline (FS), sodium hyaluronate (SH), diclofenac sodium (DS), olopatadine (OP), retinoic acid (RA), fluoromethanole (FML), cyclosporine A (CsA), and doxycycline hyclate (DH). All subjects were kept in an evaporative ‘dry eye cabinet’ for the assessment of blink rate, tear production, tear break-up time, and impression cytology prior to (baseline) and during weeks 2, 4, and 6 of the study. The right eyes of all subjects were treated topically with 5 µL of the test agent twice daily during weeks 2 through 6. Impression cytology and tear break-up time differed between time points in all groups and differed between groups at weeks 4 and 6. Blink rate differed by time point only in the FS, FML, and DH groups. Tear production according to the phenol red cotton thread test differed by time point for all groups except RA, CsA, and DH and differed between groups only at week 6. Among the compounds tested in the present study, DS and CsA were the most effective therapeutic agents in our mouse model of dry eye syndrome; these agents likely exert their therapeutic effect through their antiinflammatory activity. PMID:27053565

  6. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air due to the climate Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( hypoparathyroidism ) Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Other hormone abnormalities

  7. Emotional triggers in myocardial infarction: do they matter?

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Donald; Newman, Jonathan D.; Whang, William; Davidson, Karina W.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable excitement and interest have arisen recently concerning the role that acute emotional triggers may play in precipitating a myocardial infarction (MI). Observational studies have found repeatedly that patients report excessive anger, anxiety, sadness, grief, or acute stress immediately prior to onset of MI, and recent meta-analyses summarizing these findings reported strong associations between MI occurrence and many of these acute emotions. However, it is unclear whether and through what mechanisms acute emotional triggers might influence MI, and whether there is any clinical utility in knowing if or how emotions trigger MI. We debate whether emotional triggers matter by reviewing the recent evidence for the association between acute emotional triggers and MI and by describing the potential pathophysiological characteristics and mechanisms underlying this association and the preventive strategies that could be used to mitigate the risk of acute MI. We also examine whether the study of emotional triggers could influence clinical risk management or changes in clinical practice/management. We offer suggestions for research that might shed light on whether emotional triggers could initiate a paradigm shift in preventive cardiology, or whether acute emotional triggers are either intractable catalysts for, or merely an epiphenomenon of, some MIs. PMID:23178642

  8. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  9. Performance of the ATLAS Trigger System in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, D.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B. H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camard, A.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Cammin, J.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cazzato, A.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chislett, R. T.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciba, K.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R. W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. 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M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; Van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A. V.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2012-01-01

    Proton-proton collisions at sqrt{s}=7 TeV and heavy ion collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76 TeV were produced by the LHC and recorded using the ATLAS experiment's trigger system in 2010. The LHC is designed with a maximum bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz and the ATLAS trigger system is designed to record approximately 200 of these per second. The trigger system selects events by rapidly identifying signatures of muon, electron, photon, tau lepton, jet, and B meson candidates, as well as using global event signatures, such as missing transverse energy. An overview of the ATLAS trigger system, the evolution of the system during 2010 and the performance of the trigger system components and selections based on the 2010 collision data are shown. A brief outline of plans for the trigger system in 2011 is presented.

  10. The immediate effects of traditional Thai massage on heart rate variability and stress-related parameters in patients with back pain associated with myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Buttagat, Vitsarut; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Chatchawan, Uraiwon; Kharmwan, Samerduen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of traditional Thai massage (TTM) on stress-related parameters including heart rate variability (HRV), anxiety, muscle tension, pain intensity, pressure pain threshold, and body flexibility in patients with back pain associated with myofascial trigger points. Thirty-six patients were randomly allocated to receive a 30-min session of either TTM or control (rest on bed) for one session. Results indicated that TTM was associated with significant increases in HRV (increased total power frequency (TPF) and high frequency (HF)), pressure pain threshold (PPT) and body flexibility (p<0.05) and significant decreases in self-reported pain intensity, anxiety and muscle tension (p<0.001). For all outcomes, similar changes were not observed in the control group. The adjusted post-test mean values for TPF, HF, PPT and body flexibility were significantly higher in the TTM group when compared with the control group (p<0.01) and the values for pain intensity, anxiety and muscle tension were significantly lower. We conclude that TTM can increase HRV and improve stress-related parameters in this patient population. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2016-07-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  12. On near-source earthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Velasco, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    When one earthquake triggers others nearby, what connects them? Two processes are observed: static stress change from fault offset and dynamic stress changes from passing seismic waves. In the near-source region (r ??? 50 km for M ??? 5 sources) both processes may be operating, and since both mechanisms are expected to raise earthquake rates, it is difficult to isolate them. We thus compare explosions with earthquakes because only earthquakes cause significant static stress changes. We find that large explosions at the Nevada Test Site do not trigger earthquakes at rates comparable to similar magnitude earthquakes. Surface waves are associated with regional and long-range dynamic triggering, but we note that surface waves with low enough frequency to penetrate to depths where most aftershocks of the 1992 M = 5.7 Little Skull Mountain main shock occurred (???12 km) would not have developed significant amplitude within a 50-km radius. We therefore focus on the best candidate phases to cause local dynamic triggering, direct waves that pass through observed near-source aftershock clusters. We examine these phases, which arrived at the nearest (200-270 km) broadband station before the surface wave train and could thus be isolated for study. Direct comparison of spectral amplitudes of presurface wave arrivals shows that M ??? 5 explosions and earthquakes deliver the same peak dynamic stresses into the near-source crust. We conclude that a static stress change model can readily explain observed aftershock patterns, whereas it is difficult to attribute near-source triggering to a dynamic process because of the dearth of aftershocks near large explosions.

  13. Drying and color characteristics of coriander foliage using convective thin-layer and microwave drying.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Mark; Meda, Venkatesh; Tabil, Lope; Opoku, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Heat sensitive properties (aromatic, medicinal, color) provide herbs and spices with their high market value. In order to prevent extreme loss of heat sensitive properties when drying herbs, they are normally dried at low temperatures for longer periods of time to preserve these sensory properties. High energy consumption often results from drying herbs over a long period. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L., Umbelliferae) was dehydrated in two different drying units (thin layer convection and microwave dryers) in order to compare the drying and final product quality (color) characteristics. Microwave drying of the coriander foliage was faster than convective drying. The entire drying process took place in the falling rate period for both microwave and convective dried samples. The drying rate for the microwave dried samples ranged from 42.3 to 48.2% db/min and that of the convective dried samples ranged from 7.1 to 12.5% db/min. The fresh sample color had the lowest L value at 26.83 with higher L values for all dried samples. The results show that convective thin layer dried coriander samples exhibited a significantly greater color change than microwave dried coriander samples. The color change index values for the microwave dried samples ranged from 2.67 to 3.27 and that of the convective dried samples varied from 4.59 to 6.58.

  14. Trigger design for a gamma ray detector of HIRFL-ETF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zhong-Wei; Su, Hong; Qian, Yi; Kong, Jie

    2013-10-01

    The Gamma Ray Array Detector (GRAD) is one subsystem of HIRFL-ETF (the External Target Facility (ETF) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL)). It is capable of measuring the energy of gamma-rays with 1024 CsI scintillators in in-beam nuclear experiments. The GRAD trigger should select the valid events and reject the data from the scintillators which are not hit by the gamma-ray. The GRAD trigger has been developed based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs) and PXI interface. It makes prompt trigger decisions to select valid events by processing the hit signals from the 1024 CsI scintillators. According to the physical requirements, the GRAD trigger module supplies 12-bit trigger information for the global trigger system of ETF and supplies a trigger signal for data acquisition (DAQ) system of GRAD. In addition, the GRAD trigger generates trigger data that are packed and transmitted to the host computer via PXI bus to be saved for off-line analysis. The trigger processing is implemented in the front-end electronics of GRAD and one FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. The logic of PXI transmission and reconfiguration is implemented in another FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. During the gamma-ray experiments, the GRAD trigger performs reliably and efficiently. The function of GRAD trigger is capable of satisfying the physical requirements.

  15. The dangers of being trigger-happy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, J. E.; Haworth, T. J.; Bressert, E.

    2015-06-01

    We examine the evidence offered for triggered star formation against the backdrop provided by recent numerical simulations of feedback from massive stars at or below giant molecular cloud sizescales. We compile a catalogue of 67 observational papers, mostly published over the last decade, and examine the signposts most commonly used to infer the presence of triggered star formation. We then determine how well these signposts perform in a recent suite of hydrodynamic simulations of star formation including feedback from O-type stars performed by Dale et al. We find that none of the observational markers improve the chances of correctly identifying a given star as triggered by more than factors of 2 at most. This limits the fidelity of these techniques in interpreting star formation histories. We therefore urge caution in interpreting observations of star formation near feedback-driven structures in terms of triggering.

  16. 38. Y&D Drawing 216455 (1942), 'Dry Dock 4 General Arrangement ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Y&D Drawing 216455 (1942), 'Dry Dock 4 General Arrangement Sections F-F, G-G, H-H, I-I'; sectional views through pump room, flooding and dewatering chambers. - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. Dry dock no. 4. Service Building between dry docks 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dry dock no. 4. Service Building between dry docks 4 and 5. Floor plans (Navy Yard Public Works Office 1941). In files of Cushman & Wakefield, building 501. Philadelphia Naval Business Center. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Service Building, Dry Docks No. 4 & 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. The use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of trigger points that are associated with rotator cuff tendonitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shenqiti, A.; Oldham, J.

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of LLLT in the treatment of trigger points (TrPs) that are associated with rotator cuff tendonitis. A double-blind randomized controlled trail was conducted. Sixty patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups: sham or laser therapy. The laser (Excel, Omega Universal Technologies Ltd, London, UK) parameters used were a wavelength of 820 nm, a power output of 100 mW, a frequency of 5000 Hz (modulated) and energy density of 32 J/cm2. The two groups received a course of 12 treatment sessions for four weeks (3 sessions per week). Pain, functional activities (as measured using the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, SPADI), pressure pain threshold (PPT) and range of motion (ROM) were assessed pre and post treatment, with a three month follow-up assessment. Significant improvements in pain (p < 0.001) were observed for the laser group (6 cm median improvement on a 10 cm VAS) compared to the sham group (2 cm median improvement) immediately post treatment. The improvements in the laser group continued post treatment with a 7 cm median improvement observed at three month follow-up. Similar between group differences were observed for ROM (p < 0.01), functional activities (p <= 0.001) and PPT (p <= 0.05). The findings of the current study suggested that LLLT is effective in treating patients with TrPs associated with rotator cuff tendonitis, when using the parameters described. However, the mechanism of its action is not yet clear, and will require further investigation.

  19. Study of Tectonic Tremor in Depth: Triggering Stress Observation and Model of the Triggering Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tien-Huei

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been discovered in recent years due to advances in seismic instruments and increased density of seismic networks. The NVT is a special kind of seismic signal indicative of the physical conditions and the failure mechanism on the source on the fault where NVT occurs. The detection methods used and the sensitivity of them relies on the density, distance and instrumentation of the station network available. How accurately the tremor is identified in different regions varies greatly among different studies. Therefore, there has not been study that rigorously documents tectonic tremors in different regions under limited methods and data. Meanwhile, many incidences of NVTs are observed during or after small but significant strain change induced by teleseismic, regional or local earthquake. The understanding of the triggering mechanisms critical for tremor remains unclear. In addition, characteristics of the triggering of NVT in different regions are rarely compared because of the short time frame after the discovery of the triggered NVTs. We first explore tectonic tremor based on observations to learn about its triggering, frequency of occurrence, location and spectral characteristics. Then, we numerically model the triggering of instability on the estimated tremor-source, under assumptions fine-tuned according to previous studies (Thomas et al., 2009; Miyazawa et al., 2005; Hill, 2008; Ito, 2009; Rubinstein et al., 2007; Peng and Chao, 2008). The onset of the slip reveals that how and when the external loading triggers tremor. It also holds the information to the background stress conditions under which tremor source starts with. We observe and detect tremor in two regions: Anza and Cholame, along San Jacinto Fault (SJF) and San Andreas Fault (SAF) respectively. These two sections of the faults, relative to general fault zone on which general earthquakes occur, are considered transition zones where slip of slow rates occurs. Slip events

  20. New developments in ALFT's soft x-ray point sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintron, Dario F.; Guo, Xiaoming; Xu, Meisheng; Ye, Rubin; Antoshko, Yuriy; Antoshko, Yuriy; Drew, Steve; Philippe, Albert; Panarella, Emilio

    2002-07-01

    The new development in ALFT soft X-ray point source VSX-400 consists mainly of an improvement of the nozzle design to reduce the source size, as well as the introduction of a novel trigger system, capable of triggering the discharge hundreds of million of times without failure, and a debris removal system. Continuous operation for 8 hours at 20 kHz allows us to achieve 400 mW of useful soft X-ray radiation around 1 nm wavelength. In another regime of operation with a high energy machine, the VSX-Z, we have been able to achieve consistently 10 J of X-rays per pulse at a repetition rate that can reach 1 Hz with an input electrical energy of approximately 3 kJ and an efficiency in excess of 10-3.

  1. Implications of drying temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics of seaweed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Majid Khan Majahar; Fudholi, Ahmad; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Sulaiman, Jumat; Yasir, Suhaimi Md

    2017-11-01

    A Low Temperature and Humidity Chamber Test tested in the Solar Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia. Experiments are attempted to study the effect of drying air temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics of seaweed Kappaphycus species Striatum besides to develop a model to estimate the drying curves. Simple method using a excel software is used in the analysis of raw data obtained from the drying experiment. The values of the parameters a, n and the constant k for the models are determined using a plot of curve drying models. Three different drying models are compared with experiment data seaweed drying at 30, 40, 50 and 60°C and relative humidity 20, 30 and 40% for seaweed. The higher drying temperatures and low relative humidity effects the moisture content that will be rapidly reduced. The most suitable model is selected to best describe the drying behavior of seaweed. The values of the coefficient of determination (R2), mean bias error (MBE) and root mean square error (RMSE) are used to determine the goodness or the quality of the fit. The Page model is showed a better fit to drying seaweed. The results from this study crucial for solar dryer development on pilot scale in Malaysia.

  2. A self-determination theory-based self-myofascial release program in older adults with myofascial trigger points in the neck and back: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minyoung; Kim, Minhee; Oh, Sejun; Choi, Yoon-Jin; Lee, Dongshin; Lee, Sang Heon; Yoon, BumChul

    2017-09-01

    To examine the effectiveness and adherence to a self-determination theory (SDT)-based self-myofascial release (SMR) program in older adults with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), and to investigate the factors that influence participant behavioral change while conducting the program in a home setting. An explanatory mixed-method design was used to evaluate a 12-week SDT-based SMR program, including a 4-week group-based education and practice (EP) phase and an 8-week home-based self-management (SM) phase. Pain intensity on palpation and sensitivity to pain were assessed at baseline and the post EP and post SM phase. Focus group interviews were conducted at the post SM phase. Fifteen participants completed the study. Pain intensity and sensitivity to pain significantly improved at the post SM phase compared with the baseline. Adherence increased during the SM phase compared with that during the EP phase. Four main themes emerged as factors that influenced participant behavioral change: 1) "awareness of the effectiveness"; 2) "a sense of duty to perform the exercise"; 3) "obedience to expert instruction"; and 4) "lack of friendship." These results support the effectiveness of an SDT-based SMR program for the treatment of MTrPs and in motivating older adults to participate in the program.

  3. Performance of the ATLAS Trigger System in 2010

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; ...

    2012-01-03

    Proton-proton collisions atmore » $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 7 TeV and heavy ion collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$$_ {NN}$$ = 2.76 TeV were produced by the LHC and recorded using the ATLAS experiment's trigger system in 2010. The LHC is designed with a maximum bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz and the ATLAS trigger system is designed to record approximately 200 of these per second. The trigger system selects events by rapidly identifying signatures of muon, electron, photon, tau lepton, jet, and B meson candidates, as well as using global event signatures, such as missing transverse energy. An overview of the ATLAS trigger system, the evolution of the system during 2010 and the performance of the trigger system components and selections based on the 2010 collision data are shown. In conclusion, a brief outline of plans for the trigger system in 2011 is presented.« less

  4. Event-triggered attitude control of spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Baolin; Shen, Qiang; Cao, Xibin

    2018-02-01

    The problem of spacecraft attitude stabilization control system with limited communication and external disturbances is investigated based on an event-triggered control scheme. In the proposed scheme, information of attitude and control torque only need to be transmitted at some discrete triggered times when a defined measurement error exceeds a state-dependent threshold. The proposed control scheme not only guarantees that spacecraft attitude control errors converge toward a small invariant set containing the origin, but also ensures that there is no accumulation of triggering instants. The performance of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated through numerical simulation.

  5. The influence of lysozyme on mannitol polymorphism in freeze-dried and spray-dried formulations depends on the selection of the drying process.

    PubMed

    Grohganz, Holger; Lee, Yan-Ying; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi

    2013-04-15

    Freeze-drying and spray-drying are often applied drying techniques for biopharmaceutical formulations. The formation of different solid forms upon drying is often dependent on the complex interplay between excipient selection and process parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the chosen drying method on the solid state form. Mannitol-lysozyme solutions of 20mg/mL, with the amount of lysozyme varying between 2.5% and 50% (w/w) of total solid content, were freeze-dried and spray-dried, respectively. The resulting solid state of mannitol was analysed by near-infrared spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis and further, results were verified with X-ray powder diffraction. It was seen that the prevalence of the mannitol polymorphic form shifted from β-mannitol to δ-mannitol with increasing protein concentration in freeze-dried formulations. In spray-dried formulations an increase in protein concentration resulted in a shift from β-mannitol to α-mannitol. An increase in final drying temperature of the freeze-drying process towards the temperature of the spray-drying process did not lead to significant changes. It can thus be concluded that it is the drying process in itself, rather than the temperature, that leads to the observed solid state changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of whey protein agglomeration on spray dried microcapsules containing Saccharomyces boulardii.

    PubMed

    Duongthingoc, Diep; George, Paul; Katopo, Lita; Gorczyca, Elizabeth; Kasapis, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    This work investigates the effect of whey protein agglomeration on the survivability of Saccharomyces boulardii within spray dried microcapsules. It attempts to go beyond phenomenological observations by establishing a relationship between physicochemical characteristics of the polymeric matrix and its effect on probiotic endurance upon spray drying. It is well known that this type of thermal shock has lethal consequences on the yeast cells. To avoid such undesirable outcome, we take advantage of the early agglomeration phenomenon observed for whey protein by adjusting the pH value of preparations close to isoelectric point (pH 4-5). During the subsequent process of spray drying, development of whey protein agglomerates induces formation of an early crust, and the protein in this molten globular state creates a cohesive network encapsulating the yeast cells. It appears that the early crust formation at a given sample pH and temperature regime during spray drying benefits the survivability of S. boulardii within microcapsules. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Triggering on New Physics with the CMS Detector

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bose, Tulika

    The BU CMS group led by PI Tulika Bose has made several significant contributions to the CMS trigger and to the analysis of the data collected by the CMS experiment. Group members have played a leading role in the optimization of trigger algorithms, the development of trigger menus, and the online operation of the CMS High-Level Trigger. The group’s data analysis projects have concentrated on a broad spectrum of topics that take full advantage of their strengths in jets and calorimetry, trigger, lepton identification as well as their considerable experience in hadron collider physics. Their publications cover several searches formore » new heavy gauge bosons, vector-like quarks as well as diboson resonances.« less

  8. Noncontact Infrared-Mediated Heat Transfer During Continuous Freeze-Drying of Unit Doses.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; De Meyer, Laurens; Corver, Jos; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Recently, an innovative continuous freeze-drying concept for unit doses was proposed, based on spinning the vials during freezing. An efficient heat transfer during drying is essential to continuously process these spin frozen vials. Therefore, the applicability of noncontact infrared (IR) radiation was examined. The impact of several process and formulation variables on the mass of sublimed ice after 15 min of primary drying (i.e., sublimation rate) and the total drying time was examined. Two experimental designs were performed in which electrical power to the IR heaters, distance between the IR heaters and the spin frozen vial, chamber pressure, product layer thickness, and 5 model formulations were included as factors. A near-infrared spectroscopy method was developed to determine the end point of primary and secondary drying. The sublimation rate was mainly influenced by the electrical power to the IR heaters and the distance between the IR heaters and the vial. The layer thickness had the largest effect on total drying time. The chamber pressure and the 5 model formulations had no significant impact on sublimation rate and total drying time, respectively. This study shows that IR radiation is suitable to provide the energy during the continuous processing of spin frozen vials. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A hypothesis for delayed dynamic earthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    2005-01-01

    It's uncertain whether more near-field earthquakes are triggered by static or dynamic stress changes. This ratio matters because static earthquake interactions are increasingly incorporated into probabilistic forecasts. Recent studies were unable to demonstrate all predictions from the static-stress-change hypothesis, particularly seismicity rate reductions. However, current dynamic stress change hypotheses do not explain delayed earthquake triggering and Omori's law. Here I show numerically that if seismic waves can alter some frictional contacts in neighboring fault zones, then dynamic triggering might cause delayed triggering and an Omori-law response. The hypothesis depends on faults following a rate/state friction law, and on seismic waves changing the mean critical slip distance (Dc) at nucleation zones.

  10. RNA polymerase II trigger loop residues stabilize and position the incoming nucleotide triphosphate in transcription

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xuhui; Wang, Dong; Weiss, Dahlia R.; Bushnell, David A.; Kornberg, Roger D.; Levitt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A structurally conserved element, the trigger loop, has been suggested to play a key role in substrate selection and catalysis of RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcription elongation. Recently resolved X-ray structures showed that the trigger loop forms direct interactions with the β-phosphate and base of the matched nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) through residues His1085 and Leu1081, respectively. In order to understand the role of these two critical residues in stabilizing active site conformation in the dynamic complex, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the wild-type pol II elongation complex and its mutants in explicit solvent. In the wild-type complex, we found that the trigger loop is stabilized in the “closed” conformation, and His1085 forms a stable interaction with the NTP. Simulations of point mutations of His1085 are shown to affect this interaction; simulations of alternative protonation states, which are inaccessible through experiment, indicate that only the protonated form is able to stabilize the His1085-NTP interaction. Another trigger loop residue, Leu1081, stabilizes the incoming nucleotide position through interaction with the nucleotide base. Our simulations of this Leu mutant suggest a three-component mechanism for correctly positioning the incoming NTP in which (i) hydrophobic contact through Leu1081, (ii) base stacking, and (iii) base pairing work together to minimize the motion of the incoming NTP base. These results complement experimental observations and provide insight into the role of the trigger loop on transcription fidelity. PMID:20798057

  11. Perceived Triggers of Asthma: Key to Symptom Perception and Management

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Thomas; Ritz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Adequate asthma management depends on an accurate identification of asthma triggers. A review of the literature on trigger perception in asthma shows that individuals vary in their perception of asthma triggers and that the correlation between self-reported asthma triggers and allergy tests is only modest. In this paper, we provide an overview of psychological mechanisms involved in the process of asthma triggers identification. We identify sources of errors in trigger identification and targets for behavioral interventions that aim to improve the accuracy of asthma trigger identification and thereby enhance asthma control. PMID:23957335

  12. Toward a rational understanding of migraine trigger factors.

    PubMed

    Martin, V T; Behbehani, M M

    2001-07-01

    The typical migraine patient is exposed to a myriad of migraine triggers on a daily basis. These triggers potentially can act at various sites within the cerebral vasculature and the central nervous system to promote the development of migraine headache. The challenge to the physician is in the identification and avoidance of migraine trigger factors within patients suffering from migraine headache. Only through a rational approach to migraine trigger factors can physicians develop an appropriate treatment strategy for migraine patients.

  13. A plant effector-triggered immunity signaling sector is inhibited by pattern-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Igarashi, Daisuke; Mase, Keisuke; Lu, You; Tsuda, Yayoi; Chakravarthy, Suma; Wei, Hai-Lei; Foley, Joseph W; Collmer, Alan; Glazebrook, Jane; Katagiri, Fumiaki

    2017-09-15

    Since signaling machineries for two modes of plant-induced immunity, pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), extensively overlap, PTI and ETI signaling likely interact. In an Arabidopsis quadruple mutant, in which four major sectors of the signaling network, jasmonate, ethylene, PAD4, and salicylate, are disabled, the hypersensitive response (HR) typical of ETI is abolished when the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrRpt2 is bacterially delivered but is intact when AvrRpt2 is directly expressed in planta These observations led us to discovery of a network-buffered signaling mechanism that mediates HR signaling and is strongly inhibited by PTI signaling. We named this mechanism the ETI-Mediating and PTI-Inhibited Sector (EMPIS). The signaling kinetics of EMPIS explain apparently different plant genetic requirements for ETI triggered by different effectors without postulating different signaling machineries. The properties of EMPIS suggest that information about efficacy of the early immune response is fed back to the immune signaling network, modulating its activity and limiting the fitness cost of unnecessary immune responses. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Making the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome in patients with dry eye.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Kenneth A; Luchs, Jodi; Milner, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic and progressive systemic autoimmune disease that often presents initially with symptoms of dry eye and dry mouth. Symptoms are often nonspecific and develop gradually, making diagnosis difficult. Patients with dry eye complaints warrant a step-wise evaluation for possible SS. Initial evaluation requires establishment of a dry eye diagnosis using a combination of patient questionnaires and objective ocular tests, including inflammatory biomarker testing. Additional work-up using the Schirmer test and tear film break-up time can differentiate between aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) and evaporative dry eye. The presence of ADDE should trigger further work-up to differentiate between SS-ADDE and non-SS-ADDE. There are numerous non-ocular manifestations of SS, and monitoring for SS-related comorbid findings can aid in diagnosis, ideally in collaboration with a rheumatologist. The clinical work-up of SS can involve a variety of tests, including tear function tests, serological tests for autoantibody biomarkers, minor salivary gland and lacrimal gland biopsies. Examination of classic SS biomarkers (SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, antinuclear antibody, and rheumatoid factor) is a convenient and non-invasive way of evaluating patients for the presence of SS, even years prior to confirmed diagnosis, although not all SS patients will test positive, particularly those with early disease. Recently, newer biomarkers have been identified, including autoantibodies to salivary gland protein-1, parotid secretory protein, and carbonic anhydrase VI, and may allow for earlier diagnosis of SS. A diagnostic test kit is commercially available (Sjö(®)), incorporating these new biomarkers along with the classic autoantibodies. This advanced test has been shown to identify SS patients who previously tested negative against traditional biomarkers only. All patients with clinically significant ADDE should be considered for serological assessment for SS, given the

  15. Infrared thermography for monitoring of freeze-drying processes: instrumental developments and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Emteborg, Håkan; Zeleny, Reinhard; Charoud-Got, Jean; Martos, Gustavo; Lüddeke, Jörg; Schellin, Holger; Teipel, Katharina

    2014-07-01

    Coupling an infrared (IR) camera to a freeze dryer for on-line monitoring of freeze-drying cycles is described for the first time. Normally, product temperature is measured using a few invasive Pt-100 probes, resulting in poor spatial resolution. To overcome this, an IR camera was placed on a process-scale freeze dryer. Imaging took place every 120 s through a Germanium window comprising 30,000 measurement points obtained contact-free from -40 °C to 25 °C. Results are presented for an empty system, bulk drying of cheese slurry, and drying of 1 mL human serum in 150 vials. During freezing of the empty system, differences of more than 5 °C were measured on the shelf. Adding a tray to the empty system, a difference of more than 8 °C was observed. These temperature differences probably cause different ice structures affecting the drying speed during sublimation. A temperature difference of maximum 13 °C was observed in bulk mode during sublimation. When drying in vials, differences of more than 10 °C were observed. Gradually, the large temperature differences disappeared during secondary drying and products were transformed into uniformly dry cakes. The experimental data show that the IR camera is a highly versatile on-line monitoring tool for different kinds of freeze-drying processes. © 2014 European Union.

  16. Degradation of anionic surfactants during drying of UASBR sludges on sand drying beds.

    PubMed

    Mungray, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2008-09-01

    Anionic surfactant (AS) concentrations in wet up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR) sludges from five sewage treatment plants (STPs) were found to range from 4480 to 9,233 mg kg(-1)dry wt. (average 7,347 mg kg(-1)dry wt.) over a period of 18 months. After drying on sand drying beds (SDBs), AS in dried-stabilized sludges averaged 1,452 mg kg(-1)dry wt., a reduction of around 80%. The kinetics of drying followed simple first-order reduction of moisture with value of drying constant (k(d))=0.051 d(-1). Reduction of AS also followed first-order kinetics. AS degradation rate constant (k(AS)) was found to be 0.034 d(-1) and half-life of AS as 20 days. The order of rates of removal observed was k(d)>k(AS)>k(COD)>k(OM) (drying >AS degradation>COD reduction>organic matter reduction). For the three applications of dried-stabilized sludges (soil, agricultural soil, grassland), values of risk quotient (RQ) were found to be <1, indicating no risk.

  17. Microwave and hot air drying of garlic puree: drying kinetics and quality characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    İlter, Işıl; Akyıl, Saniye; Devseren, Esra; Okut, Dilara; Koç, Mehmet; Kaymak Ertekin, Figen

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of hot air and microwave drying on drying kinetics and some quality characteristics such as water activity, color, optic index and volatile oil of garlic puree was investigated. Optic index representing browning of the garlic puree increased excessively with an increase in microwave power and hot air drying temperature. However, volatile oil content of the dried samples was decreased by increasing of temperature and microwave power. By increasing drying temperature (50, 60 and 70 °C) and microwave power (180, 360 and 540 W), the drying time decreased from 8.5 h to 4 min. In order to determine the kinetic parameters, the experimental drying data were fitted to various semi-empirical models beside 2nd Fick's diffusion equation. Among them, the Page model gave a better fit for microwave-drying, while Logarithmic model gave a better fit for hot air drying. By increasing the microwave power and hot air drying temperature, the effective moisture diffusivity, De values ranged from 0.76×10-8 to 2.85×10-8 m2/s and from 2.21×10-10 to 3.07×10-10 m2/s, respectively. The activation energy was calculated as 20.90 kJ/mol for hot air drying and 21.96 W/g for microwave drying using an Arrhenius type equation.

  18. Aftershocks and triggering processes in rock fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, J.; Kwiatek, G.; Goebel, T.; Stanchits, S. A.; Dresen, G.

    2017-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of our understanding of seismicity in nature is the importance of triggering processes, which makes the forecasting of seismic activity feasible. These triggering processes by which one earthquake induces (dynamic or static) stress changes leading to potentially multiple other earthquakes are at the core relaxation processes. A specic example of triggering are aftershocks following a large earthquake, which have been observed to follow certain empirical relationships such as the Omori-Utsu relation. Such an empirical relation should arise from the underlying microscopic dynamics of the involved physical processes but the exact connection remains to be established. Simple explanations have been proposed but their general applicability is unclear. Many explanations involve the picture of an earthquake as a purely frictional sliding event. Here, we present experimental evidence that these empirical relationships are not limited to frictional processes but also arise in fracture zone formation and are mostly related to compaction-type events. Our analysis is based on tri-axial compression experiments under constant displacement rate on sandstone and granite samples using spatially located acoustic emission events and their focal mechanisms. More importantly, we show that event-event triggering plays an important role in the presence of large-scale or macrocopic imperfections while such triggering is basically absent if no signicant imperfections are present. We also show that spatial localization and an increase in activity rates close to failure do not necessarily imply triggering behavior associated with aftershocks. Only if a macroscopic crack is formed and its propagation remains subcritical do we observe significant triggering.

  19. Trigger and Readout System for the Ashra-1 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aita, Y.; Aoki, T.; Asaoka, Y.; Morimoto, Y.; Motz, H. M.; Sasaki, M.; Abiko, C.; Kanokohata, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Takada, T.; Kimura, T.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Kuze, S.; Binder, P. M.; Goldman, J.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    Highly sophisticated trigger and readout system has been developed for All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower (Ashra) detector. Ashra-1 detector has 42 degree diameter field of view. Detection of Cherenkov and fluorescence light from large background in the large field of view requires finely segmented and high speed trigger and readout system. The system is composed of optical fiber image transmission system, 64 × 64 channel trigger sensor and FPGA based trigger logic processor. The system typically processes the image within 10 to 30 ns and opens the shutter on the fine CMOS sensor. 64 × 64 coarse split image is transferred via 64 × 64 precisely aligned optical fiber bundle to a photon sensor. Current signals from the photon sensor are discriminated by custom made trigger amplifiers. FPGA based processor processes 64 × 64 hit pattern and correspondent partial area of the fine image is acquired. Commissioning earth skimming tau neutrino observational search was carried out with this trigger system. In addition to the geometrical advantage of the Ashra observational site, the excellent tau shower axis measurement based on the fine imaging and the night sky background rejection based on the fine and fast imaging allow zero background tau shower search. Adoption of the optical fiber bundle and trigger LSI realized 4k channel trigger system cheaply. Detectability of tau shower is also confirmed by simultaneously observed Cherenkov air shower. Reduction of the trigger threshold appears to enhance the effective area especially in PeV tau neutrino energy region. New two dimensional trigger LSI was introduced and the trigger threshold was lowered. New calibration system of the trigger system was recently developed and introduced to the Ashra detector

  20. Gravimetric measurement of momentary drying rate of spray freeze-dried powders in vials.

    PubMed

    Gieseler, Henning; Lee, Geoffrey

    2009-09-01

    The profile of drying rate versus primary drying time for a spray freeze-dried trehalose aqueous solution is much different from that determined for regular freeze-drying. Drying rate declines very rapidly, attributed to rate-limiting heat transfer through the packed bed of frozen microparticles contained in a vial. The inter-particulate spaces appear to be the cause of this rate limitation. Use of either liquid nitrogen or liquid propane as a cryogenic produced strong differences in both SFD particle morphology and drying rate using trehalose, sucrose, or mannitol. The lack of any evident correlation supports the argument that the inter-particulate voids determine drying behavior.

  1. Dynamic stresses, coulomb failure, and remote triggering: corrected

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic stresses associated with crustal surface waves with 15–30 s periods and peak amplitudes <1  MPa are capable of triggering seismicity at sites remote from the generating mainshock under appropriate conditions. Coulomb failure models based on a frictional strength threshold offer one explanation for instances of rapid‐onset triggered seismicity that develop during the surface‐wave peak dynamic stressing. Evaluation of the triggering potential of surface‐wave dynamic stresses acting on critically stressed faults using a Mohr’s circle representation together with the Coulomb failure criteria indicates that Love waves should have a higher triggering potential than Rayleigh waves for most fault orientations and wave incidence angles. That (1) the onset of triggered seismicity often appears to begin during the Rayleigh wave rather than the earlier arriving Love wave, and (2) Love‐wave amplitudes typically exceed those for Rayleigh waves suggests that the explanation for rapid‐onset dynamic triggering may not reside solely with a simple static‐threshold friction mode. The results also indicate that normal faults should be more susceptible to dynamic triggering by 20‐s Rayleigh‐wave stresses than thrust faults in the shallow seismogenic crust (<10  km) while the advantage tips in favor of reverse faults greater depths. This transition depth scales with wavelength and coincides roughly with the transition from retrograde‐to‐prograde particle motion. Locally elevated pore pressures may have a role in the observed prevalence of dynamic triggering in extensional regimes and geothermal/volcanic systems. The result is consistent with the apparent elevated susceptibility of extensional or transtensional tectonic regimes to remote triggering by Rayleigh‐wave dynamic stresses than compressional or transpressional regimes.

  2. [Effect of antecedent dry period on water quality of urban storm runoff pollution].

    PubMed

    Bian, Bo

    2009-12-01

    Identified the main factor influencing urban rainfall-runoff pollution provides a scientific basis for urban rainfall-runoff pollution control and management. Therefore, starting in May 2006, a study was conducted to characterize water quality from representative land uses types in Zhenjiang to analyse the effect of antecedent dry period on stormwater runoff quality. The results show that the beginning of rainfall, with the increase of antecedent dry periods, the percentages of less than 40 microm is increased, the correlation of the water quality parameters (TN, TP, Zn, Pb, Cu, TSS and COD) and antecedent dry period shows a significant positive correlation, dissolved pollutants in the initial period surface runoff is increased. These findings show that facilitating the recognition of antecedent dry periods is the main factor influencing the change in concentration and partitioning of pollutants to provide the scientific basis for non-point source pollution control and management.

  3. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albers, James; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Summary Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry. PMID:26366020

  4. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Albers, James; Lowe, Brian; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry.

  5. Dynamic Triggering around Fangshan Pluton near Beijing,China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Gong, X.; Peng, Z.; Chen, Q.; Wu, C.

    2011-12-01

    Fangshan Pluton lies at SW of Beijing City and is formed at about 133-128Ma. The Pluton is surrounded by the NNE-trending Taihang mountain in the west as an "C" shape, and is in conjunction with the Northern China Plain along the Baobashan fault in the east. This region currently does not have abundant background seismicity, but previous studies (Peng et al., 2010, Wu et al. 2011) have shown that at least 4 major earthquakes in East Asia have triggered clear seismic events in this region. To further understand the dynamic triggering mechanism and improve the station coverage, we deployed the first batch temporal seismic array with 5 stations from 12/2008 to 7/2010 and the second batch with 11 stations around this area since 12/2010. Our temporary deployment was fortunate to capture the triggered seismicity following the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki, Japan, earthquake sequence. In this study, we use seismic data recorded by the permanent stations in the Capital Circle seismic network and our temporary deployment to investigate triggered seismicity following the 2010 Mw8.8 Chile earthquake and the Tohoku-Oki earthquake sequence. As was done before, we identify triggered earthquakes as impulsive seismic arrivals with clear P- and S-waves in 5 Hz high-pass-filtered three-component velocity seismograms and recorded by at least 3 stations. Most triggered earthquakes coincide with the large-amplitude Rayleigh waves. For the Tohoku-Oki case, we identify one weak event during the P-wave of the mainshock, and delayed triggering following the large-amplitude surface waves. In addition, triggered earthquakes can be seen in the Mw7.3 foreshock and mainshock of Tohoku earthquake, but not in aftershocks with 2 Mw>7.5 earthquakes in the following two months. These events mainly occurred at southwestern and western boundary region of the Pluton and are shallower (<5km) than normal earthquakes, which is similar to previous studies. Considering the abundant solution cavities and syncline

  6. [Microcontroller temperature regulator MPT110 for drying-sterilizing cabinets].

    PubMed

    Kostin, N N; Gavrishchuk, V I; Zelepukin, S A; Shkulepa, V M; Zharov, E N

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes a MPT-110 temperature microcontroller developed by the closed joint-stock company "OPLEKS" (Orel, Russia) and the results of comparative tests performed in the @IIICC-80 drying sterilizing cabinet. The use of the MPT-110 controller is shown to improve the quality of control and to shorten the times that is taken for the cabinet to reach the preset temperature point.

  7. How cold pool triggers deep convection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi

    2014-05-01

    by Moncrieff and Liu (1999). As a whole, in attempting a statistical description of boundary-layer processes, the cold pool is essentially nothing other than an additional contribution to a TKE (turbulent kinetic energy) budget. Significance of trigger of convection by cold pool in context of convection parameterization must also be seen with much caution. Against a common misunderstanding, current convection parameterization is not designed to describe a trigger process of individual convection. In this respect, process studies on cold pool do not contribute to improvements of convection parameterization until a well-defined parameterization formulation for individual convection processes is developed. Even before then a question should also be posed whether such a development is necessary. Under a current mass-flux convection parameterization, a more important process to consider is re-evaporative cooling of detrained cloudy air, which may also be associated with downdraft, possibly further leading to a generation of a cold pool. Yano and Plant (2012) suggest, from a point of view of the convective-energy cycle, what follows would be far less important than the fact the re-evaporation induces a generation of convective kinetic energy (though it may initially be considered TKE). Both well-focused convective process studies as well as convection parameterization formulation would be much needed.

  8. Seismic multiplet response triggered by melt at Blood Falls, Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Pettit, Erin C.; Hoffman, Matt; Fountain, Andrew; Hallet, Bernard

    2012-09-01

    Meltwater input often triggers a seismic response from glaciers and ice sheets. It is difficult, however, to measure melt production on glaciers directly, while subglacial water storage is not directly observable. Therefore, we document temporal changes in seismicity from a dry-based polar glacier (Taylor Glacier, Antarctica) during a melt season using a synthesis of seismic observation and melt modeling. We record icequakes using a dense six-receiver network of three-component geophones and compare this with melt input generated from a calibrated surface energy balance model. In the absence of modeled surface melt, we find that seismicity is well-described by a diurnal signal composed of microseismic events in lake and glacial ice. During melt events, the diurnal signal is suppressed and seismicity is instead characterized by large glacial icequakes. We perform network-based correlation and clustering analyses of seismic record sections and determine that 18% of melt-season icequakes are repetitive (multiplets). The epicentral locations for these multiplets suggest that they are triggered by meltwater produced near a brine seep known as Blood Falls. Our observations of the correspondingp-wave first motions are consistent with volumetric source mechanisms. We suggest that surface melt enables a persistent pathway through this cold ice to an englacial fracture system that is responsible for brine release episodes from the Blood Falls seep. The scalar moments for these events suggest that the volumetric increase at the source region can be explained by melt input.

  9. Dry socket

    MedlinePlus

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  10. Note: Triggering behavior of a vacuum arc plasma source

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lan, C. H., E-mail: lanchaohui@163.com; Long, J. D.; Zheng, L.

    2016-08-15

    Axial symmetry of discharge is very important for application of vacuum arc plasma. It is discovered that the triggering method is a significant factor that would influence the symmetry of arc discharge at the final stable stage. Using high-speed multiframe photography, the transition processes from cathode-trigger discharge to cathode-anode discharge were observed. It is shown that the performances of the two triggering methods investigated are quite different. Arc discharge triggered by independent electric source can be stabilized at the center of anode grid, but it is difficult to achieve such good symmetry through resistance triggering. It is also found thatmore » the triggering process is highly correlated to the behavior of emitted electrons.« less

  11. Drying kinetics and characteristics of dried gambir leaves using solar heating and silica gel dessicant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasibuan, R.; Hidayati, J.; Sundari, R.; Wicaksono, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    A drying combination of solar heating and silica gel dessicant has been applied to dry gambir leaves. The solar energy is captured by a collector to heat the air and the hot air is used to dry gambir leaves in a drying chamber. An exhaust fan in drying chamber assists to draw water molecules from gambir leaves accelerated by silica gel dessicant. This study has investigated the drying kinetics and drying characteristics of gambir leaves drying. In drying operation the air velocity is tuned by a PWM (pulse width modulation) controller to adjust minimum and maximum level, which is based on the rotation speed of the exhaust fan. The results show that the air velocity influenced the drying kinetics and drying characteristics of gambir leaves using solar-dessicant drying at 40 cm distance between exhaust fan and silica gel dessicant.

  12. Modeling elephant-mediated cascading effects of water point closure.

    PubMed

    Hilbers, Jelle P; Van Langevelde, Frank; Prins, Herbert H T; Grant, C C; Peel, Mike J S; Coughenour, Michael B; De Knegt, Henrik J; Slotow, Rob; Smit, Izak P J; Kiker, Greg A; De Boer, Willem F

    2015-03-01

    Wildlife management to reduce the impact of wildlife on their habitat can be done in several ways, among which removing animals (by either culling or translocation) is most often used. There are, however, alternative ways to control wildlife densities, such as opening or closing water points. The effects of these alternatives are poorly studied. In this paper, we focus on manipulating large herbivores through the closure of water points (WPs). Removal of artificial WPs has been suggested in order to change the distribution of African elephants, which occur in high densities in national parks in Southern Africa and are thought to have a destructive effect on the vegetation. Here, we modeled the long-term effects of different scenarios of WP closure on the spatial distribution of elephants, and consequential effects on the vegetation and other herbivores in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Using a dynamic ecosystem model, SAVANNA, scenarios were evaluated that varied in availability of artificial WPs; levels of natural water; and elephant densities. Our modeling results showed that elephants can indirectly negatively affect the distributions of meso-mixed feeders, meso-browsers, and some meso-grazers under wet conditions. The closure of artificial WPs hardly had any effect during these natural wet conditions. Under dry conditions, the spatial distribution of both elephant bulls and cows changed when the availability of artificial water was severely reduced in the model. These changes in spatial distribution triggered changes in the spatial availability of woody biomass over the simulation period of 80 years, and this led to changes in the rest of the herbivore community, resulting in increased densities of all herbivores, except for giraffe and steenbok, in areas close to rivers. The spatial distributions of elephant bulls and cows showed to be less affected by the closure of WPs than most of the other herbivore species. Our study contributes to ecologically

  13. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Lupi, Matteo; Miller, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Nonvolcanic (or tectonic) tremor is a seismic phenomenom which can provide important information about dynamics of plate boundaries but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Tectonic tremor is often associated with slow-slip (termed episodic tremor and slip) and understanding the mechanisms driving tremor presents an important challenge because it is likely a dominant aspect of the evolutionary processes leading to tsunamigenic, megathrust subduction zone earthquakes. Tectonic tremor is observed worldwide, mainly along major subduction zones and plate boundaries such as in Alaska/Aleutians, Cascadia, the San Andreas Fault, Japan or Taiwan. We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. The island of Sumbawa, Indonesia, is part of the Lesser Sunda Group about 250 km north of the Australian/Eurasian plate collision at the Java Trench with a convergence rate of approximately 70 mm/yr. We show surface wave triggered tremor beneath Sumbawa in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. Tremor amplitudes scale with ground motion and peak at 180 nm/s ground velocity on the horizontal components. A comparison of ground motion of the three triggering events and a similar (nontriggering) Mw7.6 2012 Philippines event constrains an apparent triggering threshold of approximately 1 mm/s ground velocity or 8 kPa dynamic stress. Surface wave periods of 45-65 s appear optimal for triggering tremor at Sumbawa which predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes and triggering potential. Rayleigh wave triggering, low-triggering amplitudes, and the tectonic setting all favor a model of tremor generated by localized fluid transport. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several

  14. Oocyte-triggering day progesterone levels and endometrial appearance in normoresponders undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles: a hypothesis and a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Siristatidis, Charalampos; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Vogiatzi, Paraskevi; Karageorgiou, Vasilios; Daskalakis, George

    2018-05-16

    In this report, we propose a study protocol capable of improving IVF outcomes in subfertile women with expected normal ovarian response. This proposal derives from conflicting published data and observations in our daily practice, concerning the negative impact of progesterone (P4) elevation at the day of oocyte triggering on pregnancy outcomes. Our hypothesis points to the combination of two previous "suspects" of reduced success after assisted reproduction techniques (ART) - the endometrium ultrasonographic parameters and P4 elevation at the day of oocyte triggering on their impact on pregnancy outcomes. Up-to-the minute data show that, there is a different impact of elevated P4 in fresh, frozen and donor cycles, whereas there are plenty of reports pointing to a different endometrial gene expression on different P4 measurements. Gaps in the literature are linked with a variation of the measurements of P4, its cycle-to-cycle reproducibility, the different cut-off levels used, the impact of various protocols of ovarian stimulation and the limitations of systematic reviews originating from the initial studies. Our hypothesis states that the combination of P4 values and endometrial ultrasound parameters at the day of oocyte triggering can affect clinical pregnancy rates in normal responders undergoing ART.

  15. Effector-triggered defence against apoplastic fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Stotz, Henrik U.; Mitrousia, Georgia K.; de Wit, Pierre J.G.M.; Fitt, Bruce D.L.

    2014-01-01

    R gene-mediated host resistance against apoplastic fungal pathogens is not adequately explained by the terms pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) or effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Therefore, it is proposed that this type of resistance is termed ‘effector-triggered defence’ (ETD). Unlike PTI and ETI, ETD is mediated by R genes encoding cell surface-localised receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that engage the receptor-like kinase SOBIR1. In contrast to this extracellular recognition, ETI is initiated by intracellular detection of pathogen effectors. ETI is usually associated with fast, hypersensitive host cell death, whereas ETD often triggers host cell death only after an elapsed period of endophytic pathogen growth. In this opinion, we focus on ETD responses against foliar fungal pathogens of crops. PMID:24856287

  16. Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Meibomian glands. Autoimmune disorders such as Sjögren’s syndrome, lupus, scleroderma, and rheumatoid arthritis and other disorders such as diabetes, thyroid disorders, and Vitamin A deficiency are associated with dry eye. Women are more likely to develop dry eye. ...

  17. A new function for estimating local rainfall thresholds for landslide triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda, J.; Nadim, F.; Høeg, K.; Elverhøi, A.

    2009-04-01

    equivalent to Caine's α parameter. α1, α2 and β are parameters estimated for the threshold. An is the n-days cumulative rainfall. The suggested procedure to estimate the threshold is as follows: (1) Given N storms, assign one of the following flags to each storm: nL (non-triggering storms), yL (triggering storms), uL (uncertain-triggering storms). Successful predictions correspond to nL and yL storms occurring below and above the threshold, respectively. Storms flagged as uL are actually assigned either an nL or yL flag using a randomization procedure. (2) Establish a set of values of ni (e.g. 1, 4, 7, 10, 15 days, etc.) to test for accumulated precipitation. (3) For each storm and each ni value, obtain the antecedent accumulated precipitation in ni days Ani. (4) Generate a 3D grid of values of α1, α2 and β. (5) For a certain value of ni, generate confusion matrices for the N storms at each grid point and estimate an evaluation metrics parameter EMP (e.g., accuracy, specificity, etc.). (6) Repeat the previous step for all the set of ni values. (7) From the 3D grid corresponding to each ni value, search for the optimum grid point EMPopti(global minimum or maximum parameter). (8) Search for the optimum value of ni in the space ni vs EMPopti . (9) The threshold is defined by the value of ni obtained in the previous step and the corresponding values of α1, α2 and β. The procedure is illustrated using rainfall data and landslide observations from the San Salvador volcano, where a rainfall-triggered debris flow destroyed a neighbourhood in the capital city of El Salvador in 19 September, 1982, killing not less than 300 people.

  18. Is the Pearl River basin, China, drying or wetting? Seasonal variations, causes and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Jianfeng; Gu, Xihui; Shi, Peijun

    2018-07-01

    Soil moisture plays crucial roles in the hydrological cycle and is also a critical link between land surface and atmosphere. The Pearl River basin (PRb) is climatically subtropical and tropical and is highly sensitive to climate changes. In this study, seasonal soil moisture changes across the PRb were analyzed using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model forced by the gridded 0.5° × 0.5° climatic observations. Seasonal changes of soil moisture in both space and time were investigated using the Mann-Kendall trend test method. Potential influencing factors behind seasonal soil moisture changes such as precipitation and temperature were identified using the Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) technique. The results indicated that: (1) VIC model performs well in describing changing properties of soil moisture across the PRb; (2) Distinctly different seasonal features of soil moisture can be observed. Soil moisture in spring decreased from east to west parts of the PRb. In summer however, soil moisture was higher in east and west parts but was lower in central parts of the PRb; (3) A significant drying trend was identified over the PRb in autumn, while no significant drying trends can be detected in other seasons; (4) The increase/decrease in precipitation can generally explain the wetting/drying tendency of soil moisture. However, warming temperature contributed significantly to the drying trends and these drying trends were particularly evident during autumn and winter; (5) Significant decreasing precipitation and increasing temperature combined to trigger substantially decreasing soil moisture in autumn. In winter, warming temperature is the major reason behind decreased soil moisture although precipitation is in slightly decreasing tendency. Season variations of soil moisture and related implications for hydro-meteorological processes in the subtropical and tropical river basins over the globe should arouse considerable human concerns.

  19. SQL Triggers Reacting on Time Events: An Extension Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrend, Andreas; Dorau, Christian; Manthey, Rainer

    Being able to activate triggers at timepoints reached or after time intervals elapsed has been acknowledged by many authors as a valuable functionality of a DBMS. Recently, the interest in time-based triggers has been renewed in the context of data stream monitoring. However, up till now SQL triggers react to data changes only, even though research proposals and prototypes have been supporting several other event types, in particular time-based ones, since long. We therefore propose a seamless extension of the SQL trigger concept by time-based triggers, focussing on semantic issues arising from such an extension.

  20. Moisture-triggered physically transient electronics

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xu; Sim, Kyoseung; Liu, Jingshen; Chen, Ji; Feng, Xue; Xu, Hangxun; Yu, Cunjiang

    2017-01-01

    Physically transient electronics, a form of electronics that can physically disappear in a controllable manner, is very promising for emerging applications. Most of the transient processes reported so far only occur in aqueous solutions or biofluids, offering limited control over the triggering and degradation processes. We report novel moisture-triggered physically transient electronics, which exempt the needs of resorption solutions and can completely disappear within well-controlled time frames. The triggered transient process starts with the hydrolysis of the polyanhydride substrate in the presence of trace amounts of moisture in the air, a process that can generate products of corrosive organic acids to digest various inorganic electronic materials and components. Polyanhydride is the only example of polymer that undergoes surface erosion, a distinct feature that enables stable operation of the functional devices over a predefined time frame. Clear advantages of this novel triggered transience mode include that the lifetime of the devices can be precisely controlled by varying the moisture levels and changing the composition of the polymer substrate. The transience time scale can be tuned from days to weeks. Various transient devices, ranging from passive electronics (such as antenna, resistor, and capacitor) to active electronics (such as transistor, diodes, optoelectronics, and memories), and an integrated system as a platform demonstration have been developed to illustrate the concept and verify the feasibility of this design strategy. PMID:28879237

  1. Optical and electrical observations of an abnormal triggered lightning event with two upward propagations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Yijun; Lu, Weitao; Zhang, Yang; Dong, Wansheng; Chen, Shaodong; Dan, Jianru

    2012-08-01

    This study investigates an abnormal artificially triggered lightning event that produced two positive upward propagations: one during the initial stage (i.e., the upward leader (UL)) and the other after a negative downward aborted leader (DAL). The triggered lightning was induced in a weak thunderstorm over the experiment site and did not produce a return stroke. All of the intra-cloud lightning around the experiment site produced positive changes in the electric field. The initial stage was a weak discharge process. A downward dart leader propagated along the channel produced by the first UL, ending at a height of approximately 453 m and forming a DAL. Under the influence of the DAL, the electric field at a point located 78 m from the rod experienced a steady reduction of about 6.8 kV m-1 over 5.24 ms prior to the initiation of a new upward channel (i.e., the second upward propagation (UP)). The second UP, which started approximately 4.1 ms after the termination of the DAL and propagated along the original channel, was triggered by the DAL and sustained for approximately 2.95 ms. Two distinct current pulses were superimposed on the current of the second UP. The first pulse, which was related to the sudden initiation of the second UP, was characterized by a more rapid increase and decrease and a larger peak value than the second pulse, which was related to the development of the second UP into the area affected by the DAL. The second UP contained both a similar-to-leader process and a following neutralization process. This study introduces a new type of triggering leader, in which a new upward discharge is triggered in an established channel by an aborted leader propagating along the same channel with opposite polarity and propagation direction.

  2. First-passage time of Brownian motion with dry friction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaming; Just, Wolfram

    2014-02-01

    We provide an analytic solution to the first-passage time (FPT) problem of a piecewise-smooth stochastic model, namely Brownian motion with dry friction, using two different but closely related approaches which are based on eigenfunction decompositions on the one hand and on the backward Kolmogorov equation on the other. For the simple case containing only dry friction, a phase-transition phenomenon in the spectrum is found which relates to the position of the exit point, and which affects the tail of the FPT distribution. For the model containing as well a driving force and viscous friction the impact of the corresponding stick-slip transition and of the transition to ballistic exit is evaluated quantitatively. The proposed model is one of the very few cases where FPT properties are accessible by analytical means.

  3. Are tender point injections beneficial: the role of tonic nociception in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Staud, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Characteristic symptoms of fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) include widespread pain, fatigue, sleep abnormalities, and distress. FM patients show psychophysical evidence for mechanical, thermal, and electrical hyperalgesia. To fulfill FM criteria, the mechanical hyperalgesia needs to be widespread and present in at least 11 out of 18 well-defined body areas (tender points). Peripheral and central abnormalities of nociception have been described in FM and these changes may be relevant for the increased pain experienced by these patients. Important nociceptor systems in the skin and muscle seem to undergo profound changes in FM patients by yet unknown mechanisms. These changes may result from the release of algesic substances after muscle or other soft tissue injury. These pain mediators can sensitize important nociceptor systems, including the transient receptor potential channel, vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), acid sensing ion channel (ASIC) receptors, and purino-receptors (P2X3). Subsequently, tissue mediators of inflammation and nerve growth factors can excite these receptors and cause substantial changes in pain sensitivity. FM pain is widespread and does not seem to be restricted to tender points (TP). It frequently comprises multiple areas of deep tissue pain (trigger points) with adjacent much larger areas of referred pain. Analgesia of areas of extensive nociceptive input has been found to provide often long lasting local as well as general pain relief. Thus interventions aimed at reducing local FM pain seem to be effective but need to focus less on tender points but more on trigger points (TrP) and other body areas of heightened pain and inflammation.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide induced by the fungicide prothioconazole triggers deoxynivalenol (DON) production by Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fusarium head blight is a very important disease of small grain cereals with F. graminearum as one of the most important causal agents. It not only causes reduction in yield and quality but from a human and animal healthcare point of view, it produces mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) which can accumulate to toxic levels. Little is known about external triggers influencing DON production. Results In the present work, a combined in vivo/in vitro approach was used to test the effect of sub lethal fungicide treatments on DON production. Using a dilution series of prothioconazole, azoxystrobin and prothioconazole + fluoxastrobin, we demonstrated that sub lethal doses of prothioconazole coincide with an increase in DON production 48 h after fungicide treatment. In an artificial infection trial using wheat plants, the in vitro results of increased DON levels upon sub lethal prothioconazole application were confirmed illustrating the significance of these results from a practical point of view. In addition, further in vitro experiments revealed a timely hyperinduction of H2O2 production as fast as 4 h after amending cultures with prothioconazole. When applying H2O2 directly to germinating conidia, a similar induction of DON-production by F. graminearum was observed. The effect of sub lethal prothioconazole concentrations on DON production completely disappeared when applying catalase together with the fungicide. Conclusions These cumulative results suggest that H2O2 induced by sub lethal doses of the triazole fungicide prothioconazole acts as a trigger of DON biosynthesis. In a broader framework, this work clearly shows that DON production by the plant pathogen F. graminearum is the result of the interaction of fungal genomics and external environmental triggers. PMID:20398299

  5. Drying kinetics of onion ( Allium cepa L.) slices with convective and microwave drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiray, Engin; Seker, Anıl; Tulek, Yahya

    2017-05-01

    Onion slices were dried using two different drying techniques, convective and microwave drying. Convective drying treatments were carried out at different temperatures (50, 60 and 70 °C). Three different microwave output powers 328, 447 and 557 W were used in microwave drying. In convective drying, effective moisture diffusivity was estimated to be between 3.49 × 10-8 and 9.44 × 10-8 m2 s-1 within the temperature range studied. The effect of temperature on the diffusivity was described by the Arrhenius equation with an activation energy of 45.60 kJ mol-1. At increasing microwave power values, the effective moisture diffusivity values ranged from 2.59 × 10-7 and 5.08 × 10-8 m2 s-1. The activation energy for microwave drying of samples was calculated using an exponential expression based on Arrhenius equation. Among of the models proposed, Page's model gave a better fit for all drying conditions used.

  6. [Conversion methods of freshwater snail tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Hua; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Liu, Xue-Qin

    2009-06-01

    Mollusk biomass is usually expressed as wet mass with shell, but this expression fails to represent real biomass due to the high calcium carbonate content in shells. Tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass are relatively close to real biomass. However, the determination process of these two parameters is very complicated, and thus, it is necessary to establish simple and practical conversion methods for these two parameters. A total of six taxa of freshwater snails (Bellamya sp., Alocinma longicornis, Parafossarulus striatulus, Parafossarulus eximius, Semisulcospira cancellata, and Radix sp.) common in the Yangtze Basin were selected to explore the relations of their five shell dimension parameters, dry and wet mass with shells with their tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass. The regressions of the tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass with the five shell dimension parameters were all exponential (y = ax(b)). Among them, shell width and shell length were more precise (the average percentage error between observed and predicted value being 22.0% and 22.5%, respectively) than the other three parameters in the conversion of dry mass. Wet mass with shell could be directly converted to tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass, with an average percentage error of 21.7%. According to the essence of definition and the errors of conversion, ash free dry mass would be the optimum parameter to express snail biomass.

  7. Infrared Thermography for Monitoring of Freeze-Drying Processes: Instrumental Developments and Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Emteborg, Håkan; Zeleny, Reinhard; Charoud-Got, Jean; Martos, Gustavo; Lüddeke, Jörg; Schellin, Holger; Teipel, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Coupling an infrared (IR) camera to a freeze dryer for on-line monitoring of freeze-drying cycles is described for the first time. Normally, product temperature is measured using a few invasive Pt-100 probes, resulting in poor spatial resolution. To overcome this, an IR camera was placed on a process-scale freeze dryer. Imaging took place every 120 s through a Germanium window comprising 30,000 measurement points obtained contact-free from −40°C to 25°C. Results are presented for an empty system, bulk drying of cheese slurry, and drying of 1 mL human serum in 150 vials. During freezing of the empty system, differences of more than 5°C were measured on the shelf. Adding a tray to the empty system, a difference of more than 8°C was observed. These temperature differences probably cause different ice structures affecting the drying speed during sublimation. A temperature difference of maximum 13°C was observed in bulk mode during sublimation. When drying in vials, differences of more than 10°C were observed. Gradually, the large temperature differences disappeared during secondary drying and products were transformed into uniformly dry cakes. The experimental data show that the IR camera is a highly versatile on-line monitoring tool for different kinds of freeze-drying processes. © 2014 European Union 103:2088–2097, 2014 PMID:24902839

  8. The effectiveness of dry-cupping in preventing post-operative nausea and vomiting by P6 acupoint stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Khosro; Choubsaz, Mansour; Setayeshi, Khosro; Kameli, Mohammad; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Zadie, Zahra H.; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complication after general anesthesia, and the prevalence ranges between 25% and 30%. The aim of this study was to determine the preventive effects of dry cupping on PONV by stimulating point P6 in the wrist. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial conducted at the Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. The final study sample included 206 patients (107 experimental and 99 controls). Inclusion criteria included the following: female sex; age>18 years; ASA Class I-II; type of surgery: laparoscopic cholecystectomy; type of anesthesia: general anesthesia. Exclusion criteria included: change in the type of surgery, that is, from laparoscopic cholecystectomy to laparotomy, and ASA-classification III or more. Interventions are as follows: pre surgery, before the induction of anesthesia, the experimental group received dry cupping on point P6 of the dominant hand's wrist with activation of intermittent negative pressure. The sham group received cupping without activation of negative pressure at the same point. Main outcome was that the visual analogue scale was used to measure the severity of PONV. Results: The experimental group who received dry cupping had significantly lower levels of PONV severity after surgery (P < 0.001) than the control group. The differences in measure were maintained after controlling for age and ASA in regression models (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Traditional dry cupping delivered in an operation room setting prevented PONV in laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. PMID:27661022

  9. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    PubMed

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on vitamin D₂ stability in dried mushrooms during drying and storage.

    PubMed

    Sławińska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Skrzypczak, Katarzyna; Zalewska-Korona, Marta; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Parfieniuk, Ewa; Stachniuk, Anna

    2016-05-15

    The main objective of this work was to determine the stability of vitamin D2 in dried mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes during storage, as well as to examine the possibility of inducing vitamin D2 production in dried mushrooms by UVB irradiation. After 1.5 year storage of dried mushrooms, the level of vitamin D2 in button mushrooms was found to be 6.90 μg/g dw, which is a 48.32% of initial level of vitamin D2. In the case of dried oyster and shiitake mushrooms there was a decrease to the level of 66.90% and 68.40%, respectively. It was determined that dried mushrooms can produce ergocalciferol under UVB irradiation. The highest content of vitamin D2 was observed in A. bisporus. Freeze-dried A. bisporus contained from 42.08 to 119.21 μg/g dw and hot-air dried mushrooms contained from 21.51 to 81.17 μg/g dw vitamin D2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. TG-DSC method applied to drying characteristics of areca inflorescence during drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Fei; Wang, Hui; Huang, Yulin; Zhang, Yufeng; Chen, Weijun; Zhao, Songlin; Zhang, Ming

    2017-10-01

    In this study, suitability of eight drying models available in literature on defining drying characteristics of areca inflorescence has been examined by non-linear regression analysis using the Statistic Computer Program. The coefficient of determination ( R 2 ) and the reduced chi-square (χ2) are used as indicators to evaluate the best suitable model. According to the results, the Verma et al. model gave the best results for explaining the drying characteristics of areca inflorescence. The drying process could be divided into three periods: rising rate, constant rate and the falling rate period. Fick's second law can describe the moisture transport during the food drying process that takes place in the falling rate period. The values of effective diffusivity during the drying of areca inflorescence ranged from 2.756 × 10-7 to 6.257 × 10-7 m2/s and the activation energy was tested for 35.535 kJ/mol. The heat requirement of areca inflorescence at 40-60 °C was calculated from 50.57 to 60.50 kJ/kg during the drying process.

  12. Making the diagnosis of Sjögren’s syndrome in patients with dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Beckman, Kenneth A; Luchs, Jodi; Milner, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic and progressive systemic autoimmune disease that often presents initially with symptoms of dry eye and dry mouth. Symptoms are often nonspecific and develop gradually, making diagnosis difficult. Patients with dry eye complaints warrant a step-wise evaluation for possible SS. Initial evaluation requires establishment of a dry eye diagnosis using a combination of patient questionnaires and objective ocular tests, including inflammatory biomarker testing. Additional work-up using the Schirmer test and tear film break-up time can differentiate between aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) and evaporative dry eye. The presence of ADDE should trigger further work-up to differentiate between SS-ADDE and non-SS-ADDE. There are numerous non-ocular manifestations of SS, and monitoring for SS-related comorbid findings can aid in diagnosis, ideally in collaboration with a rheumatologist. The clinical work-up of SS can involve a variety of tests, including tear function tests, serological tests for autoantibody biomarkers, minor salivary gland and lacrimal gland biopsies. Examination of classic SS biomarkers (SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, antinuclear antibody, and rheumatoid factor) is a convenient and non-invasive way of evaluating patients for the presence of SS, even years prior to confirmed diagnosis, although not all SS patients will test positive, particularly those with early disease. Recently, newer biomarkers have been identified, including autoantibodies to salivary gland protein-1, parotid secretory protein, and carbonic anhydrase VI, and may allow for earlier diagnosis of SS. A diagnostic test kit is commercially available (Sjö®), incorporating these new biomarkers along with the classic autoantibodies. This advanced test has been shown to identify SS patients who previously tested negative against traditional biomarkers only. All patients with clinically significant ADDE should be considered for serological assessment for SS, given the

  13. Effect of lidocaine patches on upper trapezius EMG activity and pain intensity in patients with myofascial trigger points: A randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Firmani, Mónica; Miralles, Rodolfo; Casassus, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    To compare the effects of 5% lidocaine patches and placebo patches on pain intensity and electromyographic (EMG) activity of an active myofascial trigger point (MTrP) of the upper trapezius muscle. Thirty-six patients with a MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into two groups: 20 patients received lidocaine patches (lidocaine group) and 16 patients received placebo patches (placebo group). They used the patches for 12 h each day, for 2 weeks. The patch was applied to the skin over the upper trapezius MTrP. Spontaneous pain, pressure pain thresholds, pain provoked by a 4-kg pressure applied to the MTrP and trapezius EMG activity were measured before and after treatment. Baseline spontaneous pain values were similar in both groups and significantly lower in the lidocaine group than the placebo group after treatment. The baseline pressure pain threshold was significantly lower in the lidocaine group, but after treatment it was significantly higher in this group. Baseline and final values of the pain provoked by a 4-kg pressure showed no significant difference between the groups. Baseline EMG activity at rest and during swallowing of saliva was significantly higher in the lidocaine group, but no significant difference was observed after treatment. Baseline EMG activity during maximum voluntary clenching was similar in both groups, but significantly higher in the lidocaine group after treatment. These clinical and EMG results support the use of 5% lidocaine patches for treating patients with MTrP of the upper trapezius muscle.

  14. A Vegetal Biopolymer-Based Biostimulant Promoted Root Growth in Melon While Triggering Brassinosteroids and Stress-Related Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lucini, Luigi; Rouphael, Youssef; Cardarelli, Mariateresa; Bonini, Paolo; Baffi, Claudio; Colla, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Plant biostimulants are receiving great interest for boosting root growth during the first phenological stages of vegetable crops. The present study aimed at elucidating the morphological, physiological, and metabolomic changes occurring in greenhouse melon treated with the biopolymer-based biostimulant Quik-link, containing lateral root promoting peptides, and lignosulphonates. The vegetal-based biopolymer was applied at five rates (0, 0.06, 0.12, 0.24, or 0.48 mL plant-1) as substrate drench. The application of biopolymer-based biostimulant at 0.12 and 0.24 mL plant-1 enhanced dry weight of melon leaves and total biomass by 30.5 and 27.7%, respectively, compared to biopolymer applications at 0.06 mL plant-1 and untreated plants. The root dry biomass, total root length, and surface in biostimulant-treated plants were significantly higher at 0.24 mL plant-1 and to a lesser extent at 0.12 and 0.48 mL plant-1, in comparison to 0.06 mL plant-1 and untreated melon plants. A convoluted biochemical response to the biostimulant treatment was highlighted through UHPLC/QTOF-MS metabolomics, in which brassinosteroids and their interaction with other hormones appeared to play a pivotal role. Root metabolic profile was more markedly altered than leaves, following application of the biopolymer-based biostimulant. Brassinosteroids triggered in roots could have been involved in changes of root development observed after biostimulant application. These hormones, once transported to shoots, could have caused an hormonal imbalance. Indeed, the involvement of abscisic acid, cytokinins, and gibberellin related compounds was observed in leaves following root application of the biopolymer-based biostimulant. Nonetheless, the treatment triggered an accumulation of several metabolites involved in defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses, such as flavonoids, carotenoids, and glucosinolates, thus potentially improving resistance toward plant stresses. PMID:29692795

  15. Spark gaps synchronization using electrical trigger pulses

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Agarwal, Ritu; Saroj, P.C.; Sharma, Archana

    In pulse power systems, it is required to have synchronized triggering of two or more high voltage spark gaps capable of switching large currents, using electrical trigger pulses. This paper intends to study the synchronization of spark gaps using electrical trigger. The trigger generator consists of dc supply, IGBT switch and driver circuit which generates 8kV, 400ns (FWHM) pulses. The experiment was carried out using two 0.15uF/50kV energy storage capacitors charged to 12kV and discharged through stainless steel spark gaps of diameter 9 mm across 10 ohm non inductive load. The initial experiment shows that synchronization has been achieved withmore » jitter of 50 to 100ns. Further studies carried out to reduce the jitter time by varying various electrical parameters will be presented. (author)« less

  16. Cumulative ventilation air drying potential as an indication of dry mass content in wastewater sludge in a thin-layer solar drying facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Piotr

    2013-12-01

    Controlling low-temperature drying facilities which utilise nonprepared air is quite difficult, due to very large variability of ventilation air parameters - both in daily and seasonal cycles. The paper defines the concept of cumulative drying potential of ventilation air and presents experimental evidence that there is a relation between this parameter and condition of the dried matter (sewage sludge). Knowledge on current dry mass content in the dried matter (sewage sludge) provides new possibilities for controlling such systems. Experimental data analysed in the paper was collected in early 2012 during operation of a test solar drying facility in a sewage treatment plant in Błonie near Warsaw, Poland.

  17. Insight into multiple-triggering effect in DTSCRs for ESD protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lizhong; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yize; He, Yandong

    2017-07-01

    The diode-triggered silicon-controlled rectifier (DTSCR) is widely used for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection in advanced CMOS process owing to its advantages, such as design simplification, adjustable trigger/holding voltage, low parasitic capacitance. However, the multiple-triggering effect in the typical DTSCR device may cause undesirable larger overall trigger voltage, which results in a reduced ESD safe margin. In previous research, the major cause is attributed to the higher current level required in the intrinsic SCR. The related discussions indicate that it seems to result from the current division rule between the intrinsic and parasitic SCR formed in the triggering process. In this letter, inserting a large space into the trigger diodes is proposed to get a deeper insight into this issue. The triggering current is observed to be regularly reduced along with the increased space, which confirms that the current division is determined by the parasitic resistance distributed between the intrinsic and parasitic SCR paths. The theoretical analysis is well confirmed by device simulation and transmission line pulse (TLP) test results. The reduced overall trigger voltage is achieved in the modified DTSCR structures due to the comprehensive result of the parasitic resistance vs triggering current, which indicates a minimized multiple-triggering effect. Project supported by the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, China (No. 4162030).

  18. Scalable and continuous fabrication of bio-inspired dry adhesives with a thermosetting polymer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Sung Woo; Kang, Bong Su; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Kwak, Moon Kyu

    2018-04-04

    Many research groups have developed unique micro/nano-structured dry adhesives by mimicking the foot of the gecko with the use of molding methods. Through these previous works, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been developed and become the most commonly used material for making artificial dry adhesives. The material properties of PDMS are well suited for making dry adhesives, such as conformal contacts with almost zero preload, low elastic moduli for stickiness, and easy cleaning with low surface energy. From a performance point of view, dry adhesives made with PDMS can be highly advantageous but are limited by its low productivity, as production takes an average of approximately two hours. Given the low productivity of PDMS, some research groups have developed dry adhesives using UV-curable materials, which are capable of continuous roll-to-roll production processes. However, UV-curable materials were too rigid to produce good adhesion. Thus, we established a PDMS continuous-production system to achieve good productivity and adhesion performance. We designed a thermal roll-imprinting lithography (TRL) system for the continuous production of PDMS microstructures by shortening the curing time by controlling the curing temperature (the production speed is up to 150 mm min-1). Dry adhesives composed of PDMS were fabricated continuously via the TRL system.

  19. Sewage sludge open-air drying affects on keratinolytic, keratinophilic and actidione-resistant fungi.

    PubMed

    Ulfig, Krzysztof; Płaza, Grazyna; Terakowskip, Maciej; Janda-Ulfig, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    The study was to demonstrate the effect of sewage sludge open-air drying on the quantitative and qualitative composition of keratinolytic/keratinophilic and actidione-resistant fungi. The sludge was being dried for up to thirty days (on average fourteen days) at 25-30'C. The composition of these fungi was determined with the hair baiting method along with the dilution method, using the Wiegand medium supplemented with chloramphenicol (100 mgiL) and actidione (500 mg/L). The open-air drying altered the composition of keratinolytic fungi and considerably increased the population of keratinophilic and actidione-resistant fungi in the sludge. This phenomenon can be explained with that the drying process was associated with slow sludge moisture decrease, sludge laceration due to crumbling and the subsequent improvement of sludge aeration and organic matter biodegradation conditions. A considerable increase of fungal populations can be expected in sludges being dried in drying beds at wastewater treatment plants and in sludge-amended soils. Two sludge opportunistic fungi, i.e. Microsporum gypseum and Pseudallescheria boydii, require special attention from the epidemiological point of view. Sludge land applications may increase the number of these fungi in the environment and the subsequent risk to public health posed by them.

  20. Banks of lights dry tiles on Atlantis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- In the Orbiter Processing Facility, a worker points to some of the tiles on orbiter Atlantis that are being dried by clusters of 200-300 watt heat lamps. Significant rainstorms during the orbiter'''s turnaround for a ferry flight home from Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., caused a moisture problem. The tiles are part of the Thermal Protection System used on orbiters for extreme temperatures encountered during landing. Engineers are evaluating the current procedures to assure the tiles are in a safe and flight-ready condition.

  1. Timing of nicotine lozenge administration to minimize trigger induced craving and withdrawal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kotlyar, Michael; Lindgren, Bruce R; Vuchetich, John P; Le, Chap; Mills, Anne M; Amiot, Elizabeth; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2017-08-01

    Smokers are often advised to use nicotine lozenge when craving or withdrawal symptoms occur. This may be too late to prevent lapses. This study assessed if nicotine lozenge use prior to a common smoking trigger can minimize trigger induced increases in craving and withdrawal symptoms. Eighty-four smokers completed two laboratory sessions in random order. At one session, nicotine lozenge was given immediately after a stressor (to approximate current recommended use - i.e., after craving and withdrawal symptoms occur); at the other session subjects were randomized to receive nicotine lozenge at time points ranging from immediately to 30min prior to the stressor. Withdrawal symptoms and urge to smoke were measured using the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale and the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU). Relative to receiving lozenge after the stressor, a smaller increase in pre-stressor to post-stressor withdrawal symptom scores occurred when lozenge was used immediately (p=0.03) and 10min prior (p=0.044) to the stressor. Results were similar for factors 1 and 2 of the QSU when lozenge was used immediately prior to the stressor (p<0.03) and for factor 1 of the QSU when lozenge was used 10min prior to the stressor (p=0.028). Absolute levels of post-stressor withdrawal symptom and urge to smoke severity were lower when lozenge was given prior to versus after a stressor. Administering the nicotine lozenge prior to a smoking trigger can decrease trigger induced craving and withdrawal symptoms. Future studies are needed to determine if such use would increase cessation rates. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT01522963. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Earthquake triggering by transient and static deformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Beeler, N.M.; Blanpied, M.L.; Bodin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Observational evidence for both static and transient near-field and far-field triggered seismicity are explained in terms of a frictional instability model, based on a single degree of freedom spring-slider system and rate- and state-dependent frictional constitutive equations. In this study a triggered earthquake is one whose failure time has been advanced by ??t (clock advance) due to a stress perturbation. Triggering stress perturbations considered include square-wave transients and step functions, analogous to seismic waves and coseismic static stress changes, respectively. Perturbations are superimposed on a constant background stressing rate which represents the tectonic stressing rate. The normal stress is assumed to be constant. Approximate, closed-form solutions of the rate-and-state equations are derived for these triggering and background loads, building on the work of Dieterich [1992, 1994]. These solutions can be used to simulate the effects of static and transient stresses as a function of amplitude, onset time t0, and in the case of square waves, duration. The accuracies of the approximate closed-form solutions are also evaluated with respect to the full numerical solution and t0. The approximate solutions underpredict the full solutions, although the difference decreases as t0, approaches the end of the earthquake cycle. The relationship between ??t and t0 differs for transient and static loads: a static stress step imposed late in the cycle causes less clock advance than an equal step imposed earlier, whereas a later applied transient causes greater clock advance than an equal one imposed earlier. For equal ??t, transient amplitudes must be greater than static loads by factors of several tens to hundreds depending on t0. We show that the rate-and-state model requires that the total slip at failure is a constant, regardless of the loading history. Thus a static load applied early in the cycle, or a transient applied at any time, reduces the stress

  3. Electrohydrodynamic drying of carrot slices.

    PubMed

    Ding, Changjiang; Lu, Jun; Song, Zhiqing

    2015-01-01

    Carrots have one of the highest levels of carotene, and they are rich in vitamins, fiber and minerals. However, since fresh carrots wilt rapidly after harvest under inappropriate storage conditions, drying has been used to improve their shelf life and retain nutritional quality. Therefore, to further investigate the potential of this method, carrot slices were dried in an EHD system in order to study the effect of different voltages on drying rate. As measures of quality, carotene content and rehydration ratio were, respectively, compared against the conventional oven drying regime. Carotene, the main component of the dried carrot, and rehydration characteristics of the dried product can both indicate quality by physical and chemical changes during the drying process. Mathematical modeling and simulation of drying curves were also performed, using root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and modeling efficiency as the primary criteria to select the equation that best accounts for the variation in the drying curves of the dried samples. Theoretically, the Page model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of carrot slices at 10kV to 30kV. Experimentally, the drying rate of carrots was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and quality, as determined by carotene content and rehydration ratio, was also improved when compared to oven drying. Therefore, this work presents a facile and effective strategy for experimentally and theoretically determining the drying properties of carrots, and, as a result, it provides deeper insight into the industrial potential of the EHD drying technique.

  4. Development of Biodegradable Polycation-Based Inhalable Dry Gene Powders by Spray Freeze Drying

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Yuko; Ishii, Takehiko; Uchida, Satoshi; Itaka, Keiji; Kataoka, Kazunori; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, two types of biodegradable polycation (PAsp(DET) homopolymer and PEG-PAsp(DET) copolymer) were applied as vectors for inhalable dry gene powders prepared by spray freeze drying (SFD). The prepared dry gene powders had spherical and porous structures with a 5~10-μm diameter, and the integrity of plasmid DNA could be maintained during powder production. Furthermore, it was clarified that PEG-PAsp(DET)-based dry gene powder could more sufficiently maintain both the physicochemical properties and in vitro gene transfection efficiencies of polyplexes reconstituted after powder production than PAsp(DET)-based dry gene powder. From an in vitro inhalation study using an Andersen cascade impactor, it was demonstrated that the addition of l-leucine could markedly improve the inhalation performance of dry powders prepared by SFD. Following pulmonary delivery to mice, both PAsp(DET)- and PEG-PAsp(DET)-based dry gene powders could achieve higher gene transfection efficiencies in the lungs compared with a chitosan-based dry gene powder previously reported by us. PMID:26343708

  5. Stress/strain changes and triggered seismicity at The Geysers, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Davis, S.

    1996-01-01

    The principal results of this study of remotely triggered seismicity in The Geysers geothermal field are the demonstration that triggering (initiation of earthquake failure) depends on a critical strain threshold and that the threshold level increases with decreasing frequency or equivalently, depends on strain rate. This threshold function derives from (1) analyses of dynamic strains associated with surface waves of the triggering earthquakes, (2) statistically measured aftershock zone dimensions, and (3) analytic functional representations of strains associated with power production and tides. The threshold is also consistent with triggering by static strain changes and implies that both static and dynamic strains may cause aftershocks. The observation that triggered seismicity probably occurs in addition to background activity also provides an important constraint on the triggering process. Assuming the physical processes underlying earthquake nucleation to be the same, Gomberg [this issue] discusses seismicity triggered by the MW 7.3 Landers earthquake, its constraints on the variability of triggering thresholds with site, and the implications of time delays between triggering and triggered earthquakes. Our results enable us to reject the hypothesis that dynamic strains simply nudge prestressed faults over a Coulomb failure threshold sooner than they would have otherwise. We interpret the rate-dependent triggering threshold as evidence of several competing processes with different time constants, the faster one(s) facilitating failure and the other(s) inhibiting it. Such competition is a common feature of theories of slip instability. All these results, not surprisingly, imply that to understand earthquake triggering one must consider not only simple failure criteria requiring exceedence of some constant threshold but also the requirements for generating instabilities.

  6. Stress/strain changes and triggered seismicity at The Geysers, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, Joan; Davis, Scott

    1996-01-01

    The principal results of this study of remotely triggered seismicity in The Geysers geothermal field are the demonstration that triggering (initiation of earthquake failure) depends on a critical strain threshold and that the threshold level increases with decreasing frequency, or, equivalently, depends on strain rate. This threshold function derives from (1) analyses of dynamic strains associated with surface waves of the triggering earthquakes, (2) statistically measured aftershock zone dimensions, and (3) analytic functional representations of strains associated with power production and tides. The threshold is also consistent with triggering by static strain changes and implies that both static and dynamic strains may cause aftershocks. The observation that triggered seismicity probably occurs in addition to background activity also provides an important constraint on the triggering process. Assuming the physical processes underlying earthquake nucleation to be the same, Gomberg [this issue] discusses seismicity triggered by the MW 7.3 Landers earthquake, its constraints on the variability of triggering thresholds with site, and the implications of time delays between triggering and triggered earthquakes. Our results enable us to reject the hypothesis that dynamic strains simply nudge prestressed faults over a Coulomb failure threshold sooner than they would have otherwise. We interpret the rate-dependent triggering threshold as evidence of several competing processes with different time constants, the faster one(s) facilitating failure and the other(s) inhibiting it. Such competition is a common feature of theories of slip instability. All these results, not surprisingly, imply that to understand earthquake triggering one must consider not only simple failure criteria requiring exceedence of some constant threshold but also the requirements for generating instabilities.

  7. Tharsis-triggered Flood Inundations of the Lowlands of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairen, Alberto G.; Dohm, James M.; Baker, Victor R.; dePablo, Miguel A.

    2003-01-01

    Throughout the recorded history of Mars, liquid water has distinctly shaped its landscape, including the prominent circum-Chryse and the northwestern slope valleys outflow channel systems [1], and the extremely flat northern plains topography at the distal reaches of these outflow channel systems.Basing on the ideas of episodic greenhouse atmosphere and water stability on the lowlands of Mars [3], a conceptual scheme for water evolution and associated geomorphologic features on the northern plains can be proposed. This model highlights Tharsis-triggered flood inundations and their direct impact on shaping the northern plains, as well as making possible the existence of fossil and/or extant life.Possible biologic evolution throughout the resulting different climatic and hydrologic conditions would account for very distinct metabolic pathways for hypothesized organisms capable of surviving and perhaps evolving in each aqueous environment, those that existed in the dry and cold periods between the flood inundations, and those organisms that could survive both extremes. Terrestrial microbiota, chemolithotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria, provide exciting analogues for such potential extremophile existence in Mars, especially where long-lived, magmatic-driven hydrothermal activity is indicated [14].

  8. Networked event-triggered control: an introduction and research trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Sabih, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    A physical system can be studied as either continuous time or discrete-time system depending upon the control objectives. Discrete-time control systems can be further classified into two categories based on the sampling: (1) time-triggered control systems and (2) event-triggered control systems. Time-triggered systems sample states and calculate controls at every sampling instant in a periodic fashion, even in cases when states and calculated control do not change much. This indicates unnecessary and useless data transmission and computation efforts of a time-triggered system, thus inefficiency. For networked systems, the transmission of measurement and control signals, thus, cause unnecessary network traffic. Event-triggered systems, on the other hand, have potential to reduce the communication burden in addition to reducing the computation of control signals. This paper provides an up-to-date survey on the event-triggered methods for control systems and highlights the potential research directions.

  9. Polymeric micelles with stimuli-triggering systems for advanced cancer drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masamichi; Akimoto, Jun; Okano, Teruo

    2014-08-01

    Since the 1990s, nanoscale drug carriers have played a pivotal role in cancer chemotherapy, acting through passive drug delivery mechanisms and subsequent pharmaceutical action at tumor tissues with reduction of adverse effects. Polymeric micelles, as supramolecular assemblies of amphiphilic polymers, have been considerably developed as promising drug carrier candidates, and a number of clinical studies of anticancer drug-loaded polymeric micelle carriers for cancer chemotherapy applications are now in progress. However, these systems still face several issues; at present, the simultaneous control of target-selective delivery and release of incorporated drugs remains difficult. To resolve these points, the introduction of stimuli-responsive mechanisms to drug carrier systems is believed to be a promising approach to provide better solutions for future tumor drug targeting strategies. As possible trigger signals, biological acidic pH, light, heating/cooling and ultrasound actively play significant roles in signal-triggering drug release and carrier interaction with target cells. This review article summarizes several molecular designs for stimuli-responsive polymeric micelles in response to variation of pH, light and temperature and discusses their potentials as next-generation tumor drug targeting systems.

  10. Phylogeography of microbial phototrophs in the dry valleys of the high Himalayas and Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S K; Lynch, R C; King, A J; Karki, D; Robeson, M S; Nagy, L; Williams, M W; Mitter, M S; Freeman, K R

    2011-03-07

    High-elevation valleys in dry areas of the Himalayas are among the most extreme, yet least explored environments on Earth. These barren, rocky valleys are subjected to year-round temperature fluctuations across the freezing point and very low availability of water and nutrients, causing previous workers to hypothesize that no photoautotrophic life (primary producers) exists in these locations. However, there has been no work using modern biogeochemical or culture-independent molecular methods to test the hypothesis that photoautotrophs are absent from high Himalayan soil systems. Here, we show that although microbial biomass levels are as low as those of the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, there are abundant microbial photoautotrophs, displaying unexpected phylogenetic diversity, in barren soils from just below the permanent ice line of the central Himalayas. Furthermore, we discovered that one of the dominant algal clades from the high Himalayas also contains the dominant algae in culture-independent surveys of both soil and ice samples from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, revealing an unexpected link between these environmentally similar but geographically very distant systems. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses demonstrated that although this algal clade is globally distributed to other high-altitude and high-latitude soils, it shows significant genetic isolation by geographical distance patterns, indicating local adaptation and perhaps speciation in each region. Our results are the first to demonstrate the remarkable similarities of microbial life of arid soils of Antarctica and the high Himalayas. Our findings are a starting point for future comparative studies of the dry valleys of the Himalayas and Antarctica that will yield new insights into the cold and dry limits to life on Earth.

  11. The Triggering Mechanism of coronal jets and CMEs: Flux Cancelation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent investigations show that coronal jets are driven by the eruption of a small-scale filament (10,000 - 20,000 km long, called a minifilament) following magnetic flux cancelation at the neutral line underneath the minifilament. Minifilament eruptions appear to be analogous to larger-scale solar filament eruptions: they both reside, before the eruption, in the highly sheared field between the adjacent opposite-polarity magnetic flux patches (neutral line); jet-producing minifilament and larger-scale solar filament first show a slow-rise, followed by a fast-rise as they erupt; during the jet-producing minifilament eruption a jet bright point (JBP) appears at the location where the minifilament was rooted before the eruption, analogous to the situation with CME-producing larger-scale filament eruptions where a solar flare arcade forms during the filament eruption along the neutral line along which the filament resided prior to its eruption. In the present study we investigate the triggering mechanism of CME-producing large solar filament eruptions, and find that enduring flux cancelation at the neutral line of the filaments often triggers their eruptions. This corresponds to the finding that persistent flux cancelation at the neutral is the cause of jet-producing minifilament eruptions. Thus our observations support coronal jets being miniature version of CMEs.

  12. Effect of drying conditions on drying kinetics and quality of aromatic Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

    PubMed

    Rayaguru, Kalpana; Routray, Winny

    2010-12-01

    Pandanus amaryllifolius is a plant with aromatic leaves, which impart the characteristic flavour of aromatic rice. The quality of aromatic Pandanus leaves dried at low temperature (35 °C) and low RH (27%) in a heat pump dryer was evaluated and compared with those obtained from hot air drying at 45 °C. Thin-layer drying kinetics has been studied for both the conditions. To determine the kinetic parameters, the drying data were fitted to various semi-theoretical models. The goodness of fit was determined using the coefficient of determination, reduced chi square, and root mean square error. Aroma, colour, and overall acceptability determination of fresh and dried leaves were made using sensory evaluation. Drying of leaves took place mainly under the falling-rate period. The Page equation was found to be best among the proposed models to describe the thin-layer drying of Pandanus leaves with higher coefficient of determination. The effective moisture diffusivity values were also determined. The effect of low RH was prominent during the initial drying when the product was moist. The effect of temperature was prominent in the later part of drying, which acted as a driving force for moisture diffusion and hence the total drying time was reduced. Retention of aromatic compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline content was more in low temperature dried samples with higher sensory scores.

  13. Local root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation depends on the spatial distribution of soil moisture in potato: implications for ABA signalling under heterogeneous soil drying

    PubMed Central

    Puértolas, Jaime; Conesa, María R.; Ballester, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C.

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation ([ABA]root), root water potential (Ψroot), and root water uptake (RWU), and their impact on xylem sap ABA concentration ([X-ABA]) were measured under vertical partial root-zone drying (VPRD, upper compartment dry, lower compartment wet) and horizontal partial root-zone drying (HPRD, two lateral compartments: one dry, the other wet) of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). When water was withheld from the dry compartment for 0–10 d, RWU and Ψroot were similarly lower in the dry compartment when soil volumetric water content dropped below 0.22cm3 cm–3 for both spatial distributions of soil moisture. However, [ABA]root increased in response to decreasing Ψroot in the dry compartment only for HPRD, resulting in much higher ABA accumulation than in VPRD. The position of the sampled roots (~4cm closer to the surface in the dry compartment of VPRD than in HPRD) might account for this difference, since older (upper) roots may accumulate less ABA in response to decreased Ψroot than younger (deeper) roots. This would explain differences in root ABA accumulation patterns under vertical and horizontal soil moisture gradients reported in the literature. In our experiment, these differences in root ABA accumulation did not influence [X-ABA], since the RWU fraction (and thus ABA export to shoots) from the dry compartment dramatically decreased simultaneously with any increase in [ABA]root. Thus, HPRD might better trigger a long-distance ABA signal than VPRD under conditions allowing simultaneous high [ABA]root and relatively high RWU fraction. PMID:25547916

  14. Experimental study on drying kinetic of cassava starch in a pneumatic drying system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suherman, Kumoro, Andri Cahyo; Kusworo, Tutuk Djoko

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are to present the experimental research on the drying of cassava starch in a pneumatic dryer, to describe its drying curves, as well as to calculate its thermal efficiency. The effects of operating conditions, namely the inlet air temperature (60-100 °C) and solid-gas flow rate ratio (Ms/Mg 0.1-0.3) were studied. Heat transfer is accomplished through convection mechanism in a drying chamber based on the principle of direct contact between the heated air and the moist material. During the drying process, intensive heat and mass transfer between the drying air and the cassava starch take place. In order to meet the SNI standards on solid water content, the drying process was done in two cycles. The higher the temperature of the drying air, the lower the water content of the solids exiting the dryer. Thermal efficiency of the 2nd cycle was found to be lower than the 1st cycle.

  15. Use of GPUs in Trigger Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, Gianluca

    In recent years the interest for using graphics processor (GPU) in general purpose high performance computing is constantly rising. In this paper we discuss the possible use of GPUs to construct a fast and effective real time trigger system, both in software and hardware levels. In particular, we study the integration of such a system in the NA62 trigger. The first application of GPUs for rings pattern recognition in the RICH will be presented. The results obtained show that there are not showstoppers in trigger systems with relatively low latency. Thanks to the use of off-the-shelf technology, in continous development for purposes related to video game and image processing market, the architecture described would be easily exported to other experiments, to build a versatile and fully customizable online selection.

  16. Dynamic Earthquake Triggering on Seismogenic Faults in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Chen, X.; Peng, Z.; Aiken, C.

    2016-12-01

    Regions with high pore pressure are generally more susceptible to dynamic triggering from transient stress change caused by surface wave of distant earthquakes. The stress threshold from triggering studies can help understand the stress state of seismogenic faults. The recent dramatic seismicity increase in central US provides a rich database for assessing dynamic triggering phenomena. We begin our study by conducting a systematic analysis of dynamic triggering for the continental U.S using ANSS catalog (with magnitude of completeness Mc=3) from 49 global mainshocks (Ms>6.5, depth<100km, estimated dynamic stress>1kPa). We calculate β value for each 1° by 1° bins in 30 days before and 10 days after the mainshock. To identify regions that experience triggering from a distant mainshock, we generate a stacked map using β≥2 - which represents significant seismicity rate increase. As expected, the geothermal and volcanic fields in California show clear response to distant earthquakes. We also note areas in Oklahoma and north Texas show enhanced triggering, where wastewater-injection induced seismicity are occurring. Next we focus on Oklahoma and use a local catalog from Oklahoma Geological Survey with lower completeness threshold Mc to calculate the beta map in 0.2° by 0.2° bins for each selected mainshock to obtain finer spatial resolutions of the triggering behavior. For those grids with β larger than 2.0, we use waveforms from nearby stations to search for triggered events. The April 2015 M7.8 Nepal earthquake causes a statistically significant increase of local seismicity (β=3.5) in the Woodward area (west Oklahoma) during an on-going earthquake sequence. By visually examining the surface wave from the nearest station, we identify 3 larger local events, and 10 additional smaller events with weaker but discernable amplitude. Preliminary analysis shows that the triggering is related to Rayleigh wave, which would cause dilatational or shear stress changes

  17. The upgrade of the ATLAS first-level calorimeter trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shimpei; Atlas Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The first-level calorimeter trigger (L1Calo) had operated successfully through the first data taking phase of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Towards forthcoming LHC runs, a series of upgrades is planned for L1Calo to face new challenges posed by the upcoming increases of the beam energy and the luminosity. This paper reviews the ATLAS L1Calo trigger upgrade project that introduces new architectures for the liquid-argon calorimeter trigger readout and the L1Calo trigger processing system.

  18. Muon Trigger for Mobile Phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisyak, M.; Usvyatsov, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Shimmin, C.; Ustyuzhanin, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CRAYFIS experiment proposes to use privately owned mobile phones as a ground detector array for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. Upon interacting with Earth’s atmosphere, these events produce extensive particle showers which can be detected by cameras on mobile phones. A typical shower contains minimally-ionizing particles such as muons. As these particles interact with CMOS image sensors, they may leave tracks of faintly-activated pixels that are sometimes hard to distinguish from random detector noise. Triggers that rely on the presence of very bright pixels within an image frame are not efficient in this case. We present a trigger algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Networks which selects images containing such tracks and are evaluated in a lazy manner: the response of each successive layer is computed only if activation of the current layer satisfies a continuation criterion. Usage of neural networks increases the sensitivity considerably comparable with image thresholding, while the lazy evaluation allows for execution of the trigger under the limited computational power of mobile phones.

  19. Improvements In solar dry kiln design

    Treesearch

    E. M. Wengert

    1971-01-01

    Interest in solar drying of lumber has increased in recent years because previous results had indicated that: Drying times are shorter and final moisture contents are lower in solar drying than in air drying; much less lumber degrade occurs in solar drying when compared to air drying; and the cost of energy is less in solar drying than in kiln drying. Work in the field...

  20. Evidences of landslide earthquake triggering due to self-excitation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzano, F.; Lenti, L.; Martino, Salvatore; Paciello, A.; Scarascia Mugnozza, G.

    2011-06-01

    The basin-like setting of stiff bedrock combined with pre-existing landslide masses can contribute to seismic amplifications in a wide frequency range (0-10 Hz) and induce a self-excitation process responsible for earthquake-triggered landsliding. Here, the self-excitation process is proposed to justify the far-field seismic trigger of the Cerda landslide (Sicily, Italy) which was reactivated by the 6th September 2002 Palermo earthquake ( M s = 5.4), about 50 km far from the epicentre. The landslide caused damage to farm houses, roads and aqueducts, close to the village of Cerda, and involved about 40 × 106 m3 of clay shales; the first ground cracks due to the landslide movement formed about 30 min after the main shock. A stress-strain dynamic numerical modelling, performed by FDM code FLAC 5.0, supports the notion that the combination of local geological setting and earthquake frequency content played a fundamental role in the landslide reactivation. Since accelerometric records of the triggering event are not available, dynamic equivalent inputs have been used for the numerical modelling. These inputs can be regarded as representative for the local ground shaking, having a PGA value up to 0.2 m/s2, which is the maximum expected in 475 years, according to the Italian seismic hazard maps. A 2D numerical modelling of the seismic wave propagation in the Cerda landslide area was also performed; it pointed out amplification effects due to both the structural setting of the stiff bedrock (at about 1 Hz) and the pre-existing landslide mass (in the range 3-6 Hz). The frequency peaks of the resulting amplification functions ( A( f)) fit well the H/ V spectral ratios from ambient noise and the H/ H spectral ratios to a reference station from earthquake records, obtained by in situ velocimetric measurements. Moreover, the Fourier spectra of earthquake accelerometric records, whose source and magnitude are consistent with the triggering event, show a main peak at about 1 Hz

  1. Design of a new high-performance pointing controller for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. D.

    1993-01-01

    A new form of high-performance, disturbance-adaptive pointing controller for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is proposed. This new controller is all linear (constant gains) and can maintain accurate 'pointing' of the HST in the face of persistent randomly triggered uncertain, unmeasurable 'flapping' motions of the large attached solar array panels. Similar disturbances associated with antennas and other flexible appendages can also be accommodated. The effectiveness and practicality of the proposed new controller is demonstrated by a detailed design and simulation testing of one such controller for a planar-motion, fully nonlinear model of HST. The simulation results show a high degree of disturbance isolation and pointing stability.

  2. Regular and Random Components in Aiming-Point Trajectory During Rifle Aiming and Shooting

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Simon; Haufler, Amy; Shim, Jae Kun; Hatfield, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the kinematic qualities of the aiming trajectory as related to expertise. In all, 2 phases of the trajectory were discriminated. The first phase was regular approximation to the target accompanied by substantial fluctuations obeying the Weber–Fechner law. During the first phase, shooters did not initiate the triggering despite any random closeness of the aiming point (AP) to the target. In the second phase, beginning at 0.6–0.8 s before the trigger pull, shooters applied a different control strategy: They waited until the following random fluctuation brought the AP closer to the target and then initiated triggering. This strategy is tenable when sensitivity of perception is greater than precision of the motor action, and could be considered a case of stochastic resonance. The strategies that novices and experts used distinguished only in the values of parameters. The authors present an analytical model explaining the main properties of shooting. PMID:19508963

  3. Development of a new scintillation-trigger detector for the MTV experiment using aluminum-metallized film tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Yuko; Ozaki, Sachi; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Tatsuru; Murata, Jiro

    2014-09-01

    A new type of trigger-scintillation counter array designed for the MTV experiment at TRIUMF-ISAC has been developed, using aluminum-metallized film tape for wrapping. The MTV experiment aims to perform the finest precision test of time reversal symmetry in nuclear beta decay. In that purpose, we search non-zero T-Violating transverse polarization of electrons emitted from polarized Li-8 nuclei. It uses a cylindrical drift chamber (CDC) as the main electron-tracking detector. The trigger-scintillation counter consists of 12-segmented 1 mm thick 300 mm long thin plastic scintillation counters. This counter is placed inside the CDC to generate a trigger signal. The required assembling precision of +-0.5 mm was a tricky point when we tried to use conventional total reflection mode. Indeed, produce an air-layer surrounding the scintillating bar to keep good light transmission was the main issue. For this reason, we tried to use a new wrapping material made of metallized-aluminum tape, which has a good mirror-like reflecting surface on both sides of the tape. Through this report, we will compare detection efficiency and light attenuation between conventional and new wrapping materials.

  4. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  5. Freeze drying method

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  6. Readout and Trigger for the AFP Detector at the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korcyl, K.; Kocian, M.; Lopez Paz, I.; Avoni, G.

    2017-10-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton is a new detector system in ATLAS that allows study of events with protons scattered at very small angles. The final design assumes four stations at distances of 205 and 217 m from the ATLAS interaction point on both sides of the detector exploiting the Roman Pot technology. In 2016 two stations in one arm were installed; installation of the other two is planned for 2017. This article describes details of the installed hardware, firmware and software leading to the full integration with the ATLAS central trigger and data acquisition systems.

  7. Influence of pre-drying treatments on physicochemical and organoleptic properties of explosion puff dried jackfruit chips.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jianyong; Zhou, Linyan; Bi, Jinfeng; Chen, Qinqin; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Xinye

    2016-02-01

    The effects of hot air drying (AD), freeze drying (FD), infrared drying (IR), microwave drying (MV), vacuum drying (VD) as pre-drying treatments for explosion puff drying (EPD) on qualities of jackfruit chips were studied. The lowest total color differences (∆E) were found in the FD-, MV- and VD-EPD dried chips. Volume expansion effect (9.2 %) was only observed in the FD-EPD dried chips, which corresponded to its well expanded honeycomb microstructures and high rehydration rate. Compared with AD-, IR-, MV- and VD-EPD, the FD-EPD dried fruit chips exhibited lower hardness and higher crispness, indicative of a crispier texture. FD-EPD dried fruits also obtained high retentions of ascorbic acid, phenolics and carotenoids compared with that of the other puffed products. The results of sensory evaluation suggested that the FD-EPD was a more beneficial combination because it enhanced the overall qualities of jackfruit chips. In conclusion, the FD-EPD could be used as a novel combination drying method for processing valuable and/or high quality fruit chips.

  8. Attachment process in rocket-triggered lightning strokes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Rakov, V. A.; Uman, M. A.; Takagi, N.; Watanabe, T.; Crawford, D. E.; Rambo, K. J.; Schnetzer, G. H.; Fisher, R. J.; Kawasaki, Z.-I.

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the lightning attachment process, we have obtained highly resolved (about 100 ns time resolution and about 3.6 m spatial resolution) optical images, electric field measurements, and channel-base current recordings for two dart leader/return-stroke sequences in two lightning flashes triggered using the rocket-and-wire technique at Camp Blanding, Florida. One of these two sequences exhibited an optically discernible upward-propagating discharge that occurred in response to the approaching downward-moving dart leader and connected to this descending leader. This observation provides the first direct evidence of the occurrence of upward connecting discharges in triggered lightning strokes, these strokes being similar to subsequent strokes in natural lightning. The observed upward connecting discharge had a light intensity one order of magnitude lower than its associated downward dart leader, a length of 7-11 m, and a duration of several hundred nanoseconds. The speed of the upward connecting discharge was estimated to be about 2 × 107 m/s, which is comparable to that of the downward dart leader. In both dart leader/return-stroke sequences studied, the return stroke was inferred to start at the point of junction between the downward dart leader and the upward connecting discharge and to propagate in both upward and downward directions. This latter inference provides indirect evidence of the occurrence of upward connecting discharges in both dart leader/return-stroke sequences even though one of these sequences did not have a discernible optical image of such a discharge. The length of the upward connecting discharges (observed in one case and inferred from the height of the return-stroke starting point in the other case) is greater for the event that is characterized by the larger leader electric field change and the higher return-stroke peak current. For the two dart leader/return-stroke sequences studied, the upward connecting discharge lengths are

  9. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of Poro Point and vicinity, Luzon Island, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worts, George Frank

    1964-01-01

    In 1961 a reconnaissance of the geology and ground-water hydrology of Poro Point, on the west coast of Luzon Island, Philippines, was made on behalf of the U.S. Department of the Navy. Poro Point, which marks the northern end of Lingayen Gulf, is about half a mile wide and projects northwestward about 2 miles into the China Sea. The point is underlain by coralline limestone of probable Pleistocene age. The aquifer system consists of a fresh-water lens floating on salt water within the coralline limestone. Several tube wells obtain fresh water from the lens, but in May, at the end of the 6-month dry season during which rainfall totals only 40 inches, the water becomes brackish. 'Skimming wells' are considered the best method of obtaining fresh water from the lens, whose annual range in average thickness is probably 25 to 40 feet. Recharge is about 2,000-3,000 acre-feet per year and is derived wholly from precipitation during the 6-month wet season in which rainfall totals about 92 inches. The approximate amount of ground water stored in the fresh-water lens ranges from about 3,000 acre-feet at the end of the dry season to about 5,000 acre-feet at the end of the wet season. Most of the ground water is discharged through seeps and submarine springs around Poro Point; pumpage in 1961 was only about 100 acre-feet.

  10. Foam-mat drying technology: A review.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Z; Jideani, V A

    2017-08-13

    This article reviews various aspects of foam-mat drying such as foam-mat drying processing technique, main additives used for foam-mat drying, foam-mat drying of liquid and solid foods, quality characteristics of foam-mat dried foods, and economic and technical benefits for employing foam-mat drying. Foam-mat drying process is an alternative method that allows the removal of water from liquid materials and pureed materials. In this drying process, a liquid material is converted into foam that is stable by being whipped after adding an edible foaming agent. The stable foam is then spread out in sheet or mat and dried by using hot air (40-90°C) at atmospheric pressure. Methyl cellulose (0.25-2%), egg white (3-20%), maltodextrin (0.5-05%), and gum Arabic (2-9%) are the commonly utilized additives for the foam-mat drying process at the given range, either combined together for their effectiveness or individual effect. The foam-mat drying process is suitable for heat sensitive, viscous, and sticky products that cannot be dried using other forms of drying methods such as spray drying because of the state of product. More interest has developed for foam-mat drying because of the simplicity, cost effectiveness, high speed drying, and improved product quality it provides.

  11. Repeatability of Central Corneal Thickness Measurement Using Rotating Scheimpflug Camera in Dry and Normal Eyes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Hyuck; Kim, Jae Hyuck; Kim, Sun Woong

    2017-02-27

    To compare the repeatability of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurement using the Pentacam between dry eyes and healthy eyes, as well as to investigate the effect of artificial tears on CCT measurement. The corneal thicknesses of 34 patients with dry eye and 28 healthy subjects were measured using the Pentacam. One eye from each subject was assigned randomly to a repeatability test, wherein a single operator performed three successive CCT measurements time points-before and 5 min after instillation of one artificial teardrop. The repeatability of measurements was assessed using the coefficient of repeatability and the intraclass correlation coefficient. The coefficient of repeatability values of the CCT measurements in dry and healthy eyes were 24.36 and 10.69 μm before instillation, and 16.85 and 9.72 μm after instillation, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient was higher in healthy eyes than that of in dry eyes (0.987 vs. 0.891), and it had improved significantly in dry eyes (0.948) after instillation of one artificial teardrop. The CCT measurement fluctuated in dry eyes (repeated-measures analysis of variance, P<0.001), whereas no significant changes were detected in healthy eyes, either before or after artificial tear instillation. Central corneal thickness measurement is less repeatable in dry eyes than in healthy eyes. Artificial tears improve the repeatability of CCT measurements obtained using the Pentacam in dry eyes.

  12. Study of SEM preparation artefacts with correlative microscopy: Cell shrinkage of adherent cells by HMDS-drying.

    PubMed

    Katsen-Globa, Alisa; Puetz, Norbert; Gepp, Michael M; Neubauer, Julia C; Zimmermann, Heiko

    2016-11-01

    One of the often reported artefacts during cell preparation to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is the shrinkage of cellular objects, that mostly occurs at a certain time-dependent stage of cell drying. Various methods of drying for SEM, such as critical point drying, freeze-drying, as well as hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS)-drying, were usually used. The latter becomes popular since it is a low cost and fast method. However, the correlation of drying duration and real shrinkage of objects was not investigated yet. In this paper, cell shrinkage at each stage of preparation for SEM was studied. We introduce a shrinkage coefficient using correlative light microscopy (LM) and SEM of the same human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The influence of HMDS-drying duration on the cell shrinkage is shown: the longer drying duration, the more shrinkage is observed. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that cell shrinkage is inversely proportional to cultivation time: the longer cultivation time, the more cell spreading area and the less cell shrinkage. Our results can be applicable for an exact SEM quantification of cell size and determination of cell spreading area in engineering of artificial cellular environments using biomaterials. SCANNING 38:625-633, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger performance in Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riu, Imma; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The Level-1 trigger is the first event rate reducing step in the ATLAS detector trigger system, with an output rate of up to 100 kHz and decision latency smaller than 2.5 μs. During the LHC shutdown after Run 1, the Level-1 trigger system was upgraded at hardware, firmware and software levels. In particular, a new electronics sub-system was introduced in the real-time data processing path: the Level-1 Topological trigger system. It consists of a single electronics shelf equipped with two Level-1 Topological processor blades. They receive real-time information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon triggers, which is processed to measure angles between trigger objects, invariant masses or other kinematic variables. Complementary to other requirements, these measurements are taken into account in the final Level-1 trigger decision. The system was installed and commissioning started in 2015 and continued during 2016. As part of the commissioning, the decisions from individual algorithms were simulated and compared with the hardware response. An overview of the Level-1 Topological trigger system design, commissioning process and impact on several event selections are illustrated.

  14. Drying based on temperature-detection-assisted control in microwave-assisted pulse-spouted vacuum drying.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaohuang; Zhang, Min; Qian, He; Mujumdar, Arun S

    2017-06-01

    An online temperature-detection-assisted control system of microwave-assisted pulse-spouted vacuum drying was newly developed. By using this system, temperature control can be automatically and continuously adjusted based on the detection of drying temperature and preset temperature. Various strategies for constant temperature control, linear temperature control and three-step temperature control were applied to drying carrot cubes. Drying kinetics and the quality of various temperature-controlled strategies online are evaluated for the new drying technology as well as its suitability as an alternative drying method. Drying time in 70 °C mode 1 had the shortest drying time and lowest energy consumption in all modes. A suitable colour, highest re-hydration ratio and fracture-hardness, and longest drying time occurred in 30-40-50 °C mode 3. The number of hot spots was reduced in 40-50-60 °C mode 3. Acceptable carrot snacks were obtained in 50-60-70 °C mode 3 and 70 °C mode 2. All temperature curves showed that the actual temperatures followed the preset temperatures appropriately. With this system, a linear temperature-controlled strategy and a three-step temperature-controlled strategy can improve product quality and heating non-uniformity compared to constant temperature control, but need greater energy consumption and longer drying time. A temperature-detection-assisted control system was developed for providing various drying strategies as a suitable alternative in making a snack product. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Environmental triggers and avoidance in the management of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gautier, Clarisse; Charpin, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Identifying asthma triggers forms the basis of environmental secondary prevention. These triggers may be allergenic or nonallergenic. Allergenic triggers include indoor allergens, such as house dust mites (HDMs), molds, pets, cockroaches, and rodents, and outdoor allergens, such as pollens and molds. Clinical observations provide support for the role of HDM exposure as a trigger, although avoidance studies provide conflicting results. Molds and their metabolic products are now considered to be triggers of asthma attacks. Pets, dogs, and especially cats can undoubtedly trigger asthmatic symptoms in sensitized subjects. Avoidance is difficult and rarely adhered to by families. Cockroach allergens contribute to asthma morbidity, and avoidance strategies can lead to clinical benefit. Mouse allergens are mostly found in inner-city dwellings, but their implication in asthma morbidity is debated. In the outdoors, pollens can induce seasonal asthma in sensitized individuals. Avoidance relies on preventing pollens from getting into the house and on minimizing seasonal outdoor exposure. Outdoor molds may lead to severe asthma exacerbations. Nonallergenic triggers include viral infections, active and passive smoking, meteorological changes, occupational exposures, and other triggers that are less commonly involved. Viral infection is the main asthma trigger in children. Active smoking is associated with higher asthma morbidity, and smoking cessation interventions should be personalized. Passive smoking is also a risk factor for asthma exacerbation. The implementation of public smoking bans has led to a reduction in the hospitalization of asthmatic children. Air pollution levels have been linked with asthmatic symptoms, a decrease in lung function, and increased emergency room visits and hospitalizations. Since avoidance is not easy to achieve, clean air policies remain the most effective strategy. Indoor air is also affected by air pollutants, such as cigarette smoke and

  16. Acute triggers of myocardial infarction: A case-crossover study.

    PubMed

    Ghiasmand, Maryam; Moghadamnia, Mohammad Taghi; Pourshaikhian, Majid; Kazemnejad Lili, Ehsan

    2017-12-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most preventable non-communicable diseases in human. Identifying triggers of myocardial infarction (MI) and prevention ways of exposure-induced complications can reduce morbidity and mortality in people at risk. The aim of this study was to identify the emotional, environmental, physical and chemical dimensions of acute triggers in patients with AMI. This case-crossover study was conducted on 269 patients with AMI, hospitalized at two remedial centers in Rasht in 2015. The study samples were selected by convenient sampling method. Data were collected using researcher-made questionnaire through interviews. Hazard and control periods for each trigger and its effects on the development of MI were studied. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistical methods, Cochran test, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) model with logistics function default in SPSS version 21, and p  < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed that quarrel ( P  = 0.008, OR = 2.01) and hearing the sudden news ( P  = 0.001, OR = 2.19) were the most common emotional triggers. Respiratory infections ( P  = 0.0001, OR = 6.78) and exposure to hot or cold weather ( P  = 0.005, OR = 2.19) were the most frequent environmental triggers. Doing heavy activities ( P  = 0.005, OR = 1.66) and sexual activities ( P  = 0.003, OR = 2.36) were among the most common physical triggers. High-fat foods consumption and overeating ( P  = 0.0001, OR = 3.79) were the most frequent chemical triggers of AMI. It seems that given the importance of the triggers in the incidence of AMI, planning is necessary to train vulnerable individuals to reduce exposure to triggers.

  17. 4. Aerial view (altitude 2,000 ft.) looking north showing Dry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view (altitude 2,000 ft.) looking north showing Dry Dock No. 4 (upper left) under construction. Cofferdam is still in place. Note caisson sitting in caisson seat at east end of dock (2/8/43). Photographer: A. E. Weed, CPHoM. - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. LASIK and dry eye.

    PubMed

    Toda, Ikuko

    2007-01-01

    Dry eye is one of the most common complications after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). The clinical signs of post-LASIK dry eye include positive vital staining of ocular surface, decreased tear film breakup time and Schirmer test, reduced corneal sensitivity, and decreased functional visual acuity. The symptoms and signs last at least 1 month after LASIK. Although the mechanisms for developing post-LASIK dry eye are not completely understood, loss of corneal innervation by flap-making may affect the reflex loops of the corneal-lacrimal gland, corneal-blinking, and blinking-meibomian gland, and blinking-meibomian gland, resulting in decreased aqueous and lipid tear secretion and mucin expression. As LASIK enhancement by flap-lifting induces less dry eye symptoms and signs than first surgery, it is suggested that other factors rather than loss of neurotrophic effect may be involved in the mechanisms of post-LASIK dry eye. The treatments of dry eye include artificial tears, topical cyclosporine, hot compress, punctal plugs, and autologous serum eye drops. For patients with severe preoperative dry eye, a combination of punctal plugs and serum eye drops is required to be used before surgery.

  19. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  20. Effects of four different drying methods on the carotenoid composition and antioxidant capacity of dried Gac peel.

    PubMed

    Chuyen, Hoang V; Roach, Paul D; Golding, John B; Parks, Sophie E; Nguyen, Minh H

    2017-03-01

    Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) is a rich source of carotenoids for the manufacture of powder, oil and capsules for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical uses. Currently, only the aril of the Gac fruit is processed and the peel, similar to the other components, is discarded, although it contains high level of carotenoids, which could be extracted for commercial use. In the present study, four different drying methods (hot-air, vacuum, heat pump and freeze drying), different temperatures and drying times were investigated for producing dried Gac peel suitable for carotenoid extraction. The drying methods and drying temperatures significantly affected the drying time, carotenoid content and antioxidant capacity of the dried Gac peel. Among the investigated drying methods, hot-air drying at 80  o C and vacuum drying at 50  o C produced dried Gac peel that exhibited the highest retention of carotenoids and the strongest antioxidant capacity. Hot-air drying at 80  o C and vacuum drying at 50  o C are recommended for the drying of Gac peel. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Raman mapping of mannitol/lysozyme particles produced via spray drying and single droplet drying.

    PubMed

    Pajander, Jari Pekka; Matero, Sanni; Sloth, Jakob; Wan, Feng; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a model protein on the solid state of a commonly used bulk agent in spray-dried formulations. A series of lysozyme/mannitol formulations were spray-dried using a lab-scale spray dryer. Further, the surface temperature of drying droplet/particles was monitored using the DRYING KINETICS ANALYZER™ (DKA) with controllable drying conditions mimicking the spray-drying process to estimate the drying kinetics of the lysozyme/mannitol formulations. The mannitol polymorphism and the spatial distribution of lysozyme in the particles were examined using X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) and Raman microscopy. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis was used for analyzing the Raman microscopy data. XRPD results indicated that a mixture of β-mannitol and α-mannitol was produced in the spray-drying process which was supported by the Raman analysis, whereas Raman analysis indicated that a mixture of α-mannitol and δ-mannitol was detected in the single particles from DKA. In addition Raman mapping indicated that the presence of lysozyme seemed to favor the appearance of α-mannitol in the particles from DKA evidenced by close proximity of lysozyme and mannitol in the particles. It suggested that the presence of lysozyme tend to induce metastable solid state forms upon the drying process.

  2. Rapid determination of vial heat transfer parameters using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in response to step-changes in pressure set-point during freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Kuu, Wei Y; Nail, Steven L; Sacha, Gregory

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a rapid determination of vial heat transfer parameters, that is, the contact parameter K(cs) and the separation distance l(v), using the sublimation rate profiles measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). In this study, each size of vial was filled with pure water followed by a freeze-drying cycle using a LyoStar II dryer (FTS Systems) with step-changes of the chamber pressure set-point at to 25, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mTorr. K(cs) was independently determined by nonlinear parameter estimation using the sublimation rates measured at the pressure set-point of 25 mTorr. After obtaining K(cs), the l(v) value for each vial size was determined by nonlinear parameter estimation using the pooled sublimation rate profiles obtained at 25 to 400 mTorr. The vial heat transfer coefficient K(v), as a function of the chamber pressure, was readily calculated, using the obtained K(cs) and l(v) values. It is interesting to note the significant difference in K(v) of two similar types of 10 mL Schott tubing vials, primary due to the geometry of the vial-bottom, as demonstrated by the images of the contact areas of the vial-bottom. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  3. Method for modifying trigger level for adsorber regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Ruth, Michael J.; Cunningham, Michael J.

    2010-05-25

    A method for modifying a NO.sub.x adsorber regeneration triggering variable. Engine operating conditions are monitored until the regeneration triggering variable is met. The adsorber is regenerated and the adsorbtion efficiency of the adsorber is subsequently determined. The regeneration triggering variable is modified to correspond with the decline in adsorber efficiency. The adsorber efficiency may be determined using an empirically predetermined set of values or by using a pair of oxygen sensors to determine the oxygen response delay across the sensors.

  4. Reflecting on Functioning in Trigger Happy America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfsdorf, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Trigger warnings are posing serious threats to the ways that English educators can teach at the university level. If Aristotle--and Hillis-Miller years later--argue that literature must arouse and bring about catharsis, then proponents of trigger warnings are anaesthetising the power of words and watering down their ability to incite emotional…

  5. Effect of different drying technologies on drying characteristics and quality of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhen-Zhen; Zhou, Lin-Yan; Bi, Jin-Feng; Yi, Jian-Yong; Chen, Qin-Qin; Wu, Xin-Ye; Zheng, Jin-Kai; Li, Shu-Rong

    2016-08-01

    Hot air drying and sun drying are traditional drying technologies widely used in the drying of agricultural products for a long time, but usually recognized as time-consuming or producing lower-quality products. Infrared drying is a rather effective drying technology that has advantages over traditional drying technologies. Thus, in order to investigate the application of infrared drying in the dehydration of red pepper, the drying characteristics and quality of infrared-dried red pepper were compared with those of sun-dried and hot air-dried red pepper. The infrared drying technology significantly enhanced the drying rate when compared with hot air drying and sun drying. Temperature was the most important factor affecting the moisture transfer during the process of infrared drying as well as hot air drying. Effective moisture diffusivity (Deff ) values of infrared drying ranged from 1.58 × 10(-9) to 3.78 × 10(-9) m(2) s(-1) . The Ea values of infrared drying and hot air drying were 42.67 and 44.48 kJ mol(-1) respectively. Infrared drying and hot air drying produced color loss to a similar extent. Relatively higher crispness values were observed for infrared-dried samples. Sun drying produced dried red pepper with the best color when compared with hot air drying and infrared drying. Meanwhile, infrared drying markedly improved the drying rate at the same drying temperature level of hot air drying, and the products obtained had relatively better quality with higher crispness values. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Drying kinetics and mathematical modeling of hot air drying of coconut coir pith.

    PubMed

    Fernando, J A K M; Amarasinghe, A D U S

    2016-01-01

    Drying kinetics of coir pith was studied and the properties of compressed coir pith discs were analyzed. Coir pith particles were oven dried in the range of temperatures from 100 to 240 °C and the rehydration ability of compressed coir pith was evaluated by finding the volume expansion. The optimum drying temperature was found to be 140 °C. Hot air drying was carried out to examine the drying kinetics by allowing the coir pith particles to fluidize and circulate inside the drying chamber. Particle motion within the drying chamber closely resembled the particle motion in a flash dryer. The effective moisture diffusivity was found to increase from 1.18 × 10(-8) to 1.37 × 10(-8) m(2)/s with the increase of air velocity from 1.4 to 2.5 m/s respectively. Correlation analysis and residual plots were used to determine the adequacy of existing mathematical models for describing the drying behavior of coir pith. The empirical models, Wang and Singh model and Linear model, were found to be adequate for accurate prediction of drying behavior of coir pith. A new model was proposed by modifying the Wang and Singh model and considering the effect of air velocity. It gave the best correlation between observed and predicted moisture ratio with high value of coefficient of determination (R(2)) and lower values of root mean square error, reduced Chi square (χ(2)) and mean relative deviation (E%).

  7. Investigation of Potential Triggered Tremor in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Velasco, A. A.; Peng, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Recent observations have shown that seismic waves generate transient stresses capable of triggering earthquakes and tectonic (or non-volcanic) tremor far away from the original earthquake source. However, the mechanisms behind remotely triggered seismicity still remain unclear. Triggered tremor signals can be particularly useful in investigating remote triggering processes, since in many cases, the tremor pulses are very clearly modulated by the passing surface waves. The temporal stress changes (magnitude and orientation) caused by seismic waves at the tremor source region can be calculated and correlated with tremor pulses, which allows for exploring the stresses involved in the triggering process. Some observations suggest that triggered and ambient tremor signals are generated under similar physical conditions; thus, investigating triggered tremor might also provide important clues on how and under what conditions ambient tremor signals generate. In this work we present some of the results and techniques we employ in the research of potential cases of triggered tectonic tremor in Latin America and the Caribbean. This investigation includes: (1) the triggered tremor detection, with the use of specific signal filters; (2) localization of the sources, using uncommon techniques like time reversal signals; (3) and the analysis of the stress conditions under which they are generated, by modeling the triggering waves related dynamic stress. Our results suggest that tremor can be dynamically triggered by both Love and Rayleigh waves and in broad variety of tectonic environments depending strongly on the dynamic stress amplitude and orientation. Investigating remotely triggered seismicity offers the opportunity to improve our knowledge about deformation mechanisms and the physics of rupture.

  8. Implementation of a process analytical technology system in a freeze-drying process using Raman spectroscopy for in-line process monitoring.

    PubMed

    De Beer, T R M; Allesø, M; Goethals, F; Coppens, A; Heyden, Y Vander; De Diego, H Lopez; Rantanen, J; Verpoort, F; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P; Baeyens, W R G

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to propose a strategy for the implementation of a Process Analytical Technology system in freeze-drying processes. Mannitol solutions, some of them supplied with NaCl, were used as models to freeze-dry. Noninvasive and in-line Raman measurements were continuously performed during lyophilization of the solutions to monitor real time the mannitol solid state, the end points of the different process steps (freezing, primary drying, secondary drying), and physical phenomena occurring during the process. At-line near-infrared (NIR) and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) measurements were done to confirm the Raman conclusions and to find out additional information. The collected spectra during the processes were analyzed using principal component analysis and multivariate curve resolution. A two-level full factorial design was used to study the significant influence of process (freezing rate) and formulation variables (concentration of mannitol, concentration of NaCl, volume of freeze-dried sample) upon freeze-drying. Raman spectroscopy was able to monitor (i) the mannitol solid state (amorphous, alpha, beta, delta, and hemihydrate), (ii) several process step end points (end of mannitol crystallization during freezing, primary drying), and (iii) physical phenomena occurring during freeze-drying (onset of ice nucleation, onset of mannitol crystallization during the freezing step, onset of ice sublimation). NIR proved to be a more sensitive tool to monitor sublimation than Raman spectroscopy, while XRPD helped to unravel the mannitol hemihydrate in the samples. The experimental design results showed that several process and formulation variables significantly influence different aspects of lyophilization and that both are interrelated. Raman spectroscopy (in-line) and NIR spectroscopy and XRPD (at-line) not only allowed the real-time monitoring of mannitol freeze-drying processes but also helped (in combination with experimental design) us

  9. Infrared pre-drying and dry-dehulling of walnuts for improved processing efficiency and product quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The walnut industry is faced with an urgent need to improve post-harvest processing efficiency, particularly drying and dehulling operations. This research investigated the feasibility of dry-dehulling and infrared (IR) pre-drying of walnuts for improved processing efficiency and dried product quali...

  10. Investigation of drying kinetics of tomato slices dried by using a closed loop heat pump dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coşkun, Salih; Doymaz, İbrahim; Tunçkal, Cüneyt; Erdoğan, Seçil

    2017-06-01

    In this study, tomato slices were dried at three different drying air temperatures (35, 40 and 45 °C) and at 1 m/s air velocities by using a closed loop heat pump dryer (HPD). To explain the drying characteristics of tomato slices, ten thin-layer drying models were applied. The drying of tomato slices at each temperature occurred in falling-rate period; no constant-rate period of drying was observed. The drying rate was significantly influenced by drying temperature. The effective moisture diffusivity varied between 8.28 × 10-11 and 1.41 × 10-10 m2/s, the activation energy was found to be 43.12 kJ/mol. Besides, at the end of drying process, the highest mean specific moisture extraction ratio and coefficient of performance of HPD system were obtained as 0.324 kg/kWh and 2.71, respectively, at the highest drying air temperature (45 °C).

  11. Natural and unnatural triggers of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kloner, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Previous analyses have suggested that factors that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and catecholamine release can trigger acute myocardial infarction. The wake-up time, Mondays, winter season, physical exertion, emotional upset, overeating, lack of sleep, cocaine, marijuana, anger, and sexual activity are some of the more common triggers. Certain natural disasters such as earthquakes and blizzards have also been associated with an increase in cardiac events. Certain unnatural triggers may play a role including the Holiday season. Holiday season cardiac events peak on Christmas and New Year. A number of hypotheses have been raised to explain the increase in cardiac events during the holidays, including overeating, excessive use of salt and alcohol, exposure to particulates, from fireplaces, a delay in seeking medical help, anxiety or depression related to the holidays, and poorer staffing of health care facilities at this time. War has been associated with an increase in cardiac events. Data regarding an increase in cardiac events during the 9/11 terrorist attack have been mixed. Understanding the cause of cardiovascular triggers will help in developing potential therapies.

  12. Cost effective dry anaerobic digestion in textile bioreactors: Experimental and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Osadolor, Osagie A; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study dry anaerobic digestion (dry-AD) of manure bedded with straw using textile-based bioreactor in repeated batches. The 90-L reactor filled with the feedstocks (22-30% total solid) and inoculum without any further treatment, while the biogas produced were collected and analyzed. The digestate residue was also analyzed to check its suitability as bio-fertilizer. Methane yield after acclimatization increased from 183 to 290NmlCH 4 /gVS, degradation time decreased from 136 to 92days and the digestate composition point to suitable bio-fertilizer. The results then used to carry out economical evaluation, which shows dry-AD in textile bioreactors is a profitable method of handling the waste with maximum payback period of 5years, net present value from $7,000 to $9,800,000 (small to large bioreactors) with internal rate of return from 56.6 to 19.3%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Infrared Drying as a Potential Alternative to Convective Drying for Biltong Production.

    PubMed

    Cherono, Kipchumba; Mwithiga, Gikuru; Schmidt, Stefan

    2016-06-03

    Two infrared systems set at an intensity of 4777 W/m 2 with peak emission wavelengths of 2.5 and 3.5 µm were used to produce biltong by drying differently pre-treated meat. In addition to meat texture and colour, the microbial quality of the biltong produced was assessed by quantifying viable heterotrophic microorganisms using a most probable number (MPN) method and by verifying the presence of presumptive Escherichia coli in samples produced using infrared and conventional convective drying. The two infrared drying systems reduced the heterotrophic microbial burden from 5.11 log 10 MPN/g to 2.89 log 10 MPN/g (2.5 µm) and 3.42 log 10 MPN/g (3.5 µm), respectively. The infrared systems achieved an up to one log higher MPN/g reduction than the convective system. In biltong samples produced by short wavelength (2.5 µm) infrared drying, E. coli was not detectable. This study demonstrates that the use of short wavelength infrared drying is a potential alternative to conventional convective drying by improving the microbiological quality of biltong products while at the same time delivering products of satisfactory quality.

  14. Temporal trends in United States dew point temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Peter J.

    2000-07-01

    In this study, hourly data for the 1951-1990 period for 178 stations in the coterminous United States were used to establish temporal trends in dew point temperature. Although the data had been quality controlled previously (Robinson, 1998. Monthly variations of dew point temperatures in the coterminous United States. International Journal of Climatology 18: 1539-1556), comparisons of values between nearby stations suggested that instrumental changes, combined with locational changes, may have modified the results by as much as 1°C during the 40-year period. Nevertheless, seasonally averaged results indicated an increase over much of the area, of slightly over 1°C/100 years in spring and autumn, slightly less than this in summer. Winter displayed a drying of over 1°C/100 years. When only the 1961-1990 period was considered, the patterns were similar and trends increased by approximately 1-2°C/100 years, except in autumn, which displayed a slight drying. Analyses for specific stations indicated periods of both increasing and decreasing Td, the change between them varying with observation hour. No single change point was common over a wide area, although January commonly indicated maximum values early in the period in the east and west, and much later in the north-central portion. Rates of increase were generally higher in daytime than at night, especially in summer. Investigation of the inter-decadal differences in dew point, as a function of wind conditions, indicated that changes during calm conditions were commonly similar in magnitude to that of the overall average changes, suggesting an important role for the local hydrologic cycle in driving changes. Other inter-decadal changes could be attributed to the changes in the frequency and moisture content of invading air-streams. This was particularly clear for the changes in north-south flow in the interior.

  15. Local root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation depends on the spatial distribution of soil moisture in potato: implications for ABA signalling under heterogeneous soil drying.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, Jaime; Conesa, María R; Ballester, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2015-04-01

    Patterns of root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation ([ABA]root), root water potential (Ψroot), and root water uptake (RWU), and their impact on xylem sap ABA concentration ([X-ABA]) were measured under vertical partial root-zone drying (VPRD, upper compartment dry, lower compartment wet) and horizontal partial root-zone drying (HPRD, two lateral compartments: one dry, the other wet) of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). When water was withheld from the dry compartment for 0-10 d, RWU and Ψroot were similarly lower in the dry compartment when soil volumetric water content dropped below 0.22cm(3) cm(-3) for both spatial distributions of soil moisture. However, [ABA]root increased in response to decreasing Ψroot in the dry compartment only for HPRD, resulting in much higher ABA accumulation than in VPRD. The position of the sampled roots (~4cm closer to the surface in the dry compartment of VPRD than in HPRD) might account for this difference, since older (upper) roots may accumulate less ABA in response to decreased Ψroot than younger (deeper) roots. This would explain differences in root ABA accumulation patterns under vertical and horizontal soil moisture gradients reported in the literature. In our experiment, these differences in root ABA accumulation did not influence [X-ABA], since the RWU fraction (and thus ABA export to shoots) from the dry compartment dramatically decreased simultaneously with any increase in [ABA]root. Thus, HPRD might better trigger a long-distance ABA signal than VPRD under conditions allowing simultaneous high [ABA]root and relatively high RWU fraction. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Mapping the rainfall distribution for irrigation planning in dry season at pineapple plantation, Lampung Province, Indonesia (Study case at Great Giant Pineapple Co. Ltd.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyono, P.; Astuti, N. K.; Purwito; Rahmat, A.

    2018-03-01

    One of the problems caused by climate change is unpredictable of the dry season. Understanding when the dry season will start is very important to planning the irrigation schedule especially on large plantation. Data of rainfall for 30 years in Lampung, especially in Pineapple Plantation show that dry month occurs from June to October. If in two decadals (ten days period) rainfall less than 100 mm then it is predicted that next decadal will be dry season. Great Giant Pineapple Co. Ltd. has 32,000 hectares plantation area and lo