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Sample records for trigonella foenum-graecum supplementation.htm

  1. Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seed extract as an antineoplastic agent.

    PubMed

    Sur, P; Das, M; Gomes, A; Vedasiromoni, J R; Sahu, N P; Banerjee, S; Sharma, R M; Ganguly, D K

    2001-05-01

    The antineoplastic effect of Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract has been evaluated in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in Balb-C mice. Intra-peritoneal administration of the alcohol extract of the seed both before and after inoculation of EAC cell in mice produced more than 70% inhibition of tumour cell growth with respect to the control. Treatment with the extract was found to enhance both the peritoneal exudate cell and macrophage cell counts. The extract also produced a significant antiinflammatory effect. We report here the antiinflammatory and antineoplastic effects, of Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract.

  2. Toxicological properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum).

    PubMed

    Ouzir, Mounir; El Bairi, Khalid; Amzazi, Saaïd

    2016-10-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum), used as traditional medicine and natural additive food, has been shown to exert significant antiatherogenic, antidiabetic, antianorexic, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antihyperlipidemic, galactogogue and anti-inflammatory effects in several human and animal models. Besides, several medicinal pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties, fenugreek have toxic effects as well. The aim of this review is discuss the cumulative evidence, which suggests that consumption of fenugreek induced some serious toxicological side effects. In this review, many teratogenic effects of fenugreek, from congenital malformations to death, were reported in human, rodent, rabbit, and chick. Moreover, results obtained in rats, mice and rabbits show a testicular toxicity and anti-fertility effects in male associated with oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as anti-fertility, antiimplantation and abortifacient activity in females related to saponin compound of fenugreek which suggest that fenugreek is not recommended for use during pregnancy. Indeed, the consumption of fenugreek should be avoided for persons having peanut and chickpeas allergy because of possible cross-reactivity as well as chronic asthma. Accumulating evidence suggest also that fenugreek may have neurodevelopmental, neurobehavioral and neuropathological side effects. It is suggested that future studies would be conducted to identify molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the fenugreek toxicological properties.

  3. Trigonella foenum-graecum alleviates airway inflammation of allergic asthma in ovalbumin-induced mouse model.

    PubMed

    Piao, Chun Hua; Bui, Thi Tho; Song, Chang Ho; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Chai, Ok Hee

    2017-01-22

    Trigonella foenum-graecum, a member oldest medicinal plant in the fabaceae (legumes) family, is used as a herb, spice, and vegetable, and known for its olfactory, laxative, and galactogogue effects. However, the inhibitory effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum on allergic inflammatory response remains unclear, therefore, we investigated the precise role of Trigonella foenum-graecum in the allergic asthma and revealed the effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum in regulating airway inflammation and its possible mechanism. Allergic asthma was initiated in BALB/c mice by sensitized with OVA emulsified in aluminum on days 1 and 14, then aerosol challenged with OVA on days 27, 28 and 29. Some mice were administered Trigonella foenum-graecum by oral gavage before challenge. Then mice were evaluated for the presence of airway inflammation, production of allergen-specific cytokine response and lung pathology. Trigonella foenum-graecum significantly ameliorated the number of inflammatory cells in BALF and alleviated lung inflammation. It also reduced the collagen deposition and goblet cells. Meanwhile, Trigonella foenum-graecum treatment evidently decreased the high expression of Th2 cytokines and increased the Th1 cytokines in BALF and lung homogenates. Trigonella foenum-graecum showed a significant inhibition of serum IgE and anti-OVA IgG1. In this study, our data suggest that Trigonella foenum-graecum has a significant anti-inflammatory effect and it may prove to be an efficacious therapeutic regent on allergic asthma.

  4. Glyphosate, alachor and maleic hydrazide have genotoxic effect on Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Sazada; Meghvansi, Mukesh K; Khan, Shoukat Saeed

    2012-05-01

    In the present study effects of herbicides glyphosate (GP), alachlor (AL) and maleic hydrazide (MH) is studied on mitotic cells of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Seeds of T. foenum-graecum L. treated with a series of concentrations ranging from 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.5% for 1, 2 and 6 h and their effect on mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations was studied. The results indicate that these herbicides reduced mitotic index in dose-dependent manner. In addition, increase in the percentage of abnormal mitotic plates was observed in herbicide treated groups which was both concentration and time dependent. Commonly observed abnormalities were c-mitosis, laggards, bridges, stickiness, c-anaphase, precocious separation, un-equal distribution and fragments. The result of the present investigation indicates that commonly used herbicides GP, AL and MH have significant genotoxic effect on T. foenum-graecum plant.

  5. Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) protects against selenite-induced oxidative stress in experimental cataractogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Suresh K; Kalaiselvan, Vivekananthan; Srivastava, Sushma; Saxena, Rohit; Agrawal, Shyam S

    2010-09-01

    Cataract is the opacification in eye lens and leads to 50% of blindness worldwide. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anticataract potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn seeds (fenugreek) in selenite-induced in vitro and in vivo cataract. In vitro enucleated rat lenses were maintained in organ culture containing Dulbecco's modified Eagles medium (DMEM) alone or in addition with 100 microM selenite and served as the normal and control groups, respectively. For the test group, the medium was supplemented with selenite and T. foenum-graecum aqueous extract. The lenses were incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C. After incubation, the lenses were processed for the estimation of reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde), and the antioxidant enzymes. In vivo selenite cataract was induced in 9-day-old rats by subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (25 micromol/kg body weight). Animals in the test group were injected with different doses of aqueous extract of T. foenum-graecum 4 h before the selenite challenge. A fall in GSH and a rise in malondialdehyde levels were observed in control as compared to normal lenses. T. foenum-graecum significantly (P < 0.01) restored glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde levels. A significant restoration in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (P < 0.01), catalase, (P < 0.01), glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.01), and glutathione-S-transferase (P < 0.01) was observed in the T. foenum-graecum supplemented group as compared to control. In vivo, none of the eyes was found with nuclear cataract in treated group as opposed to 72.5% in the control group. T. foenum-graecum protects against experimental cataract by virtue of its antioxidant properties. Further studies are warranted to explore its role in human cataract.

  6. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitory potential of standardized extract of Trigonella foenum graecum L and its constituents.

    PubMed

    Satheeshkumar, N; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Bhadra, S; Saha, B P

    2010-03-01

    Ethno pharmacological approach has provided several leads to identify potential new drugs from plant sources, including those for memory disorders. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) give a symptomatic relief to some of the clinical manifestations of the disease. The main objective of this study is to standardize the extract of Trigonella foenum graecum L with trigonelline by HPTLC method and determine the in vitro AChE inhibitory activity of Trigonella foenum graecum L and its constituents using galanthamine as a reference. Different concentrations of hydro alcoholic extract of Trigonella foenum graecum and trigonelline were subjected to HPTLC analysis using the mobile phase n propanol, methanol and water (4:1:2, v/v). The R(f) of trigonelline was found to be 0.43, and the correlation coefficient of 0.99 was indicative of good linear dependence of peak area on concentration. The concentration of trigonelline was found to be 13mgg(-1)w/w in the hydro alcoholic extract of Trigonella foenum graecum. The AChE inhibitory activity of crude fenugreek seed extracts, fractions and trigonelline was evaluated using Ellman's method in 96-well micro plate's assay and TLC bioassay detection. The ethyl acetate fraction of the alcohol extract (IC50 53.00 +/- 17.33microg/ml), and total alkaloid fraction (IC50 9.23+/-6.08microg/ml) showed potential AChE inhibition. Trigonelline showed IC50 233+/-0.12microM. Galanthamine was used as standard and it showed inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase with an IC50 value of 1.27+/-0.21microM.

  7. [Determination of trigonelline in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. by hydrophilic interaction chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Rongjie; Wang, Li; Wang, Longxing; Xiao, Hongbin; Cai, Shaoqing

    2010-04-01

    A method of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) was established for the quantitative determination of trigonelline in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. HILIC analysis was performed on a Waters Atlantis HILIC Silica column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 3 microm). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-ammonium acetate (pH 4.4) (70:30, v/v), and the flow rate was 0. 4 mL/min. The detection wavelength was set at 265 nm. The method has good linearity in the range of 2.50-100 mg/L for trigonelline (r = 0.999 6). The recoveries were on an average of 102% by adding 29.2 mg/L and 43.8 mg/L with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 4.17% and 2.28% (n = 3), respectively. The results indicate that the method is simple and rapid for the determination of strong polar trigonelline in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Furthermore, it significantly reduces the equilibration time compared with ion-pair liquid chromatography (IPLC) recorded in the Pharmacopoeia of China. This new method can be used as a valid method for the quality control of Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

  8. Spinal serotonergic system is partially involved in antinociception induced by Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Parvizpur, Alireza; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2004-11-01

    It has been reported that Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) extract exerts analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic effects in different experimental models. The major objective of this paper was to investigate the site and mechanism of the analgesia induced by Trigonella foenum-graecum extract. We studied the analgesic effects of different doses of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract after i.p., i.t. and i.c.v. administration in formalin test, using male NMRI rats (200-250 g). Trigonella foenum-graecum extract showed analgesic effects in i.p. (1 g/kg) and i.t. (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/rat) (P < 0.05 in all groups) but not in i.c.v. (1 and 3 mg/rat) administrations. Based on the similarities between the effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract with those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the role of 5-HT system in analgesic effects of NSAIDs, we tried to investigate the role of spinal 5-HT system in analgesic effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract. After lesioning of spinal 5-HT system by 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT), it was shown that the analgesic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract (0.5 and 3 mg/rat) in the second phase of formalin test, was abolished completely and reduced relatively after using a low-dose (0.5 mg/rat) and a high-dose (3 mg/rat), respectively (P < 0.05). So, the antinociception partially remained (P < 0.05) after using the latter dose. Meanwhile, administration of naloxone (2mg/kg, i.p.) had no effect on the Trigonella foenum-graecum extract (1 g/kg, i.p.) analgesia. In conclusion, this study confirms the central action of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract and that spinal 5-HT system is partially involved in the analgesia induced by it in the second phase of formalin test and also indicates for co-existence of other analgesic mechanism(s).

  9. Cloning and functional characterization of a chalcone isomerase from Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jian-chun; Zhu, Lin; Gao, Ming-jun; Wu, Xian; Pan, Hong-yu; Zhang, Yan-sheng; Li, Xiang

    2011-05-01

    Flavonoids belong to a group of plant natural products with variable phenolic structures and play important roles in protection against biotic and abiotic stress. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds and stems contain flavonol glycosides and isoflavone derivatives. Up to now, the molecular features of fenugreek flavonoid biosynthesis have not been characterized. Here we present cloning of a cDNA encoding a chalcone isomerase (namely TFGCHI-1) from the leaves of T. foenum-graecum which convert chalcones to flavanones in vitro. Transformation of Arabidopsis loss-of-function TT5 (CHI) mutant with a TFGCHI-1 cDNA complemented TT5 and produced higher levels of flavonol glycosides than wild-type Col-0.

  10. In vitro α -amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaves extract.

    PubMed

    Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Diwedi, Varsha; Bhardwaj, Yash

    2013-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum is one of the widely used herbs in food and medicine. The seeds of the plants are investigated for antidiabetic potential; however, no efforts have been done to explore the potential of leaves to modify carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes viz. α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The present work was designed to investigate the inhibitory potential of ethyl acetate and water extract of T. foenum-graecum on enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Different concentrations of extracts were used to study inhibition of enzymatic activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. A dose dependent inhibitory effect on enzymes was observed. The current study, for the first time, revealed α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of T. foenum-graecum and the study could be helpful to isolate and characterize compounds responsible for it.

  11. Protective effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum on thioacetamide induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Seema

    2013-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum belongs to the family Fabaceae and is indigenous to countries that lie on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea and is also cultivated in India, Egypt and Africa. This study provides the evidence indicating the therapeutic effect of the extract prepared from the dried seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum on an animal model of hepatotoxicity and on cell proliferation. Rats were induced liver cirrhosis by thioacetamide (0.03% in water for 16 weeks). Transmission electron microscopy of the liver tissue was done to evaluate liver cirrhosis. The herbal extract was administered orally for 3 weeks after induction and biochemical estimations were done. After the administration of extract the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation were reversed. The elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase and selected biochemical markers of liver cirrhosis including drug metabolizing enzymes were also reversed. The study has implications in finding a treatment for liver cirrhosis by a natural herbal drug with no side effects. PMID:24600306

  12. Protective effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum on thioacetamide induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Seema

    2014-04-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum belongs to the family Fabaceae and is indigenous to countries that lie on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea and is also cultivated in India, Egypt and Africa. This study provides the evidence indicating the therapeutic effect of the extract prepared from the dried seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum on an animal model of hepatotoxicity and on cell proliferation. Rats were induced liver cirrhosis by thioacetamide (0.03% in water for 16 weeks). Transmission electron microscopy of the liver tissue was done to evaluate liver cirrhosis. The herbal extract was administered orally for 3 weeks after induction and biochemical estimations were done. After the administration of extract the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation were reversed. The elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase and selected biochemical markers of liver cirrhosis including drug metabolizing enzymes were also reversed. The study has implications in finding a treatment for liver cirrhosis by a natural herbal drug with no side effects.

  13. Effect of ethanol extract of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) seeds on Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Suresh, P; Kavitha, Ch N; Babu, S Manohar; Reddy, V Prabhakar; Latha, A Kanaka

    2012-08-01

    Trigonella foenum graecum is an Iranian medicinal plant used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial outcome of the plant T. foenum graecum on adjuvant-induced arthritis in albino rats. Ethanol extract of T. foenum graecum was tested against Freund's complete adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. In the present study, paw volume was measured on the 4th, 8th, 14th and 21st day. On day 22, animals were anaesthetized, and blood samples were collected for the estimation of haemoglobin, white blood cells (WBC), differential white blood cells, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), red blood cells (RBC), interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The animals were sacrificed, and the cartilage tissue was isolated for estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH). Administration with both doses of T. foenum graecum (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the paw oedema and restored body weight. T. foenum graecum significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the differential WBC count, ESR and WBC (5.833 ± 0.703, 6.989 ± 58.5) content and also showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in RBC and Hb (4.783 ± 0.46, 15.46 ± 0.158) content. T. foenum graecum significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α levels. It also significantly decreased the levels of LPO and increased the SOD and GSH levels in cartilage tissue. In this study, T. foenum graecum 400-mg/kg dose showed more prominent results compared to the 200-mg/kg dose of T. foenum graecum. The results obtained in this study suggest that anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of T. foenum graecum may be the possible reason behind the observed anti-arthritic activity.

  14. Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) extract on blood glucose, blood lipid and hemorheological properties in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wan-Li; Li, Xuan-She; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Yong-Hui; Wang, Zhi-Lun; Zhang, Rui-Juan

    2007-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds have previously been shown to have hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effects on type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and experimental diabetic animals. The Trigonella foenum-graecum extract has now been investigated for its effects on general properties, blood glucose and blood lipid, and hemorheological parameters in experimental diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were administrated by oral intragastric intubation separately with low dose (0.44 g/kg.d), middle dose (0.87 g/kg.d), high dose (1.74 g/kg.d) of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract, and Metformin HCl (0.175 g/kg.d) for 6 weeks. Compared with diabetic group, rats treated with Trigonella foenum-graecum extract had an increase in body weight and a decrease in kidney /body weight ratio (p<0.05). Compared with diabetic group, rats treated Trigonella foenum-graecum extract had lower blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, total cholestrol and higher higher-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). The plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity of high shear rate (200 s-1) and low shear rate (40 s-1), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, whole blood reduction viscosity and platelet conglutination were significantly reduced in diabetic rats treated with high and middle doses of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract, but not in those treated with low dose of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract. It may be concluded that Trigonella foenum-graecum extract can lower kidney /body weight ratio, blood glucose, blood lipid levels and improve hemorheological properties in experimental diabetic rats following repeated treatment for 6 weeks.

  15. Efficacy of Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed Extract in Reducing Metabolic and Inflammatory Alterations Associated With Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Abedinzade, Mahmood; Nasri, Sima; Jamal Omodi, Masome; Ghasemi, Elham; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several experimental and clinical studies support beneficial effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) in the management of metabolic diseases and inflammatory disorders. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of T. foenum-graecum seed extract in reducing the metabolic and inflammatory alternations associated with menopause. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 49 rats were divided into seven groups: (I) sham-control, (II) ovariectomized-control, (III and IV) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum seed ethanolic extract, (V and VI) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum hexanic extract, (VII) ovariectomized-positive control treated with 10 µg/kg of estradiol. The extracts were injected intraperitoneally one day after ovariectomy and the treatments were lasted for 42 days. Results: Fasting blood glucose and body weight gain increased significantly in the ovariectomized-control group compared with that in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Administration of estradiol and T. foenum-graecum (50 and 150 mg/dL of hexanic extract and 150 mg/kg of ethanolic extract) significantly diminished the increase in glucose and body weight (P < 0.05). The serum level of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the ovariectomized control group was significantly higher than those in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Both hexanic and ethanolic extracts as well as estradiol were able to decrease level of these cytokines in the serum of ovariectomized rats (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results of the present study show that administration of T. foenum-graecum corrects metabolic and inflammatory alterations associated with ovariectomy and has a potential for the management of menopause. PMID:26732240

  16. Cloning and functional characterization of a caffeic acid O-methyltransferase from Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Ya-Mei; Lang, Chen-Yong; Yao, Yan-Hua; Pan, Hong-Yu; Li, Xiang

    2012-02-01

    A cDNA encoding an O-methyltransferase (namely FGCOMT1) was identified from the medicinal plant Trigonella foenum-graecum L. The FGCOMT1 enzyme is a functional caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) and is localized in the cytosol. Kinetic analysis indicated that FGCOMT1 protein exhibited the highest catalyzing efficiency towards 5-hydroxy ferulic acid and caffeic acid as substrates, but did not possess the abilities to methylate either quercetin or tricetin in vitro. Furthermore, transformation of Arabidopsis loss-of-function Atomt1 mutant with a FGCOMT1 cDNA partially complements accumulation of sinapoyl derivatives but did not function to produce the major methylated flavonol isorhamnetin in seeds. The results from this study indicated that FGCOMT1 is a COMT with substrate preference to monomeric lignin precursors but is not involved in the flavonoid methylation in T. foenum-graecum L.

  17. Elicitation of Diosgenin Production in Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Seedlings by Methyl Jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Spandan; Chikara, Surendra K.; Sharma, Mahesh C.; Chaudhary, Abhinav; Alam Syed, Bakhtiyar; Chaudhary, Pooja S.; Mehta, Aditya; Patel, Maulik; Ghosh, Arpita; Iriti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), an elicitor of plant defense mechanisms, on the biosynthesis of diosgenin, a steroidal saponin, were investigated in six fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) varieties (Gujarat Methi-2, Kasuri-1, Kasuri-2, Pusa Early Branching, Rajasthan Methi and Maharashtra Methi-5). Treatment with 0.01% MeJA increased diosgenin levels, in 12 days old seedlings, from 0.5%–0.9% to 1.1%–1.8%. In addition, MeJA upregulated the expression of two pivotal genes of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic route leading to diosgenin: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG) and sterol-3-β-glucosyl transferase (STRL). In particular, MeJA increased the expression of HMG and STRL genes by 3.2- and 22.2-fold, respectively, in the Gujarat Methi-2 variety, and by 25.4- and 28.4-fold, respectively, in the Kasuri-2 variety. Therefore, MeJA may be considered a promising elicitor for diosgenin production by fenugreek plants. PMID:26694357

  18. Inhibition of photosystems I and II activities in salt stress-exposed Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum).

    PubMed

    Zaghdoudi, Maha; Msilini, Najoua; Govindachary, Sridharan; Lachaâl, Mokhtar; Ouerghi, Zeineb; Carpentier, Robert

    2011-10-05

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seedlings were exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations in the growth medium to examine the effect of salt stress on the electron transport reactions of photosynthesis. Activities of both photosystem II (PSII), measured by chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosystem I (PSI), measured by P700 photooxidation, were decreased by salt stress. The inhibition proceeded in a two step manner. At the lower salt concentrations used and shorter exposition periods, electron transfer between the quinone acceptors of PSII, Q(A) and Q(B), was strongly retarded as shown by an increased amplitude of the OJ phase of the OJIP chlorophyll fluorescence induction traces and slowed chlorophyll fluorescence relaxation kinetics following a single turn-over flash. The above indicated a disturbance of the Q(B) binding site likely associated with the first step of photoinhibition. In the second step, strong photoinhibition was observed as manifested by increased F(0) values, declined F(v)/F(0) and loss of photoactive P700.

  19. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum): Effects on Insulin Resistance Associated with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Avalos-Soriano, Anaguiven; De la Cruz-Cordero, Ricardo; Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia-Gasca, Teresa

    2016-11-22

    Obesity and insulin resistance (IR) are interdependent multifactorial processes that cannot be understood separately. Obesity leads to systemic inflammation and increased levels of free fatty acids that provoke IR and lipotoxicity. At the same time, IR exacerbates adipose cell dysfunction, resulting in chronic inflammation and major lipotoxic effects on nonadipose tissues. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine (4-OHIle), a peculiar nonprotein amino acid isolated from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, exhibits interesting effects on IR related to obesity. 4-OHIle increases glucose-induced insulin release, and the insulin response mediated by 4-OHIle depends on glucose concentration. The beneficial effects observed are related to the regulation of blood glucose, plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acid levels, and the improvement of liver function. The mechanism of action is related to increased Akt phosphorylation and reduced activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Here, we present a review of the research regarding the insulinotropic and insulin-sensitising activity of 4-OHIle in in vitro and in vivo models.

  20. Protective effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) upon dieldrin-induced toxicity in male rat.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Najla; Alimi, Hichem; Murat, Jean-Claude; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) upon dieldrin-induced perturbations of haematological parameters and damages to liver and kidney of male Wistar rats. Under our experimental conditions, dieldrin poisoning resulted in 1) an alteration of several haematological parameters, 2) an oxidative stress evidenced by an increase of lipids peroxidation level associated with an increase of superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease of glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in hepatic and renal tissues, 3) increased levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, uric acid and proteins in blood, 4) increased activities of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and transaminases in blood. Previous administration of fenugreek was found to hinder these dieldrin-induced damages: all hematological, renal and hepatic biomarkers, level of lipids peroxidation and activities of catalase and glutathione-peroxidase in liver and kidney were kept close to control values. This protective effect is mainly attributed to antioxidant properties of fenugreek.

  1. Antidiabetic and neuroprotective effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum seed powder in diabetic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Kale, R K; McLean, P; Baquer, N Z

    2012-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum seed powder (TSP) has been reported to have hypoglycemic and hyperinsulinemic action. The objective of the study was to examine the antidiabetic and neuroprotective role of TSP in hyperglycemiainduced alterations in blood glucose, insulin levels and activities of membrane linked enzymes (Na+K+ATPase, Ca2+ATPase), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase), calcium (Ca2+) levels, lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity and neurolipofuscin accumulation in the diabetic rat brain. Female Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 220 g were made diabetic by a single injection of alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body weight), diabetic rats were given 2 IU insulin, per day with 5% TSP in the diet for three weeks. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation was observed in diabetic brain. The increased lipid peroxidation following chronic hyperglycemia was accompanied with a significant increase in the neurolipofuscin deposition and Ca2+ levels with decreased activities of membrane linked ATPases and antioxidant enzymes in diabetic brain. A decrease in synaptosomal membrane fluidity may influence the activity of membrane linked enzymes in diabetes. The present study showed that TSP treatment can reverse the hyperglycemia induced changes to normal levels in diabetic rat brain. TSP administration amended effect of hyperglycemia on alterations in lipid peroxidation, restoring membrane fluidity, activities of membrane bound and antioxidant enzymes, thereby ameliorating the diabetic complications.

  2. Beneficial effects of Trigonella foenum graecum and sodium orthovanadate on metabolic parameters in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pardeep; Taha, Asia; Kale, R K; McLean, P; Baquer, Najma Zaheer

    2012-08-01

    Oxidative stress in diabetic tissues is accompanied by high-level of free radicals with simultaneously declined antioxidant enzymes status leading to cell membrane damage. The present study was carried out to observe the effect of sodium orthovanadate (SOV) and Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) administration on blood glucose and insulin levels, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and protein kinase C in heart, muscle and brain of the alloxan-induced diabetic rats to see whether the treatment with SOV and TSP was capable of reversing the diabetic effects. Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body weight), and rats were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP in the diet and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV and 5% TSP separately for 21 days. Blood glucose levels increased markedly in diabetic rats, animals treated with a combined dose of SOV and TSP had glucose levels almost comparable with controls, similar results were obtained in the activities of pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, antioxidant enzymes and protein kinase C in diabetic animals. Our results showed that lower doses of SOV (0.2 mg/ml) could be used in combination with TSP to effectively reverse diabetic alterations in experimental diabetes.

  3. Ultrastructural evidence for AMF mediated salt stress mitigation in Trigonella foenum-graecum.

    PubMed

    Evelin, Heikham; Giri, Bhoopander; Kapoor, Rupam

    2013-01-01

    The study unveils that inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith) prevents salt-induced ultrastructural alterations in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) plants. Mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) fenugreek plants were subjected to four levels of NaCl (0, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl). Salt-induced ultrastructural changes were captured using a Transmission Electron Microscope. Effects of salt on the ultrastructure of cells include shrinkage of protoplasm, widening apoplastic space between cell wall and cell membrane, disorganization of grana in chloroplast--swelling and reduction in the number of thylakoids, disintegration of chloroplast membrane, accumulation of plastoglobules, dilation of cristae and denser matrix in mitochondria, and aggregation of chromatin in nucleus. However, the extent of salt-induced ultrastructural damage was less in M plants as compared to NM plants. Lower lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage in M plants also indicated less membrane damage. This reduction of ultrastructure damage is a demonstration of enhanced tolerance in M plants to salt stress. The AMF-mediated lesser damage may be due to higher osmolyte (glycinebetaine, sugars) and polyamines concentration, and more and bigger plastoglobules (higher α-tocopherol concentration) in M plants as compared to NM plants. While lower Na(+) and Cl(-) ions assures less ionic toxicity, higher osmolytes and tocopherols ensure osmotic adjustment and better capacity to scavenge free radicals generated due to salt stress, respectively.

  4. Elicitation of Diosgenin Production in Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Seedlings by Methyl Jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Spandan; Chikara, Surendra K; Sharma, Mahesh C; Chaudhary, Abhinav; Alam Syed, Bakhtiyar; Chaudhary, Pooja S; Mehta, Aditya; Patel, Maulik; Ghosh, Arpita; Iriti, Marcello

    2015-12-15

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), an elicitor of plant defense mechanisms, on the biosynthesis of diosgenin, a steroidal saponin, were investigated in six fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) varieties (Gujarat Methi-2, Kasuri-1, Kasuri-2, Pusa Early Branching, Rajasthan Methi and Maharashtra Methi-5). Treatment with 0.01% MeJA increased diosgenin levels, in 12 days old seedlings, from 0.5%-0.9% to 1.1%-1.8%. In addition, MeJA upregulated the expression of two pivotal genes of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic route leading to diosgenin: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG) and sterol-3-β-glucosyl transferase (STRL). In particular, MeJA increased the expression of HMG and STRL genes by 3.2- and 22.2-fold, respectively, in the Gujarat Methi-2 variety, and by 25.4- and 28.4-fold, respectively, in the Kasuri-2 variety. Therefore, MeJA may be considered a promising elicitor for diosgenin production by fenugreek plants.

  5. Physiological aspects of male libido enhanced by standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum extract and mineral formulation.

    PubMed

    Steels, Elizabeth; Rao, Amanda; Vitetta, Luis

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the clinical study was to evaluate the effect of Testofen, a standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) extract and mineral formulation, on male libido (sexual drive, urge or desire) in a double blind randomized placebo controlled study. The study recruited 60 healthy males aged between 25 and 52, without erectile dysfunction and randomized to an oral dose (two tablets per day) of the active treatment (600 mg Testofen per day) or placebo for 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the DISF-SR (male) self-administered QOL total score and the four domain scores. The secondary outcome was specific quality of life parameters. Testofen had an overall positive effect on physiological aspects of libido. In particular, there was a significant increase in the subdomains of sexual arousal and orgasm. Testofen had a positive effect on QOL in self-reported satisfaction with muscle strength, energy and well-being but did not have an effect on mood or sleep. Serum prolactin and testosterone levels remained within the reference range. It was concluded that Testofen demonstrated a significant positive effect on physiological aspects of libido and may assist to maintain normal healthy testosterone levels.

  6. Fertigation effect of distillery effluent on agronomical practices of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek).

    PubMed

    Vinod Kumar; Chopra, A K

    2012-03-01

    The fertigation effect of distillery effluents concentrations such as 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were studied on Trigonella foenu-graecu (Pusa early bunching) along with control (bore well water). On irrigation of soil with different effluents up to 90 days of harvesting, it was observed that there was a significant effect on moisture content (P < 0.001), EC, pH, Cl(-), total organic carbon (TOC), HCO₃⁻, CO₃⁻², Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+), TKN, NO₃²⁻, PO₄³⁻, and SO₄²⁻ (P < 0.0001) and insignificant effect on WHC and bulk density (P > 0.05).There was no significant change in the soil texture of the soil. Among various concentrations of effluent irrigation, the irrigation with 100% effluent concentration decreased pH (16.66%) and increased moisture content (30.82%), EC(84.13%), Cl(-) (292.37%), TOC (4311.61%), HCO₃⁻ (27.76%), CO₃⁻² (32.63%), Na +) (273%), K(+) (31.59%), Ca(2+) (729.76%), Mg(2+) (740.47%), TKN (1723.32%), NO₃²⁻ (98.02%), PO₄³⁻ (337.79%), and SO₄²⁻ (77.78%), Fe(2+) (359.91%), Zn (980.48%), Cu (451.51%), Cd (3033.33%), Pb (2350.00%), and Cr (2375.00%) in the soil. The agronomical parameters such as shoot length, root length, number of leaves, flowers, pods, dry weight, chlorophyll content, LAI, crop yield, and HI of T. foenum-graecum were recorded to be in increasing order at low concentration of the effluent, i.e., from 5% to 50% and in decreasing order at higher effluent concentration, i.e., from 75% to 100% as compared to control. The enrichment factor of various heavy metals was ordered for soil Cd>Cr> Pb>Zn>Cu>Fe and for T. foenum-graecum plants Pb>Cr>Cd>Cu>Zn>Fe after irrigation with distillery effluent.

  7. In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum) crude extracts against a rabbit Escherichia coli isolate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post-weaned rabbits are sensitive to digestive disorders some of which may be due or aggravated by enteric bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli). Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is a medicinal plant known for its various pharmacological properties, including its antibacterial activity. ...

  8. Morphological and biochemical behavior of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) under copper stress.

    PubMed

    Elleuch, Amine; Chaâbene, Zayneb; Grubb, Douglas C; Drira, Noureddine; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Khemakhem, Bassem

    2013-12-01

    The effects of copper on germination and growth of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) was investigated separately using different concentrations of CuSO₄. The germination percentage and radical length had different responses to cupric ions: the root growth increased with increasing copper concentration up to 1 mM Cu²⁺ and was inhibited thereafter. In contrast, the germination percentage was largely unaffected by concentrations of copper below 10 mM. The reduction in root growth may have been due to inhibition of hydrolytic enzymes such as amylase. Indeed, the average total amylolytic activity decreased from the first day of treatment with [Cu²⁺] greater than 1 mM. Furthermore, copper affected various plant growth parameters. Copper accumulation was markedly higher in roots as compared to shoots. While both showed a gradual decrease in growth, this was more pronounced in roots than in leaves and in stems. Excess copper induced an increase in the rate of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) production and lipid peroxidation in all plant parts, indicating oxidative stress. This redox stress affected leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid content which decreased in response to augmented Cu levels. Additionally, the activities of proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification were affected. Cu stress elevated the ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity more than two times at 10 mM CuSO₄. In contrast, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels showed only minor variations, only at 1 mM Cu²⁺. Likewise, total phenol and flavonoid contents were strongly induced by low concentrations of copper, consistent with the role of these potent antioxidants in scavenging ROS such as H₂O₂, but returned to control levels or below at high [Cu²⁺]. Taken together, these results indicate a fundamental shift in the plant response to copper toxicity at low versus high concentrations.

  9. Effect of Fenugreek Seeds Powder (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) on Experimental Induced Hyperlipidemia in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Megh Shyam; Choudhary, Prema Ram

    2016-04-12

    In the present experimental study, the effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (TFG) seeds powder on experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in rabbits was investigated. Twenty albino rabbits were randomly, equally divided into two groups and fed pure cholesterol (0.5g/kg body weight/day) for the period of eight weeks to develop hyperlipidemia. Group-I (control) and Group-II received a normal diet with 2 mL normal saline and 2 mL aqueous emulsified TFG seeds powder (500 mg/kg body weight/day) for four weeks, respectively. Lipid profile and weight were measured at baseline after eight weeks and at the end of the study (12 weeks). Atherogenic indices were calculated by Friedewalds formula. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM: SPSS version 20, and student t test was used to compare variables between groups. After eight weeks of study period, cholesterol feeding was discontinued and hyperlipidemic value was compared with the initial baseline data. Significant increase in body weight and lipid profile variables were observed in the two groups, while there was a significant decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). After the end of the study (12 weeks), the aqueous emulsified fenugreek (TFG) seeds powder reduced significantly the serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and the atheriogenic index (P < 0.001), with significant increase in the HDL-C (P < 0.001) in experimentally hyperlipidemic rabbits (P < 0.001) as compared to control group, whereas no significant differences were observed in the triglyceride very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and body weight (P > 0.05) of both groups. It was concluded that fenugreek seeds powder had a significant hypolipidemic effect in experimentally-induced hyperlipidemic rabbits.

  10. Purification and characterization of a stable Kunitz trypsin inhibitor from Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds.

    PubMed

    Oddepally, Rajender; Sriram, Gopi; Guruprasad, Lalitha

    2013-12-01

    Kunitz trypsin inhibitor was purified from the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (TfgKTI) belonging to fabaceae family by ammonium sulphate precipitation, cation exchange, gel filtration and hydrophobic chromatography. Purity of the protein was analyzed by RP-HPLC and native-PAGE. SDS-PAGE analysis under reducing and non-reducing conditions showed that protein consists of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of approximately 20 kDa. Mass spectroscopy analysis revealed that the intact mass of purified inhibitor is 19,842.154 Da. One dimensional SDS gel was tryptically digested, resulting peptides were subjected to MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, and peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) analysis of TfgKTI shows sequence similarity with Kunitz trypsin inhibitor in database search. Two dimensional electrophoresis identified presence of four isoinhibitors (pI values of 5.1, 5.4, 5.7 and 6.1). Kinetic studies showed that the protein is a competitive inhibitor and has high binding affinity with trypsin (Ki 3.01×10(-9)M) and chymotrypsin (Ki 0.52×10(-9)M). The TfgKTI retained the inhibitory activity over a broad range of pH (pH 3-10), temperature (37-100°C) and salt concentration (up to 3.5%). Far-UV circular dichroism measurements revealed that TfgKTI is predominantly composed of β-sheets (39%) and unordered structures (48%) with slight helical content (13%). TfgKTI retained over 90% trypsin inhibition upon storage at 4°C for over a period of six months.

  11. Chemomodulatory Effect of Trigonella foenum graecum (L.) Seed Extract on Two Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sreemoyee; Kumar, Madhu; Kumar, Ashok

    2012-09-01

    Cancer is not a single disease but a group of complex genetic diseases of aged cells. Chemoprevention of cancer is the attempt to use natural and synthetic compounds to intervene in the early stages of cancer, before invasive disease begins. Consuming a diet rich in plant foods can provide a milieu of phytochemicals and non-nutritive plant substances that possess health-protective effects. Some phytochemicals derived in spices and herbs as well as other plants possess substantial cancer preventive properties. Thus the cancer chemo preventive potential of naturally occurring phytochemicals is of great interest because of their preventive role and as they are not perceived as "medicine". During the course of present study Trigonella foenum graecum (L.) seed- TFGS (commonly called fenugreek) extract was given at pre-initiational, post-initiational, promotional and throughout the experiment along with 7,12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene DMBA and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate TPA treatment in Swiss albino mice. A significant reduction of papillomas in DMBA + TPA + TFGS (400 mg/kg. body wt.) treated group was found to be effective in decreasing the rate of tumor incidence in comparison to control. Furthermore, cumulative number of papillomas, tumor yield and tumor burden were also found to be reduced. The TFGS extract treatment before DMBA and TPA application (i.e. Pre initiation) were more effective than that of treatment during, and /or after DMBA treatment, however TFGS extract treatment was most effective when treated throughout all the stages of tumorigenesis. The TFGS treatment also showed a modulatory influence on mouse hepatic antioxidant defense system (GSH and LPO level).

  12. Trigonella foenum-graecum ameliorates acrylamide-induced toxicity in rats: Roles of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines, and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk A; Hassan, Abeer G A

    2015-06-01

    Acrylamide is a hazardous substance inducing oxidative stress. Based on some evidence on the antioxidant properties of fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum, this study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of fenugreek seed oil against acrylamide toxicity. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups. The control group was given normal saline. The second group was administered acrylamide (20 mg/kg bw orally). The third and fourth groups were administered acrylamide (20 mg/kg bw) and supplemented with 2.5% and 5% fenugreek seed oil in their diets, respectively. Acrylamide intoxication significantly increased serum levels of LDH, AST, ALT, APL, γ-GT, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, creatinine, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor α. Moreover, it increased hepatic, renal, and brain lipid peroxidation, while it impaired the activities and concentrations of the antioxidant biomarkers. Fenugreek oil supplementation normalized the altered serum parameters, prevented lipid peroxidation, and enhanced the antioxidant biomarker concentrations and activities in the hepatic, renal, and brain tissues of acrylamide-intoxicated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, these results indicate that Trigonella foenum-graecum oil has a protective effect against acrylamide-induced toxicity through its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activities.

  13. Effects of Nigella sativa, Lepidium sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum on sildenafil disposition in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Ahad, Abdul; El-Maghraby, Gamal M; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; AlKharfy, Khalid M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of some commonly used herbs namely Nigella sativa, Lepidium sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in beagle dogs. The study design involved four treatments in a non-balanced crossover design. Sildenafil was given one tablet 100 mg orally to each dog and blood samples were obtained. After a suitable washout period, animals were commenced on a specific herb treatment for 1 week. Blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals and sildenafil was analyzed by HPLC method. Oral administration of Nigella sativa resulted in reduction of AUC0-∞, C max and t 1/2 as compared to the control. Treatment of Lepidium sativum resulted in a significant reduction in the C max and AUC. There were no significant differences between the rests of the pharmacokinetic parameters relative to those of the control. For Trigonella foenum-graecum, the effects were similar to those obtained in case of Lepidium sativum. It was concluded that concurrent use of investigated herbs alters the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil. Co-administration of investigated herbs should be cautious since their concomitant use might result in decrease in sildenafil bioavailability.

  14. Trigonella foenum-graecum water extract improves insulin sensitivity and stimulates PPAR and γ gene expression in high fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Gholamhosseinian, Ahmad; Fallah, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance is the main defect associated with the metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the decreased adiponectin levels and elevation of plasma-free fatty acids are the main factors associated with insulin resistance. In this study, we evaluated the effect of trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) extract on insulin sensitivity in high fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental rats were fed with a high fructose diet for eight weeks. After the first six weeks, the animals were treated with trigonella foenum-graecum extract or pioglitazone for two weeks. Serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and HDL-c were measured. The insulin and adiponectin levels were assayed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The plasma-free fatty acid profile was obtained by gas chromatography. PPARγ and GLUT4 gene expression were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting. Results: In the trigonella foenum-graecum- extract treated group the following results were obtained: Insulin (49.02 ± 6.93 pmol/L), adiponectin (7.1 ± 0.64 μg/ml), and triglycerides (110.3 ± 16.7 mg/dl), which were significantly different and improved compared to the control group (insulin (137 ± 34 pmol/l), adiponectin (3.9 ± 0.15 μg/ml), glucose (187 ± 15 mg/dl), and triglycerides (217 ± 18 mg/dl). Also the PPARγ gene expression was significantly increased compared to the control group. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the beneficial effects of trigonella foenum-graecum extract on insulin resistance in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. At least three mechanisms are involved, including direct insulin-like effect, increase in adiponectin levels, and PPARγ protein expression. PMID:27110551

  15. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative effect of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia pulp and Trigonella foenum graecum seed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Uma Nath; Chandra, Deepak

    2010-08-01

    Diabetes is an oxidative stress disorder and oxidative damage to tissues such as heart, kidney, liver and other organs may be a contributory factor to several diabetic complications. Momordica charantia (family: Cucurbitaceae) and Trigonella foenum graecum (family: Fabaceae) are used traditionally in Indian folk medicine to manage diabetes mellitus. In the present study, the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative potential of aqueous extracts of M. charantia pulp and seed powder of T. foenum graecum were assessed in alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight) induced diabetic rats. Alloxan treatment to the rats could induce diabetes as the fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were > 280 mg/dl. Treatment of diabetic rats for 30 days with M. charantia and T. foenum graecum could significantly (p < 0.001) improve the FBG levels to near normal glucose levels. Antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione content and glutathione-s-transferase) and lipid peroxidation levels were measured in heart, kidney and liver tissues of normal, diabetic and experimental animals (diabetics + treatment). TBARS levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher and anti-oxidative activities were found low in diabetic group, as compared to the control group. Significant (p < 0.001) improvement in both the TBARS levels and antioxidant activities were observed when M. charantia and T. foenum graecum were given to diabetic rats. Our results clearly demonstrate that M. charantia and T. foenum graecum are not only useful in controlling the blood glucose levels, but also have antioxidant potential to protect vital organs such as heart and kidney against damage caused due to diabetes induced oxidative stress.

  16. Antidepressant effect and categorization of inhibitory activity of monoamine oxidase type A and B of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn.

    PubMed

    Khursheed, Raheela; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Sultana, Viqar; Ahmed, Maryam; Kamil, Arfa

    2014-09-01

    Trigonella foenum- graecum Linn (Fabaceae) is an annual aromatic herb and no wit is cultivated globally like in Pakistan, Egypt, India, Middle East etc. Traditionally it was used in anorexia, as febrifuge, to soothe gastritis and gastric ulcers, as a galactagogue and as condiment, hypoglycemic agent and employed in various as nervous disorders. The study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum and underlying mechanism of action. For assessment of antidepressant activity Forced Swimming Test (FST), Tail Suspension Test (TST), Monoamine (MAO) Assay and Locomotor Activity Test were studied. Acute toxicity, Rota Rod and Grip Strength Tests were also performed. The significant declining in immobility time as compared to control was shown in Forced swimming test as compared to tail suspension test. Considerable change was not found in open field test (OFT). EtOH extract of seeds of fenugreek represent maximum significant reduction which was 30 and 24.65% in MAO- A and B activity respectively in the rat's whole brain as compared to control animals in Monoamine oxidase (MAO) assay. All tested doses were found ineffective in impairment of muscle coordination in Rota rod and in grip strength related to muscle relaxant property. According to experimental findings it is revealed that ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum showed antidepressant effect by inhibiting the activity of MAO-A and B.

  17. Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract protects kidney function and morphology in diabetic rats via its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wanli; Lei, Jing; Li, Xuanshe; Zhang, Ruijuan

    2011-07-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Because Trigonella foenum graecum has been reported to have antidiabetic and antioxidative effects, we hypothesized that T foenum graecum seed aqueous extract (TE) restores the kidney function of diabetic rats via its antioxidant activity. Rats were fed diets enriched with sucrose (50%, wt/wt), lard (30%, wt/wt), and cholesterol (2.5%, wt/wt) for 8 weeks to induce insulin resistance. After a DN model was induced by streptozotocin, the rats were administered a low (440 mg/kg), medium (870 mg/kg), or high (1740 mg/kg) dose of TE by oral intragastric intubation for 6 weeks. In TE-treated DN rats, blood glucose, kidney/body weight ratio, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, 24-hour content of urinary protein, and creatinine clearance were significantly decreased compared with nontreated DN rats. Diabetic rats showed decreased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, increased concentrations of malondialdehyde in the serum and kidney, and increased levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in urine and renal cortex DNA. Treatment with TE restored the altered parameters in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, all of the ultramorphologic abnormalities in the kidney of diabetic rats, including the uneven thickening of the glomerular base membrane, were markedly ameliorated by TE treatment. We conclude that TE confers protection against functional and morphologic injuries in the kidneys of diabetic rats by increasing activities of antioxidants and inhibiting accumulation of oxidized DNA in the kidney, suggesting a potential drug for the prevention and therapy of DN.

  18. Effect of furostanol glycosides from Trigonella foenum-graecum on the reproductive system of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Aswar, Urmila; Bodhankar, Subhash Laxman; Mohan, V; Thakurdesai, Prasad Arvind

    2010-10-01

    Trigonella foenum (TF) has long been used in the traditional Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The objective was to study the anabolic and androgenic activity of the furostanol glycosides fraction of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenu-FG) in immature castrated male Wistar rats. It was also aimed to investigate the effect of Fenu-FG on testicular histology in non-castrated immature rats. The animals (55 ± 5 g) were castrated. The rats were treated with either vehicle, testosterone (10 mg/kg s.c. bi-weekly) or Fenu-FG (10 and 35 mg/kg p.o.) once daily for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, blood was withdrawn, serum testosterone and BUN were measured. Animals were killed and reproductive organs were excised and weighed.Fenu-FG (35 mg/kg p.o.) and testosterone (10 mg/kg, s.c. biweekly) increased the weight of the levator ani muscle as well as body weight. Fenu-FG (10 or 35 mg/kg p.o.) did not change the testosterone level in castrated rats. Histopathological examination of the testis of non-castrated rats treated with Fenu-FG (10, 35 mg/kg p.o.) showed normal architecture of the testis. Fenu-FG (35 mg/kg p.o.) showed anabolic activity without androgenic activity.

  19. Metabolic and molecular action of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and trace metals in experimental diabetic tissues.

    PubMed

    Baquer, Najma Zaheer; Kumar, Pardeep; Taha, Asia; Kale, R K; Cowsik, S M; McLean, P

    2011-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia resulting in defective insulin secretion, resistance to insulin action or both. The use of biguanides, sulphonylurea and other drugs are valuable in the treatment of diabetes mellitus; their use, however, is restricted by their limited action, pharmacokinetic properties, secondary failure rates and side effects. Trigonella foenum-graecum, commonly known as fenugreek, is a plant that has been extensively used as a source of antidiabetic compounds from its seeds and leaf extracts. Preliminary human trials and animal experiments suggest possible hypoglycaemic and antihyperlipedemic properties of fenugreek seed powder taken orally. Our results show that the action of fenugreek in lowering blood glucose levels is almost comparable to the effect of insulin. Combination with trace metal showed that vanadium had additive effects and manganese had additive effects with insulin on in vitro system in control and diabetic animals of young and old ages using adipose tissue. The Trigonella and vanadium effects were studied in a number of tissues including liver, kidney, brain peripheral nerve, heart, red blood cells and skeletal muscle. Addition of Trigonella to vanadium significantly removed the toxicity of vanadium when used to reduce blood glucose levels. Administration of the various combinations of the antidiabetic compounds to diabetic animals was found to reverse most of the diabetic effects studied at physiological, biochemical, histochemical and molecular levels. Results of the key enzymes of metabolic pathways have been summarized together with glucose transporter, Glut-4 and insulin levels. Our findings illustrate and elucidate the antidiabetic/insulin mimetic effects of Trigonella, manganese and vanadium.

  20. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Trigonella foenum-graecum and its size-dependent catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathy Aromal, S.; Philip, Daizy

    2012-11-01

    The development of new synthesis methods for monodispersed nanocrystals using cheap and nontoxic chemicals, environmentally benign solvents and renewable materials remains a challenge to the scientific community. Most of the current methods involve known protocols which may be potentially harmful to either environment or human health. Recent research has been focused on green synthesis methods to produce new nanomaterials, ecofriendly and safer with sustainable commercial viability. The present work reports the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) as reducing and protecting agent. The pathway is based on the reduction of AuCl4- by the extract of fenugreek. This method is simple, efficient, economic and nontoxic. Gold nanoparticles having different sizes in the range from 15 to 25 nm could be obtained by controlling the synthesis parameters. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR analysis. The high crystallinity of nanoparticles is evident from clear lattice fringes in the HRTEM images, bright circular spots in the SAED pattern and peaks in the XRD pattern. FTIR spectrum indicates the presence of different functional groups present in the biomolecule capping the nanoparticles. The synthesized gold nanoparticles show good catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol by excess NaBH4. The catalytic activity is found to be size-dependent, the smaller nanoparticles showing faster activity.

  1. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Trigonella foenum-graecum and its size-dependent catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Aswathy Aromal, S; Philip, Daizy

    2012-11-01

    The development of new synthesis methods for monodispersed nanocrystals using cheap and nontoxic chemicals, environmentally benign solvents and renewable materials remains a challenge to the scientific community. Most of the current methods involve known protocols which may be potentially harmful to either environment or human health. Recent research has been focused on green synthesis methods to produce new nanomaterials, ecofriendly and safer with sustainable commercial viability. The present work reports the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) as reducing and protecting agent. The pathway is based on the reduction of AuCl(4)(-) by the extract of fenugreek. This method is simple, efficient, economic and nontoxic. Gold nanoparticles having different sizes in the range from 15 to 25 nm could be obtained by controlling the synthesis parameters. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR analysis. The high crystallinity of nanoparticles is evident from clear lattice fringes in the HRTEM images, bright circular spots in the SAED pattern and peaks in the XRD pattern. FTIR spectrum indicates the presence of different functional groups present in the biomolecule capping the nanoparticles. The synthesized gold nanoparticles show good catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol by excess NaBH(4). The catalytic activity is found to be size-dependent, the smaller nanoparticles showing faster activity.

  2. [Effectiveness of phytotherapy in supportive treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus II. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum)].

    PubMed

    Koupý, David; Kotolová, Hana; Rudá Kučerová, Jana

    2015-06-01

    Fenugreek seeds are known for their characteristic smell of soup seasoning and as an ingredient of Indian curry. Traditionally the seeds are used as macerate for the treatment of diabetes, cough, and flatulence, to increase breast milk secretion, and for anti-inflammatory and aphrodisiac effects. The use is limited by its unpleasant smell and bitter taste which can be modified by adding mint leaves to the macerate. Antidiabetic properties are attributed mainly to galactomannan, 4-hydroxyisoleucin (4-OH-Ile), diosgenin and trigonelline. These substances demonstrate direct antidiabetic properties in clinical studies by increasing insulin secretion (4-OH-Ile), decreasing insulin resistance and glucose resorption from the GIT (galactomannan) and improvement in B-cells regeneration (trigonelline). Besides this main effect, the herb improves blood lipid spectre (4-OH-Ile, diosgenin), and has reno-protective (4-OH-Ile, trigonelline), neuroprotective (trigonelline) and antioxidant (diosgenin, trigonelline) effects. Antidiabetic efficacy of trigonelline is comparable to glibenclamide treatment and more effective than sitagliptine therapy. Given the large body of evidence and promising results in comparison with standard pharmacotherapy, fenugreek active substances have a potential to become a source of new antidiabetic medication.Key words: fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum diabetes mellitus type 2 biological activity.

  3. Characterization of flavonoid glycosides from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) crude seeds by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Benayad, Zakia; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Es-Safi, Nour Eddine

    2014-11-11

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is a medicinal plant which is widely used for its pharmacological properties. In this study the phenolic composition of fenugreek crude seeds originating from Morocco has been investigated. Extraction was performed from defatted seeds by a hydromethanolic solution using an Accelerated Solvent Extractor. HPLC technique coupled to negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and diode array detection was employed to identify the polyphenol in the obtained extract. The obtained results allowed the detection of 32 phenolic compounds among which various flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids have been tentatively identified on the basis of their UV and MS spectra, and comparisons with standards when available, as well as with literature data. A systematic study of the obtained MS spectra and the observed fragmentation showed that most of the identified compounds were acylated and non-acylated flavonoids with apigenin, luteolin and kaempferol as aglycons. Hydroxycinnamic acids mostly dominated by caffeic acid derivatives were also detected. The quantitative analysis of the identified compounds showed that the phenolic composition of the studied crude fenugreek seeds was predominantly acylated and non-acylated flavone derivatives with apigenin as the main aglycon.

  4. Isolation, purification, and characterization of a stable defensin-like antifungal peptide from Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds.

    PubMed

    Oddepally, R; Guruprasad, L

    2015-03-01

    A novel defensin-like antifungal peptide (Tf-AFP) with molecular mass of 10.3 kDa was isolated from seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) by ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange, gel-filtration, hydrophobic chromatography, and RP-HPLC. Mass spectroscopic analysis revealed the intact mass of the purified antifungal peptide as 10321.5 Da and high similarity to plant defensins and other antifungal proteins in database search. 2D-PAGE showed pI value to be 8.8 and absence of isoforms. Isolated Tf-AFP inhibited growth of fungal species such as Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Rhizoctonia solani. The antifungal activity was inhibited in the presence of 50 mM NaCl. Circular dichroism analysis demonstrated that the protein is rich in β-sheet structure and highly stable over a wide range of temperatures. Surprisingly, reduction of disulfide bridges and chemical denaturation did not produce large changes in secondary structure as judged by circular dichroism as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  5. Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seed mucilage-gellan mucoadhesive beads for controlled release of metformin HCl.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2014-07-17

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed mucilage (FSM)-gellan gum (GG) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl for oral use were developed through ionotropic-gelation technique. Effects of GG to FSM ratio and cross-linker (CaCl2) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release after 10h (R10h, %) of ionotropically-gelled FSM-GG mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were optimized by 3(2) factorial design. The optimized mucoadhesive beads showed DEE of 92.53 ± 3.85% and R10h of 55.28 ± 1.58% and mean diameter of 1.62 ± 0.22 mm. The in vitro metformin HCl release from these ionotropically-gelled FSM-GG beads was prolonged over 10h and followed zero-order model with super case-II transport mechanism. The optimized mucoadhesive beads also exhibited pH-dependent swelling, good mucoadhesivity with biological mucosal membrane and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  6. Trigonella foenum-graecum protection against deltamethrin-induced toxic effects on haematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk A; Mahmoud, Mohamed M

    2014-08-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum L. is enriched with many active ingredients. TFG oil was evaluated for its protective effect against deltamethrin toxicity in rats. Rats of the control group were administered saline. The 2nd group was administered deltamethrin (DLM) orally at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body mass. The 3rd and 4th groups were administered DLM at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body mass and were fed diets containing 2.5% and 5% TFG oil, respectively. DLM intoxication reduced red blood cell and platelet counts, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit value while it induced leucocytosis. Furthermore, it increased serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase, triglycerides, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, and creatinine; increased hepatic, renal, and brain lipid peroxidation; decreased serum acetylcholine esterase level; and decreased hepatic, renal, and brain antioxidant markers' activities. However, TFG oil kept the studied hematological and biochemical parameters within normal ranges. In addition, it prevented lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by DLM intoxication in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, these results indicated that TFG oil inhibited the toxic effects of DLM on hematological and biochemical parameters as well as oxidative status by its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activities, and it appeared to be a promising protective agent against DLM-induced toxicity.

  7. Genoprotectivity of methanol and ethanol extracted leaf sap of Trigonella foenum-graecum in Allium cepa root assay.

    PubMed

    Mekki, Laila

    2014-03-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) of Fabacecae family is widely distributed throughout the world and used as an old medicinal plant and traditional food. The present study deals with the investigation of the anti-genotoxic potential of methanol (MTG) and ethanol (ETG) extracted leaf sap of fenugreek on Allium cepa root tip cells, which were treated with cadmium sulfate (CdSO(4)). Three types of treatments were applied. First, roots were treated with different concentrations of methanolic and ethanolic extracts (0.1%, 0.5% and 1%) separately for 3 h each, followed by CdSO(4) treatment (at 250 ppm, for 3 h). Second, roots were first treated with CdSO(4) followed by extracts treatment. Third, root tips were treated with CdSO(4) with extracts treatments at the same time. For controls, roots with CdSO(4) (250 ppm) and distilled water served as positive and negative control, respectively. The results showed that the methanol and ethanol extracts of fenugreek modulated the genotoxic and clastogenic aberrations, which were induced by CdSO(4). The protection activity of MTG (1%) was 50% in the first treatment, 70% in the second treatment and 82% in the third treatment and 61%, 68% and 88% of ETG (1%), respectively. DNA rearrangements were also observed by revealing new RAPD bands in the total DNS samples isolated from Allium roots after treatmenst.

  8. Effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) immune status and growth performance.

    PubMed

    Awad, Elham; Cerezuela, Rebeca; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    The possible effect of dietary administration of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) immune status and growth performance was studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed with commercial diet supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 5% and 10% of fenugreek seeds for 4 weeks. The effects of the diets were analysed on the cellular (respiratory burst activity and leucocyte peroxidase content) and humoral (complement activity, antiprotease, total protein, peroxidase, and IgM level) immune parameters, as well as growth and haematological parameters (WBC and RBC counts). The results recorded enhancement in all the assayed parameters in fish fed fenugreek diets comparing to control fish. The expression of several immune-related genes in head-kidney (MHC1, CSF-1R, IL-8, and IgM) and different antioxidant enzyme genes in liver (GR, CAT and SOD) of seabream specimens were also investigated. Again, the highest fenugreek doses tested provoked significant up-regulation in most of immune-related genes and antioxidant enzyme genes (p < 0.05). No adverse effects were observed on intestine and liver morphology on fish fed fenugreek diets. The present results suggest that the fenugreek seed, specially the highest dosage used in the present work could be considered a good food supplement to improve the immune status and increase the production of gilthead seabream.

  9. Aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. ameliorates additive urotoxicity of buthionine sulfoximine and cyclophosphamide in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, K; Kaur, M; Atif, F; Ali, M; Rehman, H; Rahman, S; Raisuddin, S

    2006-10-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a commonly used anti-cancer drug which causes toxicity by its reactive metabolites such as acrolein and phosphoramide mustard. In the present study modulation of toxicity caused by concomitant exposure to CP and l-buthionine-SR-sulfoximine (BSO) by fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) extract was evaluated by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and anti-oxidants in urinary bladder in mice. Fenugreek, a common dietary and medicinal herb, showed protective effect not only on LPO but also on the enzymatic anti-oxidants. CP-treated animals exhibited a significant decrease in the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and catalase (CAT) when compared to the controls. Level of reduced glutathione (GSH) was also reduced with an increase in LPO in CP-treated animals. BSO treatment depicted an additive toxic effect in CP-treated animals. Pre-treatment of herbal extract restored activities of all the enzymes and thus showed an overall protective effect on additive effect of CP and BSO. Restoration of GSH by extract treatment may play an important role in reversing CP-induced apoptosis and free radical-mediated LPO in urinary bladder. Fenugreek, known for its hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity, may be a promising protective medicinal herb for consideration in complementary therapy in cancer patients under chemotherapeutic interventions.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and anti-melanogenic steroidal saponin glycosides from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Tetsuro; Cui, Ming-Yue; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Takano, Fumihide; Ohta, Tomihisa

    2011-05-01

    Fenugreek seed ( Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is used as an herbal medicine for treating metabolic and nutritive dysfunctions. To determine if this plant has other beneficial effects, we tested the inhibitory activities of a methanol (MeOH) extract of fenugreek seed on the production of inflammatory cytokines and melanin synthesis in cultured cell lines in vitro. The MeOH extract inhibited the production of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in cultured THP-1 cells, and also restrained the intracellular synthesis of melanin in murine melanoma B16F1 cells. We isolated three active constituents from fenugreek seed extracts. These were identified as the steroidal saponins 26- O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25 R)-furost-5(6)-en-3 β,22 β,26-triol-3- O-α-L-rhamno-pyranosyl-(1'' → 2')-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1''' → 6')- O]-β-D-glucopyranoside 1, minutoside B 2, and pseudoprotodioscin 3. Compounds 1 and 2 strongly suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines, whereas 3 showed a weaker suppressing effect. Melanogenesis in B16F1 cells was significantly suppressed by 1 and 3, and weakly suppressed by 2. All three compounds showed moderate cytotoxicities. These results indicate that fenugreek extract and its active constituents could protect against skin damage.

  11. Β-amylase from starchless seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum and its localization in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Garima; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2014-01-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds do not contain starch as carbohydrate reserve. Synthesis of starch is initiated after germination. A β-amylase from ungerminated fenugreek seeds was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme was purified 210 fold with specific activity of 732.59 units/mg. Mr of the denatured enzyme as determined from SDS-PAGE was 58 kD while that of native enzyme calculated from size exclusion chromatography was 56 kD. Furthermore, its identity was confirmed to be β-amylase from MALDI-TOF analysis. The optimum pH and temperature was found to be 5.0 and 50°C, respectively. Starch was hydrolyzed at highest rate and enzyme showed a Km of 1.58 mg/mL with it. Antibodies against purified Fenugreek β-amylase were generated in rabbits. These antibodies were used for localization of enzyme in the cotyledon during different stages of germination using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Fenugreek β-amylase was found to be the major starch degrading enzyme depending on the high amount of enzyme present as compared to α-amylase and also its localization at the periphery of amyloplasts. A new finding in terms of its association with protophloem was observed. Thus, this enzyme appears to be important for germination of seeds.

  12. Alkaloid and flavonoid rich fractions of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects.

    PubMed

    Mandegary, Ali; Pournamdari, Mostafa; Sharififar, Fariba; Pournourmohammadi, Shirin; Fardiar, Reza; Shooli, Sedigheh

    2012-07-01

    The seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) have medicinal uses as hypoglycemic, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory agents. We aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the major fractions of fenugreek seeds. The methanolic extract of the plant seeds was partitioned using a liquid-liquid extraction procedure to give six major fractions. Following phytochemical screening of isolated fractions, the total extract and each fraction were evaluated for their antinociception and anti-inflammatory effects using formalin and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests respectively. The methanolic extract exhibited both antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects at a dose of 100mg/kg. Among the tested fractions, alkaline chloroform fraction (AKC), which was alkaloid positive in screening tests, showed the most anti-nociceptive effect in a dose-dependent manner. AKC fraction was as effective as morphine (5mg/kg) in this regard. Both aqueous and acidified chloroform fractions (ACC) could significantly inhibit paw edema at a different dose. The latter fraction dose-dependently inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. The results of phytochemical screening tests confirmed the presence of flavonoids in both ACC and aqueous fractions. It can be concluded that the alkaloid and flavonoid content of fenugreek seeds can be responsible for antinociception and anti-inflammatory effects of the plant respectively.

  13. Influence of plant matrix on microwave-assisted extraction process. The case of diosgenin extracted from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.).

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Béatrice; Rudaz, Serge; Cherkaoui, Samir; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Christen, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    A focused microwave-assisted extraction method was developed for the extraction of diosgenin from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, air-dried and fresh leaves and air-dried roots. Several experimental parameters were studied, including extraction time, microwave power applied and percentage of 2-propanol in the extraction mixture as well as their interactions, in order to optimize the extraction efficiency. The two latter parameters were found to be the most important. Response surface modelling was used to predict the extraction yield of diosgenin in selected matrices. The analysis of diosgenin in crude extracts was carried out by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

  14. Spirostanol saponins derivated from the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum by β-glucosidase hydrolysis and their inhibitory effects on rat platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xu; Cong, Yue; Yu, He-Shui; Kang, Li-Ping; Feng, Bing; Han, Bing-Xing; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Tan, Da-Wei; Song, Wei; Liu, Bin; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2012-02-01

    Nine spirostanol saponins (1-9) and seven mixtures of 25 R and 25 S spirostanol saponin isomers (10-16) were obtained from the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum after enzymatic hydrolysis of the furostanol saponin fraction by β-glucosidase. Their structures were determined by NMR and MS spectroscopy. Among them, 1- 4, 6, 8, and 9 were new compounds and five, 11B, 12A, 13B, 14A, and 14B, were new structures observed from seven mixtures. In addition, the inhibitory effects of all saponins on rat platelet aggregation were evaluated.

  15. Effect of methanol extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds on anxiety, sedation and motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Assad, Tahira; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2016-09-17

    Currently available anxiolytics cause numerous adverse effects and show craving and tolerance during long term treatment. Currently traditional medicines have been re-evaluated widely through work on various plant species. Numerous plants in traditional system show pharmacological activity with unlimited prospective for therapeutic use. Hence we planned to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of T. foenum-graecum L. seeds on anxiety, sedation and motor coordination in mice at different doses following 15 days of oral feeding. Effect on anxiety was assessed by Hole board test and Light and Dark transition models.Phenobarbitone induced sleeping time and Rota rod test were performed to assess effect on sedation and motor coordination. In Hole board test, T. foenum-graecum L. seeds decreased the number of head dips in mice at all the three doses. In Light and Dark transition model, T. foenum-graecum L. seeds increased the period spent in the light box and the number of moves among the two compartments at 100 and 200 mg/kg as compared to control animals. In phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, T. foenum-graecum L. seeds did not reveal any sedative effect. In Rota rod test, extract exhibited significant skeletal muscle relaxant effect at 200 mg/kg (at 90 min) as compared to the control animals. Results of our study shows significant antianxiety effects of T. foenum-graecum L. seeds and may also recommend improved adverse effect profile as compared to diazepam.

  16. Efficacy of a Novel Fenugreek Seed Extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum, FurocystTM) in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, Anand; Jaipuriar, Amrita Sarkari; Gupta, Sushil Kumar; Bagchi, Manashi; Kumar, Pawan; Preuss, Harry G.; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most prevalent hormonal disorders among women of reproductive age causing irregular menstrual cycles, excessive body or facial hair, miscarriage and infertility. The latter being a most common PCOS symptoms. Because the symptoms are seemingly unrelated to one another, PCOS is often overlooked and undiagnosed. The present study is an open label, one-arm, non-randomized, post-marketing surveillance study in 50 premenopausal women (18-45 years, BMI<42) diagnosed with PCOS using a novel Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract (fenugreek seed extract, Furocyst, 2 capsules of 500 mg each/day) extract, enriched in approximately 40% furostanolic saponins, over a period of 90 consecutive days. The study was conducted to determine its efficacy on the reduction of ovarian volume and the number of ovarian cysts. Ethical committee approval was obtained for this study. Furocyst treatment caused significant reduction in ovary volume. Approximately 46% of study population showed reduction in cyst size, while 36% of subjects showed complete dissolution of cyst. It is important to mention that 71% of subjects reported the return of regular menstrual cycle on completion of the treatment and 12% of subjects subsequently became pregnant. Overall, 94% of patients benefitted from the regimen. Significant increases in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were observed compared to the baseline values. Extensive blood chemistry, hematological and biochemical assays demonstrated the broad-spectrum safety. Furocyst caused significant decrease in both ovarian volume and the number of ovarian cysts. Serum ALT, BUN and CK were assessed to demonstrate the broad-spectrum safety of Furocyst. No significant adverse effects were observed. In summary, Furocyst was efficacious in ameliorating the symptoms of PCOS. PMID:26516311

  17. Rhizobium tibeticum activated with a mixture of flavonoids alleviates nickel toxicity in symbiosis with fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.).

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Bashandy, Shymaa Ryhan; Bagy, Magdy Khalil; El-enany, Abdel-Wahab Elsadk

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the response of an activated Rhizobium tibeticum inoculum with a mixture of hesperetin (H) and apigenin (A) to improve the growth, nodulation, and nitrogen fixation of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) grown under nickel (Ni) stress. Three different sets of fenugreek seed treatments were conducted, in order to investigate the activated R. tibeticum pre-incubation effects on nodulation, nitrogen fixation and growth of fenugreek under Ni stress. Group (I): uninoculated seeds with R. tibeticum, group (II): inoculated seeds with uninduced R. tibeticum group (III): inoculated seeds with induced R. tibeticum. The present study revealed that Ni induced deleterious effects on rhizobial growth, nod gene expression, nodulation, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and glutamine synthetase activities, total flavonoids content and nitrogen fixation, while the inoculation with an activated R. tibeticum significantly improved these values compared with plants inoculated with uninduced R. tibeticum. PAL activity of roots plants inoculated with induced R. tibeticum and grown hydroponically at 75 and 100 mg L(-1) Ni and was significantly increased compared with plants receiving uninduced R. tibeticum. The total number and fresh mass of nodules, nitrogenase activity of plants inoculated with induced cells grown in soil treated up to 200 mg kg(-1) Ni were significantly increased compared with plants inoculated with uninduced cells. Plants inoculated with induced R. tibeticum dispalyed a significant increase in the dry mass compared with those treated with uninduced R. tibeticum. Activation of R. tibeticum inoculum with a mixture of hesperetin and apigenin has been proven to be practically important in enhancing nodule formation, nitrogen fixation and growth of fenugreek grown in Ni contaminated soils.

  18. Correlation of genetic variation among wild Trigonella foenum-graecum L. accessions with their antioxidant potential status.

    PubMed

    Haliem, E A; Al-Huqail, A A

    2014-12-12

    In this study, we analyzed the correlation between genetic variation based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), acid phosphatase, and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase isozymes, and amino acid composition with the antioxidant potential status of 7 wild Trigonella foenum-graecum L. accessions collected from diverse ecogeographical regions. RAPD revealed that 90 DNA products had highly polymorphism value (94.12%) based on band numbers, with sizes ranging from 50-2100 base pairs, and band intensity. Of 49 DNA polymorphic bands, 31 unique and 3 monomorphic bands were scored. Acid phosphatase and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase showed total polymorphism values of 90.00 and 93.75%, respectively, based on zymogram number, relative front (Rf), and optical intensity. Because isozymes are composed of amino acids, they were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, which revealed the presences of 16 amino acids of variable content ranging from 13.21-15.35%, 9 of which are essential amino acids in humans. RAPD and isozymes showed similarly high estimates of genetic variability. Genetic relationships revealed by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering analysis based on data obtained from all primers of RAPD and each isozyme were very similar. The antioxidant potential based on free radical scavenging, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, b-carotene-linoleate, total phenolic, and flavonoid contents values were variable among accessions. We found that fenugreek is a valuable genetic resource with high antioxidant activity. Their genotypes, based on data and clustering of RAPD, isozymes, and variable amino acid contents, combined with their antioxidant potential statues are important in fenugreek breeding and improvement programs.

  19. Sodium Orthovanadate and Trigonella Foenum Graecum Prevents Neuronal Parameters Decline and Impaired Glucose Homeostasis in Alloxan Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pardeep; Taha, Asia; Kumar, Nitin; Kumar, Vinod; Baquer, Najma Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is the most important contributor in the onset and progress of diabetic complications mainly by producing oxidative stress. The present study was carried out to observe, the antihyperglycemic effect of sodium orthovanadate (SOV) and Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) administration on blood glucose and insulin levels, membrane linked enzymes (monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, Ca2+ATPase), intracellular calcium (Ca2+) levels, lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity and neurolipofuscin accumulation in brain of the alloxan induced diabetic rats and to see whether the treatment with SOV and TSP was capable of reversing the diabetic effects. Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body weight) and rats were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP in the diet and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV and 5% TSP separately for three weeks. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemia with almost four fold high blood glucose levels. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and Ca2+ATPase decreased in diabetic rat brain. Diabetic rats exhibited an increased level of intracellular Ca2+ levels, lipid peroxidation, neurolipofuscin accumulations and monoamine oxidase activity. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin, TSP, SOV and a combined therapy of lower dose of SOV with TSP revived normoglycemia and restored the altered level of membrane bound enzymes, lipid peroxidation and neurolipofuscin accumulation. Our results showed that lower doses of SOV (0.2 mg/ml) could be used in combination with TSP in normalization of altered metabolic parameters and membrane linked enzymes without any harmful side effect.

  20. Efficacy of a Novel Fenugreek Seed Extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum, Furocyst) in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Swaroop, Anand; Jaipuriar, Amrita Sarkari; Gupta, Sushil Kumar; Bagchi, Manashi; Kumar, Pawan; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most prevalent hormonal disorders among women of reproductive age causing irregular menstrual cycles, excessive body or facial hair, miscarriage and infertility. The latter being a most common PCOS symptoms. Because the symptoms are seemingly unrelated to one another, PCOS is often overlooked and undiagnosed. The present study is an open label, one-arm, non-randomized, post-marketing surveillance study in 50 premenopausal women (18-45 years, BMI<42) diagnosed with PCOS using a novel Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract (fenugreek seed extract, Furocyst, 2 capsules of 500 mg each/day) extract, enriched in approximately 40% furostanolic saponins, over a period of 90 consecutive days. The study was conducted to determine its efficacy on the reduction of ovarian volume and the number of ovarian cysts. Ethical committee approval was obtained for this study. Furocyst treatment caused significant reduction in ovary volume. Approximately 46% of study population showed reduction in cyst size, while 36% of subjects showed complete dissolution of cyst. It is important to mention that 71% of subjects reported the return of regular menstrual cycle on completion of the treatment and 12% of subjects subsequently became pregnant. Overall, 94% of patients benefitted from the regimen. Significant increases in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were observed compared to the baseline values. Extensive blood chemistry, hematological and biochemical assays demonstrated the broad-spectrum safety. Furocyst caused significant decrease in both ovarian volume and the number of ovarian cysts. Serum ALT, BUN and CK were assessed to demonstrate the broad-spectrum safety of Furocyst. No significant adverse effects were observed. In summary, Furocyst was efficacious in ameliorating the symptoms of PCOS.

  1. The plant extracts of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum-graecum have anti-oxidant and anti-hyperglycemic properties for cardiac tissue during diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Uma Nath; Chandra, Deepak

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress is currently suggested to play a major role in the development of diabetes mellitus. There is an increasing demand of natural anti-diabetic agents, as continuous administration of existing drugs and insulin are associated with many side effects and toxicity. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Momordica charantia (MC) and Trigonella foenum graecum (TFG) extracts (aqueous) on antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in heart tissue of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. In a 30 days treatment, rats were divided into six groups (I-VI) of five animals in each,experiments were repeated thrice. Administration of MC (13.33 g pulp/kg body weight/day) and TFG (9 g seeds powder/kg body weight/day) extracts in diabetic rats has remarkably improved the elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. A significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (p<0.001) and significant increase in the activities of key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH ) contents in heart tissue of diabetic rats were observed (group V and VI) upon MC and TFG treatment. Our studies demonstrate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative potential of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum graecum, which could exert beneficial effects against the diabetes and associated free radicals complications in heart tissue.

  2. Effect of Trigonella foenum graecum L on the Activities of Antioxidant Enzyme and Their Expression in Tissues of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sapneh; Mishra, Vibhuti; Jayant, Shiv Kumar; Srivastava, Nalini

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes is a life-threatening metabolic disorder. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antioxidative potential of seed powder of Trigonella foenum-graecum L in alloxan (55 mg/kg) induced diabetic rats. The results obtained showed that extensive oxidative stress is generated in tissues of diabetic rats as evidenced by increased production of hydrogen peroxide, increased accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonanal (4HNE) and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) in tissues of diabetic rats. It was observed that the transcription of genes of SOD, GPx, and CAT was also significantly decreased when compared with control. Treatment of Trigonella for 15 days to diabetic rats showed hypoglycemic effect and improved the altered levels of H2O2, MDA, and 4HNE, the activities of SOD, GPx, and CAT as well as transcription of these genes in the liver and the brain of diabetic rats.

  3. A mechanism-based pharmacological evaluation of efficacy of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seeds in regulation of dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Upma; Shrivastava, Atul; Bhadauria, Smriti; Saxena, Jitendra K; Bhatia, Gitika

    2013-06-01

    : Alcoholic extract of Trigonella foenum graecum seeds [fenugreek seed extract (FSE)] was studied in triton-induced and high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia to evaluate antidyslipidemic effect. Plasma cholesterol (26.19%) and triglycerides (36.6%) were found to be lowered by FSE maximum at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight in triton-treated hyperlipidemic rats. Chronic feeding of FSE (200 mg/kg body weight) caused lowering in plasma and hepatic lipid levels by activating lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (47%), postheparin lipolytic activity (35%), triglyceride lipase (34%), lipoprotein lipase (20.8%), and increased excretion of fecal bile acids (36%-45%). The FSE shows potent antioxidant activity in both in vitro and in vivo systems. It inhibited generation of superoxide anion and hydroxyl free radicals in both enzymatic and nonenzymatic systems significantly at 200 µM concentration. Furthermore, FSE normalizes the activities of antioxidant enzymes, that is, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and reduces plasma lipid peroxidation (33.9%), hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal (27%), and isoprostanes (28%). Data of the present study demonstrated that the T. foenum graecum seed extract has both antidyslipidemic and antioxidant properties.

  4. Uptake of 45Ca by mitochondria of Trigonella foenum-graecum as influenced by selenium and mimosine--detailed kinetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Sreekala, M; Lalitha, K

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondria from Trigonella foenum-graecum seedlings grown independently in the presence of either selenium (0.75 ppm) or mimosine (0.1 mM) exhibited respiration-stimulated energy-dependent uptake of Ca2+. Uptake studies were carried out independently at a series of Ca2+ concentrations at two different levels: (1) 1-20 MM and (2) 25-1,500 microM. Levels of uptake were 50-100% higher in the mitochondria of seedlings of both the Se and mimosine groups. Detailed kinetic analyses revealed negative cooperative effects operative during uptake of Ca2+ at 25-1,500 microM given in the medium. Hill coefficients for Ca2+ uptake by the mitochondria of different groups remained unchanged (nH, 0.75). Biphasic Scatchard plots were concave upward, suggestive of two classes of binding sites. High-affinity binding sites were estimated to be 16 nmol/mg protein with dissociation constant (KCa) of 2.5 x 10(9) L/mol. In contrast, graphical analyses of the uptake of Ca2+ in the range 1-20 microM in the medium revealed cooperative effects of positive nature. The present study demonstrates mixed cooperative effects during Ca2+ uptake by mitochondria from seedlings of T. foenum-graecum.

  5. Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract reduces age-related symptoms of androgen decrease, increases testosterone levels and improves sexual function in healthy aging males in a double-blind randomised clinical study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Amanda; Steels, Elizabeth; Inder, Warrick J; Abraham, Suzanne; Vitetta, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effect of Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract on the symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, sexual function and serum androgen concentrations in healthy aging males. This was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial involving 120 healthy men aged between 43 and 70 years of age. The active treatment was standardised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at a dose of 600 mg/day for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Aging Male Symptom questionnaire (AMS), a measure of possible androgen deficiency symptoms; secondary outcome measures were sexual function and serum testosterone. There was a significant decrease in AMS score over time and between the active and placebo groups. Sexual function improved, including number of morning erections and frequency of sexual activity. Both total serum testosterone and free testosterone increased compared to placebo after 12 weeks of active treatment. Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract is a safe and effective treatment for reducing symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, improves sexual function and increases serum testosterone in healthy middle-aged and older men.

  6. Variation in chemical composition and allelopathic potential of mixoploid Trigonella foenum-graecum L. with developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Omezzine, Faten; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Simmonds, Monique S J; Haouala, Rabiaa

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of developmental stages (vegetative, flowering and fruiting) of mixoploid fenugreek aerial parts on their chemical composition and allelopathic potential, assessed on lettuce germination and seedling growth. Aqueous and organic extracts significantly delayed germination, reduced its rate and affected seedling growth. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial parts harvested at vegetative stage were the most toxic for lettuce germination and seedling growth, respectively. LC-MS/MS analysis of T. foenum-graecum aerial parts methanolic extract showed nine different flavonol glycosides (quercetin and kaempferol glucosides). Chemical composition of aerial parts differed with the developmental stage; indeed, at the vegetative and fruiting stages, analysis revealed the presence of 9 compounds as compared to only 6 compounds at the flowering stage. Thus, it is necessary to follow the qualitative changes of allelochemicals production at different developmental stages to identify the most productive one.

  7. Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh; Lavania, Amita; Tomar, Radha; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2010-04-01

    In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre, and water extract of T. graecum exhibited highest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity (most active) in rats among all the extracts, while hexane extracts exhibited least activities. Most active extracts were further studied to dose-dependent (200, 100, and 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects alone and in combination with glimepiride (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg bw). The combination of most active extracts (200 mg/kg bw) and lower dose of glimepiride (5 mg/kg bw) showed safer and potent hypoglycemic as well as antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in normal rats, while higher doses (200 mg/kg bw of most active extracts, and 10 and 20 mg/kg bw of glimepiride) were generated lethal hypoglycemia in normal rats. From this study, it may be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. jambolana seeds, water extract of M. charantia fruits, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre leaves, and water extract of T. graecum seeds have higher hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential and may use as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs.

  8. Phenolic profile, antioxidant capacity of five Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Willd provenances and their allelopathic effects on Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and Lens culinaris L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Elaloui, M; Ghazghazi, H; Ennajah, A; Manaa, S; Guezmir, W; Karray, N B; Laamouri, A

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate some secondary metabolites, antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf extracts of five Ziziphus spina-christi provenances (INRGREF, Tozeur, Degueche, Nafta and Kebelli) and their allelopathic effects on Trigonella foenum-graecum and Lens culinaris. Leaves were collected during 2013 and 2014. Total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and antioxidant activity were evaluated using the Folin ciocalteux, Aluminum trichloride, vanillin and scavenging activity on 22-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical methods, respectively. Total phenols, tannins and flavonoids were present, at levels of 57.41 mg GAE/g DW, 31.98 mg RE/g DW and 14.68 μg CE/g DW, respectively. The high antioxidant activity (0.086 μg/mL) was noted in kebelli provenance (2013). The highest germination, plumule and radicle lengths of tested species were observed in INRGREF provenance. Z. spina-christi leaf extracts may be suggested in foods and pharmaceutical industries. Leaf extracts could also provide a natural herbicide with a positive impact on the environment.

  9. Efficacy and safety of standardized extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L seeds as an adjuvant to L-Dopa in the management of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Nathan, J; Panjwani, Siddika; Mohan, V; Joshi, Veena; Thakurdesai, Prasad Arvind

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate disease modifying efficacy and safety of a standardized extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Fenugreek (IBHB) (family Fabaceae) as a nutritional adjuvant to Levo-dopa (L-Dopa) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We conducted double-blind placebo-controlled proof of concept clinical study of IBHB capsules (300 mg, twice daily) with matching placebo for 6 months of period in 50 patients of PD stabilized on L-Dopa therapy. The efficacy outcome measures were the scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS - total and its subsections), and Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) staging at baseline and end of 6-months treatment duration. Safety evaluation included haematology, biochemistry, urinalysis parameters and adverse event monitoring. Total UPDRS scores in IBHB treatment (0.098%) showed slower rise as opposed to steep rise (13.36%) shown by placebo. Further, Clinically Important Difference for total UPDRS scores and scores of motor subsection of UPDRS was found to be 5.3 and 4.8, respectively, in favour of IBHB treatment. Similar improvement was shown by IBHB in terms of H&Y staging as compared with placebo. IBHB was found to have excellent safety and tolerability profile. In conclusion, IBHB can be useful adjuvant treatment with L-Dopa in management of PD patients.

  10. Effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum (L.) on retinal oxidative stress, and proinflammatory and angiogenic molecular biomarkers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kumar, Binit; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Srinivasan, B P; Srivastava, Sushma; Gaur, Shrikant; Saxena, Rohit

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. (fenugreek) in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat retina. Fenugreek (100 and 200 mg/kg body weights) treatment was carried out for 24 weeks and evaluated for inflammatory [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β] and angiogenic [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and protein kinase C (PKC)-β] molecular biomarkers. Retinal oxidative stress was evaluated by estimating antioxidant (Glutathione, Superoxide dismutase, and Catalase) parameters. Fluorescein angiography was performed to detect retinal vascular leakage. Electron microscopy was performed to determine basement membrane thickness. In the present study, significant rises in the expressions of retinal inflammatory (TNF-α and IL-1β) and angiogenic (VEGF and PKC-β) molecular biomarkers were observed in diabetic retinae compared with normal retinae. However, fenugreek-treated retinae showed marked inhibition in the expression of inflammatory and angiogenic molecular biomarkers. Moreover, results from the present study showed positive modulatory effects of fenugreek on retinal oxidative stress. Fluorescein angiograms and fundus photographs obtained from diabetic retinae showed retinal vascular leakage. On the other hand, fenugreek-treated retinae did not show vascular leakage. Further, thickened BM was recorded in diabetic retina compared with normal retinae. However, fenugreek-treated retinae showed relatively lesser thickening of capillary BM. In conclusion, it may be postulated that fenugreek has great potential in preventing diabetes-induced retinal degeneration in humans after regular consumption in the specified dosage.

  11. Efficient Protocol for Isolation of Rhaponticin and Rhapontigenin with Consecutive Sample Injection from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) by HSCCC.

    PubMed

    He, Yanfeng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Suo, Yourui; Ding, Chenxu; Wang, Honglun

    2016-03-01

    High efficiency and less solvent consumption are the essential requirements of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), especially for the large-scale preparation. In this study, an efficient HSCCC strategy with consecutive sample injection was successfully developed to rapidly separate and purify rhaponticin and rhapontigenin from the seeds of the Chinese medicinal herb fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). The effective separation was achieved using n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:4:2:6, v/v/v/v) as the two-phase solvent system, in which the mobile phase was eluted at an optimized flow rate of 2.2 mL/min and a revolution speed of 850 rpm. After consecutively loading four identical fenugreek samples, each containing 120 mg, HSCCC separation yielded 146.4 mg of rhaponticin and 174.8 mg of rhapontigenin with purities of 98.6 and 99.1%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography at 320 nm. Their chemical structures were identified using UV spectroscopy, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. The HSCCC method with consecutive sample injection allowed faster separation and produced less solvent waste, suggesting that it is an efficient way to rapidly separate and purify natural products on a large scale.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Nodule-Associated Exiguobacterium sp. from the Root Nodules of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and Their Possible Role in Plant Growth Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Geetha; Patel, Maheshwari H.; Joshi, Sanket J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the ways to increase the competitive survivability of rhizobial biofertilizers and thus achieve better plant growth under such conditions is by modifying the rhizospheric environment or community by addition of nonrhizobial nodule-associated bacteria (NAB) that cause better nodulation and plant growth when coinoculated with rhizobia. A study was performed to investigate the most commonly associated nodule-associated bacteria and the rhizospheric microorganisms associated with the Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) plant. Isolation of nonrhizobial isolates from root nodules of Fenugreek was carried out along with the rhizospheric isolates. About 64.7% isolates obtained from Fenugreek nodules were gram-negative coccobacilli, 29.41% were gram-positive bacilli, and all rhizospheric isolates except one were gram-positive bacilli. All the isolates were characterized for their plant growth promoting (PGP) activities. Two of the NAB isolates M2N2c and B1N2b (Exiguobacterium sp.) showed maximum positive PGP features. Those NAB isolates when coinoculated with rhizobial strain—S. meliloti, showed plant growth promotion with respect to increase in plant's root and shoot length, chlorophyll content, nodulation efficiency, and nodule dry weight. PMID:22518149

  13. A multicenter clinical study to determine the efficacy of a novel fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum) extract (Fenfuro™) in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Narsingh; Usman, Kauser; Patel, Naresh; Jain, Arvind; Dhakre, Sudhir; Swaroop, Anand; Bagchi, Manashi; Kumar, Pawan; Preuss, Harry G.; Bagchi, Debasis

    2016-01-01

    Background Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds are known to exhibit potent antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and nephroprotective activities, as well as serve as excellent membrane stabilizers especially because of their content of novel furostanolic saponins. Our previous studies exhibited the broad spectrum safety and efficacy of Fenfuro, a novel T. foenum-graecum seed extract enriched in furostanolic saponins, in type 2 diabetes (T2D) in rats. Design This multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, add-on clinical study evaluated over a period of 90 consecutive days the efficacy of Fenfuro (daily dosage: 500 mg bid) in 154 subjects (male: 108; female: 46; age: 25–60 years) with T2D. Methods This study examined the body weight, blood pressure, and pulse rate, as well as the efficacy of Fenfuro on fasting and post-prandial plasma sugar (mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and fasting and post-prandial C-peptide levels. Results Fenfuro caused significant reduction in both fasting plasma and post-prandial blood sugar levels. Approximately 83% of the subjects reported decreases in fasting plasma sugar levels in the Fenfuro-treated group as compared to 62% in the placebo group, while 89% of the subjects demonstrated reduction in post-prandial plasma sugar levels in the Fenfuro-treated group as compared to 72% in the placebo group. HbA1c levels were reduced in both placebo and treatment groups. The decrease in HbA1c levels was significant in both groups as compared to respective baseline values. A significant increase in fasting and post-prandial C-peptide levels compared to the respective baseline values was observed, while no significant changes in fasting and post-prandial C-peptide levels were observed between the two groups. No significant adverse effects were observed by blood chemistry analyses. Furthermore, 48.8% of the subjects reported reduced dosage of anti-diabetic therapy in the Fenfuro-treated group, whereas 18.05% reported reduced

  14. Efficacy of FurosapTM, a novel Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract, in Enhancing Testosterone Level and Improving Sperm Profile in Male Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Anuj; Verma, Narsingh; Swaroop, Anand; Bagchi, Manashi; Preuss, Harry G.; Tiwari, Kiran; Bagchi, Debasis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dietary fiber rich fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds have exhibited cardioprotective, hypolipidemic and other health benefits. Furosap (FS), an innovative, patented, 20% protodioscin-enriched extract was developed in our laboratory from fenugreek seeds. This study examined the free and total testosterone levels, sperm profile and morphology, sexual health, mood and mental alertness, and broad spectrum safety parameters of FS in 50 male volunteers following supplementation over a period of 12 weeks. Methods: Institutional Review Board (IRB) and other regulatory approvals were obtained for our study. This one-arm, open-labelled, multi-center study was conducted in 50 male volunteers (age: 35 to 65 years) over a period of 12 weeks to determine the efficacy of FS (500 mg/day/subject) on free and total testosterone levels, sperm profile, sperm morphology, libido and sexual health, mood and mental alertness, and broad spectrum safety parameters. Results: Free testosterone levels were improved up to 46% in 90% of the study population. 85.4% of the study population showed improvements in sperm counts. Sperm morphology improved in 14.6% of volunteers. Majority of the subjects enrolled in the study demonstrated improvements in mental alertness and mood. Furthermore, cardiovascular health and libido were significantly improved. Extensive safety parameters were evaluated which included blood chemistry data. No significant changes were observed in serum lipid function, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL levels, hemogram (CBC), hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Conclusion: Overall, the results demonstrate that FS, enriched in 20% protodioscin, is safe and effective in attenuating testosterone levels, healthy sperm profile, mental alertness, cardiovascular health and overall performance in human subjects. PMID:28138310

  15. Tandem combination of Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein (RsAFP2) generates a more potent antifungal protein.

    PubMed

    Karri, Vasavirama; Bharadwaja, Kirti Pulugurtha

    2013-11-01

    Plant defensins are small (45 to 54 amino acids) positively charged antimicrobial peptides produced by the plant species, which can inhibit the growth of a broad range of fungi at micro-molar concentrations. These basic peptides share a common characteristic three-dimensional folding pattern with one α-helix and three β-sheets that are stabilized by eight disulfide-linked cysteine residues. Instead of using two single-gene constructs, it is beneficial when two effective genes are made into a single fusion gene with one promoter and terminator. In this approach, we have linked two plant defensins namely Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin 2 (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein 2 (RsAFP2) genes by a linker peptide sequence (occurring in the seeds of Impatiens balsamina) and made into a single-fusion gene construct. We used pET-32a+ vector system to express Tfgd2-RsAFP2 fusion gene with hexahistidine tag in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells. Induction of these cells with 1 mM IPTG achieved expression of the fusion protein. The solubilized His6-tagged recombinant fusion protein was purified by immobilized-metal (Ni2+) affinity column chromatography. The final yield of the fusion protein was 500 ng/μL. This method produced biologically active recombinant His6-tagged fusion protein, which exhibited potent antifungal action towards the plant pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Phaeoisariopsis personata and Rhizoctonia solani along with an oomycete pathogen Phytophthora parasitica var nicotianae) at lower concentrations under in vitro conditions. This strategy of combining activity of two defensin genes into a single-fusion gene will definitely be a promising utility for biotechnological applications.

  16. Antioxidant properties and quantitative UPLC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds from extracts of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) fruit.

    PubMed

    Kenny, O; Smyth, T J; Hewage, C M; Brunton, N P

    2013-12-15

    Freeze-dried fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) fruit were extracted sequentially using non-polar to polar solvents, with further separation carried out on polar extracts by molecular weight cut off dialysis. The fenugreek ethyl acetate crude extract (FGE3) demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity, in terms of Trolox Equivalents (TE), for both the DPPH (35.338±0.908 mg TE/g) and FRAP (77.352±0.627 mg TE/g) assays. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content, in terms of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) (106.316±0.377 mg GAE/g). Despite having considerably lower antioxidant activity than fenugreek, the highest antioxidant activities for bitter fruit were observed in the hexane (BME1) and methanol hydrophilic<3.5 kDa dialysed (BME4<3.5 kDa) extracts, while the highest phenolic content was found in the methanol hydrophilic>3.5 kDa (BME4>3.5 kDa) dialysed extract. UPLC-MS was used to quantify 18 phenolic compounds from fenugreek and 13 from bitter melon in active crude extracts. The flavonoids apigenin-7-O-glycoside (1955.55 ng/mg) and luteolin-7-O-glycoside (725.50 ng/mg) were the most abundant compounds in FGE3, while bitter melon extracts contained only small amounts of mainly phenolic acids. A further 5 fenugreek and 1 bitter melon compounds were identified in trace amounts from the same extracts, respectively.

  17. Contribution of Glomus intraradices inoculation to nutrient acquisition and mitigation of ionic imbalance in NaCl-stressed Trigonella foenum-graecum.

    PubMed

    Evelin, Heikham; Giri, Bhoopander; Kapoor, Rupam

    2012-04-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of an AM fungus (Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith) on mineral acquisition in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) plants under different levels of salinity. Mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) fenugreek plants were subjected to four levels of NaCl salinity (0, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl). Plant tissues were analyzed for different mineral nutrients. Leaf senescence (chlorophyll concentration and membrane permeability) and lipid peroxidation were also assessed. Under salt stress, M plants showed better growth, lower leaf senescence, and decreased lipid peroxidation as compared to NM plants. Salt stress adversely affected root nodulation and uptake of NPK. This effect was attenuated in mycorrhizal plants. Presence of the AM fungus prevented excess uptake of Na(+) with increase in NaCl in the soil. It also imparted a regulatory effect on the translocation of Na(+) ions to shoots thereby maintaining lower Na(+) shoot:root ratios as compared to NM plants. Mycorrhizal colonization helped the host plant to overcome Na(+)-induced Ca(2+) and K(+) deficiencies. M plants maintained favorable K(+):Na(+), Ca(2+):Na(+), and Ca(2+):Mg(2+) ratios in their tissues. Concentrations of Cu, Fe, and Zn(2+) decreased with increase in intensity of salinity stress. However, at each NaCl level, M plants had higher concentration of Cu, Fe, Mn(2+), and Zn(2+) as compared to NM plants. M plants showed reduced electrolyte leakage in leaves as compared to NM plants. The study suggests that AM fungi contribute to alleviation of salt stress by mitigation of NaCl-induced ionic imbalance thus maintaining a favorable nutrient profile and integrity of the plasma membrane.

  18. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and albumin on the in vitro water-holding capacity and some physiological properties of Trigonella foenum graecum L. galactomannan in rats.

    PubMed

    Dakam, William; Shang, Judith; Agbor, Gabriel; Oben, Julius

    2007-03-01

    This study seeks to improve the beneficial effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) galactomannan (GM) in lowering the plasma lipid profile and weight. Three different combinations of diets were prepared with fenugreek GM--(a) fenugreek GM + water (GM); (b) fenugreek GM + sodium bicarbonate (GMB); and (c) fenugreek GM + bicarbonate + albumin (GMBA)--and their in vitro water retention capacity and in vivo lipid-lowering effect were studied. Distilled water and sodium bicarbonate were used as controls. The sodium bicarbonate significantly increased the in vitro water-holding capacity of fenugreek GM (49.1 +/- 8.7 vs. 21.6 +/- 0.9 g of water/g of dry weight, P < .01). Administration by oral intubation of the combination GMBA to male albino Wistar rats (250 mg/kg of body weight) over a 4-week period was the most effective in reducing body weight (-27.0 +/- 0.4%, P < .001). Within this period, the combinations GMBA and GMB brought about the most significant reduction in the levels of plasma total cholesterol (P < .005). The GMBA combination was also the most effective in reducing levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .001) and the atherogenicity indices. GM, GMB, and GMBA brought about significant (P < .01, .001, and .001, respectively) increases in the plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, with the highest increase coming with GMBA. A significant increase in plasma triglycerides (P < .05) was brought about by the GMBA combination, probably resulting from the rapid reduction of body weight observed. Food intake was reduced by GM, GMB, and GMBA, while water intake increased in that order. The GMB combination significantly reduced transit time (P < .01) compared to GM. On the other hand, GMB and GMBA improved glycemic control, compared to GM. We conclude that albumin and sodium bicarbonate have the ability to improve some beneficial physiological effects of fenugreek GM. This finding could have applications in the areas of

  19. Safety, efficacy and toxicological evaluation of a novel, patented anti-diabetic extract of Trigonella Foenum-Graecum seed extract (Fenfuro).

    PubMed

    Swaroop, Anand; Bagchi, Manashi; Kumar, Pawan; Preuss, Harry G; Tiwari, Kiran; Marone, Palma Ann; Bagchi, Debasis

    2014-10-01

    Safety and anti-diabetic efficacy of a novel, proprietary Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract [novel fenugreek extract (FE), Fenfuro™, CR0010810) enriched in furostanolic saponins (>60% w/w, HPLC) were assessed. Concerning safety, we undertook studies dealing with acute oral toxicity, 28-d sub-chronic toxicity and Ames' bacterial reverse mutation assay that revealed no toxicity. Concerning efficacy, we examined beneficial effects of the extract on rats with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a high-fat diet for 2 weeks followed by streptozotocin (STZ, 35 mg/kg i.p.) to produce T2D. Seven days post-STZ, rats showing ≥300 mg/dl fasting plasma glucose level (PGL) were included in the study. FE (150- or 450- mg/kg p.o.) and glipizide (5 mg/kg p.o.) were administered once daily for 20 d and then twice daily for another 10 d (total 30 d). Blood samples were collected at 0, 10, 20 and 30 d of treatment and estimated for fasting plasma triglyceride (PTG), total cholesterol and insulin levels. After 30 d, FE and glipizide-treated diabetic animals were treated in combination with or without metformin (100 mg/kg) twice daily for another 10 d. FE did not influence body weight, feed and water intake. FE (150 mg/kg p.o.) reduced PTG levels in T2D rats by 22%, 24.6% and 29% at 10, 20 and 30 d of treatment, respectively, while glipizide (5 mg/kg p.o.) reduced the PTG levels by 57.4%, 46.2% and 39.4% at these time points. FE (450 mg/kg) treatment in STZ-induced diabetic rats produced significant hypoglycemic activity (approximately 31.5%) as compared to insulin (48.2% with 1 U/kg i.p.). FE (150 mg/kg p.o.) and metformin (100 mg/kg p.o.) combined produced significant reduction (20.7%) of PGL in T2D rats. No adverse effects were observed. We conclude after extensive in vitro and in vivo safety and efficacy studies that FE is safe and effective in treating T2D.

  20. Characterization and identification of steroidal saponins from the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and hybrid time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kang, Li-Ping; Zhao, Yang; Pang, Xu; Yu, He-Shui; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Zhang, Jie; Gao, Yue; Yu, Kate; Liu, Chao; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2013-02-23

    Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Qtof MS(E)) was used to rapidly separate and identify steroidal saponins from the crude extract of the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG). By using the UHPLC/Qtof MS(E) data acquisition strategy, both intact precursor and fragment ion information were obtained from a single injection. Fragmentation rules for five major groups of saponins from TFG are summarized, and possible fragmentation pathways are proposed. Accurate mass measurements of molecular ions and fragment ions as well as retention times permitted the identification or tentative identification of a total of ninety-five saponins based on comparison with reference standards. This included twenty-two pairs of isomers. Thirty of these saponins were identified for the first time.

  1. Influence of a Specialized Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed Extract (Libifem), on Testosterone, Estradiol and Sexual Function in Healthy Menstruating Women, a Randomised Placebo Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Amanda; Steels, Elizabeth; Beccaria, Gavin; Inder, Warrick J; Vitetta, Luis

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed extract on sex hormones and sexual function in healthy menstruating women who reported low sexual drive. This short term, single site, double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 80 women, aged 20 to 49 years. Participants were randomised to either an oral dose of a standardised T. foenum-graecum seed extract (libifem) at a dose of 600 mg/day or placebo over two menstrual cycles. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, progesterone, androstenedione, total and free testosterone, estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, sex hormone binding globulin and cholesterol were measured at baseline and 8 weeks. The individual aspects of sexual function were measured using the Derogatis interview for sexual functioning and female sexual function index self-administered questionnaires. Stress, fatigue and quality of the relationship with partner were also measured using the PSS (Perceived Stress Scale), MFI-20 (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory) and DAS (Dyadic Adjustment Scale) quality of life measures, respectively. There was a significant increase in free testosterone and E2 in the active group as well as sexual desire and arousal compared with the placebo group. The results indicate that this extract of T. foenum-graecum may be a useful treatment for increasing sexual arousal and desire in women.

  2. The identification of a novel SIRT6 modulator from Trigonella foenum-graecum using ligand fishing with protein coated magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Singh, N; Ravichandran, S; Spelman, K; Fugmann, S D; Moaddel, R

    2014-10-01

    SIRT6 is a histone deacetylase that has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders and the prevention of age-associated diseases. Thus the identification of compounds that modulate SIRT6 activity could be of great therapeutic importance. We have previously developed an H3K9 deacetylation guided assay with SIRT6 coated magnetic beads (SIRT6-MB). With the developed assay, we identified quercetin, naringenin and vitexin as SIRT6 inhibitors from T. foenum-graecum seed extract using a candidate approach. Currently, the predominant method for the identification of active compounds from a plant extract is carried out through a dereplication process. A novel targeted approach for the direct identification of active compounds from a complex matrix could save time and resources. Herein, we report the application of the SIRT6-MB for 'fishing' experiments utilizing T. foenum-graecum seed extract. In which orientin, and seventeen other compounds were identified as SIRT6 binders. This is the first use of this method for 'fishing' out active ligands from a botanical matrix, and sets the basis for the identification of active compounds from a complex matrix.

  3. Non-insulin dependent anti-diabetic activity of (2S, 3R, 4S) 4-hydroxyisoleucine of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Mohammed R; Limaki, Hamidreza Khalatbari; White, Christopher J Branford; White, Kenneth N

    2012-05-15

    The seeds of fenugreek, Trigonella foenum graecum, commonly used as a spice in Middle Eastern countries and widely used in south Asia and Europe, are known to have anti-diabetic properties. They contain an unusual amino acid (2S, 3R, 4S) 4-hydroxyisoleucine (4HO-Ile), so far found only in fenugreek, which has anti-diabetic properties of enhancing insulin secretion under hyperglycaemic conditions, and increasing insulin sensitivity. Here we describe for the first time the anti-diabetic activity of 4HO-Ile in a model of type I diabetes, streptozotocin-treated rats, where levels of insulin are much reduced, by 65%, compared to normal animals. Treatment of diabetic rats with daily doses of 4HO-Ile at 50 mg/kg/day for four weeks could reduce plasma glucose in the diabetic group. Moreover the high levels of lipids (cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides) and uric acid in the diabetic rats, could be restored to levels found in non-diabetic controls by the treatment with 4HO-Ile. These results demonstrate that 4HO-Ile has significant anti-diabetic activities that are independent of insulin and suggest the potential of 4HO-Ile as an adjunct to diabetes treatment and for type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes.

  4. Exogenous IAA differentially affects growth, oxidative stress and antioxidants system in Cd stressed Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seedlings: Toxicity alleviation by up-regulation of ascorbate-glutathione cycle.

    PubMed

    Bashri, Gausiya; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, effect of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid at their different levels (i.e. low; IAAL, 10µM and high; IAAH, 100µM) were studied on growth, oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT and GST), and metabolites (AsA and GSH) as well as enzymes (APX, GR and DHAR) of ascorbate-glutathione cycle in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seedlings grown under cadmium (Cd1, 3mgCd kg(-1) soil and Cd2, 9mgCd kg(-1) soil) stress. Cadmium (Cd) at both doses caused reduction in growth which was correlated with enhanced lipid peroxidation and damage to membrane as a result of excess accumulation of O2(•-) and H2O2. Cd also enhanced the oxidation of AsA and GSH to DHA and GSSG, respectively which give a clear sign of oxidative stress, despite of accelerated activity of enzymatic antioxidants: SOD, CAT, POD, GST as well as APX, DHAR (except in Cd2 stress) and GR. Exogenous application of IAAL resulted further rise in the activities of these enzymes, and maintained the redox status (> ratios: AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG) of cells. The maintained redox status of cells under IAAL treatment declined the level of ROS in Cd1 and Cd2 treated seedlings thereby alleviated the Cd toxicity and this effect was more pronounced under Cd1 stress. Contrary to this, exogenous IAAH suppressed the activity of DHAR and GR and disturbed the redox status (< ratios: AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG) of cells, hence excess accumulation of ROS further aggravated the Cd induced damage. Thus, overall results suggest that IAA at low (IAAL) and high (IAAH) doses affected the Cd toxicity differently by regulating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle as well as activity of other antioxidants in Trigonella seedlings.

  5. Protective effect of aqueous extract of seed of Psoralea corylifolia (Somraji) and seed of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Methi) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat: A comparative evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Jana, Kishalay; Ghosh, Abhinandan; Ghosh, Debidas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psoralea corylifolia (Somraji) and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Methi), important medicinal plants widely used in India as folk medicine. Local people of West Bengal traditionally used the seeds of these plants to cure diabetes. Objective: Present study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic efficacy of aqueous extract of seeds of these plants in separate or in composite manner in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intramuscular injection of STZ at the dose of 40 mg/ml of citrate buffer/kg body weight. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glyclated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and activities of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphatase of liver in experimental animals were assessed. Hyperlipidemic state developed in the experimental diabetic rat was assessed by measuring the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins in serum. Results: There was significant increased in the levels of FBG, HbA1C and lipid profiles along with diminution (P < 0.001) in the activities of hepatic hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and elevation in glucose-6-phosphatase in diabetic control animals in respect to the untreated control. Significant recovery (P < 0.05) in the activities of above mentioned enzymes along with the correction in the levels of FBG, HbA1C and serum lipid profiles were noted towards the control level after the treatment of composite extract (i.e. 100 mg of Somraji: 100 mg of Methi, total 200 mg/kg body weight) than the individual extract (i.e. 200 mg of Somraji or 200 mg of Methi, per kg body weight) treatment. Conclusion: Results suggest that composite extract of above plant parts has more potent antidiabetic efficacy than the individual extract. PMID:24174822

  6. Diosgenin, a steroid saponin of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek), inhibits azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation in F344 rats and induces apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Raju, Jayadev; Patlolla, Jagan M R; Swamy, Malisetty V; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2004-08-01

    Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) is traditionally used to treat disorders such as diabetes, high cholesterol, wounds, inflammation, and gastrointestinal ailments. Recent studies suggest that fenugreek and its active constituents may possess anticarcinogenic potential. We evaluated the preventive efficacy of dietary fenugreek seed and its major steroidal saponin constituent, diosgenin, on azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis during initiation and promotion stages. Preneoplastic colonic lesions or aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were chosen as end points. In addition, we assessed the mechanism of tumor growth inhibition of diosgenin in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. To evaluate the effect of the test agent during the initiation and postinitiation stages, 7-week-old male F344 rats were fed experimental diets containing 0% or 1% fenugreek seed powder (FSP) or 0.05% or 0.1% diosgenin for 1 week and were injected with azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight). Effects during the promotional stage were studied by feeding 1% FSP or 0.1% diosgenin 4 weeks after the azoxymethane injections. Rats were sacrificed 8 weeks after azoxymethane injection, and their colons were evaluated for ACF. We found that, by comparison with control, continuous feeding of 1% FSP and 0.05% and 0.1% diosgenin suppressed total colonic ACF up to 32%, 24%, and 42%, respectively (P < or = 0.001 to 0.0001). Dietary FSP at 1% and diosgenin at 0.1% fed only during the promotional stage also inhibited total ACF up to 33% (P < or = 0.001) and 39% (P < or = 0.0001), respectively. Importantly, continuous feeding of 1% FSP or 0.05% or 0.1% diosgenin reduced the number of multicrypt foci by 38%, 20%, and 36% by comparison with the control assay (P < or = 0.001). In addition, 1% FSP or 0.1% diosgenin fed during the promotional stage caused a significant reduction (P < or = 0.001) of multicrypt foci compared with control. Dietary diosgenin at 0.1% and 0.05% inhibited total colonic ACF and multicrypt foci

  7. Chemopreventive activities of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) against breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Amin, Amr; Alkaabi, Aysha; Al-Falasi, Shamaa; Daoud, Sayel A

    2005-08-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Conventional therapies cause serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Cancer control may therefore benefit from the potential that resides in alternative therapies. There is thus an increasing demand to utilize alternative concepts or approaches to the prevention of cancer. In this report, we show a potential protective effect of Fenugreek seeds against 7,12-dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in rats. At 200 mg/kg b.wt., Fenugreek seeds' extract significantly inhibited the DMBA-induced mammary hyperplasia and decreased its incidence. Epidemiological studies also implicate apoptosis as a mechanism that might mediate the Fenugreek's anti-breast cancer protective effects. To our knowledge, this is the first study that suggests significant chemopreventive effects of Fenugreek seeds against breast cancer.

  8. Cytotoxic triterpenoid saponins from Lysimachia foenum-graecum.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lu-Mei; Huang, Ri-Zhen; Zhang, Bin; Hua, Jing; Wang, Heng-Shan; Liang, Dong

    2017-04-01

    Eleven oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, foegraecumosides A-K, and eight known ones, were isolated from the aerial parts of Lysimachia foenum-graecum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analyses and chemical methods. All isolated saponins were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines (NCI-H460, MGC-803, HepG2, and T24). Seven saponins containing the aglycone cyclamiretin A exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against all tested human cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 9.3-24.5 μM. Simultaneously, the cytotoxic activities of foegraecumosides A and B, lysichriside A, ardisiacrispins A and B, cyclaminorin, and 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-cyclamiretin A were tested on drug-resistant lung cancer cell lines (A549 and A549/CDDP, respectively). Ardisiacrispin B displayed moderate cytotoxicity against A549/CDDP, with an IC50 value of 8.7 μM and a resistant factor (RF) of 0.9.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis modulates antioxidant response in salt-stressed Trigonella foenum-graecum plants.

    PubMed

    Evelin, Heikham; Kapoor, Rupam

    2014-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of Glomus intraradices colonization on the activity of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (PX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR)] and the accumulation of nonenzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, glutathione, and carotenoids) in roots and leaves of fenugreek plants subjected to varying degrees of salinity (0, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) at two time intervals (1 and 14 days after saline treatment, DAT). The antioxidative capacity was correlated with oxidative damage in the same tissue. Under salt stress, lipid peroxidation and H2O2 concentration increased with increasing severity and duration of salt stress (DoS). However, the extent of oxidative damage in mycorrhizal plants was less compared to nonmycorrhizal plants. The study reveals that mycorrhiza-mediated attenuation of oxidative stress in fenugreek plants is due to enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes and higher concentrations of antioxidant molecules. However, the significant effect of G. intraradices colonization on individual antioxidant molecules and enzymes varied with plant tissue, salinity level, and DoS. The significant effect of G. intraradices colonization on antioxidative enzymes was more evident at 1DAT in both leaves and roots, while the concentrations of antioxidant molecules were significantly influenced at 14DAT. It is proposed that AM symbiosis can improve antioxidative defense systems of plants through higher SOD activity in M plants, facilitating rapid dismutation of O2 (-) to H2O2, and subsequent prevention of H2O2 build-up by higher activities of CAT, APX, and PX. The potential of G. intraradices to ameliorate oxidative stress generated in fenugreek plants by salinity was more evident at higher intensities of salt stress.

  10. NMR Spectroscopy of Aqueous Extracts of Fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum- graecum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakovskii, E. D.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.; Matveichuk, S. V.; Karankevich, E. G.; Agabalaeva, E. D.; Reshetnikov, V. N.

    2014-09-01

    The amino-acid and monosaccharide compositions of aqueous extracts of fenugreek herb were determined using PMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The content of identified extract constituents was >70 mol%, of which the dominant amino acid was 4-hydroxyisoleucine (26.5 mol%); the major carbohydrate, glucose (10.1 mol%).

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn) seed petroleum ether extract

    PubMed Central

    Pundarikakshudu, Kilambi; Shah, Deepak H.; Panchal, Aashish H.; Bhavsar, Gordhanbhai C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of petroleum ether extract of fenugreek seeds. Materials and Methods: Fenugreek seed powder was extracted in petroleum ether by cold maceration. This fenugreek seed petroleum ether extract (FSPEE) was analyzed by gas–liquid chromatography (GLC) and tested on rats against carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw edema, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis and cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Changes in serum glutamic oxaloacetic tansaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in liver and serum were also studied in cotton pellet-induced arthritic rats. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: GLC of FSPEE showed oleic (33.61%), linoleic (40.37%), and linolenic (12.51%) acids. With 0.5 mL/kg FSPEE treatment, there was 37% (P < 0.05) and 85% (P < 0.05) reduction in inflammation of the paw in carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw edema. In CFA-induced arthritis, a biphasic increase in paw volume followed by decrease was seen. There was 42.5% (P < 0.01) reduction in the weight of cotton pellets and significant (P < 0.01) reductions in the elevated SGPT and ALP activities in serum and liver of FSPEE (0.5 mL/kg) treated rats. Conclusion: Thus, petroleum ether extract of fenugreek seeds has significant anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities which are due to the presence of linolenic and linoleic acids. PMID:27756958

  12. Ethanolic extract of Trigonella Foenum Graecum attenuates cisplatin-induced nephro- and hepatotoxicities in rats.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Marwa G A; Emam, Manal A

    2015-11-25

    Nephro-and hepatotoxicities are important complications in cancer patients undergoing cisplatin (CP) therapy. We aimed to study the protective effect of fenugreek (FG) on CP induced renal and hepatic injuries in rats. Cisplatin intoxication resulted in structural and functional renal and hepatic impairments, which were revealed by massive histopathological changes and elevated kidney and liver function tests. However, it was associated with oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation as evident by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) with decreased levels of total antioxidant activity. Cisplatin administration triggered inflammatory responses and apoptosis in rat livers and kidneys as evident by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) and apoptotic marker p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) as results of overproduction of ROS. FG significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced biochemical and histopathological alterations, inflammation and apoptosis in rat livers and kidneys. Results suggested that fenugreek co-administration has a powerful antioxidant effect and may serves as a novel and promising preventive strategy against cisplatin-induced nephron- and hepatotoxicities.

  13. Investigating Therapeutic Potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. as Our Defense Mechanism against Several Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Shivangi; Gupta, Nidhi; Chatterjee, Sreemoyee

    2016-01-01

    Current lifestyle, stress, and pollution have dramatically enhanced the progression of several diseases in human. Globally, scientists are looking for therapeutic agents that can either cure or delay the onset of diseases. Medicinal plants from time immemorial have been used frequently in therapeutics. Of many such plants, fenugreek is one of the oldest herbs which have been identified as an important medicinal plant by the researchers around the world. It is potentially beneficial in a number of diseases such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and inflammation and probably in several kinds of cancers. It has industrial applications such as synthesis of steroidal hormones. Its medicinal properties and their role in clinical domain can be attributed to its chemical constituents. The 3 major chemical constituents which have been identified as responsible for principle health effects are galactomannan, 4-OH isoleucine, and steroidal saponin. Numerous experiments have been carried out in vivo and in vitro for beneficial effects of both the crude chemical and of its active constituent. Due to its role in health care, the functional food industry has referred to it as a potential nutraceutical. This paper is about various medicinal benefits of fenugreek and its potential application as therapeutic agent against several diseases. PMID:26884758

  14. Isolation of Positive Modulator of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Signaling from Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Seed.

    PubMed

    King, Klim; Lin, Nai-Pin; Cheng, Yu-Hong; Chen, Gao-Hui; Chein, Rong-Jie

    2015-10-23

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed in many tissues and has been implicated in diverse physiological functions, such as energy homeostasis and cognition. GLP-1 analogs are approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes and are undergoing clinical trials for other disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. GLP-1 analog therapies maintain chronically high plasma levels of the analog and can lead to loss of spatiotemporal control of GLP-1R activation. To avoid adverse effects associated with current therapies, we characterized positive modulators of GLP-1R signaling. We screened extracts from edible plants using an intracellular cAMP biosensor and GLP-1R endocytosis assays. Ethanol extracts from fenugreek seeds enhanced GLP-1 signaling. These seeds have previously been found to reduce glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in humans. An active compound (N55) with a new N-linoleoyl-2-amino-γ-butyrolactone structure was purified from fenugreek seeds. N55 promoted GLP-1-dependent cAMP production and GLP-1R endocytosis in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. N55 specifically enhanced GLP-1 potency more than 40-fold, but not that of exendin 4, to stimulate cAMP production. In contrast to the current allosteric modulators that bind to GLP-1R, N55 binds to GLP-1 peptide and facilitates trypsin-mediated GLP-1 inactivation. These findings identify a new class of modulators of GLP-1R signaling and suggest that GLP-1 might be a viable target for drug discovery. Our results also highlight a feasible approach for screening bioactive activity of plant extracts.

  15. Hypolipidemic influence of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mukthamba, Puttaswamy; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-09-01

    The cardioprotective influence of dietary fibre-rich fenugreek seeds and the well-established hypolipidemic spice garlic was evaluated both individually and in combination in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. It was particularly examined whether pretreatment with dietary fenugreek, garlic or fenugreek + garlic would be beneficial under hypercholesterolemic conditions by their influence on the tissue lipid profile. Four groups each of male Wistar rats were maintained on either a basal diet or a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions with fenugreek, garlic and the combination of fenugreek and garlic were made by including 10% fenugreek seed powder, 2% freeze-dried garlic powder, and 10% fenugreek seed powder + 2% garlic powder. At the end of the diet regimen, myocardial infarction was induced with isoproterenol (i.p. 80 mg kg(-1)) twice at intervals of 12 h. The disturbed activities of cardiac marker enzymes in serum and the heart confirmed isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction. Dietary fenugreek, garlic or fenugreek + garlic was found to ameliorate the pathological changes in heart tissue and lipid abnormalities in serum and the heart, the beneficial effect being higher with the combination of fenugreek and garlic, invariably amounting to an additive effect. The results also indicated that the hypercholesterolemic situation aggravated the myocardial damage during isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. This dietary intervention study suggested that the combination of fenugreek seeds and garlic offers a higher beneficial influence in exerting the cardioprotective effect.

  16. Isolation of Positive Modulator of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Signaling from Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Seed*

    PubMed Central

    King, Klim; Lin, Nai-Pin; Cheng, Yu-Hong; Chen, Gao-Hui; Chein, Rong-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed in many tissues and has been implicated in diverse physiological functions, such as energy homeostasis and cognition. GLP-1 analogs are approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes and are undergoing clinical trials for other disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. GLP-1 analog therapies maintain chronically high plasma levels of the analog and can lead to loss of spatiotemporal control of GLP-1R activation. To avoid adverse effects associated with current therapies, we characterized positive modulators of GLP-1R signaling. We screened extracts from edible plants using an intracellular cAMP biosensor and GLP-1R endocytosis assays. Ethanol extracts from fenugreek seeds enhanced GLP-1 signaling. These seeds have previously been found to reduce glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in humans. An active compound (N55) with a new N-linoleoyl-2-amino-γ-butyrolactone structure was purified from fenugreek seeds. N55 promoted GLP-1-dependent cAMP production and GLP-1R endocytosis in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. N55 specifically enhanced GLP-1 potency more than 40-fold, but not that of exendin 4, to stimulate cAMP production. In contrast to the current allosteric modulators that bind to GLP-1R, N55 binds to GLP-1 peptide and facilitates trypsin-mediated GLP-1 inactivation. These findings identify a new class of modulators of GLP-1R signaling and suggest that GLP-1 might be a viable target for drug discovery. Our results also highlight a feasible approach for screening bioactive activity of plant extracts. PMID:26336108

  17. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women.

    PubMed

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-07-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea.

  18. Performance of some Ethiopian fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) germplasm collections as compared with the commercial variety Challa.

    PubMed

    Fikreselassie, Million

    2012-05-01

    Systematic breeding efforts on fenugreek have so far been neglected in Ethiopia. For this, 143 random samples of fenugreek accessions along with a commercial variety were used in this study to evaluate the potential of the land races. The field experiment was conducted at Haramaya University research station during 2011 main cropping season. Treatments were arranged in a 12x12 simple lattice design. The highest biomass and seed yielding accessions were generally concentrated more in the categories of yellow and green seed colors. When compared with the commercial variety, above 27% of the tested accessions performed significantly better in terms of seed yield indicating that significant yield gains could be secured by simple selection. However, further evaluation over wider environments is necessary to arrive at conclusive points for such quantitative traits. Green and yellow seeded accessions are widely distributed over all the country and over half of the accessions (63%) had green seed color. High seed yield bearing accessions were those collected from northwest and central part of Ethiopia, while accessions collected from eastern and northwestern Ethiopia were strikingly bold seed size. This variability would provide a basis for improving the crop in breeding program.

  19. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Leguminosae): an evidence-based systematic review by the natural standard research collaboration.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Basch, Ethan; Burke, Dilys; Cheung, Lisa; Ernst, Edzard; Giese, Nicole; Foppa, Ivo; Hammerness, Paul; Hashmi, Sadaf; Kuo, Grace; Miranda, Michelle; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Smith, Michael; Sollars, David; Tanguay-Colucci, Shaina; Vijayan, Nazhiyath; Weissner, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    An evidence-based systematic review including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology and dosing.

  20. Trigonella foenum-graceum (Seed) Extract Interferes with Quorum Sensing Regulated Traits and Biofilm Formation in the Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Fohad Mabood; Ahmad, Iqbal; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Al-Shabib, Nasser Abdulatif

    2015-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) is an important plant of the Leguminosae family known to have medicinal properties. However, fraction based antiquorum sensing and antibiofilm activities have not been reported from this plant. In the present study T. foenum-graecum seed extract was sequentially fractionated and sub-MICs were tested for above activities. The methanol fraction of the extract demonstrated significant inhibition of AHL regulated virulence factors: protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin production, chitinase, EPS, and swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAF79. Further, QS dependent virulence factor in the aquatic pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila WAF38 was also reduced. Application of T. foenum-graecum seed extract to PAO1, PAF79, and WAF38 decreased the biofilm forming abilities of the pathogens by significant levels. The extract also exhibited reduced AHL levels and subsequent downregulation of lasB gene. In vivo study showed an enhanced survival of PAO1-preinfected C. elegans after treatment with extract at 1 mg/mL. Further, the major compound detected by GC-MS, caffeine, reduced the production of QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm at 200 µg/mL concentration indicating its role in the activity of the methanol extract. The results of the present study reveal the potential anti-QS and antibiofilm property of T. foenum-graceum extract and caffeine. PMID:26000026

  1. Phytochemical study and protective effect of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek seeds) against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in liver and kidney of male rat.

    PubMed

    Mbarki, Sakhria; Alimi, Hichem; Bouzenna, Hafsia; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2017-04-01

    Liver and kidney diseases are a global concern, therefore considerable efforts to obtain fine herbs useful as drugs from medicinal plants are currently in progress. The aim of this work was to study the antioxidant effects of previous supplementation with fenugreek seeds (FS) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) toxicity in the liver and kidney. CCl4 toxicity was induced by one dose (i.g. 5ml CCl4/kg of body weight, 50% CCl4 in olive oil) after 7 weeks of normal diet or diet rich in 10% of grinded fenugreek seeds (20g of pellet rat food/rat/day). 24h after the treatment with CCl4, all animals were scarified and biological analyses were performed. A phytochemical study of fenugreek seed extract (FSE) was also carried out. The phytochemical analysis of FS and FSE revealed the presence of polyphenols (5.92±0.02mg EGA/g DM), flavonoids (0.44±0.19mg ER/g DM), polysaccharides and trace elements. DPPH radical-scavenging activity of FSE showed an EC50 of 285.59±2.01μg/ml. In vivo, CCl4 administration significantly (p<0.05) induced an increase liver and kidney biomarkers. A significant (p<0.05) alteration of the antioxidant enzyme activities was also observed. In animals pretreated with FS, the studied parameters were much less shifted. These results indicate that the supplementation with fenugreek seeds is significantly effective in protecting the liver and kidneys from CCl4 toxicity.

  2. Evaluation of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract in combination with swimming exercise compared to glibenclamide consumption on type 2 Diabetic rodents

    PubMed Central

    Arshadi, Sajad; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Yusof, Ashril; Peeri, Maghsoud; Bakhtiyari, Salar; Stannard, Robert S.; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Dehghan, Firouzeh

    2015-01-01

    Background/objective The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed extract in combination with swimming exercise compared to glibenclamide consumption on type 2 diabetic rats. Design The acute toxicity test was carried out to choose the safe doses and identify the toxicity effects of the fenugreek seed extract. To investigate the hypoglycemic effect of the extract and its effect in combination with swimming training, 80 Wistar Kyoto male streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were divided randomly into eight groups: diabetic control (C); fenugreek seed extract 0.8 g/kg (F1); fenugreek extract 1.6 g/kg (F2); swimming training (S); swimming training plus fenugreek extract 0.8 g/kg (SF1); swimming training plus fenugreek extract 1.6 g/kg (SF2); glibenclamide (G) and swimming training plus glibenclamide (SG). The rats were orally administrated with the treatments once a day with the respective treatment, and the training groups were subjected to swimming training every day for 60 min. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, adiponectin, leptin, and insulin concentrations. Results The results obtained from acute toxicity study showed no toxicity effect of fenugreek seed extract on the tested dose. Biochemical analysis showed significant improvements in all of the groups compared to the control group (p<0.05). Plasma insulin concentration and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly reduced in treated groups compared with the diabetic control group. Plasma leptin were significantly decreased in treated groups compared with the control group; while adiponectin had markedly increased (p<0.05). Conclusion The findings suggest that fenugreek seed consuming, alongside swimming exercise, has a strong therapeutic effect on the improvement of diabetic parameters. PMID:26699937

  3. Activation of Rhizobium tibeticum with flavonoids enhances nodulation, nitrogen fixation, and growth of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) grown in cobalt-polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Bagy, Magdy Khalil; El-enany, Abdel-Wahab El-sadek; Bashandy, Shymaa Ryhan

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the response of activation of Rhizobium tibeticum with mixture of hesperetin and apigenin to improve growth, nodulation, and nitrogen fixation of fenugreek grown under cobalt (Co) stress. The current study showed that high concentrations of Co-induced noxious effects on rhizobial growth, nod gene expression, nodulation, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities, total flavonoid content, and nitrogen fixation. Addition of a mixture of hesperetin and apigenin to growth medium supplemented with different concentrations of Co significantly increased bacterial growth. PAL activity of roots grown hydroponically at 100 mg kg(-1) Co and inoculated with induced R. tibeticum was significantly increased compared with plants receiving uninduced R. tibeticum. Total flavonoid content of root exudates of plants inoculated with activated R. tibeticum was significantly increased compared with inoculated plants with unactivated R. tibeticum or uninoculated plants at variant Co dosages. Application of 50 mg kg(-1) Co significantly increased nodulation, GS, nitrogenase activity, and biomass of plants inoculated with either or uninduced R. tibeticum. The total number and fresh mass of nodules, nitrogenase activity, and biomass of plants inoculated with induced cells grown in soil treated with 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) Co were significantly increased compared with plants inoculated with uninduced cells. Induced R. tibeticum with flavonoids significantly alleviates the adverse effect of Co on nod gene expression and therefore enhances nitrogen fixation. Induction of R. tibeticum with compatible flavonoids could be of practical importance in augmenting growth and nitrogen fixation of fenugreek grown in a Co-contaminated agroecosystem.

  4. Combining NMR Spectroscopy and Gas-Liquid Chromatography for Analysis of the Fatty Acid Composition of Fenugreek Seed Oil (Trigonella foenum graecum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakovskii, E. D.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.; Mauchanava, V. A.; Karankevich, E. G.; Lamotkin, S. A.; Ahabalayeva, A. D.; Reshetnikov, V. N.

    2013-11-01

    1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy established that fenugreek seed oil consists mainly of triacylglycerides. Oleic and linoleic acids are found preferentially in the 2 position and α-linolenic acid is found preferentially in the 1,3 positions of the glycerol backbone. By combining NMR and gas-liquid chromatography, we have shown that fenugreek seeds contain 5.5 %-6.8 % oil, consisting mainly of unsaturated fatty acids (68.2 %-82.1 %): linoleic (31.3 %-46.8 %), α-linolenic (15.1 %-36.6 %), and oleic (11.6 %-21.3 %). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content is found in the cultivars D-19, Ovary Gold, Blidet, Ovary 4 and the lowest fatty acid content is found in the Metha cultivar. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids is higher in oils of fenugreek cultivars from northern regions (Belarus, Hungary, France).

  5. Influence of gamma radiation on the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the cotyledons and the leaves of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. ) bean seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Ahanotu, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Studies indicated that 21-day old cotyledons from gamma irradiated seeds of fenugreek beans were heavier and had more starch and sugar than their non-irradiated controls. To test whether these effects occurred in the leaves and to seek a possible biochemical explanation for these results, the activities of five enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were studied. Three groups of fenugreek bean seeds were irradiated (100-300 Gy) and then allowed to grow for 21 days. On harvest, wet and dry weights of both cotyledons and leaves were determined. Starch and sugar contents in cotyledons and leaves were measured. The five enzymes ..cap alpha..-amylase, ..beta..-amylase, starch phosphorylase, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase and ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase were extracted from cotyledons and leaves, respectively. The protein contents and activities of the enzyme extracts were determined. The results suggest an increase in carbohydrate metabolism in cotyldeons and a decrease in leaves due to the radiation treatment of the seeds before germination. Thus, increased amounts of starch and sugars are observed in the cotyledons, and decreased amounts in the leaves. Radiation damage to the translocatory system of the plant may retard the movement of sugars from the cotyledons to the other parts of the plant. This may cause accumulation of sugars and starch in the cotyledons, leading to an increase in their size and weight.

  6. Interaction potential of Trigonella foenum graceum through cytochrome P450 mediated inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ahmmed, Sk Milan; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Bahadur, Shiv; Kar, Amit; Mukherjee, Kakali; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Bandyopadhyay, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) (family: Leguminosae) are widely consumed both as a spice in food and Traditional Medicine in India. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the inhibitory effect of standardized extract of TFG and its major constituent trigonelline (TG) on rat liver microsome (RLM) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) drug metabolizing isozymes (CYP3A4 and CYP2D6), which may indicate the possibility of a probable unwanted interaction. Materials and Methods: Reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed to standardize the hydroalcoholic seed extract with standard TG. The inhibitory potential of the extract and TG was evaluated on RLM and CYP isozymes using CYP450-carbon monoxide (CYP450-CO) complex assay and fluorescence assay, respectively. Results: The content of TG in TFG was found to be 3.38% (w/w). The CYP-CO complex assay showed 23.32% inhibition on RLM. Fluorescence study revealed that the extract and the biomarker had some inhibition on CYP450 isozymes e.g. CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 (IC50 values of the extract: 102.65 ± 2.63–142.23 ± 2.61 µg/ml and TG: 168.73 ± 4.03–180.90 ± 2.49 µg/ml) which was very less compared to positive controls ketoconazole and quinidine. Inhibition potential of TFG was little higher than TG but very less compared to positive controls. Conclusions: From the present study, we may conclude that the TFG or TG has very less potential to inhibit the CYP isozymes (CYP3A4, CYP2D6), so administration of this plant extract or its biomarker TG may be safe. PMID:26600643

  7. Natural amelioration of Zinc oxide nanoparticle toxicity in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-gracum) by arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradices) secretion of glomalin.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Siani, Narges; Fallah, Seyfollah; Pokhrel, Lok Raj; Rostamnejadi, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Owing to rising production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in the myriad of consumer applications, ENPs are being released into the environment where their potential fate and effects have remained unclear. With naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF; Glomus intraradices) in soils, their influence (positive or negative) on ENPs toxicity in plants is not well documented. Herein, we investigated potential influence of AMF on the growth and development in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) under varied Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) treatments (0, 125, 250, 375 and 500 μg g(-1)). Results showed that in the absence of AMF, increasing ZnONPs concentrations caused significant decline in root nodule number and biomass in fenugreek. In non-AMF plants, shoot length, and biomass of both root and shoot decreased at ≥375 μg g(-1) of ZnONPs treatment; while Zn uptake by shoot and root increased as a function of ZnONPs treatments. Interestingly, AMF colonization in roots significantly diminished at 375 μg g(-1) ZnONPs treatment compared to controls. More importantly, AMF inoculation ameliorated inhibitory effects of ZnONPs by promoting secretion of glycoprotein called glomalin-a potent metal chelator-within the rhizosphere, which significantly reduced (by almost half) Zn uptake by root and subsequent translocation to the shoot. AMF inoculation (high glomalin secretion)-mediated low Zn uptake might have been stimulatory to promote root and shoot growth in fenugreek. The results highlight significant protective roles of rhizospheric AMF through glomalin secretion thereby ameliorating nanotoxicity in plants, and underscore the need to include soil-microbial interactions when assessing nanophytotoxicology and risks. Furthermore, potential positive implications to other organisms in the food chain can be inferred due to low tropic transfer of ENPs and/or associated toxic dissolved ions in the presence of naturally occurring soil fingi.

  8. THE GENUS TRIGONELLA – PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Jain, S.C; Agrawal, M.; Sharma, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The genus Trigonella is an annual plant distributed in the Mediterranean region and it comprises several species. The present report deals with the dietary, medicinal, biochemical biological and various pharmacological properties. PMID:22556778

  9. Ethnobotanics used in folk medicine of Tamil culture in Sri Lanka: a scientific review.

    PubMed

    Jesuthasan, Anternite Shanthi; Uluwaduge, Deepthi Inoka

    2017-01-01

    Tamil culture has recognized the potential use of plant herbs for prevention and treatment of different diseases. These folk remedies have been practiced by Sri Lankan Tamils even after modernization. This review focuses on frequently used medicinal plants among Sri Lankan Tamil communities, such as Cuminum cyminum, Azadirechta indica, Coriandrum sativum, Sesamum indicum, Zingiber officinale, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera, Plectranthus amboinicus, Allium sativum and Curcuma longa, for their documented medicinal properties, which include antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic and diuretic effects.

  10. [Effect of fenugreek on the growth of different genesis tumors].

    PubMed

    Zhilenko, V V; Zalietok, S P; Klenov, O O

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with antitumor properties of a fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum Graecum L.) as to the different genesis tumors--the Ca755 mouse mammary carcinoma and the Guerin's carcinoma in rats. Fenugreek powder was shown to inhibit (25-40 %) growth of certain tumors, decrease (27-63%) level of malone dialdehyde in liver, heart and kidney. Consumption of fenugreek was accompanied with decreased polyamines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine) content in tumor tissue. Inclusion of fenugreek to allowance was shown to improve certain blood value.

  11. Breeding System in a Population of Trigonella balansae (Leguminosae)

    PubMed Central

    NAIR, RAMAKRISHNAN M.; DUNDAS, IAN S.; WALLWORK, MEREDITH; VERLIN, DAWN C.; WATERHOUSE, LYN; DOWLING, KATE

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Although some taxonomic studies in the genus Trigonella have been conducted, there has been no concerted effort to study the breeding system. This paper examines the floral structure and pollination system in a population of T. balansae, an annual pasture legume. • Methods Floral morphology, hand and vector pollination, stigma receptivity, pollen tube growth, using scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy, were conducted. • Key Results Measurements of floral structure from before to after anthesis indicates an inability for T. balansae to self-pollinate and a requirement for an external vector to effectively transfer pollen from the anthers onto the stigmas of this species. Seed set can be obtained by hand or honeybee manipulation of T. balansae flowers. • Conclusions Trigonella balansae is a self-compatible species, but which requires vectors such as honeybees to bring about pollination. PMID:15489252

  12. In Vitro Evaluations of Cytotoxicity of Eight Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants and Their Effect on GLUT4 Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Kadan, Sleman; Saad, Bashar; Sasson, Yoel; Zaid, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous achievements in conventional medicine, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. Trigonella foenum-graecum, Atriplex halimus, Olea europaea, Urtica dioica, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Nigella sativa, and Cinnamomum cassia are strongly recommended in the Greco-Arab and Islamic medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. Cytotoxicity (MTT and LDH assays) of the plant extracts was assessed using cells from the liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and cells from the rat L6 muscle cell line. The effects of the plant extracts (50% ethanol in water) on glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane was tested in an ELISA test on L6-GLUT4myc cells. Results obtained indicate that Cinnamomon cassia is cytotoxic at concentrations higher than 100 μg/mL, whereas all other tested extracts exhibited cytotoxic effects at concentrations higher than 500 μg/mL. Exposing L6-GLUT4myc muscle cell to extracts from Trigonella foenum-graecum, Urtica dioica, Atriplex halimus, and Cinnamomum verum led to a significant gain in GLUT4 on their plasma membranes at noncytotoxic concentrations as measured with MTT assay and the LDH leakage assay. These findings indicate that the observed anti-diabetic properties of these plants are mediated, at least partially, through regulating GLUT4 translocation. PMID:23606883

  13. Dyes extracted from Trigonella seeds as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batniji, Amal; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Ghamri, Hatem

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the extract of Trigonella seeds was used as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The natural dye was extracted from the seeds using water and alcohol as solvents for the raw material. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of Trigonella extract solution and dye adsorbed on TiO2 film were measured. DSSCs sensitized by Trigonella extracted using water as a solvent exhibited better performance with efficiency of 0.215 %. The performance of the fabricated DSSCs was attempted to enhance by acid treatment of the FTO substrates with HNO3, H3PO4, and H2SO4. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the fabricated cells was also carried out.

  14. Biguanide related compounds in traditional antidiabetic functional foods.

    PubMed

    Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S

    2013-06-01

    Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed.

  15. [FT-IR spectroscopic analysis in monitoring of hydroxyl stretching vibrations in plant hydrogels].

    PubMed

    Pielesz, Anna; Biniaś, Dorota; Wieczorek, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, some bioactive hydrogels isolated from natural sources have attracted much attention in the field of biochemistry and pharmacology. This article attempts to review the current structural and conformational characterization of some importantly bioactive hydrogels isolated from following plant: Symphytum officinale, Thymus pulegioides, Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Tussilago farfara L., Hyssopus officinalis, Althaea officinalis L., Equisetum arvense L. Linum usitatissimum L. and Fucus vesiculosus L. Hydrogels are cross-linked three-dimensional polysaccharide macromolecular networks that contain a large fraction of water within their structure. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis showed a strong band at 3500-3100 cm(-1) attributed to hydroxyl (the intermolecular and the intramolecular hydrogen bonds) stretching vibrations changes.

  16. Traditional Indian Medicines Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Neetu

    2013-01-01

    Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants. PMID:23841105

  17. Screening of polysaccharides from tamarind, fenugreek and jackfruit seeds as pharmaceutical excipients.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2015-08-01

    The paper describes the isolation and screening of plant polysaccharides namely tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), fenugreek seed mucilage (FSM) and jackfruit seed starch (JFSS) from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds and jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) seeds, respectively. The yields of isolated dried TSP, FSM and JFSS were 47.00%, 17.36% and 18.86%, respectively. Various physicochemical properties like colour, odour, taste, solubility in water, pH and viscosity of these isolated plant polysaccharides were assessed. Isolated polysaccharide samples were subjected to some phytochemical identification tests. FTIR and (1)H NMR analyses of isolated polysaccharides were performed, which suggest the presence of sugar residues. Isolated TSP, FSM and JFSS can be used as pharmaceutical excipients in various pharmaceutical formulations.

  18. Novel mechanism of modulating natural antioxidants in functional foods: involvement of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria NRRL B-30488.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Govindarajan, Raghavan; Lavania, Meeta; Pushpangadan, Palpu

    2008-06-25

    The significance of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mediated increase in antioxidant potential in vegetables is yet unknown. The plant growth-promoting bacterium Bacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 (B-30488) mediated induction of dietary antioxidant in vegetables ( Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lactuca sativa, Spinacia oleracea, and Daucus carota) and fruit ( Citrus sinensis) after minimal processing (fresh, boiled, and frozen) was tested by estimating the total phenol content, level of antioxidant enzymes, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide scavenging activities along with integral radical scavenging capacity by photochemiluminescence assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Minimal processing of vegetables showed that T. foenum-graecum had the highest phenol content in B-30488-treated plants followed by L. sativa, D. carota, and S. oleracea. Thermally treated vegetables T. foenum-graecum (26-114.5 GAE microg mg (-1)) had an exceptionally high total phenolic content, followed by D. carota (25.27-101.32 GAE microg mg (-1)), L. sativa (23.22-101.10 GAE microg mg (-1)), and S. oleracea (21.87-87.57 GAE microg mg (-1)). Among the vegetables and fruit used in this study for enzymatic estimation, induction of antioxidant enzymes, namely, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD), was observed in edible parts of T. foenum-graecum, L. sativa, S. oleracea, and D. carota, after inoculation with B-30488. The scavenging capacity of the vegetables treated with B-30488 against DPPH and superoxide anion radical activity was found to be significantly high as compared to nontreated control. Mild food processing had no adverse effect on radical scavenging capacity. Photochemiluminescence also ascertains the above findings. The ability of the plant extracts to protect against lipid peroxidation and its ability to prevent oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured in rat liver

  19. Invitro Anti-mycotic Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extracts of Some Indian Medicinal Plants against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, Saranya; Malaisamy, Malaiyandi; Duraipandian, Chamundeeswari

    2015-01-01

    Background Candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections caused by Candida albicans. Fluconazole is the drug of choice for prevention and management of this condition. However, the emergence of fluconazole resistant candidal strains has become a major concern. Many herbs like fenugreek, cinnamon, papaya, oregano, garlic are rich in phytochemical constituents known to express antimycotic activity. With the available information, the present research study was carried out to assess the invitro anti-mycotic activity of hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, Cinnamomum verum bark and Carica papaya leaves and seeds against fluconazole resistant Candida albicans Materials and Methods Hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum (seeds), Cinnamomum verum (bark), Carica papaya CO.2 strain (male and female leaves) and Carica papaya CO.2 strain (seeds) were prepared by maceration. The anti-mycotic activity of the prepared extracts against Candida albicans was assessed by agar well diffusion method. Three independent experiments were performed in triplicates and the mean and standard deviation were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined. Results The results of the present study revealed that all the extracts exhibited anti-mycotic activity in a dose dependent manner and minimum inhibitory concentration of all the extracts was found to be 15.62 μg/ml. Conclusion The results of the present study shed light on the fact that plant extracts could be used not only as an alternate drug for management of fluconazole resistant candidiasis but also explored further for oral cancer prevention as a therapeutic adjunct. PMID:26436036

  20. Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs), such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Methods The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss.) Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L.) were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Results Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L.) generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae), Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae), Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae) did not enhance the activity of amoxicillin against both

  1. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  2. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd.; Aqil, Mohd.; Mujeeb, Mohd.; Pillai, K. K.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

  3. Efficacy of dietary supplementation with botanicals on carbohydrate metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping; Wang, Zhong Q

    2008-06-01

    Botanical products are widely used in nutritional supplementation for promotion of health or prevention of diseases. With the high prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism are common in the general population and obtaining glycemic control is important in reducing the complications of diabetes. If shown to be effective, botanical products have a unique position in potentially aiding the general public in regard to obesity and diabetes. They can be obtained "over-the-counter" and may have less side effects compared to many synthetic drugs. Although most of the popular botanicals have a long history in folk medicine, there is paucity of data regarding their efficacy and safety, particularly as it relates to human studies. In this review, we discuss the data that was available in the literature for nine botanicals that are frequently promoted to help manage blood glucose. They are Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia), Fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum), Gymnema Sylvestre, Ivy Gourd (Coccinia indica), Nopal or Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia streptacantha), Ginseng, Aloe Vera, Russian Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), and Garlic (Allium sativum). The discussion is emphasized on the clinical aspect of these botanicals. Due to the lack of sufficient evidence from clinical studies for any of the botanicals reviewed, it is premature to actively recommend use of any particular herb to treat either glucose or other risk factors. Thus, well defined randomized clinical trials are warranted in this area.

  4. Diosgenin: Recent Highlights on Pharmacology and Analytical Methodology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin, occurs abundantly in plants such as Dioscorea alata, Smilax China, and Trigonella foenum graecum. This bioactive phytochemical not only is used as an important starting material for the preparation of several steroidal drugs in the pharmaceutical industry, but has revealed also high potential and interest in the treatment of various types of disorders such as cancer, hypercholesterolemia, inflammation, and several types of infections. Due to its pharmacological and industrial importance, several extraction and analytical procedures have been developed and applied over the years to isolate, detect, and quantify diosgenin, not only in its natural sources and pharmaceutical compositions, but also in animal matrices for pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and toxicological studies. Within these, HPLC technique coupled to different detectors is the most commonly analytical procedure described for this compound. However, other alternative methods were also published. Thus, the present review aims to provide collective information on the most recent pharmacological data on diosgenin and on the most relevant analytical techniques used to isolate, detect, and quantify this compound as well. PMID:28116217

  5. In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Bipin, Chapagain; Chitra, Pai (Bhat); Minakshi, Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci isolated from human clinical samples. Material and methods Two hundred and fifteen enterococcal strains were isolated from clinical samples. High level gentamicin resistance in ethanolic extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The antibacterial effect of the extracts was studied using the well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was carried out by χ2 test using SPSS 17 software. Results Only cinnamon and ginger were found to have activity against all the isolates, whereas cumin and cloves had a variable effect on the strains. Fenugreek, black pepper and cardamom did not show any effect on the isolates. The zone diameter of inhibition obtained for cinnamon, ginger, cloves and cumin was in the range 31–34 mm, 27–30 mm, 25–26 mm and 19–20 mm respectively. Conclusions Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Z. officinale showed the maximum antibacterial activity against the enterococcal isolates followed by S. aromaticum and C. cyminum. The findings of the study show that spices used in the study can contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents for inclusion in the anti-enterococcal treatment regimen. PMID:26322099

  6. Identification of Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Spices: A Molecular Docking and Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Priya; Vijayan, Ranjit

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients results in a diverse range of complications such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases. The role of aldose reductase (AR), the key enzyme in the polyol pathway, in these complications is well established. Due to notable side-effects of several drugs, phytochemicals as an alternative has gained considerable importance for the treatment of several ailments. In order to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dietary spices on AR, a collection of phytochemicals were identified from Zingiber officinale (ginger), Curcuma longa (turmeric) Allium sativum (garlic) and Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek). Molecular docking was performed for lead identification and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dynamic behaviour of these protein-ligand interactions. Gingerenones A, B and C, lariciresinol, quercetin and calebin A from these spices exhibited high docking score, binding affinity and sustained protein-ligand interactions. Rescoring of protein ligand interactions at the end of MD simulations produced binding scores that were better than the initially docked conformations. Docking results, ligand interactions and ADMET properties of these molecules were significantly better than commercially available AR inhibitors like epalrestat, sorbinil and ranirestat. Thus, these natural molecules could be potent AR inhibitors. PMID:26384019

  7. Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Modak, Manisha; Dixit, Priyanjali; Londhe, Jayant; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Paul A. Devasagayam, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included. PMID:18398493

  8. Fenugreek Seed Powder Nullified Aluminium Chloride Induced Memory Loss, Biochemical Changes, Aβ Burden and Apoptosis via Regulating Akt/GSK3β Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Prema, Asokan; Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy Justin; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Akbar, Mohammed D.; Akbar, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia that mainly affects the cognitive functions of the aged populations. Trigonella foenum-graecum (L.) (fenugreek), a traditionally well utilized medicinal plant ubiquitously used as one of the main food additive worldwide, is known to have numerous beneficial health effects. Fenugreek seed extract could be able to inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a key enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of AD, and further shown to have anti-parkinsonic effect. The present study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect of fenugreek seed powder (FSP) against aluminium chloride (AlCl3) induced experimental AD model. Administration of germinated FSP (2.5, 5 and 10% mixed with ground standard rat feed) protected AlCl3 induced memory and learning impairments, Al overload, AChE hyperactivity, amyloid β (Aβ) burden and apoptosis via activating Akt/GSK3β pathway. Our present data could confirm the neuroprotective effect of fenugreek seeds. Further these results could lead a possible therapeutics for the management of neurodegenerative diseases including AD in future. PMID:27893738

  9. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-02-01

    This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects.

  10. Survey on medicinal plants and spices used in Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to identify medicinal plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt. Methods Ethnobotanical data from local people was collected using direct interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Forty-eight plant species belonging to twenty-seven families and forty-seven genera were encountered during the study. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant parts used and medicinal uses are given. Results of the study were analyzed using two quantitative tools. The factor informant consensus indicated the agreement in the use of plants and the fidelity level indicated the ratio between the number of informants who independently suggested the use of a species for the same major purpose and the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any use. The results of the factor informant consensus showed that the cardiovascular category has the greatest agreement, followed by the immunological, gastrointestinal and respiratory categories. The most important species according to their fidelity are: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. for the cardiovascular category; Trigonella foenum-graecum L. for the immunological category; Mentha piperita L. for the gastrointestinal category and Pimpinella anisum L. for the respiratory category. Conclusions Medicinal plants are still used for treatment in Beni-Sueif community despite the availability of prescribed medications. Documentation of this ethnomedicinal knowledge is important. Evaluation of pharmacological activity for the promising medicinal plants is suggested. PMID:21707967

  11. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    PubMed Central

    Kirubakaran, A.; Moorthy, M.; Chitra, R.; Prabakar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR. PMID:27284222

  12. Anti-cholelithogenic potential of dietary spices and their bioactives.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2017-05-24

    Dietary hypocholesterolemic spices-curcumin (active compound of turmeric (Curcuma longa)) and capsaicin (active compound of red pepper (Capsicum annuum)), the active principles of spices-turmeric (Curcuma longa) and red pepper (Capsicum annuum), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, garlic (Allium sativum), and onion (Allium cepa) are documented to have anti-cholelithogenic property in animal model. These spices prevent the induction of cholesterol gallstones by lithogenic high cholesterol diet and also regress the pre-established cholesterol gallstones, by virtue of their hypolipidemic potential. The antilithogenic influence of these spices is primarily attributable to their hypocholesterolemic effect. Increased cholesterol saturation index, cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and cholesterol:bile acid ratio in the bile caused by the lithogenic diet was countered by these spices. The antilithogenicity of these hypocholesterolemic spices was considered to be due also to their influence on biliary proteins that have pro-nucleating activity and anti-nucleating activity. Investigations on the involvement of biliary proteins in cholesterol crystal nucleation revealed that in an in vitro bile model, low molecular weight biliary proteins of the lithogenic diet fed animals have a pro-nucleating activity. On the contrary, low molecular weight biliary proteins of the animals fed hypocholesterolemic spices along with lithogenic diet showed a potent anti-nucleating activity.

  13. Effect of normal/dehydrated greens on the rheological, microstructural, nutritional and quality characteristics of paratha-an Indian flat bread.

    PubMed

    Sudha, M L; Eipson, Sushma W; Khanum, Hafeeza; Naidu, M Madhava; Venkateswara Rao, G

    2015-02-01

    The leaves of dill (Anethum graveolens) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Leguminosae) were dehydrated using low temperature low humidity dryer, packed in polypropylene bags and stored at refrigerated conditions. Dehydration process marginally reduced the chlorophyll, carotenoid and ascorbic acid contents. Replacement of whole wheat flour with dehydrated leaves (dill-DDL, fenugreek leaves DFL) at 0, 5, 7.5 and 10 % increased the water absorption (68.5 to 70.2 %), dough development time (3.5 to 5.9 min) and mixing tolerance index values (78 to 98 BU). Pasting temperature increased (69 to 74.1 °C), whereas the hot paste viscosity (255 to 210 BU) and cold paste viscosity values (355 to 295 BU) decreased with increase in the DDL/DFL content in the blend. Sensory evaluation of parathas prepared with either normal dill/fenugreek leaves (NDL/NFL) at 0, 12.5, 25 and 37.5 % or dehydrated leaves at 0, 5, and 7.5 % showed that parathas with 25 % of normal leaves and 7.5 % of dehydrated leaves were acceptable. Microstructure of the fenugreek leaves had more porous structure on dehydration. Parathas enriched with either of leaves were rich in dietary fiber, chlorophyll and carotenoid content.

  14. Fenugreek, a naturally occurring edible spice, kills MCF-7 human breast cancer cells via an apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Khoja, Kholoud K; Shaf, Gowhar; Hasan, Tarique N; Syed, Naveed Ahmed; Al-Khalifa, Abdrohman S; Al-Assaf, Abdullah H; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2011-01-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines worldwide. Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) is traditionally applied to treat disorders such as diabetes, high cholesterol, wounds, inflammation, and gastrointestinal ailments. Fenugreek is also reported to have anticancer properties due to its active beneficial chemical constituents. The mechanism of action of several anticancer drugs is based on their ability to induce apoptosis. The objective of the study was to characterize the downstream apoptotic genes targeted by FCE in MCF-7 human immortalized breast cells. FCE effectively killed MCF-7 cells through induction of apoptosis,confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and RT-PCR assays. When cells were exposed to 50 μg/mL FCE for 24 hours, 23.2% apoptotic cells resulted, while a 48-hour exposure to 50 μg/mL caused 73.8% apoptosis. This was associated with increased expression of Caspase 3, 8, 9, p53, Fas, FADD, Bax and Bak in a time-and dose-dependent manner, as determined by real- time quantitative PCR. In summary, the induction of apoptosis by FCE is effected by its ability to increase the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and the spice holds promise for consideration in complementary therapy for breast cancer patients.

  15. Phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ziyyat, A; Legssyer, A; Mekhfi, H; Dassouli, A; Serhrouchni, M; Benjelloun, W

    1997-09-01

    In order to select the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and/or diabetes, a survey was undertaken in different areas of oriental Morocco. The patients (370 women and 256 men) were divided into three groups: diabetics (61%), hypertensives (23%) and hypertensive diabetic persons (16%). On average, 67.51% of patients regularly use medicinal plants. This proportion is perceptibly the same in all groups and does not depend on sex, age and socio-cultural level. This result shows that phytotherapy is widely adopted in northeastern Morocco. For diabetes, 41 plants were cited, of which the most used were Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae), Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae), Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Compositae), Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) and Tetraclinis articulata Benth. (Cupressaceae). In the hypertension's therapy 18 vegetal species were reported, of which the most used were Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae), Olea europea L. (Oleaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae), Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) and Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill (Apiaceae). Among the 18 species used for hypertension, 14 were also employed for diabetes. Moreover, these two diseases were associated in 41% of hypertensives. These findings suggest that hypertension observed in this region would be in a large part related to diabetes.

  16. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    PubMed Central

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Kalsoom Khan, Abida; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  17. Catalytic degradation of organic dyes using biosynthesized silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Vidhu, V K; Philip, Daizy

    2014-01-01

    The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles paved the way to improve and protect the environment by decreasing the use of toxic chemicals and eliminating biological risks in biomedical applications. Plant mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles is gaining more importance owing to its simplicity, rapid rate of synthesis of nanoparticles and eco-friendliness. The present article reports an environmentally benign and unexploited method for the synthesis of silver nanocatalysts using Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, which is a potential source of phytochemicals. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the silver samples exhibited distinct band centered around 400-440 nm. The major phytochemicals present in the seed extract responsible for the formation of silver nanocatalysts are identified using FTIR spectroscopy. The report emphasizes the effect of the size of silver nanoparticles on the degradation rate of hazardous dyes, methyl orange, methylene blue and eosin Y by NaBH4. The efficiency of silver nanoparticles as a promising candidate for the catalysis of organic dyes by NaBH4 through the electron transfer process is established in the present study.

  18. Transfer Specificity of Detergent-Solubilized Fenugreek Galactomannan Galactosyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Mary E.; Marshall, Elaine; Gidley, Michael J.; Reid, J.S. Grant

    2002-01-01

    The current experimental model for galactomannan biosynthesis in membrane-bound enzyme systems from developing legume-seed endosperms involves functional interaction between a GDP-mannose (Man) mannan synthase and a UDP-galactose (Gal) galactosyltransferase. The transfer specificity of the galactosyltransferase to the elongating mannan chain is critical in regulating the distribution and the degree of Gal substitution of the mannan backbone of the primary biosynthetic product. Detergent solubilization of the galactosyltransferase of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) with retention of activity permitted the partial purification of the enzyme and the cloning and sequencing of the corresponding cDNA with proof of functional identity. We now document the positional specificity of transfer of (14C)Gal from UDP-(14C)Gal to manno-oligosaccharide acceptors, chain lengths 5 to 8, catalyzed by the detergent-solubilized galactosyltransferase. Enzymatic fragmentation analyses of the labeled products showed that a single Gal residue was transferred per acceptor molecule, that the linkage was (1→6)-α, and that there was transfer to alternative Man residues within the acceptor molecules. Analysis of the relative frequencies of transfer to alternative Man residues within acceptor oligosaccharides of different chain length allowed the deduction of the substrate subsite recognition requirement of the galactosyltransferase. The enzyme has a principal recognition sequence of six Man residues, with transfer of Gal to the third Man residue from the nonreducing end of the sequence. These observations are incorporated into a refined model for enzyme interaction in galactomannan biosynthesis. PMID:12114592

  19. Diosgenin: Recent Highlights on Pharmacology and Analytical Methodology.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Mafalda; Martins, Ana P J; Gallardo, Eugenia; Silvestre, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin, occurs abundantly in plants such as Dioscorea alata, Smilax China, and Trigonella foenum graecum. This bioactive phytochemical not only is used as an important starting material for the preparation of several steroidal drugs in the pharmaceutical industry, but has revealed also high potential and interest in the treatment of various types of disorders such as cancer, hypercholesterolemia, inflammation, and several types of infections. Due to its pharmacological and industrial importance, several extraction and analytical procedures have been developed and applied over the years to isolate, detect, and quantify diosgenin, not only in its natural sources and pharmaceutical compositions, but also in animal matrices for pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and toxicological studies. Within these, HPLC technique coupled to different detectors is the most commonly analytical procedure described for this compound. However, other alternative methods were also published. Thus, the present review aims to provide collective information on the most recent pharmacological data on diosgenin and on the most relevant analytical techniques used to isolate, detect, and quantify this compound as well.

  20. Fenugreek extract diosgenin and pure diosgenin inhibit the hTERT gene expression in A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad; Ghareghomi, Somayyeh; Haddadchi, Gholamreza; Milani, Morteza; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Daroushnejad, Hasan

    2014-09-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum generally known as fenugreek, has been normally cultivated in Asia and Africa for the edible and medicinal values of its seeds. Fenugreek leaves and seeds have been used widely for therapeutic purposes. Fenugreek seed is recognized to show anti-diabetic and anti-nociceptive properties and other things such as hypocholesterolaemic, and anti-cancer. Diosgenin is a steroidal saponin from therapeutic herbs, fenugreek (T. foenum-graceum L.), has been well-known to have anticancer properties. Telomerase activity is not identified in usual healthy cells, while in carcinogenic cell telomerase expression is reactivated. Therefore telomerase illustrates a promising cancer therapeutic target. We deliberate the inhibitory effect of pure diosgenin and fenugreek extract diosgenin on human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (hTERT) expression which is critical for telomerase activity. MTT-assay and qRT-PCR analysis were achieved to discover cytotoxicity effects and hTERT gene expression inhibition properties, separately. MTT results exhibited that IC50 for pure diosgenin were 47, 44 and 43 µM and for fenugreek extract diosgenin were 49, 48 and 47 µM for 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment. Culturing cells with pure diosgenin and fenugreek extract diosgenin treatment caused in down regulation of hTERT expression. These results indication that pure and impure diosgenin prevents telomerase activity by down regulation of the hTERT gene expression in A549 lung cancer cell line, with the difference that pure compound is more effective than another.

  1. Fenugreek: a naturally occurring edible spice as an anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Shabbeer, Shabana; Sobolewski, Michelle; Anchoori, Ravi Kumar; Kachhap, Sushant; Hidalgo, Manuel; Jimeno, Antonio; Davidson, Nancy; Carducci, Michael A; Khan, Saeed R

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, various dietary components that can potentially be used for the prevention and treatment of cancer have been identified. In this study, we demonstrate that extract (FE) from the seeds of the plant Trigonella foenum graecum, commonly called fenugreek, are cytotoxic in vitro to a panel of cancer but not normal cells. Treatment with 10-15 ug/mL of FE for 72 h was growth inhibitory to breast, pancreatic and prostate cancer cell lines (PCa). When tested at higher doses (15-20 ug/mL), FE continued to be growth inhibitory to PCa cell lines but not to either primary prostate or hTert-immortalized prostate cells. At least part of the growth inhibition is due to induction of cell death, as seen by incorporation of Ethidium Bromide III into cancer cells exposed to FE. Molecular changes induced in PCa cells are: in DU-145 cells: downregulation of mutant p53, and in PC-3 cells upregulation of p21 and inhibition of TGFbeta induced phosphorylation of Akt. The surprising finding of our studies is that death of cancer cells occurs despite growth stimulatory pathways being simultaneously upregulated (phosphorylated) by FE. Thus, these studies add another biologically active agent to our armamentarium of naturally occurring agents with therapeutic potential.

  2. Diosgenin inhibits osteoclastogenesis, invasion, and proliferation through the downregulation of Akt, I kappa B kinase activation and NF-kappa B-regulated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shishodia, S; Aggarwal, B B

    2006-03-09

    Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin present in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) and other plants, has been shown to suppress inflammation, inhibit proliferation, and induce apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells, but through a mechanism that is poorly understood. In the present study, we report that diosgenin inhibits receptor-activated nuclear factor-kappaB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis, suppresses tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced invasion, and blocks the proliferation of tumor cells, all activities known to be regulated by NF-kappaB. Diosgenin suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation as determined by DNA binding, activation of IkappaBalpha kinase, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, IkappaBalpha degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation through inhibition of Akt activation. NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene expression was also abrogated by diosgenin. TNF-induced expression of NF-kappaB-regulated gene products involved in cell proliferation (cyclin D1, COX-2, c-myc), antiapoptosis (IAP1, Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), Bfl-1/A1, TRAF1 and cFLIP), and invasion (MMP-9) were also downregulated by the saponin. Diosgenin also potentiated the apoptosis induced by TNF and chemotherapeutic agents. Overall, our results suggest that diosgenin suppresses proliferation, inhibits invasion, and suppresses osteoclastogenesis through inhibition of NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression and enhances apoptosis induced by cytokines and chemotherapeutic agents.

  3. Antineoplastic and apoptotic potential of traditional medicines thymoquinone and diosgenin in squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Das, Subhasis; Dey, Kaushik Kumar; Dey, Goutam; Pal, Ipsita; Majumder, Abhijit; MaitiChoudhury, Sujata; kundu, Subhas C; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2012-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) and diosgenin (DG), the active ingredients obtained from black cumin (Nigella sativa) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum), respectively, exert potent bioactivity, including anticancer effects. This study investigated the antineoplastic activity of these agents against squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and sarcoma 180-induced tumors in vivo. TQ and DG inhibited cell proliferation and induced cytotoxicity in A431 and Hep2 cells. These agents induced apoptosis by increasing the sub-G(1) population, LIVE/DEAD cytotoxicity, chromatin condensation, DNA laddering and TUNEL-positive cells significantly (P<0.05). Increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of caspases and cleavage of poly ADP ribose polymerase were observed in treated cells. These drugs inhibited Akt and JNK phosphorylations, thus inhibiting cell proliferation while inducing apoptosis. In combination, TQ and DG had synergistic effects, resulting in cell viability as low as 10%. In a mouse xenograft model, a combination of TQ and DG significantly (P<0.05) reduced tumor volume, mass and increased apoptosis. TQ and DG, alone and in combination, inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in squamous cell carcinoma. The combination of TQ and DG is a potential antineoplastic therapy in this common skin cancer.

  4. Development and characterization of the α3β4α5 nicotinic receptor cellular membrane affinity chromatography column and its application for on line screening of plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ciesla, L.; Okine, M.; Rosenberg, A.; Dossou, K.S.S.; Toll, L.; Wainer, I.W.; Moaddel, R.

    2016-01-01

    The α3β4α5 nAChR has been recently shown to be a useful target for smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Herein, we report on the development and characterization of the α3β4α5 nicotinic receptor column by frontal displacement chromatography. The binding affinity of the nicotine and minor alkaloids found in tobacco smoke condensates were determined for both the α3β4 and α3β4α5 nicotinic receptors. It was demonstrated that while no subtype selectivity was observed for nicotine and nornicotine, anabasine was selective for the α3β4α5 nicotinic receptor. The non-competitive inhibitor binding site was also studied and it was demonstrated while mecamylamine was not selective between subtypes, buproprion showed subtype selectivity for the α3β4 nicotinic receptor. The application of this methodology to complex mixtures was then carried out by screening aqueous-alcoholic solutions of targeted plant extracts, including Lycopodium clavatum L. (Lycopodiaceae) and Trigonella foenum graecum L. (Fabaceae) against both the α3β4 and α3β4α5 nAChRs. PMID:26774122

  5. Long-term survival of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak strain on fenugreek seeds.

    PubMed

    Knödler, Michael; Berger, Michael; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2016-10-01

    A major outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 occurred in Germany in 2011. The epidemiological investigation revealed that a contaminated batch of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum) was the most probable source of the pathogen. It was suggested that the most probable point of contamination was prior to leaving the importer, meaning that the seed contamination with STEC O104:H4 should have happened more than one year before the seeds were used for sprout production. Here, we investigated the capacity of STEC O104:H4 and closely related pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strains for long-term survival on dry fenugreek seeds. We did not observe a superior survival capacity of STEC O104:H4 on dry seeds. For none of the strains tested cultivatable cells were found without enrichment on contaminated seeds after more than 24 weeks of storage. Our findings suggest that contamination previous to the distribution from the importer may be less likely than previously assumed. We show that seeds contaminated with E. coli in extremely high numbers can be completely sterilized by a short treatment with bleach. This simple and cheap procedure does not affect the germination capacity of the seeds and could significantly improve safety in sprout production.

  6. EPR and IR spectral investigations on some leafy vegetables of Indian origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasuna, C. P. Lakshmi; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Gopal, N. O.

    2009-09-01

    EPR spectral investigations have been carried out on four edible leafy vegetables of India, which are used as dietary component in day to day life. In Rumex vesicarius leaf sample, EPR spectral investigations at different temperatures indicate the presence of anti-ferromagnetically coupled Mn(IV)-Mn(IV) complexes. EPR spectra of Trigonella foenum graecum show the presence of Mn ions in multivalent state and Fe 3+ ions in rhombic symmetry. EPR spectra of Basella rubra indicate the presence of Mn(IV)-O-Mn(IV) type complexes. The EPR spectra of Basella rubra have been studied at different temperatures. It is found that the spin population for the resonance signal at g = 2.06 obeys the Boltzmann distribution law. The EPR spectra of Moringa oliefera leaves show the presence of Mn 2+ ions. Radiation induced changes in free radical of this sample have also been studied. The FT-IR spectra of Basella rubra and Moringa oliefera leaves show the evidences for the protein matrix bands and those corresponding to carboxylic C dbnd O bonds.

  7. Enzymatic and chemical oxidation of polygalactomannans from the seeds of a few species of leguminous plants and characterization of the oxidized products.

    PubMed

    Merlini, Luca; Boccia, Antonella Caterina; Mendichi, Raniero; Galante, Yves M

    2015-03-20

    Plant polysaccharides are used in a growing number of applications, in their native or in chemically and/or biochemically modified forms. In the present work, we compare TEMPO-mediated oxidation with laccase of polygalactomannans (PGM) from different species of plant leguminous to chemical oxidation with NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO. We have investigated the gums from: locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua), tara (Caesalpinia spinosa), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus), sesbania (Sesbania bispinosa) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). Upon laccase/TEMPO oxidation, PGM viscosity and concentration of reducing groups increased up to five-fold and structured, elastic, stable gels were formed, which could be degraded by hydrolysis with β-mannanase. Conversely, chemical oxidation with NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO caused a rapid, intermediate transition of the gum solutions to compact gels, that immediately reverted to liquid, with a lower viscosity than at the start and an increased concentration of reducing groups, similar to the reaction with laccase. We interpret the above as due to, in the case of laccase, oxidation of primary hydroxyl groups to aldehydes, able to form stable hemiacetalic bonds with free hydroxyl groups. While upon chemical oxidation, primary OH's are only transiently oxidized to aldehydes, followed by rapid oxidation of all carbonyl groups to carboxylates. In either cases, TEMPO appeared to cause a limited splitting of glycosidic bonds of PGM. Native and oxidized PGM were further characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and by rheology.

  8. EPR and IR spectral investigations on some leafy vegetables of Indian origin.

    PubMed

    Prasuna, C P Lakshmi; Chakradhar, R P S; Rao, J L; Gopal, N O

    2009-09-15

    EPR spectral investigations have been carried out on four edible leafy vegetables of India, which are used as dietary component in day to day life. In Rumex vesicarius leaf sample, EPR spectral investigations at different temperatures indicate the presence of anti-ferromagnetically coupled Mn(IV)-Mn(IV) complexes. EPR spectra of Trigonella foenum graecum show the presence of Mn ions in multivalent state and Fe(3+) ions in rhombic symmetry. EPR spectra of Basella rubra indicate the presence of Mn(IV)-O-Mn(IV) type complexes. The EPR spectra of Basella rubra have been studied at different temperatures. It is found that the spin population for the resonance signal at g=2.06 obeys the Boltzmann distribution law. The EPR spectra of Moringa oliefera leaves show the presence of Mn(2+) ions. Radiation induced changes in free radical of this sample have also been studied. The FT-IR spectra of Basella rubra and Moringa oliefera leaves show the evidences for the protein matrix bands and those corresponding to carboxylic CO bonds.

  9. News from Tartary: an ethnopharmacological approach to drug and therapeutic discovery.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicholas; Hamza, Nawel; Berke, Benedicte; Umar, Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Ethnopharmacology aims to identify new therapeutic agents based on their traditional use. It begins by the identification of disease states, and of the traditional therapies for these, most commonly herbals. Herbals of interest are selected from ethnopharmacological surveys, and tested on experimental models of the diseases of interest. Once the activity of the traditional remedy is demonstrated, including dose-dependence, if possible comparatively to reference medications, the active ingredients can be explored, if possible using bioguided extraction. Identified molecules can then be further developed as medicinal products or pharmaceutical medicines (e.g., artemisine), or the herbal product can be developed as such (e.g. St John's wort). We provide examples of various study programmes, concerning the antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of Armagnac extracts from Southwest France; antithrombotic and antihypertensive effects of extracts of Ocimum basilicum L; antithrombotic, antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effects of Cydonia oblonga; Antiproliferative and antithrombotic effects of Abnorma Savda Munziq of traditional Uyghur medicine; and the antidiabetic and hepatoprotective effects of Centaurium erythraea Rafn, Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Trigonella foenum-graecum L., all in collaboration between University of Bordeaux, France, Xinjiang Medical University in Urumqi, China and University Mentouri in Constantine, Algeria.

  10. Identification of Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Spices: A Molecular Docking and Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Antony, Priya; Vijayan, Ranjit

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients results in a diverse range of complications such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases. The role of aldose reductase (AR), the key enzyme in the polyol pathway, in these complications is well established. Due to notable side-effects of several drugs, phytochemicals as an alternative has gained considerable importance for the treatment of several ailments. In order to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dietary spices on AR, a collection of phytochemicals were identified from Zingiber officinale (ginger), Curcuma longa (turmeric) Allium sativum (garlic) and Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek). Molecular docking was performed for lead identification and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dynamic behaviour of these protein-ligand interactions. Gingerenones A, B and C, lariciresinol, quercetin and calebin A from these spices exhibited high docking score, binding affinity and sustained protein-ligand interactions. Rescoring of protein ligand interactions at the end of MD simulations produced binding scores that were better than the initially docked conformations. Docking results, ligand interactions and ADMET properties of these molecules were significantly better than commercially available AR inhibitors like epalrestat, sorbinil and ranirestat. Thus, these natural molecules could be potent AR inhibitors.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants against clinical isolates of oral cancer cases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Suppression of immune system in treated cancer patients may lead to secondary infections that obviate the need of antibiotics. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the occurrence of secondary infections in immuno-suppressed patients along with herbal control of these infections with the following objectives to: (a) isolate the microbial species from the treated oral cancer patients along with the estimation of absolute neutrophile counts of patients (b) assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity medicinal plants against the above clinical isolates. Methods Blood and oral swab cultures were taken from 40 oral cancer patients undergoing treatment in the radiotherapy unit of Regional Cancer Institute, Pt. B.D.S. Health University, Rohtak, Haryana. Clinical isolates were identified by following general microbiological, staining and biochemical methods. The absolute neutrophile counts were done by following the standard methods. The medicinal plants selected for antimicrobial activity analysis were Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Balanites aegyptiaca L., Cestrum diurnum L., Cordia dichotoma G. Forst, Eclipta alba L., Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. , Pedalium murex L., Ricinus communis L. and Trigonella foenum graecum L. The antimicrobial efficacy of medicinal plants was evaluated by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. MIC and MFC were investigated by serial two fold microbroth dilution method. Results Prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23.2%), Escherichia coli (15.62%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.37%), Klebsiella pneumonia (7.81%), Proteus mirabilis (3.6%), Proteus vulgaris (4.2%) and the fungal pathogens were Candida albicans (14.6%), Aspergillus fumigatus (9.37%). Out of 40 cases, 35 (87.5%) were observed as neutropenic. Eight medicinal plants (A. tenuifolius, A. racemosus, B. aegyptiaca, E. alba, M. koenigii, P. murex R. communis and T

  12. Chromium fractionation and plant availability in tannery-sludge amended soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allué, Josep; Moya Garcés, Alba; Bech, Jaume; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    The leather industry represents an important economic sector in both developed and developing countries. Chromium tanning is the major process used to obtain high quality leather. Within the REACH regulation the use of Cr, especially CrVI, in the tanning process is under discussion in Europe. High Cr concentration in shoes and other Cr-tanned leather products can cause contact dermatitis in sensitive population. Moreover, the high Cr concentration is the major limiting factor for the use of tannery sludge as a source of organic matter in agricultural soils. Interest in Cr, however is not limited to its potential toxic effects. Chromium III is used as a dietary supplement because there are reports, but also controversy, about the positive effects of Cr III in glucose tolerance and type-2 diabetes. Adequate intake levels for Cr by the diet have been established between 25 and 35 µg/day for adult females and males, respectively. Sufficient supply of Cr III by the diet is preferable to the use of CrIII-salt based dietary supplements. The objective of the present work was to investigate whether Cr from tannery sludge-amended soil is available to Trigonella foenum-graecum plants, a plant used both as a spice and as a medicinal herb, because of its hypoglucemic effects. For this purpose clay loam soil (pH 7.8) was sieved (2mm) and thoroughly mixed with tannery sludge from a depuration station (Igualadina Depuració i Recuperació S.L., Igualada, Barcelona, Spain). The sludge had a Cr concentration of 6,034mg kg-1 and a 0.73 % of NH4-nitrogen. All the Cr was in the form of CrIII. Three treatments were disposed. Control soil receiving no sludge, a 60 mg kg-1 Cr treatment (10 g fresh sludge kg-1 soil) and a 120 mg kg-1 Cr treatment (20 g fresh sludge kg-1 soil). Control soil and the soil treated with 10g kg-1 sludge received NPK fertilizer in the form of ammonium sulfate, superfosfate, and KCl to rise the N,P, and K concentrations to similar levels to those achieved in the

  13. Nodulation, Nitrogen Fixation, and Hydrogen Oxidation by Pigeon Pea Bradyrhizobium spp. in Symbiotic Association with Pigeon Pea, Cowpea, and Soybean †

    PubMed Central

    Nautiyal, C. S.; Hegde, S. V.; van Berkum, P.

    1988-01-01

    The pigeon pea strains of Bradyrhizobium CC-1, CC-8, UASGR(S), and F4 were evaluated for nodulation, effectiveness for N2 fixation, and H2 oxidation with homologous and nonhomologous host plants. Strain CC-1 nodulated Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata, Glycine max, and G. soja but did not nodulate Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Trifolium repens. Strain F4 nodulated G. max cv. Peking and PI 434937 (Malayan), but the symbioses formed were poor. Similarly, G. max cv. Peking, cv. Bragg, PI 434937, PR 13-28-2-8-7, and HM-1 were nodulated by strain CC-1, and symbioses were also poor. G. max cv. Williams and cv. Clark were not nodulated. H2 uptake activity was expressed with pigeon pea and cowpea, but not with soybean. G. max cv. Bragg grown in Bangalore, India, in local soil not previously exposed to Bradyrhizobium japonicum formed nodules with indigenous Bradyrhizobium spp. Six randomly chosen isolates, each originating from a different nodule, formed effective symbioses with pigeon pea host ICPL-407, nodulated PR 13-28-2-8-7 soybean forming moderately effective symbioses, and did not nodulate Williams soybean. These results indicate the six isolates to be pigeon pea strains although they originated from soybean nodules. Host-determined nodulation of soybean by pigeon pea Bradyrhizobium spp. may depend upon the ancestral backgrounds of the cultivars. The poor symbioses formed by the pigeon pea strains with soybean indicate that this crop should be inoculated with B. japonicum for its cultivation in soils containing only pigeon pea Bradyrhizobium spp. PMID:16347542

  14. Identification of an additional protein involved in mannan biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Mortimer, Jennifer C; Davis, Jonathan; Dupree, Paul; Keegstra, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Galactomannans comprise a β-1,4-mannan backbone substituted with α-1,6-galactosyl residues. Genes encoding the enzymes that are primarily responsible for backbone synthesis and side-chain addition of galactomannans were previously identified and characterized. To identify additional genes involved in galactomannan biosynthesis, we previously performed deep EST profiling of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed endosperm, which accumulates large quantities of galactomannans as a reserve carbohydrate during seed development. One of the candidate genes encodes a protein that is likely to be a glycosyltransferase. Because this protein is involved in mannan biosynthesis, we named it ‘mannan synthesis-related’ (MSR). Here, we report the characterization of a fenugreek MSR gene (TfMSR) and its two Arabidopsis homologs, AtMSR1 and AtMSR2. TfMSR was highly and specifically expressed in the endosperm. TfMSR, AtMSR1 and AtMSR2 proteins were all determined to be localized to the Golgi by fluorescence confocal microscopy. The level of mannosyl residues in stem glucomannans decreased by approximately 40% for Arabidopsis msr1 single T-DNA insertion mutants and by more than 50% for msr1 msr2 double mutants, but remained unchanged for msr2 single mutants. In addition, in vitro mannan synthase activity from the stems of msr1 single and msr1 msr2 double mutants also decreased. Expression of AtMSR1 or AtMSR2 in the msr1 msr2 double mutant completely or partially restored mannosyl levels. From these results, we conclude that the MSR protein is important for mannan biosynthesis, and offer some ideas about its role. PMID:22966747

  15. Fenugreek, A Potent Hypoglycaemic Herb Can Cause Central Hypothyroidism Via Leptin - A Threat To Diabetes Phytotherapy.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Jayjeet; Chakraborty, Pratip; Mitra, Analava; Sarkar, Nirmal Kumar; Sarkar, Supriti

    2017-04-13

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum), a medicinal herb with potent antihyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic effects, is used to treat diabetes. This study is aimed to explore the interaction of fenugreek seed extract (FSE) and HPT (hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid) axis in context of leptin secretion which have important role in normal and type-1 diabetic subjects. FSE (confirmed to contain trigonelline, diosgenin, 4 hydroxyisoleucine) was gavaged (0.25 gm/kg body weight/day) to normal and alloxan-induced type-1 diabetic rats for 4 weeks. Expression of hypothalamic prepro-TRH (Thyrotropin releasing hormone) mRNA, serum levels of TRH, TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone), fT3, fT4, insulin, leptin, glucose; thyroperoxidase activity and growth of thyroid gland, food intake, adiposity index were also studied FSE significantly down regulated prepro-TRH mRNA expression; decreased serum TRH, TSH, fT3, fT4 levels, and regressed thyroid gland in FSE-fed normal and diabetic rats than those observed in normal diet-fed control and diabetic rats. FSE decreased (p<0.005-0.001) adiposity index and leptin secretion, increased food intake and body weight in all FSE-fed rats. FSE improved insulin secretion, decreased glucose level but impaired HPT axis in diabetic rats, indicating insulin-independent central hypothyroidism. Results suggested that the dominant signal to hypothalamus suppressing HPT axis is the fall in leptin level which i resulted from decreased adiposity index following FSE feeding. Fenugreek simultaneously having hypoglycaemic and hypothyroidal actions raises questions whether it can be safely used to treat diabetes and/or hyperthyroidism as was suggested by many workers.

  16. Diosgenin, a Steroidal Saponin, Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Human Prostate Cancer PC-3 Cells by Reducing Matrix Metalloproteinases Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pin-Shern; Shih, Yuan-Wei; Huang, Hsiang-Ching; Cheng, Hsing-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Background Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin obtained from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum), was found to exert anti-carcinogenic properties, such as inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells. However, the effect of diosgenin on cancer metastasis remains unclear. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of diosgenin on migration and invasion in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Methods and Principal Findings Diosgenin inhibited proliferation of PC-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. When treated with non-toxic doses of diosgenin, cell migration and invasion were markedly suppressed by in vitro wound healing assay and Boyden chamber invasion assay, respectively. Furthermore, diosgenin reduced the activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 by gelatin zymography assay. The mRNA level of MMP-2, -9, -7 and extracellular inducer of matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN) were also suppressed while tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) was increased by diosgenin. In addition, diosgenin abolished the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in PC-3 cells and tube formation of endothelial cells. Our immunoblotting assays indicated that diosgenin potently suppressed the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt, extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In addition, diosgenin significantly decreased the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), suggesting that diosgenin inhibited NF-κB activity. Conclusion/Significance The results suggested that diosgenin inhibited migration and invasion of PC-3 cells by reducing MMPs expression. It also inhibited ERK, JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways as well as NF-κB activity. These findings reveal new therapeutic potential for diosgenin in anti-metastatic therapy. PMID:21629786

  17. Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of {sup 131}I in fenugreek and Okra plants

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, R.K.; Narayanan, U.; Bhat, I.S.

    1994-11-01

    The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne {sup 131}I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 {mu}m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of {sup 131}I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1}. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women’s health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women’s Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  19. Authentication of Herbal Supplements Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Braukmann, Thomas W. A.; Borisenko, Alex V.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.

    2016-01-01

    Background DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious. Methods We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Experimental design included three modifications of DNA extraction, two lysate dilutions, Internal Amplification Control, and multiple negative controls to exclude background contamination. Ginkgo supplements were also analyzed using HPLC-MS for the presence of active medicinal components. Results All supplements yielded DNA from multiple species, rendering Sanger sequencing results for rbcL and ITS2 regions either uninterpretable or non-reproducible between the experimental replicates. Overall, DNA from the manufacturer-listed medicinal plants was successfully detected in seven out of eight dry herb form supplements; however, low or poor DNA recovery due to degradation was observed in most plant extracts (none detected by Sanger; three out of seven–by NGS). NGS also revealed a diverse community of fungi, known to be associated with live plant material and/or the fermentation process used in the production of plant extracts. HPLC-MS testing demonstrated that Ginkgo supplements with degraded DNA contained ten key medicinal components. Conclusion Quality control of herbal supplements should utilize a synergetic approach targeting both DNA and bioactive components, especially for standardized extracts with degraded DNA. The NGS workflow developed in this study enables reliable detection of plant and fungal DNA and can be utilized by manufacturers for quality assurance of raw plant materials, contamination control during the production process, and the final product

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy and electrophoresis as a "golden means" in monitoring of polysaccharides in medical plant and gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielesz, A.

    In recent years, some bioactive polysaccharides isolated from natural sources have attracted much attention in the field of biochemistry and pharmacology. Of them, polysaccharides or their glycoconjugates were shown to exhibit multiple biological activities including anticarcinogenic, anticoagulant, immunostimulating, antioxidant, etc. Pharmacotherapy using plant-derived substances can be currently regarded as a very promising future alternative to conventional therapy. The advanced biotechnologies available today enable chemical investigation of well-defined bioactive plant components as sources of novel drugs. The need for safer drugs without side effects has led to the use of natural ingredients with proven safety. Special interest is focused on plant polysaccharides. This article attempts to review the current structural and conformational characterization of some importantly bioactive monosaccharides isolated from following plant cell-wall: Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Thymus pulegioides (thyme), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek), Tussilago farfara L. (coltsfoot), Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop), Althaea officinalis L. (marshmallow) and Equisetum arvense L. (horsetail). The chemical structures of monosaccharides were analysed using FTIR and Raman spectroscopies as well as cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAE). The dried plant samples were gently hydrolysed with sulphuric acid. The presence of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, alginic acid, glucose, mannose and xylose in the hydrolysates of reference substances and non-defatted plant films was proved. The possibility of a taxonomic classification of plant cell walls based on infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the use of spectral fingerprinting for authentication and detection of adulteration of products rich in cell-wall materials are discussed. Individual bands were selected to monitor the sugar content in medical plant cell walls and to confirm the identity of the analysed plants.

  1. Vibrational spectroscopy and electrophoresis as a "golden means" in monitoring of polysaccharides in medical plant and gels.

    PubMed

    Pielesz, A

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, some bioactive polysaccharides isolated from natural sources have attracted much attention in the field of biochemistry and pharmacology. Of them, polysaccharides or their glycoconjugates were shown to exhibit multiple biological activities including anticarcinogenic, anticoagulant, immunostimulating, antioxidant, etc. Pharmacotherapy using plant-derived substances can be currently regarded as a very promising future alternative to conventional therapy. The advanced biotechnologies available today enable chemical investigation of well-defined bioactive plant components as sources of novel drugs. The need for safer drugs without side effects has led to the use of natural ingredients with proven safety. Special interest is focused on plant polysaccharides. This article attempts to review the current structural and conformational characterization of some importantly bioactive monosaccharides isolated from following plant cell-wall: Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Thymus pulegioides (thyme), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek), Tussilago farfara L. (coltsfoot), Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop), Althaea officinalis L. (marshmallow) and Equisetum arvense L. (horsetail). The chemical structures of monosaccharides were analysed using FTIR and Raman spectroscopies as well as cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAE). The dried plant samples were gently hydrolysed with sulphuric acid. The presence of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, alginic acid, glucose, mannose and xylose in the hydrolysates of reference substances and non-defatted plant films was proved. The possibility of a taxonomic classification of plant cell walls based on infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the use of spectral fingerprinting for authentication and detection of adulteration of products rich in cell-wall materials are discussed. Individual bands were selected to monitor the sugar content in medical plant cell walls and to confirm the identity of the analysed plants.

  2. Family 34 glycosyltransferase (GT34) genes and proteins in Pinus radiata (radiata pine) and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine).

    PubMed

    Ade, Carsten P; Bemm, Felix; Dickson, James M J; Walter, Christian; Harris, Philip J

    2014-04-01

    Using a functional genomics approach, four candidate genes (PtGT34A, PtGT34B, PtGT34C and PtGT34D) were identified in Pinus taeda. These genes encode CAZy family GT34 glycosyltransferases that are involved in the synthesis of cell-wall xyloglucans and heteromannans. The full-length coding sequences of three orthologs (PrGT34A, B and C) were isolated from a xylem-specific cDNA library from the closely related Pinus radiata. PrGT34B is the ortholog of XXT1 and XXT2, the two main xyloglucan (1→6)-α-xylosyltransferases in Arabidopsis thaliana. PrGT34C is the ortholog of XXT5 in A. thaliana, which is also involved in the xylosylation of xyloglucans. PrGT34A is an ortholog of a galactosyltransferase from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) that is involved in galactomannan synthesis. Truncated coding sequences of the genes were cloned into plasmid vectors and expressed in a Sf9 insect cell-culture system. The heterologous proteins were purified, and in vitro assays showed that, when incubated with UDP-xylose and cellotetraose, cellopentaose or cellohexaose, PrGT34B showed xylosyltransferase activity, and, when incubated with UDP-galactose and the same cello-oligosaccharides, PrGT34B showed some galactosyltransferase activity. The ratio of xylosyltransferase to galactosyltransferase activity was 434:1. Hydrolysis of the galactosyltransferase reaction products using galactosidases showed the linkages formed were α-linkages. Analysis of the products of PrGT34B by MALDI-TOF MS showed that up to three xylosyl residues were transferred from UDP-xylose to cellohexaose. The heterologous proteins PrGT34A and PrGT34C showed no detectable enzymatic activity.

  3. Niacin-bound chromium increases life span in Zucker Fatty Rats.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Harry G; Echard, Bobby; Clouatre, Dallas; Bagchi, Debasis; Perricone, Nicholas V

    2011-10-01

    Avoiding insulin resistance (IR) associated with aging might lengthen life span based on previous studies using caloric-restricted animals. We assessed whether consuming niacin-bound chromium (NBC) alone or in a formula containing other so-called "insulin sensitizers" would overcome various manifestations of aging and extend life span in Zucker Fatty Rats (ZFR). We compared many metabolic parameters of ZFR fed NBC alone (n=12) or NBC in a unique formula (n=10) to a control group (n=10). In addition to NBC, the formula contained Allium sativum, Momordica charantia, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Gymnema sylvestre. The formula group received roughly 1/2 as much NBC daily as the NBC group. At week 44, all rats still lived, and no abnormalities in blood count (CBC), renal, or liver functions were found. In the two treatment groups compared to control, circulating glucose levels were significantly lower, with a trend toward lower HbA1C. Relatively elevated cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations occurred in the formula group. Compared to control, the NBC group had increased average lifespan (21.8%), median lifespan (14.1%), 30th percentile survival (19.6%), and maximum lifespan (22%). Despite similar beneficial effects on the glucose and blood pressure systems, a difference in aging was also found when the NBC group was compared to the formula group. When all rats in the other two groups had died, four in the NBC group continued to live at least a month longer. We attribute lack of a similar aging effect in the formula group to either lower dosing of NBC and/or that various ingredients in the formula counteracted the antiaging effect(s) of NBC.

  4. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Birgit M; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L; Bolton, Judy L

    2016-10-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women's health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women's Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  5. Uptake and translocation of metals in fenugreek grown on soil amended with tannery sludge: involvement of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sarita; Gupta, Amit K; Bhatt, Kavita

    2007-06-01

    Agricultural and industrial activities cause heavy metal pollution in the soil, which adversely affect the plant growing therein. The plants of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) were grown in soil amended with different percent of tannery sludge (TS) (10%, 25%, 35%, 50%, and 100% TS) in order to study the effect on antioxidant levels due to translocation of metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pb). The accumulation of the metals was found more in shoots than roots, except Fe and Cr. The level of metals in seeds of the plant increased with increase in sludge amendments ratio except Mn, which decreased in roots, shoots, and seeds of the plant. Chromium was found below detection limits in the seeds at 10% and 25% TS. Correlation coefficient (r) between total metal accumulation and extractable metals showed that Zn (P<0.01), Cr (P<0.01), and Cu (P<0.05) are significantly correlated, whereas, correlation with pH showed significant positive relation with all the studied metals except Mn. Significant positive correlation was recorded between metal accumulation (Fe, Zn, Cu) and electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and organic matter, however, Zn, Cr, and Cu showed significant positive correlation with bulk density, nitrate, ammonia, and available phosphorus. The analysis of the results showed that total chlorophyll content showed significant (P< 0.5) increase in lower amendment of sludge (up to 35% TS at 30 d and 25% TS at 60 d) as over their controls. In roots, malondialdehyde, cysteine, non-protein thiol, proline, protein, ascorbic acid contents increased up to 35% TS at 30 d. Principal component analysis also showed that strong association exists among malondialdehyde, nonprotein thiol, protein, and cysteine contents in the plants grown on different amendments of TS. The level of antioxidants increased which enabled the plant to cope up the stress induced in the plants grown on lower amendments of TS, however, toxicity was observed at higher amendments.

  6. Safety and efficacy of a polyherbal formulation for the management of dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in patients with advanced-stage of type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zarvandi, Mahdi; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Abazari, Mohammad; Shafiee-Nick, Reza; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2017-02-16

    The present clinical trial was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a polyherbal formulation (PHF) consisted of Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Nigella sativa, Plantago psyllium, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum for controlling dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in patients with advanced-stage of type-2 diabetes. An open-label phase I trial was carried out on 30 patients who had hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia before the beginning of the trial in spite of receiving statins and oral hypoglycemic drugs. Patients were given one PHF sachet two times daily for 40 consecutive days. All subjects also continuously received their statins and oral hypoglycemic agents. Clinical assessments and laboratory findings were evaluated before starting treatment and at day 40. Treatment with PHF had no significant effects on serum biochemical parameters related to liver and kidney functions, on hematological parameters related to erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets, and on body weight and blood pressure. After consumption of PHF, 2 patients complained of mild nausea, and 2 patients reported diarrhea. PHF significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and HbA1c from 162±40mg/dL to 146±37mg/dL and from 8.4±1.5% to 7.7±1.1%, respectively. Also, it significantly decreased the level of LDL from 138±25mg/dL to 108±36mg/dL, and the level of triglycerides from 203±47mg/dL to 166±58mg/dL. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated that the PHF was safe and efficacious in lowering the levels of blood glucose and serum lipids in patients with advanced-stage of type-2 diabetes.

  7. Effects of dietary administration of fenugreek seeds, alone or in combination with probiotics, on growth performance parameters, humoral immune response and gene expression of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Bahi, A; Guardiola, F A; Messina, C; Mahdhi, A; Cerezuela, R; Santulli, A; Bakhrouf, A; Esteban, M A

    2017-01-01

    The use of immunostimulants is considered a promising preventive practice that may help to maintain animal welfare and a healthy environment, while increasing production and providing higher profits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) of the dietary administration of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds, alone or combined with one of the following probiotic strains: Bacillus licheniformis (TSB27), Lactobacillus plantarum or Bacillus subtilis (B46). Gilthead seabream were fed a control or one of the supplemented diets for 3 weeks. The effects of these supplemented diets on growth performance parameters and the humoral immune response (natural haemolytic complement, peroxidase, total IgM levels, proteases and antiproteases activities) were evaluated after 2 and 3 weeks of feeding. Simultaneously, the expression levels of some immune-relevant genes (igm, tcr-β, csfr1 and bd) were measured in the head-kidney. Interestingly, all probiotic supplemented diets increased seabream growth rates, especially the B. licheniformis supplemented diet. Generally, humoral immune parameters were enhanced by the dietary supplementation at the different time points measured. The results showed a significant increases in the immune parameters, principally in fish fed only fenugreek or fenugreek combined with B. subtilis. Furthermore, real time qPCR revealed that dietary supplementation significantly enhances the expression of immune-associated genes in the head-kidney, particularly igm gene expression. These results suggest that fenugreek alone or combined with one of the probiotic strains mentioned enhances the immune response of gilthead seabream, a species with one of the highest rates of production in marine aquaculture.

  8. Development of polyherbal antidiabetic formulation encapsulated in the phospholipids vesicle system

    PubMed Central

    Gauttam, Vinod Kumar; Kalia, Ajudhia Nath

    2013-01-01

    Multifactorial metabolic diseases, for instance diabetes develop several complications like hyperlipidemia, hepatic toxicity, immunodeficiency etc., Hence, instead of mono-drug therapy the management of the disease requires the combination of herbs. Marketed herbal drugs comprise of irrational combinations, which makes their quality control more difficult. Phytoconstituents, despite having excellent bioactivity in vitro demonstrate less or no in vivo actions due to their poor lipid solubility, resulting in high therapeutic dose regimen; phospholipids encapsulation can overcome this problem. Hence, present study was designed to develop a phospholipids encapsulated polyherbal anti-diabetic formulation. In the present study, polyherbal formulation comprises of lyophilized hydro-alcoholic (50% v/v) extracts of Momordica charantia, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Withania somnifera 2:2:1, respectively, named HA, optimized based on oral glucose tolerance test model in normal Wistar rats. The optimized formulation (HA) entrapped in the phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (8:2) vesicle system is named HA lipids (HAL). The vesicles were characterized for shape, morphology, entrapment efficiency, polar-dispersity index and release profile in the gastric pH. The antidiabetic potential of HA, marketed polyherbal formulation (D-fit) and HAL was compared in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model of 21 days study. The parameters evaluated were behavioral changes, body weight, serum glucose level, lipid profile and oxidative stress. The antidiabetic potential of HA (1000 mg/kg) was at par with the D-fit (1000 mg/kg). However, the potential was enhanced by phospholipids encapsulation; as HAL (500 mg/kg) has shown more significant (P < 0.05) potential in comparison to HA (1000 mg/kg) and at par with metformin (500 mg/kg). PMID:23833751

  9. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers from South-West Algeria: An ethnobotanical study

    PubMed Central

    Benarba, Bachir

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: This study aimed to document and analyzes the local knowledge of medicinal plants’ use by traditional healers in South-west Algeria. Methods: The ethnobotanical survey was conducted in two Saharian regions of South-west of Algeria: Adrar and Bechar. In total, 22 local traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire and open questions. Use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), and informant consensus factor (FIC) were used to analyze the obtained data. Results: Our results showed that 83 medicinal plants species belonging to 38 families are used by traditional healers from South-west of Algeria to treat several ailments. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, and Fabaceae were the most dominant families with 13, 8, 6, and 4 species, respectively. Leaves were the plant parts mostly used (36%), followed by seeds (18%), aerial parts (17%) and roots (12%). Furthermore, a decoction was the major mode of preparation (49%), and oral administration was the most preferred (80%). Thymus vulgaris L. (UV = 1.045), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (UV = 0.863), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (UV=0.590), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (UV = 0.545), and Ruta chalepensis L. (UV = 0.5) were the most frequently species used by local healers. A great informant consensus has been demonstrated for kidney (0.727), cancer (0.687), digestive (0.603), and respiratory diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed rich ethnomedicinal knowledge in South-west Algeria. The reported species with high UV, FL, and FIC could be of great interest for further pharmacological studies. PMID:27757260

  10. Trigonella foenum (Fenugreek) Induced Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line, HepG2, Mediated by Upregulation of p53 and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mahmoud I. M.; Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; El-Gaaly, Gehan A.; Sultan, Ahmed S.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and most current therapies are of limited efficacy. Trigonella foenum (Fenugreek) is a traditional herbal plant with antitumor activity, although the mechanisms of its activity remain unclear. Herein, a crude methanol extract was prepared from Fenugreek seeds (FCE) and its anticancer mechanism was evaluated, using HepG2 cell line. Growth-inhibitory effect and apoptosis induction of HepG2 cells were evidenced by MTT assay, cell morphology alteration, apoptosis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometric analysis, caspase-3 activity, and expression of p53, proapoptotic protein, Bax, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) after (100∼500 μg/mL) FCE treatment for 48 h. Furthermore, FCE was analyzed by Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Our results revealed that FCE treatment for 48 h showed a cytotoxic effect and apoptosis induction in a dose-dependent manner that was mediated by upregulation of p53, Bax, PCNA, and caspase-3 activation in HepG2 cells. GC-MS analysis of FCE showed the presence of fourteen bioactive compounds such as Terpenoids and Flavonoids, including two main constituents with anticancer activity, Squalene and Naringenin (27.71% and 24.05%), respectively. Our data introduced FCE as a promising nontoxic herbal with therapeutic potential to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells through p53, Bax, and PCNA upregulation in caspase-3 dependent manner. PMID:26557712

  11. Assessment of in vitro digestibility and fermentation parameters of alfalfa hay-based diet following direct incorporation of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Naseri, V; Hozhabri, F; Kafilzadeh, F

    2013-08-01

    This study was completed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum; FS) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis; AR) on in vitro nutrient digestibility and fermentation patterns. Different levels [0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of dry matter (DM)] of the medicinal plants were included using alfalfa hay (AH) as a basal substrate at different incubation times (12, 18, 24 and 48 h). Total phenolic components of AH, FS and AR were 5.9, 10 and 8.3 g/kg DM, whereas total tannins were 0.4, 3.8 and 1.5 g/kg DM, respectively. Corresponding values for saponins were 10.4, 27.3 and 40.3 g/kg DM. Fenugreek seed increased (p<0.05) in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility at different incubation times and decreased (p<0.05) crude protein (CP) digestibility at 18 and 24 h of incubation. Asparagus root also increased (p<0.05) in vitro OM digestibility and decreased (p<0.05) CP digestibility at different incubation times. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility was increased (p<0.05) by the addition of AR or FS at low levels, but decreased (p<0.05) noticeably by increasing level of two plants in the basal substrate. Ammonia-N concentration was markedly reduced (p<0.05) by the addition of AR at different incubation times, and this reduction was accompanied by the decrease in CP digestibility. True DM degradability and partitioning factor (ratio of substrate DM truly degraded to gas volume produced at different times of incubation) were increased, and total volatile fatty acid concentration and total gas production were decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of FS (at 10% and 15% DM levels) or AR (at 5%, 10% and 15% DM levels) at different incubation times. Results suggest that FS and AR may have potential as feed additives to increase the efficiency of nutrients' utilization, particularly of nitrogen in ruminant diets.

  12. Clarification on Host Range of Didymella pinodes the Causal Agent of Pea Ascochyta Blight

    PubMed Central

    Barilli, Eleonora; Cobos, Maria José; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Didymella pinodes is the principal causal agent of ascochyta blight, one of the most important fungal diseases of pea (Pisum sativum) worldwide. Understanding its host specificity has crucial implications in epidemiology and management; however, this has not been clearly delineated yet. In this study we attempt to clarify the host range of D. pinodes and to compare it with that of other close Didymella spp. D. pinodes was very virulent on pea accessions, although differences in virulence were identified among isolates. On the contrary, studied isolates of D. fabae, D. rabiei, and D. lentil showed a reduced ability to infect pea not causing macroscopically visible symptoms on any of the pea accessions tested. D. pinodes isolates were also infective to some extend on almost all species tested including species such as Hedysarum coronarium, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus albus, Medicago spp., Trifolium spp., Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vicia articulata which were not mentioned before as hosts of D. pinodes. On the contrary, D. lentil and D. rabiei were more specific, infecting only lentil and chickpea, respectively. D. fabae was intermediate, infecting mainly faba bean, but also slightly other species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trifolium spp., Vicia sativa, and V. articulata. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was performed to confirm identity of the isolates studies and to determine phylogenetic relationship among the Didymella species, revealing the presence of two clearly distinct clades. Clade one was represented by two supported subclusters including D. fabae isolates as well as D. rabiei with D. lentil isolates. Clade two was the largest and included all the D. pinodes isolates as well as Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Genetic distance between D. pinodes and the other Didymella spp. isolates was not correlated with overall differences in pathogenicity. Based on evidences presented here, D

  13. The day of the yam.

    PubMed

    Rosser, A

    Yam, the staple food in several tropical countries, is a good source of the steroid used in the manufacture of the pill and other sex hormone preparations -- saponin diosgenin. In the early days of production of oral contraceptives (OCs), most yams were gathered from the wild in Mexico. The type richest in steroids takes 3 years to mature and its cultivation has become something of an art. Yams grow best in light, well-drained soil, and for this reason are grown in mounds which have been heavily manured. Propagation is by planting the tops or heads or by small portions of the tuber which is a swollen shoot. Other varieties are planted before the onset of the rains and the crop harvested about 8 months later. In 1970 the Mexican government nationalized the yam industry as a safeguard. This pushed up prices and the drug companies looked elsewhere for a cheap source. Although Mexico still remains the principal grower, India, South Africa, and the Far East supply the industry with plant origin steroids. As more than 90% of the hefty yam tubers consist of water, well over 100,000 tons have to be harvested every year to provide the 600-700 tons of the saponin diosgenin used by the drug companies. In China, where Western corticosteroids are regarded as too expensive for the barefoot doctors, several species of yam are used. Research has been going on to find another source of diosgenin and the most promising seems to be fenugreek, Trigonella foenumgraecum. "Foenum graecum" is Latin for Greek hay and was used by the early Greeks as a culinary and medicinal herb throughout the Mediterranean area. The richness of fenugreek was used to improve the roundness of women's breasts and to stimulate the flow of milk. Bath University has spent 10 years researching the development of a species of fenugreek which will yield large amounts of diosgenin. A certain amount of steroids come from animal sources. Such steroids are given when there is an adverse reaction from the

  14. hsDNA groove binding, photocatalytic activity, and in vitro breast and colon cancer cell reducing function of greener SeNPs.

    PubMed

    Pansare, Amol V; Kulal, Dnyaneshwar K; Shedge, Amol A; Patil, Vishwanath R

    2016-07-26

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have attracted great attention because of their superior optical properties and wide utilization in biological and biomedical studies. This paper reports an environmentally benign procedure of greener monodispersible SeNP synthesis using the reducing power of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract, characterization and their protective effect against unfolded (Herring sperm DNA) hsDNA. We investigated the anti-cancer activity of SeNPs against MCF-7, MDA MB 435 and COLO-205 cells. The photocatalytic activity of SeNPs was investigated for the degradation of a Sunset Yellow FCF (SYFCF) dye using ultraviolet-B light. The reduction of the Se ion to SeNPs was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The size and morphology of the SeNPs were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The SeNPs were stable, and the diameter was homogeneous at around 5-12 nm. Interactions of various concentrations of SeNPs with hsDNA were systematically investigated by UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), polarimetry and FTIR spectroscopy under physiological conditions. The results from fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that SeNPs quenched the fluorescence intensity of hsDNA with increasing concentrations. The modified Stern-Volmer quenching rate constant Ksv, binding constant K and binding sites n at different temperatures and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters ΔH°, ΔG° and ΔS° were calculated. Hoechst 33258 and methyl green (MG) site markers, melting experiment (Tm), viscosity measurements and sequence specificity verification by DNA bases clarified that SeNPs bind to hsDNA via a groove site. The rate of photocatalytic degradation of the SYFCF dye in the presence and absence of photocatalysts (SeNPs) was studied using UV-vis, the results showed appreciable degradation of the SYFCF dye. Our results suggested that nano Se can be used

  15. Roller milling process for fractionation of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenumgraecum) and characterization of milled fractions.

    PubMed

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A; Prabhasankar, Pichan

    2015-04-01

    The fenugreek seed is the richest source of soluble and insoluble fiber and also known for its medicinal and functional properties. The major objective of this present study is fractionation of the fenugreek by roller milling method and characterization of roller milled fractions. The effects of moisture conditioning on fenugreek roller milling were studied using standard methods. The results observed were increase in coarse husk from 33.75-42.46 % and decrease in flour yield from 49.52-41.62 % with increase in addition of moisture from 12-20 %. At 16 % conditioning moisture, the yield of coarse husk was 40.87 % with dietary fiber and protein content of 73.4 % and 6.96 % respectively. The yellowness value (b) for the coarse husk (29.68) found to be lowest at 16 % conditioning moisture compared to the other coarse husk samples, showing maximum clean separation. The fiber fractions showed the viscosity of 6,392 cps at 2 % w/v concentration. The flour fraction was higher in protein (41.83 %) and fat (13.22 %) content. Roller milling process of fenugreek was able to produce > 40 % of coarse husk with 73.4 % dietary fiber (25.56 % soluble & 47.84 % insoluble) and > 48 % flour with 41.83 % protein content, where as the whole fenugreek contained 22.5 % protein & 51.25 % dietary fiber. Thus roller milling has proved to be a valuable method for the fractionation of fenugreek to obtain fiber and protein rich fractions.

  16. Mannitol-induced drought stress on calli of Trigonellafoenum-graecum L. Var. RMt-303.

    PubMed

    Pant, Naveen C; Agarrwal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-11-01

    Different explants of fenugreek, T. foenum-graecum L. (Var. RMt-303), were compared for their callus induction and subsequent shoot regeneration capabilities on Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with different phytohormones in varying concentration. The highest percentage of callus induction frequency was observed in 1 ppm benzylaminopurine (BAP). Maximum shoots were induced on media supplemented with 0.5 ppm BAP using leaf and stem tissues as explants. However, root tissues showed only callusing with no subsequent shooting. Cotyledonary node responded better than hypocotyls in terms of shoot induction on media supplemented with thidiazuron (0.1 ppm). The callus was subjected to drought stress as simulated by reduced water potential of growth media due to addition of mannitol. Calli could withstand -2 MPa water potential till 30 days indicating that the drought stress tolerance mechanisms are functional in this variety. Chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll, proline and total phenolic contents, total peroxidase and catalase activities increased under stress conditions suggesting the tolerance of callus to drought stress. However, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase activities were found to decrease slightly. Malondialdehyde and H2O2 contents were found to decrease while only a slight disturbance was found in membrane stability index. These results underline the mechanisms that are crucial for drought stress tolerance in fenugreek.

  17. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris have characteristics in common with LMW RNA group II Sinorhizobium meliloti of Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella from soils of mainland Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several isolates from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canaries, had electrophoretic LMW RNA patterns identical with a less common pattern within S. meliloti (assigned as group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northe...

  18. Two different stable low molecular weight RNA (LMW RNA) profiles within Sinorhizobium meliloti and within Sinorhizobium medicae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LMW RNA profiles of 179 isolates from Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella species growing in a field site in northern Spain were analysed. Four different LMW RNA profiles designated I through IV were identified. Most of the isolates displayed either LMW RNA profile I or III (37 and 45%, respectively)...

  19. Genome Sequence of the Symbiotic Type Strain Rhizobium tibeticum CCBAU85039T

    PubMed Central

    Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Niehaus, Karsten; Pühler, Alfred; Kalinowski, Jörn; Lagares, Antonio; Schlüter, Andreas; Pistorio, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rhizobium tibeticum was originally isolated from root nodules of Trigonella archiducis-nicolai grown in Tibet, China. This species is also able to nodulate Medicago sativa and Phaseolus vulgaris. The whole-genome sequence of the type strain, R. tibeticum CCBAU85039T, is reported in this study. PMID:28126941

  20. Genome Sequence of the Symbiotic Type Strain Rhizobium tibeticum CCBAU85039T.

    PubMed

    Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Niehaus, Karsten; Pühler, Alfred; Kalinowski, Jörn; Lagares, Antonio; Schlüter, Andreas; Pistorio, Mariano

    2017-01-26

    Rhizobium tibeticum was originally isolated from root nodules of Trigonella archiducis-nicolai grown in Tibet, China. This species is also able to nodulate Medicago sativa and Phaseolus vulgaris The whole-genome sequence of the type strain, R. tibeticum CCBAU85039(T), is reported in this study.

  1. Diversity of Sinorhizobium meliloti from the Central Asian Alfalfa Gene Center

    PubMed Central

    Roumiantseva, Marina L.; Andronov, Evgeny E.; Sharypova, Larissa A.; Dammann-Kalinowski, Tatjana; Keller, Mathias; Young, J. Peter W.; Simarov, Boris V.

    2002-01-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti was isolated from nodules and soil from western Tajikistan, a center of diversity of the host plants (Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella species). There was evidence of recombination, but significant disequilibrium, between and within the chromosome and megaplasmids. The most frequent alleles matched those in the published genome sequence. PMID:12200335

  2. Amplification, contraction and genomic spread of a satellite DNA family (E180) in Medicago (Fabaceae) and allied genera

    PubMed Central

    Rosato, Marcela; Galián, José A.; Rosselló, Josep A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Satellite DNA is a genomic component present in virtually all eukaryotic organisms. The turnover of highly repetitive satellite DNA is an important element in genome organization and evolution in plants. Here we assess the presence and physical distribution of the repetitive DNA E180 family in Medicago and allied genera. Our goals were to gain insight into the karyotype evolution of Medicago using satellite DNA markers, and to evaluate the taxonomic and phylogenetic signal of a satellite DNA family in a genus hypothesized to have a complex evolutionary history. Methods Seventy accessions from Medicago, Trigonella, Melilotus and Trifolium were analysed by PCR to assess the presence of the repetitive E180 family, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping in somatic chromosomes. Key Results The E180 repeat unit was PCR-amplified in 37 of 40 taxa in Medicago, eight of 12 species of Trigonella, six of seven species of Melilotus and in two of 11 Trifolium species. Examination of the mitotic chromosomes revealed that only 13 Medicago and two Trigonella species showed FISH signals using the E180 probe. Stronger hybridization signals were observed in subtelomeric and interstitial loci than in the pericentromeric loci, suggesting this satellite family has a preferential genomic location. Not all 13 Medicago species that showed FISH localization of the E180 repeat were phylogenetically related. However, nine of these species belong to the phylogenetically derived clade including the M. sativa and M. arborea complexes. Conclusions The use of the E180 family as a phylogenetic marker in Medicago should be viewed with caution. Its amplification appears to have been produced through recurrent and independent evolutionary episodes in both annual and perennial Medicago species as well as in basal and derived clades. PMID:22186276

  3. Draft genome sequence of Sinorhizobium meliloti RU11/001, a model organism for flagellum structure, motility and chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Wibberg, Daniel; Blom, Jochen; Rückert, Christian; Winkler, Anika; Albersmeier, Andreas; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas; Scharf, Birgit E

    2013-12-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti of the order Rhizobiales is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium nodulating plants of the genera Medicago, Trigonella and Melilotus and hence is of great agricultural importance. In its free-living state it is motile and capable of modulating its movement patterns in response to chemical attractants. Here, the draft genome consisting of a circular chromosome, the megaplasmids pSymA and pSymB and three accessory plasmids of Sinorhizobium meliloti RU11/001, a model organism for flagellum structure, motility and chemotaxis, is reported.

  4. Nodulation study of natural forage legume in semiarid region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Ciğdem; Cevheri, Cenap

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the natural nodulation of legume forage crops were widely grown in the natural pastures in Sanliurfa, Turkey. This legume forage crops are Vicia sativa L. subsp. sativa L., Vicia narbonensis L. var. narbonensis L., Vicia palaestina Boiss., Vicia hybrida L., Vicia lutea L. var. lutea Boiss. ET Ball., Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum L. var. sativum L, Cicer echinospermum P.H. Davis, Trifolium tomentosum L., Trifolium retusum L., Trifolium campestre SCHREB., Medicago truncatula GAERTN. var. truncatula Schultz Bip., Trigonella mesopotamica Hub.-Mor., Lens culinaris Medik., Onobrychis crista-galli, Lathyrus cassius Boiss., Melilotus officinalis (L.) DESR., Coronilla scorpioides (L.) W.D.J. Koch. Nodulation, nodule colors and shapes were examined at the blooming period of forage legumes. In this study, the colour of the interior of nodules are pink-red colour and may be related to high rates of nitrogen fixation in legume crops.

  5. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of a Polyherbal Mixture in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee-Nick, Reza; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Borji, Abasalt

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a polyherbal mixture containing Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrullus colocynthis, Juglans regia, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Punica granatum, Salvia officinalis, Teucrium polium, Trigonella foenum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium arctostaphylos were tested on biochemical parameters in diabetic rats. The animals were randomized into three groups: (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, and (3) diabetic rats which received diet containing 15% (w/w) of this mixture for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). At the end of experiment, the mixture had no significant effect on serum hepatic enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. However, the level of fasting blood glucose, water intake, and urine output in treated group was lower than that in diabetic control rats (P < 0.01). Also, the levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol in polyherbal mixture treated rats were significantly lower than those in diabetic control group (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that this polyherbal mixture has beneficial effects on blood glucose and lipid profile and it has the potential to be used as a dietary supplement for the management of diabetes. PMID:24383002

  6. Polyamine metabolism and osmotic stress. I. Relation to protoplast viability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiburcio, A. F.; Masdeu, M. A.; Dumortier, F. M.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    Cereal leaves subjected to the osmotica routinely used for protoplast isolation show a rapid increase in arginine decarboxylase activity, a massive accumulation of putrescine, and slow conversion of putrescine to the higher polyamines, spermidine and spermine (HE Flores, AW Galston 1984 Plant Physiol 75: 102). Mesophyll protoplasts from these leaves, which have a high putrescine:polyamine ratio, do not undergo sustained division. By contrast, in Nicotiana, Capsicum, Datura, Trigonella, and Vigna, dicot genera that readily regenerate plants from mesophyll protoplasts, the response of leaves to osmotic stress is opposite to that in cereals. Putrescine titer as well as arginine and ornithine decarboxylase activities decline in these osmotically stressed dicot leaves, while spermidine and spermine titers increase. Thus, the putrescine:polyamine ratio in Vigna protoplasts, which divide readily, is 4-fold lower than in oat protoplasts, which divide poorly. We suggest that this differing response of polyamine metabolism to osmotic stress may account in part for the failure of cereal mesophyll protoplasts to develop readily in vitro.

  7. Potential of biologically active plant oils to control mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens, Diptera: Culicidae) from an Egyptian locality.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem Fathy; Shalaby, Afaf Abdel-Salam

    2008-01-01

    The insecticidal effect of six commercially available plant oils was tested against 4th larval instars of Culex pipiens. Larvae were originally collected from Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, and then reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. The LC50 values were 32.42, 47.17, 71.37, 83.36, 86.06, and 152.94 ppm for fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-grecum), earth almond (Cyperus esculentus), mustard (Brassica compestris), olibanum (Boswellia serrata), rocket (Eruca sativa), and parsley (Carum ptroselinum), respectively. The tested oils altered some biological aspects of C. pipiens, for instance, developmental periods, pupation rates, and adult emergences. The lowest concentrations of olibanum and fenugreek oils caused remarkable prolongation of larval and pupal durations. Data also showed that the increase of concentrations was directly proportional to reduction in pupation rates and adult emergences. Remarkable decrease in pupation rate was achieved by mustard oil at 1000 ppm. Adult emergence was suppressed by earth almond and fenugreek oils at 25 ppm. In addition, the tested plant oils exhibited various morphological abnormalities on larvae, pupae, and adult stages. Consequently, fenugreek was the most potent oil and the major cause of malformation of both larval and pupal stages. Potency of the applied plant oils provided an excellent potential for controlling C. pipiens.

  8. A preliminary pilot survey on head lice, pediculosis in Sharkia Governorate and treatment of lice with natural plant extracts.

    PubMed

    El-Basheir, Zeinab M; Fouad, Mahmoud A H

    2002-12-01

    Twelve different representative areas in Sharkia Governorate were surveyed for head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis. The pre-valence was investigated among 120 houses containing 2,448 individual, with different age, sex and socioeconomic status. Examination was done by naked eye aided with hand-lens. A total of 137 individuals were infested. Infestation rates were higher in the rural areas with low socioeconomic levels, concrete houses with over-crowded family members. Children had significantly higher infestation rates than adults. Males had lower infestation rates than females. However, the hair length and permanent hair washing were the factors accounted for both age and sex difference in prevalence of pediculosis. Head lice infestations were found all over the year, but increased in summer and spring. One hundred infested patients (90 females and 10 males) with different aged and hair length were treated with tour mixed cream from plants Lawsonia alba L. (Henna). Trigonella faemum-gracanum (Fenugreek), Hibiscus cannabinus (Hibiscus) and Artemisia cina (Wormseed). The head lice completely disappeared within a week among those patients treated by henna mixed with aqueous extract of sheah (100%) or mixed with helba (75%) or with karkada (50%).

  9. Fenugreek induced apoptosis in breast cancer MCF-7 cells mediated independently by fas receptor change.

    PubMed

    Alshatwi, Ali Abdullah; Shafi, Gowhar; Hasan, Tarique Noorul; Syed, Naveed Ahmed; Khoja, Kholoud Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Trigonella foenum in graecum (Fenugreek) is a traditional herbal plant used to treat disorders like diabetes, high cholesterol, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal ailments, and it is believed to have anti-tumor properties, although the mechanisms for the activity remain to be elucidated. In this study, we prepared a methanol extract from Fenugreek whole plants and investigated the mechanism involved in its growth-inhibitory effect on MCF- 7 human breast cancer cells. Apoptosis of MCF-7 cells was evidenced by investigating trypan blue exclusion, TUNEL and Caspase 3, 8, 9, p53, FADD, Bax and Bak by real-time PCR assays inducing activities, in the presence of FME at 65 μg/mL for 24 and 48 hours. FME induced apoptosis was mediated by the death receptor pathway as demonstrated by the increased level of Fas receptor expression after FME treatment. However, such change was found to be absent in Caspase 3, 8, 9, p53, FADD, Bax and Bak, which was confirmed by a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. In summary, these data demonstrate that at least 90% of FME induced apoptosis in breast cell is mediated by Fas receptor-independently of either FADD, Caspase 8 or 3, as well as p53 interdependently.

  10. Antihyperlipidemic effect of a polyherbal mixture in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Shafiee-Nick, Reza; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Borji, Abasalt

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a polyherbal mixture containing Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrullus colocynthis, Juglans regia, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Punica granatum, Salvia officinalis, Teucrium polium, Trigonella foenum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium arctostaphylos were tested on biochemical parameters in diabetic rats. The animals were randomized into three groups: (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, and (3) diabetic rats which received diet containing 15% (w/w) of this mixture for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). At the end of experiment, the mixture had no significant effect on serum hepatic enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. However, the level of fasting blood glucose, water intake, and urine output in treated group was lower than that in diabetic control rats (P < 0.01). Also, the levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol in polyherbal mixture treated rats were significantly lower than those in diabetic control group (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that this polyherbal mixture has beneficial effects on blood glucose and lipid profile and it has the potential to be used as a dietary supplement for the management of diabetes.

  11. Assessment of Augmented Immune Surveillance and Tumor Cell Death by Cytoplasmic Stabilization of p53 as a Chemopreventive Strategy of 3 Promising Medicinal Herbs in Murine 2-Stage Skin Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farrah; Khan, Rehan; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Lateef, Md Abdul; Maqbool, Tahir; Sultana, Sarwat

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is the final outcome of a plethora of events. Targeting the proliferation or inducing programmed cell death in a proliferating population is a major standpoint in the cancer therapy. However, proliferation is regulated by several cellular and immunologic processes. This study reports the inhibition of proliferation by augmenting immune surveillance, silencing acute inflammation, and inducing p53-mediated apoptosis of skin cancer by 3 promising medicinal extracts. We used the well-characterized model for experimental skin carcinogenesis in mice for 32 weeks to study the chemopreventive effect of the methanolic extracts of Trigonella foenumgraecum, Eclipta alba, and Calendula officinalis. All 3 extracts reduced the number, incidence, and multiplicity of tumors, which was confirmed by the pathologic studies that showed regressed tumors. There was a significant reduction in the PCNA+ nuclei in all treatment groups 32 weeks after the initiation. Mechanistic studies revealed that proliferative population in tumors is diminished by the restoration of the endogenous antioxidant defense, inhibition of the stress-related signal-transducing element NFκB, reduction of inflammation, enhancement of immunosurveillance of the genetically mutated cells, along with silencing of the cell cycle progression signals. Finally, all 3 medicinal extracts induced stable expression of p53 within the tumors, confirmed by the CFDA-Cy3 apoptosis assay. Results of our study confirm that these extracts not only limit the rate of proliferation by inhibition of the processes integral to cancer development but also induce stable cytoplasmic expression of p53-mediated apoptosis, leading to fewer and regressed tumors in mice.

  12. MUCILAGE-RELATED10 Produces Galactoglucomannan That Maintains Pectin and Cellulose Architecture in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Berger, Adeline; Yang, Bo; Ebert, Berit; Scheller, Henrik V.; North, Helen M.; Usadel, Björn; Günl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Plants invest a lot of their resources into the production of an extracellular matrix built of polysaccharides. While the composition of the cell wall is relatively well characterized, the functions of the individual polymers and the enzymes that catalyze their biosynthesis remain poorly understood. We exploited the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat epidermis (SCE) to study cell wall synthesis. SCE cells produce mucilage, a specialized secondary wall that is rich in pectin, at a precise stage of development. A coexpression search for MUCILAGE-RELATED (MUCI) genes identified MUCI10 as a key determinant of mucilage properties. MUCI10 is closely related to a fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) enzyme that has in vitro galactomannan α-1,6-galactosyltransferase activity. Our detailed analysis of the muci10 mutants demonstrates that mucilage contains highly branched galactoglucomannan (GGM) rather than unbranched glucomannan. MUCI10 likely decorates glucomannan, synthesized by CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A2, with galactose residues in vivo. The degree of galactosylation is essential for the synthesis of the GGM backbone, the structure of cellulose, mucilage density, as well as the adherence of pectin. We propose that GGM scaffolds control mucilage architecture along with cellulosic rays and show that Arabidopsis SCE cells represent an excellent model in which to study the synthesis and function of GGM. Arabidopsis natural varieties with defects similar to muci10 mutants may reveal additional genes involved in GGM synthesis. Since GGM is the most abundant hemicellulose in the secondary walls of gymnosperms, understanding its biosynthesis may facilitate improvements in the production of valuable commodities from softwoods. PMID:26220953

  13. [ITS-polymorphism of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive native isolates of Sinorhizoblum meliloti--symbionts of alfalfa, clover and fenugreek plants].

    PubMed

    Rumiantseva, M L; Muntian, V S; Mengoni, A; Simarov, B V

    2014-04-01

    Polymorphism of rrs-rrl sequence of ribosomal operons (intergenic sequence, ITS) was studied among 81 isolates of Sinorhizobium meliloti (AK001-AK210) derived from the collection of alfalfa nodulating bacteria of the Laboratory of genetics of ARRIAM, by using species-specific primers FGPS 1490/FGPL132VM. Isolates were obtained from nodules of different species of wild host plants from Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella genera grown in salinized North-Western region of Kazakhstan. The typical structure of ITS, similar to that of test strain Rm1021, was dominant in native rhizobia population, while in one third of the isolates (33.3%) this sequence was divergent. Among the latter, the ITS type of strain AK83 (RCAM00182) was dominant. Here, we show for the first time that isolates with reduced level of salt-tolerance had more diverse intergenic sequences of rrn-operons. No phylogenetic separation was observed between isolates grouped on the basis of their tolerance or sensitivity towards 0.6 M NaCl. However, the frequency of divergent ITS types within the two groups of rhizobia depended on the host symbiotic preference observed in natural environment, allowing to speculate about the existence of a chromosome types specific for S. meliloti isolates with differential salt tolerance. In conclusion, we propose that in the area subjected to secondary salinization, which are also the centre of introgressive hybridization of alfalfa, micro-evolutionary processes, affecting rrn-operons and associated with salt adaptation, are also occurring in symbiotic root nodule bacteria populations.

  14. Therapeutic Potential of Chinese Herbal Medicines in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Chun-Ting; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a complex chronic disease and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury ranging from steatosis and steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Since effective therapies for ALD are still limited, Chinese herbal medicine is thought to be an important and alternative approach. This review focuses on the current scientific evidence of ALD by ten Chinese Materia Medica (中藥 zhōng yào), including Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (丹參 dān shēn), Notoginseng Radix (三七 sān qī), Lycii Fructus (枸杞子 gǒu qǐ zǐ), Cnidii Fructus (蛇床子 shé chuáng zǐ), Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn), Puerariae Radix (葛根 gé gēn), Puerariae Flos (葛花 gé huā), Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex (厚朴 hòu pò), Platycodonis Radix (桔梗 jié gěng), and Trigonellae Semen (胡蘆巴 hú lú bā). Potential mechanisms of these herbal medicines in ALD are involved in amelioration of enhanced inflammation, reduction of hepatic oxidative stress and lipogenesis, and enhancement of intestinal permeability in alcohol-induced liver injury models in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, the evidenced therapeutic potential suggests that these herbs are promising candidates for prevention and development of new drugs for ALD in the future. PMID:24716123

  15. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property.

    PubMed

    Patel, D K; Prasad, S K; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles.

  16. The Plasmid Mobilome of the Model Plant-Symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti: Coming up with New Questions and Answers.

    PubMed

    Lagares, Antonio; Sanjuán, Juan; Pistorio, Mariano

    2014-10-01

    Rhizobia are Gram-negative Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria living in the underground which have the ability to associate with legumes for the establishment of nitrogen-fixing symbioses. Sinorhizobium meliloti in particular-the symbiont of Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp.-has for the past decades served as a model organism for investigating, at the molecular level, the biology, biochemistry, and genetics of a free-living and symbiotic soil bacterium of agricultural relevance. To date, the genomes of seven different S. meliloti strains have been fully sequenced and annotated, and several other draft genomic sequences are also available. The vast amount of plasmid DNA that S. meliloti frequently bears (up to 45% of its total genome), the conjugative ability of some of those plasmids, and the extent of the plasmid diversity has provided researchers with an extraordinary system to investigate functional and structural plasmid molecular biology within the evolutionary context surrounding a plant-associated model bacterium. Current evidence indicates that the plasmid mobilome in S. meliloti is composed of replicons varying greatly in size and having diverse conjugative systems and properties along with different evolutionary stabilities and biological roles. While plasmids carrying symbiotic functions (pSyms) are known to have high structural stability (approaching that of chromosomes), the remaining plasmid mobilome (referred to as the non-pSym, functionally cryptic, or accessory compartment) has been shown to possess remarkable diversity and to be highly active in conjugation. In light of the modern genomic and current biochemical data on the plasmids of S. meliloti, the current article revises their main structural components, their transfer and regulatory mechanisms, and their potential as vehicles in shaping the evolution of the rhizobial genome.

  17. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property

    PubMed Central

    Patel, DK; Prasad, SK; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles. PMID:23569923

  18. Effect of Processing on Magnesium Content of Green Leafy Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, D.; Agrawal, R.; Kumar, R.; Rai, A. Kumar; Rai, G. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we have studied the effect of different food processing techniques like blanching, microwave processing, boiling, frying, and different drying methods on depletion of minerals especially magnesium in green leafy vegetables (leaves of Trigonella foenum, common name methi, and Spinacia oleracea, common name spinach) using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). These processing techniques are frequently used at home as well as in food processing industries. The LIBS spectra of the fresh leaves of methi and spinach and their pellets (made by drying, grinding, and pressing the leaf) were recorded in a spectral range from 200 to 500 nm. After applying the above processing techniques, different pellets of these leaves were made in the same way. The LIBS spectra of these processed leaf samples were also recorded using the same experimental parameters as used for the fresh samples. Our results show that among the above processing techniques, frying most significantly reduces the content of magnesium, whereas the least loss of Mg is observed in the case of boiling. We have verified this result by recording the LIBS spectra of the intact fresh leaves and of those processed with different techniques. The same results were also obtained from the LIBS spectra of the intact leaves and their pellets. The LIBS spectra of methi and spinach leaves were also recorded after drying them using two different techniques — drying in vacuum and in a hot air oven; the results show that vacuum drying is more suitable in terms of minimizing loss of Mg content in leaves.

  19. Symbiotic diversity of Ensifer meliloti strains recovered from various legume species in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Mnasri, Bacem; Badri, Yazid; Saïdi, Sabrine; de Lajudie, Philippe; Mhamdi, Ridha

    2009-12-01

    Ensifer meliloti (formerly Sinorhizobium meliloti) was first considered as a specific microsymbiont of Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella. However, strains of E. meliloti were recovered from root nodules of various legume species and their symbiotic status still remains unclear. Here, we further investigate the specificity of these strains. A collection of 47 E. meliloti strains isolated in Tunisia from root nodules of Medicago truncatula, Medicago sativa, Medicago ciliaris, Medicago laciniata, Medicago marina, Medicago scutellata, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum, Argyrolobium uniflorum, Lotus creticus, Lotus roudairei, Ononis natrix, Retama raetam, Genista saharae, Acacia tortilis, Hedysarum carnosum and Hippocrepis bicontorta were examined by REP-PCR fingerprinting, PCR-RFLPs of the 16S-23S rDNA IGS, the nifH gene and nifD-K intergenic spacer, and sequencing of 16S rRNA and nodA genes. Their nodulation range was also assessed by cross-inoculation experiments. No clear correlation was found between chromosomal backgrounds and host plants of origin. The nodulation polyvalence of the species E. meliloti was associated with a high symbiotic heterogeneity. On the basis of PCR-RFLP data from the nifH gene and nifD-K intergenic spacer, E. meliloti strains isolated from non-Medicago legumes harboured distinct genes and possessed wider host ranges. Some strains did not nodulate Medicago species. On the basis of nodA phylogeny, the majority of the Tunisian strains, including strains from Medicago, harboured distinct nodA alleles more related to those found in E. medicae than those found in E. meliloti. However, more work is still needed to characterize this group further. The diversity observed among M. laciniata isolates, which was supported by nodA phylogeny, nifH typing and the efficiency profile on M. ciliaris, indicated that what was thought to be bv. medicaginis is certainly heterogeneous.

  20. The use of medicinal herbs by diabetic Jordanian patients.

    PubMed

    Otoom, S A; Al-Safi, S A; Kerem, Z K; Alkofahi, A

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. To date, there have been no reports on the frequency of use of herb medicines in the managements of diabetes mellitus in Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 310 diabetic patients visiting two medical centers in Jordan: Jordan University of Science & Technology Medical Center and Sarih Medical Center between December 2003 and August 2004. It is found that 31% of interviewed patients have used herbal products (96 patients). The results revealed that the most commonly used herbs by diabetic patients in Jordan were Trigonella foenumgraecum (22.9%), Lupinus albus (14.6%), Allium sativum (11.5%), Allium cepa (5.2%), Nigella sativa (7.3%), Zea mays L. (6.3%), Urtica dioica L. (8.3%), Eucalyptus globules LA (9.4%), Olea europea L. (3.1%), Cumminum cyminum (9.4%), Coriandrum sativum (10.4%), Salvia officinalis L. (3.1%), and Tilia cordata (1%). Furthermore, it is found that 47.9% of the patients used herbs according to advice from their friends on a daily basis. The side effects were reported by 36.5% of the patients and include headache, nausea, dizziness, itching, palpitation, and sweating. Among the patients, 72.9% used the herbs as adjunctive therapy along with their anti-diabetic drugs and 80.2% of the patients informed their physicians about their use. A 79.2% of the sample confirmed their intention to re-use these herbs as 86.5% of them were satisfied with their diabetes control. There was a significant relationship between the use of herbs, the patient's place of residence and his/her level of education. The main conclusion of this survey is that the use of medicinal herbs among diabetic patient in Jordan is common. Therefore, it is essential to increase the level of awareness among diabetic patients and health care providers regarding the efficacy and toxicity of these medicinal herbs.

  1. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-04-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of

  2. Potent α-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic α-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting≥ 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 μgml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440

  3. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M.; Hassan, Loutfy M.; Galal, Tarek M.; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2–5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion