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Sample records for trigonella foenum-graecum supplementation.htm

  1. Toxicological properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum).

    PubMed

    Ouzir, Mounir; El Bairi, Khalid; Amzazi, Saaïd

    2016-10-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum), used as traditional medicine and natural additive food, has been shown to exert significant antiatherogenic, antidiabetic, antianorexic, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antihyperlipidemic, galactogogue and anti-inflammatory effects in several human and animal models. Besides, several medicinal pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties, fenugreek have toxic effects as well. The aim of this review is discuss the cumulative evidence, which suggests that consumption of fenugreek induced some serious toxicological side effects. In this review, many teratogenic effects of fenugreek, from congenital malformations to death, were reported in human, rodent, rabbit, and chick. Moreover, results obtained in rats, mice and rabbits show a testicular toxicity and anti-fertility effects in male associated with oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as anti-fertility, antiimplantation and abortifacient activity in females related to saponin compound of fenugreek which suggest that fenugreek is not recommended for use during pregnancy. Indeed, the consumption of fenugreek should be avoided for persons having peanut and chickpeas allergy because of possible cross-reactivity as well as chronic asthma. Accumulating evidence suggest also that fenugreek may have neurodevelopmental, neurobehavioral and neuropathological side effects. It is suggested that future studies would be conducted to identify molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the fenugreek toxicological properties. PMID:27498339

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity in Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella caerulea using ISSR and RAPD markers

    PubMed Central

    Dangi, Rakhee S; Lagu, Meena D; Choudhary, Lal B; Ranjekar, Prabhakar K; Gupta, Vidya S

    2004-01-01

    Background Various species of genus Trigonella are important from medical and culinary aspect. Among these, Trigonella foenum-graecum is commonly grown as a vegetable. This anti-diabetic herb can lower blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Another species, Trigonella caerulea is used as food in the form of young seedlings. This herb is also used in cheese making. However, little is known about the genetic variation present in these species. In this report we describe the use of ISSR and RAPD markers to study genetic diversity in both, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella caerulea. Results Seventeen accessions of Trigonella foenum-graecum and nine accessions of Trigonella caerulea representing various countries were analyzed using ISSR and RAPD markers. Genetic diversity parameters (average number of alleles per polymorphic locus, percent polymorphism, average heterozygosity and marker index) were calculated for ISSR, RAPD and ISSR+RAPD approaches in both the species. Dendrograms were constructed using UPGMA algorithm based on the similarity index values for both Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella caerulea. The UPGMA analysis showed that plants from different geographical regions were distributed in different groups in both the species. In Trigonella foenum-graecum accessions from Pakistan and Afghanistan were grouped together in one cluster but accessions from India and Nepal were grouped together in another cluster. However, in both the species accessions from Turkey did not group together and fell in different clusters. Conclusions Based on genetic similarity indices, higher diversity was observed in Trigonella caerulea as compared to Trigonella foenum-graecum. The genetic similarity matrices generated by ISSR and RAPD markers in both species were highly correlated (r = 0.78 at p = 0.001 for Trigonella foenum-graecum and r = 0.98 at p = 0.001 for Trigonella caerulea) indicating congruence between these two systems. Implications of these observations in

  3. Efficacy of Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed Extract in Reducing Metabolic and Inflammatory Alterations Associated With Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Abedinzade, Mahmood; Nasri, Sima; Jamal Omodi, Masome; Ghasemi, Elham; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several experimental and clinical studies support beneficial effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) in the management of metabolic diseases and inflammatory disorders. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of T. foenum-graecum seed extract in reducing the metabolic and inflammatory alternations associated with menopause. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 49 rats were divided into seven groups: (I) sham-control, (II) ovariectomized-control, (III and IV) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum seed ethanolic extract, (V and VI) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum hexanic extract, (VII) ovariectomized-positive control treated with 10 µg/kg of estradiol. The extracts were injected intraperitoneally one day after ovariectomy and the treatments were lasted for 42 days. Results: Fasting blood glucose and body weight gain increased significantly in the ovariectomized-control group compared with that in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Administration of estradiol and T. foenum-graecum (50 and 150 mg/dL of hexanic extract and 150 mg/kg of ethanolic extract) significantly diminished the increase in glucose and body weight (P < 0.05). The serum level of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the ovariectomized control group was significantly higher than those in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Both hexanic and ethanolic extracts as well as estradiol were able to decrease level of these cytokines in the serum of ovariectomized rats (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results of the present study show that administration of T. foenum-graecum corrects metabolic and inflammatory alterations associated with ovariectomy and has a potential for the management of menopause. PMID:26732240

  4. Elicitation of Diosgenin Production in Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Seedlings by Methyl Jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Spandan; Chikara, Surendra K; Sharma, Mahesh C; Chaudhary, Abhinav; Alam Syed, Bakhtiyar; Chaudhary, Pooja S; Mehta, Aditya; Patel, Maulik; Ghosh, Arpita; Iriti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), an elicitor of plant defense mechanisms, on the biosynthesis of diosgenin, a steroidal saponin, were investigated in six fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) varieties (Gujarat Methi-2, Kasuri-1, Kasuri-2, Pusa Early Branching, Rajasthan Methi and Maharashtra Methi-5). Treatment with 0.01% MeJA increased diosgenin levels, in 12 days old seedlings, from 0.5%-0.9% to 1.1%-1.8%. In addition, MeJA upregulated the expression of two pivotal genes of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic route leading to diosgenin: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG) and sterol-3-β-glucosyl transferase (STRL). In particular, MeJA increased the expression of HMG and STRL genes by 3.2- and 22.2-fold, respectively, in the Gujarat Methi-2 variety, and by 25.4- and 28.4-fold, respectively, in the Kasuri-2 variety. Therefore, MeJA may be considered a promising elicitor for diosgenin production by fenugreek plants. PMID:26694357

  5. Ultrastructural evidence for AMF mediated salt stress mitigation in Trigonella foenum-graecum.

    PubMed

    Evelin, Heikham; Giri, Bhoopander; Kapoor, Rupam

    2013-01-01

    The study unveils that inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith) prevents salt-induced ultrastructural alterations in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) plants. Mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) fenugreek plants were subjected to four levels of NaCl (0, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl). Salt-induced ultrastructural changes were captured using a Transmission Electron Microscope. Effects of salt on the ultrastructure of cells include shrinkage of protoplasm, widening apoplastic space between cell wall and cell membrane, disorganization of grana in chloroplast--swelling and reduction in the number of thylakoids, disintegration of chloroplast membrane, accumulation of plastoglobules, dilation of cristae and denser matrix in mitochondria, and aggregation of chromatin in nucleus. However, the extent of salt-induced ultrastructural damage was less in M plants as compared to NM plants. Lower lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage in M plants also indicated less membrane damage. This reduction of ultrastructure damage is a demonstration of enhanced tolerance in M plants to salt stress. The AMF-mediated lesser damage may be due to higher osmolyte (glycinebetaine, sugars) and polyamines concentration, and more and bigger plastoglobules (higher α-tocopherol concentration) in M plants as compared to NM plants. While lower Na(+) and Cl(-) ions assures less ionic toxicity, higher osmolytes and tocopherols ensure osmotic adjustment and better capacity to scavenge free radicals generated due to salt stress, respectively.

  6. Elicitation of Diosgenin Production in Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Seedlings by Methyl Jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Spandan; Chikara, Surendra K.; Sharma, Mahesh C.; Chaudhary, Abhinav; Alam Syed, Bakhtiyar; Chaudhary, Pooja S.; Mehta, Aditya; Patel, Maulik; Ghosh, Arpita; Iriti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), an elicitor of plant defense mechanisms, on the biosynthesis of diosgenin, a steroidal saponin, were investigated in six fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) varieties (Gujarat Methi-2, Kasuri-1, Kasuri-2, Pusa Early Branching, Rajasthan Methi and Maharashtra Methi-5). Treatment with 0.01% MeJA increased diosgenin levels, in 12 days old seedlings, from 0.5%–0.9% to 1.1%–1.8%. In addition, MeJA upregulated the expression of two pivotal genes of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic route leading to diosgenin: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG) and sterol-3-β-glucosyl transferase (STRL). In particular, MeJA increased the expression of HMG and STRL genes by 3.2- and 22.2-fold, respectively, in the Gujarat Methi-2 variety, and by 25.4- and 28.4-fold, respectively, in the Kasuri-2 variety. Therefore, MeJA may be considered a promising elicitor for diosgenin production by fenugreek plants. PMID:26694357

  7. Effects of Nigella sativa, Lepidium sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum on sildenafil disposition in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Ahad, Abdul; El-Maghraby, Gamal M; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; AlKharfy, Khalid M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of some commonly used herbs namely Nigella sativa, Lepidium sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in beagle dogs. The study design involved four treatments in a non-balanced crossover design. Sildenafil was given one tablet 100 mg orally to each dog and blood samples were obtained. After a suitable washout period, animals were commenced on a specific herb treatment for 1 week. Blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals and sildenafil was analyzed by HPLC method. Oral administration of Nigella sativa resulted in reduction of AUC0-∞, C max and t 1/2 as compared to the control. Treatment of Lepidium sativum resulted in a significant reduction in the C max and AUC. There were no significant differences between the rests of the pharmacokinetic parameters relative to those of the control. For Trigonella foenum-graecum, the effects were similar to those obtained in case of Lepidium sativum. It was concluded that concurrent use of investigated herbs alters the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil. Co-administration of investigated herbs should be cautious since their concomitant use might result in decrease in sildenafil bioavailability.

  8. Trigonella foenum-graecum ameliorates acrylamide-induced toxicity in rats: Roles of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines, and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk A; Hassan, Abeer G A

    2015-06-01

    Acrylamide is a hazardous substance inducing oxidative stress. Based on some evidence on the antioxidant properties of fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum, this study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of fenugreek seed oil against acrylamide toxicity. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups. The control group was given normal saline. The second group was administered acrylamide (20 mg/kg bw orally). The third and fourth groups were administered acrylamide (20 mg/kg bw) and supplemented with 2.5% and 5% fenugreek seed oil in their diets, respectively. Acrylamide intoxication significantly increased serum levels of LDH, AST, ALT, APL, γ-GT, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, creatinine, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor α. Moreover, it increased hepatic, renal, and brain lipid peroxidation, while it impaired the activities and concentrations of the antioxidant biomarkers. Fenugreek oil supplementation normalized the altered serum parameters, prevented lipid peroxidation, and enhanced the antioxidant biomarker concentrations and activities in the hepatic, renal, and brain tissues of acrylamide-intoxicated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, these results indicate that Trigonella foenum-graecum oil has a protective effect against acrylamide-induced toxicity through its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activities.

  9. Mechanism of Antidiabetic Action of Compound GII Purified from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Seeds.

    PubMed

    Puri, D; Prabhu, K M; Dev, G; Agarwal, S; Murthy, P S

    2011-10-01

    To study the mechanism of action of water soluble compound GII purified from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds which was shown earlier to have antidiabetic effect in the subdiabetic, moderately and severely diabetic rabbits. In rabbits (1-1.5 kg bw) diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of 80 mg/kg bw of alloxan. They were fed with GII at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw daily once in the morning for 15 days in the subdiabetic and moderately diabetic and 30 days in the severely diabetic rabbits. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL + VLDL cholesterol [(LDL + VLDL)C], HDL cholesterol [(HDL)C], total tissue lipids, glycogen and enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, polyol pathway) hexokinase, glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase and antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase were estimated. Liver and kidney function parameters were also estimated. Treatment with GII for 15 days in the subdiabetic and moderately diabetic rabbits and for 30 days in the severely diabetic rabbits (i) decreased the elevated lipids TC, TG, (LDL + VLDL)C and increased the decreased (HDL)C, (ii) decreased the elevated liver and heart total lipids, TC and TG, (iii) increased the decreased liver and muscle glycogen, (iv) increased the decreased hexokinase, glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, (v) decreased the increased glucose-6-phosphatase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, aldose reductase. Results thus show that treatment with GII compound purified from fenugreek seeds for 15 days in the subdiabetic and moderately diabetic and 30 days in the severely diabetic rabbits corrects the altered serum lipids, tissue lipids, glycogen, enzymes of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogen metabolism, polyol

  10. Trigonella foenum-graecum water extract improves insulin sensitivity and stimulates PPAR and γ gene expression in high fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Gholamhosseinian, Ahmad; Fallah, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance is the main defect associated with the metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the decreased adiponectin levels and elevation of plasma-free fatty acids are the main factors associated with insulin resistance. In this study, we evaluated the effect of trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) extract on insulin sensitivity in high fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental rats were fed with a high fructose diet for eight weeks. After the first six weeks, the animals were treated with trigonella foenum-graecum extract or pioglitazone for two weeks. Serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and HDL-c were measured. The insulin and adiponectin levels were assayed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The plasma-free fatty acid profile was obtained by gas chromatography. PPARγ and GLUT4 gene expression were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting. Results: In the trigonella foenum-graecum- extract treated group the following results were obtained: Insulin (49.02 ± 6.93 pmol/L), adiponectin (7.1 ± 0.64 μg/ml), and triglycerides (110.3 ± 16.7 mg/dl), which were significantly different and improved compared to the control group (insulin (137 ± 34 pmol/l), adiponectin (3.9 ± 0.15 μg/ml), glucose (187 ± 15 mg/dl), and triglycerides (217 ± 18 mg/dl). Also the PPARγ gene expression was significantly increased compared to the control group. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the beneficial effects of trigonella foenum-graecum extract on insulin resistance in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. At least three mechanisms are involved, including direct insulin-like effect, increase in adiponectin levels, and PPARγ protein expression. PMID:27110551

  11. Antidiabetic Effect of GII Compound Purified from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum Linn) Seeds in Diabetic Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Puri, D; Prabhu, K M; Murthy, P S

    2012-01-01

    Aim is to study the antidiabetic effect of a compound GII purified earlier from the water extract of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds by Murthy and his colleagues (patented in India and USA) in diabetic rabbits. Diabetes was induced in rabbits by injecting 80 mg/kg bw of alloxan intravenously into rabiits. Rabbits were subdivided into subdiabetic [fasting blood sugar (FBG) up to 120 mg/dl with abnormal glucose tolerance in glucose tolerance test (GTT)], moderately diabetic (FBG below 250 mg/dl) and severely diabetic (FBG above 250 mg/dl). Blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were estimated by procedures in the kits of Stangen Immunodiagnostics, Mumbai using, respectively, glucose oxidase method and absorbance at 415 nm. Serum insulin was estimated by the ELISA method as described in the kit of Boehringer Mannheim Immunodiagnostics, Mumbai, India. GII was found to improve blood glucose utilization in GTT and reduced FBG and HbA1C. In the present communication detailed studies were carried out with GII in the subdiabetic, moderately diabetic and severely diabetic rabbits. GII at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw per day brought down the elevated FBG levels in the untreated subdiabetic (FBG 96.6 ± 7 mg/dl), moderately diabetic (150.1 ± 14 mg/dl) and severely diabetic rabbits (427 ± 46 mg/dl) to normal in 12, 15 and 28 days of treatment. It improved serum HbA1C and insulin levels also in these rabbits. Intermittent therapy once a week for 6 weeks with GII at the same dose brought down the FBG values to normal in the subdiabetic (FBG 96.0 ± 2 mg/dl) and in the moderately diabetic rabbits to 133.0 ± 12 mg/dl. After stopping therapy of the subdiabetic and moderately diabetic rabbits whose FBG values came to normal after treatment with GII 50 mg/kg bw, the values remained normal for 1 week and showed a tendency to increase only after 15 days. If these animal studies are applicable to humans these results indicate that a

  12. Antidepressant effect and categorization of inhibitory activity of monoamine oxidase type A and B of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn.

    PubMed

    Khursheed, Raheela; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Sultana, Viqar; Ahmed, Maryam; Kamil, Arfa

    2014-09-01

    Trigonella foenum- graecum Linn (Fabaceae) is an annual aromatic herb and no wit is cultivated globally like in Pakistan, Egypt, India, Middle East etc. Traditionally it was used in anorexia, as febrifuge, to soothe gastritis and gastric ulcers, as a galactagogue and as condiment, hypoglycemic agent and employed in various as nervous disorders. The study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum and underlying mechanism of action. For assessment of antidepressant activity Forced Swimming Test (FST), Tail Suspension Test (TST), Monoamine (MAO) Assay and Locomotor Activity Test were studied. Acute toxicity, Rota Rod and Grip Strength Tests were also performed. The significant declining in immobility time as compared to control was shown in Forced swimming test as compared to tail suspension test. Considerable change was not found in open field test (OFT). EtOH extract of seeds of fenugreek represent maximum significant reduction which was 30 and 24.65% in MAO- A and B activity respectively in the rat's whole brain as compared to control animals in Monoamine oxidase (MAO) assay. All tested doses were found ineffective in impairment of muscle coordination in Rota rod and in grip strength related to muscle relaxant property. According to experimental findings it is revealed that ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum showed antidepressant effect by inhibiting the activity of MAO-A and B. PMID:25176235

  13. Metabolic and molecular action of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and trace metals in experimental diabetic tissues.

    PubMed

    Baquer, Najma Zaheer; Kumar, Pardeep; Taha, Asia; Kale, R K; Cowsik, S M; McLean, P

    2011-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia resulting in defective insulin secretion, resistance to insulin action or both. The use of biguanides, sulphonylurea and other drugs are valuable in the treatment of diabetes mellitus; their use, however, is restricted by their limited action, pharmacokinetic properties, secondary failure rates and side effects. Trigonella foenum-graecum, commonly known as fenugreek, is a plant that has been extensively used as a source of antidiabetic compounds from its seeds and leaf extracts. Preliminary human trials and animal experiments suggest possible hypoglycaemic and antihyperlipedemic properties of fenugreek seed powder taken orally. Our results show that the action of fenugreek in lowering blood glucose levels is almost comparable to the effect of insulin. Combination with trace metal showed that vanadium had additive effects and manganese had additive effects with insulin on in vitro system in control and diabetic animals of young and old ages using adipose tissue. The Trigonella and vanadium effects were studied in a number of tissues including liver, kidney, brain peripheral nerve, heart, red blood cells and skeletal muscle. Addition of Trigonella to vanadium significantly removed the toxicity of vanadium when used to reduce blood glucose levels. Administration of the various combinations of the antidiabetic compounds to diabetic animals was found to reverse most of the diabetic effects studied at physiological, biochemical, histochemical and molecular levels. Results of the key enzymes of metabolic pathways have been summarized together with glucose transporter, Glut-4 and insulin levels. Our findings illustrate and elucidate the antidiabetic/insulin mimetic effects of Trigonella, manganese and vanadium.

  14. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Trigonella foenum-graecum and its size-dependent catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathy Aromal, S.; Philip, Daizy

    2012-11-01

    The development of new synthesis methods for monodispersed nanocrystals using cheap and nontoxic chemicals, environmentally benign solvents and renewable materials remains a challenge to the scientific community. Most of the current methods involve known protocols which may be potentially harmful to either environment or human health. Recent research has been focused on green synthesis methods to produce new nanomaterials, ecofriendly and safer with sustainable commercial viability. The present work reports the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) as reducing and protecting agent. The pathway is based on the reduction of AuCl4- by the extract of fenugreek. This method is simple, efficient, economic and nontoxic. Gold nanoparticles having different sizes in the range from 15 to 25 nm could be obtained by controlling the synthesis parameters. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR analysis. The high crystallinity of nanoparticles is evident from clear lattice fringes in the HRTEM images, bright circular spots in the SAED pattern and peaks in the XRD pattern. FTIR spectrum indicates the presence of different functional groups present in the biomolecule capping the nanoparticles. The synthesized gold nanoparticles show good catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol by excess NaBH4. The catalytic activity is found to be size-dependent, the smaller nanoparticles showing faster activity.

  15. [Effectiveness of phytotherapy in supportive treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus II. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum)].

    PubMed

    Koupý, David; Kotolová, Hana; Rudá Kučerová, Jana

    2015-06-01

    Fenugreek seeds are known for their characteristic smell of soup seasoning and as an ingredient of Indian curry. Traditionally the seeds are used as macerate for the treatment of diabetes, cough, and flatulence, to increase breast milk secretion, and for anti-inflammatory and aphrodisiac effects. The use is limited by its unpleasant smell and bitter taste which can be modified by adding mint leaves to the macerate. Antidiabetic properties are attributed mainly to galactomannan, 4-hydroxyisoleucin (4-OH-Ile), diosgenin and trigonelline. These substances demonstrate direct antidiabetic properties in clinical studies by increasing insulin secretion (4-OH-Ile), decreasing insulin resistance and glucose resorption from the GIT (galactomannan) and improvement in B-cells regeneration (trigonelline). Besides this main effect, the herb improves blood lipid spectre (4-OH-Ile, diosgenin), and has reno-protective (4-OH-Ile, trigonelline), neuroprotective (trigonelline) and antioxidant (diosgenin, trigonelline) effects. Antidiabetic efficacy of trigonelline is comparable to glibenclamide treatment and more effective than sitagliptine therapy. Given the large body of evidence and promising results in comparison with standard pharmacotherapy, fenugreek active substances have a potential to become a source of new antidiabetic medication.Key words: fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum diabetes mellitus type 2 biological activity. PMID:26400229

  16. Β-amylase from starchless seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum and its localization in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Garima; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2014-01-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds do not contain starch as carbohydrate reserve. Synthesis of starch is initiated after germination. A β-amylase from ungerminated fenugreek seeds was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme was purified 210 fold with specific activity of 732.59 units/mg. Mr of the denatured enzyme as determined from SDS-PAGE was 58 kD while that of native enzyme calculated from size exclusion chromatography was 56 kD. Furthermore, its identity was confirmed to be β-amylase from MALDI-TOF analysis. The optimum pH and temperature was found to be 5.0 and 50°C, respectively. Starch was hydrolyzed at highest rate and enzyme showed a Km of 1.58 mg/mL with it. Antibodies against purified Fenugreek β-amylase were generated in rabbits. These antibodies were used for localization of enzyme in the cotyledon during different stages of germination using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Fenugreek β-amylase was found to be the major starch degrading enzyme depending on the high amount of enzyme present as compared to α-amylase and also its localization at the periphery of amyloplasts. A new finding in terms of its association with protophloem was observed. Thus, this enzyme appears to be important for germination of seeds. PMID:24551136

  17. Isolation, purification, and characterization of a stable defensin-like antifungal peptide from Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds.

    PubMed

    Oddepally, R; Guruprasad, L

    2015-03-01

    A novel defensin-like antifungal peptide (Tf-AFP) with molecular mass of 10.3 kDa was isolated from seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) by ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange, gel-filtration, hydrophobic chromatography, and RP-HPLC. Mass spectroscopic analysis revealed the intact mass of the purified antifungal peptide as 10321.5 Da and high similarity to plant defensins and other antifungal proteins in database search. 2D-PAGE showed pI value to be 8.8 and absence of isoforms. Isolated Tf-AFP inhibited growth of fungal species such as Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Rhizoctonia solani. The antifungal activity was inhibited in the presence of 50 mM NaCl. Circular dichroism analysis demonstrated that the protein is rich in β-sheet structure and highly stable over a wide range of temperatures. Surprisingly, reduction of disulfide bridges and chemical denaturation did not produce large changes in secondary structure as judged by circular dichroism as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  18. Characterization of Flavonoid Glycosides from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Crude Seeds by HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Benayad, Zakia; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Es-Safi, Nour Eddine

    2014-01-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is a medicinal plant which is widely used for its pharmacological properties. In this study the phenolic composition of fenugreek crude seeds originating from Morocco has been investigated. Extraction was performed from defatted seeds by a hydromethanolic solution using an Accelerated Solvent Extractor. HPLC technique coupled to negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and diode array detection was employed to identify the polyphenol in the obtained extract. The obtained results allowed the detection of 32 phenolic compounds among which various flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids have been tentatively identified on the basis of their UV and MS spectra, and comparisons with standards when available, as well as with literature data. A systematic study of the obtained MS spectra and the observed fragmentation showed that most of the identified compounds were acylated and non-acylated flavonoids with apigenin, luteolin and kaempferol as aglycons. Hydroxycinnamic acids mostly dominated by caffeic acid derivatives were also detected. The quantitative analysis of the identified compounds showed that the phenolic composition of the studied crude fenugreek seeds was predominantly acylated and non-acylated flavone derivatives with apigenin as the main aglycon. PMID:25393509

  19. Efficacy of a Novel Fenugreek Seed Extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum, Furocyst) in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Swaroop, Anand; Jaipuriar, Amrita Sarkari; Gupta, Sushil Kumar; Bagchi, Manashi; Kumar, Pawan; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most prevalent hormonal disorders among women of reproductive age causing irregular menstrual cycles, excessive body or facial hair, miscarriage and infertility. The latter being a most common PCOS symptoms. Because the symptoms are seemingly unrelated to one another, PCOS is often overlooked and undiagnosed. The present study is an open label, one-arm, non-randomized, post-marketing surveillance study in 50 premenopausal women (18-45 years, BMI<42) diagnosed with PCOS using a novel Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract (fenugreek seed extract, Furocyst, 2 capsules of 500 mg each/day) extract, enriched in approximately 40% furostanolic saponins, over a period of 90 consecutive days. The study was conducted to determine its efficacy on the reduction of ovarian volume and the number of ovarian cysts. Ethical committee approval was obtained for this study. Furocyst treatment caused significant reduction in ovary volume. Approximately 46% of study population showed reduction in cyst size, while 36% of subjects showed complete dissolution of cyst. It is important to mention that 71% of subjects reported the return of regular menstrual cycle on completion of the treatment and 12% of subjects subsequently became pregnant. Overall, 94% of patients benefitted from the regimen. Significant increases in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were observed compared to the baseline values. Extensive blood chemistry, hematological and biochemical assays demonstrated the broad-spectrum safety. Furocyst caused significant decrease in both ovarian volume and the number of ovarian cysts. Serum ALT, BUN and CK were assessed to demonstrate the broad-spectrum safety of Furocyst. No significant adverse effects were observed. In summary, Furocyst was efficacious in ameliorating the symptoms of PCOS. PMID:26516311

  20. Biochemical and physiological changes in Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum L.) leaves during storage under modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Brar, Jasleen Kaur; Rai, Deepak Raj; Singh, Amarjit; Kaur, Navreet

    2013-08-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), is a highly respiring leafy vegetable enriched with many nutrients and other active ingredients such as protein, vitamin C, niacin, potassium, alkaloids, lysine and L-tryptophan as well as steroidal saponins which are beneficial for human health. Both, quantitative and qualitative losses in this vegetable can be reduced by appropriate packaging and storage techniques which have not been applied hitherto. This study was taken upon to assess the potential of macro-perforated MAP for storage of fenugreek leaves. Packages (bag area: 0.075 m(2)) made from polypropylene (PP) film (Thickness: 35 μmm) were selected for the storage studies. The leaves were packaged in macro-perforated (2 perforations, perforation diameter: 0.3 mm each, with and without mustard seeds as natural absorbents) as well as in non-perforated PP film packages with and without mustard seeds. 10 g of mustard seeds were placed inside the packages to check water accumulation. The packaged samples were stored for 6 days at 75% relative humidity (RH) at 15°C to check water accumulation, if any. Different physiological and biochemical characteristics which generally affect the post-harvest life of the produce were monitored during the storage period. Results of the study suggested that among all the treatments, packaging of fenugreek in two perforation packets with mustard seeds resulted in best maintenance of chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, phenols and aroma. Water accumulation was also consoled due to mustard seeds after 6 days of storage. PMID:24425971

  1. Efficacy of a Novel Fenugreek Seed Extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum, FurocystTM) in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, Anand; Jaipuriar, Amrita Sarkari; Gupta, Sushil Kumar; Bagchi, Manashi; Kumar, Pawan; Preuss, Harry G.; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most prevalent hormonal disorders among women of reproductive age causing irregular menstrual cycles, excessive body or facial hair, miscarriage and infertility. The latter being a most common PCOS symptoms. Because the symptoms are seemingly unrelated to one another, PCOS is often overlooked and undiagnosed. The present study is an open label, one-arm, non-randomized, post-marketing surveillance study in 50 premenopausal women (18-45 years, BMI<42) diagnosed with PCOS using a novel Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract (fenugreek seed extract, Furocyst, 2 capsules of 500 mg each/day) extract, enriched in approximately 40% furostanolic saponins, over a period of 90 consecutive days. The study was conducted to determine its efficacy on the reduction of ovarian volume and the number of ovarian cysts. Ethical committee approval was obtained for this study. Furocyst treatment caused significant reduction in ovary volume. Approximately 46% of study population showed reduction in cyst size, while 36% of subjects showed complete dissolution of cyst. It is important to mention that 71% of subjects reported the return of regular menstrual cycle on completion of the treatment and 12% of subjects subsequently became pregnant. Overall, 94% of patients benefitted from the regimen. Significant increases in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were observed compared to the baseline values. Extensive blood chemistry, hematological and biochemical assays demonstrated the broad-spectrum safety. Furocyst caused significant decrease in both ovarian volume and the number of ovarian cysts. Serum ALT, BUN and CK were assessed to demonstrate the broad-spectrum safety of Furocyst. No significant adverse effects were observed. In summary, Furocyst was efficacious in ameliorating the symptoms of PCOS. PMID:26516311

  2. Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract reduces age-related symptoms of androgen decrease, increases testosterone levels and improves sexual function in healthy aging males in a double-blind randomised clinical study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Amanda; Steels, Elizabeth; Inder, Warrick J; Abraham, Suzanne; Vitetta, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effect of Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract on the symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, sexual function and serum androgen concentrations in healthy aging males. This was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial involving 120 healthy men aged between 43 and 70 years of age. The active treatment was standardised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at a dose of 600 mg/day for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Aging Male Symptom questionnaire (AMS), a measure of possible androgen deficiency symptoms; secondary outcome measures were sexual function and serum testosterone. There was a significant decrease in AMS score over time and between the active and placebo groups. Sexual function improved, including number of morning erections and frequency of sexual activity. Both total serum testosterone and free testosterone increased compared to placebo after 12 weeks of active treatment. Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract is a safe and effective treatment for reducing symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, improves sexual function and increases serum testosterone in healthy middle-aged and older men. PMID:26791805

  3. Variation in chemical composition and allelopathic potential of mixoploid Trigonella foenum-graecum L. with developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Omezzine, Faten; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Simmonds, Monique S J; Haouala, Rabiaa

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of developmental stages (vegetative, flowering and fruiting) of mixoploid fenugreek aerial parts on their chemical composition and allelopathic potential, assessed on lettuce germination and seedling growth. Aqueous and organic extracts significantly delayed germination, reduced its rate and affected seedling growth. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial parts harvested at vegetative stage were the most toxic for lettuce germination and seedling growth, respectively. LC-MS/MS analysis of T. foenum-graecum aerial parts methanolic extract showed nine different flavonol glycosides (quercetin and kaempferol glucosides). Chemical composition of aerial parts differed with the developmental stage; indeed, at the vegetative and fruiting stages, analysis revealed the presence of 9 compounds as compared to only 6 compounds at the flowering stage. Thus, it is necessary to follow the qualitative changes of allelochemicals production at different developmental stages to identify the most productive one. PMID:24262545

  4. Efficient Protocol for Isolation of Rhaponticin and Rhapontigenin with Consecutive Sample Injection from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) by HSCCC.

    PubMed

    He, Yanfeng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Suo, Yourui; Ding, Chenxu; Wang, Honglun

    2016-03-01

    High efficiency and less solvent consumption are the essential requirements of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), especially for the large-scale preparation. In this study, an efficient HSCCC strategy with consecutive sample injection was successfully developed to rapidly separate and purify rhaponticin and rhapontigenin from the seeds of the Chinese medicinal herb fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). The effective separation was achieved using n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:4:2:6, v/v/v/v) as the two-phase solvent system, in which the mobile phase was eluted at an optimized flow rate of 2.2 mL/min and a revolution speed of 850 rpm. After consecutively loading four identical fenugreek samples, each containing 120 mg, HSCCC separation yielded 146.4 mg of rhaponticin and 174.8 mg of rhapontigenin with purities of 98.6 and 99.1%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography at 320 nm. Their chemical structures were identified using UV spectroscopy, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. The HSCCC method with consecutive sample injection allowed faster separation and produced less solvent waste, suggesting that it is an efficient way to rapidly separate and purify natural products on a large scale.

  5. Efficient Protocol for Isolation of Rhaponticin and Rhapontigenin with Consecutive Sample Injection from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) by HSCCC.

    PubMed

    He, Yanfeng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Suo, Yourui; Ding, Chenxu; Wang, Honglun

    2016-03-01

    High efficiency and less solvent consumption are the essential requirements of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), especially for the large-scale preparation. In this study, an efficient HSCCC strategy with consecutive sample injection was successfully developed to rapidly separate and purify rhaponticin and rhapontigenin from the seeds of the Chinese medicinal herb fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). The effective separation was achieved using n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:4:2:6, v/v/v/v) as the two-phase solvent system, in which the mobile phase was eluted at an optimized flow rate of 2.2 mL/min and a revolution speed of 850 rpm. After consecutively loading four identical fenugreek samples, each containing 120 mg, HSCCC separation yielded 146.4 mg of rhaponticin and 174.8 mg of rhapontigenin with purities of 98.6 and 99.1%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography at 320 nm. Their chemical structures were identified using UV spectroscopy, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. The HSCCC method with consecutive sample injection allowed faster separation and produced less solvent waste, suggesting that it is an efficient way to rapidly separate and purify natural products on a large scale. PMID:26598549

  6. A multicenter clinical study to determine the efficacy of a novel fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum) extract (Fenfuro™) in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Narsingh; Usman, Kauser; Patel, Naresh; Jain, Arvind; Dhakre, Sudhir; Swaroop, Anand; Bagchi, Manashi; Kumar, Pawan; Preuss, Harry G.; Bagchi, Debasis

    2016-01-01

    Background Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds are known to exhibit potent antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and nephroprotective activities, as well as serve as excellent membrane stabilizers especially because of their content of novel furostanolic saponins. Our previous studies exhibited the broad spectrum safety and efficacy of Fenfuro, a novel T. foenum-graecum seed extract enriched in furostanolic saponins, in type 2 diabetes (T2D) in rats. Design This multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, add-on clinical study evaluated over a period of 90 consecutive days the efficacy of Fenfuro (daily dosage: 500 mg bid) in 154 subjects (male: 108; female: 46; age: 25–60 years) with T2D. Methods This study examined the body weight, blood pressure, and pulse rate, as well as the efficacy of Fenfuro on fasting and post-prandial plasma sugar (mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and fasting and post-prandial C-peptide levels. Results Fenfuro caused significant reduction in both fasting plasma and post-prandial blood sugar levels. Approximately 83% of the subjects reported decreases in fasting plasma sugar levels in the Fenfuro-treated group as compared to 62% in the placebo group, while 89% of the subjects demonstrated reduction in post-prandial plasma sugar levels in the Fenfuro-treated group as compared to 72% in the placebo group. HbA1c levels were reduced in both placebo and treatment groups. The decrease in HbA1c levels was significant in both groups as compared to respective baseline values. A significant increase in fasting and post-prandial C-peptide levels compared to the respective baseline values was observed, while no significant changes in fasting and post-prandial C-peptide levels were observed between the two groups. No significant adverse effects were observed by blood chemistry analyses. Furthermore, 48.8% of the subjects reported reduced dosage of anti-diabetic therapy in the Fenfuro-treated group, whereas 18.05% reported reduced

  7. Anti-hyperglycemic compound (GII) from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.) seeds, its purification and effect in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Moorthy, Radha; Prabhu, K M; Murthy, P S

    2010-11-01

    An anti-hyperglycemic compound named GII was purified from the water extract of the seeds of fenugreek (T. foenum-graecum) and shown to be different from trigonelline and nicotinic acid isolated earlier from the same plant. GII (50 mg/kg body weight, po) reduced blood glucose in glucose tolerance test (GTT) in the sub-diabetic and moderately diabetic rabbits and significantly reduced the area under the curve (AUC) of GTT. Treatment for 7 days of the sub-diabetic rabbits with GII (50 mg/kg body weight, po) improved glucose tolerance without reducing fasting blood glucose (FBG) which was nearly normal. The results suggest that there is no risk of hypoglycemia in near normal animals (may be humans also) with abnormal GTT. Treatment of the moderately diabetic rabbits with GII (100 mg/kg body weight for 3 weeks) reduced FBG to nearly normal value and improved GTT. GII was more effective than the standard drug tolbutamide. Intermittent therapy given on days 1-5, 11-15, 26-30 and 56-60 to moderately diabetic rabbits leaving in between days without treatment brought down FBG to normal and AUC during GTT was normal. After 15 days treatment with GII (100 mg/kg body weight for 3 weeks) glycosylated hemoglobin came down and insulin increased to normal values in the sub-diabetic, moderately diabetic and severely diabetic rabbits. GII treatment (100 mg/kg body weight for 15 days) brought down all the altered serum lipids (TC, HDLC, TAG, PLs and FFAs) to normal levels. The results suggest that intermittent therapy, instead of daily therapy is possible and GII has good potential as an oral anti-diabetic drug with intermittent therapy. PMID:21117451

  8. Tandem combination of Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein (RsAFP2) generates a more potent antifungal protein.

    PubMed

    Karri, Vasavirama; Bharadwaja, Kirti Pulugurtha

    2013-11-01

    Plant defensins are small (45 to 54 amino acids) positively charged antimicrobial peptides produced by the plant species, which can inhibit the growth of a broad range of fungi at micro-molar concentrations. These basic peptides share a common characteristic three-dimensional folding pattern with one α-helix and three β-sheets that are stabilized by eight disulfide-linked cysteine residues. Instead of using two single-gene constructs, it is beneficial when two effective genes are made into a single fusion gene with one promoter and terminator. In this approach, we have linked two plant defensins namely Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin 2 (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein 2 (RsAFP2) genes by a linker peptide sequence (occurring in the seeds of Impatiens balsamina) and made into a single-fusion gene construct. We used pET-32a+ vector system to express Tfgd2-RsAFP2 fusion gene with hexahistidine tag in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells. Induction of these cells with 1 mM IPTG achieved expression of the fusion protein. The solubilized His6-tagged recombinant fusion protein was purified by immobilized-metal (Ni2+) affinity column chromatography. The final yield of the fusion protein was 500 ng/μL. This method produced biologically active recombinant His6-tagged fusion protein, which exhibited potent antifungal action towards the plant pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Phaeoisariopsis personata and Rhizoctonia solani along with an oomycete pathogen Phytophthora parasitica var nicotianae) at lower concentrations under in vitro conditions. This strategy of combining activity of two defensin genes into a single-fusion gene will definitely be a promising utility for biotechnological applications. PMID:24022215

  9. Tandem combination of Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein (RsAFP2) generates a more potent antifungal protein.

    PubMed

    Karri, Vasavirama; Bharadwaja, Kirti Pulugurtha

    2013-11-01

    Plant defensins are small (45 to 54 amino acids) positively charged antimicrobial peptides produced by the plant species, which can inhibit the growth of a broad range of fungi at micro-molar concentrations. These basic peptides share a common characteristic three-dimensional folding pattern with one α-helix and three β-sheets that are stabilized by eight disulfide-linked cysteine residues. Instead of using two single-gene constructs, it is beneficial when two effective genes are made into a single fusion gene with one promoter and terminator. In this approach, we have linked two plant defensins namely Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin 2 (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein 2 (RsAFP2) genes by a linker peptide sequence (occurring in the seeds of Impatiens balsamina) and made into a single-fusion gene construct. We used pET-32a+ vector system to express Tfgd2-RsAFP2 fusion gene with hexahistidine tag in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells. Induction of these cells with 1 mM IPTG achieved expression of the fusion protein. The solubilized His6-tagged recombinant fusion protein was purified by immobilized-metal (Ni2+) affinity column chromatography. The final yield of the fusion protein was 500 ng/μL. This method produced biologically active recombinant His6-tagged fusion protein, which exhibited potent antifungal action towards the plant pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Phaeoisariopsis personata and Rhizoctonia solani along with an oomycete pathogen Phytophthora parasitica var nicotianae) at lower concentrations under in vitro conditions. This strategy of combining activity of two defensin genes into a single-fusion gene will definitely be a promising utility for biotechnological applications.

  10. Contribution of Glomus intraradices inoculation to nutrient acquisition and mitigation of ionic imbalance in NaCl-stressed Trigonella foenum-graecum.

    PubMed

    Evelin, Heikham; Giri, Bhoopander; Kapoor, Rupam

    2012-04-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of an AM fungus (Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith) on mineral acquisition in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) plants under different levels of salinity. Mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) fenugreek plants were subjected to four levels of NaCl salinity (0, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl). Plant tissues were analyzed for different mineral nutrients. Leaf senescence (chlorophyll concentration and membrane permeability) and lipid peroxidation were also assessed. Under salt stress, M plants showed better growth, lower leaf senescence, and decreased lipid peroxidation as compared to NM plants. Salt stress adversely affected root nodulation and uptake of NPK. This effect was attenuated in mycorrhizal plants. Presence of the AM fungus prevented excess uptake of Na(+) with increase in NaCl in the soil. It also imparted a regulatory effect on the translocation of Na(+) ions to shoots thereby maintaining lower Na(+) shoot:root ratios as compared to NM plants. Mycorrhizal colonization helped the host plant to overcome Na(+)-induced Ca(2+) and K(+) deficiencies. M plants maintained favorable K(+):Na(+), Ca(2+):Na(+), and Ca(2+):Mg(2+) ratios in their tissues. Concentrations of Cu, Fe, and Zn(2+) decreased with increase in intensity of salinity stress. However, at each NaCl level, M plants had higher concentration of Cu, Fe, Mn(2+), and Zn(2+) as compared to NM plants. M plants showed reduced electrolyte leakage in leaves as compared to NM plants. The study suggests that AM fungi contribute to alleviation of salt stress by mitigation of NaCl-induced ionic imbalance thus maintaining a favorable nutrient profile and integrity of the plasma membrane. PMID:21695577

  11. Influence of a Specialized Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed Extract (Libifem), on Testosterone, Estradiol and Sexual Function in Healthy Menstruating Women, a Randomised Placebo Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Amanda; Steels, Elizabeth; Beccaria, Gavin; Inder, Warrick J; Vitetta, Luis

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed extract on sex hormones and sexual function in healthy menstruating women who reported low sexual drive. This short term, single site, double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 80 women, aged 20 to 49 years. Participants were randomised to either an oral dose of a standardised T. foenum-graecum seed extract (libifem) at a dose of 600 mg/day or placebo over two menstrual cycles. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, progesterone, androstenedione, total and free testosterone, estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, sex hormone binding globulin and cholesterol were measured at baseline and 8 weeks. The individual aspects of sexual function were measured using the Derogatis interview for sexual functioning and female sexual function index self-administered questionnaires. Stress, fatigue and quality of the relationship with partner were also measured using the PSS (Perceived Stress Scale), MFI-20 (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory) and DAS (Dyadic Adjustment Scale) quality of life measures, respectively. There was a significant increase in free testosterone and E2 in the active group as well as sexual desire and arousal compared with the placebo group. The results indicate that this extract of T. foenum-graecum may be a useful treatment for increasing sexual arousal and desire in women. PMID:25914334

  12. Exogenous IAA differentially affects growth, oxidative stress and antioxidants system in Cd stressed Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seedlings: Toxicity alleviation by up-regulation of ascorbate-glutathione cycle.

    PubMed

    Bashri, Gausiya; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, effect of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid at their different levels (i.e. low; IAAL, 10µM and high; IAAH, 100µM) were studied on growth, oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT and GST), and metabolites (AsA and GSH) as well as enzymes (APX, GR and DHAR) of ascorbate-glutathione cycle in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seedlings grown under cadmium (Cd1, 3mgCd kg(-1) soil and Cd2, 9mgCd kg(-1) soil) stress. Cadmium (Cd) at both doses caused reduction in growth which was correlated with enhanced lipid peroxidation and damage to membrane as a result of excess accumulation of O2(•-) and H2O2. Cd also enhanced the oxidation of AsA and GSH to DHA and GSSG, respectively which give a clear sign of oxidative stress, despite of accelerated activity of enzymatic antioxidants: SOD, CAT, POD, GST as well as APX, DHAR (except in Cd2 stress) and GR. Exogenous application of IAAL resulted further rise in the activities of these enzymes, and maintained the redox status (> ratios: AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG) of cells. The maintained redox status of cells under IAAL treatment declined the level of ROS in Cd1 and Cd2 treated seedlings thereby alleviated the Cd toxicity and this effect was more pronounced under Cd1 stress. Contrary to this, exogenous IAAH suppressed the activity of DHAR and GR and disturbed the redox status (< ratios: AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG) of cells, hence excess accumulation of ROS further aggravated the Cd induced damage. Thus, overall results suggest that IAA at low (IAAL) and high (IAAH) doses affected the Cd toxicity differently by regulating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle as well as activity of other antioxidants in Trigonella seedlings. PMID:27344401

  13. Protective effect of aqueous extract of seed of Psoralea corylifolia (Somraji) and seed of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Methi) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat: A comparative evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Jana, Kishalay; Ghosh, Abhinandan; Ghosh, Debidas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psoralea corylifolia (Somraji) and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Methi), important medicinal plants widely used in India as folk medicine. Local people of West Bengal traditionally used the seeds of these plants to cure diabetes. Objective: Present study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic efficacy of aqueous extract of seeds of these plants in separate or in composite manner in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intramuscular injection of STZ at the dose of 40 mg/ml of citrate buffer/kg body weight. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glyclated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and activities of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphatase of liver in experimental animals were assessed. Hyperlipidemic state developed in the experimental diabetic rat was assessed by measuring the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins in serum. Results: There was significant increased in the levels of FBG, HbA1C and lipid profiles along with diminution (P < 0.001) in the activities of hepatic hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and elevation in glucose-6-phosphatase in diabetic control animals in respect to the untreated control. Significant recovery (P < 0.05) in the activities of above mentioned enzymes along with the correction in the levels of FBG, HbA1C and serum lipid profiles were noted towards the control level after the treatment of composite extract (i.e. 100 mg of Somraji: 100 mg of Methi, total 200 mg/kg body weight) than the individual extract (i.e. 200 mg of Somraji or 200 mg of Methi, per kg body weight) treatment. Conclusion: Results suggest that composite extract of above plant parts has more potent antidiabetic efficacy than the individual extract. PMID:24174822

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn) seed petroleum ether extract

    PubMed Central

    Pundarikakshudu, Kilambi; Shah, Deepak H.; Panchal, Aashish H.; Bhavsar, Gordhanbhai C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of petroleum ether extract of fenugreek seeds. Materials and Methods: Fenugreek seed powder was extracted in petroleum ether by cold maceration. This fenugreek seed petroleum ether extract (FSPEE) was analyzed by gas–liquid chromatography (GLC) and tested on rats against carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw edema, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis and cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Changes in serum glutamic oxaloacetic tansaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in liver and serum were also studied in cotton pellet-induced arthritic rats. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: GLC of FSPEE showed oleic (33.61%), linoleic (40.37%), and linolenic (12.51%) acids. With 0.5 mL/kg FSPEE treatment, there was 37% (P < 0.05) and 85% (P < 0.05) reduction in inflammation of the paw in carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw edema. In CFA-induced arthritis, a biphasic increase in paw volume followed by decrease was seen. There was 42.5% (P < 0.01) reduction in the weight of cotton pellets and significant (P < 0.01) reductions in the elevated SGPT and ALP activities in serum and liver of FSPEE (0.5 mL/kg) treated rats. Conclusion: Thus, petroleum ether extract of fenugreek seeds has significant anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities which are due to the presence of linolenic and linoleic acids. PMID:27756958

  15. Ethanolic extract of Trigonella Foenum Graecum attenuates cisplatin-induced nephro- and hepatotoxicities in rats.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Marwa G A; Emam, Manal A

    2015-01-01

    Nephro-and hepatotoxicities are important complications in cancer patients undergoing cisplatin (CP) therapy. We aimed to study the protective effect of fenugreek (FG) on CP induced renal and hepatic injuries in rats. Cisplatin intoxication resulted in structural and functional renal and hepatic impairments, which were revealed by massive histopathological changes and elevated kidney and liver function tests. However, it was associated with oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation as evident by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) with decreased levels of total antioxidant activity. Cisplatin administration triggered inflammatory responses and apoptosis in rat livers and kidneys as evident by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) and apoptotic marker p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) as results of overproduction of ROS. FG significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced biochemical and histopathological alterations, inflammation and apoptosis in rat livers and kidneys. Results suggested that fenugreek co-administration has a powerful antioxidant effect and may serves as a novel and promising preventive strategy against cisplatin-induced nephron- and hepatotoxicities. PMID:26612737

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis modulates antioxidant response in salt-stressed Trigonella foenum-graecum plants.

    PubMed

    Evelin, Heikham; Kapoor, Rupam

    2014-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of Glomus intraradices colonization on the activity of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (PX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR)] and the accumulation of nonenzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, glutathione, and carotenoids) in roots and leaves of fenugreek plants subjected to varying degrees of salinity (0, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) at two time intervals (1 and 14 days after saline treatment, DAT). The antioxidative capacity was correlated with oxidative damage in the same tissue. Under salt stress, lipid peroxidation and H2O2 concentration increased with increasing severity and duration of salt stress (DoS). However, the extent of oxidative damage in mycorrhizal plants was less compared to nonmycorrhizal plants. The study reveals that mycorrhiza-mediated attenuation of oxidative stress in fenugreek plants is due to enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes and higher concentrations of antioxidant molecules. However, the significant effect of G. intraradices colonization on individual antioxidant molecules and enzymes varied with plant tissue, salinity level, and DoS. The significant effect of G. intraradices colonization on antioxidative enzymes was more evident at 1DAT in both leaves and roots, while the concentrations of antioxidant molecules were significantly influenced at 14DAT. It is proposed that AM symbiosis can improve antioxidative defense systems of plants through higher SOD activity in M plants, facilitating rapid dismutation of O2 (-) to H2O2, and subsequent prevention of H2O2 build-up by higher activities of CAT, APX, and PX. The potential of G. intraradices to ameliorate oxidative stress generated in fenugreek plants by salinity was more evident at higher intensities of salt stress.

  17. NMR Spectroscopy of Aqueous Extracts of Fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum- graecum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakovskii, E. D.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.; Matveichuk, S. V.; Karankevich, E. G.; Agabalaeva, E. D.; Reshetnikov, V. N.

    2014-09-01

    The amino-acid and monosaccharide compositions of aqueous extracts of fenugreek herb were determined using PMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The content of identified extract constituents was >70 mol%, of which the dominant amino acid was 4-hydroxyisoleucine (26.5 mol%); the major carbohydrate, glucose (10.1 mol%).

  18. Lysimachia foenum-graecum Herba Extract, a Novel Biopesticide, Inhibits ABC Transporter Genes and Mycelial Growth of Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngjin

    2016-01-01

    To identify a novel biopesticide controlling rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, 700 plant extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on mycelial growth of M. oryzae. The L. foenum-graecum Herba extract showed the lowest inhibition concentration (IC50) of 39.28 μg/ml, which is lower than the IC50 of blasticidin S (63.06 μg/ml), a conventional fungicide for rice blast disease. When treatments were combined, the IC50 of blasticidin S was dramatically reduced to 10.67 μg/ml. Since ABC transporter genes are involved in fungicide resistance of many organisms, we performed RT-PCR to investigate the transcriptional changes of 40 ABC transporter family genes of M. oryzae treated with the plant extract, blasticidin S, and tetrandrine, a recognized ABC transporter inhibitor. Four ABC transporter genes were prominently activated by blasticidin S treatment, but were suppressed by combinational treatment of blasticidin S with the plant extract, or with tetrandrine that didn’t show cellular toxicity by itself in this study. Mycelial death was detected via confocal microscopy at 24 h after plant extract treatment. Finally, subsequent rice field study revealed that the plant extract had high control efficacy of 63.3% and should be considered a biopesticide for rice blast disease. These results showed that extract of L. foenum graecum Herba suppresses M. oryzae ABC transporter genes inducing mycelial death and therefore may be a potent novel biopesticide. PMID:26889110

  19. Lysimachia foenum-graecum Herba Extract, a Novel Biopesticide, Inhibits ABC Transporter Genes and Mycelial Growth of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngjin

    2016-02-01

    To identify a novel biopesticide controlling rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, 700 plant extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on mycelial growth of M. oryzae. The L. foenum-graecum Herba extract showed the lowest inhibition concentration (IC50) of 39.28 μg/ml, which is lower than the IC50 of blasticidin S (63.06 μg/ml), a conventional fungicide for rice blast disease. When treatments were combined, the IC50 of blasticidin S was dramatically reduced to 10.67 μg/ml. Since ABC transporter genes are involved in fungicide resistance of many organisms, we performed RT-PCR to investigate the transcriptional changes of 40 ABC transporter family genes of M. oryzae treated with the plant extract, blasticidin S, and tetrandrine, a recognized ABC transporter inhibitor. Four ABC transporter genes were prominently activated by blasticidin S treatment, but were suppressed by combinational treatment of blasticidin S with the plant extract, or with tetrandrine that didn't show cellular toxicity by itself in this study. Mycelial death was detected via confocal microscopy at 24 h after plant extract treatment. Finally, subsequent rice field study revealed that the plant extract had high control efficacy of 63.3% and should be considered a biopesticide for rice blast disease. These results showed that extract of L. foenum graecum Herba suppresses M. oryzae ABC transporter genes inducing mycelial death and therefore may be a potent novel biopesticide. PMID:26889110

  20. Suppression of Adipocyte Differentiation by Foenumoside B from Lysimachia foenum-graecum Is Mediated by PPARγ Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Choi, Hye-Eun; Jang, Jinsun; Park, Soo Kyoung; Cho, Byoung Heon; Kim, Seul Ki; Lee, Sunyi; Kang, Nam Sook; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

    2016-01-01

    Lysimachia foenum-graecum extract (LFE) and its active component foenumoside B (FSB) have been shown to inhibit adipocyte differentiation, but their mechanisms were poorly defined. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms responsible for their anti-adipogenic effects. Both LFE and FSB inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists, accompanied by reductions in the expressions of the lipogenic genes aP2, CD36, and FAS. Moreover, LFE and FSB inhibited PPARγ transactivation activity with IC50s of 22.5 μg/ml and 7.63 μg/ml, respectively, and showed selectivity against PPARα and PPARδ. Rosiglitazone-induced interaction between PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) and coactivator SRC-1 was blocked by LFE or FSB, whereas reduced NCoR-1 binding to PPARγ by rosiglitazone was reversed in the presence of LFE or FSB. In vivo administration of LFE into either ob/ob mice or KKAy mice reduced body weights, and levels of PPARγ and C/EBPα in fat tissues. Furthermore, insulin resistance was ameliorated by LFE treatment, with reduced adipose tissue inflammation and hepatic steatosis. Thus, LFE and FSB were found to act as PPARγ antagonists that improve insulin sensitivity and metabolic profiles. We propose that LFE and its active component FSB offer a new therapeutic strategy for metabolic disorders including obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:27176632

  1. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women.

    PubMed

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-07-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea.

  2. Investigating Therapeutic Potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. as Our Defense Mechanism against Several Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Shivangi; Gupta, Nidhi; Chatterjee, Sreemoyee

    2016-01-01

    Current lifestyle, stress, and pollution have dramatically enhanced the progression of several diseases in human. Globally, scientists are looking for therapeutic agents that can either cure or delay the onset of diseases. Medicinal plants from time immemorial have been used frequently in therapeutics. Of many such plants, fenugreek is one of the oldest herbs which have been identified as an important medicinal plant by the researchers around the world. It is potentially beneficial in a number of diseases such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and inflammation and probably in several kinds of cancers. It has industrial applications such as synthesis of steroidal hormones. Its medicinal properties and their role in clinical domain can be attributed to its chemical constituents. The 3 major chemical constituents which have been identified as responsible for principle health effects are galactomannan, 4-OH isoleucine, and steroidal saponin. Numerous experiments have been carried out in vivo and in vitro for beneficial effects of both the crude chemical and of its active constituent. Due to its role in health care, the functional food industry has referred to it as a potential nutraceutical. This paper is about various medicinal benefits of fenugreek and its potential application as therapeutic agent against several diseases. PMID:26884758

  3. Investigating Therapeutic Potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. as Our Defense Mechanism against Several Human Diseases.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shivangi; Gupta, Nidhi; Chatterjee, Sreemoyee

    2016-01-01

    Current lifestyle, stress, and pollution have dramatically enhanced the progression of several diseases in human. Globally, scientists are looking for therapeutic agents that can either cure or delay the onset of diseases. Medicinal plants from time immemorial have been used frequently in therapeutics. Of many such plants, fenugreek is one of the oldest herbs which have been identified as an important medicinal plant by the researchers around the world. It is potentially beneficial in a number of diseases such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and inflammation and probably in several kinds of cancers. It has industrial applications such as synthesis of steroidal hormones. Its medicinal properties and their role in clinical domain can be attributed to its chemical constituents. The 3 major chemical constituents which have been identified as responsible for principle health effects are galactomannan, 4-OH isoleucine, and steroidal saponin. Numerous experiments have been carried out in vivo and in vitro for beneficial effects of both the crude chemical and of its active constituent. Due to its role in health care, the functional food industry has referred to it as a potential nutraceutical. This paper is about various medicinal benefits of fenugreek and its potential application as therapeutic agent against several diseases. PMID:26884758

  4. Isolation of Positive Modulator of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Signaling from Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Seed.

    PubMed

    King, Klim; Lin, Nai-Pin; Cheng, Yu-Hong; Chen, Gao-Hui; Chein, Rong-Jie

    2015-10-23

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed in many tissues and has been implicated in diverse physiological functions, such as energy homeostasis and cognition. GLP-1 analogs are approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes and are undergoing clinical trials for other disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. GLP-1 analog therapies maintain chronically high plasma levels of the analog and can lead to loss of spatiotemporal control of GLP-1R activation. To avoid adverse effects associated with current therapies, we characterized positive modulators of GLP-1R signaling. We screened extracts from edible plants using an intracellular cAMP biosensor and GLP-1R endocytosis assays. Ethanol extracts from fenugreek seeds enhanced GLP-1 signaling. These seeds have previously been found to reduce glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in humans. An active compound (N55) with a new N-linoleoyl-2-amino-γ-butyrolactone structure was purified from fenugreek seeds. N55 promoted GLP-1-dependent cAMP production and GLP-1R endocytosis in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. N55 specifically enhanced GLP-1 potency more than 40-fold, but not that of exendin 4, to stimulate cAMP production. In contrast to the current allosteric modulators that bind to GLP-1R, N55 binds to GLP-1 peptide and facilitates trypsin-mediated GLP-1 inactivation. These findings identify a new class of modulators of GLP-1R signaling and suggest that GLP-1 might be a viable target for drug discovery. Our results also highlight a feasible approach for screening bioactive activity of plant extracts. PMID:26336108

  5. Isolation of Positive Modulator of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Signaling from Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Seed*

    PubMed Central

    King, Klim; Lin, Nai-Pin; Cheng, Yu-Hong; Chen, Gao-Hui; Chein, Rong-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed in many tissues and has been implicated in diverse physiological functions, such as energy homeostasis and cognition. GLP-1 analogs are approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes and are undergoing clinical trials for other disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. GLP-1 analog therapies maintain chronically high plasma levels of the analog and can lead to loss of spatiotemporal control of GLP-1R activation. To avoid adverse effects associated with current therapies, we characterized positive modulators of GLP-1R signaling. We screened extracts from edible plants using an intracellular cAMP biosensor and GLP-1R endocytosis assays. Ethanol extracts from fenugreek seeds enhanced GLP-1 signaling. These seeds have previously been found to reduce glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in humans. An active compound (N55) with a new N-linoleoyl-2-amino-γ-butyrolactone structure was purified from fenugreek seeds. N55 promoted GLP-1-dependent cAMP production and GLP-1R endocytosis in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. N55 specifically enhanced GLP-1 potency more than 40-fold, but not that of exendin 4, to stimulate cAMP production. In contrast to the current allosteric modulators that bind to GLP-1R, N55 binds to GLP-1 peptide and facilitates trypsin-mediated GLP-1 inactivation. These findings identify a new class of modulators of GLP-1R signaling and suggest that GLP-1 might be a viable target for drug discovery. Our results also highlight a feasible approach for screening bioactive activity of plant extracts. PMID:26336108

  6. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun

    2015-01-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2. There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea. PMID:26251835

  7. Hypolipidemic influence of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mukthamba, Puttaswamy; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-09-01

    The cardioprotective influence of dietary fibre-rich fenugreek seeds and the well-established hypolipidemic spice garlic was evaluated both individually and in combination in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. It was particularly examined whether pretreatment with dietary fenugreek, garlic or fenugreek + garlic would be beneficial under hypercholesterolemic conditions by their influence on the tissue lipid profile. Four groups each of male Wistar rats were maintained on either a basal diet or a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions with fenugreek, garlic and the combination of fenugreek and garlic were made by including 10% fenugreek seed powder, 2% freeze-dried garlic powder, and 10% fenugreek seed powder + 2% garlic powder. At the end of the diet regimen, myocardial infarction was induced with isoproterenol (i.p. 80 mg kg(-1)) twice at intervals of 12 h. The disturbed activities of cardiac marker enzymes in serum and the heart confirmed isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction. Dietary fenugreek, garlic or fenugreek + garlic was found to ameliorate the pathological changes in heart tissue and lipid abnormalities in serum and the heart, the beneficial effect being higher with the combination of fenugreek and garlic, invariably amounting to an additive effect. The results also indicated that the hypercholesterolemic situation aggravated the myocardial damage during isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. This dietary intervention study suggested that the combination of fenugreek seeds and garlic offers a higher beneficial influence in exerting the cardioprotective effect. PMID:26220304

  8. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women.

    PubMed

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-07-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea. PMID:26251835

  9. Hypolipidemic influence of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mukthamba, Puttaswamy; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-09-01

    The cardioprotective influence of dietary fibre-rich fenugreek seeds and the well-established hypolipidemic spice garlic was evaluated both individually and in combination in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. It was particularly examined whether pretreatment with dietary fenugreek, garlic or fenugreek + garlic would be beneficial under hypercholesterolemic conditions by their influence on the tissue lipid profile. Four groups each of male Wistar rats were maintained on either a basal diet or a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions with fenugreek, garlic and the combination of fenugreek and garlic were made by including 10% fenugreek seed powder, 2% freeze-dried garlic powder, and 10% fenugreek seed powder + 2% garlic powder. At the end of the diet regimen, myocardial infarction was induced with isoproterenol (i.p. 80 mg kg(-1)) twice at intervals of 12 h. The disturbed activities of cardiac marker enzymes in serum and the heart confirmed isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction. Dietary fenugreek, garlic or fenugreek + garlic was found to ameliorate the pathological changes in heart tissue and lipid abnormalities in serum and the heart, the beneficial effect being higher with the combination of fenugreek and garlic, invariably amounting to an additive effect. The results also indicated that the hypercholesterolemic situation aggravated the myocardial damage during isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. This dietary intervention study suggested that the combination of fenugreek seeds and garlic offers a higher beneficial influence in exerting the cardioprotective effect.

  10. Trigonella foenum-graceum (Seed) Extract Interferes with Quorum Sensing Regulated Traits and Biofilm Formation in the Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Husain, Fohad Mabood; Ahmad, Iqbal; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Al-Shabib, Nasser Abdulatif

    2015-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) is an important plant of the Leguminosae family known to have medicinal properties. However, fraction based antiquorum sensing and antibiofilm activities have not been reported from this plant. In the present study T. foenum-graecum seed extract was sequentially fractionated and sub-MICs were tested for above activities. The methanol fraction of the extract demonstrated significant inhibition of AHL regulated virulence factors: protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin production, chitinase, EPS, and swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAF79. Further, QS dependent virulence factor in the aquatic pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila WAF38 was also reduced. Application of T. foenum-graecum seed extract to PAO1, PAF79, and WAF38 decreased the biofilm forming abilities of the pathogens by significant levels. The extract also exhibited reduced AHL levels and subsequent downregulation of lasB gene. In vivo study showed an enhanced survival of PAO1-preinfected C. elegans after treatment with extract at 1 mg/mL. Further, the major compound detected by GC-MS, caffeine, reduced the production of QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm at 200 µg/mL concentration indicating its role in the activity of the methanol extract. The results of the present study reveal the potential anti-QS and antibiofilm property of T. foenum-graceum extract and caffeine. PMID:26000026

  11. Trigonella foenum-graceum (Seed) Extract Interferes with Quorum Sensing Regulated Traits and Biofilm Formation in the Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Fohad Mabood; Ahmad, Iqbal; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Al-Shabib, Nasser Abdulatif

    2015-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) is an important plant of the Leguminosae family known to have medicinal properties. However, fraction based antiquorum sensing and antibiofilm activities have not been reported from this plant. In the present study T. foenum-graecum seed extract was sequentially fractionated and sub-MICs were tested for above activities. The methanol fraction of the extract demonstrated significant inhibition of AHL regulated virulence factors: protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin production, chitinase, EPS, and swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAF79. Further, QS dependent virulence factor in the aquatic pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila WAF38 was also reduced. Application of T. foenum-graecum seed extract to PAO1, PAF79, and WAF38 decreased the biofilm forming abilities of the pathogens by significant levels. The extract also exhibited reduced AHL levels and subsequent downregulation of lasB gene. In vivo study showed an enhanced survival of PAO1-preinfected C. elegans after treatment with extract at 1 mg/mL. Further, the major compound detected by GC-MS, caffeine, reduced the production of QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm at 200 µg/mL concentration indicating its role in the activity of the methanol extract. The results of the present study reveal the potential anti-QS and antibiofilm property of T. foenum-graceum extract and caffeine. PMID:26000026

  12. Influence of gamma radiation on the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the cotyledons and the leaves of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. ) bean seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Ahanotu, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Studies indicated that 21-day old cotyledons from gamma irradiated seeds of fenugreek beans were heavier and had more starch and sugar than their non-irradiated controls. To test whether these effects occurred in the leaves and to seek a possible biochemical explanation for these results, the activities of five enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were studied. Three groups of fenugreek bean seeds were irradiated (100-300 Gy) and then allowed to grow for 21 days. On harvest, wet and dry weights of both cotyledons and leaves were determined. Starch and sugar contents in cotyledons and leaves were measured. The five enzymes ..cap alpha..-amylase, ..beta..-amylase, starch phosphorylase, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase and ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase were extracted from cotyledons and leaves, respectively. The protein contents and activities of the enzyme extracts were determined. The results suggest an increase in carbohydrate metabolism in cotyldeons and a decrease in leaves due to the radiation treatment of the seeds before germination. Thus, increased amounts of starch and sugars are observed in the cotyledons, and decreased amounts in the leaves. Radiation damage to the translocatory system of the plant may retard the movement of sugars from the cotyledons to the other parts of the plant. This may cause accumulation of sugars and starch in the cotyledons, leading to an increase in their size and weight.

  13. Effect of home processing and storage on ascorbic acid and beta-carotene content of Bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S K; Sehgal, S

    1997-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of selected processing and storage methods on the concentration of ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in Bathua and fenugreek leaves. Methods included storage of leaves with or without polythene bags for 24 and 48 h in a refrigerator at 5 degrees C; at 30 degrees C in polythene bags; drying (sun and oven); blanching (5, 10, 15 min); open pan and pressure cooking. Ascorbic acid content of fresh leaves was 220.97 to 377.65 mg and beta-carotene content was 19.00 to 24.64 mg/100 g, DW. The percent loss of ascorbic acid ranged from 2.03 to 8.77 and 45.15 to 66.9 while lower losses (0.0 to 1.75 and 1.63 to 2.84) of beta-carotene were observed in leaves stored in the refrigerator and at 30 degrees C, respectively. A markedly greater reduction in ascorbic acid and beta-carotene was observed in dried, blanched and cooked leaves. The study data suggest that storage of leaves in refrigeration, drying in oven, blanching for a short time and cooking in a pressure cooker results in better retention of these two vitamins.

  14. Evaluation of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract in combination with swimming exercise compared to glibenclamide consumption on type 2 Diabetic rodents

    PubMed Central

    Arshadi, Sajad; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Yusof, Ashril; Peeri, Maghsoud; Bakhtiyari, Salar; Stannard, Robert S.; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Dehghan, Firouzeh

    2015-01-01

    Background/objective The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed extract in combination with swimming exercise compared to glibenclamide consumption on type 2 diabetic rats. Design The acute toxicity test was carried out to choose the safe doses and identify the toxicity effects of the fenugreek seed extract. To investigate the hypoglycemic effect of the extract and its effect in combination with swimming training, 80 Wistar Kyoto male streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were divided randomly into eight groups: diabetic control (C); fenugreek seed extract 0.8 g/kg (F1); fenugreek extract 1.6 g/kg (F2); swimming training (S); swimming training plus fenugreek extract 0.8 g/kg (SF1); swimming training plus fenugreek extract 1.6 g/kg (SF2); glibenclamide (G) and swimming training plus glibenclamide (SG). The rats were orally administrated with the treatments once a day with the respective treatment, and the training groups were subjected to swimming training every day for 60 min. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, adiponectin, leptin, and insulin concentrations. Results The results obtained from acute toxicity study showed no toxicity effect of fenugreek seed extract on the tested dose. Biochemical analysis showed significant improvements in all of the groups compared to the control group (p<0.05). Plasma insulin concentration and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly reduced in treated groups compared with the diabetic control group. Plasma leptin were significantly decreased in treated groups compared with the control group; while adiponectin had markedly increased (p<0.05). Conclusion The findings suggest that fenugreek seed consuming, alongside swimming exercise, has a strong therapeutic effect on the improvement of diabetic parameters. PMID:26699937

  15. Combining NMR Spectroscopy and Gas-Liquid Chromatography for Analysis of the Fatty Acid Composition of Fenugreek Seed Oil (Trigonella foenum graecum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakovskii, E. D.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.; Mauchanava, V. A.; Karankevich, E. G.; Lamotkin, S. A.; Ahabalayeva, A. D.; Reshetnikov, V. N.

    2013-11-01

    1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy established that fenugreek seed oil consists mainly of triacylglycerides. Oleic and linoleic acids are found preferentially in the 2 position and α-linolenic acid is found preferentially in the 1,3 positions of the glycerol backbone. By combining NMR and gas-liquid chromatography, we have shown that fenugreek seeds contain 5.5 %-6.8 % oil, consisting mainly of unsaturated fatty acids (68.2 %-82.1 %): linoleic (31.3 %-46.8 %), α-linolenic (15.1 %-36.6 %), and oleic (11.6 %-21.3 %). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content is found in the cultivars D-19, Ovary Gold, Blidet, Ovary 4 and the lowest fatty acid content is found in the Metha cultivar. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids is higher in oils of fenugreek cultivars from northern regions (Belarus, Hungary, France).

  16. The potential of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) as a functional food and nutraceutical and its effects on glycemia and lipidemia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Keisha T

    2011-12-01

    Dietary fiber from fenugreek blunts glucose and cholesterol after a meal and regulates the production of cholesterol in the liver. The mechanisms for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Fenugreek seeds contain 45.4% dietary fiber (32% insoluble and 13.3% soluble), and the gum is composed of galactose and mannose. The latter compounds are associated with reduced glycemia and cholesterolemia. Fenugreek's hypoglycemic effect has been especially documented in humans and animals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, this dietary fiber has potential for widespread use in the food industry because its galactomannan composition has emulsifying and stabilizing properties. Flour supplemented with 8%-10% fenugreek dietary fiber has been used in the production of baked goods such as bread, pizza, muffins, and cakes. This application to flour allows for the production of functional foods that may be widely acceptable to consumers observing western diets.

  17. Regulation of α-galactosidase activity and the hydrolysis of galactomannan in the endosperm of the fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed.

    PubMed

    Spyropoulos, C G; Reid, J S

    1985-10-01

    When endosperms were isolated from fenugreek seeds 5 h after sowing and incubated in a small volume of water, the development of α-galactosidase activity and the breakdown of the galactomannan storage polysaccharide were both inhibited relative to control endosperms incubated in larger volumes. The inhibition could be relieved by pre-washing the endosperms, and reimposed by the wash-liquors. If the endosperms were isolated 24 h after sowing, no inhibition was observed. Removal of the embryonic axis from germinating fenugreek seeds and from germinated seedlings also inhibited the development of α-galactosidase activity and galactomannan breakdown in the endosperms; the inhibition was more pronounced the earlier the axis was removed. Axis excision 5 h after sowing caused a delay in the onset of galactomannan breakdown and of the appearance of α-galactosidase activity in the endosperms. It also led to a decrease in the rates of galactomannan breakdown and α-galactosidase production. Axis excision 24 h after sowing caused only a slowing of the rates of galactomannan breakdown and α-galactosidase increase. The inhibition caused by axis removal at 5 h could be relieved partially by gibberellin (10(-4) M), benzyladenine (10(-5) M), mixtures of these and by the herbicide SAN 9789 [4-chloro-5-(methylamine)-2-(α,α,α-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-3-(2H)-pyridazinone]. These substances had no effect on the inhibition caused by axis-removal at 24 h. Excision of the cotyledons at 5 h-leaving the separated axis and the endosperm-also caused inhibition of galactomannan breakdown and α-galactosidase development. The results are consistent with the presence in the fenugreek seed endosperm of diffusible inhibitors of galactomannan mobilisation which are removed or inactivated during normal germination and early seedling development. They are also consistent with a role for the seedling axis in the control of galactomannan breakdown in the endosperm. Initially the axis appears to have a regulatory function (via gibberellins and/or cytokinins?) in determining the onset of α-galactosidase production in the endosperm. Thereafter its continued presence is necessary to ensure maximal rates of α-galactosidase production and galactomannan hydrolysis. The role of the axis may be initially to counteract the endogenous inhibitors in the endosperm and then to act as a sink for the galactomannan breakdown products released in the endosperm and taken up by the cotyledons.

  18. Amelioration of altered antioxidant status and membrane linked functions by vanadium and Trigonella in alloxan diabetic rat brains.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Rizwan; Taha, Asia; Moorthy, K; Hussain, Mohd Ejaz; Basir, S F; Baquer, Najma Zaheer

    2005-09-01

    Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) and sodium orthovanadate (SOV) have been reported to have antidiabetic effects. However, SOV exerts hypoglycemic effects at relatively high doses with several toxic effects. We used low doses of vanadate in combination with TSP and evaluated their antidiabetic effects on anti-oxidant enzymes and membrane-linked functions in diabetic rat brains. In rats, diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body wt.) and they were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV with 5% TSP for 21 days. Blood glucose levels, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Na+/K+ ATPase, membrane lipid peroxidation and fluidity were determined in different fractions of whole brain after 21 days of treatment. Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose (P less than 0.001), decreased activities of SOD, catalase and Na+/K+ ATPase (P less than 0.01, P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.01), increased levels of GPx and MDA (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.001) and decreased membrane fluidity (P less than 0.01). Treatment with different antidiabetic compounds restored the above-altered parameters. Combined dose of Trigonella and vanadate was found to be the most effective treatment in normalizing these alterations. Lower doses of vanadate could be used in combination with TSP to effectively counter diabetic alterations without any toxic effects.

  19. Karyotype analyses of ten sections of Trigonella (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Martin, E; Akan, H; Ekici, M; Aytac, Z

    2011-01-01

    Karyotypes of ten sections of genus Trigonella Linnaeus, 1753 (Fabaceae) from Turkey were investigated. Somatic chromosome numbers of examined species were determined as 2n=14 and 16. The karyotype analyses of the species were carried out and somatic chromosome numbers of Trigonella plicata Boiss., 1872, Trigonella brachycarpa (Fisch.) Moris, 1833, Trigonella rostrata Boiss., 1872, Trigonella lunata Boiss., 1843, Trigonella isthmocarpa Boiss. et Balansa 1856, Trigonella rhytidocarpa Boiss. et Balansa, 1859, Trigonella spicata Sibth. et Sm., 1813, Trigonella cephalotes Boiss. et Balansa 1856, Trigonella capitata Boiss., 1843 and Trigonella gladiata Steven, 1808 were reported for the first time. Two pairs of satellite metaphase chromosomes were observed in Trigonella cariensis Boiss., 1843 and one pair in Trigonella lunata.Moreover, 2 B-chromosomes were found only in Trigonella procumbens Rchb., 1830 among all studied species. The aims of this study are to provide karyological data for a significant pool of the taxa, to show differences among them in the number, size and morphology of somatic chromosomes, to verify previous reports or represent numbers which are different from those cited previously.

  20. THE GENUS TRIGONELLA – PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Jain, S.C; Agrawal, M.; Sharma, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The genus Trigonella is an annual plant distributed in the Mediterranean region and it comprises several species. The present report deals with the dietary, medicinal, biochemical biological and various pharmacological properties. PMID:22556778

  1. Potential inhibitory effect of herbal medicines on rat hepatic cytochrome P450 2D gene expression and metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Jenoobi, F I; Korashy, H M; Ahad, A; Raish, M; Al-Mohizea, A M; Alam, M A; Al-Suwayeh, S A; Alkharfy, K M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of current study was to investigate the effect of some commonly used medicinal herbs on the regulation of rat CYP2D gene expression and its metabolic activity. Wistar albino rats were treated for seven consecutive days with selected doses of five commonly used herbs (Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ferula asafoetida, Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha and Lepidium sativum). Thereafter, rat livers were harvested and CYP2D mRNA levels were determined by RT-PCR. The metabolic activity of CYP2D was performed on rat hepatic microsomes using dextromethorphan as specific substrate. All investigated herbs produced inhibition of CYP2D mRNA expression and metabolic activity. The inhibitory potential of investigated herbs on rat CYP2D mRNA was in the following order: Commiphora myrrha > Nigella sativa > Lepidium sativum > Trigonella foenum-graecum > Ferula asafoetida. Whereas, the inhibitory potential of investigated herbs on CYP2D mediated enzyme metabolic activity was found in following order: Nigella sativa > Lepidium sativum > Trigonella foenum-graecum > Commiphora myrrha > Ferula asafoetida. The current study shows that only used herbs reduce CYP2D activity in rat liver microsomes at the transcriptional levels. Such effects could lead to undesirable pharmacological effects of clinically used low therapeutic index CYP2D substrate drugs.

  2. In Vitro Evaluations of Cytotoxicity of Eight Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants and Their Effect on GLUT4 Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Kadan, Sleman; Saad, Bashar; Sasson, Yoel; Zaid, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous achievements in conventional medicine, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. Trigonella foenum-graecum, Atriplex halimus, Olea europaea, Urtica dioica, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Nigella sativa, and Cinnamomum cassia are strongly recommended in the Greco-Arab and Islamic medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. Cytotoxicity (MTT and LDH assays) of the plant extracts was assessed using cells from the liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and cells from the rat L6 muscle cell line. The effects of the plant extracts (50% ethanol in water) on glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane was tested in an ELISA test on L6-GLUT4myc cells. Results obtained indicate that Cinnamomon cassia is cytotoxic at concentrations higher than 100 μg/mL, whereas all other tested extracts exhibited cytotoxic effects at concentrations higher than 500 μg/mL. Exposing L6-GLUT4myc muscle cell to extracts from Trigonella foenum-graecum, Urtica dioica, Atriplex halimus, and Cinnamomum verum led to a significant gain in GLUT4 on their plasma membranes at noncytotoxic concentrations as measured with MTT assay and the LDH leakage assay. These findings indicate that the observed anti-diabetic properties of these plants are mediated, at least partially, through regulating GLUT4 translocation. PMID:23606883

  3. Mechanism of anti-diabetic action, efficacy and safety profile of GII purified from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum Linn.) seeds in diabetic animals.

    PubMed

    Moorthy, Radha; Prabhu, K M; Murthy, P S

    2010-11-01

    Mechanism of action of GII (100 mg/kg body weight, po for 15 days) purified from fenugreek (T. foenum-graecum) seeds was studied in the sub-diabetic and moderately diabetic rabbits. In the sub-diabetic rabbits it did not change much the content of total lipids, glycogen and proteins in the liver, muscle and heart (glycogen was not studied in the heart). However, in the moderately diabetic rabbits same treatment decreased total lipids more in the liver (21%) than those in the heart and muscle. Total protein content increased (14%) in the liver but negligible change (5-7%) was observed in heart and muscle. Glycogen increased (17%) in the liver but not in the muscle of the moderately diabetic rabbits (glycogen was not estimated in the heart). Among the enzymes of glycolysis, activity of glucokinase was not affected in the liver of both the sub-diabetic and moderately diabetic rabbits. Phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase activity in both sub-diabetic and moderately diabetic rabbits increased (13-50%) indicating stimulation of glycolysis. The activity of gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase of the sub-diabetic rabbits decreased in the liver (15-20%) but not in the kidneys. In the moderately diabetic rabbits after treatment with GII, glucokinase in the liver was not affected much (-9%) but increased well in the muscle (40%). Phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase were moderately increased both in the liver and the muscle (18-23%). The gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase decreased reasonably well in the liver and kidneys (22, 32%). Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase decreased only slightly (10, 9%) in the moderately diabetic rabbits. Thus GII seems to decrease lipid content of liver and stimulate the enzymes of glycolysis (except glucokinase) and inhibit enzymes of gluconeogenesis in the liver of the diabetic especially moderately diabetic rabbits. PMID:21117452

  4. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine: A Potential New Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Mohammad Ishraq; Gao, Feng

    2016-08-01

    4-Hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL) is a compound found in Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds, which have been used as part of traditional medicine to treat diabetes mellitus. The synthesis of 4-HIL on a large scale is possible using fermentation methods (artificial synthesis) involving the isolation of the L-isoleucine dioxygenase gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, which can yield a greater quantity of 4-HIL than that produced with conventional methods (82 % attained with fermentation methods vs. 0.6-39 % attained with conventional methods). In studies of rats and humans, T. foenum-graecum improved laboratory parameters associated with renal dysfunction and dyslipidemia, increased levels of antioxidants and hormones that are altered in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and decreased fasting blood glucose, 2-h postprandial plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. Similarly, in in vitro and preclinical studies, 4-HIL decreased glucose levels, hepatic glucose production, glucose/insulin ratios, indicators of hepatic damage, triglycerides, and total cholesterol, and increased utilization of glucose and levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Studies in humans are needed to determine whether 4-HIL is safer and more effective than current medications for the treatment of T2DM. PMID:27151154

  5. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.

    PubMed

    Grover, J K; Yadav, S; Vats, V

    2002-06-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:12020931

  6. Dyes extracted from Trigonella seeds as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batniji, Amal; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Ghamri, Hatem

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the extract of Trigonella seeds was used as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The natural dye was extracted from the seeds using water and alcohol as solvents for the raw material. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of Trigonella extract solution and dye adsorbed on TiO2 film were measured. DSSCs sensitized by Trigonella extracted using water as a solvent exhibited better performance with efficiency of 0.215 %. The performance of the fabricated DSSCs was attempted to enhance by acid treatment of the FTO substrates with HNO3, H3PO4, and H2SO4. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the fabricated cells was also carried out.

  7. [FT-IR spectroscopic analysis in monitoring of hydroxyl stretching vibrations in plant hydrogels].

    PubMed

    Pielesz, Anna; Biniaś, Dorota; Wieczorek, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, some bioactive hydrogels isolated from natural sources have attracted much attention in the field of biochemistry and pharmacology. This article attempts to review the current structural and conformational characterization of some importantly bioactive hydrogels isolated from following plant: Symphytum officinale, Thymus pulegioides, Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Tussilago farfara L., Hyssopus officinalis, Althaea officinalis L., Equisetum arvense L. Linum usitatissimum L. and Fucus vesiculosus L. Hydrogels are cross-linked three-dimensional polysaccharide macromolecular networks that contain a large fraction of water within their structure. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis showed a strong band at 3500-3100 cm(-1) attributed to hydroxyl (the intermolecular and the intramolecular hydrogen bonds) stretching vibrations changes.

  8. Biguanide related compounds in traditional antidiabetic functional foods.

    PubMed

    Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S

    2013-06-01

    Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed.

  9. Screening of polysaccharides from tamarind, fenugreek and jackfruit seeds as pharmaceutical excipients.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2015-08-01

    The paper describes the isolation and screening of plant polysaccharides namely tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), fenugreek seed mucilage (FSM) and jackfruit seed starch (JFSS) from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds and jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) seeds, respectively. The yields of isolated dried TSP, FSM and JFSS were 47.00%, 17.36% and 18.86%, respectively. Various physicochemical properties like colour, odour, taste, solubility in water, pH and viscosity of these isolated plant polysaccharides were assessed. Isolated polysaccharide samples were subjected to some phytochemical identification tests. FTIR and (1)H NMR analyses of isolated polysaccharides were performed, which suggest the presence of sugar residues. Isolated TSP, FSM and JFSS can be used as pharmaceutical excipients in various pharmaceutical formulations.

  10. [FT-IR spectroscopic analysis in monitoring of hydroxyl stretching vibrations in plant hydrogels].

    PubMed

    Pielesz, Anna; Biniaś, Dorota; Wieczorek, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, some bioactive hydrogels isolated from natural sources have attracted much attention in the field of biochemistry and pharmacology. This article attempts to review the current structural and conformational characterization of some importantly bioactive hydrogels isolated from following plant: Symphytum officinale, Thymus pulegioides, Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Tussilago farfara L., Hyssopus officinalis, Althaea officinalis L., Equisetum arvense L. Linum usitatissimum L. and Fucus vesiculosus L. Hydrogels are cross-linked three-dimensional polysaccharide macromolecular networks that contain a large fraction of water within their structure. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis showed a strong band at 3500-3100 cm(-1) attributed to hydroxyl (the intermolecular and the intramolecular hydrogen bonds) stretching vibrations changes. PMID:22332324

  11. Biguanide related compounds in traditional antidiabetic functional foods.

    PubMed

    Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S

    2013-06-01

    Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed. PMID:23411283

  12. Remarkable, overlooked and new microfungi in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

    PubMed

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Linke, K

    2001-01-01

    During our investigations of the micro flora in NRW in the years of 1999 and 2000 we were able to collect and identify some new and rare species of micro fungi as parasites and saprophytes on wild and ornamental plants. Some of them are new for Germany: Podosphaera xanthii on Coreopsis verticillata; Cercospora traversiana on Trigonella foenum-graecum; Passalora dubia on Atriplex hortensis; Ophiobolus cirsii on Carduus spec.; Periconia britannica on Polemonium coeruleum; Ascochyta leptospora on Agropyron repens; Apomelasmia urticae on Urtica dioica; Cryptodiaporthe salicina on Salix caprea; Dasyscyphus nidulus on Anemone hupehensis; Rhopographus filicinus on Pteridium aquilinum; Sillia ferruginea on Corylus avellana; Sirococcus spiraeae on Spiraea spec. and Forsythia x intermedia. Examples of these findings are in the Herbarium ESS (Mycotheca Parva, Slg. Feige/Ale-Agha).

  13. Screening of polysaccharides from tamarind, fenugreek and jackfruit seeds as pharmaceutical excipients.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2015-08-01

    The paper describes the isolation and screening of plant polysaccharides namely tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), fenugreek seed mucilage (FSM) and jackfruit seed starch (JFSS) from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds and jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) seeds, respectively. The yields of isolated dried TSP, FSM and JFSS were 47.00%, 17.36% and 18.86%, respectively. Various physicochemical properties like colour, odour, taste, solubility in water, pH and viscosity of these isolated plant polysaccharides were assessed. Isolated polysaccharide samples were subjected to some phytochemical identification tests. FTIR and (1)H NMR analyses of isolated polysaccharides were performed, which suggest the presence of sugar residues. Isolated TSP, FSM and JFSS can be used as pharmaceutical excipients in various pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:26007663

  14. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  15. Traditional Indian Medicines Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Neetu

    2013-01-01

    Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants. PMID:23841105

  16. Novel mechanism of modulating natural antioxidants in functional foods: involvement of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria NRRL B-30488.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Govindarajan, Raghavan; Lavania, Meeta; Pushpangadan, Palpu

    2008-06-25

    The significance of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mediated increase in antioxidant potential in vegetables is yet unknown. The plant growth-promoting bacterium Bacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 (B-30488) mediated induction of dietary antioxidant in vegetables ( Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lactuca sativa, Spinacia oleracea, and Daucus carota) and fruit ( Citrus sinensis) after minimal processing (fresh, boiled, and frozen) was tested by estimating the total phenol content, level of antioxidant enzymes, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide scavenging activities along with integral radical scavenging capacity by photochemiluminescence assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Minimal processing of vegetables showed that T. foenum-graecum had the highest phenol content in B-30488-treated plants followed by L. sativa, D. carota, and S. oleracea. Thermally treated vegetables T. foenum-graecum (26-114.5 GAE microg mg (-1)) had an exceptionally high total phenolic content, followed by D. carota (25.27-101.32 GAE microg mg (-1)), L. sativa (23.22-101.10 GAE microg mg (-1)), and S. oleracea (21.87-87.57 GAE microg mg (-1)). Among the vegetables and fruit used in this study for enzymatic estimation, induction of antioxidant enzymes, namely, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD), was observed in edible parts of T. foenum-graecum, L. sativa, S. oleracea, and D. carota, after inoculation with B-30488. The scavenging capacity of the vegetables treated with B-30488 against DPPH and superoxide anion radical activity was found to be significantly high as compared to nontreated control. Mild food processing had no adverse effect on radical scavenging capacity. Photochemiluminescence also ascertains the above findings. The ability of the plant extracts to protect against lipid peroxidation and its ability to prevent oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured in rat liver

  17. Novel mechanism of modulating natural antioxidants in functional foods: involvement of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria NRRL B-30488.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Govindarajan, Raghavan; Lavania, Meeta; Pushpangadan, Palpu

    2008-06-25

    The significance of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mediated increase in antioxidant potential in vegetables is yet unknown. The plant growth-promoting bacterium Bacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 (B-30488) mediated induction of dietary antioxidant in vegetables ( Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lactuca sativa, Spinacia oleracea, and Daucus carota) and fruit ( Citrus sinensis) after minimal processing (fresh, boiled, and frozen) was tested by estimating the total phenol content, level of antioxidant enzymes, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide scavenging activities along with integral radical scavenging capacity by photochemiluminescence assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Minimal processing of vegetables showed that T. foenum-graecum had the highest phenol content in B-30488-treated plants followed by L. sativa, D. carota, and S. oleracea. Thermally treated vegetables T. foenum-graecum (26-114.5 GAE microg mg (-1)) had an exceptionally high total phenolic content, followed by D. carota (25.27-101.32 GAE microg mg (-1)), L. sativa (23.22-101.10 GAE microg mg (-1)), and S. oleracea (21.87-87.57 GAE microg mg (-1)). Among the vegetables and fruit used in this study for enzymatic estimation, induction of antioxidant enzymes, namely, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD), was observed in edible parts of T. foenum-graecum, L. sativa, S. oleracea, and D. carota, after inoculation with B-30488. The scavenging capacity of the vegetables treated with B-30488 against DPPH and superoxide anion radical activity was found to be significantly high as compared to nontreated control. Mild food processing had no adverse effect on radical scavenging capacity. Photochemiluminescence also ascertains the above findings. The ability of the plant extracts to protect against lipid peroxidation and its ability to prevent oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured in rat liver

  18. Invitro Anti-mycotic Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extracts of Some Indian Medicinal Plants against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, Saranya; Malaisamy, Malaiyandi; Duraipandian, Chamundeeswari

    2015-01-01

    Background Candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections caused by Candida albicans. Fluconazole is the drug of choice for prevention and management of this condition. However, the emergence of fluconazole resistant candidal strains has become a major concern. Many herbs like fenugreek, cinnamon, papaya, oregano, garlic are rich in phytochemical constituents known to express antimycotic activity. With the available information, the present research study was carried out to assess the invitro anti-mycotic activity of hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, Cinnamomum verum bark and Carica papaya leaves and seeds against fluconazole resistant Candida albicans Materials and Methods Hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum (seeds), Cinnamomum verum (bark), Carica papaya CO.2 strain (male and female leaves) and Carica papaya CO.2 strain (seeds) were prepared by maceration. The anti-mycotic activity of the prepared extracts against Candida albicans was assessed by agar well diffusion method. Three independent experiments were performed in triplicates and the mean and standard deviation were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined. Results The results of the present study revealed that all the extracts exhibited anti-mycotic activity in a dose dependent manner and minimum inhibitory concentration of all the extracts was found to be 15.62 μg/ml. Conclusion The results of the present study shed light on the fact that plant extracts could be used not only as an alternate drug for management of fluconazole resistant candidiasis but also explored further for oral cancer prevention as a therapeutic adjunct. PMID:26436036

  19. Fenugreek powder exerts protective effects on alcoholised rats' kidney, highlighted using ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Pribac, George Ciprian; Sferdian, Mircea Florin; Neamţu, Carmen; Crăciun, Constantin; Roşioru, Corina Luminiţa; Ardelean, Aurel; Totolici, Bogdan Dan

    2015-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) seeds exert a protective antioxidant effect and membrane protector through their rich content in polyphenolic flavonoids. The previous research focused on the hypoglycemic action of the seeds, with scarce studies on the preventive effects in the pathology of the kidney. Our work was conducted on an experimental in vivo model; the animals were given two different concentrations of TFG seeds, consequently to alcohol intoxication. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed vacuolation in cytoplasm, edemas at the apical pole of the nephrocytes, diffusion of the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial matrix and the increase in number of the lysozymes and especially peroxisomes, as well as the congestion of blood capillaries. In the case of the groups T5R and T10R, which received Trigonella powder together with ethanol, the structural and ultrastructural changes produced by the ethylic intoxication were more reduced, being somewhat improved in the T5R group. Therefore, the majority of the cells nuclei have retained their spherical shape, being at the same time predominantly euchromatic, with little heterochromatin and evenly dispersed. Our results suggest the use of Trigonella seeds as a food supplement to prevent cellular deterioration and improve renal morphology and function. PMID:26193212

  20. Probable role of spinal purinoceptors in the analgesic effect of Trigonella foenum (TFG) leaves extract.

    PubMed

    Parvizpur, Aliresa; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2006-03-01

    In our previous work, we demonstrated that Trigonella foenum (TFG) leaves extract can exert analgesic effects in both formalin (F.T.) and tail flick (T.F.) tests. Spinal serotonergic system, but not endogenous opioid system, was involved in TFG induced analgesia (in the second phase of formalin test). Some reports concern the similarity between NSAIDs and TFG extract in many pharmacological effects or the interaction between NSAIDs and purinergic system; so the present study was designed to investigate the relationship between TFG extract and purinergic system or the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (COX). We examined the effect of TFG extract on: (1) the response of rabbit platelets to ADP induced aggregation, (2) the contraction of mouse vas deferens induced by alpha,beta-Me-ATP (a P(2) receptor agonist; this receptor mediates the rapid phase of ADP- and ATP-evoked influx of Ca(2+) through a non-specific cation channel in platelets), (3) alpha,beta-Me-ATP induced hyperalgesia in tail flick test in male rats and (4) the specific inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2. Our results showed that TFG extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, 3 mg/ml) inhibited ADP (10(-5) mol) induced platelet aggregation (IC(50)=1.28 mg/ml). alpha,beta-Me-ATP (30 microM) induced isometric contraction in vas deferens while suramin (a P(2) receptor antagonist, 50, 150, 300 microM) or TFG extract (0.5, 1, 2, 3 mg/ml) inhibited this effect significantly (IC(50) were 91.07 microM and 1.57 mg/ml, respectively). Moreover, alpha,beta-Me-ATP (3 microg/rat, i.t.) induced hyperalgesia in tail flick test, but it was prevented by co-injection of alpha,beta-Me-ATP with suramin (120 microg/rat, i.t.) or TFG extract (1mg/rat, i.t.). Effective concentrations of TFG extract in the above mentioned experiments did not inhibit COX enzymes in EIA tests. In conclusion, these results indicate that the blocking of spinal purinoceptors may contribute in the analgesic effect of TFG leaves extract. PMID:16298092

  1. Antidiabetic antihyperlipidemic and hepato-protective effect of Gluconorm-5: A polyherbal formulation in steptozotocin induced hyperglycemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Gengiah, Kalavathy; Hari, Rajeswary; Anbu, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and hepato-protective effect of Gluconorm-5, was studied in steptozotocin (STZ) induced hyperglycemic rats. Materials and Methods: The hypoglycemic effect of single dose of Gluconorm-5 (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight) made up of five plants namely Camellia sinensis, Punica granatum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Foeniculum vulgare and Trigonella foenum-graecum was studied in normal, glucose loaded normal and diabetes-induced rats. The extent of antihyperlipidemic and liver-protective effect was studied by estimating the lipid profile, and the liver marker enzymes. Histopathological studies of the pancreatic tissue were also carried out with glibenclamide as standard antihyperglycemic agent. Results: Fifteen days of oral feeding of the Gluconorm-5 (300 and 600 mg/kg) to diabetic rats resulted in a significant (P < 0.01) reduction of blood glucose, lipid profile, liver weight and marker enzymes as compared to those rats in whom STZ induced toxicity was untreated. The diabetic rats treated with the drug showed expanded islets as compared to the untreated diabetic rats, which showed the shrunken islets. The animals that received 300 mg/kg of Gluconorm-5 showed pronounced antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and hepato-protective effect in the present study, which was comparable with glibenclamide, a standard drug. Conclusion: Gluconorm-5 exerts potent antidiabetic antihyperlipidemic and hepato-protective effect, which can be used as adjuvant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:25737607

  2. Mechanism of action of a hypoglycemic principle isolated from fenugreek seeds.

    PubMed

    Puri, D; Prabhu, K M; Murthy, P S

    2002-10-01

    Mechanism of action of an orally active hypoglycemic principle isolated from water extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) was investigated in alloxan induced subdiabetic and overtly diabetic rabbits of different severities. The active principle was orally administered to the subdiabetic and mild diabetic rabbits (five in each group) at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 15 days. The treatment produced significant attenuation of the glucose tolerance curve and improvement in the glucose induced insulin response, suggesting that the hypoglycemic effect may be mediated through stimulating insulin synthesis and/or secretion from the beta pancreatic cells of Langerhans. Prolonged administration of the same dose of the active principle for 30 days to the severely diabetic rabbits (n = 5) lowered fasting blood glucose significantly, but could elevate the fasting serum insulin level to a much lower extent, which suggests an extra-pancreatic mode of action for the active principle. The effect may also be by increasing the sensitivity of tissues to available insulin. The hypoglycemic effect was observed to be slow but sustained, without any risk of developing severe hypoglycemia. PMID:12683221

  3. Development and characterization of the α3β4α5 nicotinic receptor cellular membrane affinity chromatography column and its application for on line screening of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Ciesla, L; Okine, M; Rosenberg, A; Dossou, K S S; Toll, L; Wainer, I W; Moaddel, R

    2016-01-29

    The α3β4α5 nAChR has been recently shown to be a useful target for smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Herein, we report on the development and characterization of the α3β4α5 nicotinic receptor column by frontal displacement chromatography. The binding affinity of the nicotine and minor alkaloids found in tobacco smoke condensates were determined for both the α3β4 and α3β4α5 nicotinic receptors. It was demonstrated that while no subtype selectivity was observed for nicotine and nornicotine, anabasine was selective for the α3β4α5 nicotinic receptor. The non-competitive inhibitor binding site was also studied and it was demonstrated while mecamylamine was not selective between subtypes, buproprion showed subtype selectivity for the α3β4 nicotinic receptor. The application of this methodology to complex mixtures was then carried out by screening aqueous-alcoholic solutions of targeted plant extracts, including Lycopodium clavatum L. (Lycopodiaceae) and Trigonella foenum graecum L. (Fabaceae) against both the α3β4 and α3β4α5 nAChRs. PMID:26774122

  4. An Efficient Purification Method for Quantitative Determinations of Protodioscin, Dioscin and Diosgenin in Plasma of Fenugreek-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Taketani, Keiko; Hoshino, Shohei; Uemura, Taku; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Tsuge, Nobuaki; Kawada, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    An efficient purification method for simultaneous recovery of polar saponins, protodioscin (PD) and dioscin (DC), and non-polar aglycon, diosgenin (DG), from plasma of mice fed diets containing seed flours of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) was established for subsequent quantitative analysis by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Mice plasma samples were first deproteinated by addition of acetonitrile, and the supernatant was applied to a carbon-based solid phase extraction tube. After successive washing with methanol and 35% chroloform/methanol (v/v), PD, DC and DG were eluted simultaneously with 80% chroloform/methanol (v/v). The eluate was evaporated to dryness, and re-dissolved in 80% methanol (v/v). The filtered sample was analyzed with an LC-ESI-MS/MS system. After the purification procedure, recovery rates between 89.3 to 117.4% were obtained without notable ion suppression or enhancement. The use of internal standards was therefore not necessary. The utility of the method was demonstrated by analyzing plasma of mice from a fenugreek feeding study. PMID:26875488

  5. Identification of Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Spices: A Molecular Docking and Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Antony, Priya; Vijayan, Ranjit

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients results in a diverse range of complications such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases. The role of aldose reductase (AR), the key enzyme in the polyol pathway, in these complications is well established. Due to notable side-effects of several drugs, phytochemicals as an alternative has gained considerable importance for the treatment of several ailments. In order to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dietary spices on AR, a collection of phytochemicals were identified from Zingiber officinale (ginger), Curcuma longa (turmeric) Allium sativum (garlic) and Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek). Molecular docking was performed for lead identification and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dynamic behaviour of these protein-ligand interactions. Gingerenones A, B and C, lariciresinol, quercetin and calebin A from these spices exhibited high docking score, binding affinity and sustained protein-ligand interactions. Rescoring of protein ligand interactions at the end of MD simulations produced binding scores that were better than the initially docked conformations. Docking results, ligand interactions and ADMET properties of these molecules were significantly better than commercially available AR inhibitors like epalrestat, sorbinil and ranirestat. Thus, these natural molecules could be potent AR inhibitors. PMID:26384019

  6. Long-term survival of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak strain on fenugreek seeds.

    PubMed

    Knödler, Michael; Berger, Michael; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2016-10-01

    A major outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 occurred in Germany in 2011. The epidemiological investigation revealed that a contaminated batch of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum) was the most probable source of the pathogen. It was suggested that the most probable point of contamination was prior to leaving the importer, meaning that the seed contamination with STEC O104:H4 should have happened more than one year before the seeds were used for sprout production. Here, we investigated the capacity of STEC O104:H4 and closely related pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strains for long-term survival on dry fenugreek seeds. We did not observe a superior survival capacity of STEC O104:H4 on dry seeds. For none of the strains tested cultivatable cells were found without enrichment on contaminated seeds after more than 24 weeks of storage. Our findings suggest that contamination previous to the distribution from the importer may be less likely than previously assumed. We show that seeds contaminated with E. coli in extremely high numbers can be completely sterilized by a short treatment with bleach. This simple and cheap procedure does not affect the germination capacity of the seeds and could significantly improve safety in sprout production. PMID:27375259

  7. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine attenuates the inflammation-mediated insulin resistance by the activation of AMPK and suppression of SOCS-3 coimmunoprecipitation with both the IR-β subunit as well as IRS-1.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Sudeep; Ishrat, Nayab; Yadav, Pragya; Singh, Rohit; Narender, Tadigoppula; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2016-03-01

    It is known that 4-hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL) from seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum has beneficial effects on low-grade inflammation; therefore, the insulin signaling as well as the anti-inflammatory effects of 4-HIL in TNF-α-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes was studied with an aim to dissect out the mechanism(s) of the inflammation-mediated insulin resistance. TNF-α suppressed insulin-stimulated glucose transport rate and increased Ser-307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). However, the treatment of 4-hydroxyisoleucine enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose transport rate via the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in a dose-dependent manner. 4-HIL also increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of both IR-β and IRS-1. Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) of insulin receptor-β (IR-β) subunit with IRS-1 was found to be increased by 4-hydroxyisoleucine. Concentration of SOCS-3 protein and coimmunoprecipitation of SOCS-3 protein with both the IR-β subunit as well as IRS-1 was found to be decreased by 4-HIL. We conclude that the 4-hydroxyisoleucine reverses the insulin resistance by the activation of AMPK and suppression of SOCS-3 coimmunoprecipitation with both the IR-β subunit as well as IRS-1. PMID:26887316

  8. Fenugreek seed extract inhibit fat accumulation and ameliorates dyslipidemia in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Parveen; Bhandari, Uma; Jamadagni, Shrirang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG) on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days+AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) or orlistat (10 mg/kg) from day 8 to 28), respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI), white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT)) levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)) activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes. PMID:24868532

  9. Identification of Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Spices: A Molecular Docking and Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Priya; Vijayan, Ranjit

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients results in a diverse range of complications such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases. The role of aldose reductase (AR), the key enzyme in the polyol pathway, in these complications is well established. Due to notable side-effects of several drugs, phytochemicals as an alternative has gained considerable importance for the treatment of several ailments. In order to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dietary spices on AR, a collection of phytochemicals were identified from Zingiber officinale (ginger), Curcuma longa (turmeric) Allium sativum (garlic) and Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek). Molecular docking was performed for lead identification and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dynamic behaviour of these protein-ligand interactions. Gingerenones A, B and C, lariciresinol, quercetin and calebin A from these spices exhibited high docking score, binding affinity and sustained protein-ligand interactions. Rescoring of protein ligand interactions at the end of MD simulations produced binding scores that were better than the initially docked conformations. Docking results, ligand interactions and ADMET properties of these molecules were significantly better than commercially available AR inhibitors like epalrestat, sorbinil and ranirestat. Thus, these natural molecules could be potent AR inhibitors. PMID:26384019

  10. Effect of dietary herbal supplements on some physiological conditions of Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Sevdan; Ergun, Sebahattin; Celik, Ekrem Sanver

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of dietary thyme Thymus vulgaris, rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis,and fenugreek Trigonella foenum graecum as feed additives on total liver fat levels and biometric indices of Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein) and isocaloric(21 kJ/g) diets were formulated to contain 0% (control), or 1% of thyme, rosemary, or fenugreek. In a 45-d feeding trial, 12 fiberglass tanks (140 L) were each stocked with 17 fish (20.43 ± 0.03 g).Herbal supplemented diets significantly decreased the total liver fat, visceral fat index, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index,and increased the spleen–somatic index and bile–somatic index(P<0.05). In conclusion, the results indicated that a dietary level of1.0% for thyme, rosemary, or fenugreek could improve some of the physiological parameters of Sea Bass. Thus, this work provides anew perspective for the use of medicinal herbs that can be added to fish feed to improve the status of fish organs. Thyme, rosemary, and fenugreek contain a number of different active components, which possibly play an important role in improving these conditions, but the mechanism by which this is achieved needs further and more detailed study.

  11. Diosgenin, 4-Hydroxyisoleucine, and Fiber from Fenugreek: Mechanisms of Actions and Potential Effects on Metabolic Syndrome12

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Scott; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and its complications continue to rise in prevalence and show no signs of abating in the immediate future. Therefore, the search for effective treatments is a high priority in biomedical research. Products derived from botanicals have a time-honored history of use in the treatment of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes. Trigonella foenum-graecum, commonly known as fenugreek, is an annual herbaceous plant that has been a staple of traditional herbal medicine in many cultures. Although fenugreek has been studied in both clinical and basic research settings, questions remain about its efficacy and biologic mechanisms of action. Diosgenin, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, and the fiber component of the plant are the most intensively studied bioactive constituents present in fenugreek. These compounds have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on several physiologic markers including glucose tolerance, inflammation, insulin action, liver function, blood lipids, and cardiovascular health. Although insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the favorable effects of fenugreek have been gained, we still do not have definitive evidence establishing its role as a therapeutic agent in metabolic disease. This review aims to summarize the currently available evidence on the physiologic effects of the 3 best-characterized bioactive compounds of fenugreek, with particular emphasis on biologic mechanisms of action relevant in the context of metabolic syndrome. PMID:25770257

  12. Quantitative Determination of Catechin as Chemical Marker in Pediatric Polyherbal Syrup by HPLC/DAD.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Zeeshan A; Siddiqui, Zafar A; Naveed, Safila; Usmanghani, Khan

    2016-09-01

    Vivabon syrup is a balanced composition of dietary ingredients of phytopharmaceutical nature for maintaining the physique, vigor, vitality and balanced growth of children. The herbal ingredients of pediatric syrup are rich in bioflavonoid, proteins, vitamins, glycosides and trace elements. Vivabon is formulated with herbal drugs such as Phoenix sylvestris, Emblica officinalis, Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Amomum subulatum, Zingiber officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Centaurea behen and Piper longum Catechins are flavan-3-ols that are found widely in the medicinal herbs and are utilized for anti-inflammatory, cardio protective, hepato-protective, neural protection and other biological activities. In general, the dietary intake of flavonoids has been regarded traditionally as beneficial for body growth. Standardization of Vivabon syrup dosage form using HPLC/DAD has been developed for quantitative estimation of Catechin as a chemical marker. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Validation studies demonstrated that the developed HPLC method is quite distinct, reproducible as well as quick and fast. The relatively high recovery and low comparable standard deviation confirm the suitability of the developed method for the determination of Catechin in syrup. PMID:27165575

  13. Trigonelline: a plant alkaloid with therapeutic potential for diabetes and central nervous system disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Chan, L; Zhou, S

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek), a traditional Chinese herb, and its components are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and central nervous system disease. The pharmacological activities of trigonelline, a major alkaloid component of fenugreek, have been more thoroughly evaluated than fenugreek's other components, especially with regard to diabetes and central nervous system disease. Trigonelline has hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, antimigraine, sedative, memory-improving, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-tumor activities, and it has been shown to reduce diabetic auditory neuropathy and platelet aggregation. It acts by affecting β cell regeneration, insulin secretion, activities of enzymes related to glucose metabolism, reactive oxygen species, axonal extension, and neuron excitability. However, further study of trigonelline's pharmacological activities and exact mechanism is warranted, along with application of this knowledge to its clinical usage. This review aims to give readers a survey of the pharmacological effects of trigonelline, especially in diabetes, diabetic complications and central nervous system disease. In addition, because of its pharmacological value and low toxicity, the reported adverse effects of trigonelline in experimental animal models and humans are briefly reviewed, and the pharmacokinetics of trigonelline are also discussed.

  14. An aerogel obtained from chemo-enzymatically oxidized fenugreek galactomannans as a versatile delivery system.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Bianca; Campia, Paola; Merlini, Luca; Brasca, Milena; Pastori, Nadia; Farris, Stefano; Melone, Lucio; Punta, Carlo; Galante, Yves M

    2016-06-25

    We describe a new aerogel obtained from laccase-oxidized galactomannans of the leguminous plant fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and suggest its potential practical use. Laccase/TEMPO oxidation of fenugreek in aqueous solution caused a viscosity increase of over 15-fold. A structured, elastic, stable hydrogel was generated, due to formation of carbonyl groups from primary OH of galactose side units and subsequent establishment of hemiacetalic bonds with available free hydroxyl groups. Upon lyophilization of this hydrogel, a water-insoluble aerogel was obtained (EOLFG), capable of uptaking aqueous or organic solvents over 20 times its own weight. The material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR, elemental analysis and (13)C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy and its mechanical properties were investigated. To test the EOLFG as a delivery system, the anti-microbial enzyme lysozyme was used as model active principle. Lysozyme was added before or after formation of the aerogel, entrapped or absorbed in the gel, retained and released in active form, as proven by its hydrolytic glycosidase activity on lyophilized Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells wall peptidoglycans. This new biomaterial, composed of a chemo-enzymatically modified plant polysaccharide, might represent a versatile, biocompatible "delivery system" of active principles in food and non-food products. PMID:27083827

  15. Diosgenin, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, and fiber from fenugreek: mechanisms of actions and potential effects on metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Scott; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome and its complications continue to rise in prevalence and show no signs of abating in the immediate future. Therefore, the search for effective treatments is a high priority in biomedical research. Products derived from botanicals have a time-honored history of use in the treatment of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes. Trigonella foenum-graecum, commonly known as fenugreek, is an annual herbaceous plant that has been a staple of traditional herbal medicine in many cultures. Although fenugreek has been studied in both clinical and basic research settings, questions remain about its efficacy and biologic mechanisms of action. Diosgenin, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, and the fiber component of the plant are the most intensively studied bioactive constituents present in fenugreek. These compounds have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on several physiologic markers including glucose tolerance, inflammation, insulin action, liver function, blood lipids, and cardiovascular health. Although insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the favorable effects of fenugreek have been gained, we still do not have definitive evidence establishing its role as a therapeutic agent in metabolic disease. This review aims to summarize the currently available evidence on the physiologic effects of the 3 best-characterized bioactive compounds of fenugreek, with particular emphasis on biologic mechanisms of action relevant in the context of metabolic syndrome. PMID:25770257

  16. Phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ziyyat, A; Legssyer, A; Mekhfi, H; Dassouli, A; Serhrouchni, M; Benjelloun, W

    1997-09-01

    In order to select the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and/or diabetes, a survey was undertaken in different areas of oriental Morocco. The patients (370 women and 256 men) were divided into three groups: diabetics (61%), hypertensives (23%) and hypertensive diabetic persons (16%). On average, 67.51% of patients regularly use medicinal plants. This proportion is perceptibly the same in all groups and does not depend on sex, age and socio-cultural level. This result shows that phytotherapy is widely adopted in northeastern Morocco. For diabetes, 41 plants were cited, of which the most used were Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae), Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae), Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Compositae), Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) and Tetraclinis articulata Benth. (Cupressaceae). In the hypertension's therapy 18 vegetal species were reported, of which the most used were Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae), Olea europea L. (Oleaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae), Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) and Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill (Apiaceae). Among the 18 species used for hypertension, 14 were also employed for diabetes. Moreover, these two diseases were associated in 41% of hypertensives. These findings suggest that hypertension observed in this region would be in a large part related to diabetes.

  17. Efficacy of dietary supplementation with botanicals on carbohydrate metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping; Wang, Zhong Q

    2008-06-01

    Botanical products are widely used in nutritional supplementation for promotion of health or prevention of diseases. With the high prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism are common in the general population and obtaining glycemic control is important in reducing the complications of diabetes. If shown to be effective, botanical products have a unique position in potentially aiding the general public in regard to obesity and diabetes. They can be obtained "over-the-counter" and may have less side effects compared to many synthetic drugs. Although most of the popular botanicals have a long history in folk medicine, there is paucity of data regarding their efficacy and safety, particularly as it relates to human studies. In this review, we discuss the data that was available in the literature for nine botanicals that are frequently promoted to help manage blood glucose. They are Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia), Fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum), Gymnema Sylvestre, Ivy Gourd (Coccinia indica), Nopal or Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia streptacantha), Ginseng, Aloe Vera, Russian Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), and Garlic (Allium sativum). The discussion is emphasized on the clinical aspect of these botanicals. Due to the lack of sufficient evidence from clinical studies for any of the botanicals reviewed, it is premature to actively recommend use of any particular herb to treat either glucose or other risk factors. Thus, well defined randomized clinical trials are warranted in this area. PMID:18537692

  18. Long-term survival of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak strain on fenugreek seeds.

    PubMed

    Knödler, Michael; Berger, Michael; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2016-10-01

    A major outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 occurred in Germany in 2011. The epidemiological investigation revealed that a contaminated batch of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum) was the most probable source of the pathogen. It was suggested that the most probable point of contamination was prior to leaving the importer, meaning that the seed contamination with STEC O104:H4 should have happened more than one year before the seeds were used for sprout production. Here, we investigated the capacity of STEC O104:H4 and closely related pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strains for long-term survival on dry fenugreek seeds. We did not observe a superior survival capacity of STEC O104:H4 on dry seeds. For none of the strains tested cultivatable cells were found without enrichment on contaminated seeds after more than 24 weeks of storage. Our findings suggest that contamination previous to the distribution from the importer may be less likely than previously assumed. We show that seeds contaminated with E. coli in extremely high numbers can be completely sterilized by a short treatment with bleach. This simple and cheap procedure does not affect the germination capacity of the seeds and could significantly improve safety in sprout production.

  19. In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Bipin, Chapagain; Chitra, Pai (Bhat); Minakshi, Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci isolated from human clinical samples. Material and methods Two hundred and fifteen enterococcal strains were isolated from clinical samples. High level gentamicin resistance in ethanolic extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The antibacterial effect of the extracts was studied using the well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was carried out by χ2 test using SPSS 17 software. Results Only cinnamon and ginger were found to have activity against all the isolates, whereas cumin and cloves had a variable effect on the strains. Fenugreek, black pepper and cardamom did not show any effect on the isolates. The zone diameter of inhibition obtained for cinnamon, ginger, cloves and cumin was in the range 31–34 mm, 27–30 mm, 25–26 mm and 19–20 mm respectively. Conclusions Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Z. officinale showed the maximum antibacterial activity against the enterococcal isolates followed by S. aromaticum and C. cyminum. The findings of the study show that spices used in the study can contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents for inclusion in the anti-enterococcal treatment regimen. PMID:26322099

  20. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    PubMed Central

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Kalsoom Khan, Abida; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  1. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-02-01

    This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects. PMID:23472485

  2. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd.; Aqil, Mohd.; Mujeeb, Mohd.; Pillai, K. K.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

  3. Comparative antioxidant effect of aqueous extracts of curry leaves, fenugreek leaves and butylated hydroxytoluene in raw chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Thorat, Pramod R; Manjunatha, M; Anurag, Rahul K

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidant properties and use of aqueous extracts of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) and fenugreek leaves (Trigonella foenum-graecum) as source of natural antioxidant in raw chicken meat were evaluated. Four treatments viz., I. Control (meat +2% salt), II.BHT (meat +2% salt +0.1% BHT), III. CLE (meat +2% salt +2% curry leaves extract) and IV. FLE (meat +2% salt +2% fenugreek leaves extract) were compared for lipid oxidation during eight days refrigerated storage. The average phenolic content was 59.2 and 52.8 mg/g gallic acid equivalent in CLE and FLE respectively. Free radical scavenging activity was 61.4 and 64.2% in CLE and FLE, respectively. CLE had significantly (P < 0.05) higher reducing activity (2.4) as compared to FLE (2.2). Observation on lipid oxidation showed a significant (p < 0.05) higher TBARS values in control patties than other patties containing BHT, CLE and FLE. Overall percent increase during storage period was highest in control followed by BHT, CLE and FLE. Both synthetic antioxidants and natural extracts significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the TBARS values. The average percent decrease in TBARS values during storage was 18, 25.5 and 27.5 in BHT, CLE and FLE treatments, respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that water extracts obtained from curry leaves and fenugreek leaves could be explored as natural antioxidants in poultry meat and meat products. PMID:24293699

  4. EPR and IR spectral investigations on some leafy vegetables of Indian origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasuna, C. P. Lakshmi; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Gopal, N. O.

    2009-09-01

    EPR spectral investigations have been carried out on four edible leafy vegetables of India, which are used as dietary component in day to day life. In Rumex vesicarius leaf sample, EPR spectral investigations at different temperatures indicate the presence of anti-ferromagnetically coupled Mn(IV)-Mn(IV) complexes. EPR spectra of Trigonella foenum graecum show the presence of Mn ions in multivalent state and Fe 3+ ions in rhombic symmetry. EPR spectra of Basella rubra indicate the presence of Mn(IV)-O-Mn(IV) type complexes. The EPR spectra of Basella rubra have been studied at different temperatures. It is found that the spin population for the resonance signal at g = 2.06 obeys the Boltzmann distribution law. The EPR spectra of Moringa oliefera leaves show the presence of Mn 2+ ions. Radiation induced changes in free radical of this sample have also been studied. The FT-IR spectra of Basella rubra and Moringa oliefera leaves show the evidences for the protein matrix bands and those corresponding to carboxylic C dbnd O bonds.

  5. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    PubMed Central

    Kirubakaran, A.; Moorthy, M.; Chitra, R.; Prabakar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR. PMID:27284222

  6. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  7. Comparative antioxidant effect of aqueous extracts of curry leaves, fenugreek leaves and butylated hydroxytoluene in raw chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Thorat, Pramod R; Manjunatha, M; Anurag, Rahul K

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidant properties and use of aqueous extracts of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) and fenugreek leaves (Trigonella foenum-graecum) as source of natural antioxidant in raw chicken meat were evaluated. Four treatments viz., I. Control (meat +2% salt), II.BHT (meat +2% salt +0.1% BHT), III. CLE (meat +2% salt +2% curry leaves extract) and IV. FLE (meat +2% salt +2% fenugreek leaves extract) were compared for lipid oxidation during eight days refrigerated storage. The average phenolic content was 59.2 and 52.8 mg/g gallic acid equivalent in CLE and FLE respectively. Free radical scavenging activity was 61.4 and 64.2% in CLE and FLE, respectively. CLE had significantly (P < 0.05) higher reducing activity (2.4) as compared to FLE (2.2). Observation on lipid oxidation showed a significant (p < 0.05) higher TBARS values in control patties than other patties containing BHT, CLE and FLE. Overall percent increase during storage period was highest in control followed by BHT, CLE and FLE. Both synthetic antioxidants and natural extracts significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the TBARS values. The average percent decrease in TBARS values during storage was 18, 25.5 and 27.5 in BHT, CLE and FLE treatments, respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that water extracts obtained from curry leaves and fenugreek leaves could be explored as natural antioxidants in poultry meat and meat products.

  8. Identification of Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Spices: A Molecular Docking and Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Antony, Priya; Vijayan, Ranjit

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients results in a diverse range of complications such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases. The role of aldose reductase (AR), the key enzyme in the polyol pathway, in these complications is well established. Due to notable side-effects of several drugs, phytochemicals as an alternative has gained considerable importance for the treatment of several ailments. In order to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dietary spices on AR, a collection of phytochemicals were identified from Zingiber officinale (ginger), Curcuma longa (turmeric) Allium sativum (garlic) and Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek). Molecular docking was performed for lead identification and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dynamic behaviour of these protein-ligand interactions. Gingerenones A, B and C, lariciresinol, quercetin and calebin A from these spices exhibited high docking score, binding affinity and sustained protein-ligand interactions. Rescoring of protein ligand interactions at the end of MD simulations produced binding scores that were better than the initially docked conformations. Docking results, ligand interactions and ADMET properties of these molecules were significantly better than commercially available AR inhibitors like epalrestat, sorbinil and ranirestat. Thus, these natural molecules could be potent AR inhibitors.

  9. d-Galactose Uptake by Fenugreek Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Zambou, Katerina; Spyropoulos, Caroline G.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of d-galactose was studied in detached fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) cotyledons. Uptake kinetics and treatment with p-chloromercury-benzenesulfonic acid indicated that at low concentrations d-galactose was taken up by a carrier. At higher concentrations a diffusion-like component existed. Proton flux and pH studies, treatment with α-naphthaleneacetic acid, and uptake experiments under water stress conditions suggested that d-galactose was not taken up via H+ contransport. However, d-galactose uptake was under metabolic control. Uptake kinetics under water stress conditions suggested that moderate water stress either increased the Km of the carrier or decreased the Vmax. However, prolonged stress transformed the carrier-mediated uptake into a diffusion uptake transport. The uptake of d-galactose by fenugreek cotyledons was very low before and just after germination, was maximum after 35 hours imbibition, and started decreasing thereafter. The different uptake rates of d-galactose with imbibition times were attributed to the operation of the carrier. At low uptake rates the carrier did not operate. Treatment with cycloheximide suggested that the carrier was synthesized de novo just after germination and stopped operating when all galactomannan hydrolysis was over. Results were discussed in the context of control of endosperm galactomannan hydrolysis by the cotyledons of fenugreek embryo. PMID:16667633

  10. An aerogel obtained from chemo-enzymatically oxidized fenugreek galactomannans as a versatile delivery system.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Bianca; Campia, Paola; Merlini, Luca; Brasca, Milena; Pastori, Nadia; Farris, Stefano; Melone, Lucio; Punta, Carlo; Galante, Yves M

    2016-06-25

    We describe a new aerogel obtained from laccase-oxidized galactomannans of the leguminous plant fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and suggest its potential practical use. Laccase/TEMPO oxidation of fenugreek in aqueous solution caused a viscosity increase of over 15-fold. A structured, elastic, stable hydrogel was generated, due to formation of carbonyl groups from primary OH of galactose side units and subsequent establishment of hemiacetalic bonds with available free hydroxyl groups. Upon lyophilization of this hydrogel, a water-insoluble aerogel was obtained (EOLFG), capable of uptaking aqueous or organic solvents over 20 times its own weight. The material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR, elemental analysis and (13)C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy and its mechanical properties were investigated. To test the EOLFG as a delivery system, the anti-microbial enzyme lysozyme was used as model active principle. Lysozyme was added before or after formation of the aerogel, entrapped or absorbed in the gel, retained and released in active form, as proven by its hydrolytic glycosidase activity on lyophilized Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells wall peptidoglycans. This new biomaterial, composed of a chemo-enzymatically modified plant polysaccharide, might represent a versatile, biocompatible "delivery system" of active principles in food and non-food products.

  11. Phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ziyyat, A; Legssyer, A; Mekhfi, H; Dassouli, A; Serhrouchni, M; Benjelloun, W

    1997-09-01

    In order to select the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and/or diabetes, a survey was undertaken in different areas of oriental Morocco. The patients (370 women and 256 men) were divided into three groups: diabetics (61%), hypertensives (23%) and hypertensive diabetic persons (16%). On average, 67.51% of patients regularly use medicinal plants. This proportion is perceptibly the same in all groups and does not depend on sex, age and socio-cultural level. This result shows that phytotherapy is widely adopted in northeastern Morocco. For diabetes, 41 plants were cited, of which the most used were Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae), Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae), Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Compositae), Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) and Tetraclinis articulata Benth. (Cupressaceae). In the hypertension's therapy 18 vegetal species were reported, of which the most used were Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae), Olea europea L. (Oleaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae), Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) and Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill (Apiaceae). Among the 18 species used for hypertension, 14 were also employed for diabetes. Moreover, these two diseases were associated in 41% of hypertensives. These findings suggest that hypertension observed in this region would be in a large part related to diabetes. PMID:9324004

  12. Catalytic degradation of organic dyes using biosynthesized silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Vidhu, V K; Philip, Daizy

    2014-01-01

    The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles paved the way to improve and protect the environment by decreasing the use of toxic chemicals and eliminating biological risks in biomedical applications. Plant mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles is gaining more importance owing to its simplicity, rapid rate of synthesis of nanoparticles and eco-friendliness. The present article reports an environmentally benign and unexploited method for the synthesis of silver nanocatalysts using Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, which is a potential source of phytochemicals. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the silver samples exhibited distinct band centered around 400-440 nm. The major phytochemicals present in the seed extract responsible for the formation of silver nanocatalysts are identified using FTIR spectroscopy. The report emphasizes the effect of the size of silver nanoparticles on the degradation rate of hazardous dyes, methyl orange, methylene blue and eosin Y by NaBH4. The efficiency of silver nanoparticles as a promising candidate for the catalysis of organic dyes by NaBH4 through the electron transfer process is established in the present study.

  13. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-02-01

    This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects.

  14. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  15. Effect of dietary herbal supplements on some physiological conditions of Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Sevdan; Ergun, Sebahattin; Celik, Ekrem Sanver

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of dietary thyme Thymus vulgaris, rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis,and fenugreek Trigonella foenum graecum as feed additives on total liver fat levels and biometric indices of Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein) and isocaloric(21 kJ/g) diets were formulated to contain 0% (control), or 1% of thyme, rosemary, or fenugreek. In a 45-d feeding trial, 12 fiberglass tanks (140 L) were each stocked with 17 fish (20.43 ± 0.03 g).Herbal supplemented diets significantly decreased the total liver fat, visceral fat index, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index,and increased the spleen–somatic index and bile–somatic index(P<0.05). In conclusion, the results indicated that a dietary level of1.0% for thyme, rosemary, or fenugreek could improve some of the physiological parameters of Sea Bass. Thus, this work provides anew perspective for the use of medicinal herbs that can be added to fish feed to improve the status of fish organs. Thyme, rosemary, and fenugreek contain a number of different active components, which possibly play an important role in improving these conditions, but the mechanism by which this is achieved needs further and more detailed study. PMID:23914399

  16. Traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in rural and urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh – an ethnobotanical survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The usage of medicinal plants is traditionally rooted in Bangladesh and still an essential part of public healthcare. Recently, a dramatically increasing prevalence brought diabetes mellitus and its therapy to the focus of public health interests in Bangladesh. We conducted an ethnobotanical survey to identify the traditional medicinal plants being used to treat diabetes in Bangladesh and to critically assess their anti-diabetic potentials with focus on evidence-based criteria. Methods In an ethnobotanical survey in defined rural and urban areas 63 randomly chosen individuals (health professionals, diabetic patients), identified to use traditional medicinal plants to treat diabetes, were interviewed in a structured manner about their administration or use of plants for treating diabetes. Results In total 37 medicinal plants belonging to 25 families were reported as being used for the treatment of diabetes in Bangladesh. The most frequently mentioned plants were Coccinia indica, Azadirachta indica, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia chebula, Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Swietenia mahagoni. Conclusion Traditional medicinal plants are commonly used in Bangladesh to treat diabetes. The available data regarding the anti-diabetic activity of the detected plants is not sufficient to adequately evaluate or recommend their use. Clinical intervention studies are required to provide evidence for a safe and effective use of the identified plants in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:23800215

  17. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants against clinical isolates of oral cancer cases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Suppression of immune system in treated cancer patients may lead to secondary infections that obviate the need of antibiotics. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the occurrence of secondary infections in immuno-suppressed patients along with herbal control of these infections with the following objectives to: (a) isolate the microbial species from the treated oral cancer patients along with the estimation of absolute neutrophile counts of patients (b) assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity medicinal plants against the above clinical isolates. Methods Blood and oral swab cultures were taken from 40 oral cancer patients undergoing treatment in the radiotherapy unit of Regional Cancer Institute, Pt. B.D.S. Health University, Rohtak, Haryana. Clinical isolates were identified by following general microbiological, staining and biochemical methods. The absolute neutrophile counts were done by following the standard methods. The medicinal plants selected for antimicrobial activity analysis were Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Balanites aegyptiaca L., Cestrum diurnum L., Cordia dichotoma G. Forst, Eclipta alba L., Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. , Pedalium murex L., Ricinus communis L. and Trigonella foenum graecum L. The antimicrobial efficacy of medicinal plants was evaluated by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. MIC and MFC were investigated by serial two fold microbroth dilution method. Results Prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23.2%), Escherichia coli (15.62%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.37%), Klebsiella pneumonia (7.81%), Proteus mirabilis (3.6%), Proteus vulgaris (4.2%) and the fungal pathogens were Candida albicans (14.6%), Aspergillus fumigatus (9.37%). Out of 40 cases, 35 (87.5%) were observed as neutropenic. Eight medicinal plants (A. tenuifolius, A. racemosus, B. aegyptiaca, E. alba, M. koenigii, P. murex R. communis and T

  18. Effects of Lepidium sativum, Nigella sativa and Trigonella foenum-graceum on phenytoin pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Khan, Rao M A; Ahmad, Ajaz

    2013-12-01

    The present work was designed to evaluate the effect of some commonly used herbs viz. garden cress (Lepidium sativum), black seed (Nigella sativa) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) on the disposition of phenytoin after oral administration in a dog model. Phenytoin was given orally at a dose of 50 mg, and blood samples were obtained for the determination of drug's pharmacokinetic parameters. After a suitable washout period, animals were commenced on a specific herb treatment for one week. Garden cress treatment caused a modest increase in maximum observed concentration (Cmax ) and terminal half-life (T1/2λ ) of phenytoin with a reduction in clearance by 33%. The effect of black seed therapy was more drastic on drug elimination and to a lesser extent on its volume of distribution at steady state (Vss ) with a consequent reduction in systemic exposure measured by area under the curve (AUC0-∞ ) by about 87%. The effect of fenugreek therapy resembled, albeit to a lesser extent, that of black seed with a significant reduction in AUC0-∞ by ~72%. In addition, there was a 73% increase in Vss . Our findings suggest that the phenytoin disposition can be significantly altered by the concurrent consumption of tested herbal products.

  19. Identification of volatile oil components from aerial parts of Trigonella torbatjamensis Ranjbar by GC-FID and GC-MS methods

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Arezu; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Chamsaz, Mahmood; Asili, Javad

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Various species of genus Trigonella are important from medical and culinary points of view. The essential oil of Trigonella torbatejamensis Ranjbar as an endemic plant in Iran has not been studied previously. The essential oil of this plant was analyzed by different methods for identification of its components. Materials and Methods: The essential oil composition of aerial parts of T. torbatjamensis was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS apparatus. Results: Forty components, representing 98.5 % of the total components, were identified. The pattern of the main grouped components in essential oil was: sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.2%), oxygenated sesquitepenes (16.5%), oxygenated monoterpenes (3.5%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (0.5%). Germacrene -D (33.0%), bicyclogermacrene (26.0%), and viridiflorol (5.3%) were the main components of the essential oil. Conclusion: The essential oil of T. torbatjamensis Ranjbar consisted of forty components with sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as the main group of components. PMID:25429346

  20. Chromium fractionation and plant availability in tannery-sludge amended soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allué, Josep; Moya Garcés, Alba; Bech, Jaume; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    The leather industry represents an important economic sector in both developed and developing countries. Chromium tanning is the major process used to obtain high quality leather. Within the REACH regulation the use of Cr, especially CrVI, in the tanning process is under discussion in Europe. High Cr concentration in shoes and other Cr-tanned leather products can cause contact dermatitis in sensitive population. Moreover, the high Cr concentration is the major limiting factor for the use of tannery sludge as a source of organic matter in agricultural soils. Interest in Cr, however is not limited to its potential toxic effects. Chromium III is used as a dietary supplement because there are reports, but also controversy, about the positive effects of Cr III in glucose tolerance and type-2 diabetes. Adequate intake levels for Cr by the diet have been established between 25 and 35 µg/day for adult females and males, respectively. Sufficient supply of Cr III by the diet is preferable to the use of CrIII-salt based dietary supplements. The objective of the present work was to investigate whether Cr from tannery sludge-amended soil is available to Trigonella foenum-graecum plants, a plant used both as a spice and as a medicinal herb, because of its hypoglucemic effects. For this purpose clay loam soil (pH 7.8) was sieved (2mm) and thoroughly mixed with tannery sludge from a depuration station (Igualadina Depuració i Recuperació S.L., Igualada, Barcelona, Spain). The sludge had a Cr concentration of 6,034mg kg-1 and a 0.73 % of NH4-nitrogen. All the Cr was in the form of CrIII. Three treatments were disposed. Control soil receiving no sludge, a 60 mg kg-1 Cr treatment (10 g fresh sludge kg-1 soil) and a 120 mg kg-1 Cr treatment (20 g fresh sludge kg-1 soil). Control soil and the soil treated with 10g kg-1 sludge received NPK fertilizer in the form of ammonium sulfate, superfosfate, and KCl to rise the N,P, and K concentrations to similar levels to those achieved in the

  1. In vitro effect of fenugreek extracts on intestinal sodium-dependent glucose uptake and hepatic glycogen phosphorylase A.

    PubMed

    Al-Habori, M; Raman, A; Lawrence, M J; Skett, P

    2001-01-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seed) is a food with traditional medicinal use in diabetes. Beneficial effects have been demonstrated in diabetic animals and both insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Effects of a lipid extract A, crude ethanolic extract B, further sub-fractions of B (saponin-free C, saponin D and sapogenin E) and a gum fibre fraction F on intestinal sodium-dependent glucose uptake were investigated in vitro using rabbit intestinal brush border membrane vesicles. All fractions except A inhibited glucose-uptake at 0.33 and/or 3.3 mg/mL (p < 0.001). Greatest inhibition was observed with fractions D and E. Diosgenin and trigonelline (compounds reported in fenugreek) also inhibited glucose-uptake (IC50 values approximately 3 mg/ml, equivalent to 8 mM and 19 mM respectively) but did not account for the activity of the crude extracts. Fenugreek extracts had no effect on basal levels of glycogen phosphorylase a (HGPa) activity in rat hepatocyte suspensions. However fractions C and E caused a marginal but statistically significant inhibition (18.9 and 15.1% respectively, p < 0.05) of glucagon induction of this enzyme suggesting a glucagon-antagonist effect. Diosgenin (1.65 mg/ml; 4 mM) inhibited glucagon-induced HGPa activity by 20% (p < 0.05), and was more effective than trigonelline (non significant inhibition of 9.4% at 1.65 mg/ml, 10 mM). PMID:12369721

  2. Antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of some food grain powder in meat model system.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K; Jha, S N; Ahmad, Tanbir

    2014-11-01

    In-vitro antioxidant activity of some food grains [sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata), mung bean, sprouted chana (Cicer arietinum), chana, corn (Zea mays), methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and rajma (Phaseolus vulgaris)] powder extracts (FGE) was estimated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity (SA) method. Total phenolics and reducing power were also estimated in these extracts. The antioxidant potential of these extracts was also estimated in a meat model system. Total phenolics in FGE ranged from 66.9 ± 3.4 to 248.6 ± 11.1 mg TAE/gdw respectively which differed significantly (P < 0.01) among various groups. These extracts also showed remarkable DPPH radical scavenging activity (43.9 ± 1.1 % to 69.9 ± 2.9 %). The reducing powerOD700 was observed maximum (P < 0.01) in sprouted mung bean extract as compared to corn powder extract. The correlation between DPPH free radical SA v/s total phenolics was significant (P < 0.01) with R = 0.775. correlation between DPPH free radical SA v/s reducing power and total phenolics v/s reducing power was also significant (P < 0.01) with R value 0.907 and 0.682 respectively. FGE treated raw chicken breast meat showed better (P < 0.01) oxidative stability than control groups. PMID:26396344

  3. Vibrational spectroscopy and electrophoresis as a "golden means" in monitoring of polysaccharides in medical plant and gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielesz, A.

    In recent years, some bioactive polysaccharides isolated from natural sources have attracted much attention in the field of biochemistry and pharmacology. Of them, polysaccharides or their glycoconjugates were shown to exhibit multiple biological activities including anticarcinogenic, anticoagulant, immunostimulating, antioxidant, etc. Pharmacotherapy using plant-derived substances can be currently regarded as a very promising future alternative to conventional therapy. The advanced biotechnologies available today enable chemical investigation of well-defined bioactive plant components as sources of novel drugs. The need for safer drugs without side effects has led to the use of natural ingredients with proven safety. Special interest is focused on plant polysaccharides. This article attempts to review the current structural and conformational characterization of some importantly bioactive monosaccharides isolated from following plant cell-wall: Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Thymus pulegioides (thyme), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek), Tussilago farfara L. (coltsfoot), Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop), Althaea officinalis L. (marshmallow) and Equisetum arvense L. (horsetail). The chemical structures of monosaccharides were analysed using FTIR and Raman spectroscopies as well as cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAE). The dried plant samples were gently hydrolysed with sulphuric acid. The presence of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, alginic acid, glucose, mannose and xylose in the hydrolysates of reference substances and non-defatted plant films was proved. The possibility of a taxonomic classification of plant cell walls based on infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the use of spectral fingerprinting for authentication and detection of adulteration of products rich in cell-wall materials are discussed. Individual bands were selected to monitor the sugar content in medical plant cell walls and to confirm the identity of the analysed plants.

  4. Vibrational spectroscopy and electrophoresis as a "golden means" in monitoring of polysaccharides in medical plant and gels.

    PubMed

    Pielesz, A

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, some bioactive polysaccharides isolated from natural sources have attracted much attention in the field of biochemistry and pharmacology. Of them, polysaccharides or their glycoconjugates were shown to exhibit multiple biological activities including anticarcinogenic, anticoagulant, immunostimulating, antioxidant, etc. Pharmacotherapy using plant-derived substances can be currently regarded as a very promising future alternative to conventional therapy. The advanced biotechnologies available today enable chemical investigation of well-defined bioactive plant components as sources of novel drugs. The need for safer drugs without side effects has led to the use of natural ingredients with proven safety. Special interest is focused on plant polysaccharides. This article attempts to review the current structural and conformational characterization of some importantly bioactive monosaccharides isolated from following plant cell-wall: Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Thymus pulegioides (thyme), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek), Tussilago farfara L. (coltsfoot), Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop), Althaea officinalis L. (marshmallow) and Equisetum arvense L. (horsetail). The chemical structures of monosaccharides were analysed using FTIR and Raman spectroscopies as well as cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAE). The dried plant samples were gently hydrolysed with sulphuric acid. The presence of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, alginic acid, glucose, mannose and xylose in the hydrolysates of reference substances and non-defatted plant films was proved. The possibility of a taxonomic classification of plant cell walls based on infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the use of spectral fingerprinting for authentication and detection of adulteration of products rich in cell-wall materials are discussed. Individual bands were selected to monitor the sugar content in medical plant cell walls and to confirm the identity of the analysed plants.

  5. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers from South-West Algeria: An ethnobotanical study

    PubMed Central

    Benarba, Bachir

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: This study aimed to document and analyzes the local knowledge of medicinal plants’ use by traditional healers in South-west Algeria. Methods: The ethnobotanical survey was conducted in two Saharian regions of South-west of Algeria: Adrar and Bechar. In total, 22 local traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire and open questions. Use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), and informant consensus factor (FIC) were used to analyze the obtained data. Results: Our results showed that 83 medicinal plants species belonging to 38 families are used by traditional healers from South-west of Algeria to treat several ailments. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, and Fabaceae were the most dominant families with 13, 8, 6, and 4 species, respectively. Leaves were the plant parts mostly used (36%), followed by seeds (18%), aerial parts (17%) and roots (12%). Furthermore, a decoction was the major mode of preparation (49%), and oral administration was the most preferred (80%). Thymus vulgaris L. (UV = 1.045), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (UV = 0.863), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (UV=0.590), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (UV = 0.545), and Ruta chalepensis L. (UV = 0.5) were the most frequently species used by local healers. A great informant consensus has been demonstrated for kidney (0.727), cancer (0.687), digestive (0.603), and respiratory diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed rich ethnomedicinal knowledge in South-west Algeria. The reported species with high UV, FL, and FIC could be of great interest for further pharmacological studies. PMID:27757260

  6. Vibrational spectroscopy and electrophoresis as a "golden means" in monitoring of polysaccharides in medical plant and gels.

    PubMed

    Pielesz, A

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, some bioactive polysaccharides isolated from natural sources have attracted much attention in the field of biochemistry and pharmacology. Of them, polysaccharides or their glycoconjugates were shown to exhibit multiple biological activities including anticarcinogenic, anticoagulant, immunostimulating, antioxidant, etc. Pharmacotherapy using plant-derived substances can be currently regarded as a very promising future alternative to conventional therapy. The advanced biotechnologies available today enable chemical investigation of well-defined bioactive plant components as sources of novel drugs. The need for safer drugs without side effects has led to the use of natural ingredients with proven safety. Special interest is focused on plant polysaccharides. This article attempts to review the current structural and conformational characterization of some importantly bioactive monosaccharides isolated from following plant cell-wall: Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Thymus pulegioides (thyme), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek), Tussilago farfara L. (coltsfoot), Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop), Althaea officinalis L. (marshmallow) and Equisetum arvense L. (horsetail). The chemical structures of monosaccharides were analysed using FTIR and Raman spectroscopies as well as cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAE). The dried plant samples were gently hydrolysed with sulphuric acid. The presence of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, alginic acid, glucose, mannose and xylose in the hydrolysates of reference substances and non-defatted plant films was proved. The possibility of a taxonomic classification of plant cell walls based on infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the use of spectral fingerprinting for authentication and detection of adulteration of products rich in cell-wall materials are discussed. Individual bands were selected to monitor the sugar content in medical plant cell walls and to confirm the identity of the analysed plants. PMID

  7. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

    PubMed

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from

  8. Authentication of Herbal Supplements Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Braukmann, Thomas W. A.; Borisenko, Alex V.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.

    2016-01-01

    Background DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious. Methods We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Experimental design included three modifications of DNA extraction, two lysate dilutions, Internal Amplification Control, and multiple negative controls to exclude background contamination. Ginkgo supplements were also analyzed using HPLC-MS for the presence of active medicinal components. Results All supplements yielded DNA from multiple species, rendering Sanger sequencing results for rbcL and ITS2 regions either uninterpretable or non-reproducible between the experimental replicates. Overall, DNA from the manufacturer-listed medicinal plants was successfully detected in seven out of eight dry herb form supplements; however, low or poor DNA recovery due to degradation was observed in most plant extracts (none detected by Sanger; three out of seven–by NGS). NGS also revealed a diverse community of fungi, known to be associated with live plant material and/or the fermentation process used in the production of plant extracts. HPLC-MS testing demonstrated that Ginkgo supplements with degraded DNA contained ten key medicinal components. Conclusion Quality control of herbal supplements should utilize a synergetic approach targeting both DNA and bioactive components, especially for standardized extracts with degraded DNA. The NGS workflow developed in this study enables reliable detection of plant and fungal DNA and can be utilized by manufacturers for quality assurance of raw plant materials, contamination control during the production process, and the final product

  9. Nodulation, Nitrogen Fixation, and Hydrogen Oxidation by Pigeon Pea Bradyrhizobium spp. in Symbiotic Association with Pigeon Pea, Cowpea, and Soybean †

    PubMed Central

    Nautiyal, C. S.; Hegde, S. V.; van Berkum, P.

    1988-01-01

    The pigeon pea strains of Bradyrhizobium CC-1, CC-8, UASGR(S), and F4 were evaluated for nodulation, effectiveness for N2 fixation, and H2 oxidation with homologous and nonhomologous host plants. Strain CC-1 nodulated Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata, Glycine max, and G. soja but did not nodulate Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Trifolium repens. Strain F4 nodulated G. max cv. Peking and PI 434937 (Malayan), but the symbioses formed were poor. Similarly, G. max cv. Peking, cv. Bragg, PI 434937, PR 13-28-2-8-7, and HM-1 were nodulated by strain CC-1, and symbioses were also poor. G. max cv. Williams and cv. Clark were not nodulated. H2 uptake activity was expressed with pigeon pea and cowpea, but not with soybean. G. max cv. Bragg grown in Bangalore, India, in local soil not previously exposed to Bradyrhizobium japonicum formed nodules with indigenous Bradyrhizobium spp. Six randomly chosen isolates, each originating from a different nodule, formed effective symbioses with pigeon pea host ICPL-407, nodulated PR 13-28-2-8-7 soybean forming moderately effective symbioses, and did not nodulate Williams soybean. These results indicate the six isolates to be pigeon pea strains although they originated from soybean nodules. Host-determined nodulation of soybean by pigeon pea Bradyrhizobium spp. may depend upon the ancestral backgrounds of the cultivars. The poor symbioses formed by the pigeon pea strains with soybean indicate that this crop should be inoculated with B. japonicum for its cultivation in soils containing only pigeon pea Bradyrhizobium spp. PMID:16347542

  10. Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of {sup 131}I in fenugreek and Okra plants

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, R.K.; Narayanan, U.; Bhat, I.S.

    1994-11-01

    The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne {sup 131}I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 {mu}m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of {sup 131}I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1}. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women’s health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women’s Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  12. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

    PubMed

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from

  13. Trigonella foenum (Fenugreek) Induced Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line, HepG2, Mediated by Upregulation of p53 and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mahmoud I M; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; El-Gaaly, Gehan A; Sultan, Ahmed S

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and most current therapies are of limited efficacy. Trigonella foenum (Fenugreek) is a traditional herbal plant with antitumor activity, although the mechanisms of its activity remain unclear. Herein, a crude methanol extract was prepared from Fenugreek seeds (FCE) and its anticancer mechanism was evaluated, using HepG2 cell line. Growth-inhibitory effect and apoptosis induction of HepG2 cells were evidenced by MTT assay, cell morphology alteration, apoptosis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometric analysis, caspase-3 activity, and expression of p53, proapoptotic protein, Bax, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) after (100 ∼ 500 μg/mL) FCE treatment for 48 h. Furthermore, FCE was analyzed by Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Our results revealed that FCE treatment for 48 h showed a cytotoxic effect and apoptosis induction in a dose-dependent manner that was mediated by upregulation of p53, Bax, PCNA, and caspase-3 activation in HepG2 cells. GC-MS analysis of FCE showed the presence of fourteen bioactive compounds such as Terpenoids and Flavonoids, including two main constituents with anticancer activity, Squalene and Naringenin (27.71% and 24.05%), respectively. Our data introduced FCE as a promising nontoxic herbal with therapeutic potential to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells through p53, Bax, and PCNA upregulation in caspase-3 dependent manner. PMID:26557712

  14. Trigonella foenum (Fenugreek) Induced Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line, HepG2, Mediated by Upregulation of p53 and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mahmoud I. M.; Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; El-Gaaly, Gehan A.; Sultan, Ahmed S.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and most current therapies are of limited efficacy. Trigonella foenum (Fenugreek) is a traditional herbal plant with antitumor activity, although the mechanisms of its activity remain unclear. Herein, a crude methanol extract was prepared from Fenugreek seeds (FCE) and its anticancer mechanism was evaluated, using HepG2 cell line. Growth-inhibitory effect and apoptosis induction of HepG2 cells were evidenced by MTT assay, cell morphology alteration, apoptosis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometric analysis, caspase-3 activity, and expression of p53, proapoptotic protein, Bax, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) after (100∼500 μg/mL) FCE treatment for 48 h. Furthermore, FCE was analyzed by Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Our results revealed that FCE treatment for 48 h showed a cytotoxic effect and apoptosis induction in a dose-dependent manner that was mediated by upregulation of p53, Bax, PCNA, and caspase-3 activation in HepG2 cells. GC-MS analysis of FCE showed the presence of fourteen bioactive compounds such as Terpenoids and Flavonoids, including two main constituents with anticancer activity, Squalene and Naringenin (27.71% and 24.05%), respectively. Our data introduced FCE as a promising nontoxic herbal with therapeutic potential to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells through p53, Bax, and PCNA upregulation in caspase-3 dependent manner. PMID:26557712

  15. Assessment of in vitro digestibility and fermentation parameters of alfalfa hay-based diet following direct incorporation of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Naseri, V; Hozhabri, F; Kafilzadeh, F

    2013-08-01

    This study was completed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum; FS) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis; AR) on in vitro nutrient digestibility and fermentation patterns. Different levels [0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of dry matter (DM)] of the medicinal plants were included using alfalfa hay (AH) as a basal substrate at different incubation times (12, 18, 24 and 48 h). Total phenolic components of AH, FS and AR were 5.9, 10 and 8.3 g/kg DM, whereas total tannins were 0.4, 3.8 and 1.5 g/kg DM, respectively. Corresponding values for saponins were 10.4, 27.3 and 40.3 g/kg DM. Fenugreek seed increased (p<0.05) in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility at different incubation times and decreased (p<0.05) crude protein (CP) digestibility at 18 and 24 h of incubation. Asparagus root also increased (p<0.05) in vitro OM digestibility and decreased (p<0.05) CP digestibility at different incubation times. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility was increased (p<0.05) by the addition of AR or FS at low levels, but decreased (p<0.05) noticeably by increasing level of two plants in the basal substrate. Ammonia-N concentration was markedly reduced (p<0.05) by the addition of AR at different incubation times, and this reduction was accompanied by the decrease in CP digestibility. True DM degradability and partitioning factor (ratio of substrate DM truly degraded to gas volume produced at different times of incubation) were increased, and total volatile fatty acid concentration and total gas production were decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of FS (at 10% and 15% DM levels) or AR (at 5%, 10% and 15% DM levels) at different incubation times. Results suggest that FS and AR may have potential as feed additives to increase the efficiency of nutrients' utilization, particularly of nitrogen in ruminant diets.

  16. Assessment of in vitro digestibility and fermentation parameters of alfalfa hay-based diet following direct incorporation of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Naseri, V; Hozhabri, F; Kafilzadeh, F

    2013-08-01

    This study was completed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum; FS) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis; AR) on in vitro nutrient digestibility and fermentation patterns. Different levels [0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of dry matter (DM)] of the medicinal plants were included using alfalfa hay (AH) as a basal substrate at different incubation times (12, 18, 24 and 48 h). Total phenolic components of AH, FS and AR were 5.9, 10 and 8.3 g/kg DM, whereas total tannins were 0.4, 3.8 and 1.5 g/kg DM, respectively. Corresponding values for saponins were 10.4, 27.3 and 40.3 g/kg DM. Fenugreek seed increased (p<0.05) in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility at different incubation times and decreased (p<0.05) crude protein (CP) digestibility at 18 and 24 h of incubation. Asparagus root also increased (p<0.05) in vitro OM digestibility and decreased (p<0.05) CP digestibility at different incubation times. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility was increased (p<0.05) by the addition of AR or FS at low levels, but decreased (p<0.05) noticeably by increasing level of two plants in the basal substrate. Ammonia-N concentration was markedly reduced (p<0.05) by the addition of AR at different incubation times, and this reduction was accompanied by the decrease in CP digestibility. True DM degradability and partitioning factor (ratio of substrate DM truly degraded to gas volume produced at different times of incubation) were increased, and total volatile fatty acid concentration and total gas production were decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of FS (at 10% and 15% DM levels) or AR (at 5%, 10% and 15% DM levels) at different incubation times. Results suggest that FS and AR may have potential as feed additives to increase the efficiency of nutrients' utilization, particularly of nitrogen in ruminant diets. PMID:22741923

  17. hsDNA groove binding, photocatalytic activity, and in vitro breast and colon cancer cell reducing function of greener SeNPs.

    PubMed

    Pansare, Amol V; Kulal, Dnyaneshwar K; Shedge, Amol A; Patil, Vishwanath R

    2016-07-26

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have attracted great attention because of their superior optical properties and wide utilization in biological and biomedical studies. This paper reports an environmentally benign procedure of greener monodispersible SeNP synthesis using the reducing power of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract, characterization and their protective effect against unfolded (Herring sperm DNA) hsDNA. We investigated the anti-cancer activity of SeNPs against MCF-7, MDA MB 435 and COLO-205 cells. The photocatalytic activity of SeNPs was investigated for the degradation of a Sunset Yellow FCF (SYFCF) dye using ultraviolet-B light. The reduction of the Se ion to SeNPs was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The size and morphology of the SeNPs were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The SeNPs were stable, and the diameter was homogeneous at around 5-12 nm. Interactions of various concentrations of SeNPs with hsDNA were systematically investigated by UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), polarimetry and FTIR spectroscopy under physiological conditions. The results from fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that SeNPs quenched the fluorescence intensity of hsDNA with increasing concentrations. The modified Stern-Volmer quenching rate constant Ksv, binding constant K and binding sites n at different temperatures and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters ΔH°, ΔG° and ΔS° were calculated. Hoechst 33258 and methyl green (MG) site markers, melting experiment (Tm), viscosity measurements and sequence specificity verification by DNA bases clarified that SeNPs bind to hsDNA via a groove site. The rate of photocatalytic degradation of the SYFCF dye in the presence and absence of photocatalysts (SeNPs) was studied using UV-vis, the results showed appreciable degradation of the SYFCF dye. Our results suggested that nano Se can be used

  18. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank): A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S; Jamous, Rana M; Al-Shafie', Jehan H; Elgharabah, Wafa' A; Kherfan, Fatemah A; Qarariah, Kifayeh H; Khdair, Isra' S; Soos, Israa M; Musleh, Aseel A; Isa, Buthainah A; Herzallah, Hanan M; Khlaif, Rasha B; Aiash, Samiah M; Swaiti, Ghadah M; Abuzahra, Muna A; Haj-Ali, Maha M; Saifi, Nehaya A; Azem, Hebah K; Nasrallah, Hanadi A

    2008-01-01

    Background A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in fifteen local communities distributed in five districts in the Palestinian Authority, PA (northern West Bank), six of which were located in Nablus, two in Jenin, two in Salfit, three in Qalqilia, and two in Tulkarm. These are among the areas in the PA whose rural inhabitants primarily subsisted on agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants. Methods Data on the use of wild edible plants were collected for one-year period, through informed consent semi-structured interviews with 190 local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document use diversity, and relative importance of each species. Results and discussion The study recorded 100 wild edible plant species, seventy six of which were mentioned by three informants and above and were distributed across 70 genera and 26 families. The most significant species include Majorana syriaca, Foeniculum vulgare, Malvasylvestris, Salvia fruticosa, Cyclamen persicum, Micromeria fruticosa, Arum palaestinum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Gundelia tournefortii, and Matricaria aurea. All the ten species with the highest mean cultural importance values (mCI), were cited in all five areas. Moreover, most were important in every region. A common cultural background may explain these similarities. One taxon (Majoranasyriaca) in particular was found to be among the most quoted species in almost all areas surveyed. CI values, as a measure of traditional botanical knowledge, for edible species in relatively remote and isolated areas (Qalqilia, and Salfit) were generally higher than for the same species in other areas. This can be attributed to the fact that local knowledge of wild edible plants and plant gathering are more spread in remote or isolated areas. Conclusion Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Palestinian areas. About 26 % (26/100) of the

  19. Clarification on Host Range of Didymella pinodes the Causal Agent of Pea Ascochyta Blight

    PubMed Central

    Barilli, Eleonora; Cobos, Maria José; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Didymella pinodes is the principal causal agent of ascochyta blight, one of the most important fungal diseases of pea (Pisum sativum) worldwide. Understanding its host specificity has crucial implications in epidemiology and management; however, this has not been clearly delineated yet. In this study we attempt to clarify the host range of D. pinodes and to compare it with that of other close Didymella spp. D. pinodes was very virulent on pea accessions, although differences in virulence were identified among isolates. On the contrary, studied isolates of D. fabae, D. rabiei, and D. lentil showed a reduced ability to infect pea not causing macroscopically visible symptoms on any of the pea accessions tested. D. pinodes isolates were also infective to some extend on almost all species tested including species such as Hedysarum coronarium, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus albus, Medicago spp., Trifolium spp., Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vicia articulata which were not mentioned before as hosts of D. pinodes. On the contrary, D. lentil and D. rabiei were more specific, infecting only lentil and chickpea, respectively. D. fabae was intermediate, infecting mainly faba bean, but also slightly other species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trifolium spp., Vicia sativa, and V. articulata. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was performed to confirm identity of the isolates studies and to determine phylogenetic relationship among the Didymella species, revealing the presence of two clearly distinct clades. Clade one was represented by two supported subclusters including D. fabae isolates as well as D. rabiei with D. lentil isolates. Clade two was the largest and included all the D. pinodes isolates as well as Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Genetic distance between D. pinodes and the other Didymella spp. isolates was not correlated with overall differences in pathogenicity. Based on evidences presented here, D

  20. Effect of vegetable wastage and energy in ostrich chick diet on performance and hematology.

    PubMed

    Tasirnafas, Mohammadebrahim; Seidavi, Alireza; Rasouli, Behrouz; Kawka, Magdalena

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different levels of dietary vegetable wastage and energy on ostrich chick performance and hematology. Twenty-four ostrich chicks (blue and black African breed) were allocated to eight treatments. The diet in treatments T1 to T4 had 2,500 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy, while treatments T5 to T8 had 2,700 kcal/kg. Each treatment had 0, 10, 20, and 30% of vegetable wastage. Vegetable wastage included parsley (Petroselinum crispum, 51.3 %), cress (Lepidium sativum, 15.0%), spinach (Spinacia oleracea, 15.0%), wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum, 14.0%), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum, 2.5%), and basil (Ocimum basilicum, 2.2 %). The body weight gain and food intake were assessed weekly. Blood was analyzed for total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols, LDL/HDL, ratio and alkaline phosphatase. The highest level of weight was seen in the second treatment (2,500 kcal/kg dietary energy and 10% dietary wastage). The hematological parameters were different depending on the treatment used. The lowest level of total cholesterol was observed in eighth treatment (2,700 kcal/kg dietary energy and 30% dietary wastage), while the lowest level of triglycerides was in fourth treatment (2,500 kcal/kg dietary energy and 30 % of wastage). The level of alkaline phosphatise was the lowest in seventh treatment (2,700 kcal/kg dietary energy and 20% wastages). The energy level had no effect (P < 0.05) on feed intake, weight gain, and feed efficiency for each week and for all experimental period. The level of vegetable wastage showed effect (P = 0.033) on feed intake, but the increase of this level showed depressive effect on the feed intake. This is the first report on the performance and blood parameters of commercial ostrich chicks fed diets differing in vegetable wastage. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25877259

  1. Clarification on Host Range of Didymella pinodes the Causal Agent of Pea Ascochyta Blight.

    PubMed

    Barilli, Eleonora; Cobos, Maria José; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Didymella pinodes is the principal causal agent of ascochyta blight, one of the most important fungal diseases of pea (Pisum sativum) worldwide. Understanding its host specificity has crucial implications in epidemiology and management; however, this has not been clearly delineated yet. In this study we attempt to clarify the host range of D. pinodes and to compare it with that of other close Didymella spp. D. pinodes was very virulent on pea accessions, although differences in virulence were identified among isolates. On the contrary, studied isolates of D. fabae, D. rabiei, and D. lentil showed a reduced ability to infect pea not causing macroscopically visible symptoms on any of the pea accessions tested. D. pinodes isolates were also infective to some extend on almost all species tested including species such as Hedysarum coronarium, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus albus, Medicago spp., Trifolium spp., Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vicia articulata which were not mentioned before as hosts of D. pinodes. On the contrary, D. lentil and D. rabiei were more specific, infecting only lentil and chickpea, respectively. D. fabae was intermediate, infecting mainly faba bean, but also slightly other species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trifolium spp., Vicia sativa, and V. articulata. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was performed to confirm identity of the isolates studies and to determine phylogenetic relationship among the Didymella species, revealing the presence of two clearly distinct clades. Clade one was represented by two supported subclusters including D. fabae isolates as well as D. rabiei with D. lentil isolates. Clade two was the largest and included all the D. pinodes isolates as well as Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Genetic distance between D. pinodes and the other Didymella spp. isolates was not correlated with overall differences in pathogenicity. Based on evidences presented here, D

  2. Protodioscin isolated from fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) induces cell death and morphological change indicative of apoptosis in leukemic cell line H-60, but not in gastric cancer cell line KATO III.

    PubMed

    Hibasami, Hiroshige; Moteki, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kengo; Katsuzaki, Hirotaka; Imai, Kunio; Yoshioka, Kazumi; Ishii, Yaeko; Komiya, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Protodioscin (PD) was purified from fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) and identified by Mass, and 1H- and 13C-NMR. The effects of PD on cell viability in human leukemia HL-60 and human stomach cancer KATO III cells were investigated. PD displayed strong growth inhibitory effect against HL-60 cells, but weak growth inhibitory effect on KATO III cells. Morphological change showing apoptotic bodies was observed in the HL-60 cells treated with PD, but not in KATO III cells treated with PD. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the hypodiploid nuclei of HL-60 cells were increased to 75.2, 96.3, and 100% after a 3-day treatment with 2.5, 5, and 10 microM PD, respectively. The fragmentation by PD of DNA to oligonucleosomal-sized fragments, that is a characteristic of apoptosis, was observed to be both concentration- and time-dependent in the HL-60 cells. These findings suggest that growth inhibition by PD of HL-60 cells results from the induction of apoptosis by this compound in HL-60 cells. PMID:12469212

  3. Protodioscin isolated from fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) induces cell death and morphological change indicative of apoptosis in leukemic cell line H-60, but not in gastric cancer cell line KATO III.

    PubMed

    Hibasami, Hiroshige; Moteki, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kengo; Katsuzaki, Hirotaka; Imai, Kunio; Yoshioka, Kazumi; Ishii, Yaeko; Komiya, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Protodioscin (PD) was purified from fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) and identified by Mass, and 1H- and 13C-NMR. The effects of PD on cell viability in human leukemia HL-60 and human stomach cancer KATO III cells were investigated. PD displayed strong growth inhibitory effect against HL-60 cells, but weak growth inhibitory effect on KATO III cells. Morphological change showing apoptotic bodies was observed in the HL-60 cells treated with PD, but not in KATO III cells treated with PD. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the hypodiploid nuclei of HL-60 cells were increased to 75.2, 96.3, and 100% after a 3-day treatment with 2.5, 5, and 10 microM PD, respectively. The fragmentation by PD of DNA to oligonucleosomal-sized fragments, that is a characteristic of apoptosis, was observed to be both concentration- and time-dependent in the HL-60 cells. These findings suggest that growth inhibition by PD of HL-60 cells results from the induction of apoptosis by this compound in HL-60 cells.

  4. Control of mannose/galactose ratio during galactomannan formation in developing legume seeds.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M; Scott, C; Gidley, M J; Reid, J S

    1992-04-01

    Galactomannan deposition was investigated in developing endosperms of three leguminous species representative of taxonomic groups which have galactomannans with high, medium and low galactose content. These were fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.; mannose/galactose (Man/Gal) = 1.1), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.; Man/Gal = 1.6) and Senna occidentalis (L.) Link. (Man/Gal = 3.3), respectively. Endosperms were analysed at different stages of seed development for galactomannan content and the levels, in cell-free extracts, of a mannosyltransferase and a galactosyltransferase which have been shown to catalyse galactomannan biosynthesis in vitro (M. Edwards et al., 1989, Planta 178, 41-51). There was a close correlation in each case between the levels of the biosynthetic mannosyl- and galactosyltransferases and the deposition of galactomannan. The relative in vitro activities of the mannosyl- and galactosyltransferases in fenugreek and guar were similar, and almost constant throughout the period of galactomannan deposition. In Senna the ratio mannosyltransferase/galactosyltransferase was always higher than in the other two species, and it increased substantially throughout the period of galactomannan deposition. In fenugreek and guar the galactomannans present in the endosperms of seeds at different stages of development had the Man/Gal ratios characteristic of the mature seeds. By contrast the galactomannan present in Senna endosperms at the earliest stages of deposition had a Man/Gal ratio of about 2.3. During late deposition this ratio increased rapidly, stabilising at about 3.3, the ratio characteristic of the mature seed. The levels of α-galactosidase in the developing endosperms of fenugreek and guar were low and remained fairly constant throughout the deposition of the galactomannan. In Senna, α-galactosidase activity in the endosperm was low during early galactomannan deposition, but increased subsequently, peaking during late galactomannan

  5. Molluscicidal activity of Piper cubeba Linn., Piper longum Linn. and Tribulus terrestris Linn. and their combinations against snail Indoplanorbis exustus Desh.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Jitendra K; Singh, D K

    2009-08-01

    The toxic effect of dried berries powder of P. cubeba, dried fruit powder of P. longum and T. terrestris singly as well as in combination [binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1)] were studied against snail L. exustus. Toxicity of these plant products were time and concentration dependent. Ethanol extracts of these plants were more effective than that of other organic solvents. 96 h LC50 value of column purified fraction of T. terrestris against I. exustus was 9.57 mg/l, where as 96 h LC50 values of column purified fractions of P. longum and P. cubeba were 11.57 mg/l and 10.93 mg/l, respectively. Binary (1:1) combination of P. cubeba (PC) + P. longum (PL) (41.78 mg/l) was more effective than P. cubeba (PC) + T. terrestris (TT) (42.17 mg/l) and P. longum (PL) + T. terrestris (TT) (55.84 mg/l) respectively; while tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of P. cubeba (PC) + T. terrestris (TT) + T. foenum-graecum (TF) (10.67 mg/l) was more effective than rest of the combinations. These plants can be used as potent source of molluscicides against the snail I. exustus.

  6. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris have characteristics in common with LMW RNA group II Sinorhizobium meliloti of Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella from soils of mainland Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several isolates from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canaries, had electrophoretic LMW RNA patterns identical with a less common pattern within S. meliloti (assigned as group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northe...

  7. Immunomodulation of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage functions and antioxidant activities of 11 plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Ghonime, Mohammed; Emara, Mohamed; Shawky, Riham; Soliman, Hesham; El-Domany, Ramadan; Abdelaziz, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    A group of 11 medicinal plants, including Lavandula pubescens, Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Calligonum comosum, Silene succulenta, Silene villosa, Bogonvillea glabra, Cakile maritime, Gomphrene celesoids, Mirabilis jalaba, and Silene nocturna growing in Egypt, were extracted and examined for their immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities. RAW 264.7 cells were recruited to investigate the immunomodulatory effect through multiple parameters analysis. First, the proliferation index of macrophages cells was evaluated revealing that Trigonella foenugricium, Silene succulenta and Silene villosa have a significant cytotoxic effect on RAW cells. Interestingly, we observed enhancement of macrophages phagocytic function of by all extracts except Cakile maritime, Gomphrena celosioides and Silene nocturna. Afterwards, macrophages were challenged by incubation with LPS and the effect of various extracts on inflammatory responses was investigated; the generation of NO from activated macrophage was substantially suppressed by 7 extracts namely, Trigonella foenugricium, Calligonum comosum, Silene succulenta, Bougainvillea glabra, Mirabilis jalaba, Gomphrena celosioides and Silene nocturna. TNF-α was decreased by percentage range from 3.8 to 85.8% and Trigonella foenugricium extract showed the highest inhibition of TNF-α release. All extracts except Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Silene succulenta and Mirabilis jalaba significantly inhibited COX-2 production from stimulated macrophage. Moreover, evaluating the potential antioxidant activity of these extracts showed that Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Calligonum comosum, Bogonvillea glabra and Mirabilis jalaba exhibited some antioxidant activities. Taken together, our results suggest that some of these extracts may have a considerable antinflammatory and antioxidant effects and may be a potential therapeutic choice in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25564700

  8. Diversity of Sinorhizobium meliloti from the Central Asian Alfalfa Gene Center

    PubMed Central

    Roumiantseva, Marina L.; Andronov, Evgeny E.; Sharypova, Larissa A.; Dammann-Kalinowski, Tatjana; Keller, Mathias; Young, J. Peter W.; Simarov, Boris V.

    2002-01-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti was isolated from nodules and soil from western Tajikistan, a center of diversity of the host plants (Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella species). There was evidence of recombination, but significant disequilibrium, between and within the chromosome and megaplasmids. The most frequent alleles matched those in the published genome sequence. PMID:12200335

  9. Two different stable low molecular weight RNA (LMW RNA) profiles within Sinorhizobium meliloti and within Sinorhizobium medicae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LMW RNA profiles of 179 isolates from Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella species growing in a field site in northern Spain were analysed. Four different LMW RNA profiles designated I through IV were identified. Most of the isolates displayed either LMW RNA profile I or III (37 and 45%, respectively)...

  10. Study of the anti-hyperglycemic effect of plants used as antidiabetics.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Aguilara, F J; Roman-Ramos, R; Perez-Gutierrez, S; Aguilar-Contreras, A; Contreras-Weber, C C; Flores-Saenz, J L

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the anti-hyperglycemic effect of 28 medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Each plant was processed in the traditional way and intragastrically administered to temporarily hyperglycemic rabbits. The results showed that eight out of the 28 studied plants significantly decrease the hyperglycemic peak and/or the area under the glucose tolerance curve. These plants were: Guazuma ulmifolia, Tournefortia hirsutissima, Lepechinia caulescens, Rhizophora mangle, Musa sapientum, Trigonella foenum graceum, Turnera diffusa, and Euphorbia prostrata. The results suggest the validity of their clinical use in diabetes mellitus control, after their toxicological investigation. PMID:9683340

  11. Antimycotic effect of fixed oils treated with herbal seeds on the growth of fungi causing otomycosis.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Agarwal, S C; Malaiya, S

    1993-07-01

    Invitro antimycotic effect of the coconut, mustard, groundnut & soyabeen oils and the seeds of trigonella, ajwoin, mustard and garlic bulbs were mixed in the above oil samples to determine their effect on the spore germination of five pathogenic fungi i.e., Aspergillus niger, A.flavus, Absidia corymbifera, Penicilium nigricans and Candida albicans, isolated from otitic fungal infection of external ear (tympanic membrane) of human beings of different places. Growth of these fungi was completely inhibited by the oil of mustard when mixed seeds of trigonella, ajwoin, mustard and garlic bulbs, while coconut oil with ajwoin seeds was found to be less funitoxic. In addition to these other oils and different plant parts were also found to have fungitoxicity against test pathogens and increase pf 50 - 100 percent inhibition was noted in these cases. Present study indicated the possible role of test oils and different plant parts in control of otomycosis in human being after further experimental in-vivo condition. PMID:22556643

  12. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, That Nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris Have Characteristics in Common with Sinorhizobium meliloti Isolates from Mainland Spain▿

    PubMed Central

    Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, Raúl; Peix, Alvaro; León-Barrios, Milagros; Willems, Anne; Mateos, Pedro Francisco; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna; van Berkum, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The stable, low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA fractions of several rhizobial isolates of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canary Islands, were identical to a less-common pattern found within Sinorhizobium meliloti (assigned to group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northern Spain. The P. vulgaris isolates and the group II LMW RNA S. meliloti isolates also were distinguishable in that both had two conserved inserts of 20 and 46 bp in the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region that were not present in other strains of S. meliloti. The isolates from P. vulgaris nodulated bean but not Medicago sativa, while those recovered from Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. nodulated both host legumes. The bean isolates also were distinguished from those of Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. by nodC sequence analysis. The nodC sequences of the bean isolates were most similar to those reported for S. meliloti bv. mediterranense and Sinorhizobium fredii bv. mediterranense (GenBank accession numbers DQ333891 and AF217267, respectively). None of the evidence placed the bean isolates from Lanzarote in the genus Rhizobium, which perhaps is inconsistent with seed-borne transmission of Rhizobium etli from the Americas to the Canaries as an explanation for the presence of bean-nodulating rhizobia in soils of Lanzarote. PMID:19218416

  13. [Analysis of DNA homology and 16S rDNA sequence of rhizobia, a new phenotypic subgroup, isolated from Xizang Autonomous Region of China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-ying; Yang, Xiao-li; Li, Hai-feng; Liu, Jie

    2006-02-01

    Based on the studies of numerical taxonomy, the seven rhizobial strains isolated from the root nodules of leguminous plants Trigonella spp. and Astragalus spp. growing in the Xizang Autonomous Region of China constituted a new phenotypic subgroup, where wide phenotypic and genotypic diversity among legume crops had been reported due to complex terrain and various climate. The new phenotypic subgroup were further identified to clarify its taxonomic position by DNA homology analysis and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The mol% G + C ratio of the DNA among members of the new subgroup ranged from 59.5 to 63.3 mol% as determined by T (m) assay. The levels of DNA relatedness, determined by using the DNA liquid hybridization method, among the members of the new subgroup were between 74.3% and 92.3%, while level of DNA relatedness between the central strains XZ2-3 of the new subgroup and the type strains of known species of Rhizobium was less than 47.4%. These results indicated that the new phenotypic subgroup is a DNA homological group different from described species of Rhizobium. Therefore, this new phenotypic subgroup was supposed to be a new species in the genus of Rhizobium since the strains in the same species generally exhibit levels of DNA homology ranging from 70 to 100%. A systematic identification method-16S rDNA gene sequence comparison was carried out to determine the phylogenetic relationships of the new subgroup with the described species of Rhizobium. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the central strain XZ2-3 of the new subgroup is DQ099745. The full-length 16S rDNA gene sequence were sequenced by chain terminator techniques and analyzed with PHYLIP. The phylogenetic trees were constructed by using the programs DRAWTREE. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new subgroup occupy a independent sub-branch in phylogenetic tree. The sequence similarities between the center strain XZ2-3 and the closest relatives, strain R. leguminosarum USDA

  14. The influence of sediment particle size and organic carbon on toxicity of copper to benthic invertebrates in oxic/suboxic surface sediments.

    PubMed

    Strom, David; Simpson, Stuart L; Batley, Graeme E; Jolley, Dianne F

    2011-07-01

    The use of sediment quality guidelines to predict the toxicity of metals in sediments is limited by an inadequate understanding of exposure pathways and by poor causal links between exposure and effects. For a 10-d exposure to Cu-spiked sediments, toxicity to the amphipod Melita plumulosa was demonstrated to occur through a combination of dissolved and dietary Cu exposure pathways, but for the bivalves Spisula trigonella and Tellina deltoidalis, toxicity occurred primarily by exposure to dissolved Cu. For relatively oxidized sediments that had moderate amounts of organic carbon (2.6-8.3% OC), silt (20-100% <63-µm particles) but low acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), acute toxicity thresholds for the three species were derived based on the OC-normalized Cu concentration of the less than 63-µm sediment fraction. For all three species, no effects were observed at concentrations below 10 µg/L dissolved Cu (in pore water and overlying water) or below 12 mg Cu/g OC (for <63 µm sediment). For sediments with silt/OC properties of 20/0.5, 50/1, or 70/4%, the particulate Cu-based threshold equated to 60, 120, or 480 mg Cu/kg, respectively. For oxic/suboxic sediments in which AVS is not limiting metal availability, sediment quality guidelines of this form will provide adequate protection against toxicity and improve the prediction of effects for sediments with varying properties.

  15. Biodiversity and land degradation in the lower Euphrates subregion of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Munir; Kebapci, Umit; Gucel, Salih; Cetin, Esat; Altundag, Ernaz

    2012-04-01

    Atotal of 107 plant taxa were determined in this study, 24 being new records for the area. Out of 813 plant taxa reported from the study area 100 species couldn't be verified. The number of endemics in the study area is around 46. The majorfamilies and genera are Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae and Astragalus, Euphorbia, Allium and Trigonella. The area shows a relatively rich and highly diverse fauna. For terrestrial vertebrate species peculiarly showing marginal distribution, this area forms their northernmost distributional limits. Avifauna along the Euphrates valley is quite rich with 207 species. Globally threatened species, Geronticus eremita (Waldrapp), has been observed locally in the area. Many macromammal species once common have gone extinct. Out of 18 lizard species, 3 lizards are known only from the study area. There are 20 species of snakes, one being exclusively endemic to the study area. Nearly 30 fish species are found in Euphrates system. Very scanty information is available for the invertebrate fauna except for some groups of Mollusca and Arthropoda. The biodiversity of the area is under threat from recent developments and abiotic interferences.

  16. Appraisal of heavy metal concentration in selected vegetables exposed to different degrees of pollution in Agra, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suruchi

    2013-03-01

    The accumulation of air-borne heavy metals in edible parts of vegetables in the chosen areas of the city of Agra, India was investigated. Agra, with a population of 1.7 million, is a medium-sized Indian city where leafy green vegetables are received generally from the surrounding areas of about 50 km radius. Vegetables Basella alba (spinch, locally called palak), Trigonella foenumgraecum (fenugreek, locally called methi), and Coriandrum sativum (coriander, locally called dhania) from the various sites of Agra, India were tested for Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy in washed and unwashed vegetable. The results obtained from this analysis revealed higher concentrations of toxic elements in unwashed samples than the washed samples. Among unwashed samples it was found that concentration of heavy metals is more in areas of busy traffic or industry density. The levels of lead in all samples were found above the maximum permissible limit recommended by PFA for metals in vegetables. The study concludes that transportation and storage systems during marketing play a significant role in determining the contamination and deposition of heavy metal on vegetable surfaces specially of the leafy variety. PMID:22773079

  17. [Symbiosis between the nodule bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under salinization conditions].

    PubMed

    Ibragimova, M V; Rumiantseva, M L; Onishchuk, O P; Belova, V S; Kurchak, O N; Andronov, E E; Dziubenko, N I; Simarov, B V

    2006-01-01

    Two hundred forty-three isolates of alfalfa nodule bacteria (Sinorhizobium meliloti) were obtained from legume nodules and soils sampled in the northern Aral region, experiencing secondary salinization. Isolates obtained from nodules (N isolates) were significantly more salt-tolerant than those from soils (S isolates) when grown in a liquid medium with 3.5% NaCl. It was found that wild species of alfalfa, melilot, and trigonella preferably formed symbioses with salt-tolerant nodule bacteria in both salinized and nonsalinized soils. Only two alfalfa species, Medicago falcata and M. trautvetteri, formed efficient symbioses in soils contrasting in salinity. The formation of efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in the presence of 0.6% NaCl was studied in 36 isolates (N and S) differing in salt tolerance and symbiotic efficiency. Fifteen isolates formed efficient symbioses in the presence of salt. The increase in the dry weight of the plants was 25-68% higher than in the control group. The efficiency of symbiotic interaction under salinization conditions depended on the efficiency of the isolates under standard conditions but did not correlate with the source of nodule bacteria (soil or nodule) or their salt tolerance. The results indicate that nodule bacterium strains forming efficient symbioses under salinization conditions can be found.

  18. Anthropogenic marker evidence for accelerated sedimentation in Lake Illawarra, New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenhall, B. E.; Yassini, I.; Depers, A. M.; Caitcheon, G.; Jones, B. G.; Batley, G. E.; Ohmsen, G. S.

    1995-09-01

    The chronology of near-surface sediments in Lake Illawarra has been investigated using radiocarbon dating and anthropogenically derived substances including trace metals, ash, and137Cs. Sediments at depths about 1 m below the water-sediment interface ranged in age from Modern to 786 calendar years bp on the basis of radiocarbon dating of Notospisula trigonella valves. Multiple marker (for example ash-trace metals) depth-concentration sediment profiles yielded estimates of sedimentation rate ranging from 3 to 5 mm yr-1 at Griffins Bay to more than 16 mm yr-1 at Macquarie Rivulet. Sedimentation rates of approximately 10 mm yr-1 appeared to be typical of the western and southwestern portions of the lagoon. Rates of sediment accretion, prior to catchment clearing, urbanization, and industrialization have been estimated at less than 1 mm yr-1, thus indicating a general tenfold increase in sediment accumulation adjacent to the western foreshore caused by catchment development. Accelerated sedimentation in shallow coastal lagoons constitutes significant environmental impacts including shoaling, degradation of seagrass beds, and increased turbidity with consequent loss of aesthetic appeal. Management policy should be directed at attempts to reduce the amount of sediment input by the construction of strategically placed sediment retention ponds. Siltation within the shallow embayments of Lake Illawarra could be ameliorated by a carefully planned program of dredging.

  19. Antihyperlipidemic effect of a polyherbal mixture in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Shafiee-Nick, Reza; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Borji, Abasalt

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a polyherbal mixture containing Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrullus colocynthis, Juglans regia, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Punica granatum, Salvia officinalis, Teucrium polium, Trigonella foenum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium arctostaphylos were tested on biochemical parameters in diabetic rats. The animals were randomized into three groups: (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, and (3) diabetic rats which received diet containing 15% (w/w) of this mixture for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). At the end of experiment, the mixture had no significant effect on serum hepatic enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. However, the level of fasting blood glucose, water intake, and urine output in treated group was lower than that in diabetic control rats (P < 0.01). Also, the levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol in polyherbal mixture treated rats were significantly lower than those in diabetic control group (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that this polyherbal mixture has beneficial effects on blood glucose and lipid profile and it has the potential to be used as a dietary supplement for the management of diabetes. PMID:24383002

  20. A preliminary pilot survey on head lice, pediculosis in Sharkia Governorate and treatment of lice with natural plant extracts.

    PubMed

    El-Basheir, Zeinab M; Fouad, Mahmoud A H

    2002-12-01

    Twelve different representative areas in Sharkia Governorate were surveyed for head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis. The pre-valence was investigated among 120 houses containing 2,448 individual, with different age, sex and socioeconomic status. Examination was done by naked eye aided with hand-lens. A total of 137 individuals were infested. Infestation rates were higher in the rural areas with low socioeconomic levels, concrete houses with over-crowded family members. Children had significantly higher infestation rates than adults. Males had lower infestation rates than females. However, the hair length and permanent hair washing were the factors accounted for both age and sex difference in prevalence of pediculosis. Head lice infestations were found all over the year, but increased in summer and spring. One hundred infested patients (90 females and 10 males) with different aged and hair length were treated with tour mixed cream from plants Lawsonia alba L. (Henna). Trigonella faemum-gracanum (Fenugreek), Hibiscus cannabinus (Hibiscus) and Artemisia cina (Wormseed). The head lice completely disappeared within a week among those patients treated by henna mixed with aqueous extract of sheah (100%) or mixed with helba (75%) or with karkada (50%).

  1. Fenugreek induced apoptosis in breast cancer MCF-7 cells mediated independently by fas receptor change.

    PubMed

    Alshatwi, Ali Abdullah; Shafi, Gowhar; Hasan, Tarique Noorul; Syed, Naveed Ahmed; Khoja, Kholoud Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Trigonella foenum in graecum (Fenugreek) is a traditional herbal plant used to treat disorders like diabetes, high cholesterol, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal ailments, and it is believed to have anti-tumor properties, although the mechanisms for the activity remain to be elucidated. In this study, we prepared a methanol extract from Fenugreek whole plants and investigated the mechanism involved in its growth-inhibitory effect on MCF- 7 human breast cancer cells. Apoptosis of MCF-7 cells was evidenced by investigating trypan blue exclusion, TUNEL and Caspase 3, 8, 9, p53, FADD, Bax and Bak by real-time PCR assays inducing activities, in the presence of FME at 65 μg/mL for 24 and 48 hours. FME induced apoptosis was mediated by the death receptor pathway as demonstrated by the increased level of Fas receptor expression after FME treatment. However, such change was found to be absent in Caspase 3, 8, 9, p53, FADD, Bax and Bak, which was confirmed by a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. In summary, these data demonstrate that at least 90% of FME induced apoptosis in breast cell is mediated by Fas receptor-independently of either FADD, Caspase 8 or 3, as well as p53 interdependently. PMID:24289578

  2. Polyamine metabolism and osmotic stress. I. Relation to protoplast viability.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio, A F; Masdeu, M A; Dumortier, F M; Galston, A W

    1986-01-01

    Cereal leaves subjected to the osmotica routinely used for protoplast isolation show a rapid increase in arginine decarboxylase activity, a massive accumulation of putrescine, and slow conversion of putrescine to the higher polyamines, spermidine and spermine (HE Flores, AW Galston 1984 Plant Physiol 75: 102). Mesophyll protoplasts from these leaves, which have a high putrescine:polyamine ratio, do not undergo sustained division. By contrast, in Nicotiana, Capsicum, Datura, Trigonella, and Vigna, dicot genera that readily regenerate plants from mesophyll protoplasts, the response of leaves to osmotic stress is opposite to that in cereals. Putrescine titer as well as arginine and ornithine decarboxylase activities decline in these osmotically stressed dicot leaves, while spermidine and spermine titers increase. Thus, the putrescine:polyamine ratio in Vigna protoplasts, which divide readily, is 4-fold lower than in oat protoplasts, which divide poorly. We suggest that this differing response of polyamine metabolism to osmotic stress may account in part for the failure of cereal mesophyll protoplasts to develop readily in vitro. PMID:11539086

  3. Potential of biologically active plant oils to control mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens, Diptera: Culicidae) from an Egyptian locality.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem Fathy; Shalaby, Afaf Abdel-Salam

    2008-01-01

    The insecticidal effect of six commercially available plant oils was tested against 4th larval instars of Culex pipiens. Larvae were originally collected from Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, and then reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. The LC50 values were 32.42, 47.17, 71.37, 83.36, 86.06, and 152.94 ppm for fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-grecum), earth almond (Cyperus esculentus), mustard (Brassica compestris), olibanum (Boswellia serrata), rocket (Eruca sativa), and parsley (Carum ptroselinum), respectively. The tested oils altered some biological aspects of C. pipiens, for instance, developmental periods, pupation rates, and adult emergences. The lowest concentrations of olibanum and fenugreek oils caused remarkable prolongation of larval and pupal durations. Data also showed that the increase of concentrations was directly proportional to reduction in pupation rates and adult emergences. Remarkable decrease in pupation rate was achieved by mustard oil at 1000 ppm. Adult emergence was suppressed by earth almond and fenugreek oils at 25 ppm. In addition, the tested plant oils exhibited various morphological abnormalities on larvae, pupae, and adult stages. Consequently, fenugreek was the most potent oil and the major cause of malformation of both larval and pupal stages. Potency of the applied plant oils provided an excellent potential for controlling C. pipiens. PMID:18488090

  4. The single evolutionary origin of chlorinated auxin provides a phylogenetically informative trait in the Fabaceae.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hong Kiat; Ross, John J; McAdam, Erin L; McAdam, Scott A M

    2016-07-01

    Chlorinated auxin (4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid, 4-Cl-IAA), a highly potent plant hormone, was once thought to be restricted to species of the tribe Fabeae within the Fabaceae, until we recently detected this hormone in the seeds of Medicago, Melilotus and Trifolium species. The absence of 4-Cl-IAA in the seeds of the cultivated species Cicer aeritinum from the Cicerae tribe, immediately basal to the Fabeae and Trifolieae tribes, suggested a single evolutionary origin of 4-Cl-IAA. Here, we provide a more robust phylogenetic placement of the ability to produce chlorinated auxin by screening key species spanning this evolutionary transition. We report no detectable level of 4-Cl-IAA in Cicer echinospermum (a wild relative of C. aeritinum) and 4 species (Galega officinalis, Parochetus communis, Astragalus propinquus and A. sinicus) from tribes or clades more basal or sister to the Cicerae tribe. We did detect 4-Cl-IAA in the dry seeds of 4 species from the genus Ononis that are either basal to the genera Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella or basal to, but still within, the Fabeae and Trifolieae (ex. Parochetus) clades. We conclude that the single evolutionary origin of this hormone in seeds can be used as a phylogenetically informative trait within the Fabaceae. PMID:27302610

  5. The single evolutionary origin of chlorinated auxin provides a phylogenetically informative trait in the Fabaceae.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hong Kiat; Ross, John J; McAdam, Erin L; McAdam, Scott A M

    2016-07-01

    Chlorinated auxin (4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid, 4-Cl-IAA), a highly potent plant hormone, was once thought to be restricted to species of the tribe Fabeae within the Fabaceae, until we recently detected this hormone in the seeds of Medicago, Melilotus and Trifolium species. The absence of 4-Cl-IAA in the seeds of the cultivated species Cicer aeritinum from the Cicerae tribe, immediately basal to the Fabeae and Trifolieae tribes, suggested a single evolutionary origin of 4-Cl-IAA. Here, we provide a more robust phylogenetic placement of the ability to produce chlorinated auxin by screening key species spanning this evolutionary transition. We report no detectable level of 4-Cl-IAA in Cicer echinospermum (a wild relative of C. aeritinum) and 4 species (Galega officinalis, Parochetus communis, Astragalus propinquus and A. sinicus) from tribes or clades more basal or sister to the Cicerae tribe. We did detect 4-Cl-IAA in the dry seeds of 4 species from the genus Ononis that are either basal to the genera Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella or basal to, but still within, the Fabeae and Trifolieae (ex. Parochetus) clades. We conclude that the single evolutionary origin of this hormone in seeds can be used as a phylogenetically informative trait within the Fabaceae.

  6. Polyamine metabolism and osmotic stress. I. Relation to protoplast viability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiburcio, A. F.; Masdeu, M. A.; Dumortier, F. M.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    Cereal leaves subjected to the osmotica routinely used for protoplast isolation show a rapid increase in arginine decarboxylase activity, a massive accumulation of putrescine, and slow conversion of putrescine to the higher polyamines, spermidine and spermine (HE Flores, AW Galston 1984 Plant Physiol 75: 102). Mesophyll protoplasts from these leaves, which have a high putrescine:polyamine ratio, do not undergo sustained division. By contrast, in Nicotiana, Capsicum, Datura, Trigonella, and Vigna, dicot genera that readily regenerate plants from mesophyll protoplasts, the response of leaves to osmotic stress is opposite to that in cereals. Putrescine titer as well as arginine and ornithine decarboxylase activities decline in these osmotically stressed dicot leaves, while spermidine and spermine titers increase. Thus, the putrescine:polyamine ratio in Vigna protoplasts, which divide readily, is 4-fold lower than in oat protoplasts, which divide poorly. We suggest that this differing response of polyamine metabolism to osmotic stress may account in part for the failure of cereal mesophyll protoplasts to develop readily in vitro.

  7. MUCILAGE-RELATED10 Produces Galactoglucomannan That Maintains Pectin and Cellulose Architecture in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage.

    PubMed

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Berger, Adeline; Yang, Bo; Ebert, Berit; Scheller, Henrik V; North, Helen M; Usadel, Björn; Günl, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Plants invest a lot of their resources into the production of an extracellular matrix built of polysaccharides. While the composition of the cell wall is relatively well characterized, the functions of the individual polymers and the enzymes that catalyze their biosynthesis remain poorly understood. We exploited the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat epidermis (SCE) to study cell wall synthesis. SCE cells produce mucilage, a specialized secondary wall that is rich in pectin, at a precise stage of development. A coexpression search for MUCILAGE-RELATED (MUCI) genes identified MUCI10 as a key determinant of mucilage properties. MUCI10 is closely related to a fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) enzyme that has in vitro galactomannan α-1,6-galactosyltransferase activity. Our detailed analysis of the muci10 mutants demonstrates that mucilage contains highly branched galactoglucomannan (GGM) rather than unbranched glucomannan. MUCI10 likely decorates glucomannan, synthesized by CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A2, with galactose residues in vivo. The degree of galactosylation is essential for the synthesis of the GGM backbone, the structure of cellulose, mucilage density, as well as the adherence of pectin. We propose that GGM scaffolds control mucilage architecture along with cellulosic rays and show that Arabidopsis SCE cells represent an excellent model in which to study the synthesis and function of GGM. Arabidopsis natural varieties with defects similar to muci10 mutants may reveal additional genes involved in GGM synthesis. Since GGM is the most abundant hemicellulose in the secondary walls of gymnosperms, understanding its biosynthesis may facilitate improvements in the production of valuable commodities from softwoods. PMID:26220953

  8. Pterocarpus marsupium extract (Vijayasar) prevented the alteration in metabolic patterns induced in the normal rat by feeding an adequate diet containing fructose as sole carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Grover, J K; Vats, V; Yadav, S S

    2005-07-01

    Insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia) is now recognized as a major contributor to the development of glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. Sedentary lifestyle, consumption of energy-rich diet, obesity, longer lifespan, etc., are important reasons for this rise (J. R. Turtle, Int J Clin Prac 2000; 113: 23). Aqueous extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Linn bark (PM), Ocimum sanctum Linn leaves (OS) and Trigonella foenumgraecum Linn seeds (FG) have been shown to exert hypoglycaemic/antihyperglycaemic effect in experimental as well as clinical setting. As no work has been carried out so far to assess the effect of PM, OS and FG on fructose-induced hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia, we undertook this study to assess whether these extracts attenuate the metabolic alteration induced by fructose-rich diet in rats. Five groups of rats (eight each) were fed chow diet, 66% fructose diet, 66% fructose diet + PM leaves extract (1 g/kg/day), 66% fructose diet + OS leaves extract (200 mg/kg/day) and 66% fructose diet + FG seeds extract (2 g/kg/day) for 30 days. Fructose feeding to normal rats for 30 days significantly increased serum glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels in comparison with control. Treatment with all the three plants extract for 30 days significantly lowered the serum glucose levels in comparison with control group. However, only PM extract substantially prevented hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, while OS and FG had no significant effect on these parameters. Results of this study, in addition to previous clinical benefits of PM seen in NIDDM subjects, are suggestive of usefulness of PM bark (Vijayasar) in insulin resistance, the associated disorder of type 2 diabetes; however, OS and FG may not be useful. Though several antidiabetic principles (-epicatechin, pterosupin, marsupin and pterostilbene) have been identified in the PM, yet future studies

  9. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property.

    PubMed

    Patel, D K; Prasad, S K; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles.

  10. Uptake and distribution of minerals and heavy metals in commonly grown leafy vegetable species irrigated with sewage water.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Sumera; Nawaz, Muhammad Farrakh; Gul, Sadaf; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Kareem, Arshaad

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal uptake and accumulation behavior in dietary vegetables irrigated with sewage waters is an important issue worldwide. The main objective of this study was to examine and compare the physiological and growth responses of leafy vegetables irrigated with sewage water. A pot experiment was conducted in a wire house with three leafy vegetables, coriander (Coriandrum sativum), mint (Mentha arvensis), and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum), grown under ambient conditions. Plants were irrigated with different concentrations, 0, 50 (T 1), and 100 % (T 2), of sewage water. After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters of plants were measured. Heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in the sewage water were found much higher than safer limits. The results revealed that the highest plant biomass and lowest metal contents were observed in control treatments in all studied vegetables. The biomass of all the vegetables were negatively affected when irrigated with sewage water. In T 2, coriander accumulated maximum Cd (μg g(-1) DW) in shoots (4.97) as compared to other vegetables. The maximum Pb and Cu concentrations were accumulated in mint roots (44 and 3.9, respectively) as compared to coriander and fenugreek. Zinc was accumulated in the sequence of leaves > roots > shoots under polluted water irrigation. The concentrations of potassium increased in leaves, shoots, and roots in all vegetables, while phosphorous concentrations varied with species and plant parts with increasing sewage water concentration. It was found that the leafy vegetables grown with sewage water irrigation may cause severe human health problems. PMID:27581008

  11. The Plasmid Mobilome of the Model Plant-Symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti: Coming up with New Questions and Answers.

    PubMed

    Lagares, Antonio; Sanjuán, Juan; Pistorio, Mariano

    2014-10-01

    Rhizobia are Gram-negative Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria living in the underground which have the ability to associate with legumes for the establishment of nitrogen-fixing symbioses. Sinorhizobium meliloti in particular-the symbiont of Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp.-has for the past decades served as a model organism for investigating, at the molecular level, the biology, biochemistry, and genetics of a free-living and symbiotic soil bacterium of agricultural relevance. To date, the genomes of seven different S. meliloti strains have been fully sequenced and annotated, and several other draft genomic sequences are also available. The vast amount of plasmid DNA that S. meliloti frequently bears (up to 45% of its total genome), the conjugative ability of some of those plasmids, and the extent of the plasmid diversity has provided researchers with an extraordinary system to investigate functional and structural plasmid molecular biology within the evolutionary context surrounding a plant-associated model bacterium. Current evidence indicates that the plasmid mobilome in S. meliloti is composed of replicons varying greatly in size and having diverse conjugative systems and properties along with different evolutionary stabilities and biological roles. While plasmids carrying symbiotic functions (pSyms) are known to have high structural stability (approaching that of chromosomes), the remaining plasmid mobilome (referred to as the non-pSym, functionally cryptic, or accessory compartment) has been shown to possess remarkable diversity and to be highly active in conjugation. In light of the modern genomic and current biochemical data on the plasmids of S. meliloti, the current article revises their main structural components, their transfer and regulatory mechanisms, and their potential as vehicles in shaping the evolution of the rhizobial genome. PMID:26104371

  12. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property

    PubMed Central

    Patel, DK; Prasad, SK; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles. PMID:23569923

  13. Assessment of Augmented Immune Surveillance and Tumor Cell Death by Cytoplasmic Stabilization of p53 as a Chemopreventive Strategy of 3 Promising Medicinal Herbs in Murine 2-Stage Skin Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farrah; Khan, Rehan; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Lateef, Md Abdul; Maqbool, Tahir; Sultana, Sarwat

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is the final outcome of a plethora of events. Targeting the proliferation or inducing programmed cell death in a proliferating population is a major standpoint in the cancer therapy. However, proliferation is regulated by several cellular and immunologic processes. This study reports the inhibition of proliferation by augmenting immune surveillance, silencing acute inflammation, and inducing p53-mediated apoptosis of skin cancer by 3 promising medicinal extracts. We used the well-characterized model for experimental skin carcinogenesis in mice for 32 weeks to study the chemopreventive effect of the methanolic extracts of Trigonella foenumgraecum, Eclipta alba, and Calendula officinalis. All 3 extracts reduced the number, incidence, and multiplicity of tumors, which was confirmed by the pathologic studies that showed regressed tumors. There was a significant reduction in the PCNA+ nuclei in all treatment groups 32 weeks after the initiation. Mechanistic studies revealed that proliferative population in tumors is diminished by the restoration of the endogenous antioxidant defense, inhibition of the stress-related signal-transducing element NFκB, reduction of inflammation, enhancement of immunosurveillance of the genetically mutated cells, along with silencing of the cell cycle progression signals. Finally, all 3 medicinal extracts induced stable expression of p53 within the tumors, confirmed by the CFDA-Cy3 apoptosis assay. Results of our study confirm that these extracts not only limit the rate of proliferation by inhibition of the processes integral to cancer development but also induce stable cytoplasmic expression of p53-mediated apoptosis, leading to fewer and regressed tumors in mice.

  14. Effect of Processing on Magnesium Content of Green Leafy Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, D.; Agrawal, R.; Kumar, R.; Rai, A. Kumar; Rai, G. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we have studied the effect of different food processing techniques like blanching, microwave processing, boiling, frying, and different drying methods on depletion of minerals especially magnesium in green leafy vegetables (leaves of Trigonella foenum, common name methi, and Spinacia oleracea, common name spinach) using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). These processing techniques are frequently used at home as well as in food processing industries. The LIBS spectra of the fresh leaves of methi and spinach and their pellets (made by drying, grinding, and pressing the leaf) were recorded in a spectral range from 200 to 500 nm. After applying the above processing techniques, different pellets of these leaves were made in the same way. The LIBS spectra of these processed leaf samples were also recorded using the same experimental parameters as used for the fresh samples. Our results show that among the above processing techniques, frying most significantly reduces the content of magnesium, whereas the least loss of Mg is observed in the case of boiling. We have verified this result by recording the LIBS spectra of the intact fresh leaves and of those processed with different techniques. The same results were also obtained from the LIBS spectra of the intact leaves and their pellets. The LIBS spectra of methi and spinach leaves were also recorded after drying them using two different techniques — drying in vacuum and in a hot air oven; the results show that vacuum drying is more suitable in terms of minimizing loss of Mg content in leaves.

  15. MUCILAGE-RELATED10 Produces Galactoglucomannan That Maintains Pectin and Cellulose Architecture in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Berger, Adeline; Yang, Bo; Ebert, Berit; Scheller, Henrik V.; North, Helen M.; Usadel, Björn; Günl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Plants invest a lot of their resources into the production of an extracellular matrix built of polysaccharides. While the composition of the cell wall is relatively well characterized, the functions of the individual polymers and the enzymes that catalyze their biosynthesis remain poorly understood. We exploited the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat epidermis (SCE) to study cell wall synthesis. SCE cells produce mucilage, a specialized secondary wall that is rich in pectin, at a precise stage of development. A coexpression search for MUCILAGE-RELATED (MUCI) genes identified MUCI10 as a key determinant of mucilage properties. MUCI10 is closely related to a fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) enzyme that has in vitro galactomannan α-1,6-galactosyltransferase activity. Our detailed analysis of the muci10 mutants demonstrates that mucilage contains highly branched galactoglucomannan (GGM) rather than unbranched glucomannan. MUCI10 likely decorates glucomannan, synthesized by CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A2, with galactose residues in vivo. The degree of galactosylation is essential for the synthesis of the GGM backbone, the structure of cellulose, mucilage density, as well as the adherence of pectin. We propose that GGM scaffolds control mucilage architecture along with cellulosic rays and show that Arabidopsis SCE cells represent an excellent model in which to study the synthesis and function of GGM. Arabidopsis natural varieties with defects similar to muci10 mutants may reveal additional genes involved in GGM synthesis. Since GGM is the most abundant hemicellulose in the secondary walls of gymnosperms, understanding its biosynthesis may facilitate improvements in the production of valuable commodities from softwoods. PMID:26220953

  16. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-04-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of

  17. Biodiversity and new records of microfungi in the Ruhrarea (north Rhine Westfalia), Germany.

    PubMed

    Ale-Agha, Nosrathollah; Brassmann, Markus; Jensen, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    During our investigations of the microflora in NRW (Duisburg, Düsseldorf and Essen incl. the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. Some of these species are new for Germany or have been only rarely found until now. Most of the species belong the Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina for example Arthrocladiella mougeotii (Lév.) Vassilkov. on Lycium barbarum L., Caudospora taleola (Fr.) Starb on Quercus robur L., Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noak on Coffea arabica L. (new for Germany) Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke on Hedera helix L., Erysiphe buhrii U. Braun on Lychnis cf. coronaria (L.) Desr. (Anamorph. Oidium dianthi Jacz.), Erysiphe spec. on Acer opalus Mill (new host), Erysiphe flexuosa (Peck) U. Braun & S. Takam. on Aesculus spec. (new for Europe)), Erysiphe heraclei DC. on Tinguarra montana (Webb ex Christ ) A.Hansen & G.Kunkel, Erysiphe necator Schwein. = Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill on Cissus cf. rhombifolia Vahl. (new for NRW), Erysphe trifolii Grev. on Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P.Gelyuta (Oidium spec.) on Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.f.) R.T. Lowe (new host), Lobatopedis foliicola P.M. Kirk on Quercus robur L. (new for NRW), Lophodermium juniperinum (Fr.) de Not. on Juniperus communis L., Mamiania coryli De Not. on Corylus avellana L., Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus on Juglans regia L., Oidium hortensia Jørst on Philadelphus coronarius L., Oidium spec. on Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. (new for Germany), Oidium longipes Noordeloos & Loerak on Petunia hybrida Vilm., Oidium pedilanthi M. Yen on Pedilanthus titymaloides (L.) Poit, Oidium pedaliacearum H.D. Shin sp. nov. (= Oidium sesami H.D. Shin) on Ibicella lutea (Lindl.) van Eselt. (= Martynia lutea Lindl.), Passalora pastinacae (Sacc.) U. Braun = Pseudocercosporella pastinacae (P. Karst.) U