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Sample records for trimester triple marker

  1. First and second trimester markers of fetal aneuploidy in pregnant women with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate if levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free β-hCG and nuchal translucency (NT) used in first trimester aneuploidy screening and α-fetoprotein (AFP), unconjugated oestriol (UE3) and free β-hCG in the second trimester are altered in pregnancies with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Median MoM values of biochemical markers and δ-NT in 92 women with HIV infection in the first trimester were compared with those from 912 HIV-seronegative controls. In the second trimester, biochemical marker levels were compared in 52 women with HIV infection and 378 HIV-seronegative controls. First trimester free β-hCG median MoM levels in HIV-infected pregnancies were not different to controls (0.978 vs. 0.981, p = 1.000), as were PAPP-A levels (1.190 vs. 1.102, p = 0.099) and δ-NT (0.1374 vs. 0.0445, p = 0.0631). Second trimester levels of free β-hCG were not significantly different (1.0575 vs. 0.9619, p = 0.1827), as was AFP (0.9734 vs. 0.9350, p = 0.6576), although UE3 was significantly lower (0.970 vs. 1.110, p = 0.0005). In the first trimester, marker levels are not affected by the presence of HIV infection, and risks for aneuploidy are likely to be accurate in this group. Further studies are required to evaluate if UE3 levels continue to be low in HIV-infected women since this may have an impact on screening in the second trimester. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Maternal serum ADAM12s as a marker of rare aneuploidies in the first or second trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Kevin; Cowans, Nicholas J; Stamatopoulou, Anastasia

    2007-12-01

    To assess whether the maternal serum ADAM12s concentrations are altered in the first and second trimester of pregnancies complicated by rare aneuploides. ADAM12s was measured by a semi-automated time-resolved immunofluorometric assay in a series of 60 first-trimester cases with trisomy 13, 78 first-trimester cases with Turner's syndrome, 38 first-trimester cases with triploidy and 24 first-trimester cases with sex aneuploidy-the cases were compared with the data from 389 first-trimester controls. In the second trimester, a smaller number of 6, 7, 2 and 13 cases, respectively, were compared with the data from 341 controls. All data were expressed as multiple of the median (MoM) and corrected for maternal weight. Correlation with previously analysed markers (PAPP-A, free beta-hCG and delta NT) was performed. The first-trimester median MoM ADAM12s was significantly lower than 1.0 in all types of rare aneuploidy with the possible exception of triploidy type II. A significant positive correlation with gestational age was reported for trisomy 13 and Turner's syndrome. ADAM12s was not significantly correlated with any other first-trimester marker. In the second trimester, ADAM12s values were marginally increased in these rare aneuploidies. ADAM12s has already been shown to be a possible early first- and second-trimester marker of trisomies 21 and 18. Our data also show the possibility of levels of this marker being altered in the first and second trimester of pregnancies with rare aneuploidies. This may be a useful addition to screening strategies in the future. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Facial profile markers in second- and third-trimester fetuses with trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Vos, F I; de Jong-Pleij, E A P; Bakker, M; Tromp, E; Manten, G T R; Bilardo, C M

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate nasal bone length (NBL), maxilla-nasion-mandible (MNM) angle, fetal profile (FP) line, prenasal thickness (PT), prenasal thickness to nasal bone length (PT:NBL) ratio and prefrontal space ratio (PFSR) as markers of trisomy 18 in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The NBL, MNM angle, FP line, PT, PT:NBL ratio and PFSR were measured retrospectively from stored two-dimensional images or three-dimensional volumes of trisomy-18 fetuses, and were compared with our previously reported normal ranges for euploid fetuses. Additional ultrasound findings were noted at initial routine second-trimester scan and at subsequent advanced ultrasound examination performed after referral for karyotyping. A total of 43 trisomy-18 fetuses were included in the analysis. At initial examination, median gestational age was 21 + 2 weeks. NBL and PT were correlated with gestational age (P < 0.001), but the other markers were not. Mean NBL, MNM angle, PT, PT:NBL ratio and PFSR were 3.76 mm, 16.67°, 4.25 mm, 1.39 and 0.87, respectively. The FP line was zero (normal) in 53.7% of cases and negative (abnormal) in 46.3%. All markers were significantly associated with trisomy 18, with the PT:NBL ratio yielding the highest detection rate (88.4%) followed by NBL (83.7%), MNM angle (56.4%), FP line (46.3%), PT (27.9%) and the PFSR (20.5%) (for a 5% false-positive rate for the continuous variables). Various combinations of the four best markers (NBL, FP line, MNM angle and PT:NBL ratio) yielded detection rates of between 72% and 95%. Structural anomalies were not detected in 22% of fetuses at the initial scan and in 2% at the advanced scan. The PT:NBL ratio and NBL are robust second- and third-trimester markers for trisomy 18. A negative FP line has a 0% false-positive rate and the potential to differentiate between trisomy 18 and Down syndrome, as in the latter the FP line is often positive. No major anomaly was observed at the initial scan in about a quarter of

  4. [Biochemical prenatal tests and uterine artery Doppler examination in prediction of PIH and IUGR in the third trimester of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Słowakiewicz, Katarzyna; Perenc, Małgorzata; Sieroszewski, Piotr

    2010-05-01

    PIH and IUGR are serious complications in the third trimester of pregnancy. Many publications claim a connection between false positive prenatal tests and subsequent occurrence of PIH and IUGR. The aim of the study was to estimate the usefulness of the biochemical markers of fetal defects and uterine Doppler examination in predicting PIH and IUGR in the third trimester of pregnancy. We examined 156 pregnant patients in The Department of the Fetal Medicine and Gynecology Medical University of Lodz, between 2006-2009. In case of each pregnant woman we estimated biochemical markers in the first (PAPP-A + beta-hCG) and second trimester (AFP, beta-hCG, uE3 - triple test). Each patient underwent three ultrasonographic examinations in the first, second and third trimester (between 11-13, 15-20, and 22-27 weeks gestation, respectively) with uterine artery Doppler examination. We monitored these pregnancies for PIH and IUGR and divided them into three groups: 28 patients with PIH (study group 1), 14 patients with IUGR (study group 2), and 114 patients with uncomplicated pregnancies (controls). In both study groups we observed: higher concentration of beta-hCG, higher percentage of the positive biochemical prenatal tests and abnormal uterine artery Doppler waveform. Positive triple test was the strongest predictor of PIH and IUGR (PPV=60.87% for PIH and PPV = 30.77% for IUGR). Biochemical markers and abnormal uterine artery Doppler waveform are associated with PIH and IUGR. These parameters can be the base for the test identifying pregnant patients with high risk of PIH and IUGR.

  5. Gender impact on first trimester markers in Down syndrome screening.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Severin Olesen; Wøjdemann, Karen R; Shalmi, Anne-Cathrine; Sundberg, Karin; Christiansen, Michael; Tabor, Ann

    2002-12-01

    The influence of fetal gender on the level in the first trimester of the serological markers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (betahCG) and on nuchal translucency is described for 2637 singleton pregnancies with normal outcome. Mean log MoM values for pregnancies with female and male fetuses were calculated using regression of log marker values on gestational age expressed as crown rump length and on maternal weight. A pronounced gender impact was found for free betahCG, being 16% higher for female than for male fetuses. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. First-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein as a marker for fetal chromosomal disorders. Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Van Lith, J M

    1994-10-01

    We evaluated first-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MS-AFP) as a marker for fetal chromosomal disorders. The multicentre study was performed under the auspices of the Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis. MS-AFP was measured in 2404 normal pregnancies and 72 chromosomally abnormal pregnancies. The median multiple of the normal median (MOM) in 32 Down's syndrome pregnancies was 0.83 with a 95 per cent confidence interval ranging from 0.60 to 1.04. The difference between the distributions of first-trimester MS-AFP in normal and Down's syndrome pregnancies was statistically significant (t-test: t = 2.34, P < 0.05). Thirty-one per cent of the Down's syndrome pregnancies were found below the tenth percentile. We found no difference between normal pregnancies and pregnancies with other chromosomal disorders (eight cases with trisomy 18, MOM = 1.26; seven cases with sex chromosome abnormalities, MOM = 1.07; 22 cases with a chromosomal mosaic pattern in chorionic villi, MOM = 1.08). We conclude that first-trimester MS-AFP can discriminate between normal and Down's syndrome pregnancies, but is not an effective marker. First-trimester MS-AFP has no value as a marker for other fetal chromosomal disorders.

  7. Indication of prenatal diagnosis in pregnancies complicated by undetectable second-trimester maternal serum estriol levels.

    PubMed

    Minsart, Anne-Frédérique; Van Onderbergen, Anne; Jacques, Francotte; Kurt, Crener; Gillerot, Yves

    2008-07-01

    Undetectable maternal serum unconjugated estriol levels in the second-trimester screening test have been associated with congenital pathology and an adverse pregnancy outcome. We reviewed outcomes of pregnancies with undetectable levels of estriol (<0.25 ng/ml) in the triple-marker screening test and assessed the clinical value of this finding. We studied estriol values in 6,018 pregnant patients who underwent a triple-marker screening test during a seven-year period. 26 women had estriol levels at or below the sensitivity of the assay. The most common explanations were dating errors, prematurity, growth restriction and X-linked ichthyosis. We also observed one fetal death at 16 weeks, one severe threatened fetal abortion, one case of multiple congenital anomalies and one case of isolated adrenocorticotropin hormone deficiency. There were 6 women remaining with unexplained undetectable estriol. Undetectable maternal estriol values may indicate a severe fetal pathology and should lead to further investigations.

  8. The reverse boomerang sign: a marker for first-trimester transposition of great arteries.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Valenzuela, Nathalie Jeanne; Peixoto, Alberto Borges; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Da Silva Costa, Fabricio; Meagher, Simon

    2017-10-12

    To describe a new sonographic marker of transposition of great arteries (TGA) during the first-trimester screening. We reviewed six cases of TGA from 2013 to 2016 in which an antenatal diagnosis of TGA at first-trimester screening (11-13 + 6 weeks of gestation) was confirmed postnatally. We specifically assessed images obtained by scanning the fetal heart in three vessels (3V) and three-vessel with trachea (3VT) views using color Doppler. The "reverse boomerang" sign was defined as a reverse curvature of right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT) at level of the 3VT view. We described six cases of confirmed TGA, five singletons and one twin pregnancy, among which only two vessels and the reverse curvature of RVOT (reverse boomerang sign) was demonstrated in the first-trimester screening at level of 3VT view. Ventricular septal defects were observed in three cases, and double outlet right ventricle in one case. No other cardiac or extracardiac anomalies were identified. Termination of pregnancy was not performed in any case. Our series case suggests that the reverse boomerang sign may improve the early prenatal screening for TGA.

  9. First and second trimester serum tests with and without first trimester ultrasound tests for Down's syndrome screening.

    PubMed

    Alldred, S Kate; Takwoingi, Yemisi; Guo, Boliang; Pennant, Mary; Deeks, Jonathan J; Neilson, James P; Alfirevic, Zarko

    2017-03-15

    Down's syndrome occurs when a person has three copies of chromosome 21 (or the specific area of chromosome 21 implicated in causing Down's syndrome) rather than two. It is the commonest congenital cause of mental disability. Non-invasive screening based on biochemical analysis of maternal serum or urine, or fetal ultrasound measurements, allows estimates of the risk of a pregnancy being affected and provides information to guide decisions about definitive testing.  Before agreeing to screening tests, parents need to be fully informed about the risks, benefits and possible consequences of such a test. This includes subsequent choices for further tests they may face, and the implications of both false positive (i.e. invasive diagnostic testing, and the possibility that a miscarried fetus may be chromosomally normal) and false negative screening tests (i.e. a fetus with Down's syndrome will be missed). The decisions that may be faced by expectant parents inevitably engender a high level of anxiety at all stages of the screening process, and the outcomes of screening can be associated with considerable physical and psychological morbidity. No screening test can predict the severity of problems a person with Down's syndrome will have. To estimate and compare the accuracy of first and second trimester serum markers with and without first trimester ultrasound markers for the detection of Down's syndrome in the antenatal period, as combinations of markers. We conducted a sensitive and comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE (1980 to 25 August 2011), Embase (1980 to 25 August 2011), BIOSIS via EDINA (1985 to 25 August 2011), CINAHL via OVID (1982 to 25 August 2011), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (the Cochrane Library 25 August 2011), MEDION (25 August 2011), the Database of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Laboratory Medicine (25 August 2011), the National Research Register (Archived 2007), and Health Services Research Projects in Progress

  10. First-trimester markers of aneuploidy in women positive for HIV.

    PubMed

    Savvidou, M D; Samuel, I; Syngelaki, A; Poulton, M; Nicolaides, K H

    2011-06-01

    To investigate whether the sonographic and maternal serum biochemical markers used in first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities are altered in pregnancies affected by maternal HIV infection. Nested case-control study. Routine antenatal visit in a teaching hospital. Ninety HIV-positive and 450 HIV-negative pregnant women. Findings from first-trimester antenatal visit for calculation of the risk for chromosomal abnormalities were compared between HIV-positive (treated and untreated) and HIV-negative women. First-trimester maternal serum free β human chorionic gonadotrophin (free β-hCG) pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT), were compared. There were no statistically significant differences between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in the median maternal levels of free β-hCG, PAPP-A and fetal NT. However, within the HIV-positive group those receiving antiretroviral treatment (n = 41) had a significantly lower median multiple of the median (MoM) for free β-hCG (0.74, interquartile range [IQR] 0.45-1.32 MoM) than HIV-positive women on no treatment (1.03, IQR 0.76-1.85 MoM; P = 0.006) and HIV-negative women (1.0, IQR 0.68-1.47 MoM; P = 0.003). There was no correlation between the level of free β-hCG or PAPP-A and maternal viral load or CD4(+) count. Maternal levels of free β-hCG in treated HIV-positive pregnant women were lower compared with those in non-treated HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, whereas the PAPP-A levels and fetal NT remained unaltered. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © RCOG 2010 BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

  11. First trimester maternal lipid levels and serum markers of small- and large-for-gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Parlakgumus, Huriye Ayse; Aytac, Pinar Caglar; Kalaycı, Hakan; Tarim, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    To investigate if first trimester lipids, sonographic parameters and serum markers are related to small- and large-for-gestational age (SGA, LGA) infants. This study was conducted at Baskent University Adana Research Center between December 2009 and July 2011 and enrolled 433 women. Blood samples were drawn to measure fasting blood glucose, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, fβ-hCG and pregnancy associated protein-A (PAPP-A) at the first trimester. Crown rump length and nuchal translucency were measured as suggested by the fetal medicine foundation. LGA group was significantly taller (p = 0.016) and SGA group had significantly greater BMI (0.025). SGA fetuses were born at a significantly earlier gestational age (p = 0.001). Univariate analysis revealed that LGA group had significantly lower cholesterol (p = 0.038) and LDL levels (p = 0.041). PAPP-A was significantly lower in SGA Group compared with LGA Group (0.027). After controlling for age, parity, height, pre-pregnant BMI, weight gain during pregnancy and fasting blood sugar, none of the lipids, serum markers or sonographic parameters was related to LGA. PAPP-A was the only parameter significantly associated with SGA after multivariate analysis (p = 0.008). PAPP-A was significantly associated with SGA after controlling for confounders.

  12. Between pregnancy biological variability of first trimester markers of Down syndrome and the implications for screening in subsequent pregnancies: an issue revisited.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Kevin

    2002-10-01

    To assess the level of correlation of first trimester biochemical and biophysical markers of Down syndrome between different pregnancies in the same individual. To assess the impact that between pregnancy biological variability has on the likelihood that women who are at increased risk in a first pregnancy being also at increased risk in a subsequent pregnancy. During a three period women attending the OSCAR clinic at Harold Wood Hospital have had the opportunity to have first trimester screening for Down syndrome and other aneuploidies using the maternal serum biochemical markers free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in conjunction with fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and maternal age. Of the 111,105 women undergoing such screening, the computer records were examined for women who had more than one pregnancy. The results from 1002 women with two normal singleton pregnancies were available for analysis. Marker correlations (as MoM) were established between the pregnancies and the proportion of women likely to be at increased risk in each pregnancy estimated, as was the likelihood of women being at increased risk in both pregnancies. For fetal NT there was no correlation between NT MoM in the first and second pregnancy (r = 0.0959, p > 0.10). For maternal serum free beta-hCG MoM a significant correlation was found (r = 0.3976, p < 0.001), as was also found for PAPP-A MoM (r = 0.4371, p < 0.001). The implication for such between pregnancy marker association is that women who have an increased risk of Down syndrome in one pregnancy are two or three times more likely to repeat this event in their next pregnancy. This information may be useful in counselling women when undergoing first trimester screening in a subsequent pregnancy. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Trends in Serial Measurements of Ultrasound Markers in Second and Third Trimester Down Syndrome Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Vos, F I; De Jong-Pleij, E A P; Bakker, M; Tromp, E; Bilardo, C M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate trends of nasal bone length (NBL), prenasal thickness (PT), nuchal fold (NF), prenasal thickness to nasal bone length (PT-NBL) ratio, and prefrontal space ratio (PFSR), measured serially in second- and third-trimester Down syndrome (DS) fetuses. Prenatal databases were searched for cases of continuing DS pregnancies with serial measurements, taken at least two weeks apart. Trends were plotted on previously reported normal ranges. Serial measurements were available in 25 Down syndrome fetuses. Median gestational age (GA) was 25 weeks; average number of visits per case was 2.44, with a median interval of 39 days between investigations. In DS fetuses, NBL and PT showed fairly stable trends with gestation. PFSR, but especially NF, had a more unpredictable trend. The PT-NBL ratio was the most stable marker, remaining unchanged in 95% of cases. NBL, PT, and NF showed more deviance from the normal range with advancing gestation, but MoM values remained stable. All but two fetuses had ultrasound markers or structural anomalies, especially heart defects. The PT-NBL ratio is the most constant DS marker throughout gestation, following a predictable trend. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Risk of abnormal triple screen for Down syndrome is significantly higher in patients with female fetuses.

    PubMed

    Spong, C Y; Ghidini, A; Stanley-Christian, H; Meck, J M; Seydel, F D; Pezzullo, J C

    1999-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that mid-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are significantly higher and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels significantly lower in women with male compared with female fetuses. We have evaluated whether triple-screen criteria are more likely to identify women with female fetuses as at risk for Down syndrome. From the Georgetown University genetics database we obtained the absolute values and corresponding multiples of the median (MoM) for AFP, hCG and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) in singleton gestations for the period database November 1992 July 1996. A Down syndrome risk of 1/270 or greater at mid-trimester was considered as high risk. A total of 977 patients with triple screen and outcome information were identified, including 502 female and 475 male fetuses. Patients with female fetuses were significantly more likely to have lower serum AFP (p=0.003) and a positive triple screen for Down syndrome (72 (14 per cent) versus 45 (9 per cent), p<0.02) than those with male fetuses. The gestational age at triple screen, maternal serum hCG and uE3, race and diabetes were not significantly different between the two groups. Since Down syndrome is less common in female than male fetuses, and the rates of female and male Down syndrome fetuses detected by triple screen and subsequent amniocentesis are not significantly different, the excess of positive mid-trimester maternal serum triple screen in women with female fetuses is likely due to false-positive results.

  15. Effect of a new marker, ADAM12, on Down risk figures in first trimester screening.

    PubMed

    Valinen, Yrtti; Laitinen, Paivi; Ranta, Jenni; Ignatius, Jaakko; Jarvela, Ilkka; Ryynänen, Markku

    2009-07-01

    To investigate whether incorporating the measurement of ADAM12 in the risk calculation program LifeCycle, can improve Down screening in the first trimester. In a retrospective case control study, maternal serum ADAM12 concentrations were measured and compared in Down syndrome cases (n = 53) and in controls (n = 226) obtained from first trimester (9-12 weeks) screening samples in Oulu and Kuopio University Hospitals. Median concentration ( microg/l), observed and regressed (weight corrected) MoMs of ADAM12 were calculated. There was a significant difference in ADAM12 levels between Downs and controls during the pregnancy weeks 9 + 0 to 10 + 6, but not thereafter. By adding ADAM12 to the marker set used in the risk calculation program, one screening false negative Down syndrome case occurred in the affected population, which did not alter false positive rate. Adding ADAM12 as a parameter in Down screening did not cause radical changes in the risk value. The test might be useful at 9 and 10 weeks in which it might have the potential to improve the performance of the risk assessment especially for women receiving a result close to the high-risk cut-off. The real influence of ADAM12 remains to be elucidated in larger studies incorporating ADAM12 to the risk calculation program.

  16. Prenasal Thickness, Prefrontal Space Ratio and Other Facial Profile Markers in First-Trimester Fetuses with Aneuploidies, Cleft Palate, and Micrognathia.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Merel; Pace, Margherita; de Jong-Pleij, Els; Birnie, Erwin; Kagan, Karl-Oliver; Bilardo, Caterina M

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and reproducibility of the prenasal thickness (PNT)/nasal bone length (NBL) ratio, maxilla-nasion-mandible (MNM) angle, facial profile line, profile line distance, and prefrontal space ratio (PFSR) in the first trimester of pregnancy, develop normal ranges, and evaluate these markers in abnormal fetuses. All measurements were performed on stored images by two operators. Feasibility, interoperator agreement, and prediction intervals were calculated for all measurements. Feasibility was the highest for the NBL (74.3-79.7%) and the MNM angle (75.7-79.05%). Correlation was good for the NBL, the PNT, and the MNM angle (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.706-0.835). Mean difference between operators was the lowest for the PNT and PFSR (0.03-0.08). Measurements in abnormal fetuses showed that the majority of trisomy 21 fetuses had either an absent nasal bone or a shorter NBL. The PNT and PNT/NBL ratio were above the 97.5th centile in one third of the cases. Fetuses with facial clefts or micrognathia showed on average a large MNM angle (multiple of the median 0.96-5.15). First-trimester facial markers are feasible. The PNT and PNT/NBL ratio were increased in one third of the trisomic fetuses, and the MNM angle in the majority of fetuses with micrognathia and facial clefts. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. First-trimester maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin as a marker for fetal chromosomal disorders. The Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Van Lith, J M

    1992-06-01

    The Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis has initiated a study on the possibilities of first-trimester screening for fetal chromosomal disorders. We report on maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (MS-hCG) measurements in 1348 pregnancies with a chromosomally normal fetus and 53 pregnancies with a chromosomally abnormal fetus. The median MS-hCG concentration in 24 pregnancies with Down's syndrome was 1.19 multiples of the normal median (MoM). The MS-hCG distributions in normal and Down's syndrome pregnancies did not differ significantly (t-test: t = 1.945, p greater than 0.05). We also found no difference between normal pregnancies and pregnancies with other chromosomal disorders (six cases of trisomy 18, MoM = 0.80; four cases of sex chromosome abnormality, MoM = 1.01; 17 cases of chromosomal mosaicism in chorionic villi, MoM = 1.11). Selecting an upper limit at the 90th centile could detect 25 per cent of pregnancies with Down's syndrome. We conclude that, in the first trimester, MS-hCG as a screening factor for Down's syndrome is of minor value. However, MS-hCG could be a useful factor in a first-trimester screening programme based on a combination of markers.

  18. The effect of fetal gender on second-trimester maternal serum inhibin-A concentration.

    PubMed

    Lam, Y H; Tang, M H

    2001-08-01

    Second-trimester serum inhibin-A is increasingly used as a fourth marker in addition to the triple test to screen for Down syndrome. We investigated whether fetal gender had an effect on serum inhibin-A concentration. A retrospective analysis was done on 316 normal pregnancies and 48 Down syndrome pregnancies in which maternal serum inhibin-A assays were performed between 15 and 20 weeks of gestation and in which the fetal sex was known. The median inhibin-A MoM (95% CI) for normal pregnancies in the presence of a male fetus was 0.93 (range 0.88-1.03). This was significantly lower than that in the presence of a female fetus (median MoM=1.04). The gender difference was not observed in the Down syndrome pregnancies. The increased inhibin-A concentration would lead to a 2.3-fold higher false-positive rate in the presence of a female fetus (10.6% vs. 4.6%; p<0.05, Chi-square test). Because of the small number of cases studied, the results need to be substantiated by a larger series. If the gender effect is confirmed, adjustment for fetal sex may be necessary when inhibin-A is used as a screening marker. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. First and second trimester maternal serum inhibin A levels in twins with pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Svirsky, Ran; Maymon, Ron; Melcer, Yaakov; Klog, Esther; Cuckle, Howard

    2016-11-01

    To investigate maternal serum inhibin as a marker of pre-eclampsia (PE) in twins. One hundred forty-three twins and 109 unaffected singleton pregnancies were recruited in the first trimester from the same institution. Blood samples were stored at recruitment and in the second trimester, retrospectively tested for inhibin and values expressed in multiples of the gestation-specific median (MoMs) in singletons, adjusted for maternal weight, as appropriate. The median inhibin level in unaffected twins was 2.04 MoM compared with 1.00 MoM in singletons (P < 0.0001, Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, one-tailed). Excluding early fetal losses the median in 22 samples from 12 twins with PE was 2.65 MoM compared with 1.99 MoM in 201 samples from 120 unaffected twins (P < 0.02, Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test). This effect was restricted to second trimester samples with medians in cases and controls of 2.86 and 1.91 MoM respectively. Logistic regression of inhibin A together with established PE marker placental growth factor and placental associated plasma protein showed that in the second trimester, it improved screening performance although not reaching statistical significance (P = 0.08). Inhibin A is a potential second trimester marker of PE in twins. It may improve on existing twin screening protocols but more data are required. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of 7 serum biomarkers and uterine artery Doppler ultrasound for first-trimester prediction of preeclampsia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kuc, Sylwia; Wortelboer, Esther J; van Rijn, Bas B; Franx, Arie; Visser, Gerard H A; Schielen, Peter C J I

    2011-04-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) affects 1% to 2% of pregnant women and is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. The clinical syndrome of PE arises in the second half of pregnancy. However, many underlying factors including defective placentation may already be apparent in the first and early second trimester in many patients. In clinical practice, there is currently no reliable screening method in the first trimester of pregnancy with sufficient accuracy to identify women at high risk to develop PE. Early identification of high-risk pregnancy may facilitate the development of new strategies for antenatal surveillance or prevention and thus improve maternal and perinatal outcome. The aim of this systematic review was to study the literature on the predictive potential of first-trimester serum markers and of uterine artery Doppler velocity waveform assessment (Ut-A Doppler). Literature on the 7 most studied serum markers (ADAM12, fβ-hCG, Inhibin A, Activin A, PP13, PlGF, and PAPP-A) and Ut-A Doppler was primarily selected. In the selected literature, a combination of these markers was analyzed, and where relevant, the value of maternal characteristics was added. Measurements of serum markers and Ut-A Doppler were performed between week 8 + 0 and 14 + 0 GA. Low levels of PP13, PlGF, and PAPP-A and elevated level of Inhibin A have been found to be significantly associated with the development of PE later in pregnancy. The detection rates of single markers, fixed at 10% false-positive rate, in the prediction of early-onset PE were relatively low, and ranged from 22% to 83%. Detection rates for combinations of multiple markers varied between 38% and 100%. Therefore, a combination of multiple markers yields high detection rates and is promising to identify patients at high risk of developing PE. However, large scale prospective studies are required to evaluate the power of this integrated approach in clinical practice. Obstetricians and

  1. First Trimester Maternal Serum PP13 in the Risk Assessment for Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    ROMERO, Roberto; KUSANOVIC, Juan Pedro; THAN, Nandor Gabor; EREZ, Offer; GOTSCH, Francesca; ESPINOZA, Jimmy; EDWIN, Samuel; CHEFETZ, Ilana; GOMEZ, Ricardo; NIEN, Jyh Kae; SAMMAR, Marei; PINELES, Beth; HASSAN, Sonia S.; MEIRI, Hamutal; TAL, Yossi; KUHNREICH, Ido; PAPP, Zoltan; CUCKLE, Howard S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether first trimester maternal serum Placental Protein 13 (PP13) concentrations can be used in the risk assessment for preeclampsia. Study Design This case-control study included 50 patients with preeclampsia and 250 patients with normal pregnancies. Samples were collected between 8-13 weeks of gestation. Serum PP13 concentrations were measured by ELISA and expressed as medians and multiples of the median (MoM) for gestational age. Sensitivity and specificity were derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results 1) Serum PP13 concentration in the first trimester was significantly lower in patients who developed preterm and early-onset preeclampsia than in those with normal pregnancies; and 2) At 80% specificity, a cutoff of 0.39 MoM had a sensitivity of 100% for early-onset preeclampsia and 85% for preterm preeclampsia. Conclusion Maternal serum first trimester PP13 appears to be a reasonable marker for risk assessment, but a weak marker for severe preeclampsia at term, and ineffective for identifying mild preeclampsia at term. PMID:18539259

  2. Prenasal thickness to nasal bone length ratio: effectiveness as a second or third trimester marker for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tournemire, A; Groussolles, M; Ehlinger, V; Lusque, A; Morin, M; Benevent, J B; Arnaud, C; Vayssière, C

    2015-08-01

    To assess the value of the prenasal thickness to nasal bone length ratio (PT/NBL) for detecting trisomy 21 (T21) after the first trimester. Two examiners blinded to fetal T21 status retrospectively measured prenasal thickness (PT) and nasal bone length (NBL) of T21 and control fetuses at 15-36 weeks' gestational age on two-dimensional images from all T21-screening ultrasounds from November 2010 to April 2013. ROC curve analysis and its diagnostic values determined the best cut-off value for the ratio. Interobserver reproducibility was assessed. Good quality ultrasound profile images were available for 26 fetuses with T21 compared to 91 normal fetuses. The median PT/NBL ratio was 1.28 for T21 and 0.73 for control fetuses (p<0.0001). The PT/NBL ratio performed significantly better (AUC 0.99; 95%CI 0.97-1) than either PT (0.82; 0.73-0.91) or NBL (0.91; 0.85-0.98). The optimal PT/NBL ratio cut-off was 0.98, with a sensitivity of 88.5% [76.2-100%] and a specificity of 100%. Interobserver variability was low. The PT/NBL ratio is a strong marker for detecting T21 in the second and third trimesters, significantly more effective than either indicator alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of parity and gravidity on first trimester markers of chromosomal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Spencer, K; Ong, C Y; Liao, A W; Nicolaides, K H

    2000-10-01

    We have studied changes in first trimester fetal nuchal translucency (NT) and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A with gravidity and parity in 3252 singleton pregnancies unaffected by chromosomal abnormality or major pregnancy complications. We have shown that gravidity and parity is associated with a small but progressive decrease in fetal NT and a small but progressive increase in free beta-hCG and PAPP-A. None of these small changes with increasing gravidity or parity are statistically significant and hence correction for these variables is not necessary when considering first trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes after Abnormal First Trimester Screening for Aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Goetzl, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Women with abnormal first trimester screening but with a normal karyotype are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. A nuchal translucency >3.5mm is associated with an increased risk of subsequent pregnancy loss, fetal infection, fetal heart abnormalities and other structural abnormalities. Abnormal first trimester analytes are also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes but the predictive value is less impressive. As a single marker, PAPP-A <1st%ile has a good predictive value for subsequent fetal growth restriction. Women with PAPP-A<5th%ile should undergo subsequent risk assessment with routine MSAFP screening with the possible addition of uterine artery PI assessment in the midtrimester. PMID:20638576

  5. Co-variables in first trimester maternal serum screening.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, I M; Cuckle, H S; Pajkrt, E; Leschot, N J; Bleker, O P; van Lith, J M

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determined the influence of maternal weight, maternal smoking habits, gravidity, parity and fetal gender on the level of maternal serum marker used in first trimester screening for Down syndrome. A total of 2449 singleton unaffected pregnancies from two centres were studied. Maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentrations had been measured in all pregnancies, and pregnancy associated plasma protein (PAPP)-A levels had been measured in 924. All results were expressed as multiples of the gestation specific median (MoM) values after regression, using each centre's own medians. Information on maternal weight was available in 2259 pregnancies, on self-reported current cigarette smoking in 1364 (of whom 117 (8.6%) were smokers), on gravidity in 1371, parity in 1303 and fetal gender in 253. All three markers showed a statistically significant negative association with maternal weight (p<0.0005) and in the subsequent analyses MoM values were weight adjusted using standard methods. The median PAPP-A level in smokers was 0.81 MoM, a significant reduction (p<0.005); free beta-hCG was also reduced (median 0.89 MoM) but not significantly (p=0.17), and AFP was unaltered. The median AFP level in primagravidas was highly significantly greater than that in gravid women (p<0.0005). In PAPP-A the reverse effect was seen but it did not reach statistical significance (p=0.15) and there was no effect for free beta-hCG. Results of a similar magnitude and direction were found for parity. The median level of free beta-hCG was higher (p=0.0005), and the median AFP lower in female pregnancies. Maternal weight and, for PAPP-A, maternal smoking are important first trimester screening co-variables. Gravidity, parity and fetal gender also seem to influence one or more first trimester markers. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Lipid-lysine adducts and modified tyrosines as markers of oxidative stress in the second trimester of pregnancy and their association with infant characteristics

    PubMed Central

    REJC, BARBARA; KATO, YOJI; KARAS-KUZELICKI, NATASA; OSREDKAR, JOSKO; GERSAK, KSENIJA

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological state accompanied by excessive levels of oxidative stress (OS), due to the increased demand and utilisation of oxygen. There is increasing evidence that maternally augmented OS exerts an adverse effect on pregnancy outcome. The aim of the present prospective study was to determine the association between the urinary concentration of relatively novel OS markers measured in the second trimester of pregnancy and the infant characteristics at birth. The maternal levels of urinary hexanoyl-lysine (HEL), propanoyl-lysine (PRL), dityrosine (DiY) and 3-nitrotyrosine (NY) were evaluated in generally healthy pregnant subjects to determine their association with birth weight, gestation at delivery and Apgar score. The observed levels of the markers were in agreement with those measured in healthy non-pregnant subjects in a previous study. A positive correlation was detected between HEL and PRL, as well as between HEL and DiY. Although the absence of a correlation between NY and the other markers has been previously noted in a non-pregnant population, a positive correlation in the pair PRL-NY (r=0.367; P<0.001) was observed in the present study. Maternal cigarette smoking was associated with increased urinary PRL levels (P=0.034). The most notable observation in the present study was that high levels of PRL and NY were associated with low Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min after birth (OR, 1.098 and 2.084 for PRL and NY, respectively; P<0.05). However, poor predictive accuracy was shown. For NY, the following results were obtained: Area under the curve (AUC), 0.818; sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 57%; positive predictive value (PPV), 11.54%; and negative predictive value (NPV), 100%. For PLR the values were as follows: AUC, 0.802; sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 62.6%; PPV, 13.05%; and NPV, 100%. DiY was negatively associated with preterm birth risk (OR=0.703; P=0.028). In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated the presence of OS in the

  7. Lipid-lysine adducts and modified tyrosines as markers of oxidative stress in the second trimester of pregnancy and their association with infant characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rejc, Barbara; Kato, Yoji; Karas-Kuzelicki, Natasa; Osredkar, Josko; Gersak, Ksenija

    2016-03-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological state accompanied by excessive levels of oxidative stress (OS), due to the increased demand and utilisation of oxygen. There is increasing evidence that maternally augmented OS exerts an adverse effect on pregnancy outcome. The aim of the present prospective study was to determine the association between the urinary concentration of relatively novel OS markers measured in the second trimester of pregnancy and the infant characteristics at birth. The maternal levels of urinary hexanoyl-lysine (HEL), propanoyl-lysine (PRL), dityrosine (DiY) and 3-nitrotyrosine (NY) were evaluated in generally healthy pregnant subjects to determine their association with birth weight, gestation at delivery and Apgar score. The observed levels of the markers were in agreement with those measured in healthy non-pregnant subjects in a previous study. A positive correlation was detected between HEL and PRL, as well as between HEL and DiY. Although the absence of a correlation between NY and the other markers has been previously noted in a non-pregnant population, a positive correlation in the pair PRL-NY (r=0.367; P<0.001) was observed in the present study. Maternal cigarette smoking was associated with increased urinary PRL levels (P=0.034). The most notable observation in the present study was that high levels of PRL and NY were associated with low Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min after birth (OR, 1.098 and 2.084 for PRL and NY, respectively; P<0.05). However, poor predictive accuracy was shown. For NY, the following results were obtained: Area under the curve (AUC), 0.818; sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 57%; positive predictive value (PPV), 11.54%; and negative predictive value (NPV), 100%. For PLR the values were as follows: AUC, 0.802; sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 62.6%; PPV, 13.05%; and NPV, 100%. DiY was negatively associated with preterm birth risk (OR=0.703; P=0.028). In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated the presence of OS in the

  8. Second trimester abortions in India.

    PubMed

    Dalvie, Suchitra S

    2008-05-01

    This article gives an overview of what is known about second trimester abortions in India, including the reasons why women seek abortions in the second trimester, the influence of abortion law and policy, surgical and medical methods used, both safe and unsafe, availability of services, requirements for second trimester service delivery, and barriers women experience in accessing second trimester services. Based on personal experiences and personal communications from other doctors since 1993, when I began working as an abortion provider, the practical realities of second trimester abortion and case histories of women seeking second trimester abortion are also described. Recommendations include expanding the cadre of service providers to non-allopathic clinicians and trained nurses, introducing second trimester medical abortion into the public health system, replacing ethacridine lactate with mifepristone-misoprostol, values clarification among providers to challenge stigma and poor treatment of women seeking second trimester abortion, and raising awareness that abortion is legal in the second trimester and is mostly not requested for reasons of sex selection.

  9. Vasculogenesis of decidua side population cells of first-trimester pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiushi; Shen, Licong; Huang, Wei; Song, Yong; Xiao, Li; Xu, Wenming; Liu, Ying

    2013-05-07

    Sufficient uterine blood supply is essential for the fetus to develop normally in the uterus. Several mechanisms are involved in the process of vessel development in deciduas and villus. We focus on whether first-trimester decidua side population (SP) cells contain cells capable of differentiating into endothelial cells. Eight decidua samples were collected from healthy women, 22- to 30-years old, undergoing elective terminations of early pregnancy (six to eight gestational weeks). The cell suspensions from human deciduas were stained by Hoechst 33342 and sorted by flow cytometry, further cultured under differentiation conditions and analyzed for specific markers. These cells were implanted into ischemic limbs of nude mice to test the capacity of angiogenesis in vivo by DiI tracers and immunohistochemistry. Decidua CD31(-)CD146(-) SP cells of first-trimester human pregnancy can differentiate into endothelial cells, express the corresponding specific markers of endothelial cells, such as CD31 and CD146, and form tube-like structures on Matrigel and part of newly formed vessels in the ischemic limbs of nude mice. Vascular endothelial growth factor was more effective in promoting proliferation of CD31(-)CD146(-)SP cells compared with other growth factors, and estrogen and progesterone at a final concentration of 10 μmol/L and 30 μmol/L, respectively, promoted the migration of CD31()-CD146(-)SP cells in a dose-dependent manner. CD31(-)CD146(-) SP cells may be involved in the formation of new vessels in the maternal aspect of the placenta in the first trimester.

  10. First-trimester prediction of birth weight.

    PubMed

    Boucoiran, Isabelle; Djemli, Anissa; Taillefer, Catherine; Rypens, Françoise; Delvin, Edgard; Audibert, François

    2013-09-01

    To determine whether the parameters used in first-trimester screening for aneuploidies contribute significantly to the prediction of birth weight. In this retrospective cohort study (n = 4110), nuchal translucency (NT), free β-chorionic gonadotropin (fβ-hCG), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) blood concentrations were measured between 11 + 0 and 13 + 6 weeks. Multiple pregnancies, chromosomal anomalies, major fetal defects, and deliveries before 24 weeks were excluded. NT (0.95 versus 0.98 multiples of the expected median [MoM], p < 0.001) and PAPP-A (0.93 versus 1.06 MoM, p = 0.005) were significantly lower in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborns (<10th percentile) than the unaffected group, but not fβ-hCG (0.89 versus 0.93 MoM, p = 0.113). NT was significantly higher (1.03 versus 0.98 MoM, p < 0.001) in the large-for-gestational-age (LGA) group (>90th percentile) compared with the unaffected group, and biomarkers did not differ. After controlling for gestational age, maternal weight, smoking status, ethnicity, and fetal sex, first-trimester markers contributed to the prediction of birth weight in a multiple linear model but did not significantly improved the prediction of SGA and LGA compared with maternal characteristics alone. Parameters used in first-trimester screening for aneuploidies contribute to the prediction of birth weight but their clinical utility to detect women at risk of SGA or LGA baby is limited. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Intracranial translucency assessment at first trimester nuchal translucency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Lane, Annah; Lee, Ling; Traves, Donna; Lee, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The antenatal diagnosis of open spina bifida (OSB), a neural tube defect, is predominantly made at the second trimester morphology scan by ultrasound detection of structural abnormalities resulting from the associated Chiari II malformation. Evidence has emerged suggesting that these structural abnormalities can be detected earlier, by examination of the posterior fossa as part of the first trimester nuchal translucency scan. In particular, absence of the intra-cranial translucency (IT) of the fourth ventricle has shown promise as a diagnostic marker of OSB, although the sensitivity and specificity of this finding varies widely in the literature. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of obtaining the image of the IT at our institution as part of the routine first trimester scan. This is a prospective study of 900 obstetric patients who presented to a tertiary women's imaging centre for routine first trimester nuchal translucency screening ultrasound for the year 2014. Their risk status was that of the general population (low risk) prior to presentation. A total of 158 patients were excluded, leaving a study group of 742. Sonographers obtained a mid-sagittal view of the fetal face with particular focus on optimum viewing of the IT. All images were examined by a Radiology Registrar for presence or absence of IT. Duration of each scan was documented. The IT image was successfully acquired in 94.9% of scans. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and fetal lie were shown to have a statistically significant effect on success of acquisition of the IT image. No cases of OSB were diagnosed during the study. Scan times were not lengthened by the addition of the image. We consider that acquisition of an image of the IT as part of the routine first trimester nuchal translucency scan is feasible, without lengthening appointment times. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  12. A systematic review of first trimester biochemical and molecular predictive tests for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Aghaie, Zohreh; Rahnemaie, Fatemeh Sadat; Alimoradi, Zainab

    2018-04-16

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder affecting 5%-8% of pregnant women. Considering the ongoing debate over the predicting value of some commercial first trimester tests, the aim of this study was to compare the existing first trimester screening tests for preeclampsia. In this systematic review, relevant articles published during 2000-2017 were extracted from PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, and ProQuest databases. After thorough evaluation of the 412 potentially eligible papers, only 26 papers were selected based on the inclusion criteria. From a total of 412 retrieved studies, 28 papers were found eligible. Most studies had case-control or nested case-control designs. A total of 15164 pregnant women were evaluated in the reviewed studies. Various tests were applied in the first trimester of pregnancy to predict the development of preeclampsia. The most commonly used biomarkers were uterine artery pulsatility index, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), adiponectin, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone and inhibin-A. Other tests were used in only one or two studies. Based on this review, a combination of markers should be evaluated for the identification of high risk women. Novel methods measuring multiple markers will hopefully facilitate the development of clinically effective screening programs in the future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Nuchal translucency and first trimester risk assessment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Celeste; Platt, Lawrence D

    2007-06-01

    First-trimester risk assessment for fetal aneuploidy using nuchal translucency (NT) measurement is rapidly gaining popularity in the United States. In combination with maternal serum markers in the first trimester, the screening performance is exceptionally good, with detection rates of more than 80% at a screen positive rate of 5%. Recently, the method has been validated for screening for Down syndrome and other aneuploidies in multicenter trials in the United States and elsewhere. Compliance with established criteria for measurement of the NT is essential to achieve uniform reliability and high screening test sensitivity. There is an international consensus about the importance of specific training in the NT examination, conformity to standards of NT measurement, and regular audit for quality assurance. In the United States, the Nuchal Translucency Quality Review program has been developed to administer credentialing and quality review for registered practitioners. The Nuchal Translucency Quality Review credentials signify the proficiency of the sonographer or sonologist in NT measurement and participation in a regular quality assurance audit. We encourage accreditation of clinical sites offering first-trimester risk assessment to ensure the highest quality care.

  14. First trimester PAPP-A levels correlate with sFlt-1 levels longitudinally in pregnant women with and without preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Aditi R; Seely, Ellen W; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Wilkins-Haug, Louise E; Karumanchi, S Ananth; McElrath, Thomas F

    2013-04-04

    First trimester Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein A (PAPP-A) levels, routinely measured for aneuploidy screening, may predict development of preeclampsia. This study tests the hypothesis that first trimester PAPP-A levels correlate with soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) levels, an angiogenic marker associated with preeclampsia, throughout pregnancy. sFlt-1 levels were measured longitudinally in 427 women with singleton pregnancies in all three trimesters. First trimester PAPP-A and PAPP-A Multiples of Median (MOM) were measured. Student's T and Wilcoxon tests compared preeclamptic and normal pregnancies. A linear mixed model assessed the relationship between log PAPP-A and serial log sFlt-1 levels. PAPP-A and PAPP-A MOM levels were significantly lower in preeclamptic (n = 19), versus normal pregnancies (p = 0.02). Although mean third trimester sFlt-1 levels were significantly higher in preeclampsia (p = 0.002), first trimester sFlt-1 levels were lower in women who developed preeclampsia, compared with normal pregnancies (p = 0.03). PAPP-A levels correlated significantly with serial sFlt-1 levels. Importantly, low first trimester PAPP-A MOM predicted decreased odds of normal pregnancy (OR 0.2, p = 0.002). Low first trimester PAPP-A levels suggests increased future risk of preeclampsia and correlate with serial sFlt-1 levels throughout pregnancy. Furthermore, low first trimester PAPP-A status significantly predicted decreased odds of normal pregnancy.

  15. Maternal Serum Resistin Is Reduced in First Trimester Preeclampsia Pregnancies and Is a Marker of Clinical Severity.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula L; Placing, Sophie; Wøjdemann, Karen R; Carlsen, Anting L; Jørgensen, Jennifer M; Gjerris, Anne-Cathrine; Shalmi, Anne-Cathrine; Rode, Line; Sundberg, Karin; Tabor, Ann

    2015-11-01

    To examine whether resistin levels in first trimester maternal serum are associated with insulin resistance or preeclampsia (PE). A case-control study of maternal serum resistin concentration conducted using 285 normal pregnancies and 123 PE pregnancies matched for gestational age, parity and maternal age. Samples were taken in gestational weeks 10 +0 -13 +6 . There was a negative correlation between resistin and clinical severity of PE, but no correlation with IS, TNF-α, body mass index, birth weight and pregnancy length. Resistin is reduced in first trimester of PE pregnancies, particularly in severe PE. Inflammation and IS cannot explain this phenomenon.

  16. Performance of prenatal screening using maternal serum and ultrasound markers for Down syndrome in Chinese women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tu, S; Rosenthal, M; Wang, D; Huang, J; Chen, Y

    2016-09-01

    Controversies about the performance of conventional prenatal screening using maternal serum and ultrasound markers (PSMSUM) in detecting Down syndrome (DS) have been raised as a result of a recently available noninvasive prenatal test based on cell-free fetal DNA sequencing. To evaluate the screening performance of PSMSUM in detecting DS in Chinese women. An exhaustive literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science and China BioMedical Disc. Primary studies, published from January 2004 to November 2014, which examined the screening accuracy of PSMSUM in pregnant Chinese women, compared with a reference standard, either chromosomal verification or inspection of the newborn. Data were extracted as screening positive/negative results for Down and non-Down syndrome pregnancies, allowing estimation of sensitivities and specificities. Risks of bias within and across studies were assessed. Screening accuracy measures were pooled using a bivariate random effects regression model. Seventy-eight studies, involving six categories of PSMSUM, were included. Second-trimester double serum [pooled sensitivity (SEN) = 0.80, pooled specificity (SPE) = 0.95] and triple-serum (pooled SEN = 0.79, pooled SPE = 0.96) screening were the predominant PSMSUM methods. The screening performances of these methods achieved the national standard but varied enormously across studies. First-trimester combined screening (pooled SEN = 0.92, pooled SPE = 0.93) and second-trimester quadruple serum screening (median SEN = 0.86, median SPE = 0.96) performed better, but were rarely used. Second-trimester maternal serum screening has the potential to achieve satisfactory screening performance in middle- and low-income countries. The reported enormous range in screening performance of second-trimester PSMSUM calls for urgent implementation of methods for performance optimization. Meta-analysis results show good accuracy of maternal serum and ultrasound screening for trisomy

  17. Second-trimester maternal serum marker screening: maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, estriol, and their various combinations as predictors of pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Yaron, Y; Cherry, M; Kramer, R L; O'Brien, J E; Hallak, M; Johnson, M P; Evans, M I

    1999-10-01

    We evaluated the value of all 3 common biochemical serum markers, maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, and unconjugated estriol, and combinations thereof as predictors of pregnancy outcome. A total of 60,040 patients underwent maternal serum screening. All patients had maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein measurements; beta-human chorionic gonadotropin was measured in 45,565 patients, and 24,504 patients had determination of all 3 markers, including unconjugated estriol. The incidences of various pregnancy outcomes were evaluated according to the serum marker levels by using clinically applied cutoff points. In confirmation of previous observations, increased maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels (>2.5 multiples of the median) were found to be significantly associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension, miscarriage, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, intrauterine fetal death, oligohydramnios, and abruptio placentae. Increased beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels (>2.5 multiples of the median [MoM]) were significantly associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension, miscarriage, preterm delivery, and intrauterine fetal death. Finally, decreased unconjugated estriol levels (<0.5 MoM) were found to be significantly associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension, miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction, and intrauterine fetal death. As with increased second-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels, increased serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and low unconjugated estriol levels are significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. These are most likely attributed to placental dysfunction. Multiple-marker screening can be used not only for the detection of fetal anomalies and aneu-ploidy but also for detection of high-risk pregnancies.

  18. Screening for chromosomal anomalies in the first trimester: does repeat maternal serum screening improve detection rates?

    PubMed

    Spencer, Kevin; Cuckle, Howard S

    2002-10-01

    To assess the within person biological variability of first trimester maternal serum biochemical markers of trisomy 21 across the 10-14 week gestational period. To evaluate whether repeat sampling and testing of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A during this period would result in an improved detection rate. Women presenting at the first trimester OSCAR clinic have blood collected prior to ultrasound dating and nuchal translucency measurement. All samples are analysed for free beta-hCG and PAPP-A before an accurate estimate of gestation is available. In 10% of cases the gestation is prior to the minimum time for NT measurement (11 weeks) and these women are rebooked for a repeat visit to the clinic at the appropriate time. Our fetal database was interrogated to obtain cases in which two maternal blood samples had been collected and analysed in the 10-14 week period. Using data from the marker correlations and statistical modelling, the impact of repeat testing on detection rate for trisomy 21 at a fixed 5% false positive rate, was assessed. 261 pairs of data were available for analysis collected over a 3 year period. The correlation between free beta-hCG in sample 1 and sample 2 was 0.890 and that for PAPP-A was 0.827. The average within person biological variation for free beta-hCG was 21% and 32% for PAPP-A. The increase in detection rate when using both sets of marker data was 3.5% when using serum biochemistry and maternal age, and 1.3% when using nuchal translucency, serum biochemistry and maternal age. Repeat sampling and testing of maternal serum biochemical markers is unlikely to substantially improve first trimester screening performance. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The association between angiogenic markers and fetal sex: Implications for preeclampsia research.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L B; Jørgensen, J S; Herse, F; Andersen, M S; Christesen, H T; Dechend, R

    2016-09-01

    Current research suggests sexual dimorphism between the male and female fetoplacental units, but with unknown relevance for preeclampsia. We investigated the association between fetal sex and concentrations of the angiogenic markers soluble Fms-like kinase 1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in first and second-third trimester in women with/without preeclampsia, and the impact of fetal sex on the prognostic value of angiogenic markers for preeclampsia. Observational study in a prospective, population-based cohort of 2110 singleton pregnancies with 150 preeclampsia cases. Higher sFlt-1 concentrations were observed for women carrying female fetuses in first trimester (all, 1107.65 vs. 992.27pg/ml; preeclampsia cases, 1118.79 vs. 934.49pg/ml, p<0.05) and in second-third trimester (all, 1130.03 vs. 1043.15pg/ml; preeclampsia, 1480.30 vs. 1152.86pg/ml, p<0.05), with similar findings for the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio concentrations in first (29.67 vs. 27.39 p<0.05) and second-third trimester (3.56 vs. 3.22, p<0.05). In first trimester, log transformed concentrations of PlGF, sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PlGF (all participants) and sFlt-1 (preeclampsia cases) associated with fetal sex in adjusted analyses (p<0.05). In second-third trimester, only log(sFlt-1) associated with fetal sex (all, p=0.028; preeclampsia, p=0.067) In receiver operating curve analysis, prediction of early-onset preeclampsia by sFlt-1/PlGF tended to be superior in pregnancies with female vs. male fetuses (p=0.06). Sexual dimorphism was observed for concentrations of angiogenic markers. Female fetal sex was associated to higher sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio concentrations in both healthy pregnancies and women developing preeclampsia. Fetal sex should be considered in research and clinical use of angiogenic markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fetal Tricuspid Regurgitation in the First Trimester as a Screening Marker for Congenital Heart Defects: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Scala, Carolina; Morlando, Maddalena; Familiari, Alessandra; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Ferrero, Simone; D'Antonio, Francesco; Khalil, Asma

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of tricuspid flow has been reported to improve the performance of screening for aneuploidies and congenital heart defects (CHD). However, the performance of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) as a screening marker for CHD in euploid fetuses is yet to be established. The main aim of this meta-analysis was to establish the predictive accuracy of TR for CHD. MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched electronically utilizing combinations of the relevant medical subject heading for "fetus," "tricuspid regurgitation," and "first trimester." The outcomes explored were prevalence of TR in an euploid population, strength of association between TR and CHD, and predictive accuracy of TR for CHD in euploid fetuses. Summary estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and diagnostic odds ratio for the overall predictive accuracy of TR for the detection of CHD were computed using the hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristics model. A total of 452 articles were identified; 60 were assessed with respect to their eligibility for inclusion and a total of 4 studies were included in the study. TR was associated with an increased risk of CHD (RR: 9.6, 95% CI 2.8-33.5; I2: 92.7%). The strength of association between TR and CHD persisted when considering fetuses at risk for CHD, such as those with increased nuchal translucency (RR: 7.2, 95% CI 5.2-9.8; I2: 0%), while TR did not show any association with CHD when detected in a population at low risk for cardiac defects (RR: 9.3, 95% CI 0.8-111.8; I2: 93%). The overall diagnostic performance of TR in detecting CHD was poor in detecting CHD (sROC: 0.684, SE: 0.61) with a sensitivity of 35.2% (95% CI 26.9-44.1) and a specificity of 98.6% (95% CI 98.5-98.7). Detection of TR at the 11-14 weeks' scan showed a positive likelihood ratio of 7.2 (95% CI 5.3-9.8) in detecting CHD when applied to a population at risk for CHD such as fetuses with an increased nuchal translucency. The

  1. Neuroimaging parameters in early open spina bifida detection. Further benefit in first trimester screening?

    PubMed

    Iliescu, D; Comănescu, A; Antsaklis, P; Tudorache, Stefania; Ghiluşi, Mirela; Comănescu, Violeta; Paulescu, Daniela; Ceauşu, Iuliana; Antsaklis, A; Novac, Liliana; Cernea, N

    2011-01-01

    Morphological investigation of the central nervous system (CNS) in fetuses with positive markers for open spina bifida (OSB) detection, visualized by ultrasound during the first trimester of pregnancy. Data from fetuses that underwent routine first trimester ultrasound scan in our center during September 2007-March 2011 and presented abnormal aspects of the fourth ventricle, also referred as intracranial translucency (IT), provided the morphological support to evaluate CNS features. A neuro-histological study of posterior cerebral fossa illustrated anatomical features of the structures involved in the sonographic first trimester detection of neural tube defects. Abnormal IT aspects were found in OSB cases examined in the first trimester, but also in other severe cerebral abnormalities. Brain stem antero-posterior diameter (BS) and brain stem to occipital bone (BSOB) ratio may be more specific for OSB detection. Correlations between histological aspects of posterior brain fossa and ultrasound standard assessment have been made; highlighting the anatomical features involved by the new techniques developed for OSB early detection. Preliminary results show that modern sonographic protocols are capable to detect abnormalities in the morphometry of the posterior brain. First trimester fourth ventricle abnormalities should be followed by careful CNS evaluation because are likely to appear in OSB affected fetuses, but also in other CNS severe anomalies; in such cases, normal BS and BSOB ratio may serve as indirect argument for spine integrity, if specificity is confirmed in large series of fetuses.

  2. Relationship between first trimester aneuploidy screening test serum analytes and placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Büke, Barış; Akkaya, Hatice; Demir, Sibel; Sağol, Sermet; Şimşek, Deniz; Başol, Güneş; Barutçuoğlu, Burcu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between first trimester serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (fβhCG) MoM values and placenta accreta in women who had placenta previa. A total of 88 patients with placenta previa who had first trimester aneuploidy screening test results were enrolled in the study. Nineteen of these patients were also diagnosed with placenta accreta. As probable markers of excessive placental invasion, serum PAPP-A and fβhCG MoM values were compared in two groups with and without placenta accreta. Patients with placenta accreta had higher statistically significant serum PAPP-A (1.20 versus 0.865, respectively, p = 0.045) and fβhCG MoM (1.42 versus 0.93, respectively, p = 0.042) values than patients without accreta. Higher first trimester serum PAPP-A and fβhCG MoM values seem to be associated with placenta accreta in women with placenta previa. Further studies are needed to use these promising additional tools for early detection of placenta accreta.

  3. Trimester Schedule. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Why do a trimester schedule? With the advent of block scheduling, many high schools conducted research on utilizing that plan in a trimester format. There appeared to be three issues that most schools faced: (1) How to provide substantive instructional time that was not fragmented?; (2) How does the school climate contribute positively to…

  4. Improved detection rate of structural abnormalities in the first trimester using an extended examination protocol.

    PubMed

    Iliescu, D; Tudorache, S; Comanescu, A; Antsaklis, P; Cotarcea, S; Novac, L; Cernea, N; Antsaklis, A

    2013-09-01

    To assess the potential of first-trimester sonography in the detection of fetal abnormalities using an extended protocol that is achievable with reasonable resources of time, personnel and ultrasound equipment. This was a prospective two-center 2-year study of 5472 consecutive unselected pregnant women examined at 12 to 13 + 6 gestational weeks. Women were examined using an extended morphogenetic ultrasound protocol that, in addition to the basic evaluation, involved a color Doppler cardiac sweep and identification of early contingent markers for major abnormalities. The prevalence of lethal and severe malformations was 1.39%. The first-trimester scan identified 40.6% of the cases detected overall and 76.3% of major structural defects. The first-trimester detection rate (DR) for major congenital heart disease (either isolated or associated with extracardiac abnormalities) was 90% and that for major central nervous system anomalies was 69.5%. In fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT), the first-trimester DR for major anomalies was 96%, and in fetuses with normal NT it was 66.7%. Most (67.1%) cases with major abnormalities presented with normal NT. A detailed first-trimester anomaly scan using an extended protocol is an efficient screening method to detect major fetal structural abnormalities in low-risk pregnancies. It is feasible at 12 to 13 + 6 weeks with ultrasound equipment and personnel already used for routine first-trimester screening. Rate of detection of severe malformations is greater in early- than in mid-pregnancy and on postnatal evaluation. Early heart investigation could be improved by an extended protocol involving use of color Doppler. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Induction of hepatic haematopoiesis with fibronectin expression by EMT stromal cells during the second trimester of development.

    PubMed

    Lambropoulou, M; Tamiolakis, D; Venizelos, I; Alexiadis, G; Anastasopoulos, G; Limberis, V; Galazios, G; Tsikouras, P; Simopoulou, M; Nikolaidou, S; Petrakis, G; Papadopoulos, N

    2007-09-01

    In an initial period of vertebrate phylogeny (bone marrow-less vertebrates), lymphohaematopoiesis takes place in numerous organs containing a suitable microenvironment. Among other organs (i.e., gonads, kidney and spleen), the liver is apparently the most appropriate site for homing and differentiation of haematopoietic cell precursors. Interaction between haematopoietic cells and stromal cells is important for regulation of haematopoiesis. Numerous soluble and membrane-bound factors directly regulating haematopoiesis have been documented, but little is known about the effect of the foetal hepatic epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) stromal cells' activity and their product-fibronectin, on foetal hepatic haematopoiesis. The binding of late-stage erythroid cells to FN has been well characterised and is believed to be critical for the terminal stages of erythroid differentiation. The intention of this article is to provide a quantitative overview of FN, produced by hepatic EMT stromal cells, in foetal hepatic haematopoiesis during the first and second trimester of development. Paraffin-embedded specimens from the liver of 30 human embryos in the first and second trimesters of gestation were investigated by conventional histology and immunohistology for the presence of FN and specific haematopoietic cell types. The staining intensity, and localisation of FN and haematopoietic markers in sequential sections were examined. Furthermore, double immunohistochemical staining was performed to assess simultaneous detection of FN and haematopoietic markers. FN was expressed in the EMT stromal cells of the hepatic portal triads more strongly during the second trimester than the first. Furthermore, an intense immunostaining for haematopoietic lineages, and especially for erythropoiesis, was observed in the second trimester compared to the first. The results of the double immunostaining disclosed an intimate co-expression of the FN and CD haematopoietic markers. Foetal

  6. Obstetrical complications associated with abnormal maternal serum markers analytes.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Alain; Wilson, R Douglas

    2008-10-01

    To review the obstetrical outcomes associated with abnormally elevated or decreased level of one or more of the most frequently measured maternal serum marker analytes used in screening for aneuploidy. To provide guidance to facilitate the management of pregnancies that have abnormal levels of one of more markers and to assess the usefulness of these markers as a screening test. Perinatal outcomes associated with abnormal levels of maternal serum markers analytes are compared with the outcomes of pregnancies with normal levels of the same analytes or the general population. The Cochrane Library and Medline were searched for English-language articles published from 1966 to February 2007, relating to maternal serum markers and perinatal outcomes. Search terms included PAPP-A (pregnancy associated plasma protein A), AFP (alphafetoprotein), hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), estriol, unconjugated estriol, inhibin, inhibin-A, maternal serum screen, triple marker screen, quadruple screen, integrated prenatal screen, first trimester screen, and combined prenatal screen. All study types were reviewed. Randomized controlled trials were considered evidence of the highest quality, followed by cohort studies. Key individual studies on which the recommendations are based are referenced. Supporting data for each recommendation are summarized with evaluative comments and references. The evidence was evaluated using the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. The evidence collected was reviewed by the Genetics Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. The benefit expected from this guideline is to facilitate early detection of potential adverse pregnancy outcomes when risks are identified at the time of a maternal serum screen. It will help further stratification of risk and provide options for pregnancy management to minimize the impact of pregnancy complications. The potential harms resulting from such practice

  7. [A cohort study on association between the first trimester phthalates exposure and fasting blood glucose level in the third trimester].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y W; Gao, H; Huang, K; Xu, Y Y; Sheng, J; Tao, F B

    2017-03-10

    Objective: To examine the association between the phthalate exposure in the first trimester and fasting blood glucose level or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the third trimester in pregnant women. Methods: A total of 3 474 pregnant women, receiving their prenatal examination in Ma' anshan Maternal and Child Health-Care Hospital of Anhui province, were selected from May 2013 to September 2014. Questionnaires were used to collect the information about their socio-demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics and GDM diagnostic results in the first, second and third trimesters. Urine samples and fasting venous blood samples were collected. Concentrations of 7 kinds of phthalate metabolites in urine samples were detected by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS), and multiple linear regression model was used for statistical analyses. Logistic regression analysis on the risk of the first trimester phthalate exposure for GDM in the third trimester was conducted. Results: The prevalence of GDM in this study was 12.8%, monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) exposure levels were positively correlated with the fasting blood glucose level in the third trimester ( P <0.05), but mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxylhexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) exposure levels were negatively correlated with the fasting blood glucose level in the third trimester ( P <0.05). Stratified analysis showed a positive correlation between MEHHP exposure and the third trimester fasting blood glucose level in both normal group and GDM group. However, MMP, MEP, MBP, MBzP, MEHP and MEOHP exposure levels had influences on the third trimester fasting blood glucose level in normal group but not in GDM group. MMP and MBP exposure might increase the risk of GDM, but MEOHP exposure might

  8. Facial markers in second- and third-trimester fetuses with trisomy 18 or 13, triploidy or Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kagan, K O; Sonek, J; Berg, X; Berg, C; Mallmann, M; Abele, H; Hoopmann, M; Geipel, A

    2015-07-01

    To examine the effectiveness of nasal bone (NB) evaluation (including NB length (NBL)), prenasal thickness (PT) measurement, the PT:NBL ratio and the prefrontal space ratio (PFSR) in the identification of fetuses with trisomy 18 or 13, triploidy or Turner syndrome. This was a retrospective study using stored midsagittal two-dimensional images of the facial profile of fetuses with trisomy 18 or 13, triploidy or Turner syndrome in the second and third trimesters. For images of acceptable quality, measurements were obtained of NBL (where NB was present), PT, the PT:NBL ratio and PFSR, and these measurements were compared with previously published normal ranges. The search of databases identified 189 fetuses that met the study criteria: 132 (69.8%) with trisomy 18, 40 (21.2%) with trisomy 13, 10 (5.3%) with triploidy and seven (3.7%) with Turner syndrome. The NB was either absent or its measurement was below the 5(th) centile in 67 (50.8%), 20 (50.0%), five (50.0%) and two (28.6%) of the fetuses with trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy and Turner syndrome, respectively. The PT measurement was above the 95(th) centile in 24 (18.2%), six (15.0%), one (10.0%) and one (14.3%) of the affected fetuses, respectively. The PFSR was abnormal in 72 (54.5%), 29 (72.5%), seven (70%) and four (57.1%) of the cases and the PT:NBL ratio was above the 95(th) centile or the nasal bone was absent in 72 (54.5%), 20 (50.0%), six (60.0%) and four (57.1%) cases, respectively. Although each of the facial markers considered provides some useful information in screening for trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy and Turner syndrome, the performance of none of the markers appears to be as good as that in screening for trisomy 21. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Comparison of placental three-dimensional power Doppler indices and volume in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chian-Huey; Chen, Chie-Pein; Sun, Fang-Ju; Chen, Chen-Yu

    2018-05-01

    To compare the changes of placental three-dimensional power Doppler indices and volume in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This was a prospective case-control study of singleton pregnancies with risk factors for GDM. Data on placental vascular indices including vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization flow index (VFI), as well as placental volume were obtained and analyzed during the first and second trimesters between pregnant women with and without GDM. Of the 155 pregnant women enrolled, 31 developed GDM and 124 did not. VI and VFI were significantly lower in the GDM group during the first and second trimesters (VI: p = 0.023, and VFI: p = 0.014 in the first trimester; VI: p = 0.049, and VFI: p = 0.031 in the second trimester). However, the placental volume was similar in both groups during the first trimester, while it was significantly increased in the GDM group during the second trimester (p = 0.022). There were no significant differences in FI and uterine artery pulsatility index between the two groups. After adjustments in multivariate logistic regression analysis, significant differences were observed in the first trimester VFI (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-0.93), second trimester VFI (adjusted or 0.83, 95% CI 0.71-0.96), and second trimester placental volume (adjusted or 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05). Placental vascular indices can provide an insight into placental vascularization in GDM during early pregnancy. VFI rather than placental volume may be a sensitive sonographic marker in the first trimester of GDM placentas.

  10. Performance of third-trimester ultrasound for prediction of small-for-gestational-age neonates and evaluation of contingency screening policies.

    PubMed

    Souka, A P; Papastefanou, I; Pilalis, A; Michalitsi, V; Kassanos, D

    2012-05-01

    To assess the performance of third-trimester fetal biometry and fetal Doppler studies for the prediction of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates, and to explore contingency strategies using a first-trimester prediction model based on maternal and fetal parameters and third-trimester ultrasound. This was an observational cross-sectional study of uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. Risk assessment for chromosomal abnormality was carried out in 4702 pregnancies using a combination of ultrasound markers (fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT) and nasal bone assessment) and biochemistry (free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A)) at 11 to 13 + 6 weeks. Maternal demographic characteristics and method of conception were recorded. Third-trimester (30-34 weeks) fetal biometry (biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL)) and umbilical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery Doppler studies were performed routinely in a subgroup (n = 2310). Reference ranges for birth weight were constructed using the cohort of 4702 women, and neonates were classified as small (SGA, ≤ 5th centile) or appropriate (AGA) for gestational age. First-trimester, third-trimester and integrated first- and third-trimester prediction models for SGA were constructed using regression analysis and three different contingency strategies of rescanning in the third trimester were investigated. According to the areas under the receiver-operating characteristics curves (AUCs), AC (AUC = 0.85) and ultrasound-estimated fetal weight (EFW, AUC = 0.87) were equally good predictors of SGA. The model was marginally improved by the addition of UA Doppler, smoking status and first-trimester indices (free β-hCG and PAPP-A multiples of the median) (combined model, AUC = 0.88), but the difference was not statistically significant. A contingency strategy of rescanning 50% of the population in the

  11. Trimester-Specific Changes in Maternal Thyroid Hormone, Thyrotropin, and Thyroglobulin Concentrations During Gestation: Trends and Associations Across Trimesters in Iodine Sufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, O.P.; Tractenberg, R.E.; Hollowell, J.G.; Jonklaas, J.; Janicic, N.; Soldin, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the interrelationships of thyroid functions based on trimester-specific concentrations in healthy, iodine-sufficient pregnant women across trimesters, and postpartum. Methods Circulating total 3,5,3′-triidothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations were determined simultaneously using liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured using immunoassay techniques. Linear mixed effects models and correlations were calculated to determine trends and associations, respectively, in concentrations. Results and conclusions Trimester-specific T3, FT4, TSH, and Tg concentrations were significantly different between the first and third trimesters (all p < 0.05); second and third trimester values were not significantly different for FT4, TSH, and Tg (all p > 0.25) although T3 was significantly higher in the third, relative to the second trimester. T4 was not significantly different at any trimester (all p > 0.80). With two exceptions, analyte concentrations tended not to be correlated at each trimester and at 1-year postpartum. One exception was that T3 and T4 tended to be associated (all p < 0.05) at all time points except the third trimester (ρ = 0.239, p > 0.05). T4 and FT4 concentrations tended to correlate positively during pregnancy (ρ 0.361–0.382, all p < 0.05) but not postpartum (ρ = 0.179, p > 0.05). Trends suggest that trimester-specific measurements of T3, FT4, Tg, and possibly TSH are warranted. PMID:15650363

  12. Technical standards and guidelines: prenatal screening for Down syndrome that includes first-trimester biochemistry and/or ultrasound measurements.

    PubMed

    Palomaki, Glenn E; Lee, Jo Ellen S; Canick, Jacob A; McDowell, Geraldine A; Donnenfeld, Alan E

    2009-09-01

    This statement is intended to augment the current general ACMG Standards and Guidelines for Clinical Genetics Laboratories and to address guidelines specific to first-trimester screening for Down syndrome. The aim is to provide the laboratory the necessary information to ensure accurate and reliable Down syndrome screening results given a screening protocol (e.g., combined first trimester and integrated testing). Information about various test combinations and their expected performance are provided, but other issues such as availability of reagents, patient interest in early test results, access to open neural tube defect screening, and availability of chorionic villus sampling are all contextual factors in deciding which screening protocol(s) will be selected by individual health care providers. Individual laboratories are responsible for meeting the quality assurance standards described by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act, the College of American Pathologists, and other regulatory agencies, with respect to appropriate sample documentation, assay validation, general proficiency, and quality control measures. These guidelines address first-trimester screening that includes ultrasound measurement and interpretation of nuchal translucency thickness and protocols that combine markers from both the first and second trimesters. Laboratories can use their professional judgment to make modification or additions.

  13. First Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Using Biochemical Markers PAPP-A and Free β-hCG for Down Syndrome, Patau Syndrome and Edward Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shiefa, S; Amargandhi, M; Bhupendra, J; Moulali, S; Kristine, T

    2013-01-01

    The first trimester screening programme offers a noninvasive option for the early detection of aneuploidy pregnancies. This screening is done by a combination of two biochemical markers i.e. serum free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (free β-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), maternal age and fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness at 11 + 0-13 + 6 weeks of gestation. A beneficial consequence of screening is the early diagnosis or trisomies 21, 18 and 13. At 11 + 0-13 + 6 weeks, the relative prevalence of trisomies 18 and 13 to trisomy 21 are found to be one to three and one to seven, respectively. All three trisomies are associated with increased maternal age, increased fetal NT and decreased PAPP-A, but in trisomy 21 serum free β-hCG is increased whereas in trisomies 18 and 13 free β-hCG is decreased.

  14. First-Trimester Maternal Serum Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines Are Significant Predictors of Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nevalainen, Jaana; Sairanen, Mikko; Appelblom, Heidi; Gissler, Mika; Timonen, Susanna; Ryynänen, Markku

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current screening methods for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are insufficient in detecting the risk of GDM in the first trimester of the pregnancy. Recent metabolomic studies have detected altered amino acid and acylcarnitine concentrations in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Because of the similarities between T2D and GDM, the determination of these metabolites may be useful in early screening for GDM. AIM: To evaluate the association between GDM and first-trimester maternal serum concentrations of ten amino acids and 31 acylcarnitines. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study included data from pregnant women screened at Oulu University Hospital between 1.1.2008 and 31.12.2011. A total of 31,146 women participated voluntarily in a first-trimester combined screening (for chromosomal abnormalities). The study population included 69 women who developed GDM during pregnancy and 295 women without diabetes before or after pregnancy. The serum concentrations of ten amino acids and 31 acylcarnitines were analyzed from frozen serum samples taken in the first-trimester screening. Multiple of median (MoM) values were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: In the GDM group, serum levels of arginine were significantly higher (1.13 MoM vs. 0.97 MoM), and those of glycine (0.93 MoM vs. 1.03 MoM) and 3-hydroxy-isovalerylcarnitine (0.86 MoM vs. 1.03 MoM) significantly lower compared to the control group (all p < 0.01). In each case, arginine, glycine, and 3-hydroxy-isovaleryl-carnitine would have detected 46%, 32%, and 39% of GDM cases, with a false-positive rate of 20%. Combining these three metabolites with the first-trimester serum marker pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and prior risk (age, BMI, and smoking) achieved a detection rate of 72%. CONCLUSION: There are significant differences in the serum levels of arginine, glycine, and 3-hydroxy-isovalerylcarnitine between controls and women who subsequently develop GDM. These differences were

  15. What Is Trophoblast? A Combination of Criteria Define Human First-Trimester Trophoblast

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheryl Q.E.; Gardner, Lucy; Turco, Margherita; Zhao, Nancy; Murray, Matthew J.; Coleman, Nicholas; Rossant, Janet; Hemberger, Myriam; Moffett, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Summary Controversy surrounds reports describing the derivation of human trophoblast cells from placentas and embryonic stem cells (ESC), partly due to the difficulty in identifying markers that define cells as belonging to the trophoblast lineage. We have selected criteria that are characteristic of primary first-trimester trophoblast: a set of protein markers, HLA class I profile, methylation of ELF5, and expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) from the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC). We tested these criteria on cells previously reported to show some phenotypic characteristics of trophoblast: bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-treated human ESC and 2102Ep, an embryonal carcinoma cell line. Both cell types only show some, but not all, of the four trophoblast criteria. Thus, BMP-treated human ESC have not fully differentiated to trophoblast. Our study identifies a robust panel, including both protein and non-protein-coding markers that, in combination, can be used to reliably define cells as characteristic of early trophoblast. PMID:26862703

  16. Update on second-trimester surgical abortion.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kate A; Lerma, Klaira

    2016-12-01

    To review the recent literature on surgical second-trimester abortion, with specific attention to cervical preparation techniques. Confirming previous studies, a recent retrospective observational cohort study, including 54 911 abortions, estimated the total abortion-related complication rate to be 0.41% for second-trimester or later procedures. Cervical preparation is known to reduce risks associated with second-trimester dilation and evacuation (D&E). When considering adjuncts to osmotic dilators for cervical preparation prior to D&E after 16 weeks, both misoprostol and mifepristone are effective alone and in combination or as adjuncts to osmotic dilators. Misoprostol consistently has been shown to cause more pain and cramping than placebo, but is an effective adjunct to osmotic dilators after 16 weeks. Although mifepristone has fewer side-effects, at its current price, it may not be as cost-effective as misoprostol. Second-trimester abortion is safe. The use of mifepristone and misoprostol for second-trimester abortion has improved safety and efficacy of medical and surgical methods when used alone or in combination and as adjuncts to osmotic dilators. An important aspect of D&E, cervical preparation, is not a one-size-fits-all practice; the approach and methods are contingent on patient, provider and setting and should consider all the evidence-based options.

  17. First-trimester emergencies: a radiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Catherine H; Wortman, Jeremy R; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S; Sodickson, Aaron D; Doubilet, Peter M; Khurana, Bharti

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to help the practitioner ensure early diagnosis and response to emergencies in the first trimester by reviewing anatomy of the developing embryo, highlighting the sonographic appearance of common first-trimester emergencies, and discussing key management pathways for treating emergent cases. First-trimester fetal development is a stepwise process that can be challenging to evaluate in the emergency department (ED) setting. This is due, in part, to the complex anatomy of early pregnancy, subtlety of the sonographic findings, and the fact that fewer than half of patients with ectopic pregnancy present with the classic clinical findings of a positive pregnancy test, vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, and tender adnexa. Ultrasound (US) has been the primary approach to diagnostic imaging of first-trimester emergencies, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) playing a supportive role in a small minority of cases. Familiarity with the sonographic findings diagnostic of and suspicious for early pregnancy failure, ectopic pregnancy, retained products of conception, gestational trophoblastic disease, failed intrauterine devices, and complications associated with assisted reproductive technology (ART) is critical for any emergency radiologist. Evaluation of first-trimester emergencies is challenging, and knowledge of key imaging findings and familiarity with management pathways are needed to ensure early diagnosis and response.

  18. Collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 is a new promigratory marker of arthritic pannus.

    PubMed

    Shekhani, Mohammed Talha; Forde, Toni S; Adilbayeva, Altynai; Ramez, Mohamed; Myngbay, Askhat; Bexeitov, Yergali; Lindner, Volkhard; Adarichev, Vyacheslav A

    2016-07-19

    The formation of destructive hypercellular pannus is critical to joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) protein expressed by activated stromal cells of diverse origin has previously been implicated in tissue remodeling and carcinogenesis. We recently discovered that the synovial Cthrc1 mRNA directly correlates with arthritis severity in mice. This study characterizes the role of CTHRC1 in arthritic pannus formation. Synovial joints of mice with collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) and human RA-fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) were immunostained for CTHRC1, FLS and macrophage-specific markers. CTHRC1 levels in plasma from patients with RA were measured using sandwich ELISA. The migratory response of fibroblasts was studied with a transwell migration assay and time-lapse microscopy. Velocity and directness of cell migration was analyzed by recording the trajectories of cells treated with rhCTHRC1. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal and inflamed synovium revealed highly inducible expression of CTHRC1 in arthritis (10.9-fold). At the tissue level, CTHRC1-expressing cells occupied the same niche as large fibroblast-like cells positive for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and cadherin 11 (CDH11). CTHRC1 was produced by activated FLS predominantly located at the synovial intimal lining and at the bone-pannus interface. Cultured RA-FLS expressed CDH11, α-SMA, and CTHRC1. Upon treatment with exogenous rhCTHRC1, embryonic fibroblasts and RA-FLS significantly increased migration velocity, directness, and cell length along the front-tail axis (1.4-fold, p < 0.01). CTHRC1 was established as a novel marker of activated synoviocytes in murine experimental arthritis and RA. The pro-migratory effect of CTHRC1 on synoviocytes is considered one of the mechanisms promoting hypercellularity of the arthritic pannus.

  19. Mid-trimester induced abortion: a review.

    PubMed

    Lalitkumar, S; Bygdeman, M; Gemzell-Danielsson, K

    2007-01-01

    Mid-trimester abortion constitutes 10-15% of all induced abortion. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the current literature of mid-trimester methods of abortion with respect to efficacy, side effects and acceptability. There have been continuing efforts to improve the abortion technology in terms of effectiveness, technical ease of performance, acceptability and reduction of side effects and complications. During the last decade, medical methods for mid-trimester induced abortion have shown a considerable development and have become safe and more accessible. The combination of mifepristone and misoprostol is now an established and highly effective method for termination of pregnancy (TOP). Advantages and disadvantages of medical versus surgical methods are discussed. Randomized studies are lacking, and more studies on pain treatment and the safety of any method used in patients with a previous uterine scar are debated, and data are scarce. Pain management in abortion requires special attention. This review highlights the need for randomized studies to set guidelines for mid-trimester abortion methods in terms of safety and acceptability as well as for better analgesic regimens.

  20. Women’s embodied experiences of second trimester medical abortion

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Audrey; Melville, Catriona; McDaid, Lisa M

    2017-01-01

    Abortions in general, and second trimester abortions in particular, are experiences which in many contexts have limited sociocultural visibility. Research on second trimester abortion worldwide has focused on a range of associated factors including risks and acceptability of abortion methods, and characteristics and decision-making of women seeking the procedure. Scholarship to date has not adequately addressed the embodied physicality of second trimester abortion, from the perspective of women’s lived experiences, nor how these experiences might inform future framings of abortion. To progress understandings of women’s embodied experiences of second trimester abortion, we draw on the accounts of 18 women who had recently sought second trimester abortion in Scotland. We address four aspects of their experiences: later recognition of pregnancy; experiences of a second trimester pregnancy which ended in abortion; the “labour” of second trimester abortion; and the subsequent bodily transition. The paper has two key aims: Firstly, to make visible these experiences, and to consider how they relate to dominant sociocultural narratives of pregnancy; and secondly, to explore the concept of “liminality” as one means for interpreting them. Our findings contribute to informing future research, policy and practice around second trimester abortion. They highlight the need to maintain efforts to reduce silences around abortion and improve equity of access. PMID:28546655

  1. Prenasal thickness-to-nasal bone length ratio: a strong and simple second- and third-trimester marker for trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    De Jong-Pleij, E A P; Vos, F I; Ribbert, L S M; Pistorius, L R; Tromp, E; Bilardo, C M

    2012-02-01

    To study the ratio of prenasal thickness (PT) to nasal bone length (NBL) in normal and trisomy-21 fetuses in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The PT and NBL were measured retrospectively in 106 normal fetuses (in three-dimensional (3D) volumes) and in 30 fetuses with trisomy 21 (10 on two-dimensional (2D) images and 20 in 3D volumes). In normal fetuses the mean PT and NBL increased between 15 and 33 weeks' gestation from 2.3 to 6.1 mm (r = 0.85, P < 0.001) and from 3.3 to 9.6 mm (r = 0.87, P < 0.001), respectively. The PT : NBL ratio was stable throughout gestation, with a mean of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.59-0.63; r = - 0.04, P = 0.7). The 5(th) and 95(th) percentiles were 0.48 and 0.80, respectively. In trisomy-21 fetuses the mean PT and NBL increased between 14 and 34 weeks from 3.0 to 9.2 mm (r = 0.86, P < 0.001) and from 1.9 to 7.8 mm (r = 0.85, P < 0.001), respectively. The PT : NBL ratio was significantly higher than in normal fetuses (P < 0.001) but also stable throughout gestation, with a mean of 1.50 (95% CI, 1.20-1.80; r = - 0.35, P = 0.07). Twenty-three (77%) of the 30 fetuses with trisomy 21 had a PT above the 95(th) percentile and 20 (67%) had an NBL below the 5(th) percentile. All the trisomy-21 fetuses had a PT : NBL ratio above the 95(th) percentile. When the 95(th) percentile of the PT : NBL ratio was used as a cut-off value the detection and false positive rates for trisomy 21 were 100 (95% CI, 89-100)% and 5 (95% CI, 2-11)%, respectively. The positive likelihood ratio was 21.2. The PT : NBL ratio is stable in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy in both normal and trisomy-21 fetuses, but all trisomy-21 fetuses in this series had a PT : NBL ratio above the 95(th) percentile. The ratio is therefore a strong marker for trisomy 21. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. CXCR6 identifies a putative population of retained human lung T cells characterised by co-expression of activation markers.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Angela J; Guillen, Cristina; Symon, Fiona A; Birring, Surinder S; Campbell, James J; Wardlaw, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Expressions of activation markers have been described on the surface of T cells in the blood and the lung in both health and disease. We have studied the distribution of activation markers on human lung T cells and have found that only certain populations exist. Importantly, the presence or absence of some markers appears to predict those of others, in particular cells which express CD103 also express CD49a and CD69, whereas cells which do not express CD69 also do not express CD49a or CD103. In view of the paucity of activation marker expression in the peripheral blood, we have hypothesised that these CD69+, CD49a+, and CD103+ (triple positive) cells are retained in the lung, possess effector function (IFNgamma secretion) and express particular chemokine receptors which allow them to be maintained in this environment. We have found that the ability of the triple negative cells to secrete IFNgamma is significantly less than the triple positive cells, suggesting that the expression of activation markers can highlight a highly specialised effector cell. We have studied the expression of 14 chemokine receptors and have found that the most striking difference between the triple negative cells and the triple positive cells is the expression of CXCR6 with 12.8+/-9.8% of triple negative cells expressing CXCR6 compared to 89.5+/-5.5% of triple positive cells. We propose therefore that CXCR6 may play an important role in the retention of T cells within the lung.

  3. The effect of 7 days of letrozole pretreatment combined with misoprostol on the expression of progesterone receptor and apoptotic factors of placental and decidual tissues from first-trimester abortion: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yung, Sofie Shuk Fei; Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Chiu, Philip Chi Ngong; Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Ho, Pak Chung

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate if letrozole-induced suppression of estradiol reduces progesterone receptor expression and apoptosis in the first-trimester placenta. We performed a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We randomized 20 women requesting first-trimester abortion with gestation up to 63 days to receive either letrozole 10 mg daily or placebo pretreatment for 7 days before administrating 400 mcg of vaginal misoprostol followed by suction abortion. We collected the placental and decidual tissues on which we performed immunohistochemical staining for progesterone receptor and apoptotic markers (active caspase 3, caspase 3, Bcl2, CD95, fas ligand) and determined H-scores of each based on the intensities of staining. We performed terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay for apoptosis in the samples of four women to confirm the findings from apoptotic markers. We excluded one woman in the letrozole group from the analysis because she had passage of abortus after taking letrozole, leaving 19 women (9 in the letrozole group, 10 in the placebo group) for analysis. There was no significant difference in the H-scorings of progesterone receptor and apoptotic markers, as well as proportion of apoptotic cells on TUNEL assay between the two groups. The H-scores for the progesterone receptor were 8.17 ± 2.67 (mean ± SD) in the letrozole group and 9.01 ± 2.82 in the placebo group (p=0.36). We did not detect a difference in the expression of progesterone receptor and apoptotic markers in placental and decidual tissues after letrozole pretreatment for 7 days in first-trimester abortion. We did not confirm the hypothesis that letrozole reduces progesterone receptor expression and induces apoptosis in the first-trimester placenta. Further studies are required to allow better understanding of the mechanism by which estrogen suppression following the use of letrozole can lead to improved abortion rate in the first

  4. PT/NBL ratio assessment at mid-trimester in prenatal screening for Down syndrome in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Zhen, Li; Pan, Min; Han, Jin; Li, Dongzhi; Liao, Can

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the ratio of prenasal thickness (PT) to nasal bone length (NBL) in normal and trisomy 21 fetuses in the second and third trimester in Chinese population. The NBL and PT were measured blindly by using 3D volumes in 143 normal fetuses and 31 trisomy 21 fetuses. The mean PT (r = 0.83, p = 0.004) and NBL (r = 0.87, p = 0.0062) both increased with the gestation age, while the PT/NBL ratio (r = 0.12, p > 0.10) remained stable. There was significant difference between normal and trisomy 21 fetuses (p < 0.001). If we took the 95th of the normal fetuses as the cut-off value, the detection rate was only 46%. By using ROC curve to evaluate the screening value of PT/NBL ratio, the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.94, p < 0.0001). In Chinese population, the PT/NBL ratio is not a very strong ultrasound marker to predict trisomy 21 fetuses. However, it can be used as an ultrasound marker for Down syndrome screening during the second and third trimester of pregnancy.

  5. Do Women Presenting for First and Second-Trimester Abortion Differ Socio-Demographically?

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, P; Agarwal, P; Zutshi, V; Batra, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: To identify the socio-demographic differences between a sample of women who present for first-trimester and second-trimester abortion. Aim: To determine whether women presenting late (in the second trimester) for abortion differ socio-demographically from those presenting early (in the first trimester). Materials and Methods: Data over 4 years for women presenting for second-trimester abortion were collected from the records of Family Planning Clinic at a public tertiary level teaching hospital in India. Eighty-four cases were analysed. The case presenting for first-trimester abortion after each second-trimester abortion was included for comparison. Information was gathered concerning age, parity, educational background, employment status, educational background of the husband, family expenditure and religion. Data were statistically analysed and significance determined using logistic regression analysis. Results: Second-trimester abortions represented 2% (84/4254) of all abortions in the study period. More women of higher age (P = 0.03) and parity (P = 0.02) and higher educational status (P = 0.04) presented for second-trimester abortion as compared to first-trimester abortion. The occupational status of the woman, husband's educational background, monthly family expenditure per person and religion did not significantly influence the time of presentation for abortion. Conclusion: Second-trimester abortions are associated with both increasing age and parity and higher education. This group of educated, older and multiparous women should be one of those targeted for counseling to reduce the risks associated with second trimester abortion. PMID:23919187

  6. Court upholds limits on second-trimester abortions.

    PubMed

    1979-08-01

    On May 21 a New Jersey superior court ruled that regulations limiting the performance of 2nd trimester abortions on an outpatient basis are within a state's purview. This decision upholds the "termination of pregnancy rule" issued by the New Jersey State Board of Medical Examiners in 1978. This rule provides that beyond the 1st trimester and within a period not exceeding 16 menstrual weeks and/or 14 gestational weeks, abortions by the dilation and evacuation method may be performed in a hopsital or licensed clinic on an outpatient basis. 2nd trimester abortions performed by any other method or beyond the specific period must be performed in a hospital on an inpatient basis. Responding to the argument that the regulation unconstitutionally infringed on a woman's right to seek an abortion, the court maintained, pursuant to Roe v. Wade, that beyond the 1st trimester, the state has a "compelling" interest in safeguarding the woman's health and safety and may issue regulations "reasonably related" to realizing that interest.

  7. First trimester combined screening biochemistry in detection of congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Alanen, Julia; Korpimaki, Teemu; Kouru, Heikki; Sairanen, Mikko; Leskinen, Markku; Gissler, Mika; Ryynanen, Markku; Nevalainen, Jaana

    2018-04-22

    To evaluate the performance of first trimester biochemical markers, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (fβ-hCG), and nuchal translucency (NT) in detection of severe congenital heart defects (CHDs). During the study period from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2011, biochemical markers and NT were measured in 31,144 women as part of voluntary first trimester screening program for Down's syndrome in Northern Finland. Data for 71 severe CHD cases and 762 controls were obtained from the hospital records and from the National Medical Birth Register, which records the birth of all liveborn and stillborn infants, and from the National Register of Congenital Malformations that receives information about all the CHD cases diagnosed in Finland. Both PAPP-A and fβ-hCG multiple of median (MoM) values were decreased in all severe CHDs: 0.71 and 0.69 in ventricular septal defects (VSDs), 0.58 and 0.88 in tetralogy of Fallot cases (TOFs), 0.82 and 0.89 in hypoplastic left heart syndromes (HLHSs), and 0.88 and 0.96 in multiple defects, respectively. NT was increased in all study groups except of VSD group. ROC AUC was 0.72 for VSD when combining prior risk with PAPP-A and fβ-hCG. Adding NT did not improve the detection rate. With normal NT but decreased (<0.5 MoM) PAPP-A and fβ-hCG odds ratios for VSD and HLHS were 19.5 and 25.6, respectively. Maternal serum biochemistry improves the detection of CHDs compared to NT measurement only. In cases with normal NT measurement but low concentrations of both PAPP-A and fβ-hCG, an alert for possible CHD, especially VSD, could be given with thorough examination of fetal heart in later ultrasound scans.

  8. First versus second trimester mean platelet volume and uric acid for prediction of preeclampsia in women at moderate and low risk.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Mohamed; Gaber, Wael; Shaheen, Abdelhamid; Nofal, Ahmed; Emara, Mahmoud; Gamal, Awni; Badr, Hassan

    2018-06-12

    To determine if second trimester mean platelet volume (MPV) and serum uric acid are reasonable predictors of preeclampsia (PE) or not, in patients at moderate and low risk. This prospective study was conducted on 9522 women at low or moderate risk for developing PE who underwent dual measurements of MPV and serum uric acid at late first trimester (10-12 weeks) and at second trimester (18-20 weeks) and subsequently divided into two groups; PE group (n = 286) who later developed PE and non-PE group (n = 9236). Test validity of MPV and serum uric acid was the primary outcome measure. Data were collected and analyzed. Second trimester MPV is a good predictor for development of PE at a cutoff value of 9.55 fL with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.86, sensitivity of 95.2%, specificity of 66.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 87%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 85.7%, and accuracy of 86.7%. Second trimester serum uric acid is a good predictor for development of PE at a cutoff value of 7.35 mg/dL, with AUC of 0.85, sensitivity of 95.2%, specificity of 55.6%, PPV of 83.3%, NPV of 83.3%, and accuracy of 83.3%. Combination of both tests has a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 22.2%, PPV of 75%, NPV of 100%, and accuracy of 76.7%. Second trimester MPV and serum uric acid alone or in combination could be used as a useful biochemical markers for prediction of PE based on their validity, simplicity, and availability.

  9. Decreased first trimester PAPP-A is a predictor of adverse pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Yaron, Yuval; Heifetz, Sigal; Ochshorn, Yifat; Lehavi, Ofer; Orr-Urtreger, Avi

    2002-09-01

    Low levels of maternal serum pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) have been linked to chromosome anomalies such as trisomy 21, 13 and 18, triploidy and sex chromosome aneuploidy. Low levels of PAPP-A have also been implicated in spontaneous miscarriage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether low levels of first trimester PAPP-A are predictive of other adverse pregnancy outcomes. The study included patients with singleton pregnancies who underwent combined first trimester screening using nuchal translucency (NT) and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (free beta-hCG) and PAPP-A at 10-13 weeks' gestation. Patients with chromosome aberrations or fetal anomalies were excluded. Serum marker levels were expressed as gestational age-specific multiples of the median (MoMs). The incidences of various adverse pregnancy outcomes (spontaneous preterm labor, fetal growth restriction (FGR), proteinuric and non-proteinuric pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), intrauterine fetal demise, oligohydramnios, spontaneous miscarriage and placental abruption) were evaluated, according to maternal PAPP-A MoM levels. Of the 1622 patients in the study, pregnancy complications were observed in 184 (11.3%). Patients with PAPP-A < or =0.25 MoM had significantly higher rates of FGR (RR = 3.12), proteinuric PIH (RR = 6.09), spontaneous miscarriage (RR = 8.76). No statistically significant differences were noted for other adverse outcomes evaluated Women with PAPP-A < or =0.50 MoM also had significantly higher rates of FGR (RR = 3.30) and spontaneous miscarriage (RR = 3.78). We conclude that decreased levels of first trimester maternal serum PAPP-A are predictive not only of chromosome anomalies but also of adverse pregnancy outcome. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Second-trimester biparietal diameter/nasal bone length ratio is an independent predictor of trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Tran, Lan T; Carr, Darcy B; Mitsumori, Lee M; Uhrich, Stefanie B; Shields, Laurence E

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the second-trimester fetal biparietal diameter/nasal bone length (BPD/NBL) ratio and trisomy 21. Thirty-one cases of trisomy 21 for which complete ultrasound images included the nasal bone were identified from the University of Washington prenatal diagnosis database and matched to 136 euploid fetuses based on maternal age, indication for referral, and gestational age. The mean NBL was shorter (mean +/- SD, 2.3+/-1.7 mm versus 3.9+/-1.2 mm; P<.001) and the BPD/NBL ratio was greater (17.7 [range, 6.2-114] versus 11.7 [range, 5.8-80]; P<.001) in the fetuses with trisomy 21. The risk of trisomy 21 increased 2.4-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.4) with every 1-mm decrease in NBL and increased 1.08-fold (95% CI, 1.03-1.12) with each unit increase in the BPD/NBL ratio (P<.001). A multiple logistic regression model was constructed and included the BPD/NBL ratio, maternal indications (age>or=35 years, positive serum screening results, or both, yielding a risk of <1 per 270 for trisomy 21), and sonographic markers as covariates. The BPD/NBL ratio was found to be an independent predictor of trisomy 21 (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11). An analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves revealed an improvement after the BPD/NBL ratio was added to a model containing the current second-trimester screening based on maternal age, serum screening, and sonographic markers (receiver operating characteristic curve area, mean +/-SE, 0.89+/-0.03 for the model with the BPD/NBL ratio versus 0.76+/- 0.06 without the BPD/NBL ratio; P=.009). The second-trimester BPD/NBL ratio was a significant and independent predictor of trisomy 21. An assessment of the BPD/NBL ratio may improve the diagnosis of trisomy 21 when used with current prenatal screening practices.

  11. Ultrasound detection of placenta accreta in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Sharbaf, Fatemeh; Jamal, Ashraf; Mesdaghinia, Elaheh; Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi, Masoumeh; Niroomanesh, Shirin; Atoof, Fatemeh

    2014-06-01

    Placenta accreta is considered a life-threatening condition and the main cause of maternal mortality. Prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta usually is made by clinical presentation, imaging studies like ultrasound and MRI in the second and third trimester. To determine accuracy of ultrasound findings for placenta accreta in the first trimester of pregnancy. In a longitudinal study 323 high risk patients for placenta accreta were assessed. The eligible women were examined by vaginal and abdominal ultrasound for gestational sac and placental localization and they were followed up until the end of pregnancy. The ultrasound findings were compared with histopathological examinations as a gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of ultrasound were estimated for the first trimester and compared with other 2 trimesters in the case of repeated ultrasound examination. Ultrasound examinations in the first trimester revealed that 28 cases had the findings in favor of placenta accreta which ultimately was confirmed in 7 cases. The ultrasound sensitivity and specificity for detecting placenta accreta in the first trimester was 41% [95% CI: 16.2-62.7] and 88% [95% CI: 88.2-94.6] respectively. Ultrasound screening for placenta accreta in the first trimester of pregnancy could not achieve the high sensitivity as second and third trimester of pregnancy.

  12. Surgical abortion in second trimester: initial experiences in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, V; Bajracharya, L; Thapa, S

    2010-01-01

    In spite of legalising abortion and making safe abortion available at affordable price at accessible distance to almost everyone, unsafe abortion especially second trimester abortion is still a big health problem in Nepal. The objective of the study is to fi nd the demographic profile, reasons for seeking abortion and to see the effectiveness of Misoprostol in preparing the cervix. A prospective study was done in the two second trimester abortion trainings conducted in Maternity hospital, Kathmandu. Total 57 clients had second trimester abortion performed. Information was collected from structured questionnaire and then data was analysed. Commonest reason for seeking abortion was, multiparity (61.4%). Common reasons for second trimester abortion were, completed family size with unwanted pregnancy (61.4%), unwanted pregnancy in married (10.52%) unwanted pregnancy in unmarried (5.26%). Second trimester abortion is one of the most common procedures performed in reproductive-aged women and when performed by a skilled provider in the appropriate setting, it is one of the safest surgeries, if it is well supported by change in policy of the country and acceptability of the people.

  13. Ultrasound detection of placenta accreta in the first trimester of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi-Sharbaf, Fatemeh; Jamal, Ashraf; Mesdaghinia, Elaheh; Abedzadeh- Kalahroudi, Masoumeh; Niroomanesh, Shirin; Atoof, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Placenta accreta is considered a life-threatening condition and the main cause of maternal mortality. Prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta usually is made by clinical presentation, imaging studies like ultrasound and MRI in the second and third trimester. Objective: To determine accuracy of ultrasound findings for placenta accreta in the first trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In a longitudinal study 323 high risk patients for placenta accreta were assessed. The eligible women were examined by vaginal and abdominal ultrasound for gestational sac and placental localization and they were followed up until the end of pregnancy. The ultrasound findings were compared with histopathological examinations as a gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of ultrasound were estimated for the first trimester and compared with other 2 trimesters in the case of repeated ultrasound examination. Results: Ultrasound examinations in the first trimester revealed that 28 cases had the findings in favor of placenta accreta which ultimately was confirmed in 7 cases. The ultrasound sensitivity and specificity for detecting placenta accreta in the first trimester was 41% [95% CI: 16.2-62.7] and 88% [95% CI: 88.2-94.6] respectively. Conclusion: Ultrasound screening for placenta accreta in the first trimester of pregnancy could not achieve the high sensitivity as second and third trimester of pregnancy. PMID:25071851

  14. Prediction of first-trimester preeclampsia: Relevance of the oxidative stress marker MDA in a combination model with PP-13, PAPP-A and beta-HCG.

    PubMed

    Asiltas, Burak; Surmen-Gur, Esma; Uncu, Gurkan

    2018-02-27

    Early diagnosis of preeclampsia (PE) is very important and various parameters, individually or in combined models, are reported useful for prediction of PE. The objective of this study is to investigate the predictive value of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), placental protein-13 (PP-13), human Chorionic Gonadotropin (B-HCG), and oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA), individually and in combination. Maternal sera of 38 cases with PE and 122 controls were collected for first trimester screening and tested for PAPP-A and B-HCG by chemiluminescence, for PP-13 by using ELISA, and for MDA by high-performance liquid chromatography. Combined models of parameters were constituted as "MDA + PP-13", "PP-13 + PAPP-A + B-HCG" and "MDA + PP-13 + PAPP-A + B-HCG". The diagnostic performances of serum markers of preeclampsia were examined by nonparametric receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) analysis. PP-13 levels were significantly lower (p < 0.001) and MDA levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in PE. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for MDA and PP-13 were greater than those for PAPP-A and B-HCG (p < 0.001). The AUCs of the combined models were significantly larger than those of individual parameters. The combined model "MDA + PP-13 + PAPP-A + B-HCG" exhibited the best predictive outcome with an AUC of 0.91 [95% CI 0.86-0.95], 97% [95% CI 86.2-99.9] sensitivity and 75% [95% CI 66.5-82.6] specificity, and was significantly different from that of "PAPP-A + PP-13 + B-HCG" model, but similar to that of "MDA + PP-13" model. Combined models consisting of various parameters of different origin, may provide better predictive outcomes, and oxidative markers should be considered in combination with other placental biomarkers in prediction of PE. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cervical dilation before first-trimester surgical abortion (<14 weeks' gestation).

    PubMed

    Allen, Rebecca H; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-04-01

    First-trimester surgical abortion is a common, safe procedure with a major complication rate of less than 1%. Cervical dilation before suction abortion is usually accomplished using tapered mechanical dilators. Risk factors for major complications in the first trimester include increasing gestational age and provider inexperience. Cervical priming before first-trimester surgical abortion has been studied using osmotic dilators and pharmacologic agents, most commonly misoprostol. Extensive data demonstrate that a variety of agents are safe and effective at causing preoperative cervical softening and dilation; however, given the small absolute risk of complications, the benefit of routine use of misoprostol or osmotic dilators in first-trimester surgical abortion is unclear. Although cervical priming results in reduced abortion time and improved provider ease, it requires a delay of at least 1 to 3 h and may confer side effects. The Society of Family Planning does not recommend routine cervical priming for first-trimester suction abortion but recommends limiting consideration of cervical priming for women at increased risk of complications from cervical dilation, including those late in the first trimester, adolescents and women in whom cervical dilation is expected to be challenging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin D compounds inhibit cancer stem-like cells and induce differentiation in triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shan, Naing Lin; Wahler, Joseph; Lee, Hong Jin; Bak, Min Ji; Gupta, Soumyasri Das; Maehr, Hubert; Suh, Nanjoo

    2017-10-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is one of the least responsive breast cancer subtypes to available targeted therapies due to the absence of hormonal receptors, aggressive phenotypes, and the high rate of relapse. Early breast cancer prevention may therefore play an important role in delaying the progression of triple-negative breast cancer. Cancer stem cells are a subset of cancer cells that are thought to be responsible for tumor progression, treatment resistance, and metastasis. We have previously shown that vitamin D compounds, including a Gemini vitamin D analog BXL0124, suppress progression of ductal carcinoma in situ in vivo and inhibit cancer stem-like cells in MCF10DCIS mammosphere cultures. In the present study, the effects of vitamin D compounds in regulating breast cancer stem-like cells and differentiation in triple-negative breast cancer were assessed. Mammosphere cultures, which enriches for breast cancer cells with stem-like properties, were used to assess the effects of 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 and BXL0124 on cancer stem cell markers in the triple-negative breast cancer cell line, SUM159. Vitamin D compounds significantly reduced the mammosphere forming efficiency in primary, secondary and tertiary passages of mammospheres compared to control groups. Key markers of cancer stem-like phenotype and pluripotency were analyzed in mammospheres treated with 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 and BXL0124. As a result, OCT4, CD44 and LAMA5 levels were decreased. The vitamin D compounds also down-regulated the Notch signaling molecules, Notch1, Notch2, Notch3, JAG1, JAG2, HES1 and NFκB, which are involved in breast cancer stem cell maintenance. In addition, the vitamin D compounds up-regulated myoepithelial differentiating markers, cytokeratin 14 and smooth muscle actin, and down-regulated the luminal marker, cytokeratin 18. Cytokeratin 5, a biomarker associated with basal-like breast cancer, was found to be significantly down-regulated by the vitamin D compounds. These results suggest

  17. Air Pollution Exposure and Markers of Placental Growth and Function: The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierik, Frank H.; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Hofman, Albert; van Ratingen, Sjoerd W.; Zandveld, Peter Y.J.; Russcher, Henk; Lindemans, Jan; Miedema, Henk M.E.; Steegers, Eric A.P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure during pregnancy might affect placental growth and function, perhaps leading to pregnancy complications. Objective: We prospectively evaluated the associations of maternal air pollution exposure with markers of placental growth and function among 7,801 pregnant women in the Netherlands. Methods: We estimated levels of particulate matter ≤ 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at the home address for different periods during pregnancy using dispersion modeling techniques. Pro- and anti-angiogenic factors [placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), respectively] were measured in first- and second-trimester maternal blood and in fetal cord blood samples at delivery. Pulsatility index of the uterine and umbilical arteries was measured by Doppler ultrasound in second and third trimester, and notching was assessed in third trimester. Placenta weight and birth weight were obtained from medical records. Results: Higher PM10 and NO2 exposure levels were associated with lower second-trimester maternal sFlt-1 and PlGF levels. PM10 and NO2 exposures averaged over total pregnancy were associated with higher sFlt-1 and lower PlGF levels in fetal cord blood, consistent with an anti-angiogenic state. PM10 and NO2 exposures were not consistently associated with second- or third-trimester placental resistance indices. NO2 exposure was associated with third-trimester notching (odds ratio 1.33; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.78 per 10-µg/m3 increase in the prior 2 months). PM10 and NO2 exposures were associated with lower placenta weight (–11.8 g; 95% CI: –20.9, –2.7, and –10.7 g; 95% CI: –19.0, –2.4, respectively, per 10-µg/m3 increase in the prior 2 months), but not with placenta to birth weight ratio. Conclusions: Our results suggest that maternal air pollution exposure may influence markers of placental growth and function. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and

  18. Inflammatory Markers Related to Microbial Translocation Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women: A Risk Factor of Preterm Delivery.

    PubMed

    López, Marta; Figueras, Francesc; Coll, Oriol; Goncé, Anna; Hernández, Sandra; Loncá, Montse; Vila, Jordi; Gratacós, Eduard; Palacio, Montse

    2016-02-01

    This study was performed to assess the role of lipopolysaccharide modulators as a marker of microbial translocation among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women during pregnancy and to evaluate their association with preterm delivery. The study had a prospective cohort design and was performed at the Hospital Clínic in Barcelona, Spain. Thirty-six pregnant women with and 36 without HIV infection, matched on the basis of age and parity, were included. Maternal blood samples were obtained during the first trimester, during the third trimester, and at delivery. Levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14), human lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), immunoglobulin M endotoxin core antibodies to lipopolysaccharide (EndoCAb), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were determined. Fetal cord blood levels of sCD14, LBP, and IL-6 were determined. Results were compared between groups. First trimester sCD14 and LBP levels and third trimester sCD14 levels were significantly higher in the HIV-infected group. HIV-infected women with preterm births and spontaneous preterm births had significantly increased levels of sCD14 throughout pregnancy and significantly increased levels of LBP during the first trimester, compared with HIV-infected women with delivery at term or with HIV-negative women. On multivariate analysis, an independent association was observed between first trimester sCD14 levels and preterm delivery among HIV-infected women. This is the first study to assess inflammatory markers related to microbial translocation during pregnancy among HIV-infected women. Higher levels of sCD14 and LBP were observed in HIV-infected pregnant women and were associated with preterm delivery. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A levels in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy: relation to newborn anthropometric parameters and maternal tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Chełchowska, Magdalena; Gajewska, Joanna; Mazur, Joanna; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Maciejewski, Tomasz M; Leibschang, Jerzy

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations of the first, second and third trimester serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) concentrations with neonatal anthropometric parameters. The effect of tobacco smoking during pregnancy on PAPP-A level was also studied. One hundred and fifty healthy pregnant women were divided into smoking and tobacco-abstinent groups. Serum PAPP-A level was measured with the KRYPTOR rapid random-access immunoassay analyzer. The relationship between PAPP-A and newborn related outcome as well as markers of estimated intensity of cigarette smoking was evaluated by univariate and multivariate linear regression. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A concentration was positively correlated with birth weight in the first (β = 31.6; p < 0.001), second (β = 10.6; p < 0.05), and third (β = 4.6; p < 0.001) trimester of gestation. A significant association between PAPP-A and birth body length and head circumference in the second (β = 0.02; p < 0.05) and third trimester (β = 0.01; p < 0.01) was also found. The serum PAPP-A levels were significantly lower in the smoking than in the tobacco-abstinent group in each trimester of pregnancy ( p < 0.001). The largest impact of the number of cigarettes smoked per day on PAPP-A level was found in the second (β = -1.2; p = 0.004) and third trimester (β = -2.6; p = 0.001). Maternal serum PAPP-A levels during gestation might be significant predictors for birth weight. Increased PAPP-A concentrations in the second and third trimester appeared to also be predictive for newborn body length and head circumference. Smoking alters maternal PAPP-A levels in all trimesters, with the greatest impact related to the number of cigarettes smoked per day.

  20. Psychological factors and trimester-specific gestational weight gain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia; Gaston, Anca; Van Blyderveen, Sherry; Schmidt, Louis; Beyene, Joseph; McDonald, Helen; McDonald, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Excess gestational weight gain (GWG), which has reached epidemic proportions, is associated with numerous adverse pregnancy outcomes. Early pregnancy provides a unique opportunity for counseling pregnant women since many women are motivated to engage in healthy behaviors. A systematic review was conducted to summarize the relation between psychological factors and trimester-specific GWG, i.e. GWG measured at the end of each trimester. Eight databases were searched for affect, cognition and personality factors. The guidelines on meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology were followed. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Of 3620 non-duplicate titles and abstracts, 74 articles underwent full-text review. Two cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Distress was negatively associated with first trimester GWG among both adolescents and non-adolescents. Body image dissatisfaction was associated with second trimester GWG only among non-adolescents. No association emerged between perceived stress, state and trait anxiety and body image dissatisfaction among adolescents and trimester-specific GWG. The relation between trimester-specific GWG and a number of weight-related and dietary-related cognitions, affective states and personality traits remain unexplored. Given the limited number of studies, further high-quality evidence is required to examine the association between psychological factors and trimester-specific GWG, especially for cognitive and personality factors.

  1. Association between first-trimester vaginal bleeding and miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Reem; Baird, Donna D; Herring, Amy H; Olshan, Andrew F; Jonsson Funk, Michele L; Hartmann, Katherine E

    2009-10-01

    To estimate the strength of association between first-trimester bleeding and miscarriage, setting aside bleeding at time of loss. Women enrolled in a community-based pregnancy cohort study before or during early pregnancy. Detailed first-trimester bleeding data were collected by telephone interview. Bleeding episodes proximal to miscarriage (within 4 days) were excluded. We used discrete-time hazard models to evaluate the association between bleeding and miscarriage. Models were adjusted for maternal age, prior miscarriage, and smoking. Exploratory regression tree analysis was used to evaluate the relative importance of other bleeding characteristics (duration, associated pain, color, timing). Of the 4,510 participants, 1,204 (27%) reported some first-trimester vaginal bleeding or spotting, and 517 miscarriages were observed. Eight percent of those with bleeding reported heavy bleeding episodes. When we evaluated any bleeding, including episodes of only spotting, the unadjusted relative odds ratio (OR) of miscarriage for women with bleeding (n=1,204) was 1.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9-1.3). However, women who reported heavy bleeding (n=97) had nearly three times the risk of miscarriage compared with women without bleeding during the first trimester (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.9-4.6). Adjustment for covariates had little effect on estimates. Further analyses suggested that women with heavy bleeding accompanied by pain were the group accounting for most of the elevated risk. Heavy bleeding in the first trimester, particularly when accompanied by pain, is associated with higher risk of miscarriage. Spotting and light episodes are not, especially if lasting only 1-2 days. II.

  2. Patterns and predictors of vaginal bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Reem; Baird, Donna D.; Herring, Amy H.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Jonsson Funk, Michele L.; Hartmann, Katherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Although first-trimester vaginal bleeding is an alarming symptom, few studies have investigated the prevalence and predictors of early bleeding. This study characterizes first trimester bleeding, setting aside bleeding that occurs at time of miscarriage. Methods Participants (n=4539) were women ages 18–45 enrolled in Right From the Start, a community-based pregnancy study (2000–2008). Bleeding information included timing, heaviness, duration, color, and associated pain, as well as recurrence risk in subsequent pregnancies. Life table analyses were used to describe gestational timing of bleeding. Factors associated with bleeding were investigated using multiple logistic regression, with multiple imputation for missing data. Results Approximately one-fourth of participants (n=1207) reported bleeding (n=1656 episodes), but only 8% of women with bleeding reported heavy bleeding. Of the spotting and light bleeding episodes (n=1555), 28% were associated with pain. Among heavy episodes (n=100), 54% were associated with pain. Most episodes lasted less than 3 days, and most occurred between gestational weeks 5–8. Twelve percent of women with bleeding and 13% of those without experienced miscarriage. Maternal characteristics associated with bleeding included fibroids and prior miscarriage. Conclusions Consistent with the hypothesis that bleeding is a marker for placental dysfunction, bleeding is most likely to be seen around the time of the luteal-placental shift. PMID:20538195

  3. A positive immunoselection method to isolate villous cytotrophoblast cells from first trimester and term placenta to high purity.

    PubMed

    Pötgens, A J G; Kataoka, H; Ferstl, S; Frank, H-G; Kaufmann, P

    2003-04-01

    We developed a method for isolating highly pure villous cytotrophoblast cells from first trimester and term placenta that excludes extravillous trophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast fragments. The method is based on positive immunoselection using an antibody (mAb C76/18) reacting with hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor 1, HAI-1, a membrane antigen on villous cytotrophoblast. As a comparison, we also immunopurified cells using an antibody against CD105, present on syncytiotrophoblast and some extravillous trophoblast cells. The isolates were characterized by flow cytometry. HAI-1-positive cells from first trimester and term placentae were highly pure (>98 per cent cytokeratin 7-positive) mononuclear trophoblast cells. These isolations were contaminated with only very small percentages of vimentin and CD45-positive cells. HAI-1-positive trophoblast cells lacked CD105 and also HLA class I, a marker for extravillous trophoblast. In culture HAI-1-positive cells adhered, displayed an epithelial morphology, and survived for more than three days. In contrast, CD105-positive cell fractions from first trimester placenta were a heterogeneous mixture of mononuclear and multinuclear elements consisting of syncytiotrophoblast fragments, extravillous trophoblast cells, as well as around 5 per cent non-trophoblastic contaminants. In conclusion, the positive immunoselection method using antibody C76/18 yielded highly pure villous cytotrophoblast cells devoid of elements derived from syncytiotrophoblast or extravillous trophoblast.

  4. Factors associated with second trimester abortion in rural Maharashtra and Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Zavier, A J Francis; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Kalyanwala, Shveta

    2012-01-01

    Many married women in India experience abortion in their second trimester of pregnancy. While there is an impression that second trimester abortions are now overwhelmingly used for sex selection, little is known about the extent to which second trimester abortions are indeed associated with son preference and sex selection motives, relative to other factors. Using data from a community-based study in rural Maharashtra and Rajasthan, research highlights the role of limited access in explaining second trimester abortion. While women with a single child who was a daughter were indeed more likely than other women to have terminated a pregnancy carrying a female foetus in the second trimester, more strikingly, exclusion from abortion-related decision-making, unsuccessful prior attempts to terminate the pregnancy, and distance from the facility in which their abortion was performed, were significantly associated with second trimester abortion, even after controlling for confounding factors. The study calls for greater efficiency in implementing the PCPNDT Act and addressing deep-rooted son preference. At the same time, findings that poverty and limited access to facilities are as, if not more, important drivers of second trimester abortion, highlight the need to meet commitments to ensure accessible abortion facilities for poor rural women.

  5. First trimester prediction of maternal glycemic status.

    PubMed

    Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat; Doyle, Lauren E; Blitzer, Miriam; Baschat, Ahmet A

    2015-05-01

    To predict gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or normoglycemic status using first trimester maternal characteristics. We used data from a prospective cohort study. First trimester maternal characteristics were compared between women with and without GDM. Association of these variables with sugar values at glucose challenge test (GCT) and subsequent GDM was tested to identify key parameters. A predictive algorithm for GDM was developed and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to derive the optimal risk score. We defined normoglycemic state, when GCT and all four sugar values at oral glucose tolerance test, whenever obtained, were normal. Using same statistical approach, we developed an algorithm to predict the normoglycemic state. Maternal age, race, prior GDM, first trimester BMI, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were all significantly associated with GDM. Age, BMI, and SBP were also associated with GCT values. The logistic regression analysis constructed equation and the calculated risk score yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 85%, 62%, 13.8%, and 98.3% for a cut-off value of 0.042, respectively (ROC-AUC - area under the curve 0.819, CI - confidence interval 0.769-0.868). The model constructed for normoglycemia prediction demonstrated lower performance (ROC-AUC 0.707, CI 0.668-0.746). GDM prediction can be achieved during the first trimester encounter by integration of maternal characteristics and basic measurements while normoglycemic status prediction is less effective.

  6. Assessment of thyroid function during first-trimester pregnancy: what is the rational upper limit of serum TSH during the first trimester in Chinese pregnant women?

    PubMed

    Li, Chenyan; Shan, Zhongyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Zhou, Weiwei; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Bi, Lihua; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Liu; Fan, Chenling; Teng, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) proposed that the upper limit of the TSH reference range should be 2.5 mIU/L in first trimester, but the reported ranges in China are significantly higher. Our objective was to establish a rational reference range of serum TSH for diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism in the first trimester of pregnant women in China. We screened 4800 pregnant women in the first trimester and 2000 women who planned to become pregnant and evaluated 535 pregnant women in follow-up visits during the second and third trimester. Median concentrations of serum TSH decreased significantly from the seventh week of gestation. The median of TSH from 4 to 6 weeks was significantly higher than from 7 to 12 weeks (2.15 [0.56-5.31] mIU/L vs 1.47 [0.10-4.34] mIU/L, P<.001); however, there was no significant difference compared with nonpregnant women (2.07 [0.69-5.64] mIU/L; P=.784). The median of free T4 was not significantly altered in the first trimester. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the 4800 pregnant women was 27.8% on the diagnostic criteria of TSH>2.5 mIU/L and 4.0% using the reference interval derived by our laboratory (0.14-4.87 mIU/L).Additionally, of 118 pregnant women who had serum TSH>2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester, only 30.0% and 20.3% of them at the 20th and 30th week of gestation had TSH>3.0 mIU/L. The reference range for nonpregnant women can be used for the assessment of pregnant women at 4 to 6 weeks of gestation. The upper limit of serum TSH in the first trimester was much higher than 2.5 mIU/L in Chinese pregnant women.

  7. The proteomic landscape of triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Robert T; Perez, Elizabeth M; Hernández, Daniel; Miller, Chris P; Haas, Kelsey M; Irie, Hanna Y; Lee, Su-In; Blau, C Anthony; Villén, Judit

    2015-04-28

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by poor clinical outcomes and a shortage of targeted treatment options. To discover molecular features of triple-negative breast cancer, we performed quantitative proteomics analysis of twenty human-derived breast cell lines and four primary breast tumors to a depth of more than 12,000 distinct proteins. We used this data to identify breast cancer subtypes at the protein level and demonstrate the precise quantification of biomarkers, signaling proteins, and biological pathways by mass spectrometry. We integrated proteomics data with exome sequence resources to identify genomic aberrations that affect protein expression. We performed a high-throughput drug screen to identify protein markers of drug sensitivity and understand the mechanisms of drug resistance. The genome and proteome provide complementary information that, when combined, yield a powerful engine for therapeutic discovery. This resource is available to the cancer research community to catalyze further analysis and investigation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Hyperechogenic fetal bowel as a marker of fetal cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Sukupová, M; Dhaifalah, I; Adamík, Z; Havalová, J

    2015-01-01

    Hyperechogenic bowel (HB) occurs in 0.1 to 1.8% of normal pregnancies. In most cases it has no consequence for the foetus, but can be associated with cystic fibrosis (CF), chromosomal defects, genetic syndromes, viral infections, gastrointestinal pathology, missed gravidity, IUGR and preterm labour. Assessment the risk of the foetus having CF or other abnormalities when HB was detected during ultrasound screening in the second trimester of pregnancy in our centre. Retrospective study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Centre of Fetal Medicine and Genetics, KNTB a.s. Zlín. Retrospective analysis of 149 cases of HB between 17 to 22 weeks of pregnancy detected from January 2008 to April 2012. HB was evaluated according to its degree of echogenicity (Slotnik/Abuhamed classification), presence or absence of other ultrasound markers and the result of first trimester combined screening result. When stage II or III HB and/or borderline risk in first trimester screening, and presence of other ultrasound markers was detected, amniocentesis (AMC) was performed to investigate the karyotype, mutations in the CFTR gene and presence of viral infections (cytomegalovirus and parvovirus B19). If stage I or II HB and/or negative I. trimester screening and no other ultrasound markers, viral infections and mutations in the CFTR gene were investigated form maternal blood. If positive, paternal blood sampling testing for mutation in the CFTR gene was performed. If a mutation was detected in both parents, AMC was performed. Mutations of the CFTR gene was investigated with a commercial panel of 33 to 50 most common mutations. Postnatally the outcome of neonatal screening for CF(IRT) and any newborns with congenital malformations were ascertained. HB was seen in 149 foetuses, AMC was performed in 94 (63%), and blood sampling in 55 (37%). Two mutations in the CFTR gene associated with a severe form of CF (deltaF508/3849 KBC +10 T) were found in one foetus from the AMC group with

  9. Association Between First-Trimester Vaginal Bleeding and Miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Reem; Baird, Donna D.; Herring, Amy H.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Jonsson Funk, Michele L.; Hartmann, Katherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the strength of association between first-trimester bleeding and miscarriage, setting aside the bleeding at time of loss. Methods Women enrolled in a community-based pregnancy cohort study before or during early pregnancy. Detailed, first-trimester bleeding data were collected by telephone interview. Bleeding episodes proximal to miscarriage (within 4 days) were excluded. We used discrete-time hazard models to evaluate the association between bleeding and miscarriage. Models were adjusted for maternal age, prior miscarriage, and smoking. Exploratory regression tree analysis was used to evaluate the relative importance of other bleeding characteristics (duration, associated pain, color, timing). Results Of the 4510 participants, 1204 (27%) reported some first-trimester vaginal bleeding or spotting, and 517 miscarriages were observed. Eight percent of those with bleeding reported heavy bleeding episodes. When we evaluated any bleeding, including episodes of only spotting, the unadjusted relative odds (OR) of miscarriage for women with bleeding (n=1204) was 1.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9–1.3). However, women who reported heavy bleeding (n=97)had nearly three times the risk of miscarriage compared to women without bleeding during the first trimester (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.9–4.6). Adjustment for covariates had little effect on estimates. Further analyses suggested that women with heavy bleeding accompanied by pain were the group accounting for most of the elevated risk. Conclusion Heavy bleeding in the first trimester, particularly when accompanied by pain, is associated with higher risk of miscarriage. Spotting and light episodes are not, especially if only lasting 1–2 days.. PMID:19888046

  10. Metabolic markers during pregnancy and their association with maternal and newborn weight status.

    PubMed

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Reyes-López, Angélica; Tolentino-Dolores, Maricruz; Espino Y Sosa, Salvador; Ramírez-González, Ma Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Obesity during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse clinical outcomes and is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation. We describe maternal metabolic risk and inflammation by maternal weight status, and evaluate the association of metabolic and inflammatory markers with birthweight in a group of pregnant Mexican women. This study derived from a prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women <14 weeks of gestation, receiving prenatal care at National Institute of Perinatology (Mexico, 2009-2013). Metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured in maternal serum in all three pregnancy trimesters (1st: 11.42±1.7; 2nd: 21.06±2.4; 3rd: 32.74±2.3 weeks). Pregestational weight was self-reported, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Gestational weight gain was evaluated in the third trimester. Newborn´s weight was measured at birth. We carried out correlations, general mixed linear model and regression analyses, based on pregestational weight (self-reported), body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (evaluated in the third trimester) and newborn weight (measured at birth). Of the 177 women included in the study (mean age = 26.93±8.49), thirty-eight percent (n = 67) were overweight or had obesity, and 32.8% (n = 58) showed excessive gestational weight gain. We found insulin, lipids (including total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides-TG), leptin and interleukin 1b (IL-1b) all increased significantly (p<0.05) during pregnancy. Pregestational maternal weight status altered longitudinal concentrations of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, TG and C reactive protein. Excessive gestational weight gain was associated with higher maternal insulin in the third trimester (p<0.05). Early pregnancy leptin and TNFα were determinants of birthweight in women with normal weight, but not in overweight or obese women. Maternal weight status affected the concentrations of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, triglycerides and C reactive protein

  11. GATA3 expression in triple-negative breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Byrne, David J; Deb, Siddhartha; Takano, Elena A; Fox, Stephen B

    2017-07-01

    GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) is a well-studied transcription factor found to be essential in the development of luminal breast epithelium and has been identified in a variety of tumour types, including breast and urothelial carcinomas, making it a useful immunohistochemistry marker in the diagnosis of both primary and metastatic disease. We investigated GATA3 protein expression in a 106 primary triple-negative breast carcinomas (100 basal-like, six non-basal-like) using Cell Marque mouse monoclonal anti-GATA3 (L50-823). Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to quantify mRNA expression in 22 triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) (20 primary and two cell lines), four luminal (three primary and one cell line) and five human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (four primary and one cell line) amplified tumours. In 98 TNBCs where IHC was assessable, 47 (48%) had a 1+ or greater staining with 20 (21%) having high GATA3 expression when using a weighted scoring. Our study has demonstrated that GATA3 expression is common in primary triple-negative breast carcinomas. It also suggests that although GATA3 is an oestrogen receptor (ER) regulated gene, it still proves useful in differentiating between primary and metastatic tumours in patients with a history of breast cancer regardless of its molecular subtype. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Promoting Maternal and Infant Health in the 4th Trimester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbiest, Sarah B.; Tully, Kristin P.; Stuebe, Alison M.

    2017-01-01

    The "4th trimester" refers to the transition period after childbirth when infants are adjusting to life outside the womb and mothers are adjusting to new parenthood. This critical period is marked by significant biological, psychological, and social changes, which are currently insufficiently supported. The 4th trimester perspective…

  13. Screening of Obstructive Sleep Apnea during Pregnancy: Differences in Predictive Values of Questionnaires across Trimesters

    PubMed Central

    Tantrakul, Visasiri; Sirijanchune, Piyaporn; Panburana, Panyu; Pengjam, Janejira; Suwansathit, Worakot; Boonsarngsuk, Viboon; Guilleminault, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Evaluation of Berlin and Stop-Bang questionnaires in detecting obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) across trimesters of pregnancy. Methods: Pregnant women from a high-risk pregnancy clinic were recruited to complete sleep evaluations including Berlin and Stop-Bang questionnaires. Overnight testing with Watch-PAT200 for diagnosis of OSA (cutoff point of apneahypopnea index ≥ 5 events/h) was performed. Results: Seventy-two singleton pregnant women participated in the study. Enrollment consisted of 23, 24, and 25 women during first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Of 72 pregnancies, 23 patients (31.9%) had OSA. Prevalence of OSA classified by trimesters from first to third was 30.4%, 33.33%, and 32.0%, respectively. Overall predictive values of Berlin and Stop-Bang questionnaires were fair (ROC area under curve, AUC 0.72 for Berlin, p = 0.003; 0.75 for Stop-Bang, p = 0.001). When categorized according to trimesters, predictive values substantially improved in second (AUC: 0.84 for Berlin; 0.78 for Stop-Bang) and third trimesters (AUC: 0.81 for Berlin; 0.75 for Stop-Bang), whereas performances of both questionnaires during first trimester were poorer (AUC: 0.49 for Berlin; 0.71 for Stop-Bang). Multivariate analyses show that pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) in first trimester, snore often in second trimester, and weight gain and pregnancy BMI in third trimester were significantly associated with OSA. Conclusions: In high-risk pregnancy, Berlin and Stop-Bang questionnaires were of limited usefulness in the first trimester. However their predictive values are acceptable as pregnancy progresses, particularly in second trimester. OSA in pregnancy seems to be a dynamic process with different predictors association during each trimester. Citation: Trantrakul V, Sirijanchune P, Panburana P, Pengjam J, Suwansathit W, Boonsarngsuk V, Guilleminault C. Screening of obstructive sleep apnea during pregnancy: differences in predictive values of

  14. First-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities: advantages of an instant results approach.

    PubMed

    Norton, Mary E

    2010-09-01

    Protocols that include first trimester screening for fetal chromosome abnormalities have become standard of care throughout the United States. Earlier screening allows for first trimester diagnostic testing in cases found to be at increased risk. However, first trimester screening requires coordination of the nuchal translucency ultrasound screening (NT) and biochemical screening, during early, specific, narrow, but slightly different gestational age ranges. Instant results can often be provided at the time of the NT ultrasound if preceded by the programs that perform the biochemical analyses; this optimizes the benefits of the first trimester approach while improving efficiency and communication with the patient. This article discusses the benefits and logistics of such an approach. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. No. 360-Induced Abortion: Surgical Abortion and Second Trimester Medical Methods.

    PubMed

    Costescu, Dustin; Guilbert, Édith

    2018-06-01

    This guideline reviews evidence relating to the provision of surgical induced abortion (IA) and second trimester medical abortion, including pre- and post-procedural care. Gynaecologists, family physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, and other health care providers who currently or intend to provide and/or teach IAs. Women with an unintended or abnormal first or second trimester pregnancy. PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Database were searched using the key words: first-trimester surgical abortion, second-trimester surgical abortion, second-trimester medical abortion, dilation and evacuation, induction abortion, feticide, cervical preparation, cervical dilation, abortion complications. Results were restricted to English or French systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational studies published from 1979 to July 2017. National and international clinical practice guidelines were consulted for review. Grey literature was not searched. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology framework. The summary of findings is available upon request. IA is safe and effective. The benefits of IA outweigh the potential harms or costs. No new direct harms or costs identified with these guidelines. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. All rights reserved.

  16. First trimester serum tests for Down's syndrome screening.

    PubMed

    Alldred, S Kate; Takwoingi, Yemisi; Guo, Boliang; Pennant, Mary; Deeks, Jonathan J; Neilson, James P; Alfirevic, Zarko

    2015-11-30

    Down's syndrome occurs when a person has three, rather than two copies of chromosome 21; or the specific area of chromosome 21 implicated in causing Down's syndrome. It is the commonest congenital cause of mental disability and also leads to numerous metabolic and structural problems. It can be life-threatening, or lead to considerable ill health, although some individuals have only mild problems and can lead relatively normal lives. Having a baby with Down's syndrome is likely to have a significant impact on family life.Noninvasive screening based on biochemical analysis of maternal serum or urine, or fetal ultrasound measurements, allows estimates of the risk of a pregnancy being affected and provides information to guide decisions about definitive testing. However, no test can predict the severity of problems a person with Down's syndrome will have. The aim of this review was to estimate and compare the accuracy of first trimester serum markers for the detection of Down's syndrome in the antenatal period, both as individual markers and as combinations of markers. Accuracy is described by the proportion of fetuses with Down's syndrome detected by screening before birth (sensitivity or detection rate) and the proportion of women with a low risk (normal) screening test result who subsequently had a baby unaffected by Down's syndrome (specificity). We conducted a sensitive and comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE (1980 to 25 August 2011), Embase (1980 to 25 August 2011), BIOSIS via EDINA (1985 to 25 August 2011), CINAHL via OVID (1982 to 25 August 2011), The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (The Cochrane Library 25 August 2011), MEDION (25 August 2011), The Database of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Laboratory Medicine (25 August 2011), The National Research Register (Archived 2007), Health Services Research Projects in Progress database (25 August 2011). We did forward citation searching ISI citation indices, Google Scholar and Pub

  17. Prevalence of vaginal microorganisms among pregnant women according to trimester and association with preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Son, Kyung-A; Kim, Minji; Kim, Yoo Min; Kim, Soo Hyun; Choi, Suk-Joo; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abnormal vaginal microorganisms in pregnant women according to trimester, and to determine whether the presence of abnormal vaginal colonization is associated with higher risk of miscarriage or preterm delivery. Furthermore, we analyzed delivery outcomes according to individual microorganism species. Methods We included pregnant women who underwent vaginal culture during routine prenatal check-up between January 2011 and June 2016. We compared delivery outcomes according to the presence or absence of abnormal vaginal flora grouped by trimester. Results This study included 593 singleton pregnancies. We classified participants into 3 groups, according to the trimester in which vaginal culture was performed; 1st trimester (n=221), 2nd trimester (n=138), and 3rd trimester (n=234). Abnormal vaginal colonization rate significantly decreased with advancing trimester of pregnancy (21.7% for 1st, 21.0% for 2nd, 14.5% for 3rd; P=0.048). Abnormal vaginal colonization detected in the 2nd trimester but not in 1st trimester was associated with a significant increase in preterm delivery before 28 weeks of gestation (6.9% vs. 0%; P=0.006). Among abnormal vaginal flora isolated in the 2nd trimester, the presence of Klebsiella pneumonia was identified as significant microorganism associated with preterm delivery before 28 weeks of gestation (50% vs. 0.7% for K. pneumonia; P=0.029). Conclusion There is an association between abnormal vaginal colonization detected in the 2nd trimester and preterm delivery before 28 weeks. K. pneumonia has been identified as the likely causative microorganisms. PMID:29372148

  18. CURCUMIN IN COMBINATION WITH TRIPLE THERAPY REGIMES AMELIORATES OXIDATIVE STRESS AND HISTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES IN CHRONIC GASTRITIS-ASSOCIATED HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION.

    PubMed

    Judaki, Arezu; Rahmani, Asghar; Feizi, Jalil; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Hafezi Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastric infection is a main cause of inflammatory changes and gastric cancers. The aim of this study was finding the effects of curcumin on oxidative stress and histological changes in chronic gastritis associated with H. pylori. In a randomized clinical trial, patients were divided into two groups: a standard triple therapy group and triple therapy with curcumin group. Endoscopic and histological examinations were measured for all patients before and after 8 weeks. Triple therapy with curcumin treatment group significantly decreased malondialdehyde markers, glutathione peroxides and increased total antioxidant capacity of the gastric mucosa at the end of study compared to baseline and triple regimen groups. In addition, the oxidative damage to DNA was significantly decreased in triple therapy with curcumin group at the end of study compared to baseline and compared to triple therapy (P<0.05 for both). Triple therapy group in combination with Curcumin significantly decreased all active, chronic and endoscopic inflammation scores of patients compared to the baseline and triple therapy group (P<0.05 for both). The eradication rate by triple therapy + curcumin was significantly increased compared to triple therapy alone (P<0.05). Curcumin can be a useful supplement to improve chronic inflammation and prevention of carcinogenic changes in patients with chronic gastritis associated by H. pylori.

  19. Characterization of triple layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Toribio F.; Cortes, M. Teresa

    2001-07-01

    We reported the characterization of a macroscopic electrochemomechanical actuator like triple layer (3x1 cm) formed by polypyrrole)/double- sided, non-conducting and flexible tape/ polypyrrole that works in liquid electrolytes under electrochemical control. This triple layer has characteristics of artificial muscle. The influence of variables that control the volume change in the polymer as electrolyte concentration, or temperature has been studied. Variations of time, energy and charge under different conditions are described. We have found that the triple layer acts, at the same time, as sensor and actuator. Therefore, physical magnitudes like the electrolyte concentration or the temperature in the cell can be obtained from electrical energy consumed by a muscle. We have evaluated the influence of variables as area of the triple layer or the trailing weight, which don't participate in the electrochemical reaction. We propose an explication to the results, which show a correlation between the trailed mass and the consumed charge required to move a constant angle those masses by the triple layer. When different surface areas of the triple layer has been evaluated we found that the consumed electrical charge is proportional to area (the mass) of the triple layer. The triple layer can make macroscopical movements in short times, their position is absolutely controlled with the electrical charge, and it has capacity to lift masses. These characteristics allow their use in the design of tools. So, we present a macroscopic tool constituted by two triple layers, which allows catch and translate objects in liquid medium (nipper).

  20. Performance of third-trimester combined screening model for prediction of adverse perinatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J; Triunfo, S; Rodriguez-Lopez, M; Sairanen, M; Kouru, H; Parra-Saavedra, M; Crovetto, F; Figueras, F; Crispi, F; Gratacós, E

    2017-09-01

    To explore the potential value of third-trimester combined screening for the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome (APO) in the general population and among small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses. This was a nested case-control study within a prospective cohort of 1590 singleton gestations undergoing third-trimester evaluation (32 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks' gestation). Maternal baseline characteristics, mean arterial blood pressure, fetoplacental ultrasound and circulating biochemical markers (placental growth factor (PlGF), lipocalin-2, unconjugated estriol and inhibin A) were assessed in all women who subsequently had an APO (n = 148) and in a control group without perinatal complications (n = 902). APO was defined as the occurrence of stillbirth, umbilical artery cord blood pH < 7.15, 5-min Apgar score < 7 or emergency operative delivery for fetal distress. Logistic regression models were developed for the prediction of APO in the general population and among SGA cases (defined as customized birth weight < 10 th centile). The prevalence of APO was 9.3% in the general population and 27.4% among SGA cases. In the general population, a combined screening model including a-priori risk (maternal characteristics), estimated fetal weight (EFW) centile, umbilical artery pulsatility index (UA-PI), estriol and PlGF achieved a detection rate for APO of 26% (area under receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC), 0.59 (95% CI, 0.54-0.65)), at a 10% false-positive rate (FPR). Among SGA cases, a model including a-priori risk, EFW centile, UA-PI, cerebroplacental ratio, estriol and PlGF predicted 62% of APO (AUC, 0.86 (95% CI, 0.80-0.92)) at a FPR of 10%. The use of fetal ultrasound and maternal biochemical markers at 32-36 weeks provides a poor prediction of APO in the general population. Although it remains limited, the performance of the screening model is improved when applied to fetuses with suboptimal fetal growth. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  1. 78 FR 45896 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trimester Closure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... Fishery; Trimester Closure for the Common Pool Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... remainder of Trimester 1, through August 31, 2013. Based on our projection, the common pool fishery has... area for the remainder of the trimester. This action is intended to prevent an overage of the common...

  2. 78 FR 76759 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trimester Closure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... Fishery; Trimester Closure for the Common Pool Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Trimester 3, from January 1, 2014, through April 30, 2014, to common pool vessels, because the Trimester 3... intended to prevent the overharvest of the common pool's allocation of GOM haddock. DATES: The closure of...

  3. Maternal serum placental growth factor and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A measured in the first trimester as parameters of subsequent pre-eclampsia and small-for-gestational-age infants: A prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Kyung Uk; Roh, Jeong A; Eoh, Kyung Jin

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the first-trimester maternal serum placental growth factor (PlGF) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) levels in pregnancies associated with pre-eclampsia (PE) or small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, and determine the predictive accuracy of PlGF and of PAPP-A for either PE or SGA infants. Methods This prospective, observational study included 175 pregnant women, and of these women, due to participant withdrawal or loss to follow-up, delivery data were collected from the medical records of 155 women, including 4 who had twin pregnancies. The women's maternal history was recorded, and the PlGF and PAPP-A levels at 11 to 13 gestational weeks were measured. During the second trimester, the maternal uterine artery's systolic/diastolic ratio was measured. Multiples of the median (MoM) of PlGF and PAPP-A were determined, and the associations of these values with the risk factors of SGA and PE were evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether PlGF and PAPP-A are useful markers for predicting SGA infants. Results The PAPP-A MoM level was significantly lower in women with advanced maternal age, multipara women, and women with gestational diabetes than in their counterparts. The PlGF and PAPP-A MoM levels were higher in women with a twin pregnancy than in those with a singleton pregnancy. There was a significant relationship between the maternal serum PAPP-A MoM level in the first trimester and the uterine artery systolic/diastolic ratio in the second trimester. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that low PlGF and PAPP-A MoM levels were predictors of SGA infants (odds ratio, 0.143; 95% confidence interval, 0.025 to 0.806; odds ratio, 0.191; 95% confidence interval, 0.051 to 0.718, respectively). Conclusion PlGF and PAPP-A are potentially useful as first-trimester markers for SGA infants and some hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. PMID:28344956

  4. Inflammatory Markers and Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Black, Kathleen Darrah; Horowitz, June Andrews

    Preeclampsia (PE), a serious and variable pregnancy complication affecting 5%-10% of the obstetric population, has an undetermined etiology, yet inflammation is concomitant with its development, particularly in relation to endothelial dysfunction. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the published evidence concerning an association between PE and inflammatory markers for their usefulness in the prediction or early identification of women with PE in antepartum clinical settings. In this systematic review, we used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health and MEDLINE/OVID were the electronic databases used for identifying published articles. We placed no time limit on the publication year. The search generated 798 articles. After removing duplicates, screening abstracts, and conducting full-text reviews, we retained 73 articles and examined 57 unique markers. This review shows that C-reactive protein and the cytokines, specifically the proinflammatory markers IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, garner the most support as potential inflammatory markers for clinical surveillance of PE, particularly during the second and third trimesters. Based on this review, we cannot recommend any single inflammatory marker for routine clinical use to predict/identify PE onset or progression. Research is recommended to examine a combination panel of these four inflammatory markers both with and without clinical risk factors toward the goal of translation to practice.

  5. First-trimester ADAM12 and PAPP-A as markers for intrauterine fetal growth restriction through their roles in the insulin-like growth factor system.

    PubMed

    Cowans, Nicholas J; Spencer, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    PAPP-A is a marker used as part of the most effective method of screening for chromosomal anomalies in the first trimester. ADAM12 is a recently discovered pregnancy associated member of the ADAM (a multidomain glycoprotein metalloprotease) family. Recently, ADAM12 has been shown as a potential marker for early screening for chromosomal anomalies. Both PAPP-A and ADAM12 have been identified as proteases to insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. In this role, they may have a regulatory function in controlling the amount of free bioactive insulin-like growth factor (IGF). We therefore wish to examine if the levels of either of these proteases are related to various growth related adverse pregnancy outcomes. PAPP-A and ADAM12 were measured in a subset of samples collected at 11 to 14 weeks as part of an OSCAR clinic screening for chromosomal anomalies. Follow-up of pregnancies screened between September 1999 and August 2003 identified 1705 pregnancies with an outcome of intrauterine fetal demise on or after 24 weeks, preterm delivery at 24-34 weeks or 35-36 weeks, very low birthweight (<1.5 kg), low birthweight (<2.5 kg), large birthweight (>4.5 kg), and birth weight below the 3rd or 5th or 10th centile for gestation. A series of 414 normal outcome pregnancies constituted the control group. Marker levels were adjusted for gestation and maternal weight and the log MoM of the markers were compared using t-test of unequal variance between the control group and the various adverse outcome groups. ADAM12 and PAPP-A concentrations were reduced in low for gestational age birth weights and in all births with weights below 2.5 kg. There was a linear relationship between the severity of the IUGR and the decrease in PAPP-A and ADAM12. In the larger babies, only ADAM12 was found to be significantly increased in babies above the 90th centile of weight for gestation. The results of our study are compatible with the proposed role of ADAM12 and PAPP-A in promoting growth and

  6. Second trimester abortion laws globally: actuality, trends and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Boland, Reed

    2010-11-01

    There are important and compelling reasons why women have second trimester abortions, which constitute a significant percentage of all abortions performed. Laws vary widely around the world on the legality of these abortions. In many cases, they are quite restrictive. Indeed, the later in pregnancy an abortion is sought, the more restrictive the law tends to be. However, many laws say little about second trimester or later abortions. This article reviews the laws of the 191 countries around the world for which information is available and categorizes them by legal indications, which include preservation of the woman's life, health reasons, pregnancy due to sex offences, fetal impairment, socio-economic reasons and on request. Given that there are serious reasons why women have second trimester abortions, and that the laws in many countries do not make these abortions legally available, this paper makes recommendations on how laws and regulations can be changed in order better to respond to women's needs. While most countries may not decriminalise all abortions in the near future, especially second trimester abortions, less comprehensive legislative and regulatory reforms are possible. These include recommendations aimed at ensuring that abortions are carried out safely and as early as possible in pregnancy, and improving access to safe abortions by removing unnecessary legal and regulatory restrictions. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Screening for pre-eclampsia in the first trimester: role of maternal hemodynamics and bioimpedance in non-obese patients.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, G; Tiralongo, G M; LoPresti, D; Pisani, I; Farsetti, D; Vasapollo, B; Novelli, G P; Andreoli, A; Valensise, H

    2017-11-01

    To test if maternal hemodynamics and bioimpedance, assessed at the time of combined screening for PE, are able to identify in the first trimester of gestation normotensive non-obese patients at risk for pre-eclampsia (PE) and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). One hundred and fifty healthy nulliparous non-obese women (body mass index < 30 kg/m 2 ) in the first trimester of pregnancy underwent assessment by UltraSonic Cardiac Output Monitor (USCOM) to detect hemodynamic parameters, bioimpedance analysis to characterize body composition, and combined screening for PE (assessment of maternal history, biophysical and maternal biochemical markers). Patients were followed until term, noting the appearance of PE and/or IUGR. One hundred and thirty-eight patients had an uneventful pregnancy (controls), while 12 (8%) developed complications (cases). USCOM showed, in cases compared with controls, lower cardiac output (5.6 ± 0.3 vs 6.7 ± 1.1 L/min, P < 0.001), lower inotropy index (1.54 ± 0.38 vs 1.91 ± 0.32 W/m 2 , P < 0.001) and higher total vascular resistance (1279.8 ± 166.4 vs 1061.4 ± 179.5 dynes × s/cm 5 , P < 0.001). Bioimpedance analysis showed, in cases compared with controls, lower total body water (53.7 ± 3.3% vs 57.2 ± 5.6%, P = 0.037). Combined screening was positive for PE in 8% of the controls and in 50% of the cases (P < 0.001). After identification of cut-off values for USCOM and bioimpedance parameters, forward multivariate logistic regression analysis identified as independent predictors of complications in pregnancy the inotropy index (derived by USCOM), fat mass (derived from bioimpedance analysis) and combined screening. Combined screening for PE and assessment of bioimpedance and maternal hemodynamics can be used to identify early markers of impaired cardiovascular adaptation and body composition that may lead to complications in the third trimester of pregnancy. Copyright

  8. Effects of trimester-specific and total gestational weight gain on children's anthropometrics.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Otmar; Ensenauer, Regina; Nehring, Ina; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2014-10-08

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has been shown to be a risk factor for overweight in offspring.Aim of this study was to quantify the contributions of trimester-specific and total GWG on offspring's BMI and waist circumference (WC). This is of interest for the design of interventions targeted at women showing a high GWG in early pregnancy. In a retrospective cohort study data on GWG (total and by trimester, exposure), a number of potential confounders, and children's BMI z-scores and WC (outcomes) were analyzed using structural equation models to disentangle the trimester-specific direct effects of GWG and indirect effects mediated via total GWG. 7313 mother child pairs with a children's mean age of 5.81 years were analyzed. Total effects (indirect + direct) of GWG (kg/week) on children's BMI z-score and WC (cm) were observed in all trimesters, most prominently in the second. The longitudinal effect of GWG is a composite of trimester-specific direct effects (on BMI: 0.105, 0.255, 0.002, on WC: 0.538, 1.64, 0.308) and total GWG (on BMI 0.608, on WC: 1.03) at the end of pregnancy. Both trimester-specific priming and total GWG explained offspring's anthropometrics. The results indicate, that reversal from additional weight gain attained early in pregnancy resulting in normal total GWG at the end of pregnancy might still contribute to a substantial reduction of offspring's BMI and WC.

  9. Is MSAFP still a useful test for detecting open neural tube defects and ventral wall defects in the era of first-trimester and early second-trimester fetal anatomical ultrasounds?

    PubMed

    Roman, Ashley S; Gupta, Simi; Fox, Nathan S; Saltzman, Daniel; Klauser, Chad K; Rebarber, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether maternal serum α-fetoprotein (MSAFP) improves the detection rate for open neural tube defects (ONTDs) and ventral wall defects (VWD) in patients undergoing first-trimester and early second-trimester fetal anatomical survey. A cohort of women undergoing screening between 2005 and 2012 was identified. All patients were offered an ultrasound at between 11 weeks and 13 weeks and 6 days of gestational age for nuchal translucency/fetal anatomy followed by an early second-trimester ultrasound at between 15 weeks and 17 weeks and 6 days of gestational age for fetal anatomy and MSAFP screening. All cases of ONTD and VWD were identified via query of billing and reporting software. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of ONTD/VWD were calculated, and groups were compared using the Fisher exact test, with p < 0.05 as significance. A total of 23,790 women met the criteria for inclusion. Overall, 15 cases of ONTD and 17 cases of VWD were identified; 100% of cases were diagnosed by ultrasound prior to 18 weeks' gestation; none were diagnosed via MSAFP screening (p < 0.001). First-trimester and early second-trimester ultrasound had 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for diagnosing ONTD/VWD. Ultrasound for fetal anatomy during the first and early second trimester detected 100% of ONTD/VWD in our population. MSAFP is not useful as a screening tool for ONTD and VWD in the setting of this ultrasound screening protocol. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Trimester of maternal gestational weight gain and offspring body weight at birth and age five.

    PubMed

    Margerison-Zilko, Claire E; Shrimali, Bina P; Eskenazi, Brenda; Lahiff, Maureen; Lindquist, Allison R; Abrams, Barbara F

    2012-08-01

    To investigate associations of trimester-specific GWG with fetal birth size and BMI at age 5 years. We examined 3,015 singleton births to women without pregnancy complications from the Child Health and Development Studies prospective cohort with measured weights during pregnancy. We used multivariable regression to examine the associations between total and trimester gestational weight gain (GWG) and birth weight for gestational age and child BMI outcomes, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and smoking; paternal overweight, gestational age, and infant sex. We explored differences in associations by maternal BMI and infant sex. GWG in all trimesters was significantly and independently associated with birth weight with associations stronger, though not significantly, in the second trimester. First trimester GWG was associated with child BMI outcomes (OR for child overweight = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.09). Each kg of first trimester GWG was significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score in women of low (β = 0.099; 95% CI = 0.034, 0.163) and normal (β = 0.028; 95% CI = 0.012, 0.044), but not high pre-pregnancy BMI. GWG in all trimesters was associated with birth weight; only first trimester GWG was associated with child BMI. If replicated, this information could help specify recommendations for maternal GWG and elucidate mechanisms connecting GWG to child BMI.

  11. An experience of second-trimester anhydramnios salvaged by single amnioinfusion.

    PubMed

    Io, Shingo; Kondoh, Eiji; Chigusa, Yoshitsugu; Tani, Hirohiko; Hamanishi, Junzo; Konishi, Ikuo

    2017-11-20

    Second-trimester anhydramnios, which is primarily caused by ruptured membranes, placental dysfunction, or congenital renal malformations, is associated with high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Although amnioinfusion temporarily increases amniotic fluid volume, it does not generally provide a fundamental solution. We describe a case of second-trimester anhydramnios with an umbilical cord factor, wherein single amnioinfusion may have successfully broken a vicious circle involving non-reassuring fetal status. A 34-year-old primigravid woman was referred to our hospital because of anhydramnios at 22 weeks' gestation. Single amnioinfusion improved the fetal circulatory failure, and the patient delivered a healthy full-term newborn. Single amnioinfusion may be a therapeutic approach to improve the prognosis of pregnancy when second-trimester anhydramnios results from umbilical cord factors.

  12. Prevalence of oral lesions and measurement of salivary pH in the different trimesters of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kanu; Kaur, Harshaminder

    2015-01-01

    Oral changes observed during pregnancy have been studied for many years, but their magnitude and frequency have not been stressed upon. This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of oral lesions during different trimesters of pregnancy and their correlation with salivary pH change. The gingival, simplified oral hygiene, community periodontal and decayed-missing-filled teeth indices were used to assess a total of 120 pregnant women (40 in each trimester group) and 40 nonpregnant women (control group). Salivary pH was measured using a digital pH meter. Presence of any oral lesions was determined via oral examination. Scores for all indices increased while salivary pH decreased from the control group to the first trimester group, through to the third. Oral lesions were seen in 44.2% of pregnant women. Lesions were seen in 27.5%, 52.5% and 52.5% of women in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. The percentage of pregnant women with one oral lesion was highest in the second trimester (47.5%), whereas the third trimester had the highest prevalence (17.5%) of two concurrent oral lesions. The incidence of fissured tongue was highest in the first trimester group, and that of gingival enlargement was highest in the third trimester group. In the second trimester group, there was an almost equal incidence of fissured tongue and gingival/mucosal enlargement. Most changes in oral tissues during pregnancy can be avoided with good oral hygiene. Salivary pH could be used to assess the prevalence of oral lesions in the different trimesters of pregnancy.

  13. First trimester contingent testing with either nuchal translucency or cell-free DNA. Cost efficiency and the role of ultrasound dating.

    PubMed

    Conner, Peter; Gustafsson, Sven; Kublickas, Marius

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the performance and cost efficacy of different first-trimester contingent screening strategies based on an initial analysis of biochemical markers. Retrospective study. Swedish National Quality Register for prenatal diagnosis. 35,780 women with singleton pregnancies. Serum values from first trimester biochemistry were re-analyzed in a contingent approach. For risks between 1:40 and 1:1000, risk estimates from nuchal translucency measurements were added and outcomes were compared using either a final cut-off risk of 1:200 to proceed with invasive testing or offering non-invasive prenatal testing. In a subgroup of 12,836 women with regular menstrual cycles the same analyses were performed using data on the last menstrual period for determining gestational age. The costs of detecting one case of aneuploidy were compared. Comparison of screening strategies. The detection rate was the same (87%) in the contingent group as in complete combined screening, with only 41% requiring a nuchal translucency scan. As an alternative, offering non-invasive prenatal testing to the intermediate risk group would result in a detection rate of 98%, but the cost to detect one case of trisomy 21 would be 83% higher than the cost associated with traditional combined screening. First trimester examination using a contingent approach will achieve similar results compared with full combined screening. Non-invasive prenatal testing will not be cost-effective when a high proportion of pregnancies need further testing. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Exposure to outdoor air pollution during trimesters of pregnancy and childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qihong; Lu, Chan; Li, Yuguo; Sundell, Jan; Dan Norbäck

    2016-10-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with the development of childhood allergic diseases, but the effect of prenatal exposure to air pollution on the risk of childhood asthma and allergy is unclear. We evaluated the association between maternal exposure to outdoor air pollution during different trimesters of pregnancy and incidence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in 2598 preschool children aged 3-6 years in China. Children's lifetime incidence of allergic diseases was obtained using questionnaire. Individual exposure to outdoor air pollutants during trimesters of pregnancy was estimated by an inverse distance weighted (IDW) method based on the measured concentrations at monitoring stations. We used multiple logistic regression method to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema for per interquartile range (IQR) increase in the exposure to air pollutant in each trimester, which was adjusted for the effect of other air pollutants and its effect in other trimesters by a multi-pollutant/trimester model. Incidence of asthma (6.8%), allergic rhinitis (7.3%), and eczema (28.6%) in children was associated with maternal exposure to traffic-related pollutant NO2 during entire pregnancy with OR (95% confidence interval [CI]) respectively 1.63 (0.99-2.70), 1.69 (1.03-2.77), and 1.37 (1.04-1.80). After adjustment for other pollutants and trimesters, we found the association was significant only in specific trimester: the first trimester for eczema (1.54, 1.14-2.09), the second trimester for asthma (1.72, 1.02-2.97), and the third trimester for allergic rhinitis (1.77, 1.09-2.89). Sensitivity analysis indicated that the trimester sensitive to the development of allergic diseases was stable. Maternal exposure to traffic-related air pollutant NO2 during pregnancy, especially in specific trimesters, is associated with an increased risk of developing asthma, rhinitis, and eczema in children. Our results

  15. Influence of gravidity and foetal gender on the value of screening variables in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Illescas, Tamara; Fernández, Cristina; Ortega, Dolores; de la Puente, Miriam; Coronado, Pluvio; Montalvo, Joaquín

    2013-03-01

    Combined screening for chromosome abnormalities in the first trimester of pregnancy is based on maternal age, nuchal translucency (NT) and biochemical markers (PAPP-A and free β-hCG). We sought to assess the value of the variables used in the combined screening strategy taking into account maternal gravidity and foetal gender. Between July 1999 and December 2009, a total of 21,193 singleton pregnancies were screened for aneuploidy in the first trimester, in the Hospital Clínico San Carlos (Madrid, Spain). In the original database foetal gender data were available in 4370 euploid cases, and there were 2343 women with at least two consecutive pregnancies. We conducted a retrospective assessment of ultrasound and biochemical markers taking into account foetal gender and maternal gravidity, and evaluated the effect on the performance of screening, in terms of detection rates and false positive rates. Information on pregnancy outcome was obtained from the hospital's intranet medical records or by contacting the patient by telephone postpartum. Karyotype was ascertained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, and euploid status was assumed in newborns with normal phenotype. Student's t-tests (paired or unpaired as appropriate) were applied to the data, and the Bland-Altmann method was applied in evaluating individual differences in markers between successive gestations. PAPP-A decreased significantly between the first and the second pregnancy (p<0.01). PAPP-A and free β-hCG values were significantly higher (p=0.04 and p<0.01 respectively) and NT was lower (p=0.02) in pregnancies with a female foetus. Correlations between the biochemical variables in relation to gravidity and foetal gender can introduce a bias in the calculated risk of chromosome abnormalities. Differences in NT measurements with respect to foetal gender do not seem to be of clinical importance. NT is independent of gravidity so routine use of NT compensates for the influence of these maternal

  16. A Triple Iron Triathlon Leads to a Decrease in Total Body Mass but Not to Dehydration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-01-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling…

  17. TM triple-mode microwave filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, S.-L.; Lin, W.-G.

    1990-12-01

    A novel realization of triple-mode six-pole microwave filters that use only TM modes is presented. The application involves TM triple degeneracies in cylindrical cavities using triple-mode elliptic function filter synthesis. Experimental results are reported.

  18. Prevalence of oral lesions and measurement of salivary pH in the different trimesters of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Kanu; Kaur, Harshaminder

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Oral changes observed during pregnancy have been studied for many years, but their magnitude and frequency have not been stressed upon. This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of oral lesions during different trimesters of pregnancy and their correlation with salivary pH change. METHODS The gingival, simplified oral hygiene, community periodontal and decayed-missing-filled teeth indices were used to assess a total of 120 pregnant women (40 in each trimester group) and 40 nonpregnant women (control group). Salivary pH was measured using a digital pH meter. Presence of any oral lesions was determined via oral examination. RESULTS Scores for all indices increased while salivary pH decreased from the control group to the first trimester group, through to the third. Oral lesions were seen in 44.2% of pregnant women. Lesions were seen in 27.5%, 52.5% and 52.5% of women in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. The percentage of pregnant women with one oral lesion was highest in the second trimester (47.5%), whereas the third trimester had the highest prevalence (17.5%) of two concurrent oral lesions. The incidence of fissured tongue was highest in the first trimester group, and that of gingival enlargement was highest in the third trimester group. In the second trimester group, there was an almost equal incidence of fissured tongue and gingival/mucosal enlargement. CONCLUSION Most changes in oral tissues during pregnancy can be avoided with good oral hygiene. Salivary pH could be used to assess the prevalence of oral lesions in the different trimesters of pregnancy. PMID:25640100

  19. Magnitude and determinants of inadequate third-trimester weight gain in rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, S. M. Tafsir; Rahman, Sabuktagin; Locks, Lindsey Mina; Rahman, Mizanur; Hore, Samar Kumar; Saqeeb, Kazi Nazmus; Khan, Md. Alfazal

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to estimate the magnitude and determinants of inadequate weight gain in the third-trimester among rural women in Matlab, Bangladesh. Methods The study analyzed data on weight gain in the third trimester in 1,883 pregnant women in Matlab, Bangladesh. All these women were admitted to Matlab hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) for childbirth during 2012–2014, and they had singleton live births at term. Data were retrieved from the electronic databases of Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System and Matlab hospital. A multivariable logistic regression for inadequate weight gain in the third trimester (≤4 kg) was built with sociodemographic, environmental and maternal factors as predictors. Results One thousand and twenty-six (54%) pregnant women had inadequate weight gain in the third trimester. In the multivariable model, short stature turned out to be the most robust risk factor for inadequate weight gain in the third trimester (OR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.8, 3.5 for short compared to tall women). Pre-third-trimester BMI was inversely associated with insufficient weight gain (OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.93, 0.99 for 1 unit increase in BMI). Other risk factors for inadequate weight gain in the third trimester were advanced age (OR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.2, 3.1 for ≥35 years compared to ≤19 years), parity (OR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.2, 1.9 for multipara compared to nulliparous women), low socioeconomic status (OR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.2, 2.3 for women in the lowest compared to women in the highest wealth quintile), low level of education (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2, 2.1 for ≤5 years compared to ≥10 years of education), belonging to the Hindu religious community (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3, 2.5), consuming arsenic-contaminated water (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.1, 1.9), and conceiving during monsoon or dry season compared to summer (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.1, 1.8). Conclusions Among rural Bangladeshi women in Matlab

  20. Screening for fetal growth restriction with universal third trimester ultrasonography in nulliparous women in the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction (POP) study: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sovio, Ulla; White, Ian R; Dacey, Alison; Pasupathy, Dharmintra; Smith, Gordon C S

    2015-11-21

    Fetal growth restriction is a major determinant of adverse perinatal outcome. Screening procedures for fetal growth restriction need to identify small babies and then differentiate between those that are healthy and those that are pathologically small. We sought to determine the diagnostic effectiveness of universal ultrasonic fetal biometry in the third trimester as a screening test for small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, and whether the risk of morbidity associated with being small differed in the presence or absence of ultrasonic markers of fetal growth restriction. The Pregnancy Outcome Prediction (POP) study was a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women with a viable singleton pregnancy at the time of the dating ultrasound scan. Women participating had clinically indicated ultrasonography in the third trimester as per routine clinical care and these results were reported as usual (selective ultrasonography). Additionally, all participants had research ultrasonography, including fetal biometry at 28 and 36 weeks' gestational age. These results were not made available to participants or treating clinicians (universal ultrasonography). We regarded SGA as a birthweight of less than the 10th percentile for gestational age and screen positive for SGA an ultrasonographic estimated fetal weight of less than the 10th percentile for gestational age. Markers of fetal growth restriction included biometric ratios, utero-placental Doppler, and fetal growth velocity. We assessed outcomes for consenting participants who attended research scans and had a livebirth at the Rosie Hospital (Cambridge, UK) after the 28 weeks' research scan. Between Jan 14, 2008, and July 31, 2012, 4512 women provided written informed consent of whom 3977 (88%) were eligible for analysis. Sensitivity for detection of SGA infants was 20% (95% CI 15-24; 69 of 352 fetuses) for selective ultrasonography and 57% (51-62; 199 of 352 fetuses) for universal ultrasonography (relative sensitivity 2

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Three-Dimensional Cervical Anatomy in the Second and Third Trimester

    PubMed Central

    HOUSE, Michael; BHADELIA, Rafeeque A.; MYERS, Kristin; SOCRATE, Simona

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although a short cervix is known to be associated with preterm birth, the patterns of three-dimensional, anatomic changes leading to a short cervix are unknown. Our objective was to 1) construct three-dimensional anatomic models during normal pregnancy and 2) use the models to compare cervical anatomy in the second and third trimester. STUDY DESIGN A cross sectional study was performed in a population of patients referred to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for a fetal indication. Using magnetic resonance images for guidance, three-dimensional solid models of the following anatomic structures were constructed: amniotic cavity, uterine wall, cervical stroma, cervical mucosa and anterior vaginal wall. To compare cervical anatomy in the second and third trimester, models were matched according the size of the bony pelvis. RESULTS Fourteen patients were imaged and divided into two groups according to gestational age: 20 – 24 weeks (n=7)) and 31 – 36 weeks (n=7). Compared to the second trimester, the third trimester was associated with significant descent of the amniotic sac. (p=.02). Descent of the amniotic sac was associated with modified anatomy of the uterocervical junction. These 3-dimensional changes were associated with a cervix that appeared shorter in the third trimester. CONCLUSION We report a technique for constructing MRI-based, three-dimensional anatomic models during pregnancy. Compared to the second trimester, the third trimester is associated with three-dimensional changes in the cervix and lower uterine segment. PMID:19297070

  2. Triple-negative breast cancer: current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Rastelli, Francesca; Biancanelli, Sandra; Falzetta, Amalia; Martignetti, Angelo; Casi, Camilla; Bascioni, Romeo; Giustini, Lucio; Crispino, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer, defined by a lack of expression of estrogen, progesterone and HER-2 receptors, accounts for 15% of all types of breast cancer. The subtype mainly includes a molecularly distinct subgroup, the basal-like subtype (accounting for 75% of all cases). We attempt to define triple-negative breast cancer and compare it with basal-like disease, review the molecular, pathologic and clinical features of triple-negative disease, provide an overview of a retrospective subset analysis of clinical trials, and outline ongoing therapeutic trials and possible paths for future research. We collected data regarding classification, molecular and clinical features and treatment, drawn from the existing literature, including abstracts and verbal accounts. By the term "basal-like", we defined all cases where gene expression array or more sophisticated immunophenotypes are used for identification. When the analysis is restricted to clinical assay (immunohistochemistry), we refer to "triple-negative". Basal-like breast cancer expresses genes characteristic of basal epithelial cells, which include high-molecular weight basal cytokeratins (CK5/6, CK14, CK17), vimentin, p-cadherin, alpha B crystalline, caveolins 1 and 2 and EGFR. The expression of basal markers (basal cytokeratins and EGFR) is related to a worse prognosis and identifies a clinically distinct subgroup within the triple-negative breast cancer. BRCA1 mutations are present in 11% of triple-negative tumors and even more rare is BRCA2 deficiency. BR-CA1-associated breast cancers types are typically characterized by a high rate of DNA aberrations and defective DNA repair pathways (the so-called "BRCAness"). The use of regimens based on DNA-damaging agents, such as anthracyclines, platinum derivatives and cyclophosphamide seems a sensible option for this breast cancer subtypes. Clinical data support a strong sensitivity to primary chemotherapy with pathologic response rates ranging from 27-45% (with

  3. Decreased IGF-1 concentration during the first trimester of pregnancy in women with normal somatotroph function.

    PubMed

    Persechini, Marie-Laure; Gennero, Isabelle; Grunenwald, Solange; Vezzosi, Delphine; Bennet, Antoine; Caron, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    A decrease of insulin-like growth factor-I levels (IGF-I) has been reported during the first trimester of pregnancy in women with acromegaly before the secretion of placental growth hormone (GH) progressively increases IGF-1 concentration. To evaluate variations of concentrations of IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGF-BP3) and GH during the first trimester of pregnancy in women with normal somatotroph function. Sixteen women (median age 31 years) with as who were followed for benign thyroid disorders (n = 15) or prolactin-secreting microadenoma (n = 1) were evaluated before and in the first trimester of pregnancy. Serum concentrations of GH, IGF-1, IGF-BP3, TSH and estradiol (E2) were measured before and in the first trimester (5.4 ± 2.2 weeks of gestation). Before pregnancy, somatotroph and thyroid functions (median TSH 1.2 mU/L) were normal in all women. At the first trimester IGF-1 levels decreased significantly (before = 210 ng/mL, first trimester = 145 ng/mL, p < 0.001) with no significant change in GH (before = 1.5 ng/mL, first trimester = 0.84 ng/mL) or IGF-BP3 levels (before = 2.3 ng/mL, first trimester = 2.2 ng/mL), while estradiol levels increased significantly (before = 46.5 pg/100 mL, first trimester = 448.5 pg/100 mL, p < 0.001). In women with normal somatotroph function, IGF-1 levels decrease in the first trimester of pregnancy without changes in GH or IGF-BP3 levels. These results confirm liver resistance to GH as a consequence of the physiological increase of estrogens during the first trimester.

  4. Nasal bone length, prenasal thickness, prenasal thickness-to-nasal bone length ratio and prefrontal space ratio in second- and third-trimester fetuses with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vos, F I; De Jong-Pleij, E A P; Bakker, M; Tromp, E; Pajkrt, E; Kagan, K O; Bilardo, C M

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate nasal bone length (NBL), prenasal thickness (PT), prenasal thickness-to-nasal bone length (PT-NBL) ratio and prefrontal space ratio (PFSR) as markers for Down syndrome in the second and third trimesters. NBL, PT, PT-NBL ratio and PFSR were measured retrospectively in stored two-dimensional images or three-dimensional volumes (corrected to the mid-sagittal plane) of fetuses with Down syndrome, which were retrieved from the digital databases of participating units. Measurements were performed on the stored images and volumes by two experienced operators, and the values obtained were compared to our previously reported normal ranges for euploid fetuses in order to assess the detection rates for Down syndrome. A total of 159 fetuses with Down syndrome were included in the analysis, six of which were excluded because of inadequate available images. Median maternal age was 36.0 years and median gestational age was 23 + 1 weeks. NBL and PT were correlated with gestational age (P < 0.001), but the PT-NBL ratio and PFSR were not. Mean NBL, PT, PT-NBL ratio and PFSR were 4.42 mm, 5.56 mm, 1.26 and 0.34, respectively. The nasal bone was absent in 23 (15.4%) cases. As a marker for Down syndrome, the PT-NBL ratio yielded the highest detection rate (86.2%), followed by PFSR (79.7%), PT (63.4%) and NBL (61.9%). All markers were abnormal in 33.6% of cases, whilst all were normal in 4.7%. At least one of the four markers was abnormal in 95.3%, and either the PT-NBL ratio or PFSR was abnormal in 93.8%. Detection rates were not related to gestational age. The PT-NBL ratio and PFSR are robust second- and third-trimester markers for Down syndrome. Both provide high detection rates and are easy to use, as the cut-off for normality is constant throughout gestation. Ltd. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Second trimester abortion in Viet Nam: changing to recommended methods and improving service delivery.

    PubMed

    Tuyet, Hoang T D; Thuy, Phan; Trang, Huynh N K

    2008-05-01

    In Viet Nam, abortion has been legal up to 22 weeks of pregnancy since the 1960s. There are about one million induced abortions every year. First trimester abortion is provided at central, provincial, district and commune level, while second trimester abortion is provided only at central and provincial level. For second trimester abortion, dilatation and evacuation (D&E) has been introduced at some central and provincial hospitals, and medical abortion protocols have been included in the draft National Standards and Guidelines currently being updated. However, Kovac's, an unsafe method, is still often used at many provincial hospitals. While access to first trimester abortion services is not difficult, there are still many barriers to second trimester abortion, especially for young, unmarried women. In order to prevent unwanted pregnancies, increase access to safe abortion and improve quality of care, the Vietnamese Ministry of Health is working with others to establish national policies and developing effective models for women-friendly comprehensive abortion care, including post-abortion family planning. This paper, based on published information, interviews and observations by the second author of service delivery in 2006-2008, provides an overview of second trimester abortion services in Viet Nam and ongoing plans for improving them.

  6. Third trimester fetal heart rate predicts phenotype and mutation burden in the type 1 long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Winbo, Annika; Fosdal, Inger; Lindh, Maria; Diamant, Ulla-Britt; Persson, Johan; Wettrell, Göran; Rydberg, Annika

    2015-08-01

    Early diagnosis and risk stratification is of clinical importance in the long QT syndrome (LQTS), however, little genotype-specific data are available regarding fetal LQTS. We investigate third trimester fetal heart rate, routinely recorded within public maternal health care, as a possible marker for LQT1 genotype and phenotype. This retrospective study includes 184 fetuses from 2 LQT1 founder populations segregating p.Y111C and p.R518X (74 noncarriers and 110 KCNQ1 mutation carriers, whereof 13 double mutation carriers). Pedigree-based measured genotype analysis revealed significant associations between fetal heart rate, genotype, and phenotype; mean third trimester prelabor fetal heart rates obtained from obstetric records (gestational week 29-41) were lower per added mutation (no mutation, 143±5 beats per minute; single mutation, 134±8 beats per minute; double mutations, 111±6 beats per minute; P<0.0001), and lower in symptomatic versus asymptomatic mutation carriers (122±10 versus 137±9 beats per minute; P<0.0001). Strong correlations between fetal heart rate and neonatal heart rate (r=0.700; P<0.001), and postnatal QTc (r=-0.762; P<0.001) were found. In a multivariable model, fetal genotype explained the majority of variance in fetal heart rate (-10 beats per minute per added mutation; P<1.0×10(-23)). Arrhythmia symptoms and intrauterine β-blocker exposure each predicted -7 beats per minute, P<0.0001. In this study including 184 fetuses from 2 LQT1 founder populations, third trimester fetal heart rate discriminated between fetal genotypes and correlated with severity of postnatal cardiac phenotype. This finding strengthens the role of fetal heart rate in the early detection and risk stratification of LQTS, particularly for fetuses with double mutations, at high risk of early life-threatening arrhythmias. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Triple flames and flame stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broadwell, James E.

    1994-01-01

    It is now well established that when turbulent jet flames are lifted, combustion begins, i.e., the flame is stabilized, at an axial station where the fuel and air are partially premixed. One might expect, therefore, that the beginning of the combustion zone would be a triple flame. Such flames have been described; however, other experiments provide data that are difficult to reconcile with the presence of triple flames. In particular, laser images of CH and OH, marking combustion zones, do not exhibit shapes typical of triple flames, and, more significantly, the lifted flame appears to have a propagation speed that is an order of magnitude higher than the laminar flame speed. The speed of triple flames studied thus far exceeds the laminar value by a factor less than two. The objective of the present task is the resolution of the apparent conflict between the experiments and the triple flame characteristics, and the clarification of the mechanisms controlling flame stability. Being investigated are the resolution achieved in the experiments, the flow field in the neighborhood of the stabilization point, propagation speeds of triple flames, laboratory flame unsteadiness, and the importance of flame ignition limits in the calculation of triple flames that resemble lifted flames.

  8. Severity of ASD symptoms and their correlation with the presence of copy number variations and exposure to first trimester ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sara Jane; Garrison, Michelle M; Bernier, Raphael; McClintic, Abbi M; King, Bryan H; Mourad, Pierre D

    2017-03-01

    Current research suggests that incidence and heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms may arise through a variety of exogenous and/or endogenous factors. While subject to routine clinical practice and generally considered safe, there exists speculation, though no human data, that diagnostic ultrasound may also contribute to ASD severity, supported by experimental evidence that exposure to ultrasound early in gestation could perturb brain development and alter behavior. Here we explored a modified triple hit hypothesis [Williams & Casanova, ] to assay for a possible relationship between the severity of ASD symptoms and (1) ultrasound exposure (2) during the first trimester of pregnancy in fetuses with a (3) genetic predisposition to ASD. We did so using retrospective analysis of data from the SSC (Simon's Simplex Collection) autism genetic repository funded by the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative. We found that male children with ASD, copy number variations (CNVs), and exposure to first trimester ultrasound had significantly decreased non-verbal IQ and increased repetitive behaviors relative to male children with ASD, with CNVs, and no ultrasound. These data suggest that heterogeneity in ASD symptoms may result, at least in part, from exposure to diagnostic ultrasound during early prenatal development of children with specific genetic vulnerabilities. These results also add weight to on-going concerns expressed by the FDA about non-medical use of diagnostic ultrasound during pregnancy. Autism Res 2017, 10: 472-484. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A Systematic Review on Normative Values of Trimester-specific Thyroid Function Tests in Indian Women.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Subramanian; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Sigamani, Alben

    2018-01-01

    Small cross-sectional studies are published on the trimester-specific normal ranges of thyrotropin and thyroxine levels in Indian women from various parts of the country. We sought to review the published literature on thyroid function tests in normal pregnant Indian women to see if the pooled data from various studies can define normative data and hypothyroidism in pregnancy. We retrieved 56 studies from online databases with detailed search using multiple search terms. Unanimously eight studies were finalized. Data of 2703 pregnant women (age 16-45 years; 966 were in the first trimester, 1072 in their second trimester, and 1037 women in their third trimester) were analyzed. All eight studies included singleton pregnancies from the northern and eastern part of India with seven studies being cross-sectional in nature. The exclusion criteria in all studies included those with historical/clinical evidence of thyroid dysfunction, those with family history of thyroid dysfunction, infertility and those with history of recurrent miscarriages (usually >3). Ultrasound evidence of thyroid disease, urinary iodine assessment, and thyroid antibodies were included as additional exclusion criteria in two, three, and four studies, respectively. None of the studies included the outcome of pregnancy as part of follow-up. As part of the pooled data analysis, the 5 th -95 th centile values of normal TSH extended from 0.09 to 6.65 IU/mL in the first trimester, 0.39-6.61 IU/mL in the second trimester, and 0.70-5.18 IU/mL in the third trimester. The FT4 levels (5 th -95 th centile values) extended from 8.24 to 25.74 pmol/L in the first trimester, 6.82-26.0 pmol/L, and 5.18-25.61 pmol/L in the third trimester. With due limitations imposed by the quality of the available studies, the current review suggests that upper normal limit of TSH values can extend up to 5-6 IU/mL in pregnancy.

  10. Preliminary evidence for associations between second-trimester human chorionic gonadotropin and unconjugated oestriol levels with pregnancy outcome in Down syndrome pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Benn, P A

    1998-04-01

    Fifty-six cases of Down syndrome were identified in a population of women who had undergone maternal serum triple marker screening [alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) analyses]. These affected pregnancies represented all known cases present in the population of 34,368 women screened. Using a 1:270 mid-trimester Down syndrome risk to define the screen-positive group, 42 affected pregnancies were screen-positive (medians: AFP = 0.79 MOM, hCG = 2.13 MOM, uE3 = 0.62 MOM, age 34.6 years) and 14 pregnancies were screen-negative (medians: AFP = 0.82 MOM, hCG = 1.57 MOM, uE3 = 0.92 MOM, age 24.2 years). Four affected pregnancies were associated with in utero death and each of these cases was associated with relatively extreme values of AFP, hCG, and uE3, including the three highest levels of hCG in the entire series of Down syndrome pregnancies. Twenty-nine (15 screen-positive and 14 screen-negative) affected pregnancies resulted in liveborns. Down syndrome pregnancies had a significantly shorter gestational term than controls, and Down syndrome babies were also lighter than controls, even after adjustment for sex and gestational age. In affected pregnancies, a low uE3 level appeared to be associated with a greater chance of a small-for-gestational age baby. No correlations could be demonstrated between AFP or hCG levels and gestational age-adjusted term weight. Based on this small series, it would appear that uE3 may be particularly useful in detecting those Down syndrome cases associated with small-for-gestational age fetuses. A very high hCG value may indicate a higher probability of fetal death.

  11. Orbit Alignment in Triple Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2017-08-01

    The statistics of the angle Φ between orbital angular momenta in hierarchical triple systems with known inner visual or astrometric orbits are studied. A correlation between apparent revolution directions proves the partial orbit alignment known from earlier works. The alignment is strong in triples with outer projected separation less than ˜50 au, where the average Φ is about 20^\\circ . In contrast, outer orbits wider than 1000 au are not aligned with the inner orbits. It is established that the orbit alignment decreases with the increasing mass of the primary component. The average eccentricity of inner orbits in well-aligned triples is smaller than in randomly aligned ones. These findings highlight the role of dissipative interactions with gas in defining the orbital architecture of low-mass triple systems. On the other hand, chaotic dynamics apparently played a role in shaping more massive hierarchies. The analysis of projected configurations and triples with known inner and outer orbits indicates that the distribution of Φ is likely bimodal, where 80% of triples have {{Φ }}< 70^\\circ and the remaining ones are randomly aligned.

  12. Accompaniment of second-trimester abortions: the model of the feminist Socorrista network of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Zurbriggen, Ruth; Keefe-Oates, Brianna; Gerdts, Caitlin

    2018-02-01

    Legal restrictions on abortion access impact the safety and timing of abortion. Women affected by these laws face barriers to safe care that often result in abortion being delayed. Second-trimester abortion affects vulnerable groups of women disproportionately and is often more difficult to access. In Argentina, where abortion is legally restricted except in cases of rape or threat to the health of the woman, the Socorristas en Red, a feminist network, offers a model of accompaniment wherein they provide information and support to women seeking second-trimester abortions. This qualitative analysis aimed to understand Socorristas' experiences supporting women who have second-trimester medication abortion outside the formal health care system. We conducted 2 focus groups with 16 Socorristas in total to understand experiences accompanying women having second-trimester medication abortion who were at 14-24 weeks' gestational age. We performed a thematic analysis of the data and present key themes in this article. The Socorristas strived to ensure that women had the power of choice in every step of their abortion. These cases required more attention and logistical, legal and medical risks than first-trimester care. The Socorristas learned how to help women manage the possibility of these risks and were comfortable providing this support. They understood their work as activism through which they aim to destigmatize abortion and advocate against patriarchal systems denying the right to abortion. Socorrista groups have shown that they can provide supportive, women-centered accompaniment during second-trimester medication abortions outside the formal health care system in a setting where abortion access is legally restricted. Second-trimester self-use of medication abortion outside of the formal health system supported by feminist activist groups could provide an alternative model for second-trimester care worldwide. More research is needed to document the safety and

  13. Placental protein-13 (PP13) in combination with PAPP-A and free leptin index (fLI) in first trimester maternal serum screening for severe and early preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    De Villiers, Carin P; Hedley, Paula L; Placing, Sophie; Wøjdemann, Karen R; Shalmi, Anne-Cathrine; Carlsen, Anting L; Rode, Line; Sundberg, Karin; Tabor, Ann; Christiansen, Michael

    2017-11-27

    Placental protein-13 (PP13) is involved in placental invasion and has been suggested as a maternal serum marker of preeclampsia (PE) development. However, the discriminatory ability of PP13 in first trimester has not been completely clarified. PP13 was measured in first trimester (week 10+3-13+6) maternal serum from 120 PE pregnancies and 267 control pregnancies and was correlated with clinical parameters. The population screening performance of PP13 in combination with the PE markers pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) and free leptin index (fLI) was assessed by Monte Carlo simulation. In severe PE (including HELLP) cases (n=26) the median PP13 concentration was 35.8 pg/mL (range: 17.8-85.5 pg/mL) and in PE pregnancies (n=10) with birth prior to week 34, the median PP13 concentration was 30.6 pg/mL (13.1-50.1 pg/mL), compared to controls with a median of 54.8 pg/mL (range: 15.4-142.6 pg/mL) (p<0.04). The population screening detection rate (DR) for a false-positive rate of 10% for severe PE and HELLP was 26% for PP13, 28% for PP13+PAPP-A, 33% for PP13+fLI, and 40% for PP13+PAPP-A+fLI. PP13 is a marker of severe PE and HELLP syndrome. The screening performance of PP13 can be markedly improved by combining it with fLI and PAPP-A.

  14. First-trimester nasal bone length in a normal Latin American population.

    PubMed

    Casasbuenas, Alexandra; Wong, Amy E; Sepulveda, Waldo

    2009-02-01

    To report normative data of nasal bone length (NBL) in first-trimester singleton fetuses in a normal cohort of Latin American women. NBL was measured during routine first-trimester sonographic examination in 1040 singleton fetuses from an unselected population. NBL increased linearly with advancing gestational age (GA) [NBL (mm) = - 1.10 + 0.03 x GA (days), R(2) = 0.21; p < 0.001]. Similarly, there was a linear relationship between the NBL and crown-lump length (CRL) [NBL (mm) = 0.41 + 0.02 x CRL (mm), R(2) = 0.27; p < 0.001]. The NBLs at the 50th percentile in our population were 1.5, 1.7, and 1.9 mm at 11, 12, and 13 weeks of gestation, respectively. Whereas categorizing a nasal bone as absent or present can be subjective because of variations in echogenicity due to technique and equipment, measurement of NBL is a more objective approach to nasal bone assessment in screening for aneuploidy. Measurement of NBL in the first trimester is feasible and can be easily obtained at the time of nuchal translucency assessment. The normative data we report can provide a reference for defining nasal bone hypoplasia in the first trimester in the Latin American population. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Routine Iron Supplementation and Anaemia by Third Trimester in a Nigerian Hospital.

    PubMed

    Adanikin, Abiodun I; Awoleke, Jacob O; Olofinbiyi, Babatunde A; Adanikin, Pipeloluwa O; Ogundare, Omobolanle R

    2015-10-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Unfortunately, in developing countries its prevalence has continued to rise. To improve the situation, iron supplement is routinely prescribed during pregnancy. We therefore examine the impact of the intervention as being currently practised in our clinical setting. In total, 255 prenatal clinic attendees who had more than 8 weeks of prescribed iron supplements were sampled. Data was obtained on their socio-demographic features, haemoglobin concentration at booking, compliance with iron supplements and third trimester haemoglobin value. Observed iron supplementation compliance rate was 184(72.2%). There was a significant drop in mean haemoglobin (Hb) concentration between the two time points (booking Hb: 32.56±2.99; third trimester Hb: 31.67±3.01; mean diff: 0.89±3.04; t = 4.673; 95% CI= 0.52-1.27; p= <0.001). Anaemia increased from 132(51.8%) to 150(58.8%) by the third trimester. Increase in anaemia occurred in both iron-compliant and non-compliant groups. Non-compliance however had higher odds of predicting anaemia by the third trimester (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.03-3.26; p: 0.04). Although iron supplementation is still a good intervention in developing countries, it is not sufficient to reduce overall prevalence of anaemia by the third trimester. There is a need to look beyond the approach and reinforce the importance of better feeding practices, food fortification and reduced frequency of pregnancies.

  16. The utility of screening for perinatal depression in the second trimester among Chinese: a three-wave prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ying; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Chan, Kin Sin

    2010-04-01

    This paper aims to study the pattern of perinatal depressive symptomatology and determine the predictive power of second trimester perinatal depressive symptoms for future perinatal periods. A population-based sample of 2,178 women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in the second and third trimesters and at 6 weeks postpartum. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine the EPDS scores across three stages. The predictive power of the second trimester EPDS score in identifying women with an elevated EPDS score in the third trimester and at 6 weeks postpartum were determined. The predictive power of the second trimester EPDS score was further assessed using stepwise logistic regression and receiver operator characteristic curves. EPDS scores differed significantly across three stages. The rates were 9.9%, 7.8%, and 8.7% for an EPDS score of >14 in the second and third trimesters and at 6 weeks postpartum, respectively. Using a cut-off of 14/15, the second trimester EPDS score accurately classified 89.6% of women in the third trimester and 87.2% of those at 6 weeks postpartum with or without perinatal depressive symptomatology. Women with a second trimester EPDS score >14 were 11.78 times more likely in the third trimester and 7.15 times more likely at 6 weeks postpartum to exhibit perinatal depressive symptomatology after adjustment of sociodemographic variables. The area under the curve for perinatal depressive symptomatology was 0.85 in the third trimester and 0.77 at 6 weeks postpartum. To identify women at high risk for postpartum depression, healthcare professionals could consider screening all pregnant women in the second trimester so that secondary preventive intervention may be implemented.

  17. Persistence of decidual NK cells and KIR genotypes in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women: a case-control study in the third trimester of gestation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural Killer (NK) cells are the most abundant lymphocytes in the decidua during early gestation. The interactions of NK cells with the extravillous cytotrophoblast have been associated with a normal spiral artery remodeling process, an essential event for a successful pregnancy. Recent data indicate that alterations in the amount of decidual NK (dNK) cells contribute to the development of preeclampsia (PE). Moreover, genetic studies suggest that Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) expressed in dNK cells influence the susceptibility to PE. Although dNK cells have been well characterized during early pregnancy, they have been scarcely studied in the third trimester of gestation. The aim of this work was to characterize dNK cells at the last trimester of gestation and to analyze the KIR genotype of healthy and PE women. Methods Decidual samples were obtained during Caesarean section from control (n = 10) and PE (n = 9) women. Flow cytometric analysis of CD3, CD56, CD16 and CD9 was used to characterize and quantify dNK cells in both groups. Cell surface markers from decidual leukocytes were compared with PBMC from healthy donors. KIR genotyping was performed in genomic DNA (control, n = 86; PE, n = 90) using PCR-SSP. Results The results indicate that dNK cells persist throughout pregnancy. They represented 20% of total leukocytes in control and PE groups, and they expressed the same cell surface markers (CD3-, CD56+, CD16- and CD9+) as dNK in the first trimester of gestation. There were no significant differences in the percentage of dNK cells between control and PE groups. The analysis of KIR gene frequencies and genotypes was not statistically different between control and PE groups. The ratio of activating to inhibitory genes indicated that the overall inhibitory balance (0.2-0.5) was more frequent in the PE group (control, 31.3% vs PE, 45.5%), and the activating balance (0.6-1.1) was more frequent in the control group (control, 68.6% vs PE, 54

  18. Genetics Home Reference: triple X syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Triple X syndrome Triple X syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Triple X syndrome , also called trisomy X or 47,XXX, ...

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk in Relation to Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Hormone and Protein Markers from Prenatal Screening in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Gayle C.; Lyall, Kristen; Anderson, Meredith; Kharrazi, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We examined prenatal screening markers and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using California statewide data on singleton births in 1996 and 2002. Second trimester levels of unconjugated estriol (uE3), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) were compared between mothers of children with ASD…

  20. Pregnancy outcomes after first-trimester vaginitis drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Rosa, F W; Baum, C; Shaw, M

    1987-05-01

    Prescription frequencies in the first trimester were compared for miconazole, clotrimazole, nystatin, candicidin, aminacrine compounds, and metronidazole before deliveries involving congenital anomalies versus those not linked to congenital anomalies. Prescriptions before spontaneous abortions were compared with those in the first trimester of deliveries and with those before legal abortions. No statistically significant association was observed with any of these agents for the overall frequency of birth defects or for specific birth defects analyzed (cardiovascular defects, oral clefts, and spina bifida). Two hundred fifty miconazole exposures among 4264 spontaneous abortions, compared with 2236 in the first trimester of 55,736 deliveries, provided an estimated relative risk of 1.4 (95% confidence limits 1.2-1.5). One hundred twelve treatments with clotrimazole among the spontaneous abortions, compared with 1086 among the deliveries, provided a relative risk of 1.4 (95% confidence limits 1.1-1.6). In contrast, large numbers of exposures to nystatin and aminacrine compounds did not show this association, suggesting that spontaneous abortions are caused by the imidazole agents miconazole and clotrimazole rather than the condition being treated. Because many associations were examined without previous hypotheses, and because the data were inadequate to show an elevated risk for clotrimazole when comparing spontaneous with legal abortion exposures, these findings are considered to be a signal for further studies rather than definitive in themselves.

  1. Safety of artemisinins in first trimester of prospectively followed pregnancies: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kerryn A; Simpson, Julie A; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, MuPawJay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; Rijken, Marcus J; Jittamala, Podjanee; White, Nicholas J; Fowkes, Freya J I; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2016-05-01

    Artemisinins, the most effective antimalarials available, are not recommended for falciparum malaria during the first trimester of pregnancy because of safety concerns. Therefore, quinine is used despite its poor effectiveness. Assessing artemisinin safety requires weighing the risks of malaria and its treatment. We aimed to assess the effect of first-trimester malaria and artemisinin treatment on miscarriage and major congenital malformations. In this observational study, we assessed data from antenatal clinics on the Thai-Myanmar border between Jan 1, 1994, and Dec 31, 2013. We included women who presented to antenatal clinics during their first trimester with a viable fetus. Women were screened for malaria, and data on malaria, antimalarial treatment, and birth outcomes were collected. The relationship between artemisinin treatments (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, or artemether) and miscarriage or malformation was assessed using Cox regression with left-truncation and time-varying exposures. Of 55 636 pregnancies registered between 1994 and 2013, 25 485 pregnancies were analysed for first-trimester malaria and miscarriage, in which 2558 (10%) had first-trimester malaria. The hazard of miscarriage increased 1·61-fold after an initial first-trimester falciparum episode (95% CI 1·32-1·97; p<0·0001), 3·24-fold following falciparum recurrence (2·24-4·68; p<0·0001), and 2·44-fold (1·01-5·88; p=0·0473) following recurrent symptomatic vivax malaria. No difference was noted in miscarriage in first-line falciparum treatments with artemisinin (n=183) versus quinine (n=842; HR 0·78 [95% CI 0·45-1·34]; p=0·3645) or in risk of major congenital malformations (two [2%] of 109 [95% CI 0·22-6·47] versus eight (1%) of 641 [0·54-2·44], respectively). First-trimester falciparum and vivax malaria both increase the risk of miscarriage. We noted no evidence of an increased risk of miscarriage or of major congenital malformations associated with first

  2. Safety of artemisinins in first trimester of prospectively followed pregnancies: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kerryn A; Simpson, Julie A; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, MuPawJay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; Rijken, Marcus J; Jittamala, Podjanee; White, Nicholas J; Fowkes, Freya J I; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Artemisinins, the most effective antimalarials available, are not recommended for falciparum malaria during the first trimester of pregnancy because of safety concerns. Therefore, quinine is used despite its poor effectiveness. Assessing artemisinin safety requires weighing the risks of malaria and its treatment. We aimed to assess the effect of first-trimester malaria and artemisinin treatment on miscarriage and major congenital malformations. Methods In this observational study, we assessed data from antenatal clinics on the Thai–Myanmar border between Jan 1, 1994, and Dec 31, 2013. We included women who presented to antenatal clinics during their first trimester with a viable fetus. Women were screened for malaria, and data on malaria, antimalarial treatment, and birth outcomes were collected. The relationship between artemisinin treatments (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, or artemether) and miscarriage or malformation was assessed using Cox regression with left-truncation and time-varying exposures. Findings Of 55 636 pregnancies registered between 1994 and 2013, 25 485 pregnancies were analysed for first-trimester malaria and miscarriage, in which 2558 (10%) had first-trimester malaria. The hazard of miscarriage increased 1·61-fold after an initial first-trimester falciparum episode (95% CI 1·32–1·97; p<0·0001), 3·24-fold following falciparum recurrence (2·24–4·68; p<0·0001), and 2·44-fold (1·01–5·88; p=0·0473) following recurrent symptomatic vivax malaria. No difference was noted in miscarriage in first-line falciparum treatments with artemisinin (n=183) versus quinine (n=842; HR 0·78 [95% CI 0·45–1·34]; p=0·3645) or in risk of major congenital malformations (two [2%] of 109 [95% CI 0·22–6·47] versus eight (1%) of 641 [0·54–2·44], respectively). Interpretation First-trimester falciparum and vivax malaria both increase the risk of miscarriage. We noted no evidence of an increased risk of miscarriage or

  3. Pt NPs and DNAzyme functionalized polymer nanospheres as triple signal amplification strategy for highly sensitive electrochemical immunosensor of tumour marker.

    PubMed

    Chang, Honghong; Zhang, Haochun; Lv, Jia; Zhang, Bing; Wei, Wenlong; Guo, Jingang

    2016-12-15

    Highly sensitive determination of tumour markers is the key for early diagnosis of cancer. Herein, triple signal amplification strategy resulting from polymer nanospheres, Pt NPs, and DNAzyme was proposed in the developed electrochemical immunosensor. First, electroactive polymer nanospheres were synthesized by infinite coordination polymerization of ferrocenedicarboxylic acid, which could generate strong electrochemical signals due to plentiful ferrocene molecules. Further, the polymer nanospheres were functionalized by Pt NPs and DNAzyme (hemin/G-quadruplex) with the ability of catalyzing H2O2, which contributes to enhance the electrochemical signals. The prepared conjugations were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). And the process of preparation was monitored by zeta potential. Based on the sandwich-type immunoassay, the electrochemical immunosensor was constructed employing the conjugations as signal tags. Under optimal conditions, the DPV peak increased with the increasing of alpha fetal protein (AFP) concentration, and the linear range was from 0.1pgmL(-1) to 100ngmL(-1) with low detection limit of 0.086pgmL(-1). Meanwhile, the designed immunosensor exhibited excellent selectivity and anti-interference property, good reproducibility and stability. More importantly, there were no significant differences in analyzing real clinical samples between designed immunosensor and commercial ELISA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Bacterial flora in the genital tract the last trimester of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Balaka, B; Agbèrè, A D; Baeta, S; Kessie, K; Assimadi, K

    2003-10-01

    Very widespread in our clinical setting, early-onset sepsis is due to organisms that commonly colonize or infect the maternal genital tract; identifying such organisms would help improve prevention and treatment. To determine the bacterial ecology and the pathological status of the genital organs during the last trimester of pregnancy, in order to evaluate the risk of materno-fetal infections and to improve the present prophylactic measures based on monitoring bacterial carriage during the first trimester. Vaginal and endocervical samples, usually taken during the first trimester of pregnancy were delayed and taken during the last trimester of pregnancy, in patients with no signs of sepsis and not taking antibiotics. A macroscopic examination described the aspect of the vagina, the cervix uteri, leukorrhea and possible inflammatory lesions or ulcerations. A microscopic examination searched for parasites, epithelial cells, Clue cells and leukocytes. The appropriate bacteriological cultures were performed after reading the Gram stain and scoring the vaginal flora. The clinical and cytobacteriological aspects were used to identify the bacterial ecology and the pathological genital states. Genital samples were collected from 306 pregnant women. Among them 118 were at 29-32 weeks of gestation, 104 at 33-36 and 84 at 37-40. The most frequent germs were C. albicans (33.3%), Enterobacteriaceae (20.3%) including E. coli (10.9%), S. aureus (15.4%), Gardnerella (13.6%), and Trichomonas (10.6%), in monomicrobian (79.2%) or polymicrobian carriage (20.8%). Lower genital tract pathological states such as vaginitis (29.4%), bacterial vaginosis (21.5%) or cervicitis (10.4%) and asymptomatic bacterial carriage (23.5%) and normal genital flora (15%) were identified. This is the first report of genital bacterial carriage in African women during the last trimester of pregnancy. Larger studies are required to evaluate the risk of maternofetal infections and to improve current

  5. Abnormal folate metabolism as a risk factor for first-trimester spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Michael L; Scoccia, Bert; Kurczynski, Thaddeus W; Shulman, Lee P; Gao, Weihua

    2008-03-01

    To assess the potential role of folic acid in early pregnancy loss by measuring homocysteine (hcy) levels in healthy, pregnant women who present with a current first-trimester miscarriage. This was a cross-sectional analysis comprising 13 patients aged 18-31 years old who had a scheduled dilatation and curettage for a first-trimester miscarriage. The controls were 15 patients of similar maternal age presenting for a first-trimester prenatal care visit. Following completion of a 21-item, structured questionnaire, patients were excluded from the study if they had any known risk factors for a first-trimester miscarriage. The remaining patients provided blood samples for measurement of homocysteine and red blood cell folate. Cases and controls were compared using a standard 2-sample t test. In order to detect a clinically relevant 2.3 micromol/L difference in homocysteine levels, 11 cases and 8 controls were needed. The mean hcy level in cases (5.8 umolmol/L) vs. controls (5.7 micromol/L) was not significantly different (p = 0.83), and all individual values fell within the normal range expected in pregnant women. Red blood cell folate levels (cases=586 ng/mL, controls=611 ng/mL) were also not significantly different (p = 0.72), and no cases of folate deficiency were detected. Maternal age (cases=26, controls=25) and gestational age (cases = 8.8 weeks, controls = 8.4 weeks) were similar between the 2 groups. In this community-based pilot study, abnormal folate metabolism was not an apparent risk factor for spontaneous first-trimester pregnancy loss.

  6. Second trimester serum cortisol and preterm birth: an analysis by timing and subtype.

    PubMed

    Bandoli, Gretchen; Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L; Feuer, Sky K; Liang, Liang; Oltman, Scott P; Paynter, Randi; Ross, Kharah M; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Ryckman, Kelli K; Chambers, Christina D

    2018-05-24

    We hypothesized second trimester serum cortisol would be higher in spontaneous preterm births compared to provider-initiated (previously termed 'medically indicated') preterm births. We used a nested case-control design with a sample of 993 women with live births. Cortisol was measured from serum samples collected as part of routine prenatal screening. We tested whether mean-adjusted cortisol fold-change differed by gestational age at delivery or preterm birth subtype using multivariable linear regression. An inverse association between cortisol and gestational age category (trend p = 0.09) was observed. Among deliveries prior to 37 weeks, the mean-adjusted cortisol fold-change values were highest for preterm premature rupture of the membranes (1.10), followed by premature labor (1.03) and provider-initiated preterm birth (1.01), although they did not differ statistically. Cortisol continues to be of interest as a marker of future preterm birth. Augmentation with additional biomarkers should be explored.

  7. An economic evaluation of second-trimester genetic ultrasonography for prenatal detection of down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vintzileos, A M; Ananth, C V; Fisher, A J; Smulian, J C; Day-Salvatore, D; Beazoglou, T; Knuppel, R A

    1998-11-01

    published studies that used multiple ultrasonographic markers for genetic ultrasonography, 6 had accuracies compatible with benefits. The required ultrasonographic accuracy (sensitivity and false-positive rate) varied according to the prevalence of Down syndrome in the population tested. The cost-benefit ratio of second-trimester genetic ultrasonography depends on its diagnostic accuracy, and it is beneficial only when its overall sensitivity for Down syndrome is >74%.

  8. Acceptability and clinical outcomes of first- and second-trimester surgical abortion by suction aspiration in Colombia.

    PubMed

    DePiñeres, Teresa; Baum, Sarah; Grossman, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Since partial decriminalization of abortion in Colombia, Oriéntame has provided legal abortion services through 15 weeks gestation in an outpatient primary care setting. We sought to document the safety and acceptability of the second trimester compared to the first-trimester surgical abortion in this setting. This was a prospective cohort study using a consecutive sample of 100 women undergoing surgical first-trimester abortion (11 weeks 6 days gestational age or less) and 200 women undergoing second-trimester abortion (12 weeks 0 days-15 weeks 0 days) over a 5-month period in 2012. After obtaining informed consent, a trained interviewer collected demographic and clinical information from direct observation and the patient's clinical chart. The interviewer asked questions after the procedure regarding satisfaction with the procedure, physical pain and emotional discomfort. Fifteen days later, the interviewer assessed satisfaction with the procedure and any delayed complications. There were no major complications and seven minor complications. Average measured blood loss was 37.87 mL in the first trimester and 109 mL in the second trimester (p<.001). Following the procedure, more second-trimester patients reported being very satisfied (81% vs. 94%, p=.006). Satisfaction was similar between groups at follow-up. There were no differences in reported emotional discomfort after the procedure or at follow-up, with the majority reporting no emotional discomfort. The majority of women (99%) stated that they would recommend the clinic to a friend or family member. Second-trimester surgical abortion in an outpatient primary care setting in Colombia can be provided safely, and satisfaction with these services is high. This is one of the first studies from Latin America, a region with a high proportion of maternal mortality due to unsafe abortion, which documents the safety and acceptability of surgical abortion in an outpatient primary care setting. Findings could support

  9. Trimester specific reference intervals for thyroid function tests in normal Indian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sekhri, Tarun; Juhi, Juhi Agarwal; Wilfred, Reena; Kanwar, Ratnesh S; Sethi, Jyoti; Bhadra, Kuntal; Nair, Sirimavo; Singh, Satveer

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of thyroid function during pregnancy is critical, for initiation of thyroid hormone therapy, as well as for adjustment of thyroid hormone dose in hypothyroid cases. We evaluated pregnant women who had no past history of thyroid disorders and studied their thyroid function in each trimester. 86 normal pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy were selected for setting reference intervals. All were healthy, euthyroid and negative for thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb). These women were serially followed throughout pregnancy. 124 normal nonpregnant subjects were selected for comparison. Thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and anti-TPO were measured using Roche Elecsys 1010 analyzer. Urinary iodine content was determined by simple microplate method. The 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles were calculated as the reference intervals for thyroid hormone levels during each trimester. SPSS (version 14.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for data processing and analysis. The reference intervals for the first, second and third trimesters for the following parameters: TSH 0.09-6.65, 0.51-6.66, 0.91-4.86 µIU/mL, FT4 9.81-18.53, 8.52-19.43, 7.39-18.28 pM/L and FT3 3.1-6.35, 2.39-5.12, 2.57-5.68 pM/L respectively. Thyroid hormone concentrations significantly differed during pregnancy at different stages of gestation. The pregnant women in the study had median urinary iodine concentration of 150-200 µg/l during each trimester. The trimester-specific reference intervals for thyroid tests during pregnancy have been established for pregnant Indian women serially followed during pregnancy using 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles.

  10. Screening strategies for thyroid disorders in the first and second trimester of pregnancy in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Shao, Minglong; Chen, Liangmiao; Chen, Qingshou; Yu, Lechu; Cai, Lingqiao; Lin, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Chi; Lu, Xuemian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, but whether all women should be screened for thyroid disorders during pregnancy remains controversial. To evaluate the effectiveness of the targeted high risk case-finding approach for identifying women with thyroid dysfunction during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) were measured in 3882 Chinese women during the first and second trimester of pregnancy. All tested women were divided into the high risk or non-high risk groups, based on their history, findings from physical examination, or other clinical features suggestive of a thyroid disorder. Diagnosis of thyroid disorders was made according to the standard trimester-specific reference intervals. The prevalence of thyroid disorders in each group was determined, and the feasibility of a screening approach focusing exclusively on high risk women was evaluated to estimate the ability of finding women with thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism in the high risk group was higher than in the non-high risk group during the first trimester (0.8% vs 0, χ2 = 7.10, p = 0.008; 1.6% vs 0.2%, χ2 = 7.02, p = 0.008, respectively). The prevalence of hypothyroxinemia or TPOAb positivity was significantly higher in the high risk group than in the non-high risk group during the second trimester (1.3% vs 0.5%, χ2 = 4.49, p = 0.034; 11.6% vs 8.4%, χ2 = 6.396, p = 0.011, respectively). The total prevalence of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism and the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism were not statistically different between the high risk and non-high risk groups, for either the first or second trimester. The high risk screening strategy failed to detect the majority of pregnant women with thyroid disorders. Therefore, we recommend

  11. Prediction of Response to Sorafenib in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Putative Marker Panel by Multiple Reaction Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry (MRM-MS).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Yu, Su Jong; Yeo, Injun; Cho, Young Youn; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Cho, Yuri; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Yoon Jun; Lee, Sungyoung; Jun, Jongsoo; Park, Taesung; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Youngsoo

    2017-07-01

    Sorafenib is the only standard treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but it provides modest survival benefits over placebo, necessitating predictive biomarkers of the response to sorafenib. Serum samples were obtained from 115 consecutive patients with HCC before sorafenib treatment and analyzed by multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) and ELISA to quantify candidate biomarkers. We verified a triple-marker panel to be predictive of the response to sorafenib by MRM-MS, comprising CD5 antigen-like (CD5L), immunoglobulin J (IGJ), and galectin-3-binding protein (LGALS3BP), in HCC patients. This panel was a significant predictor (AUROC > 0.950) of the response to sorafenib treatment, having the best cut-off value (0.4) by multivariate analysis. In the training set, patients who exceeded this cut-off value had significantly better overall survival (median, 21.4 months) than those with lower values (median, 8.6 months; p = 0.001). Further, a value that was lower than this cutoff was an independent predictor of poor overall survival [hazard ratio (HR), 2.728; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.312-5.672; p = 0.007] and remained an independent predictive factor of rapid progression (HR, 2.631; 95% CI, 1.448-4.780; p = 0.002). When applied to the independent validation set, levels of the cut-off value for triple-marker panel maintained their prognostic value for poor clinical outcomes. On the contrast, the triple-marker panel was not a prognostic factor for patients who were treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). The discriminatory signature of a triple-marker panel provides new insights into targeted proteomic biomarkers for individualized sorafenib therapy. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Geodynamical simulation of the RRF triple junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Wei, D.; Liu, M.; Shi, Y.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Triple junction is the point at which three plate boundaries meet. Three plates at the triple junction form a complex geological tectonics, which is a natural laboratory to study the interactions of plates. This work studies a special triple junction, the oceanic transform fault intersects the collinear ridges with different-spreading rates, which is free of influence of ridge-transform faults and nearby hotspots. First, we build 3-D numerical model of this triple junction used to calculate the stead-state velocity and temperature fields resulting from advective and conductive heat transfer. We discuss in detail the influence of the velocity and temperature fields of the triple junction from viscosity, spreading rate of the ridge. The two sides of the oceanic transform fault are different sensitivities to the two factors. And, the influence of the velocity mainly occurs within 200km of the triple junction. Then, we modify the model by adding a ridge-transform fault to above model and directly use the velocity structure of the Macquarie triple junction. The simulation results show that the temperature at both sides of the oceanic transform fault decreases gradually from the triple junction, but the temperature difference between the two sides is a constant about 200°. And, there is little effect of upwelling velocity away from the triple junction 100km. The model results are compared with observational data. The heat flux and thermal topography along the oceanic transform fault of this model are consistent with the observed data of the Macquarie triple junction. The earthquakes are strike slip distributed along the oceanic transform fault. Their depths are also consistent with the zone of maximum shear stress. This work can help us to understand the interactions of plates of triple junctions and help us with the foundation for the future study of triple junctions.

  13. First Trimester Influenza Vaccination and Risks for Major Structural Birth Defects in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Romitti, Paul A; Naleway, Allison L; Cheetham, T Craig; Lipkind, Heather S; Klein, Nicola P; Lee, Grace; Jackson, Michael L; Hambidge, Simon J; McCarthy, Natalie; DeStefano, Frank; Nordin, James D

    2017-08-01

    To examine risks for major structural birth defects in infants after first trimester inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) exposures. In this observational study, we used electronic health data from 7 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites to examine risks for selected major structural defects in infants after maternal IIV exposure. Vaccine exposures for women with continuous insurance enrollment through pregnancy who delivered singleton live births between 2004 and 2013 were identified from standardized files. Infants with continuous insurance enrollment were followed to 1 year of age. We excluded mother-infant pairs with other exposures that potentially increased their background risk for birth defects. Selected cardiac, orofacial or respiratory, neurologic, ophthalmologic or otologic, gastrointestinal, genitourinary and muscular or limb defects were identified from diagnostic codes in infant medical records using validated algorithms. Propensity score adjusted generalized estimating equations were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs). We identified 52 856 infants with maternal first trimester IIV exposure and 373 088 infants whose mothers were unexposed to IIV during first trimester. Prevalence (per 100 live births) for selected major structural birth defects was 1.6 among first trimester IIV exposed versus 1.5 among unexposed mothers. The adjusted PR was 1.02 (95% CI 0.94-1.10). Organ system-specific PRs were similar to the overall PR. First trimester maternal IIV exposure was not associated with an increased risk for selected major structural birth defects in this large cohort of singleton live births. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. First-trimester surgical abortion technique.

    PubMed

    Yonke, Nicole; Leeman, Lawrence M

    2013-12-01

    New data have emerged to support changes in first-trimester abortion practice in regard to antibiotic prophylaxis, cervical ripening, the use of manual vacuum aspiration, and pain management. This article addresses these new recommendations and reviews techniques in performing manual and electric vacuum uterine aspiration procedures before 14 weeks' gestation, including very early abortion (<7 weeks' gestation), technically difficult abortions, management of complications, and postabortal contraception. The information discussed also applies to miscarriage management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Triple-Crater in Elysium Planitia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-22

    This image from NASA Mars Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows a triple impact crater in Elysium Planitia near Tartarus Montes, which probably formed when a binary-or even triple-asteroid struck the surface.

  16. A fast and simple solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method for the assay of urinary markers of glutaric acidemias.

    PubMed

    Naccarato, Attilio; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Elliani, Rosangela; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2014-10-30

    The analysis of characteristic urinary acidic markers such as glutaric, 3-hydroxyglutaric, 2-hydroxyglutaric, adipic, suberic, sebacic, ethylmalonic, 3-hydroxyisovaleric and isobutyric acid constitutes the recommended follow-up testing procedure for glutaric acidemia type 1 (GA-1) and type 2 (GA-2). The goal of the work herein presented is the development of a fast and simple method for the quantification of these biomarkers in human urine. The proposed analytical approach is based on the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS) afterward a rapid derivatization of acidic moieties by propyl chloroformate, propanol and pyridine. Trueness and precision of the proposed protocol, tested at 5, 30 and 80mgl -1 , provided satisfactory values: recoveries were in the range between 72% and 116% and the relative standard deviations (RSD%) were between 0.9% and 18% (except for isobutyric acid at 5mgl -1 ). The LOD values achieved by the proposed method ranged between 1.0 and 473μgl -1 . Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood metal levels and third trimester maternal plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

    PubMed

    Au, Felicia; Bielecki, Agnieszka; Blais, Erica; Fisher, Mandy; Cakmak, Sabit; Basak, Ajoy; Gomes, James; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D; Vincent, Renaud; Kumarathasan, Prem

    2016-09-01

    While it is known that in utero exposure to environmental toxicants, namely heavy metals, can adversely affect the neonate, there remains a significant paucity of information on maternal biological changes specific to metal exposures during pregnancy. This study aims at identifying associations between maternal metal exposures and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that are known to be engaged in pregnancy process. Third trimester maternal plasma (n = 1533) from a pregnancy cohort (Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals Study, MIREC) were analyzed for MMP-1,-2,-7,-9 and -10 by affinity-based multiplex protein array analyses. Maternal metal concentrations (mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and manganese) in 1st and 3rd trimesters exhibited strong correlations (p < 0.05). Multivariate regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (OR) for the association between metal concentrations in quartiles and high (90%) and low (10%) maternal MMP levels. Significant (p < 0.05) metal exposure-related effects were observed with the different MMP isoform responses. MMP profiles were specific to the trimester at which the maternal blood metals were analyzed. Our findings suggest that the profiles of these MMP isoforms vary with the type of metal exposure, blood metal concentrations and the trimester at which metal levels were determined. These new findings on maternal metal-MMP relationships can guide future explorations on toxicity mechanisms relevant to metal exposure-mediated adverse birth outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Heat shock protein-containing exosomes in mid-trimester amniotic fluids.

    PubMed

    Asea, Alexzander; Jean-Pierre, Claudel; Kaur, Punit; Rao, Preethi; Linhares, Iara M; Skupski, Daniel; Witkin, Steven S

    2008-10-01

    Exosomes are multivesicular bodies formed by inverse membrane budding into the lumen of an endocytic compartment. Fusion with the plasma membrane leads to their release into the external milieu. The incorporation of heat shock proteins into exosomes has been associated with immune regulatory activity. We have examined whether heat shock protein-containing exosomes are present in mid-trimester amniotic fluid. Exosomes were isolated from mid-trimester amniotic fluids by sequential low-speed and high-speed centrifugation followed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Biochemical characterization included floatation pattern in sucrose gradients, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and Western blot analysis for exosome-containing proteins. Exosomes were present in each of 23 amniotic fluids tested. They banded at a density of 1.17g/ml in sucrose gradients, were positive for AChE activity and contained tubulin, the inducible 72kDa heat shock protein, Hsp72 and the constitutively expressed heat shock protein, Hsc73; they were negative for calnexin. Exosome concentrations correlated positively with the number of pregnancies. Heat shock protein-containing exosomes are constituents of mid-trimester amniotic fluids and may contribute to immune regulation within the amniotic cavity.

  19. Incorporating thyroid markers in Down syndrome screening protocols.

    PubMed

    Dhaifalah, Ishraq; Salek, Tomas; Langova, Dagmar; Cuckle, Howard

    2017-05-01

    The article aimed to assess the benefit of incorporating maternal serum thyroid disease marker levels (thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine) into first trimester Down syndrome screening protocols. Statistical modelling was used to predict performance with and without the thyroid markers. Two protocols were considered: the combined test and the contingent cell-free DNA (cfDNA) test, where 15-40% women are selected for cfDNA because of increased risk based on combined test results. Published parameters were used for the combined test, cfDNA and the Down syndrome means for thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine; other parameters were derived from a series of 5230 women screened for both thyroid disease and Down syndrome. Combined test: For a fixed 85% detection rate, the predicted false positive rate was reduced from 5.3% to 3.6% with the addition of the thyroid markers. Contingent cfDNA test: For a fixed 95% detection rate, the proportion of women selected for cfDNA was reduced from 25.6% to 20.2%. When screening simultaneously for maternal thyroid disease and Down syndrome, thyroid marker levels should be used in the calculation of Down syndrome risk. The benefit is modest but can be achieved with no additional cost. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Triple Asteroid System Triples Asteroid Observers Interest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-06

    NASA Deep Space Network, Goldstone radar images show triple asteroid 1994 CC, which consists of a central object approximately 700 meters 2,300 feet in diameter and two smaller moons that orbit the central body. Animation available at the Photojournal

  1. Maxillary gap at 11-13 weeks' gestation: marker of cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Chaoui, R; Orosz, G; Heling, K S; Sarut-Lopez, A; Nicolaides, K H

    2015-12-01

    To describe a new sign of cleft lip and palate (CLP), the maxillary gap, which is visible in the mid-sagittal plane of the fetal face used routinely for measurement of nuchal translucency thickness. This was a retrospective study of stored images of the mid-sagittal view of the fetal face at 11-13 weeks' gestation in 86 cases of CLP and 86 normal controls. The images were examined to determine if a maxillary gap was present, in which case its size was measured. In 37 (43.0%) cases of CLP the defect was isolated and in 49 (57.0%) there were additional fetal defects. In the isolated CLP group, the diagnosis of facial cleft was made in the first trimester in nine (24.3%) cases and in the second trimester in 28 (75.7%). In the group with additional defects, the diagnosis of facial cleft was made in the first trimester in 46 (93.9%) cases and in the second trimester in three (6.1%). A maxillary gap was observed in 96% of cases of CLP with additional defects, in 65% of those with isolated CLP and in 7% of normal fetuses. There was a large gap (>1.5 mm) or complete absence of signals from the maxilla in the midline in 69% of cases of CLP with additional defects, in 35% of those with isolated CLP and in none of the normal controls. The maxillary gap is a new simple marker of possible CLP, which could increase the detection rate of CLP, especially in isolated cases. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Salivary Iron (Fe) Ion Levels, Serum Markers of Anemia and Caries Activity in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Costa, Elisa Miranda; Azevedo, Juliana Aires Paiva de; Martins, Rafiza Félix Marão; Rodrigues, Vandilson Pereira; Alves, Cláudia Maria Coêlho; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca

    2017-03-01

    Introduction  Anemia is a very frequent event among pregnant women. There are evidences of differences in the incidence of dental caries between pregnant and non-pregnant women, but the relationship between salivary iron (Fe) and serum markers of anemia and caries development has not been investigated. Objective  To evaluate the correlation between salivary (Fe) and serum iron (Fe, ferritin and hemoglobin) parameters in pregnant women with the development of dental caries. Methods  A prospective cohort was conducted with 59 women. The outcome of interest was represented by new dental caries lesions during pregnancy, using the Nyvad criteria. Pregnant women were evaluated at three clinical times: up to the 16th week of gestational age (GA) (T1), in the last trimester of pregnancy (T2), and postpartum (T3), at the Mother and Child Unit of University Hospital of the Universidade Federal do Maranhão. A stimulated saliva sample was collected for biochemical analysis of salivary Fe, and a blood sample was collected early in the morning. The correlation between salivary and serum Fe was evaluated through the Pearson correlation test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis were used to compare the means of anemia parameters at different times. The Student's t and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the anemia parameters between the groups of pregnant women (with and without new caries lesions). Results  Serum Fe concentrations were higher in the first trimester of pregnancy and lower after delivery ( p  = 0.036). It was also observed that the ferritin concentrations were higher in the first trimester and lower at the end of gestation ( p  = 0.011). There was no association between the expositions of salivary iron and anemia, and the development of dental caries. There was a positive correlation between serum Fe in T1 and salivary Fe in T2 ( p  < 0.05). Conclusion  The serum markers of anemia were more prevalent in the last trimester of

  3. Third Trimester Brain Growth in Preterm Infants Compared With In Utero Healthy Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Bouyssi-Kobar, Marine; du Plessis, Adré J; McCarter, Robert; Brossard-Racine, Marie; Murnick, Jonathan; Tinkleman, Laura; Robertson, Richard L; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2016-11-01

    Compared with term infants, preterm infants have impaired brain development at term-equivalent age, even in the absence of structural brain injury. However, details regarding the onset and progression of impaired preterm brain development over the third trimester are unknown. Our primary objective was to compare third-trimester brain volumes and brain growth trajectories in ex utero preterm infants without structural brain injury and in healthy in utero fetuses. As a secondary objective, we examined risk factors associated with brain volumes in preterm infants over the third-trimester postconception. Preterm infants born before 32 weeks of gestational age (GA) and weighing <1500 g with no evidence of structural brain injury on conventional MRI and healthy pregnant women were prospectively recruited. Anatomic T2-weighted brain images of preterm infants and healthy fetuses were parcellated into the following regions: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, and intracranial cavity. We studied 205 participants (75 preterm infants and 130 healthy control fetuses) between 27 and 39 weeks' GA. Third-trimester brain volumes were reduced and brain growth trajectories were slower in the ex utero preterm group compared with the in utero healthy fetuses in the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, and intracranial cavity. Clinical risk factors associated with reduced brain volumes included dexamethasone treatment, the presence of extra-axial blood on brain MRI, confirmed sepsis, and duration of oxygen support. These preterm infants exhibited impaired third-trimester global and regional brain growth in the absence of cerebral/cerebellar parenchymal injury detected by using conventional MRI. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Third Trimester Brain Growth in Preterm Infants Compared With In Utero Healthy Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Bouyssi-Kobar, Marine; du Plessis, Adré J.; McCarter, Robert; Brossard-Racine, Marie; Murnick, Jonathan; Tinkleman, Laura; Robertson, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Compared with term infants, preterm infants have impaired brain development at term-equivalent age, even in the absence of structural brain injury. However, details regarding the onset and progression of impaired preterm brain development over the third trimester are unknown. Our primary objective was to compare third-trimester brain volumes and brain growth trajectories in ex utero preterm infants without structural brain injury and in healthy in utero fetuses. As a secondary objective, we examined risk factors associated with brain volumes in preterm infants over the third-trimester postconception. METHODS: Preterm infants born before 32 weeks of gestational age (GA) and weighing <1500 g with no evidence of structural brain injury on conventional MRI and healthy pregnant women were prospectively recruited. Anatomic T2-weighted brain images of preterm infants and healthy fetuses were parcellated into the following regions: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, and intracranial cavity. RESULTS: We studied 205 participants (75 preterm infants and 130 healthy control fetuses) between 27 and 39 weeks’ GA. Third-trimester brain volumes were reduced and brain growth trajectories were slower in the ex utero preterm group compared with the in utero healthy fetuses in the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, and intracranial cavity. Clinical risk factors associated with reduced brain volumes included dexamethasone treatment, the presence of extra-axial blood on brain MRI, confirmed sepsis, and duration of oxygen support. CONCLUSIONS: These preterm infants exhibited impaired third-trimester global and regional brain growth in the absence of cerebral/cerebellar parenchymal injury detected by using conventional MRI. PMID:27940782

  5. Metallothionein-3 Increases Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cell Invasiveness via Induction of Metalloproteinase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Suchanski, Jaroslaw; Olbromski, Mateusz; Gomulkiewicz, Agnieszka; Owczarek, Tomasz; Kruczak, Anna; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Rys, Janusz; Ugorski, Maciej; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzena; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently found that metallothionein-3 (MT3) enhances the invasiveness and tumorigenesis of prostate cancer cells. This finding is in contrast to those of earlier studies, which indicated that overexpression of MT3 in breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines inhibits their growth in vitro. Therefore, to clarify the role of MT3 in breast cancer progression, we analyzed the effect of MT3-overexpression on proliferation, invasiveness, migration, and tumorigenesis of breast cancer MDA-MB-231/BO2 cells. It was found that MDA-MB-231/BO2 cells overexpressing MT3 were characterized by increased invasiveness in vitro, compared to the control cells. Interestingly, this increased invasiveness correlated with a highly increased concentration of MMP3 in the culture supernatants (p<0.0001). Our data suggest that MT3 may regulate breast cancer cell invasiveness by modulating the expression of MMP3. These experimental results, obtained using triple-negative MDA-MB-231/BO2 cells, were further supported by clinical data. It was found that, in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), nuclear MT3 immunoreactivity in cancer cells tended to be associated with patients’ shorter disease-specific survival, suggesting that nuclear MT3 expression may be a potential marker of poor prognosis of triple-negative TNBC cases. PMID:25933064

  6. NIM Realization of the Gallium Triple Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoke, Yan; Ping, Qiu; Yuning, Duan; Yongmei, Qu

    2003-09-01

    In the last three years (1999 to 2001), the gallium triple-point cell has been successfully developed, and much corresponding research has been carried out at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing, China. This paper presents the cell design, apparatus and procedure for realizing the gallium triple point, and presents studies on the different freezing methods. The reproducibility is 0.03 mK, and the expanded uncertainty of realization of the gallium triple point is evaluated to be 0.17 mK (p=0.99, k=2.9). Also, the reproducibility of the gallium triple point was compared with that of the triple point of water.

  7. Early signs of cardiac failure: a clue for parvovirus infection screening in the first trimester?

    PubMed

    Carraca, Teresa; Matias, Alexandra; Brandão, Otília; Montenegro, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 is a small single-stranded DNA virus and a potent inhibitor of erythropoiesis due to its cytotoxicity to erythroid progenitor cells. Although adult disease is generally mild, fetal parvovirus B19 infection can cause spontaneous abortion in early pregnancy and aplastic anemia, nonimmune hydrops fetalis and in utero fetal demise. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 maternal infection during pregnancy is about 1-2%. The vertical transmission occurs in 10-35%, being highest in the first and second trimesters. The risk of adverse fetal outcome is 10%. In contrast to the second or third trimester, in pregnancies affected by increased nuchal translucency (NT) in the late first trimester, the prevalence of maternal infection was not higher than in the general population. We report a case of first-trimester parvovirus B19 infection with increased NT and reversed a-wave in the ductus venosus (DV) at 11 weeks, with fetal demise 2 weeks later. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Counting Primitive Pythagorean Triples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoub, Ayoub B.

    2005-01-01

    A triple (x,y,z) of natural numbers is called a Primitive Pythagorean Triple (PPT) if it satisfies two conditions: (1) x[squared] + y[squared] = z[squared]; and (2) x, y, and z have no common factor other than one. All the PPT's are given by the parametric equations: (1) x = m[squared] - n[squared]; (2) y = 2mn; and (3) z = m[squared] +…

  9. Genetic Counseling and Prenatal Diagnosis of Triploidy During the Second Trimester of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kolarski, Milenko; Ahmetovic, Begzudin; Beres, Maja; Topic, Radomir; Nikic, Vedran; Kavecan, Ivana; Sabic, Semin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Triploidy is a lethal chromosomal numeric abnormality, characterized on extra haploid set of chromosomes. It occurs in 2 to 3% of conceptuses and accounts for approximately 20% of chromosomally abnormal first-trimester miscarriages. As such, triploidy is estimated to occur in 1 of 3,500 pregnancies at 12 weeks’, 1 in 30,000 at 16 weeks’, and 1 in 250,000 at 20 weeks’ gestation. Case report: We present a case of second-trimester triploidy diagnosed prenataly at our center. 28-years-old gravida with a first spontaneous pregnancy had early gestational hypertension. Ultrasound examination in 146/7 weeks’ gestation revealed asymmetric intrauterine growth retardation. We recommended biochemical maternal serum screening during second trimester of pregnancy (AFP, HCG, uE3). Result of biochemical screening was indication for cytogenetic analysis from amniotic fluid cells and we recommended early amniocentesis in 156/7 weeks’ gestation. Result showed abnormal karyotype of the fetus (69,XXX triploidy), and DNA analysis confirmed Type-2 Diginy. Parents decided to terminate this pregnancy, and it was done at 22 weeks’ gestation. Conclusion: We emphasize the importance of non-invasive prenatal exminationes-biochemical serum screening during second trimester of pregnancy, and ultrasound examinations in prenatal screening of syndroma Down and other chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:28790549

  10. Clinical value of R-spondins in triple-negative and metaplastic breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Coussy, F; Lallemand, F; Vacher, S; Schnitzler, A; Chemlali, W; Caly, M; Nicolas, A; Richon, S; Meseure, D; El Botty, R; De-Plater, L; Fuhrmann, L; Dubois, T; Roman-Roman, S; Dangles-Marie, V; Marangoni, E; Bièche, I

    2017-06-06

    RSPO ligands, activators of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, are overexpressed in different cancers. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of RSPOs in breast cancer (BC). Expression of RSPO and markers of various cancer pathways were measured in breast tumours and cell lines by qRT-PCR. The effect of RSPO on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway activity was determined by luciferase assay, western blotting, and qRT-PCR. The effect of RSPO2 inhibition on proliferation was determined by using RSPO2 siRNAs. The effect of IWR-1, an inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, was examined on the growth of an RSPO2-positive patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of metaplastic triple-negative BC. We detected RSPO2 and RSPO4 overexpression levels in BC, particularly in triple-negative BC (TNBC), metaplastic BC, and triple-negative cell lines. Various mechanisms could account for this overexpression: presence of fusion transcripts involving RSPO, and amplification or hypomethylation of RSPO genes. Patients with RSPO2-overexpressing tumours have a poorer metastasis-free survival (P=3.6 × 10 -4 ). RSPO2 and RSPO4 stimulate Wnt/β-catenin pathway activity. Inhibition of RSPO expression in a TN cell line inhibits cell growth, and IWR-1 significantly inhibits the growth of an RSPO2-overexpressing PDX. RSPO overexpression could therefore be a new prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for TNBC.

  11. Comparing outcomes and costs between contingent and combined first-trimester screening strategies for Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martín, I; Gibert, M J; Aulesa, C; Alsina, M; Casals, E; Bauça, J M

    2015-06-01

    To compare a contingent strategy with a combined strategy for prenatal detection of Down's syndrome (DS) in terms of cost, outcomes and safety. The contingent strategy was based on a simulation, removing measurement of the free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (free βhCG) and calculating the DS risk retrospectively in 32,371 pregnant women who had been screened with the combined strategy in the first trimester. In the contingent strategy, a risk between 1:31 and 1:1000 in the first trimester indicated further testing in the second trimester (alpha-fetoprotein, inhibin A, unconjugated oestriol and free βhCG). The cut-off risk values for the contingent and combined strategies in the first trimester were 1:30 and 1:250, respectively, and the cut-off risk value for integrated screening in the second trimester was 1:250. Costs were compared in terms of avoided DS births, and the ratio of loss of healthy fetuses following invasive procedures per avoided DS birth was calculated. The combined strategy had sensitivity of 40/44 (90.9%) and a false-positive rate of 2.8%. Corresponding values for the contingent strategy were 39/44 (88.6%) and 1.3%, respectively. Only 11% of pregnant women required tests in the second trimester, and the approximate cost reduction for each avoided DS birth was 5000€. The ratio of lost healthy fetuses following invasive procedures per avoided DS birth improved by up to 0.65. The contingent strategy has similar effectiveness to the combined strategy, but has lower costs and fewer invasive procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prediction of fetal growth restriction using estimated fetal weight vs a combined screening model in the third trimester.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J; Rodriguez-Lopez, M; Triunfo, S; Sairanen, M; Kouru, H; Parra-Saavedra, M; Crovetto, F; Figueras, F; Crispi, F; Gratacós, E

    2017-11-01

    To compare the performance of third-trimester screening, based on estimated fetal weight centile (EFWc) vs a combined model including maternal baseline characteristics, fetoplacental ultrasound and maternal biochemical markers, for the prediction of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates and late-onset fetal growth restriction (FGR). This was a nested case-control study within a prospective cohort of 1590 singleton gestations undergoing third-trimester (32 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks' gestation) evaluation. Maternal baseline characteristics, mean arterial pressure, fetoplacental ultrasound and circulating biochemical markers (placental growth factor (PlGF), lipocalin-2, unconjugated estriol and inhibin A) were assessed in all women who subsequently delivered a SGA neonate (n = 175), defined as birth weight < 10 th centile according to customized standards, and in a control group (n = 875). Among SGA cases, those with birth weight < 3 rd centile and/or abnormal uterine artery pulsatility index (UtA-PI) and/or abnormal cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) were classified as FGR. Logistic regression predictive models were developed for SGA and FGR, and their performance was compared with that obtained using EFWc alone. In SGA cases, EFWc, CPR Z-score and maternal serum concentrations of unconjugated estriol and PlGF were significantly lower, while mean UtA-PI Z-score and lipocalin-2 and inhibin A concentrations were significantly higher, compared with controls. Using EFWc alone, 52% (area under receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC), 0.82 (95% CI, 0.77-0.85)) of SGA and 64% (AUC, 0.86 (95% CI, 0.81-0.91)) of FGR cases were predicted at a 10% false-positive rate. A combined screening model including a-priori risk (maternal characteristics), EFWc, UtA-PI, PlGF and estriol (with lipocalin-2 for SGA) achieved a detection rate of 61% (AUC, 0.86 (95% CI, 0.83-0.89)) for SGA cases and 77% (AUC, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.88-0.95)) for FGR. The combined model for the

  13. Dysmorphic choroid plexuses and hydrocephalus associated with increased nuchal translucency: early ultrasound markers of de novo thanatophoric dysplasia type II with cloverleaf skull (Kleeblattschaedel).

    PubMed

    Tonni, Gabriele; Palmisano, Marcella; Ginocchi, Vladimiro; Ventura, Alessandro; Baldi, Maurizia; Baffico, Ave Maria

    2014-11-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) type II presenting in the first trimester with increased nuchal translucency (NT) and cloverleaf skull (Kleeblattschaedel) have been scantly reported in the medical record. Abnormal choroid plexus has been seen in association with fetal anomalies. Here we described a case of increased NT associated with indented choroid plexuses, early onset hydrocephalus and cloverleaf skull in a fetus subsequently diagnosed at early second trimester to carry a de novo mutation encoding for TD type II. The findings of dysmorphic choroid plexus, early onset hydrocephalus and cloverleaf skull at first trimester scan may be early, useful ultrasound markers of TD type II. Molecular analysis to control for possible overlapping syndromes were performed and resulted negative. Postmortem X-ray and 3D-CT scan confirmed the cloverleaf skull, narrow thorax, straight femur with rhizomelic shortening of the limbs and the presence of a communicating hydrocephalus. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  14. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® First Trimester Vaginal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Brown, Douglas L; Packard, Ann; Maturen, Katherine E; Deshmukh, Sandeep Prakash; Dudiak, Kika M; Henrichsen, Tara L; Meyer, Benjamin J; Poder, Liina; Sadowski, Elizabeth A; Shipp, Thomas D; Simpson, Lynn; Weber, Therese M; Zelop, Carolyn M; Glanc, Phyllis

    2018-05-01

    Vaginal bleeding is not uncommon in the first trimester of pregnancy. The majority of such patients will have a normal intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), a nonviable IUP, or an ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasound (US) is the primary imaging modality in evaluation of these patients. US, along with clinical observations and serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels, can usually distinguish these causes. Although it is important to diagnose ectopic pregnancies and nonviable IUPs, one should also guard against injury to normal pregnancies due to inappropriate treatment with methotrexate or surgical intervention. Less common causes of first trimester vaginal bleeding include gestational trophoblastic disease and arteriovenous malformations. Pulsed methods of Doppler US should generally be avoided in the first trimester when there is a normal, or a potentially normal, IUP. Once a normal IUP has been excluded, Doppler US may be useful when other diagnoses such as retained products of conception or arteriovenous malformations are suspected. MRI may occasionally be helpful as a problem-solving tool. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 77 FR 72242 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; White Hake Trimester...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Fishery; White Hake Trimester Total Allowable Catch Area Closure for the Common Pool Fishery AGENCY... Allowable Catch (TAC) Area to all common pool groundfish vessels fishing with trawl gear, sink gillnet gear... necessary to prevent the common pool fishery from exceeding its Trimester 2 TAC or its annual catch limit...

  16. 77 FR 48915 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; White Hake Trimester...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Fishery; White Hake Trimester Total Allowable Catch Area Closure for the Common Pool Fishery AGENCY... (TAC) Area to all common pool vessels fishing with trawl gear, sink gillnet gear, or longline/hook gear... common pool fishery from exceeding its Trimester 1 TAC or its annual catch limit for white hake. This...

  17. Triple dye plus rubbing alcohol versus triple dye alone for umbilical cord care.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Alawia K; Watts, Heidi; Beiler, Jessica; King, Tonya S; Khan, Sana; Carnuccio, Marybeth; Paul, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    Current practices for umbilical cord care vary across centers, but the evidence regarding these practices and their impact on cord separation, complications, and health care use are limited. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of triple dye alone (brilliant green, crystal violet, and proflavine hemisulfate) versus triple dye plus rubbing alcohol (isopropyl alcohol) twice daily on time to umbilical cord separation, complications, and health care use. For the 90 newborns who completed the study, there were no significant differences between treatment groups for time to cord separation, cord-related morbidities, or cord-related urgent care. Based on these study results, there does not appear to be significant benefit to the addition of twice daily applications of rubbing alcohol to neonatal umbilical cords following triple dye treatment after birth.

  18. Altered newborn gender distribution in patients with low mid-trimester maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG).

    PubMed

    Santolaya-Forgas, J; Meyer, W J; Burton, B K; Scommegna, A

    1997-01-01

    to determine if the sex ratio (male/female) is altered in infants born to patients with low mid-trimester maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG). Between 2/1/90 and 1/3/91, 3,116 patients underwent prenatal screening using second-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP), MShCG, and maternal serum unconjugated estriol (MSuE3). Among these, there were 132 patients with low second-trimester MShCG (< 0.4 MoM), normal MSAFP and MSuE3. The gender distribution of these term, normal newborns was compared to that of 237 controls, matched for race, maternal age, and referral source and delivered at term to mothers with normal mid-trimester MSAFP, MSuE3, and MShCG. The gender distribution of these two groups of newborns was also compared to that of 78 term newborns from the same obstetrical population delivered to mothers with second-trimester MShCG > 2.5 MoM and normal MSAFP and MSuE3. All patients had a complete obstetrical history. Forty-nine percent of the controls were male vs. 62% of the group with slow second-trimester MShCG (P < .01). Within the group with low MShCG, 59% of infants were male when the MShCG was between 0.19 and 0.4 MoM (A) and 80% when the MShCG was < 0.2 MoM (B) (control vs. A vs. B P < .005). The sex ratio in the high-MShCG group was similar to control. The data suggest that gender distribution is different from normal in patients with low mid-trimester MShCG.

  19. Effectiveness of Vascular Markers (Immunohistochemical Stains) in Soft Tissue Sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Namra; Mushtaq, Sajid; Akhter, Noreen; Hussain, Mudassar; Hassan, Usman

    2018-05-01

    To ascertain the effectiveness of IHC markers of vascular origin like CD31, CD34, FLI1 and ERG in vascular soft tissue sarcomas including angiosarcomas, Kaposi sarcomas, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and a non-vascular soft tissue sarcoma (Epithelioid sarcoma). Descriptive study. Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, from 2011 to 2017. Diagnosed cases of angiosarcomas (n=48), epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (n=9), Kaposi sarcoma (n=9) and epithelioid sarcoma (n=20) were selected. Immunohistochemical staining as performed on formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections. The sections were stained for the following markers: CD34 (VENTANA clone Q Bend 10), CD31 (Leica clone 1 A 10), FLI1 (CELL MARQUE clone MRQ-1) and ERG (CELL MARQUE clone EP111). A complete panel of CD34, CD31 and ERG was applied on 8/48 cases of angiosarcomas with triple positivity in 6 cases. Eight cases showed positivity for only CD31 and ERG and 2 cases showed positivity for only ERG. A complete panel of CD34, CD31 and ERG was applied on 3/9 cases of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma with positivity for all markers in 2 cases. Combined positivity for ERG and CD34 was seen in 2 cases and on 4 cases only CD31 immunohistochemical was solely applied with 100% positivity. FLI1 was not applied on any case. Among 9 cases of Kaposi sarcoma, ERG, CD34 and CD31 in combination were applied on only 1 case with triple positivity. Remaining cases show positivity for either CD34, CD31 or FLI1. Majority of cases of epithelioid sarcomas were diagnosed on the basis of cytokeratin and CD34 positivity with loss of INI1. The other vascular markers showed negativity in all cases. Among these four markers, ERG immunohistochemical stain is highly effective for endothelial differentiation due to its specific nuclear staining pattern in normal blood vessel endothelial cells (internal control) as well as neoplastic cells of vascular tumors and lack of background staining.

  20. An economic evaluation of first-trimester genetic sonography for prenatal detection of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vintzileos, A M; Ananth, C V; Fisher, A J; Smulian, J C; Day-Salvatore, D; Beazoglou, T

    1998-04-01

    To determine 1) the diagnostic accuracy requirements of first-trimester genetic sonography from the cost-benefit point of view and 2) the economic impact of first-trimester genetic sonography for the United States on the basis of the accuracy of previously published studies. A cost-benefit equation was developed on the basis of the hypothesis that the cost of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in pregnant women with advanced maternal age (at least 35 years old) should be at least equal to the cost of genetic sonography with CVS used only for those with abnormal ultrasound results. The components of the equation included the diagnostic accuracy of genetic ultrasound (sensitivity and specificity for detecting Down syndrome), the costs of the CVS package and genetic ultrasound, and the lifetime cost of Down syndrome cases. First-trimester genetic sonography was found to be beneficial if the overall sensitivity for detecting Down syndrome was greater than 70%, and even then, the cost-benefit ratio depended on the corresponding false-positive rate. The required minimum ultrasound sensitivity varied according to the maternal age-specific prevalence of Down syndrome and ranged between 40% (for women 35 years old) to 96% (for women 44 years old). Of eight published cohorts using nuchal translucency thickness for genetic sonography, five had accuracies of genetic ultrasound compatible with net benefits. The benefits of first-trimester genetic sonography depend on its diagnostic accuracy. First-trimester genetic sonography has the potential for annual savings of 22 million dollars in the United States.

  1. Maternal age during pregnancy is associated with third trimester blood pressure level: the generation R study.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Romy; Bakker, Rachel; Steegers, Eric A P; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2011-09-01

    We hypothesized that hemodynamic adaptations related to pregnancy and ageing might be associated with differences in blood pressure levels during pregnancy between younger and older women. This might partly explain the increased risk of gestational hypertensive disorders with advanced maternal age. We examined the associations of maternal age with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in each trimester of pregnancy and the risks of gestational hypertensive disorders. The study was conducted among 8,623 women participating in a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards. Age was assessed at enrolment. Blood pressure was measured in each trimester. Information about gestational hypertensive disorders was available from medical records. In second and third trimester, older maternal age was associated with lower systolic blood pressure (-0.9 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: -1.4, -0.3) and -0.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: -1.1, -0.02) per additional 10 maternal years, respectively). Older maternal age was associated with higher third trimester diastolic blood pressure (0.5 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: 0.04, 0.9) per additional 10 maternal years). Maternal age was associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension among overweight and obese women. Older maternal age is associated with lower second and third trimester systolic blood pressure, but higher third trimester diastolic blood pressure. These blood pressure differences seem to be small and within the physiological range. Maternal age is not consistently associated with the risks of gestational hypertensive disorders. Maternal body mass index might influence the association between maternal age and the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension.

  2. Teaching Triple Science: GCSE Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) has contracted with the Learning and Skills Network to support awareness and take-up of Triple Science GCSEs through the Triple Science Support Programme. This publication provides an introduction to teaching and learning approaches for the extension topics within GCSE Chemistry. It…

  3. Teaching Triple Science: GCSE Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) has contracted with the Learning and Skills Network to support awareness and take-up of Triple Science GCSEs through the Triple Science Support Programme. This publication provides an introduction to teaching and learning approaches for the extension topics within GCSE Biology. It highlights…

  4. Recovery and normalization of triple coincidences in PET

    SciTech Connect

    Lage, Eduardo, E-mail: elage@mit.edu; Parot, Vicente; Dave, Shivang R.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Triple coincidences in positron emission tomography (PET) are events in which three γ-rays are detected simultaneously. These events, though potentially useful for enhancing the sensitivity of PET scanners, are discarded or processed without special consideration in current systems, because there is not a clear criterion for assigning them to a unique line-of-response (LOR). Methods proposed for recovering such events usually rely on the use of highly specialized detection systems, hampering general adoption, and/or are based on Compton-scatter kinematics and, consequently, are limited in accuracy by the energy resolution of standard PET detectors. In this work, the authors propose amore » simple and general solution for recovering triple coincidences, which does not require specialized detectors or additional energy resolution requirements. Methods: To recover triple coincidences, the authors’ method distributes such events among their possible LORs using the relative proportions of double coincidences in these LORs. The authors show analytically that this assignment scheme represents the maximum-likelihood solution for the triple-coincidence distribution problem. The PET component of a preclinical PET/CT scanner was adapted to enable the acquisition and processing of triple coincidences. Since the efficiencies for detecting double and triple events were found to be different throughout the scanner field-of-view, a normalization procedure specific for triple coincidences was also developed. The effect of including triple coincidences using their method was compared against the cases of equally weighting the triples among their possible LORs and discarding all the triple events. The authors used as figures of merit for this comparison sensitivity, noise-equivalent count (NEC) rates and image quality calculated as described in the NEMA NU-4 protocol for the assessment of preclinical PET scanners. Results: The addition of triple-coincidence events with

  5. Recovery and normalization of triple coincidences in PET.

    PubMed

    Lage, Eduardo; Parot, Vicente; Moore, Stephen C; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Udías, Jose M; Dave, Shivang R; Park, Mi-Ae; Vaquero, Juan J; Herraiz, Joaquin L

    2015-03-01

    Triple coincidences in positron emission tomography (PET) are events in which three γ-rays are detected simultaneously. These events, though potentially useful for enhancing the sensitivity of PET scanners, are discarded or processed without special consideration in current systems, because there is not a clear criterion for assigning them to a unique line-of-response (LOR). Methods proposed for recovering such events usually rely on the use of highly specialized detection systems, hampering general adoption, and/or are based on Compton-scatter kinematics and, consequently, are limited in accuracy by the energy resolution of standard PET detectors. In this work, the authors propose a simple and general solution for recovering triple coincidences, which does not require specialized detectors or additional energy resolution requirements. To recover triple coincidences, the authors' method distributes such events among their possible LORs using the relative proportions of double coincidences in these LORs. The authors show analytically that this assignment scheme represents the maximum-likelihood solution for the triple-coincidence distribution problem. The PET component of a preclinical PET/CT scanner was adapted to enable the acquisition and processing of triple coincidences. Since the efficiencies for detecting double and triple events were found to be different throughout the scanner field-of-view, a normalization procedure specific for triple coincidences was also developed. The effect of including triple coincidences using their method was compared against the cases of equally weighting the triples among their possible LORs and discarding all the triple events. The authors used as figures of merit for this comparison sensitivity, noise-equivalent count (NEC) rates and image quality calculated as described in the NEMA NU-4 protocol for the assessment of preclinical PET scanners. The addition of triple-coincidence events with the authors' method increased peak

  6. Fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester: comparison between population groups from different ethnic origins.

    PubMed

    Papasozomenou, Panayiota; Athanasiadis, Apostolos P; Zafrakas, Menelaos; Panteris, Eleftherios; Loufopoulos, Aristoteles; Assimakopoulos, Efstratios; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2016-03-01

    To compare normal ranges of ultrasonographically measured fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester between different ethnic groups. A prospective, non-interventional study in order to establish normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester in a Greek population was conducted in 1220 singleton fetuses between 18 completed weeks and 23 weeks and 6 days of gestation. A literature search followed in order to identify similar studies in different population groups. Fetal nasal bone length mean values and percentiles from different population groups were compared. Analysis of measurements in the Greek population showed a linear association, i.e., increasing nasal bone length with increasing gestational age from 5.73 mm at 18 weeks to 7.63 mm at 23 weeks. Eleven studies establishing normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester were identified. Comparison of fetal nasal bone length mean values between the 12 population groups showed statistically significant differences (P<0.0001). Normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester vary significantly between different ethnic groups. Hence, distinct ethnic nomograms of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester should be used in a given population rather than an international model.

  7. Detection of congenital heart defects throughout pregnancy; impact of first trimester ultrasound screening for cardiac abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriades, Makarios; Tsapakis, Elsa; Sotiriadis, Alexandros; Manolakos, Emmanouil; Hassiakos, Demetrios; Botsis, Demetrios

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate prospectively the efficacy to screen for congenital heart defects (CHD) during the first trimester nuchal translucency (NT) ultrasound examination by assessing the four chambers' view of fetal heart. Pregnancies that were examined prospectively by ultrasound in the first trimester (11th-14th week), the second (19th-24th week) and third trimester were included in the study. 3774 fetuses were examined and fetal heart was assessed during the NT scan by examining the four chambers view. Detailed echocardiography was performed during the anomaly and growth scans. Diagnosis of congenital heart defects (CHD) was further confirmed by a fetal cardiologist. The four chambers view was obtained in 99.52% of the cases. CHD were diagnosed in 29 fetuses (0.77%). Thirteen cases (44.8%) were detected during the 11-13 weeks' scan, 14 cases (48.3%) during the anomaly scan, 1 CHD (3.5%) during the third trimester scan and 1 case (3.5%) postpartum. Assessment of the four chambers of fetal heart early in pregnancy was feasible and allowed the detection of 45% of CHD. Additional parameters of fetal cardiac anatomy during the NT scan may further improve the detection rate providing pregnancy management information early in the first trimester.

  8. The impact of fetal gender on first trimester nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A MoM in normal and trisomy 21 pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Cowans, Nicholas J; Stamatopoulou, Anastasia; Maiz, Nerea; Spencer, Kevin; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2009-06-01

    To investigate if fetal sex has an impact on 1st trimester combined screening for aenuploidy. We studied the first trimester PAPP-A, free beta-human chorionic gonadatropin (beta-hCG) and nuchal translucency levels in 56,024 normal, singleton pregnancies with known fetal sex at birth. We also examined the distributions in 722 pregnancies with trisomy 21 of known fetal sex. We have found a 14.74% increase in first trimester maternal serum (MS) median free beta-hCG MoM, 6.25% increase of PAPP-A and a 9.41% decrease in delta NT, when the fetus was female. Analysis of data has shown that women carrying a female fetus were 1.084 times more likely to be in the 'at risk' group than those carrying a male fetus. In examining data from 722 pregnancies in which the fetus was affected by trisomy 21, we observed a similar 20.8% increase in free beta-hCG MoM, 5.7% increase in PAPP-A and a 12% decrease in delta NT when the fetus was female. Amongst the trisomy 21 cases, 88.8% of male trisomy 21 cases were detected compared with 91.2% in female cases, this difference was not statistically significant. Correcting for fetal sex redressed the balance in screen-positive rate between the sexes and had a minimal impact on detection rate. Correcting for fetal sex may be a worthwhile consideration. A cost-benefit analysis would be required to determine if it is feasible to introduce fetal gender assignment into the routine first trimester scan for the purpose of marker correction and whether this would have any significant impact. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Triple effect absorption cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.C.; Potnis, S.V.; Tang, J.

    1996-12-31

    Triple effect absorption chillers can achieve 50% COP improvement over double-effect systems. However, to translate this potential into cost-effective hardware, the most promising embodiments must be identified. In this study, 12 generic triple effect cycles and 76 possible hermetic loop arrangements of those 12 generic cycles were identified. The generic triple effect cycles were screened based on their pressure and solubility field requirements, generic COPs, risk involved in the component design, and number of components in a high corrosive environment. This screening identified four promising arrangements: Alkitrate Topping cycle, Pressure Staged Envelope cycle, High Pressure Overlap cycle, and Dual Loopmore » cycle. All of these arrangements have a very high COP ({approximately} 1.8), however the development risk and cost involved is different for each arrangement. Therefore, the selection of a particular arrangement will depend upon the specific situation under consideration.« less

  10. Examining Primary Healthcare Performance through a Triple Aim Lens.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Bridget L; Brown, Judith Belle; Glazier, Richard H; Hutchison, Brian

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to apply a Triple Aim framework to the measurement and evaluation of primary healthcare (PHC) team performance. Triple Aim components were populated with 10 dimensions derived from survey and health administrative data for 17 Family Health Teams (FHTs) in Ontario, Canada. Bivariate analyses and rankings of sites examined the relationships among dimensions and among Triple Aim components. Readily available measures to fully populate the Triple Aim framework were lacking in FHTs. Within sites, there was little consistency in performance across the Triple Aim components (health, patient experience and cost). More and better measures are needed that can be readily used to examine the Triple Aim performance in PHC teams. FHTs, in this study, are partially achieving Triple Aim goals; however, there was a lack of consistency in performance. It is essential to collect appropriate measures and attend to performance across all components of the Triple Aim. Copyright © 2016 Longwoods Publishing.

  11. Examining Primary Healthcare Performance through a Triple Aim Lens

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Bridget L.; Brown, Judith Belle; Glazier, Richard H.; Hutchison, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to apply a Triple Aim framework to the measurement and evaluation of primary healthcare (PHC) team performance. Methods: Triple Aim components were populated with 10 dimensions derived from survey and health administrative data for 17 Family Health Teams (FHTs) in Ontario, Canada. Bivariate analyses and rankings of sites examined the relationships among dimensions and among Triple Aim components. Results: Readily available measures to fully populate the Triple Aim framework were lacking in FHTs. Within sites, there was little consistency in performance across the Triple Aim components (health, patient experience and cost). Conclusions: More and better measures are needed that can be readily used to examine the Triple Aim performance in PHC teams. FHTs, in this study, are partially achieving Triple Aim goals; however, there was a lack of consistency in performance. It is essential to collect appropriate measures and attend to performance across all components of the Triple Aim. PMID:27027790

  12. [Cholestasis and listeriosis in the third trimester of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montero, I; Segura Ortega, V; Martínez Jiménez, L; García Jiménez, A; Unzetabarrenetxea Barrenetxea, O; Pérez Rodríguez, A F

    2013-01-01

    Listeriosis is an infection produced by Listeria monocytogenes. It is infrequent and affects people at extreme ages, pregnant women, immunocompromised people and, occasionally, healthy people. Its incidence has increased in recent years and shows a certain tendency to seasonality, increasing in summer. It can appear sporadically or as outbreaks. In pregnant women the infection is most frequently produced in the third trimester and the symptoms are usually light. Nonetheless, the infection of the fetus is severe, and can produce miscarriages, fetal deaths, corioamnionitis and premature births with the newborn infected, manifested in the form of granulomatosis infantiseptica with abscesses and scattered granulomas or at a later stage , as meningitis or sepsis. Intrahepatic cholestasis is a reversible form of cholestasis, its cause is unknown, it is specific to pregnancy and is more frequent in multiparous women, in the third trimester and rarely before the 26th week. It disappears following childbirth and is the second cause of jaundice in pregnancy, after hepatitis. The diagnosis of cholestasis is basically clinical. It appears as palmoplantar pruritus but can also produce nausea, vomiting and abdominal discomfort localized in the right hypochondrium. Given that listeriosis and cholestasis can have a shared symptomology, the possibility of listeriosis must be borne in mind in order for early implementation of the mechanisms of diagnostic confirmation (cultivation of sterile fluids or tissues: blood, neonatal CSF, amniotic liquid or placenta) and specific treatment. We present a case of cholestasis and listeriosis in the third trimester with a good maternofetal result.

  13. Laser speckle strain and deformation sensor using linear array image cross-correlation method for specifically arranged triple-beam triple-camera configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrafzadeh-Khoee, Adel K. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides a method of triple-beam and triple-sensor in a laser speckle strain/deformation measurement system. The triple-beam/triple-camera configuration combined with sequential timing of laser beam shutters is capable of providing indications of surface strain and structure deformations. The strain and deformation quantities, the four variables of surface strain, in-plane displacement, out-of-plane displacement and tilt, are determined in closed form solutions.

  14. Density of Primitive Pythagorean Triples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Duncan A.

    2004-01-01

    Based on the properties of a Primitive Pythagorean Triple (PPT), a computer program was written to generate, print, and count all PPTs greater than or equal to I[subscript x], where I[subscript x] is an arbitrarily chosen integer. The Density of Primitive Pythagorean Triples may be defined as the ratio of the number of PPTs whose hypotenuse is…

  15. Assessment of Cardiac Function in Fetuses of Gestational Diabetic Mothers During the Second Trimester.

    PubMed

    Atiq, Mehnaz; Ikram, Anum; Hussain, Batool M; Saleem, Bakhtawar

    2017-06-01

    Fetuses of diabetic mothers may have structural or functional cardiac abnormalities which increase morbidity and mortality. Isolated functional abnormalities have been identified in the third trimester. The aim of the present study was to assess fetal cardiac function (systolic, diastolic, and global myocardial performance) in the second trimester in mothers with gestational diabetes, and also to relate cardiac function with glycemic control. Mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus referred for fetal cardiac evaluation in the second trimester (between 19 and 24 weeks) from March 2015 to February 2016 were enrolled as case subjects in this study. Non-diabetic mothers who had a fetal echocardiogram done between 19 and 24 weeks for other indications were enrolled as controls. Functional cardiac variables showed a statistically significant difference in isovolumetric relaxation and contraction times and the myocardial performance index and mitral E/A ratios in the gestational diabetic group (p = 0.003). Mitral annular plane systolic excursion was significantly less in the diabetic group (p = 0.01). The only functional cardiac variable found abnormal in mothers with poor glycemic control was the prolonged isovolumetric relaxation time. Functional cardiac abnormalities can be detected in the second trimester in fetuses of gestational diabetic mothers and timely intervention can improve postnatal outcomes.

  16. Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Näslund Thagaard, Ida; Krebs, Lone; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Olesen Larsen, Severin; Holm, Jens-Christian; Christiansen, Michael; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate in a national standardised setting whether the performance of ultrasound dating during the first rather than the second trimester of pregnancy had consequences regarding the definition of pre- and post-term birth rates. A cohort study of 8,551 singleton pregnancies with spontaneous delivery was performed from 2006 to 2012 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark. We determined the duration of pregnancy calculated by last menstrual period, crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (1st trimester), BPD (2nd trimester), and head circumference and compared mean and median durations, the mean differences, the systematic discrepancies, and the percentages of pre-term and post-term pregnancies in relation to each method. The primary outcomes were post-term and pre-term birth rates defined by different dating methods. The change from use of second to first trimester measurements for dating was associated with a significant increase in the rate of post-term deliveries from 2.1-2.9% and a significant decrease in the rate of pre-term deliveries from 5.4-4.6% caused by systematic discrepancies. Thereby 25.1% would pass 41 weeks when GA is defined by CRL and 17.3% when BPD (2nd trimester) is used. Calibration for these discrepancies resulted in a lower post-term birth rate, from 3.1-1.4%, when first compared to second trimester dating was used. Systematic discrepancies were identified when biometric formulas were used to determine duration of pregnancy. This should be corrected in clinical practice to avoid an overestimation of post-term birth and unnecessary inductions when first trimester formulas are used.

  17. Vectorized data acquisition and fast triple-correlation integrals for Fluorescence Triple Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ridgeway, William K; Millar, David P; Williamson, James R

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is widely used to quantitate reaction rates and concentrations of molecules in vitro and in vivo. We recently reported Fluorescence Triple Correlation Spectroscopy (F3CS), which correlates three signals together instead of two. F3CS can analyze the stoichiometries of complex mixtures and detect irreversible processes by identifying time-reversal asymmetries. Here we report the computational developments that were required for the realization of F3CS and present the results as the Triple Correlation Toolbox suite of programs. Triple Correlation Toolbox is a complete data analysis pipeline capable of acquiring, correlating and fitting large data sets. Each segment of the pipeline handles error estimates for accurate error-weighted global fitting. Data acquisition was accelerated with a combination of off-the-shelf counter-timer chips and vectorized operations on 128-bit registers. This allows desktop computers with inexpensive data acquisition cards to acquire hours of multiple-channel data with sub-microsecond time resolution. Off-line correlation integrals were implemented as a two delay time multiple-tau scheme that scales efficiently with multiple processors and provides an unprecedented view of linked dynamics. Global fitting routines are provided to fit FCS and F3CS data to models containing up to ten species. Triple Correlation Toolbox is a complete package that enables F3CS to be performed on existing microscopes. PMID:23525193

  18. COMPARISON OF GESTATIONAL AGE AT BIRTH BASED ON LAST MENSTRUAL PERIOD AND ULTRASOUND DURING THE FIRST TRIMESTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported last menstrual period (LMP) is commonly used to estimate gestational age (GA) but may be unreliable. Ultrasound in the first trimester is generally considered a highly accurate method of pregnancy dating. The authors compared first trimester report of LMP and first trime...

  19. Thermodynamics of a pure substance at the triple point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, S.; Fernández-Pineda, C.

    2007-12-01

    A thermodynamic study of a pure substance at the triple point is presented. In particular, we show that the mass fractions of the phases coexisting at the triple point obey lever rules in the specific entropy-specific volume diagram, and the relative changes in the mass fractions present in each phase along reversible isochoric and adiabatic processes of a pure substance at the triple point are governed by the relative sizes of the segments of the triple-point line in the pressure-specific volume diagram and in the temperature-specific entropy diagram. Applications to the ordinary triple point of water and to the triple point of Al2SiO5 polymorphs are presented.

  20. Congenital Dandy Walker malformation associated with first trimester warfarin: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, L C

    1985-12-01

    While the warfarin embryopathy is well defined, central nervous system abnormalities associated with gestational warfarin exposure require further definition. Based on the timing of warfarin exposure in humans, it has been proposed that second- and third-trimester exposure predisposes to CNS abnormalities while first-trimester exposure more typically is associated with the warfarin embryopathy. A case is presented of a liveborn male with Dandy Walker malformation, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and Peter anomaly of the right eye who was exposed to warfarin between the 8th and 12th weeks of gestation who had none of the stigmata of the warfarin embryopathy. His is the first known case of exposure confined to the first trimester, and the fifth case of Dandy Walker malformation among a total of 15 CNS cases associated with this drug. This case offers evidence that Dandy Walker malformation may represent a distinct complication of in utero first-trimester exposure, and consideration of these particular abnormalities with exposure limited to a period prior to the known appearance of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors suggests that warfarin has a direct teratogenic effect on central nervous system morphogenesis.

  1. Effect of ethnicity on first trimester biomarkers for combined trisomy 21 screening: results from a multicenter study in six Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Manotaya, Saknan; Zitzler, Juergen; Li, Xiaotian; Wibowo, Noroyono; Pham, Thi Mai; Kang, Myung Seo; Lee, Chien-Nan

    2015-08-01

    To assess differences between first trimester trisomy 21 screening markers free beta chain of the human chorionic gonadotrophin (βhCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in pregnant women of six different Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam) and compare serum levels with those in women of European countries. Median and multiple of median (MoM) values of free βhCG and PAPP-A were determined in more than 3000 pregnant women from the Asian countries during their first trimester of pregnancy. Differences in MoM values between a European reference group from a previous multicenter evaluation and the Asian population were evaluated. Two different types of population correction factors for T21 risk estimation were assessed. An at least 10% difference of median MoMs between European and Asian PAPP-A values was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.0001). The specificity of the screening did not show a big difference in individual countries, when using the country-specific correction factor compared with the overall Asian correction factor (<1.4%). The use of a correction factor is recommended based on the differences in European and Asian MoM values. Developing country-specific medians in larger study populations can help identify clinical relevant differences and give the opportunity to explore a more accurate risk calculation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Fetal nasal bone length and Down syndrome during the second trimester in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Fu, Chong Yau; Chen, Chih-Yao; Chao, Kuan-Chong; Hung, Jamie

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to build a database of reference ranges of fetal nasal bone length (NBL) in a Chinese population. The accuracy rate of detecting Down syndrome was also analyzed using fetal NBL as a marker. The control group of fetuses included 342 normal singleton pregnancies with no chromosomal or congenital anomalies. The present study was a cross-section study and the control group was used to construct percentile values of NBL from 13 to 29 gestational weeks of age. Two-dimensional ultrasonography was used for the nasal bone studies. Measurements of NBL were collected and each fetus contributed a single value to the reference sample. During the study period, 14 fetuses with Down syndrome were examined. Measurement of fetal NBL was made during amniocentesis, with gestational age ranging from 13 to 19 weeks. From 342 normal fetuses with gestational age ranging from 13 to 29 weeks, reference ranges of NBL were constructed. The reference ranges were constructed from the 100(1 - p)% reference range: Y +/- Zp x square root sigma 2, where Y = 25 - exp(3.58 - 0.044 x t + 0.0006 x t2), with Y being the fitted mean of regression model and t being gestational age (weeks). Using fetal NBL, the regression model was Pr(Down syndrome) = exp(W)/ [1 + exp(W)], where W = 0.62-4.80 x NBL (multiples of the median) in predicting Down syndrome. Fetal NBL was found to have a sensitivity and specificity of 0.78 and 0.78, respectively, in predicting Down syndrome in the second trimester of pregnancy. Fetal NBL measurement can provide a simple and useful algorithm to predict Down syndrome during the second trimester of pregnancy.

  3. Triple products of Eisenstein series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Anil

    In this thesis, we construct a Massey triple product on the Deligne cohomology of the modular curve with coefficients in symmetric powers of the standard representation of the modular group. This result is obtained by constructing a Massey triple product on the extension groups in the category of admissible variations of mixed Hodge structure over the modular curve, which induces the desired construction on Deligne cohomology. The result extends Brown's construction of the cup product on Deligne cohomology to a higher cohomological product. Massey triple products on Deligne cohomology have been previously investigated by Deninger, who considered Deligne cohomology with trivial real coefficients. By working over the reals, Deninger was able to compute cohomology exclusively with differential forms. In this work, Deligne cohomology is studied over the rationals, which introduces an obstruction to applying Deninger's results. The obstruction arises from the fact that the integration map from the de Rham complex to the Eilenberg-MacLane complex of the modular group is not an algebra homomorphism. We compute the correction terms of the integration map as regularized iterated integrals of Eisenstein series, and show that these integrals arise in the cup product and Massey triple product on Deligne cohomology.

  4. Comparison of gestational age at birth based on last menstrual period and ultrasound during the first trimester.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Caroline S; Messer, Lynne C; Mendola, Pauline; Savitz, David A; Herring, Amy H; Hartmann, Katherine E

    2008-11-01

    Reported last menstrual period (LMP) is commonly used to estimate gestational age (GA) but may be unreliable. Ultrasound in the first trimester is generally considered a highly accurate method of pregnancy dating. The authors compared first trimester report of LMP and first trimester ultrasound for estimating GA at birth and examined whether disagreement between estimates varied by maternal and infant characteristics. Analyses included 1867 singleton livebirths to women enrolled in a prospective pregnancy cohort. The authors computed the difference between LMP and ultrasound GA estimates (GA difference) and examined the proportion of births within categories of GA difference stratified by maternal and infant characteristics. The proportion of births classified as preterm, term and post-term by pregnancy dating methods was also examined. LMP-based estimates were 0.8 days (standard deviation = 8.0, median = 0) longer on average than ultrasound estimates. LMP classified more births as post-term than ultrasound (4.0% vs. 0.7%). GA difference was greater among young women, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic women, women of non-optimal body weight and mothers of low-birthweight infants. Results indicate first trimester report of LMP reasonably approximates gestational age obtained from first trimester ultrasound, but the degree of discrepancy between estimates varies by important maternal characteristics.

  5. Sonographic detection of open spina bifida in the first trimester: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Meller, César; Aiello, Horacio; Otaño, Lucas

    2017-07-01

    In the beginnings, sonographic diagnosis of open spina bifida (OSB) relied on the meticulous scanning of the fetal vertebrae for abnormalities but many defects were missed. After the mid-1980s, however, with the description of the intracranial findings in the second trimester (the "lemon sign" and the "banana sign"), the prenatal diagnosis of OSB was enhanced. In the last 2 decades, there has been widespread uptake of routine ultrasound examination in the first trimester of pregnancy with the purpose of the measurement of fetal crown-rump length to determine gestational age, to screen for trisomy 21 and other aneuploidies, mainly with the nuchal translucency, and for diagnosis of many major abnormalities. Many papers were published focusing on early diagnosis of myelomeningocele (MMC), and the objective of this review is to summarize the different techniques described regarding prenatal diagnosis of OSB in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  6. Early first trimester uteroplacental flow and the progressive disintegration of spiral artery plugs: new insights from contrast-enhanced ultrasound and tissue histopathology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, V H J; Morgan, T K; Bednarek, P; Morita, M; Burton, G J; Lo, J O; Frias, A E

    2017-12-01

    Does the use of a vascular contrast agent facilitate earlier detection of maternal flow to the placental intervillous space (IVS) in the first trimester of pregnancy? Microvascular filling of the IVS was demonstrated by contrast-enhanced ultrasound from 6 weeks of gestation onwards, earlier than previously believed. During placental establishment and remodeling of maternal spiral arteries, endovascular trophoblast cells invade and accumulate in the lumen of these vessels to form 'trophoblast plugs'. Prior evidence from morphological and Doppler ultrasound studies has been conflicting as to whether the spiral arteries are completely plugged, preventing maternal blood flow to the IVS until late in the first trimester. Uteroplacental flow was examined across the first trimester in human subjects given an intravenous infusion of lipid-shelled octofluoropropane microbubbles with ultrasound measurement of destruction and replenishment kinetics. We also performed a comprehensive histopathological correlation using two separately archived uteroplacental tissue collections to evaluate the degree of spiral artery plugging and evaluate remodeling of the upstream myometrial radial and arcurate arteries. Pregnant women (n = 34) were recruited in the first trimester (range: 6+3 to 13+6 weeks gestation) for contrast-enhanced ultrasound studies with destruction-replenishment analysis of signal intensity for assessment of microvascular flux rate. Histological samples from archived in situ (Boyd Collection, n = 11) and fresh first, second, and third trimester decidual and post-hysterectomy uterine specimens (n = 16) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (using markers of epithelial, endothelial and T-cells, as well as cell adhesion and proliferation) and ultrastructural analysis. Contrast agent entry into the IVS was visualized as early as 6+3 weeks of gestation with some variability in microvascular flux rate noted in the 6-7+6 week samples. Spiral artery plug canalization was

  7. Interaction between the SLC19A1 gene and maternal first trimester fever on offspring neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Pei, Lijun; Zhu, Huiping; Ye, Rongwei; Wu, Jilei; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have indicated that the reduced folate carrier gene (SLC19A1) is associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the interaction between the SLC19A1 gene variant and maternal fever exposure and NTD risk remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the risk for NTDs was influenced by the interactions between the SLC19A1 (rs1051266) variant and maternal first trimester fever. We investigated the potential interaction between maternal first trimester fever and maternal or offspring SLC19A1 polymorphism through a population-based case-control study. One hundred and four nuclear families with NTDs and 100 control families with nonmal newborns were included in the study. SLC19A1 polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism. Mothers who had the GG/GA genotype and first trimester fever had an elevated risk of NTDs (adjusted odds ratio, 11.73; 95% confidence interval, 3.02-45.58) as compared to absence of maternal first trimester fever and AA genotype after adjusting for maternal education, paternal education, and age, and had a significant interactive coefficient (γ = 3.17) between maternal GG/GA genotype and first trimester fever. However, there was no interaction between offspring's GG/GA genotype and maternal first trimester fever (the interactive coefficient γ = 0.97) after adjusting for confounding factors. Our findings suggested that the risk of NTDs was potentially influenced by a gene-environment interaction between maternal SLC19A1 rs1051266 GG/GA genotype and first trimester fever. Maternal GG/GA genotype may strengthen the effect of maternal fever exposure on NTD risk in this Chinese population. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Association of serum PAPP-A levels in first trimester with small for gestational age and adverse pregnancy outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Morris, R Katie; Bilagi, Ashwini; Devani, Pooja; Kilby, Mark D

    2017-03-01

    To determine association, and predictive ability, of first trimester maternal serum pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Searches of Medline, Embase and CINAHL (inception September 2015) for studies including pregnant women with first trimester PAPP-A and assessment of pregnancy outcomes. Study characteristics, quality and results extracted. Meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs), and likelihood ratios (LRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Thirty-two studies including 175 240 pregnancies. PAPP-A <5th centile had a moderate association with: birth weight <10th centile OR 2.08 (95% CI 1.89-2.29), <5th centile OR 2.83 (95% CI 2.52-3.18); pre-eclampsia OR 1.94 (95% CI 1.63-2.30), preterm birth <37 weeks OR 2.09 (95% CI 1.87-2.33), and composite adverse outcome OR 3.31 (95% CI 1.80-5.11). The predictive ability was poor: Birth weight <10th centile LR + ve 1.96 (95% CI 1.58-2.43), LR-ve 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.98); birth weight <5th centile LR + ve 2.65 (95% CI 2.35-2.99), LR-ve 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.98); PTB <37 weeks LR + ve 1.84 (95% CI 1.41-2.39), LR-ve 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.98). First trimester low maternal serum PAPP-A is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, but predictive values are poor. Further work should address PAPP-A as a continuous variable in combination with other prognostic markers as a prediction model. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. [Period-tripling in Multiscale Physical and Biological Events].

    PubMed

    Bondar, A T; Fedorov, M V; Kolombet, V A

    2015-01-01

    A recent paper by S.J. Puetz et al. (Chaos, Solitons -& Fractals, v. 62-63, p. 55, 2014) described a fundamental period-tripled model. It involves periods of different astronomical (quasars, Sun), geophysical (geomagnetic, climatic, volcanic) and some biological processes. This work contains statistics for sixteen pairs of a period-tripled sequence. These periods range from -50 years to 1.5 billion years and no signs of the timescale limitations are found. We believe that the universal scope of the fundamental period-tripled model can be used for the development of new methodology of research data analysis: the main idea is that the spectrum of the periods of the studied event should be tested for the similarity with the spectrum of fundamental period-tripling pattern (because of the fundamental nature of the period-tripled model). Using this method, in this study we complement an already described period-tripled model with periods of human memory performance ranging from one minute to one month also adding seven relevant periods/frequencies of the period-tripled model in the range of human hearing. We make a conclusion that these characteristic frequencies may form the basis for music and singing phenomena. The new methodology is particularly appropriate for being applied in medicine and engineering.

  10. Spontaneous first trimester miscarriage rates per woman among parous women with 1 or more pregnancies of 24 weeks or more.

    PubMed

    Cohain, Judy Slome; Buxbaum, Rina E; Mankuta, David

    2017-12-22

    The purpose of this study was to quantify spontaneous first trimester miscarriage rates per woman among parous women. A vast amount of data has accumulated regarding miscarriage rates per recognized pregnancy as well as about recurrent miscarriage. This is the second study of miscarriage rates per woman in a parous population and the first study of recurrent and non-recurrent, spontaneous first trimester miscarriage rates per woman in a large parous population. Extraction of the following variables from all delivery room admissions from both Hadassah Medical Centers in Jerusalem Israel, 2004-2014: # of first trimester spontaneous miscarriages, # live births; # living children; age on admission, pre-pregnancy height and weight, any smoking this pregnancy, any alcohol or drug abuse this pregnancy, blood type, history of ectopic pregnancy, history of cesarean surgery (CS) and use of any fertility treatment(s). Among 53,479 different women admitted to labor and delivery ward, 43% of women reported having had 1 or more first trimester spontaneous miscarriages; 27% reported having had one, 10% two, 4% three, 1.3% four, 0.6% five and 0.05% reported having 6-16 spontaneous first trimester miscarriages. 18.5% had one or more first trimester miscarriages before their first live birth. Eighty-one percent of women with 11 or more living children experienced one or more first trimester miscarriages. First trimester miscarriage rates rose with increasing age, increasing parity, after previous ectopic pregnancy, after previous cesarean surgery, with any smoking during pregnancy and pre-pregnancy BMI ≥30. Miscarriages are common among parous women; 43% of parous women report having experienced one or more first trimester spontaneous miscarriages, rising to 81% among women with 11 or more living children. One in every 17 parous women have three or more miscarriages. Depending on her health, nutrition and lifestyle choices, even a 39 year old parous woman with a history of 3 or

  11. [First trimester screening for Down syndrome at Prima facie. A 6-year survey].

    PubMed

    Roth, P; Bernard, J-P; Meyer, V; Beaujard, M-P; Salomon, L-J; Ville, Y

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the results of screening for trisomy 21 by the combined risk of first trimester (as defined by the decree of June 23, 2009) in the Prima facie structure. Single center study involving all patients that were seen for first trimester screening at Prima facie with singleton living pregnancy, not obtained by embryo donation, between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014. Eighteen thousand two hundred and fifty-one patients were included, of which underwent screening for trisomy 21 by the combined risk. One thousand and forty-six (6.1%) had a calculated risk higher than 1/250. Seventy-five were affected by trisomy 21, of whom 65 in the high risk group. The sensitivity and specificity of screening are 86.7% and 94.4%. The median nuchal translucency was 0.98 MoM. Screening for trisomy 21 by calculating the combined risk of first trimester enabled to detect 86.7% of trisomy 21 with a false positive rate of 5.6%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Warps, grids and curvature in triple vector bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flari, Magdalini K.; Mackenzie, Kirill

    2018-06-01

    A triple vector bundle is a cube of vector bundle structures which commute in the (strict) categorical sense. A grid in a triple vector bundle is a collection of sections of each bundle structure with certain linearity properties. A grid provides two routes around each face of the triple vector bundle, and six routes from the base manifold to the total manifold; the warps measure the lack of commutativity of these routes. In this paper we first prove that the sum of the warps in a triple vector bundle is zero. The proof we give is intrinsic and, we believe, clearer than the proof using decompositions given earlier by one of us. We apply this result to the triple tangent bundle T^3M of a manifold and deduce (as earlier) the Jacobi identity. We further apply the result to the triple vector bundle T^2A for a vector bundle A using a connection in A to define a grid in T^2A . In this case the curvature emerges from the warp theorem.

  13. First trimester serum afamin concentrations are associated with the development of pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Tramontana, Allessandra; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Stangl, Gerhard; Hafner, Erich; Dieplinger, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Aim of this study was to assess the prognostic capability of afamin to predict pregnancy complications. First-trimester screening was consecutively performed in 4948 pregnant women, of whom 474 women developed pregnancy complications [gestational hypertension (n=84), pre-eclampsia (n=30), intrauterine growth restriction (n=107), preterm birth (n=44), and gestational diabetes mellitus (n=209)]. To each woman with pregnancy complications an uncomplicated pregnancy was matched for body mass index. Afamin serum concentrations were measured in 948 pregnant women at the first-trimester screening. Median afamin concentrations were significantly higher in women developing pre-eclampsia or gestational diabetes mellitus when compared to women with uncomplicated pregnancies (76mg/L vs. 65mg/L, p=0.001 and 80mg/L vs. 69mg/L, p<0.001). There was no difference in median afamin values between all other pregnancy complications and their matched controls. Increased afamin (i.e. >65mg/L) was a strong and independent predictor for the development of pre-eclampsia (risk ratio, 24.58; 95%CI, 2.82-214.12; p=0.004) as well as gestational diabetes mellitus (risk ratio, 2.07; 95%CI, 1.33-3.22; p=0.001). In this large nested case-control study increased afamin concentrations were a strong and independent predictor for pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus, suggesting a potential role of afamin as predictive marker for pregnancy-related metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Obstetric outcome in women with threatened miscarriage in the first trimester.

    PubMed

    Wijesiriwardana, Ajith; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Shetty, Ashalatha; Smith, Norman; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2006-03-01

    To assess pregnancy outcomes in women with threatened miscarriage in the first trimester. This was a retrospective cohort study based on data extracted from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank. Cases included all primigravid women with first-trimester vaginal bleeding who delivered after 24 weeks of gestation between 1976 and 2004. The control group comprised all other women who had first pregnancies during the same period. Data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Compared with the control group (n = 31,633), women with threatened miscarriage (n = 7,627) were more likely to have antepartum hemorrhage of unknown origin (odds ratio [OR] 1.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73-2.01). Elective cesarean (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14-1.48) and manual removal of placenta (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.21-1.62) were performed more frequently in these women, who also had a higher risk of preterm delivery (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.43-1.71) and malpresentation (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.13-1.40). Threatened miscarriage in the first trimester is required in 112, 112, 17, 85, 32 patients, respectively, for each additional case of manual removal of placenta, elective cesarean, antepartum hemorrhage of unknown origin, malpresentation, and preterm delivery. Pregnancies complicated by threatened miscarriage are at a slightly higher risk of obstetric complications and interventions. II-2.

  15. First-trimester screening for early and late preeclampsia using maternal characteristics, biomarkers, and estimated placental volume.

    PubMed

    Sonek, Jiri; Krantz, David; Carmichael, Jon; Downing, Cathy; Jessup, Karen; Haidar, Ziad; Ho, Shannon; Hallahan, Terrence; Kliman, Harvey J; McKenna, David

    2018-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. First-trimester screening has been shown to be effective in selecting patients at an increased risk for preeclampsia in some studies. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of screening for preeclampsia in the first trimester based on maternal characteristics, medical history, biomarkers, and placental volume. This is a prospective observational nonintervention cohort study in an unselected US population. Patients who presented for an ultrasound examination between 11-13+6 weeks' gestation were included. The following parameters were assessed and were used to calculate the risk of preeclampsia: maternal characteristics (demographic, anthropometric, and medical history), maternal biomarkers (mean arterial pressure, uterine artery pulsatility index, placental growth factor, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein), and estimated placental volume. After delivery, medical records were searched for the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Detection rates for early-onset preeclampsia (<34 weeks' gestation) and later-onset preeclampsia (≥34 weeks' gestation) for 5% and 10% false-positive rates using various combinations of markers were calculated. We screened 1288 patients of whom 1068 (82.99%) were available for analysis. In all, 46 (4.3%) developed preeclampsia, with 13 (1.22%) having early-onset preeclampsia and 33 (3.09%) having late-onset preeclampsia. Using maternal characteristics, serum biomarkers, and uterine artery pulsatility index, the detection rate of early-onset preeclampsia for either 5% or 10% false-positive rate was 85%. With the same protocol, the detection rates for preeclampsia with delivery <37 weeks were 52% and 60% for 5% and 10% false-positive rates, respectively. Based on maternal characteristics, the detection rates for late-onset preeclampsia were 15% and 48% for 5% and 10%, while for preeclampsia at ≥37 weeks' gestation the detection rates were 24

  16. Amniotic fluid gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity during the second trimester.

    PubMed

    Legge, M; Potter, H C

    1986-03-12

    Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) activity was determined in second trimester amniotic fluid taken from normal fetuses and those with fetal abnormalities. GGTP activity decreased with advancing gestation. Increasing meconium contamination correlated with an increase in GGTP activity as did increasing fetal blood contamination. Maternal blood did not affect GGTP activity. Anencephaly did not significantly alter the GGTP activity, however, fetuses with spina bifida had significantly lower activity. Klinefelters and Turners syndromes both had GGTP activity close to the 50th percentile, and two trisomy 21 fetuses had GGTP activity below the 40th percentile. Two trisomy 18 fetuses and two translocation Downs syndromes (46 XY, t (14;21) had GGTP activities considerably lower than the 20th percentile as did a fetus with gastroschisis. Second trimester amniotic fluid GGTP activity may provide an easy preliminary test to screen amniotic fluids for the possibility of certain fetal chromosome abnormalities.

  17. Maternal body weight and first trimester screening for chromosomal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Khambalia, Amina Z; Roberts, Christine L; Morris, Jonathan; Tasevski, Vitomir; Nassar, Natasha

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal risk ratios for Down syndrome adjust for maternal weight because maternal serum biomarker levels decrease with increasing maternal weight. This is accomplished by converting serum biomarker values into a multiple of the expected median (MoM) for women of the same gestational age. Weight is frequently not recorded, and the impact of using MoMs not adjusted for weight for calculating risk ratios is unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of missing weight on first trimester Down syndrome risk ratios by comparing risk ratios calculated using weight-unadjusted-and-adjusted MoMs. Findings at the population level indicate that the impact of not adjusting for maternal weight on first trimester screening results for chromosomal anomalies would lead to under-identification of 84 per 10,000 pregnancies. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. The effects of complex chemistry on triple flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Echekki, T.; Chen, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    The structure, ignition, and stabilization mechanisms for a methanol (CH3OH)-air triple flame are studied using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). The methanol (CH3OH)-air triple flame is found to burn with an asymmetric shape due to the different chemical and transport processes characterizing the mixture. The excess fuel, methanol (CH3OH), on the rich premixed flame branch is replaced by more stable fuels CO and H2, which burn at the diffusion flame. On the lean premixed flame side, a higher concentration of O2 leaks through to the diffusion flame. The general structure of the triple point features the contribution of both differential diffusion of radicals and heat. A mixture fraction-temperature phase plane description of the triple flame structure is proposed to highlight some interesting features in partially premixed combustion. The effects of differential diffusion at the triple point add to the contribution of hydrodynamic effects in the stabilization of the triple flame. Differential diffusion effects are measured using two methods: a direct computation using diffusion velocities and an indirect computation based on the difference between the normalized mixture fractions of C and H. The mixture fraction approach does not clearly identify the effects of differential diffusion, in particular at the curved triple point, because of ambiguities in the contribution of carbon and hydrogen atoms' carrying species.

  19. Nonaggressive obstetric management. An option for some fetal anomalies during the third trimester.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, F A; McCullough, L B

    1989-06-16

    Nonaggressive obstetric management was used in 13 cases of anomalous fetuses during the third trimester. Criteria that define these anomalies are (1) a very high probability of a correct diagnosis and (2) either (a) a very high probability of death as an outcome of the anomaly diagnosed or (b) a very high probability of severe and irreversible deficit of cognitive developmental capacity as a result of the anomaly diagnosed. On the basis of two approaches to obstetric ethics, we defend the legitimacy of nonaggressive management of third-trimester pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies that meet these criteria.

  20. Induced first-trimester abortion and risk of mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Pedersen, Carsten B; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2011-01-27

    Concern has been expressed about potential harm to women's mental health in association with having an induced abortion, but it remains unclear whether induced abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent psychiatric problems. We conducted a population-based cohort study that involved linking information from the Danish Civil Registration system to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Register of Patients. The information consisted of data for girls and women with no record of mental disorders during the 1995-2007 period who had a first-trimester induced abortion or a first childbirth during that period. We estimated the rates of first-time psychiatric contact (an inpatient admission or outpatient visit) for any type of mental disorder within the 12 months after the abortion or childbirth as compared with the 9-month period preceding the event. The incidence rates of first psychiatric contact per 1000 person-years among girls and women who had a first abortion were 14.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7 to 15.6) before abortion and 15.2 (95% CI, 14.4 to 16.1) after abortion. The corresponding rates among girls and women who had a first childbirth were 3.9 (95% CI, 3.7 to 4.2) before delivery and 6.7 (95% CI, 6.4 to 7.0) post partum. The relative risk of a psychiatric contact did not differ significantly after abortion as compared with before abortion (P = 0.19) but did increase after childbirth as compared with before childbirth (P < 0.001). The finding that the incidence rate of psychiatric contact was similar before and after a first-trimester abortion does not support the hypothesis that there is an increased risk of mental disorders after a first-trimester induced abortion.

  1. Comparison of Reproductive Outcomes following Retained Products of Conception after Vaginal Delivery versus First-Trimester Abortion.

    PubMed

    Melcer, Yaakov; Smorgick, Noam; Schneider, David; Pansky, Moty; Halperin, Reuvit; Ben-Ami, Ido

    2015-01-01

    To compare the reproductive outcomes of women with pathologically confirmed retained products of conception (RPOC) following spontaneous vaginal delivery versus first-trimester pregnancy termination. We retrospectively reviewed all cases of women who underwent uterine re-evacuation due to pathologically confirmed RPOC between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Reproductive outcomes were compared between women with RPOC following spontaneous vaginal delivery and those who underwent dilatation and curettage (D&C) due to first-trimester abortion. The study group consisted of 176 patients with pathologically confirmed RPOC. Of those, 83 (47.1%) were admitted after spontaneous vaginal delivery and 93 (52.9%) following D&C due to first-trimester abortion. There were no significant differences in the conception rate, the mean time to conception and the rate of a new infertility problem between women with RPOC after vaginal delivery compared to those following pregnancy termination (p > 0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences between the groups in pregnancy outcomes following RPOC. Pathologically confirmed RPOC harbors the same reproductive outcomes following spontaneous vaginal delivery and first-trimester pregnancy termination. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Markers of insulin resistance and sedentary lifestyle are predictors of preeclampsia in women with adverse obstetric results.

    PubMed

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, S; Benchimol-Barbosa, P R

    2011-12-01

    Some thrombophilias and severe preeclampsia may increase the risk for preterm deliveries and fetal death due to placental insufficiency. Our objective was to evaluate clinical and laboratory data as predictors of preeclampsia in a population of mothers with 3rd trimester fetal losses or preterm deliveries. In a longitudinal retrospective study, 54 consecutive women (age range: 16 to 39 years) with normotensive pregnancies were compared to 79 consecutive women with preeclampsia (age range: 16 to 43 years). Weight accrual rate (WAR) was arbitrarily defined as weight gain from age 18 years to the beginning of pregnancy divided by elapsed years. Independent predictors of preeclampsia were past history of oligomenorrhea, WAR >0.8 kg/years, pre-pregnancy or 1st trimester triglyceridemia >150 mg/dL, and elevated acanthosis nigricans in the neck. In a multivariate logistic regression model, two or more predictors conferred an odds ratio of 15 (95%CI [5.9-37]; P < 0.001) to develop preeclampsia (85% specificity, 73% sensitivity, c-statistic of 81 ± 4%; P < 0.0001). Clinical markers related to insulin resistance and sedentary lifestyles are strong independent predictors of preeclampsia in mothers with 3rd trimester fetal losses or preterm deliveries due to placental insufficiency. Women at risk for preeclampsia in this particular population might benefit from measures focused on overcoming insulin resistance.

  3. Predictors and perception of pain in women undergoing first trimester surgical abortion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rameet H; Ghanem, Khalil G; Burke, Anne E; Nichols, Mark D; Rogers, Kathy; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate pain and predictors of pain in women undergoing electric (EVA) or manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for first trimester surgical abortions and to examine how perceptions of pain differ among participants, advocates (participant support person) and physicians. In this randomized controlled study, women presenting for first trimester abortion underwent standardized EVA or MVA. Participants completed questionnaires, visual analog scales (VAS) and Likert scales for pain. Logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze the data. Nonwhite women and women who preoperatively expected more pain reported higher procedure-related pain scores. Vacuum source, previous history of abortion, comfort with decision to have an abortion and partner involvement did not affect participant pain scores. In the multivariable analyses, no single factor predicted procedure-associated pain. The advocates perceived that more educated women had less pain. Physicians felt longer procedures and a woman's fear of pelvic examinations caused more pain. Physicians believed women had less pain than the participants reported themselves (p<.001). Only physicians thought that EVA was less painful than MVA (p<.01). Distinct factors other than vacuum source affect the perception of abortion-related pain. Understanding these factors may help inform counseling strategies aimed at ameliorating pain perception during first trimester abortions.

  4. Cristoforetti packing TripleLux-A experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-08

    ISS043E181043 (05/08/2015) --- ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti prepares the TripleLux-A experiment for return on SpaceX’s Dragon cargo craft. TripleLux-A is investigating immune suppression in space as understanding such risks is essential in maintaining the health and performance of crew members during long-duration missions.

  5. Continuous-Variable Triple-Photon States Quantum Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, E. A. Rojas; Borne, A.; Boulanger, B.; Levenson, J. A.; Bencheikh, K.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the quantum entanglement of the three modes associated with the three-photon states obtained by triple-photon generation in a phase-matched third-order nonlinear optical interaction. Although the second-order processes have been extensively dealt with, there is no direct analogy between the second and third-order mechanisms. We show, for example, the absence of quantum entanglement between the quadratures of the three modes in the case of spontaneous parametric triple-photon generation. However, we show robust, seeding-dependent, genuine triple-photon entanglement in the fully seeded case.

  6. Continuous-Variable Triple-Photon States Quantum Entanglement.

    PubMed

    González, E A Rojas; Borne, A; Boulanger, B; Levenson, J A; Bencheikh, K

    2018-01-26

    We investigate the quantum entanglement of the three modes associated with the three-photon states obtained by triple-photon generation in a phase-matched third-order nonlinear optical interaction. Although the second-order processes have been extensively dealt with, there is no direct analogy between the second and third-order mechanisms. We show, for example, the absence of quantum entanglement between the quadratures of the three modes in the case of spontaneous parametric triple-photon generation. However, we show robust, seeding-dependent, genuine triple-photon entanglement in the fully seeded case.

  7. Are early first trimester weights valid proxies for preconception weight?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An accurate estimate of preconception weight is necessary for providing a gestational weight gain range based on the Institute of Medicine’s guidelines; however, an accurate and proximal preconception weight is not available for most women. We examined the validity of first trimester weights for est...

  8. Outcomes of fetuses with small head circumference on second-trimester ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Deloison, Benjamin; Chalouhi, Gihad E; Bernard, Jean-Pierre; Ville, Yves; Salomon, Laurent J

    2012-09-01

    We examined the outcomes of pregnancies in which the fetal head circumference (HC) was below the 5(th) centile at the routine second-trimester scan. We retrospectively analysed outcomes of 18,377 women according to HC Z scores at second-trimester ultrasound examination between 2001 and 2008. We collected all major malformations, intrauterine deaths and other abnormal outcomes. Six hundred seventy-four fetuses (3.7%) had an HC below the 5(th) centile. Twenty-one major malformations were noted, consisting mainly of neurological abnormalities (3.1%). There were seven intra uterine fetal death (1.3%). Of all the fetuses, 26% were lost to follow-up. Outcome and neurological development was normal in 467 cases, based on neonatal examination and/or parent or general practitioner reports. Major abnormalities were noted in respectively 26.2%, 3.0% and 1.1% of fetuses with Z scores < -2.5, -2.5 to -2.0, and -2 to -1.645, compared with 0.3% of fetuses with normal HC (p < 10(-4)). A head circumference below the 5(th) centile at second-trimester scan is associated with various abnormalities, especially neurological disorders. The outcome was worse when the HC was smaller. An HC Z score below -2.5 was strongly associated with neurological and chromosomal abnormalities. Conversely, an HC Z score below -1.645 but above -2, excluding cases with prenatally diagnosed malformations, seems to be reassuring for favorable neonatal outcome. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. First trimester phthalate exposure and anogenital distance in newborns

    PubMed Central

    Swan, S.H.; Sathyanarayana, S.; Barrett, E.S.; Janssen, S.; Liu, F.; Nguyen, R.H.N.; Redmon, J.B.; Liu, Fan; Scher, Erica; Stasenko, Marina; Ayash, Erin; Schirmer, Melissa; Farrell, Jason; Thiet, Mari-Paule; Baskin, Laurence; Gray Chelsea Georgesen, Heather L.; Rody, Brooke J.; Terrell, Carrie A.; Kaur, Kapilmeet; Brantley, Erin; Fiore, Heather; Kochman, Lynda; Parlett, Lauren; Marino, Jessica; Hulbert, William; Mevorach, Robert; Pressman, Eva; Ivicek, Kristy; Salveson, Bobbie; Alcedo, Garry

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is first trimester phthalate exposure associated with anogenital distance (AGD), a biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure, in newborns? SUMMARY ANSWER Concentrations of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites in first trimester maternal urine samples are inversely associated with AGD in male, but not female, newborns. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY AGD is a sexually dimorphic measure reflecting prenatal androgen exposure. Prenatal phthalate exposure has been associated with shorter male AGD in multiple animal studies. Prior human studies, which have been limited by small sample size and imprecise timing of exposure and/or outcome, have reported conflicting results. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The Infant Development and the Environment Study (TIDES) is a prospective cohort study of pregnant women recruited in prenatal clinics in San Francisco, CA, Minneapolis, MN, Rochester, NY and Seattle, WA in 2010–2012. Participants delivered 787 infants; 753 with complete data are included in this analysis. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Any woman over 18 years old who was able to read and write English (or Spanish in CA), who was <13 weeks pregnant, whose pregnancy was not medically threatened and who planned to deliver in a study hospital was eligible to participate. Analyses include all infants whose mothers provided a first trimester urine sample and who were examined at or shortly after birth. Specific gravity (SpG) adjusted concentrations of phthalate metabolites in first trimester urine samples were examined in relation to genital measurements. In boys (N = 366), we obtained two measures of anogenital distance (AGD) (anoscrotal distance, or AGDAS and anopenile distance, AGDAP) as well as penile width (PW). In girls (N = 373), we measured anofourchette distance (AGDAF) and anoclitoral distance (AGDAC). We used multivariable regression models that adjusted for the infant's age at exam, gestational age, weight-for-length Z-score, time of day of urine

  10. Serum chemerin level during the first trimester of pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuezhou; Quan, Xiaozhen; Lan, Yanli; Ye, Jinhai; Wei, Qipeng; Yin, Xiaofang; Fan, Fangfang; Xing, Hui

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between chemerin level in the first trimester of pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. The blood samples of 212 women at 8-12 weeks of gestation were collected. After screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 19 women with GDM and 20 women randomly selected from 144 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from these women. Triglycerides, glucose, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, insulin and chemerin were measured. Gestational weight gain and body mass index was assessed. Serum levels of chemerin were significantly elevated during late gestation, and the risk of GDM was positively associated with maternal serum chemerin in the first trimester. Serum chemerin level during the first trimester of pregnancy has the potential to predict risk of GDM.

  11. Urinary tract infection in pregnant population, which empirical antimicrobial agent should be specified in each of the three trimesters?

    PubMed

    Unlu, Bekir Serdar; Yildiz, Yunus; Keles, Ibrahim; Kaba, Metin; Kara, Halil; Tasin, Cuma; Erkilinc, Selcuk; Yildirim, Gulcin

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to investigate the bacterial profile and the adequacy of antimicrobial treatment in pregnant women with urinary tract infection. This retrospective observational study was conducted with 753 pregnant women who needed hospitalization because of UTI in each of the three trimesters. Midstream urine culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were evaluated. E. Coli was the most frequently isolated bacterial agent (82.2%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (11.2%). In each of the three trimesters, E. Coli remained the most frequently isolated bacterium (86%, 82.2%, 79.5%, respectively), followed by Klebsiella spp. (9%, 11.6%, 12.2%, respectively). Enterococcus spp. were isolated as a third microbial agent, with 43 patients (5.7%) in the three trimesters. The bacteria were found to be highly sensitive to fosfomycin, with 98-99% sensitivity for E.Coli and 88-89% for Klebsiella spp. and for Enterococcus spp. 93-100% nitrofurantoin sensitivity for each of the three trimesters. We demonstrated that E. Coli and Klebsiella spp. are the most common bacterial agents isolated from urine culture of pregnant women with UTI in each of the three trimesters. We consider fosfomycin to be the most adequate first-line treatment regimen due to high sensitivity to the drug, ease of use and safety for use in pregnancy

  12. The minimal carcinoma triple stain is superior to commercially available multiplex immunohistochemical stains: breast triple stain and LC/DC breast cocktail.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Paula S; Varma, Sonal; Liu, Yi-Fang; Shin, Sandra J

    2015-12-01

    The Minimal Carcinoma (MC) Triple Stain is a tri-chromogen multiplex immunostain (CK7, p63, and E-cadherin) helpful in classifying morphologically ambiguous and/or small carcinomas as either ductal or lobular and/or in situ or invasive. We compared the utility of this stain with two commercially available duplex/multiplex immunostains: Breast Triple Stain (BTS) (Clarient, Aliso Viejo, CA; CK5, p63, and CK8/18) and LC/DC Breast Cocktail (LCDC) (Biocare, Concord, CA; E-cadherin and p120). Ninety-seven mammary carcinomas stained with the MC Triple Stain, BTS, and LCDC were compared. The MC Triple Stain, LCDC, and BTS were diagnostic in 90 (93%) of 97, 82 (85%) of 97, and 85 (88%) of 97 of cases, respectively. All stains showed decreased diagnostic utility due to variability in tissue integrity, quality of the staining, and/or ease of interpretation. In cases where all immunostains were interpretable, the MC Triple Stain yielded the most information. When technically sufficient, all three immunostains demonstrated relative strengths and weaknesses in their ability to provide diagnostic information with the highest consistency and ease of use. Many cases stained with LCDC were technically insufficient due to a suboptimal staining protocol provided by the company. Overall, the MC Triple Stain outperformed BTS and LCDC by more consistently providing more diagnostic information. The MC Triple Stain is a viable alternative to other multiplex immunostains in evaluating small foci of carcinoma, particularly when both the histologic type and extent of disease (in situ vs invasive) require clarification. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  13. Nonparametric triple collocation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triple collocation derives variance-covariance relationships between three or more independent measurement sources and an indirectly observed truth variable in the case where the measurement operators are linear-Gaussian. We generalize that theory to arbitrary observation operators by deriving nonpa...

  14. Central nervous system development-related microRNAs levels increase in the serum of gestational diabetic women during the first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lamadrid-Romero, M; Solís, K H; Cruz-Reséndiz, M S; Pérez, J E; Díaz, N F; Flores-Herrera, H; García-López, G; Perichart, O; Reyes-Muñoz, E; Arenas-Huertero, F; Eguía-Aguilar, P; Molina-Hernández, A

    2018-05-01

    MicroRNAs are heterochronic molecules important during brain development, which could be altered by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). To explore these molecules in maternal serum, we performed an RT-qPCR analysis. Our results revealed the heterochronic character of some neural development-related microRNA in serum samples of pregnant women. In relation to the first trimester, higher levels of miR-183-5p, -200b-3p, and -125-5p in the second trimester, and higher levels of miR-137 in the third trimester, were found. Furthermore, an insult such as GDM led to higher levels of miR-183-5p, -200b-3p, -125-5p, and -1290 relative to the control in the first trimester, which might be related to changes in neurogenesis and cell proliferation. An in silico analysis suggested that increased microRNAs in the second trimester in the control contributed to cell proliferation and neuron differentiation and that the rise in miR-137 in the third trimester led to neuron maturation. In the diabetic, higher levels of the microRNAs in the first trimester suggested alterations in cell proliferation and neuron differentiation. In conclusion, we showed that fetal-related microRNAs can be detected in the serum of pregnant woman and exhibit temporary regulation during pregnancy and that microRNAs involved in cell proliferation and neuron differentiation are upregulated under GDM. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Real life is different: a qualitative study of why women delay abortion until the second trimester in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Maria F; Nghia, Nguyen C

    2007-05-01

    Although legal and safe-induced abortion services are available on request in Vietnam, second-trimester abortion still occurs. Given the increased risks and higher costs associated with later-term abortions, we conducted a qualitative study to understand the determinants of delaying abortion until the second trimester. We used purposive sampling to conduct semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 60 women aged 14-47 receiving an abortion at 13-24 weeks of gestation in 5 health facilities in 3 provinces in Vietnam. We also interviewed 6 providers from the study facilities. Three broad categories for factors influencing delays in obtaining abortions emerged: most women failed to recognize their pregnancy during the first trimester; women described structural barriers to accessing services earlier; and some women either needed time to make a decision or only decided to abort after other events had transpired. A richer understanding of the factors that prevent women from obtaining an abortion during the first trimester could be useful for informing interventions that support women in receiving care earlier during their pregnancies.

  16. INDIVIDUALIZED FETAL GROWTH ASSESSMENT: CRITICAL EVALUATION OF KEY CONCEPTS IN THE SPECIFICATION OF THIRD TRIMESTER GROWTH TRAJECTORIES

    PubMed Central

    Deter, Russell L.; Lee, Wesley; Yeo, Lami; Romero, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To characterize 2nd and 3rd trimester fetal growth using Individualized Growth Assessment in a large cohort of fetuses with normal growth outcomes. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of 119 pregnancies was carried out from 18 weeks, MA, to delivery. Measurements of eleven fetal growth parameters were obtained from 3D scans at 3–4 week intervals. Regression analyses were used to determine Start Points [SP] and Rossavik model [P = c (t) k + st] coefficients c, k and s for each parameter in each fetus. Second trimester growth model specification functions were re-established. These functions were used to generate individual growth models and determine predicted s and s-residual [s = pred s + s-resid] values. Actual measurements were compared to predicted growth trajectories obtained from the growth models and Percent Deviations [% Dev = {{actual − predicted}/predicted} × 100] calculated. Age-specific reference standards for this statistic were defined using 2-level statistical modeling for the nine directly measured parameters and estimated weight. Results Rossavik models fit the data for all parameters very well [R2: 99%], with SP’s and k values similar to those found in a much smaller cohort. The c values were strongly related to the 2nd trimester slope [R2: 97%] as was predicted s to estimated c [R2: 95%]. The latter was negative for skeletal parameters and positive for soft tissue parameters. The s-residuals were unrelated to estimated c’s [R2: 0%], and had mean values of zero. Rossavik models predicted 3rd trimester growth with systematic errors close to 0% and random errors [95% range] of 5.7 – 10.9% and 20.0 – 24.3% for one and three dimensional parameters, respectively. Moderate changes in age-specific variability were seen in the 3rd trimester.. Conclusions IGA procedures for evaluating 2nd and 3rd trimester growth are now established based on a large cohort [4–6 fold larger than those used previously], thus permitting more

  17. Vectorized data acquisition and fast triple-correlation integrals for Fluorescence Triple Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgeway, William K.; Millar, David P.; Williamson, James R.

    2013-04-01

    Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is widely used to quantify reaction rates and concentrations of molecules in vitro and in vivo. We recently reported Fluorescence Triple Correlation Spectroscopy (F3CS), which correlates three signals together instead of two. F3CS can analyze the stoichiometries of complex mixtures and detect irreversible processes by identifying time-reversal asymmetries. Here we report the computational developments that were required for the realization of F3CS and present the results as the Triple Correlation Toolbox suite of programs. Triple Correlation Toolbox is a complete data analysis pipeline capable of acquiring, correlating and fitting large data sets. Each segment of the pipeline handles error estimates for accurate error-weighted global fitting. Data acquisition was accelerated with a combination of off-the-shelf counter-timer chips and vectorized operations on 128-bit registers. This allows desktop computers with inexpensive data acquisition cards to acquire hours of multiple-channel data with sub-microsecond time resolution. Off-line correlation integrals were implemented as a two delay time multiple-tau scheme that scales efficiently with multiple processors and provides an unprecedented view of linked dynamics. Global fitting routines are provided to fit FCS and F3CS data to models containing up to ten species. Triple Correlation Toolbox is a complete package that enables F3CS to be performed on existing microscopes. Catalogue identifier: AEOP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 50189 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6135283 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C/Assembly. Computer: Any with GCC and

  18. Fixed Point Problems for Linear Transformations on Pythagorean Triples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, M.-Q.; Tong, J.-C.; Braza, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, an attempt is made to find all linear transformations that map a standard Pythagorean triple (a Pythagorean triple [x y z][superscript T] with y being even) into a standard Pythagorean triple, which have [3 4 5][superscript T] as their fixed point. All such transformations form a monoid S* under matrix product. It is found that S*…

  19. Transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening test for second-trimester placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Quant, Hayley S; Friedman, Alexander M; Wang, Eileen; Parry, Samuel; Schwartz, Nadav

    2014-03-01

    To determine the test characteristics of transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening test for second-trimester placenta previa. This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study evaluated the distance from the placental edge to the internal os (placenta-cervix distance) through both transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasonography during the anatomic survey. Patients were recruited in the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Ultrasound Unit at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, an urban tertiary care center. Transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoffs with high sensitivity for detection of previa and low-lying placenta were identified, and test characteristics were calculated. Follow-up ultrasound data, pregnancy, and delivery outcomes for those with second-trimester previa or low-lying placenta were obtained. One thousand two hundred fourteen women were included in the analysis. A transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoff of 4.2 cm was 93.3% sensitive and 76.7% specific for detection of previa with a 99.8% negative predictive value at a screen-positive rate of 25.0%. A cutoff of 2.8 cm was 86.7% sensitive and 90.5% specific with a 99.6% negative predictive value at a screen-positive rate of 11.4%. Only 9.8% (four of 41) of previas and low-lying placentas persisted through delivery. Transabdominal ultrasonography is an effective screening test for second-trimester placenta previa. At centers not performing universal transvaginal ultrasonography at the time of the anatomic survey, evidence-based transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoffs can optimize the identification of patients who require further surveillance for previa.

  20. Detailed fetal anatomy assessment in the first trimester at 11, 12 and 13 weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Luchi, Carlo; Schifano, Martina; Sacchini, Clara; Nanini, Chiara; Sceusa, Francesca; Capriello, Patrizio; Genazzani, Andrea R

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present observational study was to evaluate the feasibility of a morphological scan and determine the detection rate of fetal organs, structures and systems in the first trimester of pregnancy. 977 single pregnant women attending our Fetal Medicine Section to undergo first trimester screening for aneuploidies were enrolled and divided into three groups depending on gestational age and crown-rump-length measurement. Scans targeted on a total of 26 fetal anatomical structures were performed by a single operator. The overall detection rate was 96% at 11 weeks and reached 100% at 12 and 13 weeks, with a significant statistical difference between 11 and 12/13 weeks for the majority of the investigated fetal anatomical structures. Evaluation of most part of the fetal anatomical structures is feasible with high accuracy in the first trimester. Visualization of the majority of the targeted fetal organs improves from 11 to 13 weeks.

  1. Lupus anticoagulant, disease activity and low complement in the first trimester are predictive of pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Mankee, Anil; Petri, Michelle; Magder, Laurence S

    2015-01-01

    Multiple factors, including proteinuria, antiphospholipid syndrome, thrombocytopenia and hypertension, are predictive of pregnancy loss in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In the PROMISSE study of predictors of pregnancy loss, only a battery of lupus anticoagulant tests was predictive of a composite of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We examined the predictive value of one baseline lupus anticoagulant test (dilute Russell viper venom time) with pregnancy loss in women with SLE. From the Hopkins Lupus Cohort, there were 202 pregnancies from 175 different women after excluding twin pregnancies and pregnancies for which we did not have a first trimester assessment of lupus anticoagulant. We determined the percentage of women who had a pregnancy loss in groups defined by potential risk factors. The lupus anticoagulant was determined by dilute Russell viper venom time with appropriate mixing and confirmatory testing. Generalised estimating equations were used to calculate p values, accounting for repeated pregnancies in the same woman. The age at pregnancy was <20 years (2%), 20-29 (53%), 30-39 (41%) and >40 (3%). 55% were Caucasian and 34% African-American. Among those with lupus anticoagulant during the first trimester, 6/16 (38%) experienced a pregnancy loss compared with only 16/186 (9%) of other pregnancies (p=0.003). In addition, those with low complement or higher disease activity had a higher rate of pregnancy loss than those without (p=0.049 and 0.005, respectively). In contrast, there was no association between elevated anticardiolipin in the first trimester and pregnancy loss. The strongest predictor of pregnancy loss in SLE in the first trimester is the lupus anticoagulant. In addition, moderate disease activity by the physician global assessment and low complement measured in the first trimester were predictive of pregnancy loss. These data suggest that treatment of the lupus anticoagulant could be considered, even in the absence of history of pregnancy

  2. Serum alpha-fetoprotein in the three trimesters of pregnancy: effects of maternal characteristics and medical history.

    PubMed

    Bredaki, F E; Sciorio, C; Wright, A; Wright, D; Nicolaides, K H

    2015-07-01

    To define the contribution of maternal variables which influence the measured level of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in screening for pregnancy complications. Maternal characteristics and medical history were recorded and serum AFP was measured in women with a singleton pregnancy attending for three routine hospital visits at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6, 19 + 0 to 24 + 6 and 30 + 0 to 34 + 6 weeks' gestation. For pregnancies delivering phenotypically normal live births or stillbirths ≥ 24 weeks' gestation, variables from maternal demographic characteristics and medical history that are important in the prediction of AFP were determined from a linear mixed-effects multiple regression. Serum AFP was measured in 17 071 cases in the first trimester, 8583 in the second trimester and 8607 in the third trimester. Significant independent contributions to serum AFP were provided by gestational age, maternal weight, racial origin, gestational age at delivery and birth-weight Z-score of the neonate of the previous pregnancy and interpregnancy interval. Cigarette smoking was found to significantly affect serum AFP in the first trimester only. The machine used to measure serum AFP was also found to have a significant effect. Random-effects multiple regression analysis was used to define the contribution of maternal variables that influence the measured level of serum AFP and express the values as multiples of the median (MoMs). The model was shown to provide an adequate fit of MoM values for all covariates, both in pregnancies that developed pre-eclampsia and in those without this pregnancy complication. A model was fitted to express measured serum AFP across the three trimesters of pregnancy as MoMs, after adjusting for variables from maternal characteristics and medical history that affect this measurement. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Homomorphisms in C*-ternary algebras and JB*-triples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Choonkil; Rassias, Themistocles M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate homomorphisms between C*-ternary algebras and derivations on C*-ternary algebras, and homomorphisms between JB*-triples and derivations on JB*-triples, associated with the following Apollonius type additive functional equation

  4. Determinants of first and second trimester induced abortion - results from a cross-sectional study taken place 7 years after abortion law revisions in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bonnen, Kristine Ivalu; Tuijje, Dereje Negussie; Rasch, Vibeke

    2014-12-19

    In 2005 Ethiopia took the important step to protect women's reproductive health by liberalizing the abortion law. As a result women were given access to safe pregnancy termination in first and second trimester. This study aims to describe socio-economic characteristics and contraceptive experience among women seeking abortion in Jimma, Ethiopia and to describe determinants of second trimester abortion. A cross-sectional study conducted October 2011 - April 2012 in Jimma Town, Ethiopia among women having safely induced abortion and women having unsafely induced abortion. In all 808 safe abortion cases and 21 unsafe abortion cases were included in the study. Of the 829 abortions, 729 were first trimester and 100 were second trimester abortions. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine risk factors associated with second trimester abortion. The associations are presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidential intervals. Age stratified analyses of contraceptive experience among women with first and second trimester abortions are also presented. Socio-economic characteristics associated with increased ORs of second trimester abortion were: age < 19 years, being single, widowed or divorced, attending school, being unemployment, being nullipara or para 3+, and having low education. The contraceptive prevalence rate varied across age groups and was particularly low among young girls and young women experiencing second trimester abortion where only 15% and 19% stated they had ever used contraception. Young age, poor education and the prospect of single parenthood were associated with second trimester abortion. Young girls and young women were using contraception comparatively less often than older women. To ensure women full right to control their fertility in the setting studied, modern contraception should be made available, accessible and affordable for all women, regardless of age.

  5. Efficacy of cryoanalgesia in decreasing pain during second trimester genetic amniocentesis: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hanprasertpong, Tharangrut; Kor-Anantakul, Ounjai; Prasartwanakit, Visit; Leetanaporn, Roengsak; Suntharasaj, Thitima; Suwanrath, Chitkasaem

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of cryoanalgesia in decreasing the degree of pain sensation during second trimester genetic amniocentesis. We performed a prospective randomized study comparing the anticipated and actual pain before and after second trimester genetic amniocentesis between pregnant women who received and did not receive cryoanalgesia. The pain was measured using the visual analog score (VAS), ranging from 0 to 10. Three hundred and seventy-two pregnant women participated in our study. One hundred and eighty-four and 188 pregnant women were randomized to cryoanalgesia received and non-cryoanalgesia received groups, respectively. The pre-procedure anxiety mean VAS scores and the anticipated pain mean VAS scores between the groups were not significantly different (P = 0.25 and 0.18, respectively). The pre-procedure anxiety and the anticipated pain mean ± SD VAS scores in the cryoanalgesia and non-cryoanalgesia groups were 5.7 ± 0.37 vs. 8.0 ± 0.82 and 5.4 ± 1.34 vs. 5.6 ± 1.42, respectively. The post-procedure pain and anxiety mean VAS scores in the cryoanalgesia group were statistically less significant than those from the non-cryoanalgesia group (mean ± SD = 3.2 ± 1.60 and 3.8 ± 1.58, respectively, P = 0.004). Most pregnant women claimed to have experienced moderate pain and accepted to undergo a second trimester genetic amniocentesis again if indicated. Cryoanalgesia is effective in decreasing the pain sensation and could be routinely applied to all pregnant women before the second trimester genetic amniocentesis.

  6. Working with women experiencing mid-trimester termination of pregnancy: the integration of nursing and feminist knowledge in the gynaecological setting.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Annette D

    2002-03-01

    1. Working with women experiencing a mid-trimester termination of pregnancy is part of clinical practice in many gynaecological services. In this paper recent research with nurses working in the gynaecological area is drawn on to explore the issues for nurses working with women experiencing mid-trimester termination. Mid-trimester terminations are those carried out between approximately 12 and 20 weeks. 2. Mid-trimester termination results in the delivery of a fetus and this event requires sensitive management as it is has the potential to cause distress for the women due to the psychological and physical impact of the procedure. However, health professionals involved can also find this a distressing clinical event due to the complex nature of the management and care required. 3. Consideration of this clinical event from a feminist perspective led to my exploring the way in which feminist theory could be applied in the situation of mid-trimester termination. Using notions from feminist theory can assist in the management of this process, and feminist concepts related to the centrality of women's experience can be integrated into actual practice. 4. A series of recommendations are provided in this paper to show the way in which feminist concepts can be integrated into clinical practice. Integrating feminist principles into practice can support both the woman experiencing the abortion and the nurse whose role in the event is sustained and intimate, and result in positive outcomes for both women. This can result in an environment that is safe and supportive for all women involved in mid-trimester terminations.

  7. Triple valve surgery: a 25-year experience.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mustafa; Ozkan, Murat; Böke, Erkmen

    2004-09-01

    Surgical treatment of rheumatic valvular disease still constitutes a significant number of cardiac operations in developing countries. Despite improvements in myocardial protection and cardiopulmonary bypass techniques, triple valve operations (aortic, mitral and tricuspid valves) are still challenging because of longer duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and higher degree of myocardial decompensation. This study was instituted in order to assess results of triple valve surgery. Between 1977 and 2002, 34 patients underwent triple valve surgery in our clinic by the same surgeon (EB). Eleven patients underwent triple valve replacement (32.4%) and 23 underwent tricuspid valve annuloplasty with aortic and mitral valve replacements (67.6%). There was no significant difference between the two groups of patients who underwent triple valve replacement and aortic and mitral valve replacement with tricuspid valve annuloplasty. There were 4 hospital deaths (11.8%) occurring within 30 days. The duration of follow-up for 30 survivors ranged from 6 to 202 months (mean 97 months). The actuarial survival rates were 85%, 72%, and 48% at 5, 10, and 15 years respectively. Actuarial freedom from reoperation rates at 5, 10, and 15 years was 86.3%, 71.9%, and 51.2%, respectively. Freedom from cerebral thromboembolism and anticoagulation-related hemorrhage rates, expressed in actuarial terms was 75.9% and 62.9% at 5 and 10 years. Major cerebral complications occurred in 10 of the 30 patients. We prefer replacing, if repairing is not possible, the tricuspid valve, with a bileaflet mechanical prosthesis in a patient with valve replacement of the left heart who will be anticoagulated in order to avoid unfavorable properties of bioprosthesis like degeneration and of old generation mechanical prosthesis like thrombosis and poor hemodynamic function. In recent years, results of triple valve surgery either with tricuspid valve conservation or valve replacement in suitable cases have become

  8. Triple X syndrome: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Otter, Maarten; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance T R M; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2010-03-01

    The developmental and clinical aspects in the literature on triple X syndrome are reviewed. Prenatal diagnosis depends on karyotyping. The incidence is 1 of 1000 females. At birth, 47,XXX girls have a lower mean birth weight and a smaller head circumference. Triple X diagnosis was not suspected at birth. The maternal age seems to be increased. Toddlers with triple X syndrome show delayed language development. The youngest girls show accelerated growth until puberty. EEG abnormalities seem to be rather common. Many girls show motor-coordination problems and auditory-processing disorders are not rare. Scoliosis is probably more common in adolescent cases. The IQ levels are 20 points below that of controls, and verbal IQ is lowest. The girls struggle with low self-esteem and they need psychological, behavioural and educational support. They perform best in stable families. After leaving school they seem to feel better. In adults, premature ovarian failure seems to be more prevalent than in controls. MRIs of the brain seem to show decreased brain volumes. The 47,XXX women most often find jobs that reflect their performance abilities. Psychotic illness seems to be more prevalent in triple X adult women than in controls. Psychotic disorders respond well to psychotropic drugs. Triple X adults suffer more frequently from cyclothymic and labile personality traits. Research on triple X syndrome may yield more insight into brain and behaviour relations, developmental psychopathology, auditory-processing disorders, EEG disorders, personality and psychotic disorders, etc.

  9. Existence Regions of Shock Wave Triple Configurations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Chernyshev, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research is to create the classification for shock wave triple configurations and their existence regions of various types: type 1, type 2, type 3. Analytical solutions for limit Mach numbers and passing shock intensity that define existence region of every type of triple configuration have been acquired. The ratios that conjugate…

  10. On Pythagoras Theorem for Products of Spectral Triples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, Francesco; Martinetti, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    We discuss a version of Pythagoras theorem in noncommutative geometry. Usual Pythagoras theorem can be formulated in terms of Connes' distance, between pure states, in the product of commutative spectral triples. We investigate the generalization to both non-pure states and arbitrary spectral triples. We show that Pythagoras theorem is replaced by some Pythagoras inequalities, that we prove for the product of arbitrary (i.e. non-necessarily commutative) spectral triples, assuming only some unitality condition. We show that these inequalities are optimal, and we provide non-unital counter-examples inspired by K-homology.

  11. Development of 600 kV triple resonance pulse transformer.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingjia; Zhang, Faqiang; Liang, Chuan; Xu, Zhou

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a triple-resonance pulse transformer based on an air-core transformer is introduced. The voltage across the high-voltage winding of the air-core transformer is significantly less than the output voltage; instead, the full output voltage appears across the tuning inductor. The maximum ratio of peak load voltage to peak transformer voltage is 2.77 in theory. By analyzing pulse transformer's lossless circuit, the analytical expression for the output voltage and the characteristic equation of the triple-resonance circuit are presented. Design method for the triple-resonance pulse transformer (iterated simulation method) is presented, and a triple-resonance pulse transformer is developed based on the existing air-core transformer. The experimental results indicate that the maximum ratio of peak voltage across the load to peak voltage across the high-voltage winding of the air-core transformer is approximately 2.0 and the peak output voltage of the triple-resonance pulse transformer is approximately 600 kV.

  12. Microarray-based SNP genotyping to identify genetic risk factors of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in South Indian population.

    PubMed

    Aravind Kumar, M; Singh, Vineeta; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Shanker, Uday; Lakshmi Narasu, M

    2018-05-01

    In the view of aggressive nature of Triple-Negative Breast cancer (TNBC) due to the lack of receptors (ER, PR, HER2) and high incidence of drug resistance associated with it, a case-control association study was conducted to identify the contributing genetic risk factors for Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). A total of 30 TNBC patients and 50 age and gender-matched controls of Indian origin were screened for 9,00,000 SNP markers using microarray-based SNP genotyping approach. The initial PLINK association analysis (p < 0.01, MAF 0.14-0.44, OR 10-24) identified 28 non-synonymous SNPs and one stop gain mutation in the exonic region as possible determinants of TNBC risk. All the 29 SNPs were annotated using ANNOVAR. The interactions between these markers were evaluated using Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis. The interactions were in the following order: exm408776 > exm1278309 > rs316389 > rs1651654 > rs635538 > exm1292477. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was performed to construct decision tree useful in predicting TNBC risk. As shown in this analysis, rs1651654 and exm585172 SNPs are found to be determinants of TNBC risk. Artificial neural network model was used to generate the Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC), which showed high sensitivity and specificity (AUC-0.94) of these markers. To conclude, among the 9,00,000 SNPs tested, CCDC42 exm1292477, ANXA3 exm408776, SASH1 exm585172 are found to be the most significant genetic predicting factors for TNBC. The interactions among exm408776, exm1278309, rs316389, rs1651654, rs635538, exm1292477 SNPs inflate the risk for TNBC further. Targeted analysis of these SNPs and genes alone also will have similar clinical utility in predicting TNBC.

  13. Pain control in first trimester surgical abortion.

    PubMed

    Renner, Regina-Maria; Jensen, Jeffrey T J; Nichols, Mark D N; Edelman, Alison

    2009-04-15

    First trimester abortions especially cervical dilation and suction aspiration are associated with pain, despite various methods of pain control. Compare different methods of pain control during first trimester surgical abortion. We searched multiple electronic databases with the appropriate key words, as well as reference lists of articles, and contacted professionals to seek other trials. Randomized controlled trials comparing methods of pain control in first trimester surgical abortion at less than 14 weeks gestational age using electric or manual suction aspiration. Outcomes included intra- and postoperative pain, side effects, recovery measures and satisfaction. Two reviewers independently extracted data. Meta-analysis results are expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) or Peto Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI). We included forty studies with 5131 participants. Due to heterogeneity we divided studies into 7 groups:Local anesthesia: Data was insufficient to show a clear benefit of a paracervical block (PCB) compared to no PCB or a PCB with bacteriostatic saline. Pain scores during dilation and aspiration were improved with deep injection (WMD -1.64 95% CI -3.21 to -0.08; WMD 1.00 95% CI 1.09 to 0.91), and with adding a 4% intrauterine lidocaine infusion (WMD -2.0 95% CI -3.29 to -0.71, WMD -2.8 95% CI -3.95 to -1.65 with dilation and aspiration respectively).PCB with premedication: Ibuprofen and naproxen resulted in small reduction of intra- and post-operative pain.Analgesia: Diclofenac-sodium did not reduce pain.Conscious sedation: The addition of conscious intravenous sedation using diazepam and fentanyl to PCB decreased procedural pain.General anesthesia (GA): Conscious sedation increased intraoperative but decreased postoperative pain compared to GA (Peto OR 14.77 95% CI 4.91 to 44.38, and Peto OR 7.47 95% CI 2.2 to 25.36 for dilation and aspiration respectively, and WMD 1.00 95% CI 1.77 to 0.23 postoperatively). Inhalation anesthetics are

  14. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years.

    PubMed

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) proposed the Triple Aim, strategic organizing principles for health care organizations and geographic communities that seek, simultaneously, to improve the individual experience of care and the health of populations and to reduce the per capita costs of care for populations. In 2010, the Triple Aim became part of the US national strategy for tackling health care issues, especially in the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. Since that time, IHI and others have worked together to determine how the implementation of the Triple Aim has progressed. Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on this endeavor: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously "improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations." IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and

  15. Rate of gestational weight gain and preterm birth in relation to prepregnancy body mass indices and trimester: a follow-up study in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Aiqun; Ji, Zhenpeng; Zhao, Wei; Hu, Huanqing; Yang, Qi; Chen, Dafang

    2016-08-12

    To evaluate the association between rate of gestational weight gain and preterm birth varying prepregnancy body mass indices and trimester. Data from Maternal and Newborn's Health Monitoring System on 17475 pregnant women who delivered live singletons at ≥ 28 weeks of gestation between October 2013 and September 2014 from 12 districts/counties of 6 provinces in China and started prenatal care at ≤ 12 weeks of gestation was analyzed. Gestational weight gain was categorized by rate of weight gain during the 2(nd) and 3(rd) trimester, based on the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Multivariable binary logistic regression models were conducted to investigate the association between rate of gestational weight gain and preterm birth stratified by prepregnancy body mass indices and trimester. Excessive weight gain occurred in 57.9 % pregnant women, and insufficient weight gain 12.5 %. Average rate of gestational weight gain in 2(nd) and 3(rd) trimester was independently associated with preterm birth (U-shaped), and the association varied by prepregnancy body mass indices and trimesters. In underweight women, excessive gestational weight gain was positively associated with preterm birth (OR 1.93, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.29- 2.88) when compared with women who gained adequately. While in overweight/obese women, insufficient gestational weight gain was positively associated with preterm birth (OR 3.92, 95 % CI: 1.13-13.67). When stratifying by trimester, we found that excessive weight gain in 3(rd) trimester had a significantly positive effect on preterm birth (OR 1.27, 95 % CI: 1.02-1.58). Excessive gestational weight gain among underweight pregnant women, insufficient gestational weight gain among overweight/obese women and excessive gestational weight gain in 3(rd) trimester were important predictors of preterm birth.

  16. On the stability and collisions in triple stellar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Matthias Y.; Petrovich, Cristobal

    2018-02-01

    A significant fraction of main-sequence (MS) stars are part of a triple system. We study the long-term stability and dynamical outcomes of triple stellar systems using a large number of long-term direct N-body integrations with relativistic precession. We find that the previously proposed stability criteria by Eggleton & Kiseleva and Mardling & Aarseth predict the stability against ejections reasonably well for a wide range of parameters. Assuming that the triple stellar systems follow orbital and mass distributions from FGK binary stars in the field, we find that ˜ 1 per cent and ˜ 0.5 per cent of the triple systems lead to a direct head-on collision (impact velocity ˜ escape velocity) between MS stars and between a MS star and a stellar-mass compact object, respectively. We conclude that triple interactions are the dominant channel for direct collisions involving a MS star in the field with a rate of one event every ˜100 years in the Milky Way. We estimate that the fraction of triple systems that form short-period binaries is up to ˜ 23 per cent with only up to ˜ 13 per cent being the result of three-body interactions with tidal dissipation, which is consistent with previous work using a secular code.

  17. Mixed-methods investigation of women's experiences with second-trimester abortion care in the Midwest and Northeast United States.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Kelly; Meadows, Jill L; Gutierrez, Hialy R; Hannum, Curtiss Ps; Douglas-Durham, Ella F; Dennis, Amanda J

    2017-12-01

    We studied women's experiences seeking and receiving second-trimester abortion care in two geographically and legislatively different settings to inform ways to improve abortion care access and services. We conducted in-depth interviews with women who obtained second-trimester abortion care. Themes from the interviews were then used to inform a self-administered survey, which was completed by 108 women who received second-trimester abortion care in the Northeast and Midwest. We calculated descriptive statistics and used chi-squared and t-tests to compare responses. We interviewed eight women and surveyed 108 women. Most interviewees and 65.2% of survey respondents reported difficulties accessing care. Although most interview and survey respondents had insurance, a slight majority reported difficulty funding care. All interviewees and 57.9% of survey respondents reported positive experiences with providers, with many interviewees and 62.0% of survey respondents saying their abortion care was better than their usual health care. Most interviewees and 75.8% of survey respondents reported pain as low to moderate, and the majority of participants reported it was the same or less than expected. Knowledge about abortion restrictions was low. Most interviewees and 68.4% survey respondents disagreed with restrictions on insurance coverage of abortion. Common recommendations to improve experiences were to ensure travel and financial support and to decrease wait times at clinics. There were few regional differences among outcomes. Women seeking second-trimester abortion in these locations reported positive abortion experiences. However, they had to overcome significant obstacles to obtain care. This is the first study to systematically research women's second-trimester care experiences in two different regions of the United States. Regardless of location, women experienced barriers due to policies that impose gestational age restrictions, limit provider availability

  18. Longitudinal assessment of maternal endothelial function and markers of inflammation and placental function throughout pregnancy in lean and obese mothers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Frances M; Freeman, Dilys J; Ramsay, Jane E; Greer, Ian A; Caslake, Muriel; Ferrell, William R

    2007-03-01

    Obesity in pregnancy is increasing and is a risk factor for metabolic pathology such as preeclampsia. In the nonpregnant, obesity is associated with dyslipidemia, vascular dysfunction, and low-grade chronic inflammation. Our aim was to measure microvascular endothelial function in lean and obese pregnant women at intervals throughout their pregnancies and at 4 months after delivery. Plasma markers of endothelial function, inflammation, and placental function and their association with microvascular function were also assessed. Women in the 1st trimester of pregnancy were recruited, 30 with a body mass index (BMI) less than 30 kg/m(2) and 30 with a BMI more than or equal to 30 kg/m(2) matched for age, parity, and smoking status. In vivo endothelial-dependent and -independent microvascular function was measured using laser Doppler imaging in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy and at 4 months postnatal. Plasma markers of endothelial activation [soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1], inflammation (IL-6, TNFalpha, C-reactive protein, and IL-10), and placental function (PAI-1/PAI-2 ratio) were also assessed at each time point. The pattern of improving endothelial function during pregnancy was the same for lean and obese, but endothelial-dependent vasodilation was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the obese women at each trimester (51, 41, and 39%, respectively). In the postpartum period, the improvement in endothelial-dependent vasodilation persisted in the lean women but declined to near 1st trimester levels in the obese (lean/obese difference, 115%; P < 0.01). There was a small but significant difference in endothelial-independent vasodilation between the two groups, lean response being greater than obese (P = 0.021), and response declined in both groups in the postpartum period. In multivariate analysis, time of

  19. Triple shape memory polymers by 4D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghi, M.; Damanpack, A. R.; Liao, W. H.

    2018-06-01

    This article aims at introducing triple shape memory polymers (SMPs) by four-dimensional (4D) printing technology and shaping adaptive structures for mechanical/bio-medical devices. The main approach is based on arranging hot–cold programming of SMPs with fused decomposition modeling technology to engineer adaptive structures with triple shape memory effect (SME). Experiments are conducted to characterize elasto-plastic and hyper-elastic thermo-mechanical material properties of SMPs in low and high temperatures at large deformation regime. The feasibility of the dual and triple SMPs with self-bending features is demonstrated experimentally. It is advantageous in situations either where it is desired to perform mechanical manipulations on the 4D printed objects for specific purposes or when they experience cold programming inevitably before activation. A phenomenological 3D constitutive model is developed for quantitative understanding of dual/triple SME of SMPs fabricated by 4D printing in the large deformation range. Governing equations of equilibrium are established for adaptive structures on the basis of the nonlinear Green–Lagrange strains. They are then solved by developing a finite element approach along with an elastic-predictor plastic-corrector return map procedure accomplished by the Newton–Raphson method. The computational tool is applied to simulate dual/triple SMP structures enabled by 4D printing and explore hot–cold programming mechanisms behind material tailoring. It is shown that the 4D printed dual/triple SMPs have great potential in mechanical/bio-medical applications such as self-bending gripers/stents and self-shrinking/tightening staples.

  20. Government and Governance of Regional Triple Helix Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danson, Mike; Todeva, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper contributes to the discussion of the role of regional government and regional Triple Helix constellations driving economic development and growth within regional boundaries. The impact of regionalism and subsidiarity on regional Triple Helix constellations, and the questions of governmentality, governance and institutional…

  1. Overcoming Triple Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Latinos are, after whites, the most segregated student group in the United States, and their segregation is closely tied to poor academic outcomes. Latinos experience a triple segregation: by race/ethnicity, poverty, and language. Racial segregation perpetuates negative stereotypes, reduces the likelihood of a strong teaching staff, and is often…

  2. A reconstruction theorem for Connes-Landi deformations of commutative spectral triples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćaćić, Branimir

    2015-12-01

    We formulate and prove an extension of Connes's reconstruction theorem for commutative spectral triples to so-called Connes-Landi or isospectral deformations of commutative spectral triples along the action of a compact Abelian Lie group G, also known as toric noncommutative manifolds. In particular, we propose an abstract definition for such spectral triples, where noncommutativity is entirely governed by a deformation parameter sitting in the second group cohomology of the Pontryagin dual of G, and then show that such spectral triples are well-behaved under further Connes-Landi deformation, thereby allowing for both quantisation from and dequantisation to G-equivariant abstract commutative spectral triples. We then use a refinement of the Connes-Dubois-Violette splitting homomorphism to conclude that suitable Connes-Landi deformations of commutative spectral triples by a rational deformation parameter are almost-commutative in the general, topologically non-trivial sense.

  3. α-Fetoprotein is a surrogate marker for predicting treatment failure in telaprevir-based triple combination therapy for genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C Japanese patients with the IL28B minor genotype.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Noritomo; Tsubota, Akihito; Atsukawa, Masanori; Abe, Hiroshi; Ika, Makiko; Kato, Keizo; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Kondo, Chisa; Sakamoto, Choitsu; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Aizawa, Yoshio

    2014-03-01

    Even when treated with telaprevir-based triple therapy, some patients fail to achieve a sustained virological response. This study identified factors related closely to treatment failure. A total of 146 Japanese genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C patients were enrolled in this prospective, multicenter study and received a 24-week regimen of triple therapy. The end-of-treatment response rate was significantly lower in patients with the interleukin 28B (IL28B) (rs8099917) non-TT genotype (85.2%) than in those with the TT genotype (100%, P = 0.0002). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified high α-fetoprotein levels as an independent factor related to non-end-of-treatment response in patients with the non-TT genotype. A cut-off value of 20 ng/ml was determined for a non-end-of-treatment response; sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were 75.0%, 95.7%, 75.0%, 75.0%, and 92.6%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis for a sustained virological response identified the IL28B TT genotype, low α-fetoprotein levels, non-responders, and a rapid virological response. The sustained virological response rate was significantly lower in patients with the non-TT genotype (59.3%) than in those with the TT genotype (96.7%, P < 0.0001). In patients with the non-TT genotype, α-fetoprotein was the most significant predictor for non-sustained virological response by univariate analysis. A cut-off value of 7.4 ng/ml α-fetoprotein was determined for non-sustained virological response; sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy were 63.6%, 87.5%, 77.8%, 77.8%, and 77.8%, respectively. For the non-TT patients, serum α-fetoprotein levels may be a surrogate marker for predicting treatment failure in telaprevir-based therapy for genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Intramuscular ketorolac versus oral ibuprofen for pain relief in first-trimester surgical abortion: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Braaten, Kari P; Hurwitz, Shelley; Fortin, Jennifer; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2014-02-01

    Oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications (NSAIDs) have been shown to reduce pain with first-trimester surgical abortion compared to placebo, but it is unclear if one NSAID is better than another. Some providers administer intramuscular ketorolac, though data regarding its efficacy in abortion are limited. This study was designed to compare oral ibuprofen to intramuscular ketorolac for pain management during first-trimester surgical abortion. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion with local anesthesia were randomized to preprocedural oral ibuprofen, 800 mg given 60-90 min preprocedure, or intramuscular ketorolac, 60 mg given 30-60 min preprocedure. The primary outcome was pain with uterine aspiration on a 21-point, 0-100, numerical rating scale. Secondary outcomes included pain with cervical dilation, postoperative pain and patient satisfaction. Ninety-four women were enrolled; 47 were randomized to ibuprofen and 47 to ketorolac. The groups did not differ with regards to demographics, reproductive history or Depression Anxiety Stress Scale scores. Mean pain scores for suction curettage did not differ between groups (52.3 vs. 56.2, p=.53). There was also no difference in pain with cervical dilation (41.6 vs. 45.4, p=0.48) or postoperative pain (22.3 vs. 15.0 p=.076), though patients in the ketorolac group experienced significantly greater arm pain than those who received a placebo injection (30.4 vs. 15.6, p<.001). Satisfaction with pain control did not differ significantly by group. Intramuscular ketorolac does not offer superior pain control compared to oral ibuprofen for first-trimester surgical abortion. Intramuscular ketorolac does not offer superior pain control over oral ibuprofen during first-trimester surgical abortion, is more expensive and causes patients significant arm discomfort. Its use should therefore be reserved for patients who cannot tolerate oral NSAIDs. © 2014.

  5. Gauge transformations for twisted spectral triples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, Giovanni; Martinetti, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    It is extended to twisted spectral triples the fluctuations of the metric as bounded perturbations of the Dirac operator that arises when a spectral triple is exported between Morita equivalent algebras, as well as gauge transformations which are obtained by the action of the unitary endomorphisms of the module implementing the Morita equivalence. It is firstly shown that the twisted-gauged Dirac operators, previously introduced to generate an extra scalar field in the spectral description of the standard model of elementary particles, in fact follow from Morita equivalence between twisted spectral triples. The law of transformation of the gauge potentials turns out to be twisted in a natural way. In contrast with the non-twisted case, twisted fluctuations do not necessarily preserve the self-adjointness of the Dirac operator. For a self-Morita equivalence, conditions are obtained in order to maintain self-adjointness that are solved explicitly for the minimal twist of a Riemannian manifold.

  6. First-trimester sonographic findings associated with a Dandy-Walker malformation and inferior vermian hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Eran; Goncalves Rodríguez, José Luis; Álvarez Pavón, Erika Carolina; Quiroga, Héctor; Or, Drorit; Divon, Michael Y

    2013-10-01

    We report 2 cases in which first-trimester measurements of the intracranial translucency and the brain stem-to-occipital bone diameter were markedly enlarged. This finding was thought to represent an abnormal fourth ventricle-cisterna magna complex. Subsequently, the diagnoses of a Dandy-Walker malformation with partial vermian agenesis in 1 case and inferior vermian hypoplasia in the other were established and confirmed by either postmortem autopsy or postnatal magnetic resonance imaging. These cases suggest that evaluation of the fourth ventricle-cisterna magna complex, by measuring the intracranial translucency or brain stem-to-occipital bone diameter may identify some cases with structural malformations of the cerebellum as early as the first trimester.

  7. First trimester fetal echocardiography: which planes and defects can be displayed during the daily routine in a prenatal medicine unit?

    PubMed

    Krapp, M; Ludwig, A; Axt-Fliedner, R; Kreiselmaier, P

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate which cardiac planes and malformations can be visualized by first trimester fetal echocardiography during the daily routine in a prenatal medicine unit. From October 2007 to June 2009, all fetuses with a crown rump length between 45 and 84 mm were included in the study. The fetal echocardiographies were carried out by one examiner. The entire examination including fetal echocardiography was completed within a time interval of 30 minutes. When possible, the abdominal plane, 4-chamber view (CV), pulmonary veins, left ventricular outflow tract, 3-vessel view (3-VV) and the aortic arch were visualized by color Doppler and/or power Doppler sonography. 690 fetuses were enrolled in the retrospective study. The abdominal plane, 4-CV, pulmonary veins, left ventricular outflow tract, 3-VV and the aortic arch were visualized in 99 %, 96 %, 23 %, 97 %, 98 % and 72 % of cases, respectively. During the study interval, 17 cardiac malformations were diagnosed. Outcome data were obtained in 92 % of the normal fetuses. 5 cardiac anomalies were diagnosed beyond the first trimester. The standard planes of fetal echocardiography can be displayed in the first trimester in the clinical routine. Pulmonary veins can be visualized in almost a quarter of the cases. First trimester congenital heart diseases are strongly associated with chromosomal abnormalities during the first trimester. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously “improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.” IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Findings Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their

  9. A directional nucleation-zipping mechanism for triple helix formation

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, Patrizia; Arimondo, Paola B.; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Garestier, Thérèse; Hélène, Claude; Sun, Jian-Sheng

    2002-01-01

    A detailed kinetic study of triple helix formation was performed by surface plasmon resonance. Three systems were investigated involving 15mer pyrimidine oligonucleotides as third strands. Rate constants and activation energies were validated by comparison with thermodynamic values calculated from UV-melting analysis. Replacement of a T·A base pair by a C·G pair at either the 5′ or the 3′ end of the target sequence allowed us to assess mismatch effects and to delineate the mechanism of triple helix formation. Our data show that the association rate constant is governed by the sequence of base triplets on the 5′ side of the triplex (referred to as the 5′ side of the target oligopurine strand) and provides evidence that the reaction pathway for triple helix formation in the pyrimidine motif proceeds from the 5′ end to the 3′ end of the triplex according to the nucleation-zipping model. It seems that this is a general feature for all triple helices formation, probably due to the right-handedness of the DNA double helix that provides a stronger base stacking at the 5′ than at the 3′ duplex–triplex junction. Understanding the mechanism of triple helix formation is not only of fundamental interest, but may also help in designing better triple helix-forming oligonucleotides for gene targeting and control of gene expression. PMID:12490709

  10. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinase Activities toward Peptomeric Triple-Helical Substrates.

    PubMed

    Stawikowski, Maciej J; Stawikowska, Roma; Fields, Gregg B

    2015-05-19

    Although collagenolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) possess common domain organizations, there are subtle differences in their processing of collagenous triple-helical substrates. In this study, we have incorporated peptoid residues into collagen model triple-helical peptides and examined MMP activities toward these peptomeric chimeras. Several different peptoid residues were incorporated into triple-helical substrates at subsites P3, P1, P1', and P10' individually or in combination, and the effects of the peptoid residues were evaluated on the activities of full-length MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-13, and MMP-14/MT1-MMP. Most peptomers showed little discrimination between MMPs. However, a peptomer containing N-methyl Gly (sarcosine) in the P1' subsite and N-isobutyl Gly (NLeu) in the P10' subsite was hydrolyzed efficiently only by MMP-13 [nomenclature relative to the α1(I)772-786 sequence]. Cleavage site analysis showed hydrolysis at the Gly-Gln bond, indicating a shifted binding of the triple helix compared to the parent sequence. Favorable hydrolysis by MMP-13 was not due to sequence specificity or instability of the substrate triple helix but rather was based on the specific interactions of the P7' peptoid residue with the MMP-13 hemopexin-like domain. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer triple-helical peptomer was constructed and found to be readily processed by MMP-13, not cleaved by MMP-1 and MMP-8, and weakly hydrolyzed by MT1-MMP. The influence of the triple-helical structure containing peptoid residues on the interaction between MMP subsites and individual substrate residues may provide additional information about the mechanism of collagenolysis, the understanding of collagen specificity, and the design of selective MMP probes.

  11. Pancytopenia in the first trimester: An indicator of hidden hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Imai, Ken; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Nagayama, Shiho; Saito, Shinsuke; Matsubara, Shigeki; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2015-12-01

    Pancytopenia in the first trimester is very rare. A 33-year-old multiparous woman presented with nausea, loss of appetite, and bodyweight loss of 7.4 kg at 9(1/7) weeks of gestation due to hyperemesis gravidarum. Her laboratory data demonstrated pancytopenia involving white blood cell count of 3500/μL, a hemoglobin level of 9.8 g/dL, and a platelet count of 10.5 × 10(4)/μL. An extensive investigation into the causes of the pancytopenia detected true hyperthyroidism: thyroid-stimulating hormone, <0.02 μU/mL; free triiodothyronine, 11.25 pg/mL; free thyroxine, 4.74 ng/dL; and anti-thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies, 12.2 IU/L. Propylthiouracil was started at a dose of 300 mg/day at 10(5/7) weeks of gestation, which resulted in the normalization of her blood parameters and concomitant improvements in her free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels at 12(0/7) weeks of gestation. Pancytopenia in the first trimester might be indicative of hidden hyperthyroidism. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. CRITICAL CURVES AND CAUSTICS OF TRIPLE-LENS MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Daněk, Kamil; Heyrovský, David, E-mail: kamil.danek@utf.mff.cuni.cz, E-mail: heyrovsky@utf.mff.cuni.cz

    2015-06-10

    Among the 25 planetary systems detected up to now by gravitational microlensing, there are two cases of a star with two planets, and two cases of a binary star with a planet. Other, yet undetected types of triple lenses include triple stars or stars with a planet with a moon. The analysis and interpretation of such events is hindered by the lack of understanding of essential characteristics of triple lenses, such as their critical curves and caustics. We present here analytical and numerical methods for mapping the critical-curve topology and caustic cusp number in the parameter space of n-point-mass lenses.more » We apply the methods to the analysis of four symmetric triple-lens models, and obtain altogether 9 different critical-curve topologies and 32 caustic structures. While these results include various generic types, they represent just a subset of all possible triple-lens critical curves and caustics. Using the analyzed models, we demonstrate interesting features of triple lenses that do not occur in two-point-mass lenses. We show an example of a lens that cannot be described by the Chang–Refsdal model in the wide limit. In the close limit we demonstrate unusual structures of primary and secondary caustic loops, and explain the conditions for their occurrence. In the planetary limit we find that the presence of a planet may lead to a whole sequence of additional caustic metamorphoses. We show that a pair of planets may change the structure of the primary caustic even when placed far from their resonant position at the Einstein radius.« less

  13. First trimester PAPP-A in the detection of non-Down syndrome aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Ochshorn, Y; Kupferminc, M J; Wolman, I; Orr-Urtreger, A; Jaffa, A J; Yaron, Y

    2001-07-01

    Combined first trimester screening using pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin, and nuchal translucency (NT), is currently accepted as probably the best combination for the detection of Down syndrome (DS). Current first trimester algorithms provide computed risks only for DS. However, low PAPP-A is also associated with other chromosome anomalies such as trisomy 13, 18, and sex chromosome aneuploidy. Thus, using currently available algorithms, some chromosome anomalies may not be detected. The purpose of the present study was to establish a low-end cut-off value for PAPP-A that would increase the detection rates for non-DS chromosome anomalies. The study included 1408 patients who underwent combined first trimester screening. To determine a low-end cut-off value for PAPP-A, a Receiver-Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. In the entire study group there were 18 cases of chromosome anomalies (trisomy 21, 13, 18, sex chromosome anomalies), 14 of which were among screen-positive patients, a detection rate of 77.7% for all chromosome anomalies (95% CI: 55.7-99.7%). ROC curve analysis detected a statistically significant cut-off for PAPP-A at 0.25 MoM. If the definition of screen-positive were to also include patients with PAPP-A<0.25 MoM, the detection rate would increase to 88.8% for all chromosome anomalies (95% CI: 71.6-106%). This low cut-off value may be used until specific algorithms are implemented for non-Down syndrome aneuploidy. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Critical congenital heart defects and abnormal levels of routinely collected first- and second-trimester biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Borelli, Melissa; Baer, Rebecca J; Chambers, Christina D; Smith, Tyler C; Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L

    2017-02-01

    We examined the association between maternal characteristics, routinely collected first- and second-trimester biomarkers and the risk of having an infant with a critical congenital heart defect (CCHD). Included were women who participated in the California Prenatal Screening Program who had nuchal translucency (NT) measurement and first- and second-trimester serum screening. All pregnancies ended in a live birth of an infant without aneuploidy or a neural tube defect. Poisson regression analyses were used to estimate the relative risk and 95% confidence interval of a CCHD by maternal characteristics, first- and second-trimester serum biomarkers or NT measurements. The sample included 118,194 mother-infant pairs; 284 infants had a CCHD. Women with preexisting diabetes were three-times as likely to have an infant with a CCHD. After adjusting for preexisting diabetes, women with first-trimester human chorionic gonatotropin (hCG) measurement <10th centile were 1.6-times as likely to have an infant with a CCHD (P = 0.011). Women with a NT measurement ≥95th centile were at two- to threefold higher risk of having an infant with a CCHD (P's = 0.004-0.007). Pregnancies with two risk factors for an infant with a CCHD were 5.6-times more likely to have an infant with a CCHD than women with no identified risk factors (P < 0.001). Despite the increased risk, performance testing demonstrated low sensitivity and specificity for screening use of these risk factors. Of the women with an infant with a CCHD, only 21.8% had an identified risk factor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. After After Tiller: the impact of a documentary film on understandings of third-trimester abortion.

    PubMed

    Sisson, Gretchen; Kimport, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Onscreen pseudo-experiences have been shown to influence public perceptions of contested social issues. However, research has not considered whether such experiences have limits in their influence and/or vary in their impact. Using the case of third-trimester abortion, an issue subject to high amounts of misinformation, low public support and low occurrence in the general population, we investigate how the pseudo-experience of viewing After Tiller, a documentary film showing stories of third-trimester abortion, providers and patients, might serve as a counterpoint to misinformation and myth. We interviewed 49 viewers to assess how viewing the film interacted with viewers' previously held understandings of later abortion. Participants reported that viewing made them feel more knowledgeable about later-abortion patients and providers and increased their support for legal third-trimester abortion access, suggesting the efficacy of this pseudo-experience in changing belief. Nonetheless, respondents' belief systems were not entirely remade and the effects of the film varied, particularly in regards to gatekeeping around the procedure and the reasons why women seek later abortion. Findings show the potential of onscreen pseudo-experiences as a means for social change, but also reveal their limits and varying impacts.

  16. Expression of the hypoxia-inducible monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 is increased in triple negative breast cancer and correlates independently with clinical outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Doyen, J.; Trastour, C.; Ettore, F.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Glycolytic markers are highly expressed in triple negative breast cancers. • Lactate/H{sup +} symporter MCT4 demonstrated the strongest deleterious impact on survival. • MCT4 should serve as a new prognostic factor in node-negative breast cancers. - Abstract: Background: {sup 18}Fluor-deoxy-glucose PET-scanning of glycolytic metabolism is being used for staging in many tumors however its impact on prognosis has never been studied in breast cancer. Methods: Glycolytic and hypoxic markers: glucose transporter (GLUT1), carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), monocarboxylate transporter 1 and 4 (MCT1, 4), MCT accessory protein basigin and lactate-dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) were assessed by immunohistochemistry in two cohortsmore » of breast cancer comprising 643 node-negative and 127 triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) respectively. Results: In the 643 node-negative breast tumor cohort with a median follow-up of 124 months, TNBC were the most glycolytic (≈70%), followed by Her-2 (≈50%) and RH-positive cancers (≈30%). Tumoral MCT4 staining (without stromal staining) was a strong independent prognostic factor for metastasis-free survival (HR = 0.47, P = 0.02) and overall-survival (HR = 0.38, P = 0.002). These results were confirmed in the independent cohort of 127 cancer patients. Conclusion: Glycolytic markers are expressed in all breast tumors with highest expression occurring in TNBC. MCT4, the hypoxia-inducible lactate/H{sup +} symporter demonstrated the strongest deleterious impact on survival. We propose that MCT4 serves as a new prognostic factor in node-negative breast cancer and can perhaps act soon as a theranostic factor considering the current pharmacological development of MCT4 inhibitors.« less

  17. Accuracy of fetal sex determination in the first trimester of pregnancy using 3D virtual reality ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Bogers, Hein; Rifouna, Maria S; Koning, Anton H J; Husen-Ebbinge, Margreet; Go, Attie T J I; van der Spek, Peter J; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Steegers, Eric A P; Exalto, Niek

    2018-05-01

    Early detection of fetal sex is becoming more popular. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of fetal sex determination in the first trimester, using 3D virtual reality. Three-dimensional (3D) US volumes were obtained in 112 pregnancies between 9 and 13 weeks of gestational age. They were offline projected as a hologram in the BARCO I-Space and subsequently the genital tubercle angle was measured. Separately, the 3D US aspect of the genitalia was examined for having a male or female appearance. Although a significant difference in genital tubercle angles was found between male and female fetuses, it did not result in a reliable prediction of fetal gender. Correct sex prediction based on first trimester genital appearance was at best 56%. Our results indicate that accurate determination of the fetal sex in the first trimester of pregnancy is not possible, even using an advanced 3D US technique. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. First-trimester screening for trisomies 18 and 13, triploidy and Turner syndrome by detailed early anomaly scan.

    PubMed

    Wagner, P; Sonek, J; Hoopmann, M; Abele, H; Kagan, K O

    2016-10-01

    To examine the performance of first-trimester ultrasound screening for trisomies 18 and 13, triploidy and Turner syndrome based on fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT), additional fetal ultrasound markers including anatomy of the nasal bone (NB), blood flow across the tricuspid valve (TV) and through the ductus venosus (DV) and a detailed fetal anomaly scan at 11-13 weeks' gestation. This was a retrospective case-matched study involving pregnant women at 11-13 weeks' gestation. The study population consisted of fetuses with trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy or Turner syndrome. For each fetus with an abnormal karyotype, 50 randomly selected euploid fetuses were added to the study population. In all cases, the crown-rump length and NT were measured. In addition NB, TV flow and DV flow were examined. The summed risk for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 was computed based on: first, maternal age (MA); second, MA and fetal NT; third, MA, NT and one of the markers NB, TV flow or DV flow; fourth, MA, NT and all these markers combined; fifth, MA, NT and fetal anomalies; and, finally, MA, NT, all markers and fetal anomalies. The study population consisted of 4550 euploid and 91 aneuploid fetuses. Median NT was 1.8 mm in euploid fetuses and 4.8, 6.8, 1.8 and 10.0 mm in fetuses with trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy and Turner syndrome, respectively. The NB, TV flow and DV flow were abnormal in 48 (1.1%), 34 (0.7%) and 99 (2.2%) euploid fetuses, respectively, and in 42 (46.2%), 31 (34.1%) and 62 (68.1%) aneuploid fetuses, respectively. At least one defect was found in 60 (1.3%) euploid and in 76 (83.5%) aneuploid fetuses. For a false-positive rate of 3%, the detection rate for screening based on MA and fetal NT was 75.8%. It increased to 84.6-86.8% when including one of the additional ultrasound markers and it was 90.1% when all three markers were included. When screening was based on MA, fetal NT and a detailed anomaly scan, the detection rate was 94.5% and increased to 95

  19. Use of complementary and alternative medicines during the third trimester.

    PubMed

    Pallivalapila, Abdul Rouf; Stewart, Derek; Shetty, Ashalatha; Pande, Binita; Singh, Rajvir; McLay, James S

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence, indications, and associated factors for complementary and alternative medicine use during the last trimester of pregnancy. A questionnaire survey was conducted of women with a live birth (N=700) admitted to the postnatal unit at the Royal Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, northeast Scotland. Outcome measures included: complementary and alternative medicine used; vitamins and minerals used; reasons for complementary and alternative medicine use; independent associated factors for use; views; and experiences. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was performed. The response rate was 79.6% of eligible women. Two thirds of respondents (61.4%) reported using complementary and alternative medicine, excluding vitamins and minerals, during the third trimester. Respondents reported using a total of 30 different complementary and alternative medicine modalities, of which oral herbal products were the most common (38% of respondents, 40 different products). The independent associated factors for complementary and alternative medicine use identified were: complementary and alternative medicine use before pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 4.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.39-7.95, P<.001); a university education (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.46-4.0, P=.001), and complementary and alternative medicine use by family or friends (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.47, P<.001). There was no association with health care professional recommendations. Users were significantly more likely than nonusers to agree that complementary and alternative medicines were safer than prescribed medicines (P=.006), less likely to be associated with side effects (P≤.001), and could interfere with conventional medicines (P≤.001). Despite the majority of respondents, and notably users, being uncertain about their safety and effectiveness, complementary and alternative medicine modalities and complementary and alternative medicine products are widely used during the third trimester of

  20. Triple Helix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    and sponsoring FIRST teams at the Junior FIRST Lego League (JFLL) and the FIRST Lego League (FLL) levels in elementary and middle school . As such, the...a Final Technical Report for Year I Grant W911NF-07-1-0663 with the Newport News Public School District for the Menchville High School Robotics Team...August 2008 TRIPL HELIX 0 Menchville High School Newport News, VA 20080829081 w DEFENSE TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER bfro do.A icfr tkw, Def&*ue, Cow

  1. Triple helix purification and sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Renfeng; Smith, Lloyd M.; Tong, Xinchun E.

    1995-01-01

    Disclosed herein are methods, kits, and equipment for purifying single stranded circular DNA and then using the DNA for DNA sequencing purposes. Templates are provided with an insert having a hybridization region. An elongated oligonucleotide has two regions that are complementary to the insert and the oligo is bound to a magnetic anchor. The oligo hybridizes to the insert on two sides to form a stable triple helix complex. The anchor can then be used to drag the template out of solution using a magnet. The system can purify sequencing templates, and if desired the triple helix complex can be opened up to a double helix so that the oligonucleotide will act as a primer for further DNA synthesis.

  2. Differential nongenetic impact of birth weight versus third-trimester growth velocity on glucose metabolism and magnetic resonance imaging abdominal obesity in young healthy twins.

    PubMed

    Pilgaard, Kasper; Hammershaimb Mosbech, Thomas; Grunnet, Louise; Eiberg, Hans; Van Hall, Gerrit; Fallentin, Eva; Larsen, Torben; Larsen, Rasmus; Poulsen, Pernille; Vaag, Allan

    2011-09-01

    Low birth weight is associated with type 2 diabetes, which to some extent may be mediated via abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance. Fetal growth velocity is high during the third trimester, constituting a potential critical window for organ programming. Intra-pair differences among monozygotic twins are instrumental in determining nongenetic associations between early environment and adult metabolic phenotype. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between size at birth and third-trimester growth velocity on adult body composition and glucose metabolism using intra-pair differences in young healthy twins. Fifty-eight healthy twins (42 monozygotic/16 dizygotic) aged 18-24 yr participated. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Whole-body fat was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, whereas abdominal visceral and sc fat (L1-L4) were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Third-trimester growth velocity was determined by repeated ultrasound examinations. Size at birth was nongenetically inversely associated with adult visceral and sc fat accumulation but unrelated to adult insulin action. In contrast, fetal growth velocity during third trimester was not associated with adult visceral or sc fat accumulation. Interestingly, third-trimester growth was associated with insulin action in a paradoxical inverse manner. Abdominal adiposity including accumulation of both sc and visceral fat may constitute primary nongenetic factors associated with low birth weight and reduced fetal growth before the third trimester. Reduced fetal growth during vs. before the third trimester may define distinct adult trajectories of metabolic and anthropometric characteristics influencing risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

  3. Localized Triple Modular Redundancy vs. Distributed Triple Modular Redundancy on a ProASIC3E Reprogrammable FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuffey, Alex; Berg, Melanie; Pellish, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) are used in every space application. Currently, most space flight applications use radiation hardened (RH) FPGAs, which are very expensive. There is a desire to use cheaper, commercial off the shelf reprogrammable FPGAs, which are more susceptible to radiation effects known as single-event effects (SEE). The RH parts have SEE and total ionizing dose (TID) hardened elements pre-integrated into the part. This means that the designer does not need to implement any hardening techniques while configuring the device. The COTS parts on the other hand must be mitigated by design in order to insure any form of mitigation. The design techniques this project examines concern the use of localized triple modular redundancy (LTMR) and distributed triple modular redundancy (DTMR). LTMR triples every flip flop in the device architecture while DTMR triples everything except for the global routes (clocks, resets, and enables). The testing was performed on a ProASIC3E FPGA at the Texas A&M cyclotron facility. Two design architectures were used: shift registers and counters, both with LTMR and DTMR mitigation techniques. The test results prove that DTMR is more effective at reducing SEE than LTMR. We also determined that there was not a significant difference between the use of shift registers and counters for test purposes. More testing is required to obtain additional linear energy transfer values for each architecture and mitigation technique in order to determine the most cost-effective method of SEE mitigation.

  4. Two-week, high-dose proton pump inhibitor, moxifloxacin triple Helicobacter pylori therapy after failure of standard triple or non-bismuth quadruple treatments.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P; Romano, Marco; Molina-Infante, Javier; Lucendo, Alfredo J; Medina, Enrique; Modolell, Inés; Rodríguez-Tellez, Manuel; Gomez, Blas; Barrio, Jesús; Perona, Monica; Ortuño, Juan; Ariño, Inés; Domínguez-Muñoz, Juan Enrique; Perez-Aisa, Ángeles; Bermejo, Fernando; Domínguez, Jose Luis; Almela, Pedro; Gomez-Camarero, Judith; Millastre, Judith; Martin-Noguerol, Elisa; Gravina, Antonietta G; Martorano, Marco; Miranda, Agnese; Federico, Alessandro; Fernandez-Bermejo, Miguel; Angueira, Teresa; Ferrer-Barcelo, Luis; Fernández, Nuria; Marín, Alicia C; McNicholl, Adrián G

    2015-02-01

    Aim was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a moxifloxacin-containing second-line triple regimen in patients whose previous Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment failed. Prospective multicentre study including patients in whom a triple therapy or a non-bismuth-quadruple-therapy failed. Moxifloxacin (400mg qd), amoxicillin (1g bid), and esomeprazole (40 mg bid) were prescribed for 14 days. Eradication was confirmed by (13)C-urea-breath-test. Compliance was determined through questioning and recovery of empty medication envelopes. 250 patients were consecutively included (mean age 48 ± 15 years, 11% with ulcer). Previous (failed) therapy included: standard triple (n = 179), sequential (n = 27), and concomitant (n = 44); 97% of patients took all medications, 4 were lost to follow-up. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol eradication rates were 82.4% (95% CI, 77-87%) and 85.7% (95% CI, 81-90%). Cure rates were similar independently of diagnosis (ulcer, 77%; dyspepsia, 82%) and previous treatment (standard triple, 83%; sequential, 89%; concomitant, 77%). At multivariate analysis, only age was associated with eradication (OR = 0.957; 95% CI, 0.933-0.981). Adverse events were reported in 25.2% of patients: diarrhoea (9.6%), abdominal pain (9.6%), and nausea (9.2%). 14-day moxifloxacin-containing triple therapy is an effective and safe second-line strategy in patients whose previous standard triple therapy or non-bismuth quadruple (sequential or concomitant) therapy has failed, providing a simple alternative to bismuth quadruple regimen. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Outcome Measures of Triple Board Graduates, 1991-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Marla J.; Dunn, David W.; Rushton, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe program outcomes for the Combined Training Program in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Pediatrics, and Psychiatry (Triple Board Program). Method: All Triple Board Program graduates to date (1991-2003) were asked to participate in a 37-item written survey from February to April 2004. Results: The response rate was 80.7%. Most…

  6. Psychosocial and demographic factors related to health behaviors in the 1st trimester.

    PubMed

    Walker, L O; Cooney, A T; Riggs, M W

    1999-01-01

    To explore the relationship of psychosocial and demographic variables to health behaviors in early pregnancy. First trimester findings presented from a prospective study of weight gain in pregnancy. A comprehensive health care system in central Texas. 114 pregnant women (75% white, 13% African American, 10% Hispanic, 2% Asian) of 12 weeks gestation or less. Self-Care Inventory, which includes diet/eating, substance abuse, recklessness, hygiene-related practices, sleep/rest, and exercise behaviors. In regression analysis the final model of demographic and psychosocial variables showed that higher depressive symptoms, lower internal locus of control for fetal health, and lower family income were related to poorer health behaviors in the 1st trimester of pregnancy. Health behaviors in early pregnancy may be affected by psychosocial factors such as depressive symptoms. Greater emphasis should be given to such factors in research and prenatal assessments.

  7. Peptide tessellation yields micrometre-scale collagen triple helices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanrikulu, I. Caglar; Forticaux, Audrey; Jin, Song; Raines, Ronald T.

    2016-11-01

    Sticky-ended DNA duplexes can associate spontaneously into long double helices; however, such self-assembly is much less developed with proteins. Collagen is the most prevalent component of the extracellular matrix and a common clinical biomaterial. As for natural DNA, the ~103-residue triple helices (~300 nm) of natural collagen are recalcitrant to chemical synthesis. Here we show how the self-assembly of short collagen-mimetic peptides (CMPs) can enable the fabrication of synthetic collagen triple helices that are nearly a micrometre in length. Inspired by the mathematics of tessellations, we derive rules for the design of single CMPs that self-assemble into long triple helices with perfect symmetry. Sticky ends thus created are uniform across the assembly and drive its growth. Enacting this design yields individual triple helices that, in length, match or exceed those in natural collagen and are remarkably thermostable, despite the absence of higher-order association. The symmetric assembly of CMPs provides an enabling platform for the development of advanced materials for medicine and nanotechnology.

  8. Patient Information Websites About Medically Induced Second-Trimester Abortions: A Descriptive Study of Quality, Suitability, and Issues

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Ove

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing medically induced second-trimester abortions feel insufficiently informed and use the Web for supplemental information. However, it is still unclear how people who have experience with pregnancy termination appraise the quality of patient information websites about medically induced second-trimester abortions, whether they consider the websites suitable for patients, and what issues they experience with the websites. Objective Our objective was to investigate the quality of, suitability of, and issues with patient information websites about medically induced second-trimester abortions and potential differences between websites affiliated with the health care system and private organizations. Methods We set out to answer the objective by using 4 laypeople who had experience with pregnancy termination as quality assessors. The first 50 hits of 26 systematic searches were screened (N=1300 hits) using search terms reported by the assessors. Of these hits, 48% (628/1300) were irrelevant and 51% (667/1300) led to websites about medically induced second-trimester abortions. After correcting for duplicate hits, 42 patient information websites were included, 18 of which were affiliated with the health care system and 24 with private organizations. The 4 assessors systematically assessed the websites with the DISCERN instrument (total score range 16-80), the Ensuring Quality Information for Patients (EQIP) tool (total score range 0-100), as well as questions concerning website suitability and perceived issues. Results The interrater reliability was 0.8 for DISCERN and EQIP, indicating substantial agreement between the assessors. The total mean score was 36 for DISCERN and 40 for EQIP, indicating poor overall quality. Websites from the health care system had greater total EQIP (45 vs 37, P>.05) and reliability scores (22 vs 20, P>.05). Only 1 website was recommended by all assessors and 57% (24/42) were rated as very unsuitable by at least one

  9. Patient Information Websites About Medically Induced Second-Trimester Abortions: A Descriptive Study of Quality, Suitability, and Issues.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Tommy; Axelsson, Ove

    2017-01-10

    Patients undergoing medically induced second-trimester abortions feel insufficiently informed and use the Web for supplemental information. However, it is still unclear how people who have experience with pregnancy termination appraise the quality of patient information websites about medically induced second-trimester abortions, whether they consider the websites suitable for patients, and what issues they experience with the websites. Our objective was to investigate the quality of, suitability of, and issues with patient information websites about medically induced second-trimester abortions and potential differences between websites affiliated with the health care system and private organizations. We set out to answer the objective by using 4 laypeople who had experience with pregnancy termination as quality assessors. The first 50 hits of 26 systematic searches were screened (N=1300 hits) using search terms reported by the assessors. Of these hits, 48% (628/1300) were irrelevant and 51% (667/1300) led to websites about medically induced second-trimester abortions. After correcting for duplicate hits, 42 patient information websites were included, 18 of which were affiliated with the health care system and 24 with private organizations. The 4 assessors systematically assessed the websites with the DISCERN instrument (total score range 16-80), the Ensuring Quality Information for Patients (EQIP) tool (total score range 0-100), as well as questions concerning website suitability and perceived issues. The interrater reliability was 0.8 for DISCERN and EQIP, indicating substantial agreement between the assessors. The total mean score was 36 for DISCERN and 40 for EQIP, indicating poor overall quality. Websites from the health care system had greater total EQIP (45 vs 37, P>.05) and reliability scores (22 vs 20, P>.05). Only 1 website was recommended by all assessors and 57% (24/42) were rated as very unsuitable by at least one assessor. The most reported issues

  10. Sound transmission through triple-panel structures lined with poroelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, previous theories on the prediction of sound transmission loss for a double-panel structure lined with poroelastic materials are extended to address the problem of a triple-panel structure. Six typical configurations are considered for a triple-panel structure based on the method of coupling the porous layers to the facing panels which determines critically the sound insulation performance of the system. The transfer matrix method is employed to solve the system by applying appropriate types of boundary conditions for these configurations. The transmission loss of the triple-panel structures in a diffuse sound field is calculated as a function of frequency and compared with that of corresponding double-panel structures. Generally, the triple-panel structure with poroelastic linings has superior acoustic performance to the double-panel counterpart, remarkably in the mid-high frequency range and possibly at low frequencies, by selecting appropriate configurations in which those with two air gaps in the structure exhibit the best overall performance over the entire frequency range. The poroelastic lining significantly lowers the cut-on frequency above which the triple-panel structure exhibits noticeably higher transmission loss. Compared with a double-panel structure, the wider range of system parameters for a triple-panel structure due to the additional partition provides more design space for tuning the sound insulation performance. Despite the increased structural complexity, the triple-panel structure lined with poroelastic materials has the obvious advantages in sound transmission loss while without the penalties in weight and volume, and is hence a promising replacement for the widely used double-panel sandwich structure.

  11. [Assessment of the sonographer's knowledge on the second trimester ultrasound recommendations of the National Technical Committee of Ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Matar, M; Picone, O; Dalmon, C; Ayoubi, J-M

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the sonographers' knowledge of the National Technical Committee of Ultrasound's recommendations concerning second trimester ultrasound. Anonymous questionnaire was sent by e-mails containing 25 questions about demographic elements, the practice of second trimester ultrasound and the recommendations of the National Technical Committee of Ultrasound about second trimester ultrasound. Six hundred and eighty-four responses were obtained. Six hundred and fifty-three upon 684 (95%) of respondents practice second trimester ultrasound and 635 upon 653 (97%) know about the existence of the report of the National Technical Committee of Ultrasound. The rates of correct answers concerning recommended biometrical images vary between 97% for the biparietal diameter and head circumference, 98% for abdominal circumference and 100% for the femur length. While for morphological images, rates vary between 52% and 100%. A subgroup analysis (whether the respondents have already read the recommendations or not) showed that those who had read the recommendations have significantly better results than those who did not. Those who have already read the recommendations have better knowledge and global knowledge can be improved. National recommendations serve to promote a policy of quality assurance of ultrasound and may be used in medicolegal issues. The societies that make recommendations should more diffuse their work and practitioners should make effort to pursue the continuing medical education and to implement the recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

  13. Triple helix purification and sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, R.; Smith, L.M.; Tong, X.E.

    1995-03-28

    Disclosed herein are methods, kits, and equipment for purifying single stranded circular DNA and then using the DNA for DNA sequencing purposes. Templates are provided with an insert having a hybridization region. An elongated oligonucleotide has two regions that are complementary to the insert and the oligo is bound to a magnetic anchor. The oligo hybridizes to the insert on two sides to form a stable triple helix complex. The anchor can then be used to drag the template out of solution using a magnet. The system can purify sequencing templates, and if desired the triple helix complex can be opened up to a double helix so that the oligonucleotide will act as a primer for further DNA synthesis. 4 figures.

  14. The decay of triple systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynova, A. I.; Orlov, V. V.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical simulations have been carried out in the general three-body problem with equal masses with zero initial velocities, to investigate the distribution of the decay times T based on a representative sample of initial conditions. The distribution has a power-law character on long time scales, f( T) ∝ T - α , with α = 1.74. Over small times T < 30 T cr ( T cr is the mean crossing time for a component of the triple system), a series of local maxima separated by about 1.0 T cr is observed in the decay-time distribution. These local peaks correspond to zones of decay after one or a few triple encounters. Figures showing the arrangement of these zones in the domain of the initial conditions are presented.

  15. Association of first-trimester angiogenic factors with placental histological findings in late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Triunfo, Stefania; Crovetto, Francesca; Crispi, Fatima; Rodriguez-Sureda, Victor; Dominguez, Carmen; Nadal, Alfons; Peguero, Anna; Gratacos, Eduard; Figueras, Francesc

    2016-06-01

    To explore in women with late-onset preeclampsia (PE) the association between maternal levels of angiogenic/antiangiogenic factors in the first trimester of pregnancy and histological findings attributable to placental underperfusion (PUP). A nested case-control cohort study was conducted in 73 women with pregnancies complicated by late-onset PE (>34 weeks at delivery) matched with controls. First trimester uterine artery Doppler (UtA); maternal levels of placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) were retrieved. Placentas were histologically evaluated using a hierarchical and standardized classification system. One-way ANOVA with linear polynomial contrast or linear-by-linear association test was performed to test the hypothesis of a linear association across study groups (controls, PE without PUP and PE with PUP). In 54 (74%) placentas, 89 placental histological findings qualifying for PUP were found. Across study groups, significant values were observed in maternal levels of decreased PlGF (MoM values: 1.53, 1.41 and 1.37; p < 0.001), increased sFlt-1 (MoM values: 3.11, 3.11 and 3.22; p = 0.002), increased sFlt-1/PlGF ratio (MoM values: 2.3, 2.3 and 2.44; p < 0.001), abnormal UtA Doppler (MoM values: 1, 1.26 and 1.32; p < 0.001), and worse perinatal outcomes in terms of gestational age at delivery, cesarean section for not reassuring fetal status, birth weight and neonatal acidosis. In late-onset PE an imbalance of circulating angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors already present at 8-10 weeks of pregnancy was associated with histological findings reflecting placental insufficiency. An early first trimester screening by angiogenic factors might help to identify patients with placental involvement among late-onset PE cases. In late-onset preeclampsia, first-trimester uterine Doppler and circulating levels of angiogenic/antiangiogenic factors are associated with placental underperfusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  16. [Genital bacterial carriage during the last trimester of pregnancy and early-onset neonatal sepsis].

    PubMed

    Balaka, B; Agbèrè, A; Dagnra, A; Baeta, S; Kessie, K; Assimadi, K

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. To determine the bacterial ecology and pathological status of the genital organs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the germs of the following early-onset neonatal sepsis, in order to evaluate the risk of materno-foetal infections and to find out a drug prophylaxis. Vaginal and endocervical samples, usually taken during the first trimester of pregnancy were delayed and taken during the last trimester of pregnancy. A macroscopic examination described the aspect of the vagina, the cervix uteri, leukorrhea and of possible inflammatory lesions or ulcerations. A microscopic examination searched for parasites, epithelial cells, clue cells and leukocytes. The appropriate bacteriological cultures were performed after reading the Gram stain and scoring the vaginal flora. The clinical and cytobacteriological aspects were used to identify the bacterial ecology and the pathological genital states. An exploration was carried out in every newborn suspected of infection. Genital samples were collected from 306 pregnant women. Among them, 118 were at 29-32 weeks of gestation, 104 at 33-36, and 84 at 37-40. The most frequent germs were C. albicans (33,5%), Enterbacteriaceae (20.3%) including E. coli (10.9%), S. aureus (15.4%), Gardnerella (13.6%), and Trichomonas (10.6%), in monomicrobian (79.2%) and polymicrobian carriage (20.8%). Lower genital tract pathological states such as vaginitis (29.4%), bacterial vaginosis (21.5%) or endocervicitis (10.4%), asymptomatic bacterial carriage (23.5%) and normal genital flora (15%) were identified. These pregnancies led to 334 live births with 27 cases of early-onset neonatal sepsis to which endocervicitis (25%) and vaginosis (19,7%) were most often linked. Genital samples at the last trimester of pregnancy could evaluate the risk of maternofoetal infections and allow to adapt a drug prophylaxis of Enterobacteriaceae, the most frequent germ of

  17. Successful treatment of maternal listeria monocytogenes bacteremia in the first trimester of pregnancy: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai-Man; Lin, Ho-Hsiung; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou

    2018-06-01

    To report detailed clinical history and management of maternal listeria infection in the first trimester. A 34-year-old woman at 11 gestational weeks was infected by Listeria monocytogenes with clinical symptoms of acute onset of a fever with subsequent headache and neck stiffness, and was treated with intravenous ampicillin at 2 g every 4 h for 3 weeks. A healthy, unaffected male baby was delivered at term. Histopathologic examination of the placenta did not reveal any chorioamnionitis, granulomas, microabscesses or vasculitis. The neonate developed well without any neurologic compromise at a six-week postnatal follow-up visit. A favorable outcome of maternal listeria infection in the first trimester may be anticipated. Besides, intravenous ampicillin with or without gentamicin should be a reasonable treatment option for maternal listeria infection in the first trimester. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Reappraisal of the Arabia-India-Somalia triple junction kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Marc; Patriat, Philippe; Leroy, Sylvie

    2001-07-01

    We propose alternative kinematics for the Arabia-India-Somalia triple junction based on a re-interpretation of seismological and magnetic data. The new triple junction of the ridge-ridge-ridge type is located at the bend of the Sheba Ridge in the eastern gulf of Aden at 14.5°N and 56.4°E. The Owen fracture zone (Arabia-India boundary) is connected to the Sheba Ridge by an ultra-slow divergent boundary trending N80°E±10° marked by diffuse seismicity. The location of the Arabia-India rotation pole is constrained at 14.1°N and 71.2°E by fitting the active part of the Owen fracture zone with a small circle. The finite kinematics of the triple junction is inferred from the present-day kinematics. Since the inception of the accretion 15-18 Ma ago, the Sheba Ridge has probably receded ∼300 km at the expense of the Carlsberg Ridge which propagated northwestward in the gulf of Aden, while an ultra-slow divergent plate boundary developed between the Arabian and Indian plates. The overall geometry of the new triple junction is very similar to that of the Azores triple junction.

  19. Associations of early pregnancy sleep duration with trimester-specific blood pressures and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle A; Miller, Raymond S; Qiu, Chunfang; Cripe, Swee May; Gelaye, Bizu; Enquobahrie, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    We evaluated the influence of maternal self-reported habitual sleep duration during early pregnancy on blood pressure (BP) levels and risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Prospective cohort study. Clinic-based study. A cohort of 1,272 healthy, pregnant women. We abstracted maternal antenatal BP values from medical records and estimated mean BP differences across hours of sleep categories in regression models, using generalized estimating equations. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) and preeclampsia (PE) in relation to long and short sleep duration were estimated. Mean 1st and 2nd trimester systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP values were similar among women reporting to be short sleepers (< or = 6 h) vs. women reporting to sleep 9 hours. However, both short and long sleep duration in early pregnancy were associated with increased mean 3rd trimester SBP and DBP. For example, mean 3rd trimester SBP was 3.72, and 2.43 mm Hg higher for women reporting < or = 6 h and 7-8 h sleep, respectively, compared with women reporting 9 h of sleep. Mean 3rd trimester SBP was 4.21 mm Hg higher for women reporting long sleep (> or = 10 h) vs. the reference group. Short and long sleep durations were associated with increased risks of PIH and PE. The ORs for very short (< 5 h) and long (> or = 10 h) sleepers were 9.52 (95% CI 1.83 to 49.40) and 2.45 (95% CI 0.74 to 8.15) for PE. Our findings are consistent with a larger literature that documents elevated blood pressure and increased risks of hypertension with short and long sleep duration.

  20. Combinatorial Effects of Lapatinib and Rapamycin in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tongrui; Yacoub, Rami; Taliaferro-Smith, LaTonia D.; Sun, Shi-Yong; Graham, Tisheeka R.; Dolan, Ryan; Lobo, Christine; Tighiouart, Mourad; Yang, Lily; Adams, Amy; O'Regan, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers, which lack estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2/neu overexpression, account for approximately 15% of breast cancers, but occur more commonly in African Americans. The poor survival outcomes seen with triple-negative breast cancers patients are, in part, due to a lack of therapeutic targets. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in 50% of triple-negative breast cancers, but EGFR inhibitors have not been effective in patients with metastatic breast cancers. However, mTOR inhibition has been shown to reverse resistance to EGFR inhibitors. We examined the combination effects of mTOR inhibition with EGFR inhibition in triple-negative breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. The combination of EGFR inhibition by using lapatinib and mTOR inhibition with rapamycin resulted in significantly greater cytotoxicity than the single agents alone and these effects were synergistic in vitro. The combination of rapamycin and lapatinib significantly decreased growth of triple-negative breast cancers in vivo compared with either agent alone. EGFR inhibition abrogated the expression of rapamycin-induced activated Akt in triple-negative breast cancer cells in vitro. The combination of EGFR and mTOR inhibition resulted in increased apoptosis in some, but not all, triple-negative cell lines, and these apoptotic effects correlated with a decrease in activated eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF4E). These results suggest that mTOR inhibitors could sensitize a subset of triple-negative breast cancers to EGFR inhibitors. Given the paucity of effective targeted agents in triple-negative breast cancers, these results warrant further evaluation. PMID:21690228

  1. Detection of cytomegalovirus, human parvovirus B19, and herpes simplex virus-1/2 in women with first-trimester spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ya; Bian, Guohui; Zhou, Qiongxiu; Gao, Zhan; Liao, Pu; Liu, Yu; He, Miao

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between viral infections and first-trimester spontaneous abortions is not well-understood. The study aim was to investigate the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV), human parvovirus B19 (B19V), and herpes simplex virus-1/2 (HSV-1/2) infection by molecular and serological techniques in women experiencing spontaneous miscarriage in the first trimester of pregnancy. Plasma samples were examined for CMV, B19V, and HSV-1/2 DNA using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time qPCR), and for specific IgG antibodies against B19V, CMV, and HSV-1/2 using serological assays. The abortion group consisted of women (n = 1,716) with a history of two or more first-trimester spontaneous abortions. Women younger than 30 years possess higher portion to experience spontaneous abortion. No specimens were positive for B19V or CMV DNA. Seven out of the 1,716 specimens were positive for HSV-1/2 DNA. By serology, 47.24% of patients were positive for B19V IgG, 39.66% for HSV IgG, 79.31% for CMV IgG, and 9.31% for B19V IgM. The high rate of positivity for CMV IgG suggests that the majority of women with first-trimester spontaneous abortions are not susceptible to primary CMV infection. The lack of virus DNA in the majority of cases indicates that B19V, CMV, and HSV-1/2 infection is not commonly associated with first-trimester spontaneous abortion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Immunoexpression of P63 and SOX2 in triple-negative breast cancers, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Kamarlis, Reno K; Lubis, Muhammad ND; Hernowo, Bethy S; Kar, Azmi S

    2018-01-01

    Background: Using immunohistochemical stains to target specific breast cancer markers has become indispensable for evaluation of small diagnostic tissue specimens, and therefore novel marker cocktails for specific breast cancers are required. This study was conducted to assess the immunoexpression of P63 and SOX2 in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), and to evaluate the predictive diagnostic value of these markers for specific types of TNBC. Methods: Histological slides and paraffin blocks of TNBC cases were collected from Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia from 5-years period (2011-2015). Each histological slide was subjected to immunohistochemical staining for P63 (nucleus and cytoplasm) and SOX2 (nucleus), with specific primer antibodies. Immunoexpression of P63 and SOX2 was evaluated using immunoreactivity scoring. Associations between P63 and SOX2 immunoexpression and TNBC types were assessed using Mann Whitney tests. In addition, the predictive diagnostic values of these markers were assessed. Results: Forty TNBC histological slides were included, and 23 (57.5%) were Basal-like type TNBC and 17 (42.5%) were Non basal-like type TNBC. Immunoexpression of P63 nucleus and SOX2 was not different between types of TNBC. However, immunoexpression of P63 in the cytoplasm in Basal-like type TNBC was significantly higher than in Non basal-like type TNBC ( p=0.021). Predictor diagnostic value analysis suggested that immunoexpression of P63 in cytoplasm had 56.5% sensitivity and 70.6% specificity for diagnosing Basal-like type TNBC, with area under curve of 0.64.    Conclusions: Immunoexpression of P63 in the cytoplasm has a relatively weak diagnostic value to discriminate Basal-like and Non basal-like types of TNBC. PMID:29527291

  3. Self-rated health among pregnant women: associations with objective health indicators, psychological functioning, and serum inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Christian, Lisa M; Iams, Jay; Porter, Kyle; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz

    2013-12-01

    Biobehavioral correlates of self-rated health in pregnancy are largely unknown. The goals of this study were to examine, in pregnant women, associations of self-rated health with (1) demographics, objective health status, health behaviors, and psychological factors, and (2) serum inflammatory markers. In the second trimester of pregnancy, 101 women provided a blood sample, completed measures of psychosocial stress, health status, and health behaviors, and received a comprehensive periodontal examination. The following independently predicted poorer self-rated health: (1) greater psychological stress, (2) greater objective health diagnoses, (3) higher body mass index, and (4) past smoking (versus never smoking). Poorer self-rated health was associated with higher serum interleukin-1β (p = 0.02) and marginally higher macrophage migration inhibitory factor (p = 0.06). These relationships were not fully accounted for by behavioral/psychological factors. This study provides novel data regarding factors influencing subjective ratings of health and the association of self-rated health with serum inflammatory markers in pregnant women.

  4. A triple point in 3-level systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahmad-Achar, E.; Cordero, S.; López-Peña, R.; Castaños, O.

    2014-11-01

    The energy spectrum of a 3-level atomic system in the Ξ-configuration is studied. This configuration presents a triple point independently of the number of atoms, which remains in the thermodynamic limit. This means that in a vicinity of this point any quantum fluctuation will drastically change the composition of the ground state of the system. We study the expectation values of the atomic population of each level, the number of photons, and the probability distribution of photons at the triple point.

  5. Prognostic value of repeated serum CA 125 measurements in first trimester pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T; Rein, D T; Foth, D; Eibach, H W; Kurbacher, C M; Mallmann, P; Römer, T

    2001-08-01

    125 in all patients who eventually aborted remained high or increased whereas non-aborters all had constantly low or steeply declining CA 125 measures. beta-hCG increased in all non-aborters but also in 13/18 aborters during the 5-7 day interval. Single serum measurements of CA 125 in symptomatic first trimester pregnant patients failed to discriminate spontaneous abortion, ectopic or normal pregnancies. However, sequential determinations of maternal CA 125 measurements appear to be a highly sensitive prognostic marker in patients with viable pregnancy at risk for abortion.

  6. Nonpharmaceutical Pain Control Adjuncts During First-Trimester Aspiration Abortion: A Review.

    PubMed

    Tschann, Mary; Salcedo, Jennifer; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2016-05-01

    First-trimester aspiration abortion is associated with moderate to severe pain. The effectiveness of adjunctive therapies for pain control is not well understood. This critical review summarizes the existing literature regarding nonpharmacologic interventions to reduce pain during first-trimester office-based abortion. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the following search terms in various combinations: "abortion," "pain," "nonpharmaceutical," "nonpharmacologic," "anxiety," "fear," "pain management," "pain reduction," "anxiety reduction," "complementary and alternative medicine," and "integrative medicine." Seven articles meeting inclusion criteria were entered into a matrix for comparison. Findings from each study are summarized describing design, results, and themes. These results are summarized to provide evidence-based clinical guidelines and identify areas for further research. None of the nonpharmacologic interventions studied were significantly associated with a reduction in pain or anxiety scores. However, women in many studies strongly endorsed future use of these techniques. The data included in this critical review did not demonstrate a relationship between the nonpharmacologic interventions and pain or anxiety scores, yet participants endorsed these as positive and helpful. Women found value in these supportive interventions, and ongoing investigation into these techniques is warranted. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  7. Biparietal/transverse abdominal diameter ratio ≤ 1: potential marker for open spina bifida at 11-13-week scan.

    PubMed

    Simon, E G; Arthuis, C J; Haddad, G; Bertrand, P; Perrotin, F

    2015-03-01

    In the first trimester of pregnancy, a biparietal diameter (BPD) below the 5(th) percentile is a simple marker that enables the prenatal detection of half of all cases of open spina bifida. We hypothesized that relating the BPD measurement to the transverse abdominal diameter (TAD) might be another simple and effective screening method. In this study we assessed the performance of using the BPD/TAD ratio during the first trimester of pregnancy in screening for open spina bifida. A total of 20,551 first-trimester ultrasound scans (11-13 weeks' gestation), performed between 2000 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively; there were 26 cases of open spina bifida and 17,665 unaffected pregnancies with a crown-rump length of 45-84 mm and a record of both BPD and TAD measurements. The mean (± SD) BPD/TAD ratio was 1.00 ± 0.06 for fetuses with spina bifida and 1.13 ± 0.06 for those without (P < 0.0001). A BPD ≤ 5(th) percentile enabled the prenatal detection of 46.2% of spina bifida cases, while a BPD/TAD ratio of ≤ 1.00 detected 69.2%. If we considered cases in which either BPD was ≤ 5(th) percentile or BPD/TAD ratio was ≤ 1, we identified 76.9% of cases. In the latter case, the false-positive rate was 5.1%, while that for using a combination of both BPD ≤ 5th percentile and BPD/TAD ratio ≤ 1 was 0.6%, with a sensitivity of 38.5%. The positive predictive value of using a combination of BPD ≤ 5th percentile and BPD/TAD ratio ≤ 1 for detecting spina bifida was 8.5%. Between 11 and 13 weeks' gestation, relating BPD to TAD improves considerably the diagnostic performance of using BPD measurement alone in screening for open spina bifida. Screening using this marker is simple and applicable to a large population. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. First-trimester serum folate levels and subsequent risk of abortion and preterm birth among Japanese women with singleton pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takashi; Morikawa, Mamoru; Yamada, Takahiro; Kishi, Reiko; Sengoku, Kazuo; Endo, Toshiaki; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Cho, Kazutoshi; Minakami, Hisanori

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether a low serum folate level during the first trimester predicts subsequent late abortion, preterm birth, or fetal growth restriction (FGR). A prospective cohort study involving 5,075 women whose serum folate levels were measured during the first trimester. The participants were informed of their serum folate levels. The pregnancy duration, birthweight, rate of late abortion/preterm birth, and the rate of FGR did not differ significantly among the four groups classified according to folate status. The mean serum folate levels did not differ among quartiles classified according to the gestational week at the time of delivery. Nineteen of the 20 women with folate deficiency gave birth at term to infants with a birthweight of 3.132 ± 321 g; only one infant had FGR. Low serum folate levels during the first trimester were not associated with the risk of late abortion, preterm birth, or FGR.

  9. [Anaesthetic management of patients in the third trimester of pregnancy undergoing urgent laparoscopic surgery. Experience in a general hospital].

    PubMed

    López-Collada Estrada, María; Olvera Martínez, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is well accepted as a safe technique when performed on a third trimester pregnant woman. The aim is to describe the anaesthetic management of a group of patients undergoing this type of surgery. An analysis was made of records of 6 patients in their third trimester of pregnancy and who underwent urgent laparoscopic surgery from 2011 to 2013. The study included 6 patients, with a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in 4 of them. The other 2 patients had acute appendicitis, both of who presented threatened preterm labour. The most frequent indications for laparoscopic surgery during the last trimester of birth were found to be acute cholecystitis and acute appendicitis. Acute appendicitis is related to an elevated risk of presenting threatened preterm labour. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. "Special Issue": Regional Dimensions of the Triple Helix Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todeva, Emanuela; Danson, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the rationale for the special issue and its contributions, which bridge the literature on regional development and the Triple Helix model. The concept of the Triple Helix at the sub-national, and specifically regional, level is established and examined, with special regard to regional economic development founded on…

  11. GROα overexpression drives cell migration and invasion in triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Kruttika; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Wu, Yanyuan; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2017-07-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of highly aggressive breast cancer with poor prognosis. The main characteristic feature of TNBC is its lack of expression of ER, PR and HER2 receptors that are targets for treatments. Hence, it is imperative to identify novel therapeutic strategies to target TNBC. Our aim was to examine whether GROα is a specific marker for TNBC metastasis. For this we performed qPCR, ELISA, migration/invasion assays, western blotting, and siRNA transfections. Evaluation of baseline GROα expression in different breast cancer (BC) subtypes showed that it is significantly upregulated in breast tumor cells, specifically in TNBC cell line. On further evaluation in additional 17 TNBC cell lines we found that baseline GROα expression was significantly elevated in >50% of the cell lines validating GROα overexpression specifically in TNBC cells. Moreover, GROα-stimulation in MCF7 and SKBR3 cells and GROα‑knockdown in MDA-MB‑231 and HCC1937 cells elicited dramatic changes in migration and invasion abilities in vitro. Corresponding changes in EMT markers were also observed in phenotypically modified BC cells. Furthermore, mechanistic studies identified GROα regulating EMT markers and migration/invasion via MAPK pathway and specific inhibition using PD98059 resulted in the reversal of effects induced by GROα on BC cells. In conclusion, our study provides strong evidence to suggest that GROα is a critical modulator of TNBC migration/invasion and proposes GROα as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of TNBC metastasis.

  12. Measurement of four tumor marker antigens in the sera of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Cheli, C D; Morris, D L; Neaman, I E; Dai, J; Allard, W J; Yeung, K K

    1999-01-01

    We sought to determine the maternal serum levels of four tumor-associated antigens during the three trimesters of pregnancy in healthy women. CEA, CA 228, CA 15-3, and Her2/neu oncogene product p105 assay values were determined for 90 healthy pregnant women during the three trimesters of pregnancy at five participating evaluation sites. Results were compared to means and cut-off values determined for healthy nonpregnant women. Differences in assay values in the 1st and 3rd trimester were analyzed for statistical significance (Student's t-test). CEA, CA 228 and CA 15-3 assay values in general were found to be within the normal range. CA 15-3 and Her2/neu p105 serum assay values were above the cut-off (3.3% and 8.2%, respectively) and were significantly elevated in the 3rd trimester as compared to the 1st trimester of pregnancy (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). CEA and CA 228 may be of potential value in monitoring pregnant women with malignant disease. Normal elevations in 3rd trimester serum Her2/neu p105 and CA 15-3 assay values should be considered when monitoring a pregnant patient with malignant disease.

  13. IVF culture medium affects human intrauterine growth as early as the second trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nelissen, Ewka C M; Van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Smits, Luc J M; Menheere, Paul P C A; Evers, Johannes L H; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Peeters, Louis L; Coumans, Audrey B; Dumoulin, John C M

    2013-08-01

    When does a difference in human intrauterine growth of singletons conceived after IVF and embryo culture in two different culture media appear? Differences in fetal development after culture of embryos in one of two IVF media were apparent as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. Abnormal fetal growth patterns are a major risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in adult life. Previously, we have shown that the medium used for culturing embryos during the first few days after fertilization significantly affects the birthweight of the resulting human singletons. The exact onset of this growth difference was unknown. In this retrospective cohort study, all 294 singleton live births after fresh embryo transfer in the period July 2003 to December 2006 were included. These embryos originated from IVF treatments that were part of a previously described clinical trial. Embryos were allocated to culture in either Vitrolife or Cook commercially available sequential culture media. We analysed ultrasound examinations at 8 (n = 290), 12 (n = 83) and 20 weeks' (n = 206) gestation and used first-trimester serum markers [pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free β-hCG]. Differences between study groups were tested by the Student's t-test, χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test, and linear multivariable regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders (for example, parity, gestational age at the time of ultrasound and fetal gender). A total of 294 singleton pregnancies (Vitrolife group nVL = 168, Cook group: nC = 126) from 294 couples were included. At 8 weeks' gestation, there was no difference between crown-rump length-based and ovum retrieval-based gestational age (ΔGA) (nVL = 163, nC = 122, adjusted mean difference, -0.04 days, P = 0.84). A total of 83 women underwent first-trimester screening at 12 weeks' gestation (nVL = 45, nC = 38). ΔGA, nuchal translucency (multiples of median, MoM) and PAPP-A (MoM) did not differ between the study

  14. Lower Adiponectin Levels at First Trimester of Pregnancy Are Associated With Increased Insulin Resistance and Higher Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, Marilyn; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Ménard, Julie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the associations between adiponectin levels and 1) the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and 2) insulin resistance/sensitivity, β-cell function, and compensation indices in a prospective cohort representative of the general population of pregnant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed anthropometric measurements and collected blood samples at 1st (6–13 weeks) and 2nd (24–28 weeks) trimesters. Diagnosis of GDM was made at 2nd trimester based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria). Insulin was measured (ELISA; Luminex) to estimate homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-B), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), insulin secretion (AUCinsulin/glucose), and β-cell compensation (insulin secretion sensitivity index-2). Adiponectin was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS Among the 445 participants included in this study, 38 women developed GDM. Women who developed GDM had lower 1st-trimester adiponectin levels (9.67 ± 3.84 vs. 11.92 ± 4.59 µg/mL in women with normal glucose tolerance). Lower adiponectin levels were associated with higher risk of developing GDM (OR, 1.12 per 1 µg/mL decrease of adiponectin levels; P = 0.02, adjusted for BMI and HbA1c at 1st trimester). Adiponectin levels at 1st and 2nd trimesters were associated with HOMA-IR (both: r = −0.22, P < 0.0001) and Matsuda index (r = 0.28, P < 0.0001, and r = 0.29, P < 0.0001). After adjustment for confounding factors, we found no significant association with HOMA-B and AUCinsulin/glucose. CONCLUSIONS Pregnant women with lower adiponectin levels at 1st trimester have higher levels of insulin resistance and are more likely to develop GDM independently of adiposity or glycemic measurements. PMID:23300287

  15. Lower adiponectin levels at first trimester of pregnancy are associated with increased insulin resistance and higher risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Marilyn; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Ménard, Julie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the associations between adiponectin levels and 1) the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and 2) insulin resistance/sensitivity, β-cell function, and compensation indices in a prospective cohort representative of the general population of pregnant women. We performed anthropometric measurements and collected blood samples at 1st (6-13 weeks) and 2nd (24-28 weeks) trimesters. Diagnosis of GDM was made at 2nd trimester based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria). Insulin was measured (ELISA; Luminex) to estimate homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-B), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), insulin secretion (AUC(insulin/glucose)), and β-cell compensation (insulin secretion sensitivity index-2). Adiponectin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Among the 445 participants included in this study, 38 women developed GDM. Women who developed GDM had lower 1st-trimester adiponectin levels (9.67 ± 3.84 vs. 11.92 ± 4.59 µg/mL in women with normal glucose tolerance). Lower adiponectin levels were associated with higher risk of developing GDM (OR, 1.12 per 1 µg/mL decrease of adiponectin levels; P = 0.02, adjusted for BMI and HbA1c at 1st trimester). Adiponectin levels at 1st and 2nd trimesters were associated with HOMA-IR (both: r = -0.22, P < 0.0001) and Matsuda index (r = 0.28, P < 0.0001, and r = 0.29, P < 0.0001). After adjustment for confounding factors, we found no significant association with HOMA-B and AUC(insulin/glucose). Pregnant women with lower adiponectin levels at 1st trimester have higher levels of insulin resistance and are more likely to develop GDM independently of adiposity or glycemic measurements.

  16. Coupling characteristics of the spun optical fiber with triple stress elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Minning; Shang, Fengtao; Chen, Dandan

    2018-06-01

    An empirical formula related to the stress field distribution in the optical fiber with triple stress elements is proposed and proved. The possible intercoupling between the fundamental modes and the higher order modes is demonstrated. The transmission property of the spun optical fiber with triple stress elements is analyzed. The experimental data from a sample of the spun optical fiber with triple stress elements confirm the theoretical results very well.

  17. Second-Trimester 3-Dimensional Placental Sonography as a Predictor of Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Quant, Hayley S; Sammel, Mary D; Parry, Samuel; Schwartz, Nadav

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported the association between first-trimester 3-dimensional (3D) placental measurements and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates. In this study, we sought to determine whether second-trimester measurements further contribute to the antenatal detection of SGA and preeclampsia. We prospectively collected 3D sonographic volume sets and uterine artery pulsatility indices of singleton pregnancies at 18 to 24 weeks. Placental volume, placental quotient (placental volume/gestational age), mean placental diameter and chorionic diameter, placental morphologic index (mean placental diameter/placental quotient), placental chorionic index (mean chorionic diameter/placental quotient), and placental growth (volume per week) were assessed and evaluated as predictors of SGA and preeclampsia as a composite and alone. Of 373 pregnancies, the composite outcome occurred in 67 (18.0%): 36 (9.7%) manifested SGA alone; 27 (7.2%) developed preeclampsia alone, and 4 (1.1%) developed both. The placental volume, placental quotient, mean placental diameter, mean chorionic diameter, and volume per week were significantly smaller, whereas the placental morphologic index and chorionic index were significantly larger in pregnancies with the composite outcome (P < .01). Further analyses revealed that the significant associations with placental parameters were limited to the SGA outcome. Each placental measure remained significantly associated with SGA after adjusting for confounders. The mean uterine artery pulsatility index was not associated with either outcome. Placental parameters were moderately predictive of SGA, with adjusted areas under the curve ranging from 0.72 to 0.76. Sensitivity for detection of SGA ranged from 32.5% to 45.0%, with positive predictive values ranging from 17.3% to 22.7%. Second-trimester 3D placental measurements can identify pregnancies at risk of SGA. However, there appears to be no significant improvement compared to those obtained in the first

  18. Maternal serum proteome changes between the first and third trimester of pregnancy in rural southern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Scholl, P F; Cole, R N; Ruczinski, I; Gucek, M; Diez, R; Rennie, A; Nathasingh, C; Schulze, K; Christian, P; Yager, J D; Groopman, J D; West, K P

    2012-05-01

    Characterization of normal changes in the serum proteome during pregnancy may enhance understanding of maternal physiology and lead to the development of new gestational biomarkers. In 23 Nepalese pregnant women who delivered at term, two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) was used to assess changes in relative protein abundance between paired serum samples collected in the first and third trimesters. One-hundred and forty-five of over 700 protein spots in DIGE gels (pI 4.2-6.8) exhibited nominally significant (p < 0.05) differences in abundance across trimesters. Additional filtering using a Bonferroni correction reduced the number of significant (p < 0.00019) spots to 61. Mass spectrometric analysis detected 38 proteins associated with gestational age, cytoskeletal remodeling, blood pressure regulation, lipid and nutrient transport, and inflammation. One new protein, pregnancy-specific β-glycoprotein 4 was detected. A follow-up isotope tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) experiment of six mothers from the DIGE study revealed 111 proteins, of which 11 exhibited significant (p < 0.05) differences between trimesters. Four of these proteins: gelsolin, complement C1r subcomponent, α-1-acid glycoprotein, and α-1B-glycoprotein also changed in the DIGE analysis. Although not previously associated with normal pregnancy, gelsolin decreased in abundance by the third trimester (p < 0.01) in DIGE, iTRAQ and Western analyses. Changes in abundance of proteins in serum that are associated with syncytiotrophoblasts (gelsolin, pregnancy-specific β-1 glycoprotein 1 and β-2-glycoprotein I) probably reflect dynamics of a placental proteome shed into maternal circulation during pregnancy. Measurement of changes in the maternal serum proteome, when linked with birth outcomes, may yield biomarkers for tracking reproductive health in resource poor settings in future studies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Fractal spectral triples on Kellendonk's C∗-algebra of a substitution tiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mampusti, Michael; Whittaker, Michael F.

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a new class of noncommutative spectral triples on Kellendonk's C∗-algebra associated with a nonperiodic substitution tiling. These spectral triples are constructed from fractal trees on tilings, which define a geodesic distance between any two tiles in the tiling. Since fractals typically have infinite Euclidean length, the geodesic distance is defined using Perron-Frobenius theory, and is self-similar with scaling factor given by the Perron-Frobenius eigenvalue. We show that each spectral triple is θ-summable, and respects the hierarchy of the substitution system. To elucidate our results, we construct a fractal tree on the Penrose tiling, and explicitly show how it gives rise to a collection of spectral triples.

  20. Proteomic characterization of macro-, micro- and nano-extracellular vesicles derived from the same first trimester placenta: relevance for feto-maternal communication.

    PubMed

    Tong, Mancy; Kleffmann, Torsten; Pradhan, Shantanu; Johansson, Caroline L; DeSousa, Joana; Stone, Peter R; James, Joanna L; Chen, Qi; Chamley, Larry W

    2016-04-01

    What proteins are carried by extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from normal first trimester placentae? One thousand five hundred and eighty-five, 1656 and 1476 proteins were characterized in macro-, micro- and nano-vesicles, respectively, from first trimester placentae, with all EV fractions being enriched for proteins involved in vesicle transport and inflammation. Placental EVs are being increasingly recognized as important mediators of both healthy and pathological pregnancies. However, current research has focused on detecting changes in specific proteins in particular fractions of vesicles during disease. This is the first study to investigate the full proteome of different-sized fractions of EVs from the same first trimester placenta and highlights the differences/similarities between the vesicle fractions. A well-established ex vivo placental explant culture model was used to generate macro-, micro- and nano-vesicles from 56 first trimester placentae. Vesicle fractions were collected by differential ultracentrifugation, quantified and characterized. Placental macro-, micro- and nano-vesicles were characterized by microscopy, dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis. The proteome of each EV fraction was interrogated using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Results were validated by semi-quantitative western blotting. A total of 1585, 1656 and 1476 proteins were identified in macro-, micro- and nano-vesicles, respectively. One thousand one hundred and twenty-five proteins were shared between all three fractions while up to 223 proteins were unique to each fraction. Gene Ontology pathway analysis showed an enrichment of proteins involved in vesicle transport and inflammation in all three fractions of EVs. The expression levels of proteins involved in internalization of vesicles (annexin V, calreticulin, CD31, CD47), the complement pathway [C3, decay-accelerating factor (DAF), membrane cofactor protein (MCP), protectin

  1. A tunable few electron triple quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudreau, L.; Kam, A.; Granger, G.; Studenikin, S. A.; Zawadzki, P.; Sachrajda, A. S.

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we report on a tunable few electron lateral triple quantum dot design. The quantum dot potentials are arranged in series. The device is aimed at studies of triple quantum dot properties where knowing the exact number of electrons is important as well as quantum information applications involving electron spin qubits. We demonstrate tuning strategies for achieving required resonant conditions such as quadruple points where all three quantum dots are on resonance. We find that in such a device resonant conditions at specific configurations are accompanied by complex charge transfer behavior.

  2. Increment of absolute neutrophil count in the third trimester and increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth: Hirakata Risk Associated with Pregnancy Assessment Research (HIRAPAR).

    PubMed

    Harita, Nobuko; Kariya, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Nakamura, Kimihiko; Endo, Ginji; Narimoto, Katsuhiko

    2012-09-01

    Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, who have growth restriction, have higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Excessive inflammatory reaction such as neutrophil activation has been observed in pregnant women whose offspring had restricted fetal growth, but the association between white blood cell (WBC) counts and SGA birth has not yet been assessed. We therefore examined the association of WBC count and its change with the risk of SGA birth. We enrolled 2356 pregnant women who had full-term singleton delivery at a private maternity hospital in Hirakata, Japan. SGA was defined as under the 10th percentile of birthweight for gestational age, baby sex, and mother's parity according to the Japanese neonatal anthropometric charts renewed in 2010. Blood samples were measured in the first and third trimesters. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to assess associations between total and differential WBC counts and SGA birth. Women with SGA birth tended to have higher total WBC count in the third trimester compared with women who did not have SGA birth. This tendency was not observed for total WBC count in the first trimester. After adjustment for age, height, body mass index at entry, smoking habit, weekly gestational weight gain, and pregnancy-induced hypertension, higher total WBC count in the third trimester was associated with an increased risk of SGA birth. Total WBC count in the first trimester did not show any significant association with SGA birth. The ratio of total WBC count in the third trimester to that in the first trimester was associated with SGA birth; the odds ratio for 1 unit increase was 3.02 (95% CI: 1.54-5.92). Regarding differential WBC counts in the third trimester, neutrophil count but not lymphocyte count was associated positively with SGA birth. Higher total WBC and absolute neutrophil counts in the third trimester were associated with SGA birth. In addition, greater ratio of increase in total WBC counts during pregnancy

  3. Targeting the androgen receptor in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gucalp, Ayca; Traina, Tiffany A

    Triple-negative breast cancer represents approximately 15%-20% of all newly diagnosed breast cancers, but it accounts for a disproportionate number of breast cancer-related deaths each year. Owing to the lack of estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression, patients with triple-negative breast cancer do not benefit from generally well-tolerated and effective therapies targeting the estrogen and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 signaling pathways and are faced with an increased risk of disease progression and poorer overall survival. The heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancer has been increasingly recognized and this may lead to therapeutic opportunities because of newly defined oncogenic drivers and targets. A subset of triple-negative breast tumors expresses the androgen receptor (AR) and this may benefit from treatments that inhibit the AR-signaling pathway. The first proof-of-concept trial established activity of the AR antagonist, bicalutamide, in patients with advanced AR+ triple-negative breast cancer. Since that time, evidence further supports the activity of other next-generation AR-targeted agents such as enzalutamide. Not unlike in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, mechanisms of resistance are being investigated and rationale exists for thoughtful, well-designed combination regimens such as AR antagonism with CDK4/6 pathway inhibitors or PI3K inhibitors. Furthermore, novel agents developed for the treatment of prostate cancer, which reduce androgen production such as abiraterone acetate and seviteronel, are being tested as well. This review summarizes the underlying biology of AR signaling in breast cancer development and the available clinical trial data for the use of anti-androgen therapy in the treatment of AR+ triple-negative breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Informed choice in women attending private clinics to undergo first-trimester screening for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jaques, Alice M; Sheffield, Leslie J; Halliday, Jane L

    2005-08-01

    Informed choice for prenatal screening has long been considered an essential aspect of service provision, and has been researched extensively in the second trimester. This study aims at examining whether women having first-trimester screening in a private clinic had made an informed choice. A cross-sectional survey recruited women having first-trimester screening at specialist ultrasound practices. Two questionnaires containing a validated Multidimensional Measure of Informed Choice (MMIC) were self-administered pre- and post-screening. MMIC was completed by 81% (163/202) of women. Ninety-nine percent of women had a positive attitude towards screening, therefore informed choice was essentially measured on knowledge alone. Pre-screening, 68% made an informed choice, compared with 74% post-screening (chi2 = 1.6, p = 0.21 (McNemar)). Knowledge was associated with education level, information sources and perception of screening as routine or optional. The Australasian Guidelines on prenatal screening state that all women having testing should be provided with written information, and it should be ensured that they have appropriate understanding of the test(s). These guidelines are not being met, even in private clinical care. Health professionals should ensure that all women are provided with suitable information about prenatal screening that is tailored to their level of education and individual needs, and should emphasise that screening is optional. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. In Vitro Differentiation of First Trimester Human Umbilical Cord Perivascular Cells into Contracting Cardiomyocyte-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    Szaraz, Peter; Librach, Matthew; Maghen, Leila; Iqbal, Farwah; Barretto, Tanya A; Kenigsberg, Shlomit; Gauthier-Fisher, Andrée; Librach, Clifford L

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) causes an extensive loss of heart muscle cells and leads to congestive heart disease (CAD), the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Mesenchymal stromal cell- (MSC-) based cell therapy is a promising option to replace invasive interventions. However the optimal cell type providing significant cardiac regeneration after MI is yet to be found. The aim of our study was to investigate the cardiomyogenic differentiation potential of first trimester human umbilical cord perivascular cells (FTM HUCPVCs), a novel, young source of immunoprivileged mesenchymal stromal cells. Based on the expression of cardiomyocyte markers (cTnT, MYH6, SIRPA, and CX43) FTM and term HUCPVCs achieved significantly increased cardiomyogenic differentiation compared to bone marrow MSCs, while their immunogenicity remained significantly lower as indicated by HLA-A and HLA-G expression and susceptibility to T cell mediated cytotoxicity. When applying aggregate-based differentiation, FTM HUCPVCs showed increased aggregate formation potential and generated contracting cells within 1 week of coculture, making them the first MSC type with this ability. Our results indicate that young FTM HUCPVCs have superior cardiomyogenic potential coupled with beneficial immunogenic properties when compared to MSCs of older tissue sources, suggesting that in vitro predifferentiation could be a potential strategy to increase their effectiveness in vivo.

  6. Second- to Third-Trimester Longitudinal Growth Assessment for the Prediction of Largeness for Gestational Age and Macrosomia in an Unselected Population.

    PubMed

    Caradeux, Javier; Eixarch, Elisenda; Mazarico, Edurne; Basuki, Tri Rahmat; Gratacós, Eduard; Figueras, Francesc

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal detection of excessive growth remains inaccurate. Most strategies rely on a single cross-sectional evaluation of fetal size during the third trimester. To compare second- to third-trimester longitudinal growth assessment with cross-sectional evaluation at the third trimester in the prediction of largeness for gestational age (LGA) and macrosomia. A cohort of 2,696 unselected singleton pregnancies scanned at 21 ± 2 and 32 ± 2 weeks was created. Abdominal circumference (AC) measurements were transformed to z values according to the INTERGROWTH-21st standards. Longitudinal growth assessment was performed by calculation of z velocity and conditional growth. Both methods were compared to cross-sectional assessment at 32 ± 2 weeks. Predictive performance for LGA and macrosomia was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. A total of 188 (7%) newborns qualified for LGA and 182 (6.8%) for macrosomia. The areas under the curve (AUCs) for 32-week AC z score, AC z velocity, and conditional AC were 0.78, 0.61, and 0.55, respectively, for the prediction of LGA, and 0.75, 0.61, and 0.55, respectively, for the prediction of macrosomia. Both AUCs of AC z velocity and conditional AC were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than the AUC of cross-sectional AC z scores. In the general population, second- to third-trimester longitudinal assessment of fetal growth is inferior to third-trimester cross-sectional evaluation of size in the prediction of LGA and macrosomia. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Triple-band metamaterial absorption utilizing single rectangular hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung Jik; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, YoungPak

    2017-01-01

    In the general metamaterial absorber, the single absorption band is made by the single meta-pattern. Here, we introduce the triple-band metamaterial absorber only utilizing single rectangular hole. We also demonstrate the absorption mechanism of the triple absorption. The first absorption peak was caused by the fundamental magnetic resonance in the metallic part between rectangular holes. The second absorption was generated by induced tornado magnetic field. The process of realizing the second band is also presented. The third absorption was induced by the third-harmonic magnetic resonance in the metallic region between rectangular holes. In addition, the visible-range triple-band absorber was also realized by using similar but smaller single rectangular-hole structure. These results render the simple metamaterials for high frequency in large scale, which can be useful in the fabrication of metamaterials operating in the optical range.

  8. Combined first-trimester Down syndrome screening in HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Chougrani, Imène; Muller, Françoise; Marcelin, Louis; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Abric, Judith; Luton, Dominique; Guibourdenche, Jean; Azria, Elie

    2016-08-01

    To determine if human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or antiretroviral therapy interferes with maternal levels of free human β-chorionic gonadotrophin (hCGβ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and whether any such influence alters first-trimester Down syndrome (DS) screening in HIV-infected women. We performed a multicenter 1:2 matched case-control study comparing 84 HIV-infected women with singleton pregnancies with controls randomly selected among uninfected women, delivered and screened in the same center and matched for maternal age, geographical origin and fetal sex. Groups did not differ significantly in screening results, although case women showed a slightly lower median free hCGβ multiple of the median (MoM) (1.11 versus 1.24 MoM, p=0.32) and higher median PAPP-A MoM (1.45 versus 1.32 MoM, p=0.23) than control women. The false-positive rate was similar in the case and control groups (5% versus 6.5%, p=0.5). Biomarker levels did not differ when comparing treated and untreated patients with their respective controls, and with one another. First-trimester DS combined screening biomarker levels and calculated risk do not seem to be significantly altered by HIV infection or antiretroviral treatment. This screening strategy appears to be suitable for HIV-infected women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lower dietary vitamin E intake during the second trimester is associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia later in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ley, S H; Hanley, A J; Sermer, M; Zinman, B; O'Connor, D L

    2013-11-01

    Beneficial effects of vitamin E on insulin sensitivity have been reported in observational and short-term intervention studies in non-pregnant populations. We aimed to investigate whether dietary vitamin E intake during the second trimester would be associated with glucose metabolism later in pregnancy and whether this association would be influenced by an insulin-sensitizing hormone adiponectin. Women with singleton pregnancies (n=205) underwent a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test at 30 weeks gestation and were asked to recall second trimester dietary intake. Higher dietary vitamin E intake was associated with lower fasting glucose, lower HOMA insulin resistance, and higher Matsuda insulin sensitivity index after covariate adjustment including serum adiponectin among women consuming daily multivitamin supplements (all P≤0.03). Lower dietary vitamin E intake during the second trimester is associated with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance later in pregnancy among women consuming daily multivitamin supplementations. Further, these associations are not influenced by adiponectin.

  10. Immunomodulatory molecules are released from the first trimester and term placenta via exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, S.K.; Alam, S.M.; Jasti, S.; Hodes, H.; Nauser, T.; Gilliam, M.; Billstrand, C.; Hunt, J.S.; Petroff, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The semiallogenic fetus is tolerated by the maternal immune system through control of innate and adaptive immune responses. Trophoblast cells secrete nanometer scale membranous particles called exosomes, which have been implicated in modulation of the local and systemic maternal immune system. Here we investigate the possibility that exosomes secreted from the first trimester and term placenta carry HLA-G and B7 family immunomodulators. Confocal microscopy of placental sections revealed intracellular colocalization of B7-H1 with CD63, suggesting that B7-H1 associates with subcellular vesicles that give rise to exosomes. First trimester and term placental explants were then cultured for 24 hours. B7H-1 (CD274), B7-H3 (CD276) and HLA-G5 were abundant in pelleted supernatants of these cultures that contained microparticles and exosomes; the latter, however, was observed only in first trimester pellets and was nearly undetectable in term explant-derived pellets. Further purification of exosomes by sucrose density fractionation confirmed the association of these proteins specifically with exosomes. Finally, culture of purified trophoblast cells in the presence or absence of EGF suggested that despite the absence of HLA-G5 association with term explant-derived exosomes, it is present in exosomes secreted from mononuclear cytotrophoblast cells. Further, differentiation of cytotrophoblast cells reduced the presence of HLA-G5 in secreted exosomes. Together, the results suggest that the immunomodulatory proteins HLA-G5, B7-H1 and B7-H3, are secreted from early and term placenta, and have important implications in the mechanisms by which trophoblast immunomodulators modify the maternal immunological environment. PMID:23107341

  11. Early- or mid-trimester amniocentesis biomarkers for predicting preterm delivery: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinglin; Liu, Yukun; Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Liqiong; Feng, Ziya

    2017-02-01

    To determine the value of early- or mid-trimester amniotic fluid levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), and glucose for predicting preterm delivery. Randomized controlled trials and two-arm prospective, retrospective, cohorts, and case-controlled studies in which patients received early- or mid-trimester amniocentesis for karyotyping, and biomarker testing of the amniotic fluid was performed and delivery data were available were included in the analysis. Outcome measures were the associations of amniotic fluid IL-6, MMP-8, and glucose levels with preterm delivery. Differences in means with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Of 288 articles identified, 14 were included in the meta-analysis with a total of 675 patients who had preterm birth and 2518 patients who had term births. The preterm-delivery group had significantly higher amniotic fluid IL-6 and MMP-8 levels, and a significantly lower glucose level than the term delivery group (IL-6: difference in means = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.22-0.43, p < 0.001; MMP-8: difference in means = 4.47, 95% CI: 0.83-8.11), p = 0.016; glucose: difference in means = -5.22, 95% CI: -8.19 to -2.26, p = 0.001) Conclusion: Early- or mid-trimester amniotic fluid IL-6, MMP-8, and glucose levels are useful for predicting the risk of preterm delivery. KEY MESSAGES Median amniotic fluid ferritin and IL-6 levels, and mean amniotic fluid ALP levels were higher in the preterm group. The preterm-delivery group had significantly higher amniotic fluid IL-6 and MMP-8 levels, and a significantly lower glucose level than the term-delivery group.

  12. Effect of counseling quality on anxiety, grief, and coping after second-trimester abortion for pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Kerns, Jennifer L; Mengesha, Biftu; McNamara, Blair C; Cassidy, Arianna; Pearlson, Geffan; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2018-06-01

    We sought to explore the relationship between counseling quality, measured by shared decision making and decision satisfaction, and psychological outcomes (anxiety, grief, and posttraumatic stress) after second-trimester abortion for pregnancy complications. We conducted a cross-sectional study of women who underwent second-trimester abortion for complications. We recruited participants from Facebook and online support groups and surveyed them about counseling experiences and psychosocial issues. We used multivariate linear regression to evaluate relationships between counseling quality and psychological outcomes. We analyzed data from 145 respondents. Shared decision making and decision satisfaction scores were positively and strongly correlated in bivariate analysis (r=0.7, p<.0001), as were posttraumatic stress and grief scores (r=0.7, p<.0001). In the adjusted analysis, higher decision satisfaction was associated with lower grief and posttraumatic stress scores (p=.02 and p=.01, respectively) and higher shared decision making was associated with lower posttraumatic stress scores (p=.01). Decision satisfaction and shared decision making have a positive effect on psychological outcomes after second-trimester abortion for pregnancy complications. Counseling quality may be especially important in this setting given the sensitive nature of decisions regarding pregnancy termination for complications. These results highlight the importance of patient-centered counseling for women seeking pregnancy termination. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Characteristics and Circumstances of U.S. Women Who Obtain Very Early and Second-Trimester Abortions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel K; Jerman, Jenna

    2017-01-01

    To determine which characteristics and circumstances were associated with very early and second-trimester abortion. Paper and pencil surveys were collected from a national sample of 8,380 non-hospital U.S. abortion patients in 2014 and 2015. We used self-reported LMP to calculate weeks gestation; when LMP was not provided we used self-reported weeks pregnant. We constructed two dependent variables: obtaining a very early abortion, defined as six weeks gestation or earlier, and obtaining second-trimester abortion, defined as occurring at 13 weeks gestation or later. We examined associations between the two measures of gestation and a range of characteristics and circumstances, including type of abortion waiting period in the patients' state of residence. Among first-trimester abortion patients, characteristics that decreased the likelihood of obtaining a very early abortion include being under the age of 20, relying on financial assistance to pay for the procedure, recent exposure to two or more disruptive events and living in a state that requires in-person counseling 24-72 hours prior to the procedure. Having a college degree and early recognition of pregnancy increased the likelihood of obtaining a very early abortion. Characteristics that increased the likelihood of obtaining a second-trimester abortion include being Black, having less than a high school degree, relying on financial assistance to pay for the procedure, living 25 or more miles from the facility and late recognition of pregnancy. While the availability of financial assistance may allow women to obtain abortions they would otherwise be unable to have, it may also result in delays in accessing care. If poor women had health insurance that covered abortion services, these delays could be alleviated. Since the study period, four additional states have started requiring that women obtain in-person counseling prior to obtaining an abortion, and the increase in these laws could slow down the trend in

  14. Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Casero RA, Davidson NE. Molecular mechanisms of polyamine analogues in cancer cells. Anti - Cancer Drugs, 16(3): 229-241, 2005. PMID: 15711175 18 3...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0237 TITLE: Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yi...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0237 5c

  15. Asteroid Systems: Binaries, Triples, and Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, J.-L.; Pravec, P.; Taylor, P.; Carry, B.; Jacobson, S.

    In the past decade, the number of known binary near-Earth asteroids has more than quadrupled and the number of known large main-belt asteroids with satellites has doubled. Half a dozen triple asteroids have been discovered, and the previously unrecognized populations of asteroid pairs and small main-belt binaries have been identified. The current observational evidence confirms that small (≲20 km) binaries form by rotational fission and establishes that the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect powers the spin-up process. A unifying paradigm based on rotational fission and post-fission dynamics can explain the formation of small binaries, triples, and pairs. Large (>~20 km) binaries with small satellites are most likely created during large collisions.

  16. [Premature immunosenescence in triple-transgenic mice for Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Mate, Ianire; Cruces, Julia; Vida, Carmen; Sanfeliu, Coral; Manassra, Rashed; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    A deterioration of the neuroimmunoendocrine network has been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the peripheral immune response has hardly been investigated in this pathology. Since some immune function parameters have been established as good markers of the rate of ageing, and can predict longevity, the aim of the present work was to study some of these functions in splenic leucocytes in transgenic mice for AD of different ages. Young female (4 ± 1 months), adult (9 ± 1 months), and mature (12 ± 1 months) triple-transgenic mice for AD (3 xTgAD) and non-transgenic (NTg) control mice of the same ages were used. The chemotaxis, the anti-tumour activity of « natural killer » (NK) cells and the lymphoproliferative response in the presence of the mitogens concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide, functions that decrease with age, were determined in splenic leucocytes. In addition, the differences in lifespan between 3 xTgAD and NTg were studied in parallel using other animals, until their death through natural causes. In 3 xTgAD, with respect to NTg, chemotaxis decreased at all ages studied, whereas in lymphoproliferative response this reduction was shown at 4 months and 9 months. NK activity was diminished only in young 3 xTgAD with respect to NTg. The 3 xTgAD showed a shorter lifespan than the NTg control group. The 3 xTgAD mice show a premature immunosenescence, which could explain their early mortality. The determination of these immune functions at peripheral level could serve as a marker of the progression of the Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Metformin versus placebo from first trimester to delivery in polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, controlled multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Vanky, Eszter; Stridsklev, Solhild; Heimstad, Runa; Romundstad, Pål; Skogøy, Kristin; Kleggetveit, Odrun; Hjelle, Sissel; von Brandis, Philip; Eikeland, Torunn; Flo, Karin; Berg, Kristin Flaten; Bunford, Gabor; Lund, Agnethe; Bjerke, Cecilie; Almås, Ingunn; Berg, Ann Hilde; Danielson, Anna; Lahmami, Gulim; Carlsen, Sven Magnus

    2010-12-01

    Metformin is widely prescribed to pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in an attempt to reduce pregnancy complications. Metformin is not approved for this indication, and evidence for this practice is lacking. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that metformin, from first trimester to delivery, reduces pregnancy complications in women with PCOS. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter study at 11 secondary care centers. The participants were 257 women with PCOS, in the first trimester of pregnancy, aged 18-42 yr. We randomly assigned 274 singleton pregnancies (in 257 women) to receive metformin or placebo, from first trimester to delivery. The prevalence of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, and a composite of these three outcomes is reported. Preeclampsia prevalence was 7.4% in the metformin group and 3.7% in the placebo group (3.7%; 95% CI, -1.7-9.2) (P=0.18). Preterm delivery prevalence was 3.7% in the metformin group and 8.2% in the placebo group (-4.4%; 95%, CI, -10.1-1.2) (P=0.12). Gestational diabetes mellitus prevalence was 17.6% in the metformin group and 16.9% in the placebo group (0.8%; 95% CI, -8.6-10.2) (P=0.87). The composite primary endpoint prevalence was 25.9 and 24.4%, respectively (1.5%; 95% CI, -8.9-11.3) (P=0.78). Women in the metformin group gained less weight during pregnancy compared with those in the placebo group. There was no difference in fetal birth weight between the groups. Metformin treatment from first trimester to delivery did not reduce pregnancy complications in PCOS.

  18. CFTR DeltaF508 mutation detection from dried blood samples in the first trimester of pregnancy: a possible routine prenatal screening strategy for cystic fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Konialis, Christopher P; Hagnefelt, Birgitta; Kazamia, Constantina; Karapanou, Sophia; Pangalos, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    The implementation and evaluation of a proposed wide-scale prenatal screening strategy, based on DNA isolated from dried blood spots in the first trimester of pregnancy, for the early detection of pregnancies at risk for cystic fibrosis (CF). The screening was performed in conjunction with routine biochemical marker screening for Down's syndrome risk in the first trimester of pregnancy. DNA was isolated from 1,233 dried blood spots and analyzed for the presence of the CF transmembrane regulator DeltaF508 mutation. Women carriers were offered and accepted the option for additional full testing of their partners in order to assess the risk for the fetus. All 1,233 samples were successfully analyzed, identifying 23 DeltaF508 carriers, corresponding to a DeltaF508 carrier rate of approximately 1/55 (1.8%). All partners of the women carriers were further tested without revealing any need for further prenatal testing in this group. This study reveals the relatively high frequency of the DeltaF508 CF mutation in the Greek population. More importantly, we demonstrate that the proposed prenatal screening strategy, based on the ease and cost-effectiveness of the analysis for the detection of a single common mutation, can be considered as a feasible and practical approach for wide-scale prenatal screening for CF, following the sequential model. It is applied early on in pregnancy, allowing for the timely management of families at risk for the corresponding genetic disorders. Finally, it can easily be extended to include screening for other common genetic disorders in specific population groups.

  19. Incipient triple point for adsorbed xenon monolayers: Pt(111) versus graphite substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novaco, Anthony D.; Bruch, L. W.; Bavaresco, Jessica

    2015-04-01

    Simulation evidence of an incipient triple point is reported for xenon submonolayers adsorbed on the (111) surface of platinum. This is in stark contrast to the "normal" triple point found in simulations and experiments for xenon on the basal plane surface of graphite. The motions of the atoms in the surface plane are treated with standard 2D "NVE" molecular dynamics simulations using modern interactions. The simulation evidence strongly suggests an incipient triple point in the 120 -150 K range for adsorption on the Pt (111) surface while the adsorption on graphite shows a normal triple point at about 100 K.

  20. The effect of phloroglucinol on pain in first-trimester surgical abortion: a double-blind randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yaling; Zhu, Xiufang; Huang, Li-Li

    2010-02-01

    First-trimester surgical abortion is a common procedure. Pain control during this procedure is still an unsolved problem. In this randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study, women presenting for first-trimester surgical abortion received intramuscular phloroglucinol (4 mL) or placebo (normal saline, 4 mL). Visual analog scales (VAS) for pain immediately and 30 min after the procedure and side effects of the drug were recorded. There was no significant difference between groups in the pain level immediately and 30 min after the procedure; 70.7% of the phloroglucinol group (n=58 cases) and 56.9% of the placebo group (n=58 cases ) reported mild pain; 27.6% and 34.5%, respectively, reported moderate pain; and 1.7% and 8.6%, respectively, reported severe pain. Thirty minutes after the procedure, the median pain score was reduced to 1.3 in both groups. Postoperative side effects were reported, but there was no significant difference between groups for nausea or vomiting and blood pressure. The use of this dose of phloroglucinol, during first-trimester abortion by suction evacuation under local anesthesia with lidocaine, did not relieve pain, but caused no side effects.

  1. Intramolecular triple helix as a model for regular polyribonucleotide (CAA)(n).

    PubMed

    Efimov, Alexander V; Spirin, Alexander S

    2009-10-09

    The regular (CAA)(n) polyribonucleotide, as well as the omega leader sequence containing (CAA)-rich core, have recently been shown to form cooperatively melted and compact structures. In this report, we propose a structural model for the (CAA)(n) sequence in which the polyribonucleotide chain is folded upon itself, so that it forms an intramolecular triple helix. The triple helix is stabilized by hydrogen bonding between bases thus forming coplanar triads, and by stacking interactions between the base triads. A distinctive feature of the proposed triple helix is that it does not contain the canonical double-helix elements. The difference from the known triple helices is that Watson-Crick hydrogen bond pairings do not take place in the interactions between the bases within the base triads.

  2. Assessment of oxidative stress markers in recurrent pregnancy loss: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yiyenoğlu, Özgür Bilgin; Uğur, Mete Gürol; Özcan, Hüseyin Çağlayan; Can, Günay; Öztürk, Ebru; Balat, Özcan; Erel, Özcan

    2014-06-01

    To determine the levels of oxidative stress markers in recurrent pregnancy loss using a novel automated method. 30 pregnant women in their first trimester with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and 30 healthy pregnant women were enrolled in this prospective controlled study. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant level (TOL) and oxidative stress index (OSI) in maternal serum were measured using the more recently designated Erel method. We observed statistically significant increased TOL and OSI levels in patient group (p = 0.032, p = 0.007, respectively). We also demonstrated statistically significant decreased TAC in pregnant women who had a history of RPL (p = 0.013). Our results support the concept that oxidative stress plays a central role in the etiopathogenesis of RPL. Further studies to evaluate the predictive role of TAC, TOL, OSI levels using Erel method are needed.

  3. Reduced expressions of connexin 43 and VEGF in the first-trimester tissues from women with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoping; Chen, Qinfang

    2016-08-17

    Approximately 45-50 % of the recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) remain(s) unexplained that challenges its clinical management. Formation and development of placenta as well as angiogenesis are critical for successful pregnancy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and connexin 43 (Cx43) play important roles in angiogenesis and placenta development and aberration of these have been linked to RPL. We aimed to investigate whether the expressions of VEGF and Cx43 were altered in the first-trimester tissues (chorionic villi and decidua) collected from women with RPL compared to those from healthy early pregnant women. First-trimester chorionic villi and decidua were collected from pregnant women diagnosed RPL who ended up with surgical intervention (n = 28) in comparison to those collected from women requesting surgical termination of their unwanted normal first-trimester pregnancies (n = 28). These two groups of women were matched in age and gestational weeks. Tissues were analyzed for the protein and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expressions of Cx43 and VEGF by immunohistochemistry, western blot, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The expressions of both Cx43 and VEGF at the level of mRNA and protein in the villi and decidua from women with RPL were significantly decreased compared with those from women with normal early pregnancy. Reduction of Cx43 and VEGF expressed in the first-trimester tissues might indicate their important roles involved in RPL and thus holds the potential to develop pharmaceutical therapies for treatment of RPL.

  4. Triple p-positive parenting program for mothers of ADHD children.

    PubMed

    Aghebati, Asma; Gharraee, Banafsheh; Hakim Shoshtari, Mitra; Gohari, Mahmood Reza

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder which affects 9% of school-age children. Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is an evidence-based parenting program reported to be useful in the management of this disorder. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of Triple P in mothers of ADHD children. In this study, 30 mothers with ADHD children aged between 6 to 10 were randomly assigned to two groups (15 participants in each group). Parenting style, mother-child relationship, maternal depression, anxiety and stress, and children's behavioral problems were evaluated. The intervention group received 120 minute sessions for 5 weeks and 15-30 minute telephone contacts for 3 weeks while no intervention was done for the control group. Analysis of covariance revealed that mothers of the Triple P group showed significant (p < 0.01) improvements in parenting style, mother-child relationship, and considerable decrease in depression, anxiety and stress. Women trained in the Triple P group also reported significantly lower rates of child misbehavior than women of the control group. Triple P-Positive Parenting intervention is effective and acceptable for mothers of ADHD children. None. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.irct.ir. Unique identifier: IRCT201111288234N1.

  5. Hydrocodone-acetaminophen for pain control in first-trimester surgical abortion: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Micks, Elizabeth A; Edelman, Alison B; Renner, Regina-Maria; Fu, Rongwei; Lambert, William E; Bednarek, Paula H; Nichols, Mark D; Beckley, Ethan H; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2012-11-01

    Although hydrocodone-acetaminophen is commonly used for pain control in first-trimester abortion, the efficacy of oral opioids for decreasing pain has not been established. Our objective was to estimate the effect of hydrocodone-acetaminophen on patient pain perception during first-trimester surgical abortion. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Patients (before 11 weeks of gestation) received standard premedication (ibuprofen and lorazepam) and a paracervical block with the addition of 10 mg hydrocodone and 650 mg acetaminophen or placebo 45-90 minutes before surgical abortion. A sample size of 120 was calculated to provide 80% power to show a 15-mm difference (α=0.05) in the primary outcome of pain with uterine aspiration (100-mm visual analog scale). Secondary outcomes were pain at additional time points, satisfaction, side effects, adverse events, and need for additional pain medications. There were no significant differences in demographics or baseline pain between groups. There were no differences in pain scores between patients receiving hydrocodone-acetaminophen compared with placebo during uterine aspiration (65.7 mm compared with 63.2 mm, P=.59) or other procedural time points. There were no differences in satisfaction or need for additional pain medications. Patients who received hydrocodone-acetaminophen had more postoperative nausea than those receiving placebo (P=.03) when controlling for baseline nausea. No medication-related adverse events were noted. Hydrocodone-acetaminophen does not decrease pain during first-trimester abortion and may increase postoperative nausea. Clinicaltrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01330459. I.

  6. Potential Value of Coagulation Parameters for Suggesting Preeclampsia During the Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Lin, Li

    2017-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a relatively common complication of pregnancy and considered to be associated with different degrees of coagulation dysfunction. This study was developed to evaluate the potential value of coagulation parameters for suggesting preeclampsia during the third trimester of pregnancy. Data from 188 healthy pregnant women, 125 patients with preeclampsia in the third trimester and 120 age-matched nonpregnant women were analyzed. Prothrombin time, prothrombin activity, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen (Fg), antithrombin, platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and plateletcrit were tested. All parameters, excluding prothrombin time, platelet distribution width and plateletcrit, differed significantly between healthy pregnant women and those with preeclampsia. Platelet count, antithrombin and Fg were significantly lower and mean platelet volume and prothrombin activity were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia (P < 0.001). Among these parameters, the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for preeclampsia was 0.872 for Fg with an optimal cutoff value of ≤2.87g/L (sensitivity = 0.68 and specificity = 0.98). For severe preeclampsia, the area under the curve for Fg reached up to 0.922 with the same optimal cutoff value (sensitivity = 0.84, specificity = 0.98, positive predictive value = 0.96 and negative predictive value = 0.93). Fg is a biomarker suggestive of preeclampsia in the third trimester of pregnancy, and our data provide a potential cutoff value of Fg ≤ 2.87g/L for screening preeclampsia, especially severe preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensitivity and specificity of a urinary screening test used in an emergency setting to detect abnormal first trimester pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, João L G; Rabaioli, Paola; Savaris, Ricardo F

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of a commercial urinary test to screen for abnormal first trimester pregnancies in women presenting to an emergency room. In this prospective observational cohort, women with a confirmed first trimester pregnancy (gestational age <12 weeks) provided a urine sample for diagnosing the viability of their gestation. Pregnancy viability and location testing were confirmed by ultrasound and/or laparoscopy. From 815 eligible patients for the study, 12 were excluded for not having a confirmed pregnancy (n = 6) or were lost to follow-up (n = 6). A total of 803 patients underwent testing and completed follow-up. The pretest probability of an abnormal pregnancy was 44% (9% for ectopic pregnancy and 35% for miscarriage). The test had the following parameters to identify an abnormal first-trimester pregnancy (sensitivity, 13%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10-17; specificity, 82%; 95% CI, 78-86; positive predictive value, 36; 95% CI, 28-46; negative predictive value, 54; 95% CI, 50-58; accuracy, 47%; positive likelihood ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.53-1.03; negative likelihood ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1-1.12). The reproducibility of the test in our study was high (kappa index between readers, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.77-1). In our emergency setting, we were not able to confirm that the commercial test is adequate to detect or exclude an abnormal first-trimester pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of depressive disorders and related factors in women in the first trimester of their pregnancies in Erzurum, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akçalı Aslan, Puren; Aydın, Nazan; Yazıcı, Esra; Aksoy, Ayse Nur; Kirkan, Tulay Sati; Daloglu, Gokhan Ali

    2014-12-01

    Depression is the most frequently seen mental disease in the pregnancy period. The first trimester of pregnancy is important in terms of its effects on both the fetus and on the mother. This study has researched the prevalence of depression in women in the first trimester of their pregnancies in Erzurum, which is a large province in the Eastern region of Turkey. The study participants were 463 pregnant women who were in the first trimester of their pregnancy. Screening was primarily carried out using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)-Clinical Version (SCID-I) was applied to those participants with a score of 12 points and higher. To assess the risk factors, a sociodemographic data form was completed by the authors. The total depressive disorder rate was 16.8% in women in the first trimester of their pregnancies (12.3% major depressive disorder, 1.5% double depression, 2.6% minor depressive disorder and 0.4% dysthymia). A history of mental disease, mental disease suffered during a previous pregnancy, exposure to violence in the present pregnancy, an unplanned pregnancy and spouse's unemployment were predictors for depressive disorders. It is important to identify the risk groups for the early recognition of depression in pregnancy. Developing depression screening programs can be useful for early diagnosis and therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Prediction of small-for-gestational-age neonate by third-trimester fetal biometry and impact of ultrasound-delivery interval.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Q; Delabaere, A; Luo, Z C; Nuyt, A-M; Wu, Y; Chauleur, C; Fraser, W; Audibert, F

    2017-03-01

    To compare third-trimester ultrasound screening methods to predict small-for-gestational age (SGA), and to evaluate the impact of the ultrasound-delivery interval on screening performance. In this prospective study, data were collected from a multicenter singleton cohort study investigating the links between various exposures during pregnancy with birth outcome and later health in children. We included women, recruited in the first trimester, who had complete outcome data and had undergone third-trimester ultrasound examination. Demographic, clinical and biological variables were also collected from both parents. We compared prediction of delivery of a SGA neonate (birth weight < 10 th percentile) by the following methods: abdominal circumference (AC) Z-score based on Hadlock curves (Hadlock AC), on INTERGROWTH-21 st Project curves (Intergrowth AC) and on Salomon curves (Salomon AC); estimated fetal weight (EFW) Z-score based on Hadlock curves (Hadlock EFW) and on customized curves from Gardosi (Gardosi EFW); and fetal growth velocity based on change in AC between second and third trimesters (FGVAC). We also assessed the following ultrasound-delivery intervals: ≤ 4 weeks, ≤ 6 weeks and ≤ 10 weeks. Third-trimester ultrasound was performed in 1805 patients with complete outcome data, of whom 158 (8.8%) delivered a SGA neonate. Ultrasound examination was at a median gestational age of 32 (interquartile range, 31-33) weeks. The ultrasound-delivery interval was ≤ 4 weeks in 17.2% of cases, ≤ 6 weeks in 48.1% of cases and ≤ 10 weeks in 97.3% of cases. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC) were 0.772 for Salomon AC, 0.768 for Hadlock EFW, 0.766 for Hadlock AC, 0.765 for Intergrowth AC, 0.708 for Gardosi EFW and 0.674 for FGVAC (all P < 0.0001). The screening method with the highest AUC for an ultrasound-delivery interval ≤ 4 weeks was Salomon AC (AUC, 0.856), ≤ 6 weeks was Hadlock AC (AUC, 0.824) and ≤ 10 weeks was Salomon AC

  10. Bacterial collagen-like proteins that form triple-helical structures

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhuoxin; An, Bo; Ramshaw, John A.M.; Brodsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A large number of collagen-like proteins have been identified in bacteria during the past ten years, principally from analysis of genome databases. These bacterial collagens share the distinctive Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeating amino acid sequence of animal collagens which underlies their unique triple-helical structure. A number of the bacterial collagens have been expressed in E. coli, and they all adopt a triple-helix conformation. Unlike animal collagens, these bacterial proteins do not contain the post-translationally modified amino acid, hydroxyproline, which is known to stabilize the triple-helix structure and may promote self-assembly. Despite the absence of collagen hydroxylation, the triple-helix structures of the bacterial collagens studied exhibit a high thermal stability of 35–39 °C, close to that seen for mammalian collagens. These bacterial collagens are readily produced in large quantities by recombinant methods, either in the original amino acid sequence or in genetically manipulated sequences. This new family of recombinant, easy to modify collagens could provide a novel system for investigating structural and functional motifs in animal collagens and could also form the basis of new biomedical materials with designed structural properties and functions. PMID:24434612

  11. Defining Genomic Changes in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Women of African Descent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    African and African - American breast cancer cases. Gene Expression Array Studies The 31 triple negative Kijabe samples were... American Adjacent Normal Breast Tissue PI: Pegram & Baumbach Defining Genomic Changes in Triple Negative Breast Cancer in Women of African ...Tissues from African - American and East African Patients with Triple Negative Breast

  12. A Study of Neoadjuvant Paclitaxel in Combination With Bavituximab in Early- Stage Triple- Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-08

    Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms; Triple-Negative Breast Neoplasm; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Neoplasms; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

  13. Second- to third-trimester longitudinal growth assessment for prediction of small-for-gestational age and late fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Caradeux, J; Eixarch, E; Mazarico, E; Basuki, T R; Gratacós, E; Figueras, F

    2018-02-01

    Detection of fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains poor and most screening strategies rely on cross-sectional evaluation of fetal size during the third trimester. A longitudinal and individualized approach has been proposed as an alternative method of evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare second- to third-trimester longitudinal growth assessment to cross-sectional evaluation in the third trimester for the prediction of small-for-gestational age (SGA) and late FGR in low-risk singleton pregnancy. This was a prospective cohort study of 2696 unselected consecutive low-risk singleton pregnancies scanned at 21 ± 2 and 32 ± 2 weeks. For cross-sectional growth assessment, abdominal circumference (AC) measurements were transformed to z-values according the 21st-INTERGROWTH standards. Longitudinal growth assessment was performed by calculating the AC z-velocity and the second- to third-trimester AC conditional growth centile. Longitudinal assessment was compared with cross-sectional assessment at 32 weeks. Association of cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations with SGA and late FGR was assessed by logistic regression analysis. Predictive performance was determined by receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis. In total, 210 (7.8%) newborns were classified as SGA and 103 (3.8%) as late FGR. Neither longitudinal measurement improved the association with SGA or late FGR provided by cross-sectional evaluation of AC z-score at 32 weeks. Areas under the curves of AC z-velocity and conditional AC growth were significantly smaller than those of cross-sectional AC z-scores (P < 0.001), although AC z-velocity performed significantly better than did conditional AC growth (P < 0.001). Longitudinal assessment of fetal growth from the second to third trimester has a low predictive capacity for SGA and late FGR in low-risk singleton pregnancy compared with cross-sectional growth evaluation. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley

  14. Predicting muscle forces during the propulsion phase of single leg triple hop test.

    PubMed

    Alvim, Felipe Costa; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Menegaldo, Luciano Luporini

    2018-01-01

    Functional biomechanical tests allow the assessment of musculoskeletal system impairments in a simple way. Muscle force synergies associated with movement can provide additional information for diagnosis. However, such forces cannot be directly measured noninvasively. This study aims to estimate muscle activations and forces exerted during the preparation phase of the single leg triple hop test. Two different approaches were tested: static optimization (SO) and computed muscle control (CMC). As an indirect validation, model-estimated muscle activations were compared with surface electromyography (EMG) of selected hip and thigh muscles. Ten physically healthy active women performed a series of jumps, and ground reaction forces, kinematics and EMG data were recorded. An existing OpenSim model with 92 musculotendon actuators was used to estimate muscle forces. Reflective markers data were processed using the OpenSim Inverse Kinematics tool. Residual Reduction Algorithm (RRA) was applied recursively before running the SO and CMC. For both, the same adjusted kinematics were used as inputs. Both approaches presented similar residuals amplitudes. SO showed a closer agreement between the estimated activations and the EMGs of some muscles. Due to inherent EMG methodological limitations, the superiority of SO in relation to CMC can be only hypothesized. It should be confirmed by conducting further studies comparing joint contact forces. The workflow presented in this study can be used to estimate muscle forces during the preparation phase of the single leg triple hop test and allows investigating muscle activation and coordination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. EURAMET.T-K7 Key Comparison of Water Triple-Point Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruzzi, A.; Bosma, R.; Kerkhof, O.; Rosenkranz, P.; Del Campo Maldonado, M. D.; Strnad, R.; Nielsen, J.; Anagnostou, M.; Veliki, T.; Zvizdic, D.; Grudnewicz, E.; Nedea, M.; Neagu, D. M.; Steur, P.; Filipe, E.; Lobo, I.; Antonsen, I.; Renaot, E.; Heinonen, M.; Weckstrom, T.; Bojkovski, J.; Turzo-Andras, E.; Nemeth, S.; White, M.; Tegeler, E.; Dobre, M.; Duris, S.; Kartal Dogan, A.; Uytun, A.; Augevicius, V.; Pauzha, A.; Pokhodun, A.; Simic, S.

    2011-12-01

    The results of a EURAMET key comparison of water triple-point cells (EURAMET.T-K7) are reported. The equipment used, the measuring conditions applied, and the procedures adopted for the water triple-point measurement at the participating laboratories are synthetically presented. The definitions of the national reference for the water triple-point temperature adopted by each laboratory are disclosed. The multiplicity of degrees of equivalence arising for the linking laboratories with respect to the "mother" comparison CCT-K7 is discussed in detail.

  16. Does Lactation Mitigate Triple Negative/Basal Breast Cancer Progression?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    201 – 31 August 201 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER DOES LACTATION MITIGATE TRIPLE NEGATIVE /BASAL BREAST CANCER PROGRESSION? 5b...25 1 INTRODUCTION Young African American women have an increased risk of developing aggressive forms of breast cancer (i.e... triple negative /basal-like) than young non-Hispanic white women. Recent epidemiological data show increased risk of basal-like breast cancer with

  17. Polygonal Triples and the Double Ruling of a Hyperboloid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yiu, Paul

    2012-01-01

    For a given positive integer k [not equal] 4, let "P[subscript k,n]" denote the "n"-th "k"-gonal number. We study "k"-gonal triples ("a", "b", "c") satisfying P[subscript k,a] + P[subscript k,b] = P[subscript k,c]. A "k"-gonal triple corresponds to a rational point on the rectangular hyperboloid x[squared] + y[squared] = z[squared] + 1. The simple…

  18. First-trimester mean arterial blood pressure and the risk of preeclampsia: The Great Obstetrical Syndromes (GOS) study.

    PubMed

    Gasse, Cédric; Boutin, Amélie; Coté, Maxime; Chaillet, Nils; Bujold, Emmanuel; Demers, Suzanne

    2018-04-01

    To estimate the predictive value of first-trimester mean arterial pressure (MAP) for the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). We performed a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women recruited at 11 0/7 -13 6/7  weeks. MAP was calculated from blood pressure measured on both arms simultaneously using an automated device taking a series of recordings until blood pressure stability was reached. MAP was reported as multiples of the median adjusted for gestational age. Participants were followed for development of gestational hypertension (GH), preeclampsia (PE), preterm PE (<37 weeks) and early-onset (EO) PE (<34 weeks). Receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) were used to estimate the predictive values of MAP. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to develop predictive models combining MAP and maternal characteristics. We obtained complete follow-up in 4700 (99%) out of 4749 eligible participants. GH without PE was observed in 250 (5.3%) participants, and PE in 241 (5.1%), including 33 (0.7%) preterm PE and 10 (0.2%) EO-PE. First-trimester MAP was associated with GH (AUC: 0.77; 95%CI: 0.74-0.80); term PE (0.73; 95%CI: 0.70-0.76), preterm PE (0.80; 95%CI: 0.73-0.87) and EO-PE (0.79; 95%CI: 0.62-0.96). At a 10% false-positive rate, first-trimester MAP could have predicted 39% of GH, 34% of term PE, 48% of preterm PE and 60% of EO-PE. The addition of maternal characteristics improved the predictive values (to 40%, 37%, 55% and 70%, respectively). First-trimester MAP is a strong predictor of GH and PE in nulliparous women. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. C-reactive protein, marker for evaluation of systemic inflammatory response in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Mihu, D; Costin, N; Mihu, Carmen Mihaela; Blaga, Ligia Daniela; Pop, Raluca Bogdana

    2008-01-01

    Determination by a high sensitivity technique of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), a sensitive marker of inflammation in women with preeclampsia compared to normal pregnancy and investigation of the relationship between CRP and the severity of the preeclamptic syndrome. The study included 40 women with preeclampsia and 40 control subjects with normal pregnancies in the last trimester of pregnancy. The serum CRP concentration was determined using the universal high sensitivity immunoturbidimetric assay. The serum CRP concentration was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in preclampsia (5.69 +/- 1.8 mg/L) compared to normal pregnancy (2.89 +/- 1.2 mg/L). In women with preeclampsia, CRP correlated positively and significantly with diastolic blood pressure, proteinuria and uric acid levels. Maternal CRP values also correlated negatively and significantly with fetal weight at birth. Our results demonstrate that serum CRP is increased in preeclampsia and represents a marker of the severity of the preeclamptic syndrome and of fetal weight at birth. Taking into consideration these observations and the fact that CRP testing is rapid and relatively inexpensive, we recommend the use of this acute phase reagent in clinical practice, in all women with preeclampsia in order to establish the prognosis of the disease.

  20. Iodine nutritional status of women in their first trimester of pregnancy in Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Torres, Maria Teresa; Francés, Lidia; Vila, Lluis; Manresa, Josep María; Falguera, Gemma; Prieto, Gemma; Casamitjana, Roser; Toran, Pere

    2017-07-26

    Sufficient iodine intake is needed during pregnancy to ensure proper fetal development. The iodine levels of women in their first trimester of pregnancy in Catalonia are currently unknown. This data would help to determine whether our public health services should establish recommendations or interventions in this line. The aim of this study was to investigate the iodine nutritional status, prevalence of urinary iodine <150 μg/L, and tobacco use in the first trimester of pregnancy in our setting. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected during 2008-2009 from women in their first trimester at the primary care centers of the province of Barcelona (Spain). Pregnant women included in the study completed a questionnaire on eating habits and underwent urinary iodine concentration (UIC) assessment. Nine hundred forty five women completed the dietary questionnaire and urinary iodine testing. Median UIC was 172 μg/L, with 407 participants (43.1%) showing levels <150 μg/L. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, intake of 1-2 glasses of milk per day, OR = 0.636 95% CI (0.45-0.90) or >2 glasses, OR = 0.593 95% CI (0.37-0.95); iodized salt consumption, OR = 0.678 95% CI (0.51-0. 90); and use of iodine supplementation, OR = 0.410 95% CI (0.31-0.54), protected against the risk of UIC <150 μg/L. Simultaneous consumption of iodized salt and milk (≥1 glass/day) showed a larger protective effect: OR = 0.427, 95% CI (0.31-0.54). The median UIC of the pregnant women surveyed indicated an acceptable iodine nutritional status according to the criteria established by the WHO and ICCIDD. The risk of urinary iodine <150 μg/L decreased with simultaneous consumption of milk and iodized salt, similar to the decrease seen with iodine supplementation.

  1. Common breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Lee, Adam M.; Slager, Susan; Lesnick, Timothy; Olswold, Curtis; Fasching, Peter A.; Miron, Penelope; Eccles, Diana; Carpenter, Jane E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Ambrosone, Christine; Winqvist, Robert; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Ekici, Arif B.; Tapper, William J; Gerty, Susan M; Durcan, Lorraine; Graham, Nikki; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stephan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fostira, Florentia; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Dimopoulos, Athanasios M.; Fountzilas, George; Clarke, Christine L.; Balleine, Rosemary; Olson, Janet E.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Diasio, Robert B.; Pathak, Harsh; Ross, Eric; Weaver, JoEllen; Rüdiger, Thomas; Försti, Asta; Dünnebier, Thomas; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Kulkarni, Swati; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Van Limbergen, Erik; Janssen, Hilde; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Verhoef, Senno; Tomlinson, Ian; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Beesley, Jonathan; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Blows, Fiona M.; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W; Lambrechts, Diether; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Severi, Gianluca; Hamann, Ute; Pharoah, Paul; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Nevanlinna, Heli; Wang, Xianshu; Couch, Fergus J.

    2012-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiological factors which promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS) display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with risk of triple negative breast cancer, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.11) and rs8100241 (19p13.11). Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple negative breast cancer. PMID:21844186

  2. Effect of sterically demanding substituents on the conformational stability of the collagen triple helix.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Roman S; Wennemers, Helma

    2012-10-17

    The effect of sterically demanding groups at proline residues on the conformational stability of the collagen triple helix was examined. The thermal stabilities (T(m) and ΔG) of eight different triple helices derived from collagen model peptides with (4R)- or (4S)-configured amidoprolines bearing either methyl or bulkier tert-butyl groups in the Xaa or Yaa position were determined and served as a relative measure for the conformational stability of the corresponding collagen triple helices. The results show that sterically demanding substituents are tolerated in the collagen triple helix when they are attached to (4R)-configured amidoprolines in the Xaa position or to (4S)-configured amidoprolines in the Yaa position. Structural studies in which the preferred conformation of (4R)- or (4S)-configured amidoproline were overlaid with the Pro and Hyp residues within a crystal structure of collagen revealed that the sterically demanding groups point to the outside of these two triple helices and thereby do not interfere with the formation of the triple helix. In all of the other examined collagen derivatives with lower stability of the triple helices, the acetyl or pivaloyl residues point toward the inside of the triple helix and clash with a residue of the neighboring strand. The results also revealed that unfavorable steric dispositions affect the conformational stability of the collagen triple helix more than unfavorable ring puckers of the proline residues. The results are useful for the design of functionalized collagen based materials.

  3. Regional Dimensions of the Triple Helix Model: Setting the Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todeva, Emanuela; Danson, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the rationale for the special issue and its contributions, which bridge the literature on regional development and the Triple Helix model. The concept of the Triple Helix at the sub-national, and specifically regional, level is established and examined, with special regard to regional economic development founded on…

  4. [Behaviour and attitudes towards the sexuality of the pregnant woman during the last trimester. Phenomenological study].

    PubMed

    Panea Pizarro, Isabel; Domínguez Martin, Ana Teresa; Barragán Prieto, Vanessa; Martos Sánchez, Almudena; López Espuela, Fidel

    2018-04-13

    To explore the life experiences on sexual relationships in the third trimester of pregnancy in primiparous women. Phenomenological qualitative study, SITE: Cáceres (Extremadura). Primiparous women in the third trimester of their pregnancy. We use theoretical sampling, was conducted on pregnant primiparous. The study included 15 participants. The data was collected using in-depth interviews, that were voiced recorded and later transcribed. The analysis was made using Giorgi's proposal. The results show three main points. Fear of doing damage, mediated by the obstetric history and the desire to have the long-awaited child. Exploring new routes: forms of sexual expression are modified by the physical changes, the fears, and the mobility. Highlighting the importance of other displays of affection and love (kisses and caresses). The Sex Taboo: lack of information against sexuality during pregnancy is still common. Women in the third trimester of their pregnancy put aside their sexual appetite and that of their partners, and concentrate in the wellbeing of their new born baby. It highlights the role of the mother before the couple. The more desired and difficult the pregnancy has been, the more the sexual life is reduced. The Health Professionals must advise and inform the couples with an open-minded attitude. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. [Group counselling for the second trimester ultrasound: can group counselling be an alternative for individual counselling?].

    PubMed

    de Lau, Hinke; Depmann, Martine; Laeven, Yvo J M; Stoutenbeek, Philip H; Pistorius, Lou R; van Beek, Erik; Schuitemaker, Nico W E

    2013-01-01

    To compare group counselling to individual counselling with respect to the second trimester ultrasound. A prospective cohort study at two hospitals. At one hospital, 100 pregnant women were counselled on the risks and benefits of the second trimester ultrasound in groups of up to 15 patients. Shortly before the ultrasound they were asked to fill out a questionnaire. Results were compared to 100 women who were counselled individually at another hospital. The primary outcome was the level of informed choice whether or not to undergo the ultrasound, defined as sufficient knowledge and a value-consistent decision. The secondary outcome measures were level of understanding of the second trimester ultrasound and the degree of satisfaction with the counselling. The resulting level of informed choice was 87.0% after group counselling compared to 79.4% after individual counselling (p = 0.47). The mean knowledge score was 8.8 for the women who attended group counselling; women who were individually counselled had a mean score of 7.4 (p < 0.001). Satisfaction with counselling was 7.0 for group counselling and 6.2 for individual counselling (p < 0.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in the level of informed choice, group counselling was associated with higher post-counselling knowledge and satisfaction scores. Group counselling should therefore be considered as an alternative counselling method.

  6. Cell-free total and fetal DNA in first trimester maternal serum and subsequent development of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Robert; Clifton, Rebecca G.; Myatt, Leslie; Hauth, John C.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Reddy, Uma M.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Ramin, Susan M.; Samuels, Philip; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between first trimester cell-free total and fetal DNA in maternal plasma and the subsequent development of preeclampsia. Study Design Nested case-control study of patients enrolled in the Combined Antioxidant and Preeclampsia Prediction Studies (CAPPS) prediction study of 175 women who did and 175 women who did not develop preeclampsia. The predictive values of cell-free total and fetal DNA and the subsequent development of preeclampsia were measured using ROC curves. Results Cell-free total DNA was higher in African American (median; 25 – 75%; 6.15; 0.14 – 28.73; p = 0.02) and Hispanic (4.95; 0.20 – 26.82; p = 0.037) compared to white women (2.33; 0.03 – 13.10). Levels of cell-free total DNA was also associated with maternal BMI (p = 0.02). Cell-free total DNA levels were similar between women who later developed preeclampsia (3.52; 0.11 – 25.3) and controls (3.74; 0.12 – 21.14, p=0.96). Conclusions There is no significant difference in levels of cell-free total DNA in the first trimester in women who subsequently develop preeclampsia. Levels of cell-free total DNA in the first trimester are increased in African American and Hispanic compared to white women, and levels increase with increasing BMI. PMID:27398706

  7. A Triple Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-01

    This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows an elongated depression from three merged craters. The raised rims and ejecta indicate that these are impact craters rather than collapse or volcanic landforms. The pattern made by the ejecta and the craters suggest this was a highly oblique (low angle to the surface) impact, probably coming from the west. There may have been three major pieces flying in close formation to make this triple crater. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21652

  8. First-Trimester Abdominal Adipose Tissue Thickness to Predict Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bourdages, Mélodie; Demers, Marie-Élaine; Dubé, Samuel; Gasse, Cédric; Girard, Mario; Boutin, Amélie; Ray, Joel G; Bujold, Emmanuel; Demers, Suzanne

    2018-07-01

    To estimate the discriminative capacity of first-trimester subcutaneous (SATT), visceral (VATT), and total (TATT) adipose tissue thickness in predicting gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), including that requiring insulin. We prospectively recruited a cohort of 1048 nulliparous women. Ultrasound images were used to determine abdominal SATT, VATT, and TATT at 11 to 14 weeks' gestation. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to predict GDM, as well as insulin-requiring GDM. Model discrimination was expressed as area under the curve (AUC). SATT (AUC 0.66, 95% CI 0.59-0.73), VATT (AUC 0.65, 95% CI 0.58-0.73), and TATT (AUC 0.68, 95% CI 0.61-0.76) were each associated with subsequent GDM. The respective AUC values for insulin-requiring GDM were 0.70 (95% CI 0.61-0.79), 0.73 (95% CI 0.65-0.82), and 0.76 (95% CI 0.67-0.84). At a false-positive rate of 10%, the detection rate for insulin-requiring GDM was 19% for maternal age ≥35 years, 31% for a BMI ≥31.6 kg/m 2 , and 31% for TATT ≥61 mm, increasing to 42% in the model comprising all three measures. First-trimester ultrasound measurement of adipose tissue is associated with a higher chance of developing GDM, especially insulin-requiring GDM. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ACA and the Triple Aim: Musings of a Health Care Actuary.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Mac

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) promulgated the Triple Aim, which advocates simultaneous improvements in patient experiences, improved population health and lower cost per capita. In 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) promised quality, affordable health care for all Americans. It's fair to assume that the framers of ACA were aware of the Triple Aim, and it is likely that much of ACA was heavily influenced by IHI's positions. So it is reasonable, from time to time, to assess ACA's impact on health care against the Triple Aim principles.

  10. Evaluation of anaemia in booked antenatal mothers during the last trimester.

    PubMed

    Amel Ivan, Erli; A, Mangaiarkkarasi

    2013-11-01

    Anaemia occurring during pregnancy is an important public health problem in developing countries. In India, anaemia is one of the most common causes of maternal death, accounting for 20% of total maternal deaths. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating anaemia among booked antenatal mothers during the last trimester, its possible impact on pregnancy and its outcome in antenatal mothers, visiting antenatal clinic in a teaching tertiary care hospital at Pondicherry, India. This hospital based, descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Clinical Pathology and Pharmacology at Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College Hospital in Pondicherry, India. Socio-economic and gestational status data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire from booked antenatal mothers in third trimester. Venous blood was collected for the estimation of Haemoglobin by using Sahli's Haemoglobinometer and morphological typing of anaemia was estimated by using Leishmann Stain peripheral blood smears. The women were followed-up till delivery and their antenatal, neonatal and other birth outcomes were recorded. Seventy five booked antenatal women, aged 19 - 40 years, with gestational ages of 27- 40 weeks, were recruited for the study. We observed that among 75 antenatal mothers, the Haemoglobin level was less than 10grams% in 83% cases and that it was more than 10 grams% in 17% cases. Iron deficiency anaemia and dimorphic anaemia were recorded in 37% and 19% of the women respectively. High percentage of anaemia was noted in women of higher age group (23-27 years), in those with multi-parity (55%) and low educational levels (100%) and in mothers of low socio-economic status (100%). In the pregnancy outcomes, 85% and 60% anaemic mothers reported maternal and foetal complications respectively. In spite of regular antenatal visits in third trimester, maternal anaemia is still high and it is often associated with low education status, socio

  11. Evaluation of Anaemia in Booked Antenatal Mothers During the Last Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Amel Ivan, Erli; A., Mangaiarkkarasi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Anaemia occurring during pregnancy is an important public health problem in developing countries. In India, anaemia is one of the most common causes of maternal death, accounting for 20% of total maternal deaths. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating anaemia among booked antenatal mothers during the last trimester, its possible impact on pregnancy and its outcome in antenatal mothers, visiting antenatal clinic in a teaching tertiary care hospital at Pondicherry, India. Material and Methods: This hospital based, descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Clinical Pathology and Pharmacology at Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College Hospital in Pondicherry, India. Socio–economic and gestational status data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire from booked antenatal mothers in third trimester. Venous blood was collected for the estimation of Haemoglobin by using Sahli’s Haemoglobinometer and morphological typing of anaemia was estimated by using Leishmann Stain peripheral blood smears. The women were followed-up till delivery and their antenatal, neonatal and other birth outcomes were recorded. Results: Seventy five booked antenatal women, aged 19 - 40 years, with gestational ages of 27– 40 weeks, were recruited for the study. We observed that among 75 antenatal mothers, the Haemoglobin level was less than 10grams% in 83% cases and that it was more than 10 grams% in 17% cases. Iron deficiency anaemia and dimorphic anaemia were recorded in 37% and 19% of the women respectively. High percentage of anaemia was noted in women of higher age group (23–27 years), in those with multi–parity (55%) and low educational levels (100%) and in mothers of low socio–economic status (100%). In the pregnancy outcomes, 85% and 60% anaemic mothers reported maternal and foetal complications respectively. Conclusion: In spite of regular antenatal visits in third trimester, maternal anaemia is still

  12. [Expressions of CXCL16/CXCR6 and CXCL12/CXCR4 in first-trimester human trophoblast cells].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Li, Da-jin; Wang, Ming-yan; Cheng, Hai-dong

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the transcription and protein expressions of chemokines CXCL16, CXCL12 and their receptors CXCR6, CXCR4 in first-trimester human cytotrophoblast cells and human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR. Transcriptions of CXCR6, CXCL16, CXCR4, CXCL12 in purified first-trimester human trophoblast cells and JAR line were assessed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and protein expressions of CXCR6, CXCL16, CXCR4, CXCL12 were analyzed in primary cultured villous cytotrophoblasts (VCT), extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVCT), JAR line and placentas by immunostaining. CXCR6 and CXCR4 were highly transcribed in primary cultured trophoblast cells with mRNA relative level of 1.12 +/- 0.25 and 1.08 +/- 0.11 respectively, and their ligands CXCL16 and CXCL12 were transcribed moderately with mRNA relative level of 0.89 +/- 0.11 and 0.78 +/- 0.10 respectively. It was demonstrated that CXCL16, CXCL12, CXCR6 and CXCR4 were expressed in primary cultured VCT, EVCT, JAR line and placentas by immunostaining. The co-expression of CXCL16/CXCR6 and CXCL12/CXCR4 in trophoblast cells may play a role in the proliferation and differentiation of first-trimester trophoblast cells in a manner of autocrine.

  13. [Prospective performance evaluation of first trimester screenings in Germany for risk calculation through http://www.firsttrimester.net].

    PubMed

    Kleinsorge, F; Smetanay, K; Rom, J; Hörmansdörfer, C; Hörmannsdörfer, C; Scharf, A; Schmidt, P

    2010-12-01

    In 2008, 2 351 first trimester screenings were calculated by a newly developed internet database ( http:// www.firsttrimester.net ) to evaluate the risk for the presence of Down's syndrome. All data were evaluated by the conventional first trimester screening according to Nicolaides (FTS), based on the previous JOY Software, and by the advanced first trimester screening (AFS). After receiving the feedback of the karyotype as well as the rates of the correct positives, correct negatives, false positives, false negatives, the sensitivity and specificity were calculated and compared. Overall 255 cases were investigated which were analysed by both methods. These included 2 cases of Down's syndrome and one case of trisomy 18. The FTS and the AFS had a sensitivity of 100%. The specificity was 88.5% for the FTS and 93.0% for the AFS. As already shown in former studies, the higher specificity of the AFS is a result of a reduction of the false positive rate (28 to 17 cases). As a consequence of the AFS with a detection rate of 100% the rate of further invasive diagnostics in pregnant women is decreased by having 39% fewer positive tested women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Nitrous oxide versus oral sedation for pain management of first-trimester surgical abortion - a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rameet H; Montoya, Maria; Espey, Eve; Leeman, Lawrence

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the study was to compare nitrous oxide with oxygen (N 2 O/O 2 ) to oral hydrocodone/acetaminophen and lorazepam for analgesia during first-trimester surgical abortion. This double-blind randomized trial assigned women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at<11 weeks' gestation to inhaled N 2 O/O 2 vs. oral sedation for pain management. The N 2 O/O 2 group received up to 70:30 ratio during the procedure and placebo pills preprocedure; the oral group received inhaled oxygen during the procedure and oral hydrocodone/acetaminophen 5 mg/325 mg and lorazepam 1 mg preprocedure. The primary outcome was maximum procedural pain, assessed on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS; anchors 0=no pain and 100=worst pain) at 2 min postprocedure. A difference of 13 mm on the VAS was considered clinically significant. Satisfaction with pain management was measured on a 100-mm VAS (anchors 0=very unsatisfied, 100=very satisfied). We randomized 140 women, 70 per study arm. Mean age of participants was 26±6.6 years; mean gestational age was 7.3±1.5 weeks. Mean maximum procedure pain scores were 52.5±26.7 and 60.8±24.4 for N 2 O/O 2 and oral groups, respectively (p=.09). Satisfaction with pain management was 69.3±28.4 and 61.5±30.4 for N 2 O/O 2 and oral groups. respectively (p=.15). We found no difference in mean procedural pain scores between women assigned to N 2 O/O 2 vs. those assigned to oral sedation for first-trimester surgical abortion. Satisfaction with both options was high. Women undergoing early surgical abortion experienced no differences in pain and satisfaction between those who used inhaled nitrous oxide and oral sedation. Nitrous oxide, with side effects limited to the duration of inhalation and no need for a ride home, is a viable alternative to oral sedation for first-trimester abortion pain management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Is Three a Crowd? Exploring the Development and Satisfaction of Students in Triples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Larry D.; Kujawa, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Tripling, the assignment of a third resident to a room designed for two, is a common practice at many colleges and universities across the United States. Most of the research on tripling was conducted three or four decades ago, and research exploring how living in a triple affects the educational gains and satisfaction of college students is…

  16. High Expression of CCR7 Predicts Lymph Node Metastasis and Good Prognosis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuelu; Sun, Siwen; Li, Ning; Gao, Jiyue; Yu, Jing; Zhao, Jinbo; Li, Man; Zhao, Zuowei

    2017-01-01

    Previous preclinical and clinical studies have reported a positive correlation between the expression of the C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) and the incidence of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. However, the prognostic relevance of CCR7 expression in breast cancer remains contradictory till now. The aim of this study is to assess the correlation of the CCR7 expression with other clinicopathological features and prognosis in breast cancer. The CCR7 gene amplification and mRNA expression levels from approximately 3,000 patients were retrieved from human breast cancer databases and analyzed. Furthermore, a total of 188 primary triple negative breast cancer patients were enrolled in this study (diagnosed since January 2009 to January 2013 from the Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University). The protein levels of CCR7 were examined by immunohistochemistry using paraffin-embedded tumor tissues. The analysis of gene amplification and mRNA levels showed the expression of CCR7 in breast cancer correlated with better prognosis. When we compared the CCR7 expressions in different subtypes, the basal-like group showed the highest expression of CCR7 and exhibited a better prognosis. Consistently, Kaplan-Meier analysis of 188 triple negative breast cancer patients showed that the prognosis of patients with positive CCR7 expression was significantly better than those with negative expression (HR=0.642, p=0.0275). Additionally, we also observed a positive correlation between lymph node metastasis and the CCR7 expression (p=0.0096). Our results indicated that elevated CCR7 expression as a marker for increased lymph node metastasis, in addition to serve as an independent prognostic indicator for better overall survival in triple negative breast cancer patients. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Self-rated Health among Pregnant Women: Associations with Objective Health Indicators, Psychological Functioning, and Serum Inflammatory Markers

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Lisa M.; Iams, Jay; Porter, Kyle; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz

    2013-01-01

    Background Biobehavioral correlates of self-rated health in pregnancy are largely unknown. Purpose The goals of this study were to examine, in pregnant women, associations of self-rated health with 1) demographics, objective health status, health behaviors and psychological factors and 2) serum inflammatory markers. Methods In the 2nd trimester of pregnancy, 101 women provided a blood sample, completed measures of psychosocial stress, health status, and health behaviors, and received a comprehensive periodontal examination. Results The following independently predicted poorer self-rated health: 1) greater psychological stress, 2) greater objective health diagnoses, 3) higher body mass index, and 4) past smoking (versus never smoking). Poorer self-rated health was associated with higher serum interleukin-1β (p = .02) and marginally higher macrophage migration inhibitory factor (p = .06). These relationships were not fully accounted for by behavioral/psychological factors. Conclusions This study provides novel data regarding factors influencing subjective ratings of health and the association of self-rated health with serum inflammatory markers in pregnant women. PMID:23765366

  18. Detection of Gelatin Adulteration in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Analysis of Deer-Horn Glue by Rapid-Resolution Liquid Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia; Cheng, Xian-Long; Wei, Feng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Li, Ming-Hua; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous identification of donkey-hide gelatin and bovine-hide gelatin in deer-horn glue was established by rapid-resolution liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Water containing 1% NH4HCO3 was used for sample dissolution and trypsin was used for hydrolysis of the gelatins. After separation by a SB-C18 reversed-phase analytical column, collagen marker peptides were detected by mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The method was specific, precise and reliable, and suitable for detection of adulterants derived from donkey-hide gelatin and bovine-hide gelatin in deer-horn glue. PMID:26504613

  19. Biochemical profile of African American women during three trimesters of pregnancy and at delivery.

    PubMed

    Knight, E M; Spurlock, B G; Edwards, C H; Johnson, A A; Oyemade, U J; Cole, O J; West, W L; Manning, M; James, H; Laryea, H

    1994-06-01

    The data presented are the results from a prospective observational study which was conducted to investigate the effects of nutrition and other related factors on the outcome of pregnancy in nulliparous African American women 16-35 years old. Fasting blood samples were collected from the women during the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. At delivery, both maternal and cord samples were collected. Biochemical variables such as, serum folate, vitamin B12, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, ferritin, selected minerals as well as complete blood count (CBC) and red cell folate were analyzed in the blood samples. The concentrations of hematocrit, hemoglobin, white blood cells, red blood cells and vitamin B12 were below the reference non-pregnant ranges throughout gestation. Maternal concentrations of folate and vitamin E increased sequentially with increased gestational age. Serum ferritin, during the third trimester, declined to 58% of the first trimester concentration. Maternal levels of ferritin at delivery were one third of the values found in the infant (cord) sample. Cord levels of folate, ascorbic acid and vitamin B12 were higher than the concentrations in the maternal delivery samples. The data suggest that among this group of pregnant women, major physiological changes, such as plasma volume expansion which alters blood chemistry and maternal to fetal transfer of nutrients, were similar to the findings of other investigators. In this population however, the findings for serum and whole blood folate are contrary to those reported by other researchers, and the sequential increase in the maternal concentration of the vitamin during pregnancy could be attributed to the use of vitamin supplements.

  20. Solution Patterns Predicting Pythagorean Triples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezenweani, Ugwunna Louis

    2013-01-01

    Pythagoras Theorem is an old mathematical treatise that has traversed the school curricula from secondary to tertiary levels. The patterns it produced are quite interesting that many researchers have tried to generate a kind of predictive approach to identifying triples. Two attempts, namely Diophantine equation and Brahmagupta trapezium presented…

  1. Structural insights into the stabilization of MALAT1 noncoding RNA by a bipartite triple helix

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jessica A.; Bulkley, David; Wang, Jimin; Valenstein, Max L.; Yario, Therese A.; Steitz, Thomas A.; Steitz, Joan A.

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a highly-abundant nuclear long noncoding RNA that promotes malignancy. A 3′-stem-loop structure is predicted to confer stability by engaging a downstream A-rich tract in a triple helix, similar to the expression and nuclear retention element (ENE) from the KSHV polyadenylated nuclear RNA. The 3.1-Å resolution crystal structure of the human MALAT1 ENE and A-rich tract reveals a bipartite triple helix containing stacks of five and four U•A-U triples separated by a C+•G-C triplet and C-G doublet, extended by two A-minor interactions. In vivo decay assays indicate that this blunt-ended triple helix, with the 3′ nucleotide in a U•A-U triple, inhibits rapid nuclear RNA decay. Interruption of the triple helix by the C-G doublet induces a “helical reset” that explains why triple-helical stacks longer than six do not occur in nature. PMID:24952594

  2. Organizing product innovation: hierarchy, market or triple-helix networks?

    PubMed

    Fitjar, Rune Dahl; Gjelsvik, Martin; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés

    This paper assesses the extent to which the organization of the innovation effort in firms, as well as the geographical scale at which this effort is pursued, affects the capacity to benefit from product innovations. Three alternative modes of organization are studied: hierarchy, market and triple-helix-type networks. Furthermore, we consider triple-helix networks at three geographical scales: local, national and international. These relationships are tested on a random sample of 763 firms located in five urban regions of Norway which reported having introduced new products or services during the preceding 3 years. The analysis shows that firms exploiting internal hierarchy or triple-helix networks with a wide range of partners managed to derive a significantly higher share of their income from new products, compared to those that mainly relied on outsourcing within the market. In addition, the analysis shows that the geographical scale of cooperation in networks, as well as the type of partner used, matters for the capacity of firms to benefit from product innovation. In particular, firms that collaborate in international triple-helix-type networks involving suppliers, customers and R&D institutions extract a higher share of their income from product innovations, regardless of whether they organize the processes internally or through the network.

  3. Synthesis of triple-stranded complexes using bis(dipyrromethene) ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhan; Dolphin, David

    2010-12-20

    The reaction of an α-free, β,β'-linked bis(dipyrromethene) ligand with Fe(3+) or Co(3+) led to noninterconvertible triple-stranded helicates and mesocates. In the present context, a stable α-free ligand 2 has been developed and complexation of ligands 1 and 2 with diamagnetic Co(3+), Ga(3+), and In(3+) has been studied. The triple-stranded M(2)1(3) (M = Ga, In) and M(2)2(3) (M = Co, Ga, In) complexes were characterized using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight spectrometry, (1)H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. Again, the (1)H NMR analysis showed that both the triple-stranded helicates and mesocates were generated in this metal-directed assembly. Consistent with our previous finding on coordinatively inert Co(3+) complexes, variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy indicated that the triple-stranded helicate and mesocate of labile In(3+) did not interconvert in solution, either. However, the diastereoselectivity of the M(2)2(3) complexes was found to improve with an increase in the reaction temperature. Taken together, this study complements the coordination chemistry of poly(dipyrromethene) ligands and provides further insight into the formation of helicates versus mesocates.

  4. Performance of Mercury Triple-Point Cells Made in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkovic, S. G.; Santiago, J. F. N.; Filho, R. R.; Teixeira, R. N.; Santos, P. R. F.

    2003-09-01

    Fixed-points cells are primary standards in ITS-90. They contain reference material with a purity of 99.999 % or more. The gallium in a melting-point cell, for example, can reach a purity of 99.99999 %. This level of purity is not easy to obtain. However, substances like water and mercury can be purified by means of distillation and chemical procedures. This paper presents the results of mercury triple-point cells made in Brazil that were directly compared to a mercury triple-point cell of 99.999% purity. This reference cell, made by Isotech (England), was previously compared to cells from CENAM (Mexico) and NRC (Canada) and the maximum deviation found was approximately 0.4 mK. The purification stage started with a sample of mercury 99.3 % pure, and the repeated use of both mechanical and chemical processes led to a purification grade considered good enough for calibration of standard platinum resistance thermometers. The purification procedures, the method of construction of the cell, the laboratory facilities, the comparison results and the budget of uncertainties are described in this paper. All of the cells tested have a triple-point temperature within 0.25 mK of the triple-point temperature of the Inmetro reference cell.

  5. Early Pregnancy Biochemical Predictors of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Powe, Camille E

    2017-02-01

    Universal oral glucose tolerance-based screening is employed to identify pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), as treatment of this condition decreases the risk of associated complications. A simple and accurate blood test which identifies women at low or high risk for GDM in the first trimester would have the potential to decrease costs and improve outcomes through prevention or treatment. This review summarizes published data on early pregnancy biomarkers which have been tested as predictors of GDM. A large number of first-trimester biochemical predictors of GDM have been reported, mostly in small case-control studies. These include glycemic markers (fasting glucose, post-load glucose, hemoglobin A1C), inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha), insulin resistance markers (fasting insulin, sex hormone-binding globulin), adipocyte-derived markers (adiponectin, leptin), placenta-derived markers (follistatin-like-3, placental growth factor, placental exosomes), and others (e.g., glycosylated fibronectin, soluble (pro)renin receptor, alanine aminotransferase, ferritin). A few large studies suggest that first-trimester fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1C may be useful for identifying women who would benefit from early GDM treatment. To translate the findings from observational studies of first-trimester biomarkers for GDM to clinical practice, trials or cost-effectiveness analyses of screening and treatment strategies based on these novel biomarkers are needed.

  6. What Is the Rate of Incomplete Fetal Anatomic Surveys During a Second-Trimester Scan? Retrospective Observational Study of 4000 Nonobese Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Padula, Francesco; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Capriglione, Stella; Giorlandino, Maurizio; Cignini, Pietro; Mastrandrea, Maria Luisa; D'Emidio, Laura; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the rate of incomplete fetal anatomic surveys during a second-trimester scan due to an unfavorable fetal position in a nonobese population. All pregnant women who came to the Altamedica Fetal-Maternal Medical Center, a specialized center for prenatal diagnosis, for a routine second-trimester scan between January 2012 and April 2013 were retrospectively included in the analysis. Patients with a body mass index higher than 30.0 kg/m(2) or anterior fibroids larger than 5 cm were not included in the study. Of 4000 pregnant women admitted for a second-trimester scan, 169 (4.2%) came back within 2 weeks to complete the examination because of an unfavorable fetal position. In particular, 104 (2.6%) needed visualization of only 1 view, and 65 (1.6%) needed more than 1 view. The most difficult organ to visualize was the corpus callosum, in 73 cases (1.8%); the face was not visualized in 69 cases (1.7%); the cerebellar vermis was not seen in 47 fetuses (1.1%); and the heart could not be completely examined in 40 fetuses (1.0%). Of the 4000 women, 169 (4.2%) had a nonexhaustive scan; 149 (3.7%) needed a second scan to complete the second-trimester survey; 14 (0.35%) needed a third scan; and 2 (0.05%) remained with a not completely exhaustive scan. There is always a small percentage of incomplete fetal anatomic surveys during a second-trimester scan, which cannot be modified by the sonographer's skill or by technical sonographic innovations. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. Does the thyroid-stimulating hormone measured concurrently with first trimester biochemical screening tests predict adverse pregnancy outcomes occurring after 20 weeks gestation?

    PubMed

    Ong, Gregory S Y; Hadlow, Narelle C; Brown, Suzanne J; Lim, Ee Mun; Walsh, John P

    2014-12-01

    Maternal hypothyroidism in early pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes, but not consistently across studies. First trimester screening for chromosomal anomalies is routine in many centers and provides an opportunity to test thyroid function. To determine if thyroid function tests performed with first trimester screening predicts adverse pregnancy outcomes. A cohort study of 2411 women in Western Australia with singleton pregnancies attending first trimester screening between 9 and 14 weeks gestation. We evaluated the association between TSH, free T4, free T3, thyroid antibodies, free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) with a composite of adverse pregnancy events as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included placenta previa, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy loss after 20 weeks gestation, threatened preterm labor, preterm birth, small size for gestational age, neonatal death, and birth defects. TSH exceeded the 97.5th percentile for the first trimester (2.15 mU/L) in 133 (5.5%) women, including 22 (1%) with TSH above the nonpregnant reference range (4 mU/L) and 5 (0.2%) above 10 mU/L. Adverse outcomes occurred in 327 women (15%). TSH and free T4 did not differ significantly between women with or without adverse pregnancy events. On the multivariate analysis, neither maternal TSH >2.15 mU/L nor TSH as a continuous variable predicted primary or secondary outcomes. Testing maternal TSH as part of first trimester screening does not predict adverse pregnancy outcomes. This may be because in the community setting, mainly mild abnormalities in thyroid function are detected.

  8. Triple-effect absorption chiller cycle: A step beyond double-effect cycles

    SciTech Connect

    DeVault, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Many advanced'' absorption cycles have been proposed during the current century. Of the hundreds of absorption cycles which have been patented throughout the world, all commercially manufactured products for air conditioning buildings have been variations of just two basic absorption cycles: single-effect and condenser-coupled double-effect cycles. The relatively low cooling coefficients of performance (COPs) inherent in single-effect and double-effect cycles limits the economic applicability of absorption air conditioners (chillers) in the United States. A triple-effect absorption chiller cycle is discussed. This cycle uses two condensers and two absorbers to achieve the triple effect.'' Depending on the absorption fluids selected, thismore » triple-effect cycle is predicted to improve cooling COPs by 18% to 60% compared with the equivalent double-effect cycle. This performance improvement is obtained without increasing the total amount of heat-transfer surface area needed for the heat exchangers. A comparison between the calculated performances of a double-effect cycle and a triple-effect cycle (both using ammonia-water (NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O) as the absorption fluid pair) is presented. The triple-effect cycle is predicted to have an 18% higher cooling COP (1.41 compared with 1.2 for a double-effect), lower pressure (47.70 atm (701 psi) instead of 68.05 atm (1000 psi)), significantly reduced pumping power (less than one-half that of the double-effect cycle), and potentially lower construction cost (33% less total heat exchange needed). Practical implications for this triple-effect cycle are discussed. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  9. First and second trimester gestational weight gains are most strongly associated with cord blood levels of hormones at delivery important for glycemic control and somatic growth

    PubMed Central

    Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Fleisch, Abby; Hivert, Marie-France; Mantzoros, Christos; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Background Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for mothers and offspring. Early, mid, and late pregnancy GWG have different associations with fetal growth and later life adiposity, but associations with cord blood hormones, which might predict later health, are not well studied. Methods In 978 pregnant women from the pre-birth Project Viva cohort, we calculated trimester-specific GWG using clinically recorded prenatal weights. Outcomes were levels of umbilical cord blood hormones related to fetal and postnatal growth. We used linear regression models adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, education, pregnancy smoking status and child sex; 2nd and 3rd trimester models were additionally adjusted for GWG in prior trimesters. Results Mean ± SD pre-pregnancy BMI was 24.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2, 30% were non-white, and 63% were college graduates. Mean ± SD cord blood hormone levels were insulin-like growth factor [IGF]-1 (56.4 ± 24.3 ng/mL), IGF-2 (408.5 ± 92.7 ng/mL), IGFBP-3 (1084 ± 318 ng/mL), insulin (6.5 ± 7.2 uU/mL), C-peptide (1.0 ± 0.6 ng/mL), leptin (9.0 ± 6.6 ng/mL) and adiponectin (28.7 ± 6.8 μg/mL). Mean ± SD 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester GWG rates were 0.22 ± 0.22, 0.49 ± 0.19 and 0.46 ± 0.22 kg/wk. Greater 1st trimester GWG (per 0.2 kg/wk) was associated with higher insulin (0.5 uU/mL; 95% CI 0.1, 0.9) and c-peptide (0.06 ng/mL; 95% CI 0.02, 0.09) and lower adiponectin (−0.4 μg/mL; 95% CI −0.9, 0.0). Greater 2nd trimester GWG (per 0.2 kg/wk) was associated with higher IGF-1 (2.3 ng/mL; 95% CI 0.6, 4.0), IGF-2 (7.9 ng/mL; 95% CI 1.2, 14.6), IGFBP-3 (41.6 ng/mL; 95% CI 19.4, 63.7) and leptin (0.9 ng/mL; 0.4, 1.4). 3rd trimester GWG was not associated with cord blood hormones. Conclusion 1st trimester weight gain appears to matter more for cord blood hormones related to offspring glucose/insulin regulation, whereas 2nd trimester gain matters more for hormones related to

  10. First and second trimester gestational weight gains are most strongly associated with cord blood levels of hormones at delivery important for glycemic control and somatic growth.

    PubMed

    Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Fleisch, Abby; Hivert, Marie-France; Mantzoros, Christos; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for mothers and offspring. Early, mid, and late pregnancy GWGs have different associations with fetal growth and later life adiposity, but associations with cord blood hormones, which might predict later health, are not well studied. In 978 pregnant women from the pre-birth Project Viva cohort, we calculated trimester-specific GWG using clinically recorded prenatal weights. Outcomes were levels of umbilical cord blood hormones related to fetal and postnatal growth. We used linear regression models adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, education, pregnancy smoking status and child sex; 2nd and 3rd trimester models were additionally adjusted for GWG in prior trimesters. Mean±SD pre-pregnancy BMI was 24.9±5.5kg/m 2 , 30% were non-white, and 63% were college graduates. Mean±SD cord blood hormone levels were insulin-like growth factor [IGF]-1 (56.4±24.3ng/mL), IGF-2 (408.5±92.7ng/mL), IGFBP-3 (1084±318ng/mL), insulin (6.5±7.2 uU/mL), C-peptide (1.0±0.6ng/mL), leptin (9.0±6.6ng/mL) and adiponectin (28.7±6.8μg/mL). Mean±SD 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester GWG rates were 0.22±0.22, 0.49±0.19 and 0.46±0.22kg/wk. Greater 1st trimester GWG (per 0.2kg/wk) was associated with higher insulin (0.5 uU/mL; 95% CI 0.1, 0.9) and C-peptide (0.06ng/mL; 95% CI 0.02, 0.09) and lower adiponectin (-0.4μg/mL; 95% CI -0.9, 0.0). Greater 2nd trimester GWG (per 0.2kg/wk) was associated with higher IGF-1 (2.3ng/mL; 95% CI 0.6, 4.0), IGF-2 (7.9ng/mL; 95% CI 1.2, 14.6), IGFBP-3 (41.6ng/mL; 95% CI 19.4, 63.7) and leptin (0.9ng/mL; 0.4, 1.4). 3rd trimester GWG was not associated with cord blood hormones. 1st trimester weight gain appears to matter more for cord blood hormones related to offspring glucose/insulin regulation, whereas 2nd trimester gain matters more for hormones related to growth and adiposity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of split double and triple twists in pair figure skating.

    PubMed

    King, Deborah L; Smith, Sarah L; Brown, Michele R; McCrory, Jean L; Munkasy, Barry A; Scheirman, Gary I

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we compared the kinematic variables of the split triple twist with those of the split double twist to help coaches and scientists understand these landmark pair skating skills. High-speed video was taken during the pair short and free programmes at the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics and the 2003 International Skating Union Grand Prix Finals. Three-dimensional analyses of 14 split double twists and 15 split triple twists from eleven pairs were completed. In spite of considerable variability in the performance variables among the pairs, the main difference between the split double twists and split triple twists was an increase in rotational rate. While eight of the eleven pairs relied primarily on an increased rotational rate to complete the split triple twist, three pairs employed a combined strategy of increased rotational rate and increased flight time due predominantly to delayed or lower catches. These results were similar to observations of jumps in singles skating for which the extra rotation is typically due to an increase in rotational velocity; increases in flight time come primarily from delayed landings as opposed to additional height during flight. Combining an increase in flight time and rotational rate may be a good strategy for completing the split triple twist in pair skating.

  12. Triple Value Simulation Model Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Triple Value Simulation (3VS) is a high-level model that accounts for the complex relationships among economic, social and environmental systems in order to explore scenarios and solutions to improve the health of the Bay.

  13. Triple X Syndrome: Symptoms and Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... be more pronounced — possibly including developmental delays and learning disabilities. Treatment for triple X syndrome depends on which ... motor skills, such as sitting up and walking Learning disabilities, such as difficulty with reading (dyslexia), understanding or ...

  14. Syntheses, structures and redox properties of some complexes containing the Os(dppe)Cp* fragment, including [{Os(dppe)Cp*}2(mu-C triple bondCC triple bond C)].

    PubMed

    Bruce, Michael I; Costuas, Karine; Davin, Thomas; Halet, Jean-François; Kramarczuk, Kathy A; Low, Paul J; Nicholson, Brian K; Perkins, Gary J; Roberts, Rachel L; Skelton, Brian W; Smith, Mark E; White, Allan H

    2007-12-14

    The sequential conversion of [OsBr(cod)Cp*] (9) to [OsBr(dppe)Cp*] (10), [Os([=C=CH2)(dppe)Cp*]PF6 ([11]PF6), [Os(C triple bond CH)(dppe)Cp*] (12), [{Os(dppe)Cp*}2{mu-(=C=CH-CH=C=)}][PF6]2 ([13](PF6)2) and finally [{Os(dppe)Cp*}(2)(mu-C triple bond CC triple bond C)] (14) has been used to make the third member of the triad [{M(dppe)Cp*}2(mu-C triple bond CC triple bond C)] (M = Fe, Ru, Os). The molecular structures of []PF6, 12 and 14, together with those of the related osmium complexes [Os(NCMe)(dppe)Cp*]PF6 ([15]PF6) and [Os(C triple bond CPh)(dppe)Cp*] (16), have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Comparison of the redox properties of 14 with those of its iron and ruthenium congeners shows that the first oxidation potential E1 varies as: Fe approximately Os < Ru. Whereas the Fe complex has been shown to undergo three sequential 1-electron oxidation processes within conventional electrochemical solvent windows, the Ru and Os compounds undergo no fewer than four sequential oxidation events giving rise to a five-membered series of redox related complexes [{M(dppe)Cp*}2(mu-C4)]n+ (n = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4), the osmium derivatives being obtained at considerably lower potentials than the ruthenium analogues. These results are complimented by DFT and DT DFT calculations.

  15. Loss of PTEN expression is associated with aggressive behavior and poor prognosis in Middle Eastern triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Beg, Shaham; Siraj, Abdul K; Prabhakaran, Sarita; Jehan, Zeenath; Ajarim, Dahish; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2015-06-01

    PTEN is a tumor suppressor that negatively regulates the PI3 K-AKT signaling pathway which is involved in the pathogenesis of many different tumor types and serves as a prognostic marker in breast cancer. However, the significance of the role of PTEN in Middle Eastern ethnic breast cancer has not been explored especially with the fact that breast cancer originating from this ethnic population tend to behave more aggressively than breast cancer in the west. In this study, we analyzed PTEN alteration in a tissue microarray format containing more than 1000 primary breast cancers with clinical follow-up data. Tissue Microarray sections were analyzed for protein expression and copy number change using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Loss of PTEN immunostaining was observed in 77 % of the cases. PTEN loss was significantly associated with large tumor size (p = 0.0030), high grade (p = 0.0281), tumor recurrence (p = 0.0333), and triple-negative breast cancers (p = 0.0086). PTEN loss in triple-negative breast cancers was significantly associated with rapid tumor cell proliferation (p = 0.0396) and poor prognosis (p = 0.0408). PTEN deletion was found only in 60 cases (6.4 %). Loss of PTEN protein expression occurs at high frequency in Middle Eastern breast cancer. PTEN inactivation may potentially lead to an aggressive behavior of tumor cells through stimulation of tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, PTEN signaling pathway might be used as potential therapeutic target in triple-negative breast cancers since loss of its expression is shown to be significantly associated with this aggressive subtype of breast cancer.

  16. Behavior of Triple Langmuir Probes in Non-Equilibrium Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Ratcliffe, Alicia C.

    2018-01-01

    The triple Langmuir probe is an electrostatic probe in which three probe tips collect current when inserted into a plasma. The triple probe differs from a simple single Langmuir probe in the nature of the voltage applied to the probe tips. In the single probe, a swept voltage is applied to the probe tip to acquire a waveform showing the collected current as a function of applied voltage (I-V curve). In a triple probe three probe tips are electrically coupled to each other with constant voltages applied between each of the tips. The voltages are selected such that they would represent three points on the single Langmuir probe I-V curve. Elimination of the voltage sweep makes it possible to measure time-varying plasma properties in transient plasmas. Under the assumption of a Maxwellian plasma, one can determine the time-varying plasma temperature T(sub e)(t) and number density n(sub e)(t) from the applied voltage levels and the time-histories of the collected currents. In the present paper we examine the theory of triple probe operation, specifically focusing on the assumption of a Maxwellian plasma. Triple probe measurements have been widely employed for a number of pulsed and timevarying plasmas, including pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs), dense plasma focus devices, plasma flows, and fusion experiments. While the equilibrium assumption may be justified for some applications, it is unlikely that it is fully justifiable for all pulsed and time-varying plasmas or for all times during the pulse of a plasma device. To examine a simple non-equilibrium plasma case, we return to basic governing equations of probe current collection and compute the current to the probes for a distribution function consisting of two Maxwellian distributions with different temperatures (the two-temperature Maxwellian). A variation of this method is also employed, where one of the Maxwellians is offset from zero (in velocity space) to add a suprathermal beam of electrons to the tail of the

  17. Targeting Tryptophan Catabolism: A Novel Method to Block Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0039 TITLE: Targeting Tryptophan Catabolism: A Novel Method to Block Triple- Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis...Mar 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Tryptophan Catabolism: A Novel Method to Block Triple-Negative Breast Cancer...Tryptophan Catabolism: A Novel Method to Block Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis,” Submitted by Jennifer K. Richer, PhD, University of Colorado

  18. Natural triple beta-stranded fibrous folds.

    PubMed

    Mitraki, Anna; Papanikolopoulou, Katerina; Van Raaij, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    A distinctive family of beta-structured folds has recently been described for fibrous proteins from viruses. Virus fibers are usually involved in specific host-cell recognition. They are asymmetric homotrimeric proteins consisting of an N-terminal virus-binding tail, a central shaft or stalk domain, and a C-terminal globular receptor-binding domain. Often they are entirely or nearly entirely composed of beta-structure. Apart from their biological relevance and possible gene therapy applications, their shape, stability, and rigidity suggest they may be useful as blueprints for biomechanical design. Folding and unfolding studies suggest their globular C-terminal domain may fold first, followed by a "zipping-up" of the shaft domains. The C-terminal domains appear to be important for registration because peptides corresponding to shaft domains alone aggregate into nonnative fibers and/or amyloid structures. C-terminal domains can be exchanged between different fibers and the resulting chimeric proteins are useful as a way to solve structures of unknown parts of the shaft domains. The following natural triple beta-stranded fibrous folds have been discovered by X-ray crystallography: the triple beta-spiral, triple beta-helix, and T4 short tail fiber fold. All have a central longitudinal hydrophobic core and extensive intermonomer polar and nonpolar interactions. Now that a reasonable body of structural and folding knowledge has been assembled about these fibrous proteins, the next challenge and opportunity is to start using this information in medical and industrial applications such as gene therapy and nanotechnology.

  19. Constraints from triple gauge couplings on vectorlike leptons

    DOE PAGES

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Machado, Pedro A. N.; Perez-Gonzalez, Yuber F.; ...

    2017-08-30

    Here, we study the contributions of colorless vectorlike fermions to the triple gauge couplings W +W -γ and W +W -Z 0. We consider models in which their coupling to the Standard Model Higgs boson is allowed or forbidden by quantum numbers. We assess the sensitivity of the future accelerators FCC-ee, ILC, and CLIC to the parameters of these models, assuming they will be able to constrain the anomalous triple gauge couplings with precision δ κV~O(10 -4), V = γ,Z 0. We show that the combination of measurements at different center-of-mass energies helps to improve the sensitivity to the contributionmore » of vectorlike fermions, in particular when they couple to the Higgs. In fact, the measurements at the FCC-ee and, especially, the ILC and the CLIC, may turn the triple gauge couplings into a new set of precision parameters able to constrain the models better than the oblique parameters or the H → γγ decay, even assuming the considerable improvement of the latter measurements achievable at the new machines.« less

  20. Constraints from triple gauge couplings on vectorlike leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Machado, Pedro A. N.; Perez-Gonzalez, Yuber F.

    Here, we study the contributions of colorless vectorlike fermions to the triple gauge couplings W +W -γ and W +W -Z 0. We consider models in which their coupling to the Standard Model Higgs boson is allowed or forbidden by quantum numbers. We assess the sensitivity of the future accelerators FCC-ee, ILC, and CLIC to the parameters of these models, assuming they will be able to constrain the anomalous triple gauge couplings with precision δ κV~O(10 -4), V = γ,Z 0. We show that the combination of measurements at different center-of-mass energies helps to improve the sensitivity to the contributionmore » of vectorlike fermions, in particular when they couple to the Higgs. In fact, the measurements at the FCC-ee and, especially, the ILC and the CLIC, may turn the triple gauge couplings into a new set of precision parameters able to constrain the models better than the oblique parameters or the H → γγ decay, even assuming the considerable improvement of the latter measurements achievable at the new machines.« less

  1. Immediate vs. delayed insertion of intrauterine contraception after second trimester abortion: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Norman, Wendy V; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Soon, Judith A; Brant, Rollin; Bryan, Stirling; Trouton, Konia J; Dicus, Lyda

    2011-06-14

    We describe the rationale and protocol for a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess whether intrauterine contraception placed immediately after a second trimester abortion will result in fewer pregnancies than current recommended practice of intended placement at 4 weeks post-abortion. Decision analysis suggests the novel strategy could substantially reduce subsequent unintended pregnancies and abortions. This paper highlights considerations of design, implementation and evaluation of a trial expected to provide rigorous evidence for appropriate insertion timing and health economics of intrauterine contraception after second trimester abortion. Consenting women choosing to use intrauterine contraception after abortion for a pregnancy of 12 to 24 weeks will be randomized to insertion timing groups either immediately (experimental intervention) or four weeks (recommended care) post abortion. Primary outcome measure is pregnancy rate at one year. Secondary outcomes include: cumulative pregnancy rates over five year follow-up period, comprehensive health economic analyses comparing immediate and delayed insertion groups, and device retention rates, complication rates (infection, expulsion) and, contraceptive method satisfaction. Web-based Contraception Satisfaction Questionnaires, clinical records and British Columbia linked health databases will be used to assess primary and secondary outcomes. Enrolment at all clinics in the province performing second trimester abortions began in May 2010 and is expected to complete in late 2011. Data on one year outcomes will be available for analysis in 2014. The RCT design combined with access to clinical records at all provincial abortion clinics, and to information in provincial single-payer linked administrative health databases, birth registry and hospital records, offers a unique opportunity to evaluate such an approach by determining pregnancy rate at one through five years among enrolled women. We highlight

  2. Insulin resistance in first-trimester pregnant women with pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y; Xie, Q X; Chen, C Y; Yang, C; Li, Y Z; Chen, D M; Xie, M Q

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) has been reported to play an important role in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, scanted materials exist regarding the independent effect of IR on RSA. The aim of this study is to investigate the status of IR in first trimester pregnant patients with normal pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of RSA. This two-center case-control study enrolled totally 626 first trimester pregnant women including 161 patients with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion, who were pre-pregnantly glucose-tolerant according to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and 465 women with no history of abnormal pregnancies of any kind. Clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters were simultaneously measured in all participants. Serum beta-HCG, estradiol, progesterone, fasting plasma glucose and fasting plasma insulin levels, as well, the calculated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), fasting plasma glucose/insulin ratio(G/I) and pregnancy outcome were analyzed and compared. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were found to be significantly lower in RSA group compared to controls. Subjects in RSA group were found to have higher HOMA-IR and lower G/I ratio than those in control group. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR, and positively with G/I ratio even after adjustment for BMI. The spontaneous abortion rate within first trimester pregnancy of RSA patients was significantly higher than that in controls. In conclusion, woman with recurrent spontaneous abortion and normal pre-pregnant glucose metabolism tends to be more insulin resistant during first trimester pregnancy than healthy controls, no matter whether she has PCOS or not. Insulin resistance might be one of the direct causes that lead to recurrent abortion.

  3. Triple Achilles Tendon Rupture: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Amol; Hofer, Deann

    We present a case report with 1-year follow-up data of a 57-year-old male soccer referee who had sustained an acute triple Achilles tendon rupture injury during a game. His triple Achilles tendon rupture consisted of a rupture of the proximal watershed region, a rupture of the main body (mid-watershed area), and an avulsion-type rupture of insertional calcific tendinosis. The patient was treated surgically with primary repair of the tendon, including tenodesis with anchors. Postoperative treatment included non-weightbearing for 4 weeks and protected weightbearing until 10 weeks postoperative, followed by formal physical therapy, which incorporated an "antigravity" treadmill. The patient was able to return to full activity after 26 weeks, including running and refereeing, without limitations. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Isotopically enhanced triple-quantum-dot qubit

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Kevin; Ladd, Thaddeus D.; Smith, Aaron; Borselli, Matthew G.; Kiselev, Andrey A.; Fong, Bryan H.; Holabird, Kevin S.; Hazard, Thomas M.; Huang, Biqin; Deelman, Peter W.; Milosavljevic, Ivan; Schmitz, Adele E.; Ross, Richard S.; Gyure, Mark F.; Hunter, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Like modern microprocessors today, future processors of quantum information may be implemented using all-electrical control of silicon-based devices. A semiconductor spin qubit may be controlled without the use of magnetic fields by using three electrons in three tunnel-coupled quantum dots. Triple dots have previously been implemented in GaAs, but this material suffers from intrinsic nuclear magnetic noise. Reduction of this noise is possible by fabricating devices using isotopically purified silicon. We demonstrate universal coherent control of a triple-quantum-dot qubit implemented in an isotopically enhanced Si/SiGe heterostructure. Composite pulses are used to implement spin-echo type sequences, and differential charge sensing enables single-shot state readout. These experiments demonstrate sufficient control with sufficiently low noise to enable the long pulse sequences required for exchange-only two-qubit logic and randomized benchmarking. PMID:26601186

  5. Relationship between anemia and depressive mood in the last trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Elif; Yılmaz, Zehra; Çakmak, Bülent; Gültekin, İsmail Burak; Çekmez, Yasemin; Mahmutoğlu, Selma; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

    2017-04-01

    To compare the relationship between the severity of anemia and depressive mood in the last trimester of pregnancy. A cross-sectional study, enrolled a total of 450 pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinics in their third trimester for their routine antenatal follow-up. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The study group was divided into two groups according to presence of anemia; anemic group (Hb < 11 gr/L; n = 150) and non-anemic group (Hb ≥ 11 gr/L; n = 300) and depression scores were compared. One hundred and fourteen (25.3%) women scored ≥13 points which were considered the cutoff value for depression on the EPDS. Anemia frequency was found as 33.3%. The total EPDS score was significantly higher in the anemic group (EPDS score 11 [min-max 0-29]) compared with the non-anemic group (EPDS score 7 [min-max 0-21]) (p = 0.000). Multiple regression analysis also revealed that serum Hb level was an independent factor for antenatal depressive mood. As anemia is associated with higher depressive symptom levels, it should be carefully considered during pregnancy. Prospective studies are needed to confirm our results.

  6. First trimester sex hormone-binding globulin and subsequent development of preeclampsia or other adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Kevin; Yu, Christina K H; Rembouskos, George; Bindra, Renu; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether first trimester maternal serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations are altered in women who subsequently develop preeclampsia or other pregnancy complications. Women undergoing first trimester combined ultrasound and biochemical screening for chromosomal anomalies. We searched the database and identified 32 pregnancies resulting in miscarriage, 64 pregnancies with preexisting or gestational diabetes mellitus, 107 with fetal growth restriction, 103 with preeclampsia, 64 with pregnancy-induced hypertension, and 26 with spontaneous preterm delivery. We also selected 400 controls from among the population of pregnancies that had a delivery of a normal baby with no pregnancy complications. Maternal serum SHBG concentrations were measured retrospectively using a competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay. The levels between those with normal outcome and those resulting in adverse outcome were compared. The median maternal serum SHBG concentration was not significantly different from controls, in those that subsequently developed preeclampsia (median MoM 1.05), non-proteinuric hypertension (median MoM 0.94) or preterm delivery (median MoM 1.15). The levels were significantly lower in those with diabetes (median MoM, 0.81 p=0.0005) and those pregnancies resulting in miscarriage (median MoM 0.80, p=0.008). First trimester maternal serum SHBG concentrations are no different from controls in women who subsequently develop preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal growth restriction, or preterm delivery. Levels are reduced in those who subsequently miscarry or in those presenting with diabetes.

  7. Triple Junctions, Boninites, and a New Microplate in the Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, J. A.; Casey, J.

    2017-12-01

    A new microplate has been discovered while trying to correlate melting processes in subduction zones that are forming boninites along the southern Mariana Plate. The westward boundary between the Mariana plate and the Philippine Sea plate is along a well-defined back-arc spreading center. The southern extension of this spreading center to the intersection with the Mariana Trench does not have a recognized morphological boundary. Previous work has hypothesized that subduction beneath a spreading center provides conditions required for boninite petrogenesis. Therefore, the exact location of the trench-trench-ridge triple junction needs to be found and correlated with known boninite locations. The triple junction was found using fault plane solutions to constrain the southern boundary of the two plates as it transects across the forearc. Normal faults suggest the triple junction to be at approximately 11.9N 144.1W; slip direction of reverse faults associated with the subducting plate are dominantly north-south west of this junction and northwest-southeast on the east side. While locating the southern boundary, the nucleation of a new spreading center that creates a ridge-ridge-ridge triple junction was found. The main spreading center trends mostly north-south until about 12.5N 143W, where two other spreading centers meet. The western spreading zone trends mostly east-west and seems to be in its infancy whereas there is another spreading center trending northwest-southeast. It is this last spreading center that forms the trench-ridge-trench triple junction. Discovery of these triple junctions isolates a piece of lithosphere that we interpret to be a new microplate that we name the Challenger Microplate.

  8. Pathway-Enriched Gene Signature Associated with 53BP1 Response to PARP Inhibition in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Saima; Esch, Amanda; Liby, Tiera; Gray, Joe W; Heiser, Laura M

    2017-12-01

    Effective treatment of patients with triple-negative (ER-negative, PR-negative, HER2-negative) breast cancer remains a challenge. Although PARP inhibitors are being evaluated in clinical trials, biomarkers are needed to identify patients who will most benefit from anti-PARP therapy. We determined the responses of three PARP inhibitors (veliparib, olaparib, and talazoparib) in a panel of eight triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Therapeutic responses and cellular phenotypes were elucidated using high-content imaging and quantitative immunofluorescence to assess markers of DNA damage (53BP1) and apoptosis (cleaved PARP). We determined the pharmacodynamic changes as percentage of cells positive for 53BP1, mean number of 53BP1 foci per cell, and percentage of cells positive for cleaved PARP. Inspired by traditional dose-response measures of cell viability, an EC 50 value was calculated for each cellular phenotype and each PARP inhibitor. The EC 50 values for both 53BP1 metrics strongly correlated with IC 50 values for each PARP inhibitor. Pathway enrichment analysis identified a set of DNA repair and cell cycle-associated genes that were associated with 53BP1 response following PARP inhibition. The overall accuracy of our 63 gene set in predicting response to olaparib in seven breast cancer patient-derived xenograft tumors was 86%. In triple-negative breast cancer patients who had not received anti-PARP therapy, the predicted response rate of our gene signature was 45%. These results indicate that 53BP1 is a biomarker of response to anti-PARP therapy in the laboratory, and our DNA damage response gene signature may be used to identify patients who are most likely to respond to PARP inhibition. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(12); 2892-901. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Sildenafil Prevents Apoptosis of Human First-Trimester Trophoblast Cells Exposed to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bolnick, Jay M.; Kilburn, Brian A.; Bolnick, Alan D.; Diamond, Michael P.; Singh, Manvinder; Hertz, Michael; Dai, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Human first-trimester trophoblast cells proliferate at low O2, but survival is compromised by oxidative stress, leading to uteroplacental insufficiency. The vasoactive drug, sildenafil citrate (Viagra, Sigma, St Louis, Missouri), has proven useful in reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes. An important biological function of this pharmaceutical is its action as an inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase type 5 activity, which suggests that it could have beneficial effects on trophoblast survival. To investigate whether sildenafil can prevent trophoblast cell death, human first-trimester villous explants and the HTR-8/SVneo cytotrophoblast cell line were exposed to hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R) to generate oxidative stress, which induces apoptosis. Apoptosis was optimally inhibited during H/R by 350 ng/mL sildenafil. Sildenafil-mediated survival was reversed by l-NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride or cGMP antagonist, indicating a dependence on both nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP. Indeed, either a cGMP agonist or an NO generator was cytoprotective independent of sildenafil. These findings suggest a novel intervention route for patients with recurrent pregnancy loss or obstetrical placental disorders. PMID:25431453

  10. Altered Global Gene Expression in First Trimester Placentas of Women Destined to Develop Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Founds, Sandra A.; Conley, Yvette P.; Lyons-Weiler, James F.; Jeyabalan, Arun; Hogge, W. Allen; Conrad, Kirk P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder that remains a leading cause of maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, and is associated with risk for future cardiovascular disease. There are no reliable predictors, specific preventative measures or treatments other than delivery. A widely-held view is that the antecedents of preeclampsia lie with impaired placentation in early pregnancy. Accordingly, we hypothesized dysregulation of global gene expression in first trimester placentas of women who later manifested preeclampsia. Methods Surplus chorionic villus sampling (CVS) tissues were collected at 10–12 weeks gestation in 160 patients with singleton fetuses. Four patients developed preeclampsia, and their banked CVS specimens were matched to 8 control samples from patients with unaffected pregnancies. Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChips were utilized for microarray analysis. Naïve Bayes prediction modeling and pathway analysis were conducted. qRT-PCR examined three of the dysregulated genes. Results Thirty-six differentially expressed genes were identified in the preeclampsia placentas. qRT-PCR verified the microarray analysis. Thirty-one genes were down-regulated. Many were related to inflammation/immunoregulation and cell motility. Decidual gene dysregulation was prominent. No evidence was found for alterations in hypoxia and oxidative stress regulated genes. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to show dysregulation of gene expression in the early placentas of women ~6 months before developing preeclampsia, thereby reinforcing a placental origin of the disorder. We hypothesize that placentation in preeclampsia is compromised in the first trimester by maternal and fetal immune dysregulation, abnormal decidualization, or both, thereby impairing trophoblast invasion. Several of the genes provide potential targets for the development of clinical biomarkers in maternal blood during the first trimester. Supplementary

  11. Triple-activated blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    The current shortage of portland cement in the world will require the use of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) to fill demands in many industrialized countries. Therefore, an extensive series of triple-activated slag experiments have been undertaken to optimize an economical combination of mechanical properties for alkali-activated slags. Na{sub 2}OSiO{sub 2} (N Grade), Ca(OH){sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} have been added as activators in 5 to 10, 0 to 5 and 0 to 5 weight percentages of water and slag in a mix with a water:cement ratio of 1:1. Silica Fume and Sika 10 superplasticizer havemore » been added as 1 and 10 weight percent of slag. Set times, initial hardening times and compressive strengths at percentages of the mix to identify more refined formulations. Finally, the resulting aggregate to develop a triple-activated slag formulation with the ultimate objective of contributing toward satisfying the world shortage of high performance concrete.« less

  12. Normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length during the second trimester in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Sharbaf, Fatemeh; Tahmasebpour, Ahmad-Reza; Pirjani, Reihaneh; Ghaffari, Saeed Reza; Rahimi-Foroushani, Abbas

    2011-04-01

    To provide a normal reference range for nasal bone length (NBL) during the second trimester of pregnancy in an Iranian population. This cross-sectional study was performed on 3201 fetuses at 15 to 28 weeks of gestational age (GA). Both singleton and twin fetuses were evaluated. The relationship between NBL and GA was determined and percentile values for each gestational week were provided. NBL measurement was obtained in 98% of singleton and 96% of twin fetuses. There was a linear relationship between GA and NBL both in singleton (R(2) = 0.62) and in twin (R(2) = 0.74) fetuses. There was no significant difference between twins regarding NBL (p = 0.18). We have provided the normal reference range for NBL during the second trimester in an Iranian population. NBL in singleton and twin fetuses is similar and there is no significant difference between twins regarding NBL. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. First and second trimester screening for fetal structural anomalies.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lindsay; Hui, Lisa

    2018-04-01

    Fetal structural anomalies are found in up to 3% of all pregnancies and ultrasound-based screening has been an integral part of routine prenatal care for decades. The prenatal detection of fetal anomalies allows for optimal perinatal management, providing expectant parents with opportunities for additional imaging, genetic testing, and the provision of information regarding prognosis and management options. Approximately one-half of all major structural anomalies can now be detected in the first trimester, including acrania/anencephaly, abdominal wall defects, holoprosencephaly and cystic hygromata. Due to the ongoing development of some organ systems however, some anomalies will not be evident until later in the pregnancy. To this extent, the second trimester anatomy is recommended by professional societies as the standard investigation for the detection of fetal structural anomalies. The reported detection rates of structural anomalies vary according to the organ system being examined, and are also dependent upon factors such as the equipment settings and sonographer experience. Technological advances over the past two decades continue to support the role of ultrasound as the primary imaging modality in pregnancy, and the safety of ultrasound for the developing fetus is well established. With increasing capabilities and experience, detailed examination of the central nervous system and cardiovascular system is possible, with dedicated examinations such as the fetal neurosonogram and the fetal echocardiogram now widely performed in tertiary centers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is well recognized for its role in the assessment of fetal brain anomalies; other potential indications for fetal MRI include lung volume measurement (in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia), and pre-surgical planning prior to fetal spina bifida repair. When a major structural abnormality is detected prenatally, genetic testing with chromosomal microarray is recommended over

  14. The chemical end-ligation of homopyrimidine oligodeoxyribonucleotides within a DNA triple helix.

    PubMed

    Li, T; Weinstein, D S; Nicolaou, K

    1997-03-01

    Triple-helical nucleic acids, first reported in the late 1950s, are receiving attention for their possible involvement in controlling gene expression. Certain sequences of DNA are believed to form local triple-helical structures (H-form DNA), although this has not been directly observed in vivo. Studies carried out in our laboratories have suggested that self-replicating oligonucleotides could have been involved in chemical evolution via triple-helical intermediates. In addition to self-replication mechanisms, elucidating processes for the nonenzymatic elongation of biologically relevant polymers remains an important challenge in understanding the origin of life. To this end, we have studied a novel ligation of oligodeoxyribonucleotides that lie within a triple helix. The chemical end-ligation of homopyrimidine oligodeoxyribonucleotides on a triple helix is reported. This selective process, induced by cyanoimidazole, is facilitated by a template effect of the DNA aggregate and occurs between the 3' end (hydroxyl) of the third minor-groove-bound strand and the 5' end (phosphate) of the antiparallel oligopyrimidine strand. Double-helical homopurine/homopyrimidine DNA can serve as a template for the elongation of oligonucleotides in a manner that has not been described previously. The end-ligation of homopyrimidine oligomers, a nonenzymatic process, proceeds via a requisite triple-helical intermediate and constitutes an efficient and selective method for the template-directed elongation of nucleic acids. Such a process could conceivably have been involved in the elongation of primordial information-bearing biopolymers.

  15. Construction of vapor chambers used to expose mice to alcohol during the equivalent of all three trimesters of human development.

    PubMed

    Morton, Russell A; Diaz, Marvin R; Topper, Lauren A; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2014-07-13

    Exposure to alcohol during development can result in a constellation of morphological and behavioral abnormalities that are collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). At the most severe end of the spectrum is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), characterized by growth retardation, craniofacial dysmorphology, and neurobehavioral deficits. Studies with animal models, including rodents, have elucidated many molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of FASDs. Ethanol administration to pregnant rodents has been used to model human exposure during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Third trimester ethanol consumption in humans has been modeled using neonatal rodents. However, few rodent studies have characterized the effect of ethanol exposure during the equivalent to all three trimesters of human pregnancy, a pattern of exposure that is common in pregnant women. Here, we show how to build vapor chambers from readily obtainable materials that can each accommodate up to six standard mouse cages. We describe a vapor chamber paradigm that can be used to model exposure to ethanol, with minimal handling, during all three trimesters. Our studies demonstrate that pregnant dams developed significant metabolic tolerance to ethanol. However, neonatal mice did not develop metabolic tolerance and the number of fetuses, fetus weight, placenta weight, number of pups/litter, number of dead pups/litter, and pup weight were not significantly affected by ethanol exposure. An important advantage of this paradigm is its applicability to studies with genetically-modified mice. Additionally, this paradigm minimizes handling of animals, a major confound in fetal alcohol research.

  16. An overview of triple infection with hepatitis B, C and D viruses.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Mehwish; Idrees, Muhamad; Kanwal, Hifza; Kabir, Firoz

    2011-07-27

    Viral hepatitis is one of the major health problems worldwide, particularly in South East Asian countries including Pakistan where hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are highly endemic. Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is also not uncommon world-wide. HCV, HBV, and HDV share parallel routes of transmission due to which dual or triple viral infection can occur in a proportion of patients at the same time. HBV and HCV are important factors in the development of liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In addition to LC and HCC, chronic HDV infection also plays an important role in liver damage with oncogenic potential.The current article reviews the available literature about the epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission, symptoms, diagnosis, replication, disease outcome, treatment and preventive measures of triple hepatitis infection by using key words; epidemiology of triple infection, risk factors, awareness status, treatment and replication cycle in PubMed, PakMediNet, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and Google Scholar. Total data from 74 different studies published from 1983 to 2010 on triple hepatitis infections were reviewed and included in this study. The present article briefly describes triple infection with HCV, HBV and HDV.

  17. Direct imaging discovery of a Jovian exoplanet within a triple-star system.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Kevin; Apai, Dániel; Kasper, Markus; Kratter, Kaitlin; McClure, Melissa; Robberto, Massimo; Beuzit, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-12

    Direct imaging allows for the detection and characterization of exoplanets via their thermal emission. We report the discovery via imaging of a young Jovian planet in a triple-star system and characterize its atmospheric properties through near-infrared spectroscopy. The semimajor axis of the planet is closer relative to that of its hierarchical triple-star system than for any known exoplanet within a stellar binary or triple, making HD 131399 dynamically unlike any other known system. The location of HD 131399Ab on a wide orbit in a triple system demonstrates that massive planets may be found on long and possibly unstable orbits in multistar systems. HD 131399Ab is one of the lowest mass (4 ± 1 Jupiter masses) and coldest (850 ± 50 kelvin) exoplanets to have been directly imaged. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1993-04-27

    A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

  19. Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1993-01-01

    A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

  20. Iron metabolism in African American women in the second and third trimesters of high-risk pregnancies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To examine iron metabolism during the second and third trimesters in African American women with high-risk pregnancies. Design: Longitudinal pilot study. Setting: Large, university-based, urban Midwestern U.S. medical center. Participants: Convenience sample of 32 African American wome...

  1. Impact of Food Rations and Supplements on Micronutrient Status by Trimester of Pregnancy: Cross-Sectional Studies in the Maela Refugee Camp in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Carrara, Verena I; Mc Gready, Rose; Lee, Sue J; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Po, Basi; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Grune, Tilman; Biesalski, Hans K; Nosten, François H

    2016-01-26

    Micronutrient fortified flour (MFF), supplementary food rations and micronutrient (MN) supplements may prevent deficiencies among pregnant women. Objectives of cross-sectional surveys in 2004 (n = 533) and 2006 (n = 515) were to assess the impact of new food rations (flour, oil) and supplements on MN status by trimester of pregnancy in the Maela refugee camp. Hemoglobin, iron status, zinc, retinol, β-carotene and tryptophan decreased, while α-/γ-tocopherol and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) increased from first to third trimester. In 2006, mean zinc and α-tocopherol for each trimester was significantly higher than in 2004. The weeks of supplemented thiamine and folic acid were positively correlated with thiamine diphosphate (TDP) and 5-MTHF, but not for ferrous sulfate as iron deficiency was observed in 38.5% of third-trimester women. Frequent consumption of fish paste and owning a garden or animal were associated with significantly higher iron status, retinol, β-carotene, and 5-MTHF. In conclusion, MFF and supplementary oil were most likely to explain improved zinc and α-tocopherol status, while thiamine and folate supplements ensured high TDP and 5-MTHF in late pregnancy. MN supplements, MN-rich staple food, small gardens, and programs to improve iron compliance are promising strategies to prevent MN deficiencies during pregnancy in vulnerable populations.

  2. Upfront triple combination therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sitbon, Olivier; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Cottin, Vincent; Bergot, Emmanuel; Macari, Elise Artaud; Bouvaist, Hélène; Dauphin, Claire; Picard, François; Bulifon, Sophie; Montani, David; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald

    2014-06-01

    Patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class (FC) III/IV have a poor prognosis, despite survival benefits being demonstrated with intravenous epoprostenol. In this pilot study, the efficacy and safety of a triple combination therapy regimen in patients with severe PAH was investigated. Data from newly diagnosed NYHA FC III/IV PAH patients (n=19) initiated on upfront triple combination therapy (intravenous epoprostenol, bosentan and sildenafil) were collected retrospectively from a prospective registry. Significant improvements in 6-min walk distance and haemodynamics were observed after 4 months' triple combination therapy in 18 patients (p<0.01); 17 patients had improved to NYHA FC I or II. One patient was not included in the month 4 assessment (due to an emergency lung transplant in month 3). At the final evaluation (mean ± sd 32 ± 19 months), all 18 patients had sustained clinical and haemodynamic improvement. Overall survival estimates for the triple combination cohort were 100% at 1, 2 and 3 years. Expected survival calculated from the French equation was 75% (95% CI 68-82%), 60% (95% CI 50-70%) and 49% (95% CI 38-60%) at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence of the long-term benefits of upfront triple combination therapy in patients with severe PAH. ©ERS 2014.

  3. Binaries and triples among asteroid pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravec, Petr; Scheirich, Peter; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Galád, Adrián

    2015-08-01

    Despite major achievements obtained during the past two decades, our knowledge of the population and properties of small binary and multiple asteroid systems is still far from advanced. There is a numerous indirect evidence for that most small asteroid systems were formed by rotational fission of cohesionless parent asteroids that were spun up to the critical frequency presumably by YORP, but details of the process are lacking. Furthermore, as we proceed with observations of more and more binary and paired asteroids, we reveal new facts that substantially refine and sometimes change our understanding of the asteroid systems. One significant new finding we have recently obtained is that primaries of many asteroid pairs are actually binary or triple systems. The first such case found is (3749) Balam (Vokrouhlický, ApJL 706, L37, 2009). We have found 9 more binary systems among asteroid pairs within our ongoing NEOSource photometric project since October 2012. They are (6369) 1983 UC, (8306) Shoko, (9783) Tensho-kan, (10123) Fideoja, (21436) Chaoyichi, (43008) 1999 UD31, (44620) 1999 RS43, (46829) 1998 OS14 and (80218) 1999 VO123. We will review their characteristics. These paired binaries as we call them are mostly similar to binaries in the general ("background") population (of unpaired asteroids), but there are a few trends. The paired binaries tend to have larger secondaries with D_2/D_1 = 0.3 to 0.5 and they also tend to be wider systems with 8 of the 10 having orbital periods between 30 and 81 hours, than average among binaries in the general population. There may be also a larger fraction of triples; (3749) Balam is a confirmed triple, having a larger close and a smaller distant satellite, and (8306) Shoko and (10123) Fideoja are suspect triples as they show additional rotational lightcurve components with periods of 61 and 38.8 h that differ from the orbital period of 36.2 and 56.5 h, respectively. The unbound secondaries tend to be of the same size or

  4. Antenatal screening for Down syndrome using serum placental growth factor with the combined, quadruple, serum integrated and integrated tests.

    PubMed

    Wald, Nicholas J; Bestwick, Jonathan P; George, Lynne M; Huttly, Wayne J

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the value of first or second trimester placental growth factor (PlGF) as an additional antenatal screening marker for Down syndrome. Nested case-control study. Antenatal screening service. 532 Down syndrome pregnancies and 1,155 matched unaffected pregnancies. Stored maternal serum samples (-40°C) were assayed for PlGF. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the screening performance of PlGF with the Combined, Quadruple, serum Integrated and Integrated tests. Median PlGF levels in affected and unaffected pregnancies and screening performance (detection rates [DR] for specified false-positive rates [FPR] and vice versa). First trimester median PlGF was 15%, 28% and 39% lower in Down syndrome than unaffected pregnancies at 11, 12 and 13 completed weeks' gestation respectively (all p<0.001). Second trimester median PlGF was 31% lower at 14 weeks (p<0.001), and the difference decreased (6% lower at 17 weeks). At a 90% DR with first trimester markers measured at 13 weeks, adding PlGF decreased the FPR from 11.1 to 5.1% using the Combined test, 9.3% to 4.5% using the serum Integrated test, and 3.4% to 1.5% using the Integrated test (or 1.5 to 1.4% with first trimester markers measured at 11 weeks). Adding PlGF to the Quadruple test (measured at 15 weeks) decreased the FPR from 10.0% to 9.6% at a 90% DR. First trimester PlGF measurements improve the performance of antenatal screening for Down syndrome using the Combined, serum Integrated and Integrated tests. Second trimester PlGF measurements are of limited value.

  5. [Motor behavior of human fetuses during the second trimester of gestation: a longitudinal ultrasound study].

    PubMed

    Reynoso, C; Crespo-Eguílaz, N; Alcázar, J L; Narbona, J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this research is to contribute to knowledge of the normal spontaneous motor behavior of the human fetus during the second trimester of pregnancy. This study focuses on five patterns of spontaneous fetal movement: startle (S), axo-rhizomelic rhythmia (ARR), axial stretching (AS), general movement (GM), and diaphragmatic contraction (DC). A cohort of 13 subjects was followed up using 2D obstetrical ultrasound images at 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks of gestation. As inclusion criteria, neonatal neurological examination and general movements after eutocic delivery at term were normal in all of the subjects, and their neuromotor and cognitive development until the end of pre-school age were also normal. All these five motor patterns are present at the beginning of the 2(nd) gestational trimester, but their quantitative and qualitative traits are diverse according to gestational ages. The phasic, isolated or rhythmically repeated movements, S and ARR, are prominent at 12 and 16 weeks of gestation, and then their presence gradually diminishes. By contrast, tonic and complex AS and GM movements increase their presence and quality at 20 and 24 weeks. RAR constitute a particular periodic motor pattern not described in previous literature. Moreover, the incidence of DC is progressive throughout the trimester, in clusters of 2-6 arrhythmic and irregular beats. Fetal heart rate increases during fetal motor active periods. All five normal behavioral patterns observed in the ultrasounds reflect the progressive tuning of motor generators in human nervous system during mid-pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Prophylactic compared with therapeutic ibuprofen analgesia in first-trimester medical abortion: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Elizabeth G; Weaver, Mark A; Louie, Karmen S; Dean, Gillian; Porsch, Lauren; Lichtenberg, E Steve; Ali, Rose; Arnesen, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two oral analgesic regimens in first-trimester medical abortion. We randomly assigned 250 participants undergoing first-trimester abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol at three clinics to two ibuprofen regimens: therapeutic (800 mg every 4-6 hours as needed for pain) or prophylactic (800 mg starting 1 hour before the misoprostol dose, then every 4-6 hours for 48 hours regardless of pain, then as needed). We asked each participant to record her maximum pain on a scale of 0-10 daily thereafter. Of participants assigned to the prophylactic and therapeutic regimens, 111 of 123 (90%) and 117 of 127 (92%), respectively, provided follow-up data. More than 80% of the participants in each group complied with their assigned treatment. Participants in the prophylactic group used substantially more ibuprofen than those in the therapeutic group (median of nine and four tablets, respectively). The mean maximum pain score was 7.1 in the prophylactic group and 7.3 in the therapeutic group (standard deviations 2.5 and 2.2, respectively); the difference was not statistically significant (P=.87, adjusted for site). Duration of pain, verbal pain ratings reported at follow-up, and use of other analgesics did not differ significantly by group (all P>.05). No significant benefit of the prophylactic regimen was apparent in any population subgroup. Abortion failure and ibuprofen side effects in the two groups were similar. We found no evidence that prophylactic administration of ibuprofen reduces pain severity or duration in first-trimester medical abortion. The average pain severity experienced by participants using both regimens was high. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01457521. I.

  7. Trimethoprim-sulfonamide Use during the First Trimester of Pregnancy and the Risk of Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Craig; Andrade, Susan E.; Freiman, Heather; Dublin, Sascha; Haffenreffer, Katie; Cooper, William O.; Cheetham, T.Craig; Toh, Sengwee; Li, De-Kun; Raebel, Marsha A.; Kuntz, Jennifer L.; Perrin, Nancy; Rosales, A.Gabriela; Carter, Shelley; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Maloney, Elizabeth M.; Graham, David J.; Sahin, Leyla; Scott, Pamela E.; Yap, John; Davis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Sulfonamide antibacterials are widely used in pregnancy, but evidence about their safety is mixed. The objective of this study was to assess the association between first-trimester sulfonamide exposure and risk of specific congenital malformations. Methods Mother-infant pairs were selected from a cohort of 1.2 million liveborn deliveries (2001–2008) at 11 US health plans comprising the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program (MEPREP). Mothers with first-trimester trimethoprim-sulfonamide (TMP-SUL) exposures were randomly matched 1:1 to 1) a primary comparison group: mothers exposed to penicillins and/or cephalosporins, and 2) a secondary comparison group: mothers with no dispensing of an antibacterial, antiprotozoal, or antimalarial medication during the same time period. The outcomes were cardiovascular abnormalities, cleft palate/lip, clubfoot, and urinary tract abnormalities. Results We first identified 7,615 infants in the TMP-SUL exposure group, of which 7595 (99%) were exposed to a combination of TMP-SUL and the remaining 1% to sulfonamides alone. After matching (1:1) to the comparator groups and only including those with complete data on covariates there were 20,064 (n=6,688 per group) in the primary analyses. Overall, cardiovascular defects (1.52%) were the most common and cleft lip/palate (0.10%) the least common that were evaluated. Compared to penicillin/cephalosporin exposure, and no antibacterial exposure, TMP-SUL exposure was not associated with statistically significant elevated risks for cardiovascular, cleft lip/palate, clubfoot, or urinary system defects. Conclusions First trimester TMP-SUL exposure was not associated with a higher risk of the congenital anomalies studied, compared to exposure to penicillins and/or cephalosporins, or no exposure to antibacterials. PMID:26599424

  8. Recovering the triple coincidence of non-pure positron emitters in preclinical PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Chen, Szu-Yu; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Non-pure positron emitters, with their long half-lives, allow for the tracing of slow biochemical processes which cannot be adequately examined by the commonly used short-lived positron emitters. Most of these isotopes emit high-energy cascade gamma rays in addition to positron decay that can be detected and create a triple coincidence with annihilation photons. Triple coincidence is discarded in most scanners, however, the majority of the triple coincidence contains true photon pairs that can be recovered. In this study, we propose a strategy for recovering triple coincidence events to raise the sensitivity of PET imaging for non-pure positron emitters. To identify the true line of response (LOR) from a triple coincidence, a framework utilizing geometrical, energy and temporal information is proposed. The geometrical criterion is based on the assumption that the LOR with the largest radial offset among the three sub pairs of triple coincidences is least likely to be a true LOR. Then, a confidence time window is used to test the valid LOR among those within triple coincidence. Finally, a likelihood ratio discriminant rule based on the energy probability density distribution of cascade and annihilation gammas is established to identify the true LOR. An Inveon preclinical PET scanner was modeled with GATE (GEANT4 application for tomographic emission) Monte Carlo software. We evaluated the performance of the proposed method in terms of identification fraction, noise equivalent count rates (NECR), and image quality on various phantoms. With the inclusion of triple coincidence events using the proposed method, the NECR was found to increase from 11% to 26% and 19% to 29% for I-124 and Br-76, respectively, when 7.4-185 MBq of activity was used. Compared to the reconstructed images using double coincidence, this technique increased the SNR by 5.1-7.3% for I-124 and 9.3-10.3% for Br-76 within the activity range of 9.25-74 MBq, without compromising the spatial resolution or

  9. Triple-Negative or HER2-Positive Status Predicts Higher Rates of Locoregional Recurrence in Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients After Mastectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shulian; Li Yexiong, E-mail: yexiong@yahoo.com; Song Yongwen

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of determining estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) expression in node-positive breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy. Methods and Materials: The records of 835 node-positive breast cancer patients who had undergone mastectomy between January 2000 and December 2004 were analyzed retrospectively. Of these, 764 patients (91.5%) received chemotherapy; 68 of 398 patients (20.9%) with T1-2N1 disease and 352 of 437 patients (80.5%) with T3-4 or N2-3 disease received postoperative radiotherapy. Patients were classified into four subgroups according to hormone receptor (Rec+ or Rec-) and HER2 expression profiles:more » Rec-/HER2- (triple negative; n = 141), Rec-/HER2+ (n = 99), Rec+/HER2+ (n = 157), and Rec+/HER2- (n = 438). The endpoints were the duration of locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Results: Patients with triple-negative, Rec-/HER2+, and Rec+/HER2+ expression profiles had a significantly lower 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival than those with Rec+/HER2- profiles (86.5% vs. 93.6%, p = 0.002). Compared with those with Rec+/HER2+ and Rec+/HER2- profiles, patients with Rec-/HER2- and Rec-/HER2+ profiles had significantly lower 5-year distant metastasis-free survival (69.1% vs. 78.5%, p = 0.000), lower disease-free survival (66.6% vs. 75.6%, p = 0.000), and lower overall survival (71.4% vs. 84.2%, p = 0.000). Triple-negative or Rec-/HER2+ breast cancers had an increased likelihood of relapse and death within the first 3 years after treatment. Conclusions: Triple-negative and HER2-positive profiles are useful markers of prognosis for locoregional recurrence and survival in node-positive breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy.« less

  10. An empirical understanding of triple collocation evaluation measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scipal, Klaus; Doubkova, Marcela; Hegyova, Alena; Dorigo, Wouter; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Triple collocation method is an advanced evaluation method that has been used in the soil moisture field for only about half a decade. The method requires three datasets with an independent error structure that represent an identical phenomenon. The main advantages of the method are that it a) doesn't require a reference dataset that has to be considered to represent the truth, b) limits the effect of random and systematic errors of other two datasets, and c) simultaneously assesses the error of three datasets. The objective of this presentation is to assess the triple collocation error (Tc) of the ASAR Global Mode Surface Soil Moisture (GM SSM 1) km dataset and highlight problems of the method related to its ability to cancel the effect of error of ancillary datasets. In particular, the goal is to a) investigate trends in Tc related to the change in spatial resolution from 5 to 25 km, b) to investigate trends in Tc related to the choice of a hydrological model, and c) to study the relationship between Tc and other absolute evaluation methods (namely RMSE and Error Propagation EP). The triple collocation method is implemented using ASAR GM, AMSR-E, and a model (either AWRA-L, GLDAS-NOAH, or ERA-Interim). First, the significance of the relationship between the three soil moisture datasets was tested that is a prerequisite for the triple collocation method. Second, the trends in Tc related to the choice of the third reference dataset and scale were assessed. For this purpose the triple collocation is repeated replacing AWRA-L with two different globally available model reanalysis dataset operating at different spatial resolution (ERA-Interim and GLDAS-NOAH). Finally, the retrieved results were compared to the results of the RMSE and EP evaluation measures. Our results demonstrate that the Tc method does not eliminate the random and time-variant systematic errors of the second and the third dataset used in the Tc. The possible reasons include the fact a) that the TC

  11. Decreased triple network connectivity in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Liang; Li, Baojuan; Zhang, Xi; Lu, Hongbing

    2017-03-01

    The triple network model provides a common framework for understanding affective and neurocognitive dysfunctions across multiple disorders, including central executive network (CEN), default mode network (DMN), and salience network (SN). Considering the effect of traumatic experience on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), this study aims to explore the alteration of triple network connectivity in a specific PTSD induced by a single prolonged trauma exposure. With arterial spin labeling sequence, three networks were identified using independent component analysis in 10 PTSD patients and 10 healthy survivors, who experienced the same coal mining flood disaster. In PTSD patients, decreased connectivity was identified in left middle frontal gyrus of CEN, left precuneus and bilateral superior frontal gyrus of DMN, and right anterior insula of SN. The decreased connectivity in left middle frontal gyrus was identified to associate with clinical severity. These results indicated the decreased triple network connectivity, which not only supported the proposal of the triple network model, but also prompted possible neurobiology mechanism of cognitive dysfunction for this kind of PTSD.

  12. Stability of planetary orbits in triple star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busetti, Franco; Beust, Hervé; Harley, Charis

    2018-06-01

    Triple stellar systems comprising a central binary orbited by a third star at a larger distance are fairly common. However, there have been very few studies on the stability of planetary orbits in such systems. There has been almost no work on generalised systems, little on retrograde planetary orbits and none on retrograde stellar orbits, with nearly all being for coplanar orbits and for a limited number of orbital parameters. We provide a generalised numerical mapping of the regions of planetary stability in triples, using the symplectic N-body code HJS (Beust 2003) designed for the dynamics of multiple hierarchical systems. We investigate all these orbit types and extend the parameters used to all relevant orbital elements of the triple’s stars, also expanding these elements and mass ratios to wider ranges.This establishes the regions of secular stability and results in empirical models describing the stability bounds for planets in each type of triple configuration, as functions of the various system parameters. These results are compared to the corresponding results for binaries in the limit of a vanishing mass of the third star. A general feature is that retrograde planetary orbits appear more stable than prograde ones, and that stable regions also tend to be wider when the third star's motion is retrograde. Conversely, we point out the destabilizing role of Kozai-Lidov resonance in non-coplanar systems, which shrinks the stability regions as a result of large induced eccentricity variations. Nonetheless, large enough stability regions for planets do exist in triples, and this should motivate future observational campaigns.Refs : Beust, 2003, A&A 400, 1129 Busetti, Beust, Harley, 2018, to be submitted to A&A

  13. 10.4% Efficient triple organic solar cells containing near infrared absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerheim, Rico; Körner, Christian; Oesen, Benjamin; Leo, Karl

    2016-03-01

    The efficiency of organic solar cells can be increased by serially stacked subcells with spectrally different absorber materials. For the triple junction devices presented here, we use the small molecule donor materials DCV5T-Me for the green region and Tol2-benz-bodipy or Ph2-benz-bodipy as near infrared absorbers. The broader spectral response allows an efficiency increase from a pure DCV5T-Me triple cell to a triple junction containing a Ph2-benz-bodipy subcell, reaching 10.4%. As often observed for organic photovoltaics, the efficiency is further increased at low light intensities to 11%, which allows improved energy harvesting under real outdoor conditions and better performance indoor.

  14. A Policy Framework for Health Systems to Promote Triple Aim Innovation.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amol; Bhatia, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    With the expiry of the Health Accords, provincial governments must face the challenge of improving performance in the context of ageing demographics, increasing multi-morbidity, and real concerns about financial stability. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement Triple Aim articulates fundamental goals that can guide health system transformation: improved population health, enhanced patient experience and reduced or stable per capita costs. Advancing fragmented and costly health systems in pursuit of these goals requires transformative, as opposed to iterative, change. Provincial governments are ideally suited to lead this change by acting as "integrators" who link healthcare organizations and align incentives across the spectrum of delivery. Although there is very limited evidence regarding the effectiveness of system-level reforms, we draw on initiatives from around the world to suggest policies that can promote system-level Triple Aim innovation. We categorize these policies within the classic functions ascribed to health systems: financing, stewardship and resource generation. As healthcare financers, governments should orient procurement policy towards the Triple Aim innovation and reform payment to reward value not volume. As health system stewards, governments should define a Triple Aim vision; measure and report outcomes, patient experience, and costs; integrate across sectors; and facilitate learning from failure and spread of successful innovation. As resource generators, governments should invest in health information technology to exploit "big data" and ensure that professional education equips front-line clinicians with skills necessary to improve systems. There are a number of barriers to system-level Triple Aim innovation. There is a lack of evidence for macro-level policy changes, innovation is costly and complicated, and system reform may not be politically appealing. Triple Aim innovation may also be conflated with organization-level quality

  15. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-07

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  16. Pregnancy outcome after first trimester use of angiotensin AT1 receptor blockers: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Tissen-Diabaté, Tatjana; Fietz, Anne-Katrin; Zinke, Sandra; Kayser, Angela; Meister, Reinhard; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Schaefer, Christof

    2018-03-24

    Ongoing discussion about the safety of renin-angiotensin inhibitors in the first trimester and limited data on pregnancy outcomes after exposure to angiotensin AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs). Observational cohort study compares outcomes of 215 prospectively ascertained pregnancies with first trimester exposure to ARBs with 642 non-hypertensive pregnancies. The rate of major birth defects in the ARB cohort (9/168, 5.4%) was higher than in the comparison group (17/570, 3%), but not significantly increased (OR adj 1.9, 95% CI 0.7-4.9). There was no distinct pattern of anomalies among infants with birth defects. The risk of spontaneous abortions was not increased (HR adj 0.9, 95% CI 0.5-1.6), although the cumulative incidence was in the upper normal range (0.22, 95% CI 0.15-0.32). Higher rates of prematurity (OR adj 3.0; 95% CI 1.7-5.1) and a reduced birth weight after adjustment for sex and gestational age were observed. There was no evidence for an increased risk for major birth defects, spontaneous abortions, or preterm birth in a sensitivity analysis comparing ARB exposed hypertensive women to hypertensive women without ARB exposure during the first trimester. Our study supports the hypothesis that ARBs are not major teratogens. Patients inadvertently exposed to ARBs during the early pregnancy may be reassured. Nevertheless, women planning pregnancy should avoid ARBs. In selected cases, ARBs might be continued under careful monitoring of menstrual cycle and discontinued as soon as pregnancy is recognized.

  17. Dark energy in the three-body problem: Wide triple galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'yanov, N. V.; Kovalev, M. Yu.; Chernin, A. D.

    2016-04-01

    The structure and evolution of triple galaxy systems in the presence of the cosmic dark-energy background is studied in the framework of the three-body problem. The dynamics of wide triple systems are determinedmainly by the competition between the mutual gravitational forces between the three bodies and the anti-gravity created by the dark-energy background. This problem can be solved via numerical integration of the equations of motion with initial conditions that admit various types of evolutionary behavior of the system. Such dynamical models show that the anti-gravity created by dark energy makes a triple system less tightly bound, thereby facilitating its decay, with a subsequent transition to motion of the bodies away from each other in an accelerating regime with a linear Hubble-law dependence of the velocity on distance. The coefficient of proportionality between the velocity and distance in this asymptotic relation corresponds to the universal value H Λ = 61 km s-1 Mpc-1, which depends only on the dark-energy density. The similarity of this relation to the large-scale recession of galaxies indicates that double and triple galaxies represent elementary dynamical cells realizing the overall behavior of a system dominated by dark energy on their own scale, independent of their masses and dimensions.

  18. Triple-parton scatterings in proton-nucleus collisions at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Enterria, David; Snigirev, Alexander M.

    2018-05-01

    A generic expression to compute triple-parton scattering (TPS) cross sections in high-energy proton-nucleus (pA) collisions is derived as a function of the corresponding single-parton cross sections and an effective parameter encoding the transverse parton profile of the proton. The TPS cross sections are enhanced by a factor of about 9 A˜eq 2000 in pPb as compared to those in proton-nucleon collisions at the same center-of-mass energy. Estimates for triple charm (c\\overline{c}) and bottom (b\\overline{b}) production in pPb collisions at LHC and FCC energies are presented based on next-to-next-to-leading-order calculations for c\\overline{c} and b\\overline{b} single-parton cross sections. At √{s_{_{sc {nn}}}}= 8.8 TeV, about 10% of the pPb events have three c\\overline{c} pairs produced in separate partonic interactions. At √{s_{_{sc {nn}}}}= 63 TeV, the pPb cross sections for triple-J/ψ and triple-b\\overline{b} are O(1-10 mb). In the most energetic collisions of cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere, equivalent to √{s_{_{sc {nn}}}}≈ 400 TeV, the TPS c\\overline{c} cross section equals the total p-Air inelastic cross section.

  19. Treatment of graves' disease with antithyroid drugs in the first trimester of pregnancy and the prevalence of congenital malformation.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Ai; Noh, JaedukYoshimura; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Ohye, Hidemi; Sato, Shiori; Sekiya, Kenichi; Kosuga, Yuka; Suzuki, Miho; Matsumoto, Masako; Kunii, Yo; Watanabe, Natsuko; Mukasa, Koji; Ito, Kunihiko; Ito, Koichi

    2012-07-01

    Several reports have suggested that propylthiouracil (PTU) may be safer than methimazole (MMI) for treating thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy because congenital malformations have been associated with the use of MMI during pregnancy. We investigated whether in utero exposure to antithyroid drugs resulted in a higher rate of major malformations than among the infants born to a control group of pregnant women. We reviewed the cases of women with Graves' disease who became pregnant. The pregnancy outcomes of 6744 women were known, and there were 5967 live births. MMI alone had been used to treat 1426 of the women, and 1578 women had been treated with PTU alone. The 2065 women who had received no medication for the treatment of Graves' disease during the first trimester served as the control group. The remaining women had been treated with potassium iodide, levothyroxine, or more than one drug during the first trimester. The antithyroid drugs were evaluated for associations with congenital malformations. The overall rate of major anomalies in the MMI group was 4.1% (50 of 1231), and it was significantly higher than the 2.1% (40 of 1906) in the control group (P = 0.002), but there was no increase in the overall rate of major anomalies in the PTU group in comparison with the control group (1.9%; 21 of 1399; P = 0.709). Seven of the 1231 newborns in the MMI group had aplasia cutis congenita, six had an omphalocele, seven had a symptomatic omphalomesenteric duct anomaly, and one had esophageal atresia. Hyperthyroidism in the first trimester of pregnancy did not increase the rate of congenital malformation. In utero exposure to MMI during the first trimester of pregnancy increased the rate of congenital malformations, and it significantly increased the rate of aplasia cutis congenita, omphalocele, and a symptomatic omphalomesenteric duct anomaly.

  20. First-time first-trimester induced abortion and risk of readmission to a psychiatric hospital in women with a history of treated mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Pedersen, Carsten B; Lidegaard, Ojvind; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2012-02-01

    Mental health problems are associated with women's reproductive decisions and predict poor mental health outcomes after abortion and childbirth. To study whether having a first-trimester induced abortion influenced the risk of psychiatric readmission and compare findings with readmission risk in women with mental disorders giving birth. Survival analyses were performed in a population-based cohort study merging data from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Register from January 1,1994, to December 31, 2007. Denmark. All women born in Denmark between 1962 and 1992 with a record of 1 or more psychiatric admissions at least 9 months before a first-time first-trimester induced abortion or childbirth. Main Outcome Measure  Readmission at a psychiatric hospital with any type of mental disorder from 9 months before to 12 months after a first-time first-trimester induced abortion or childbirth. Relative risk (RR) for readmission risk 9 to 0 months before a first-trimester induced abortion was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.73-1.23) compared with the first year after the abortion. This contrasts with a reduced risk of readmission before childbirth (RR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.42-0.75) compared with the first year post partum. Proximity to previous psychiatric admission in particular predicted rehospitalization risks in both the abortion and the childbirth group. Risk of readmission is similar before and after first-time first-trimester abortion, contrasting with a marked increased in risk of readmission post partum. We speculate that recent psychiatric episodes may influence women's decisions to have an induced abortion; however, this decision does not appear to influence the illness course in women with a history of treated mental disorders.

  1. The Evolution of the Indian Ocean Triple Junction and the Finite Rotation Problem.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    AD-AG&9 103 ~S HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION MASS F/6 6/7 THE EVOLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN TRIPLE JUNCTION AND THE FINIT-ETC(U1 SEP 80 C R TAPSCOTT...1111flfl 1.4 111116 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART WHOI-80-37 THE EVOLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN TRIPLE JUNCTION AND THE FINITE ROTATION PROBLEM by...purpose of the United States Government. This thesis should be cited as: Christopher R. Tapscott, 1979. The Evolution of the Indian Ocean Triple Junction

  2. Evaluation of a novel triple-channel radiochromic film analysis procedure using EBT2.

    PubMed

    van Hoof, Stefan J; Granton, Patrick V; Landry, Guillaume; Podesta, Mark; Verhaegen, Frank

    2012-07-07

    A novel approach to read out radiochromic film was introduced recently by the manufacturer of GafChromic film. In this study, the performance of this triple-channel film dosimetry method was compared against the conventional single-red-channel film dosimetry procedure, with and without inclusion of a pre-irradiation (pre-IR) film scan, using EBT2 film and kilo- and megavoltage photon beams up to 10 Gy. When considering regions of interest averaged doses, the triple-channel method and both single-channel methods produced equivalent results. Absolute dose discrepancies between the triple-channel method, both single-channel methods and the treatment planning system calculated dose values, were no larger than 5 cGy for dose levels up to 2.2 Gy. Signal to noise in triple-channel dose images was found to be similar to signal to noise in single-channel dose images. The accuracy of resulting dose images from the triple- and single-channel methods with inclusion of pre-IR film scan was found to be similar. Results of a comparison of EBT2 data from a kilovoltage depth dose experiment to corresponding Monte Carlo depth dose data produced dose discrepancies of 9.5 ± 12 cGy and 7.6 ± 6 cGy for the single-channel method with inclusion of a pre-IR film scan and the triple-channel method, respectively. EBT2 showed to be energy sensitive at low kilovoltage energies with response differences of 11.9% and 15.6% in the red channel at 2 Gy between 50-225 kVp and 80-225 kVp photon spectra, respectively. We observed that the triple-channel method resulted in non-uniformity corrections of ±1% and consistency values of 0-3 cGy for the batches and dose levels studied. Results of this study indicate that the triple-channel radiochromic film read-out method performs at least as well as the single-channel method with inclusion of a pre-IR film scan, reduces film non-uniformity and saves time with elimination of a pre-IR film scan.

  3. Is screening for fetal anomalies reliable in HIV-infected pregnant women? A multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Brossard, Philippe; Boulvain, Michel; Coll, Oriol; Barlow, Patricia; Aebi-Popp, Karoline; Bischof, Paul; Martinez de Tejada, Begoña

    2008-10-01

    To assess the impact of HIV infection on the reliability of the first-trimester screening for Down syndrome, using free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and fetal nuchal translucency, and of the second-trimester screening for neural tube defects, using alpha-fetoprotein. Multicentre study comparing the multiples of the median of markers for Down syndrome and neural tube defect screening among 214 HIV-infected pregnant women and 856 HIV-negative controls undergoing a first-trimester Down syndrome screening test, and 209 HIV-positive women and 836 HIV-negative controls with a risk evaluation for neural tube defect. The influence of treatment, chronic hepatitis and HIV disease characteristics were also evaluated. Multiples of the median medians for pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin were lower in HIV-positive women than controls (0.88 vs. 1.05 and 0.84 vs. 1.09, respectively; P < 0.005), but these differences had no impact on risk estimation; no differences were observed for the other markers. No association was found between HIV disease characteristics, antiretroviral treatment use at the time of screening or chronic hepatitis and marker levels. Screening for Down syndrome during the first trimester and for neural tube defect during the second trimester is accurate for HIV-infected women and should be offered, similar to HIV-negative women.

  4. First-trimester antihistamine exposure and risk of spontaneous abortion or preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Tiara D; Hartmann, Katherine E; Michels, Kara A; Velez Edwards, Digna R

    2014-10-01

    We tested whether antihistamine exposure during early pregnancy is associated with spontaneous abortion (SAB) or preterm birth (PTB). Women were enrolled in Right from the Start (2004-2010), a prospective pregnancy cohort. Data about first-trimester antihistamine use were obtained from screening and first-trimester interviews. Self-reported outcomes included SAB and PTB and were verified by medical records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test for an association between antihistamine use and each outcome, both performed adjusting for confounders. Among the 2685 pregnancies analyzed, 14% (n = 377) reported use of antihistamines. Among antihistamine users, 12% (n = 44) experienced SABs, and 6% (n = 21) had PTBs. Antihistamine exposure was not associated with SAB (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64, 1.21) or PTB, which was modified by maternal race (aHR = 1.03, 95%CI 0.61, 1.72 among White women and aHR = 0.43, 95%CI 0.14, 1.34 among Black women). Despite the biologic plausibility that antihistamine use may influence pregnancy outcomes, we did not detect evidence of an association with SAB or PTB. These data demonstrate the utility of large prospective cohorts for evaluating drug safety in pregnancy when concerns are raised from animal models. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Second trimester fetal nasal bone length in a low-risk Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Filiz Fatma; Eroglu, Derya; Baser, Eralp; Dursun, Polat; Karakaya, Burcu Kisa

    2011-10-01

    To define normal values of second trimester fetal nasal bone length (NBL) in a low-risk Turkish population. Prenatal records of singleton fetuses who underwent second trimester ultrasonographic examination in the 16 to 23 weeks of pregnancy were retrospectively analyzed for NBL and biometric measurements (BPD, FL and HL). The relationship among NBL and gestational age (GA), biparietal diameter (BPD), femur length (FL) and humerus length (HL) was determined. Additionally, percentile values of NBL for each gestational week were provided. A total of 1467 fetuses were included in this study. There was a significant linear association among NBL and GA (R(2) = 0.709), BPD (R(2) = 0.752), FL (R(2) = 0.742) and HL (R(2) = 0.747). Fifth percentile values of fetal NBL were 3.11 mm for 16th, 3.50 mm for 17th, 3.70 mm for 18th, 4.10 mm for 19th, 4.50 mm for 20th, 4.62 mm for 21st, 5.24 mm for 22nd and 5.37 mm for 23rd gestational weeks. The study provides normal ranges of NBL between 16 and 23 weeks of pregnancy in a low-risk Turkish population. Future studies with larger sample sizes including pregnancies carrying high risk for aneuploidy are needed to define cut-off values for NBL. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Efficacy of first-trimester ultrasound parameters for prediction of early spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Datta, Mamta Rath; Raut, Ankush

    2017-09-01

    To assess first-trimester ultrasound measurements for the prediction of early spontaneous abortion. In a prospective observational study in Jamshedpur, India, women with singleton pregnancies of 42-76 days were enrolled between November 2014 and April 2016. Inclusion criteria were spontaneous conception, embryonic cardiac activity, and regular menstrual cycle. Fetal crown-to-rump length (CRL), gestational sac diameter (GSD), yolk sac diameter (YSD), and fetal heart rate (FHR) were measured by transvaginal ultrasonography. Ultrasonography was repeated at 12 weeks and beyond to determine pregnancy continuation. Among 800 women, 140 (17.5%) experienced early spontaneous abortion. CRL, GSD, and FHR values below the 5th percentile (odds ratio [OR] 26.48, 26.94, and 100.63, respectively), and YSD above the 95th percentile (OR 1.04) were predictors of early abortion. Normal YSD did not reduce the risk of abortion if the other three parameters were below the 5th percentile (OR 34.27). For every 10-bpm decrease in FHR below 130, there was 26.7% increased risk of abortion. GSD-CRL difference of less than 5 mm was associated with a higher likelihood of abortion (OR 4.88). First-trimester ultrasound measurements are predictors of early abortion. Risk assessment tables based on combinations of abnormal measures might improve prediction rates. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  7. Factors affecting delays in first trimester pregnancy termination services in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Silva, Martha; McNeill, Rob; Ashton, Toni

    2011-04-01

    To identify the factors affecting the timeliness of services in first trimester abortion service in New Zealand. Primary data were collected from all patients attending nine abortion clinics between February and May 2009. The outcome measured was delay between the first visit with a referring doctor and the date of the abortion procedure. Patient records (n=2,950) were audited to determine the timeline between the first point of entry to the health system and the date of abortion. Women were also invited to fill out a questionnaire identifying personal factors affecting access to services (n=1,086, response rate = 36.8%). Women who went to private clinic had a significantly shorter delay compared to public clinics. Controlling for clinic type, women who went to clinics that offered medical abortions or clinics that offered single day services experienced less delay. Also, women who had more than one visit with their referring doctor experienced a greater delay than those who had a single visit. The earlier in pregnancy women sought services the longer the delay. Women's decision-making did not have a significant effect on delay. Several clinic level and systemic factors are significantly associated with delay in first trimester abortion services. In order to ensure the best physical and emotional outcomes, timeliness of services must improve. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Prediction of triple-charm molecular pentaquarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui; Hosaka, Atsushi; Liu, Xiang

    2017-12-01

    In a one-boson-exchange model, we study molecular states of double-charm baryon [Ξc c(3621 )] and a charmed meson (D and D*). Our model indicates that there exist two possible triple-charm molecular pentaquarks, a Ξc cD state with I (JP)=0 (1 /2-), and a Ξc cD* state with I (JP)=0 (3 /2-), and we do not find bound solutions for isotriplet states. In addition, we also extend our formula to explore Ξc cB¯(*), Ξc cD¯(*), and Ξc cB(*) systems and find more possible heavy flavor molecular pentaquarks, a Ξc cB ¯ state with I (JP)=0 (1 /2-), a Ξc cB¯* state with I (JP)=0 (3 /2-), and Ξc cD¯*/Ξc cB* states with I (JP)=0 (1 /2-). Experimental research for these predicted triple-charm molecular pentaquarks is encouraged.

  9. Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with increased risk of first-trimester miscarriage in the Odense Child Cohort.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise B; Jørgensen, Jan S; Jensen, Tina K; Dalgård, Christine; Barington, Torben; Nielsen, Jan; Beck-Nielsen, Signe S; Husby, Steffen; Abrahamsen, Bo; Lamont, Ronald F; Christesen, Henrik T

    2015-09-01

    Miscarriage is the most common negative outcome of pregnancy, and identification of modifiable risk factors is potentially of great importance for public health. Low vitamin D concentrations in pregnancy are widespread worldwide, and vitamin D deficiency is implicated in immune cell regulation at the feto-maternal interface and several diseases of pregnancy. We investigated whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentration was a modifiable risk factor for early miscarriage. In a prospective cohort study of 1683 pregnant women donating serum before gestational week 22, we investigated the association between maternal serum concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and the risk of subsequent miscarriage (n = 58). The adjusted hazard of first-trimester miscarriage was lower with higher 25(OH)D concentrations (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 0.99). Concentrations of 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L were associated with a >2-fold increased adjusted HR for miscarriage (HR: 2.50; 95% CI: 1.10, 5.69). Concentrations of 25(OH)D were not associated with an increased risk of second-trimester miscarriage. We found an association between 25(OH)D and first-trimester miscarriages, suggesting vitamin D as a modifiable risk factor for miscarriage. To test this hypothesis, randomized controlled trials should investigate the possible effect of vitamin D supplementation to increase 25(OH)D concentrations in early pregnancy, or before conception, to decrease risk of miscarriage. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02434900. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Prevalence of xenobiotic substances in first-trimester blood samples from Danish pregnant women: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, Sissel Kramer; Larsen, Agnete; Andreasen, Mette Findal; Lesnikova, Iana; Telving, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Anna Louise; Tørring, Niels; Uldbjerg, Niels; Bor, Pinar

    2018-03-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of xenobiotic substances, such as caffeine, nicotine and illicit drugs (eg, cannabis and cocaine), in blood samples from first-trimester Danish pregnant women unaware of the screening. A cross - sectional study examined 436 anonymised residual blood samples obtained during 2014 as part of the nationwide prenatal first-trimester screening programme. The samples were analysed by ultra performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. An antenatal clinic in a Danish city with 62 000 inhabitants, where >95% of pregnant women joined the screening programme. The prevalence and patterns of caffeine, nicotine, medication and illicit drug intake during the first trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of prescription and over-the-counter drug detection was 17.9%, including acetaminophen (8.9%) and antidepressants (3.0%), of which citalopram (0.9%) was the most frequent. The prevalence of illegal drugs, indicators of smoking (nicotine/cotinine) and caffeine was 0.9%, 9.9%, and 76.4%, respectively. Only 17.4% of women had no substance identified in their sample. This study emphasises the need for further translational studies investigating lifestyle habits during pregnancy, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms through which xenobiotic substances may affect placental function and fetal development. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. QCD triple Pomeron coupling from string amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, A.; Navelet, H.; Peschanski, R.

    1998-06-01

    Using the recent solution of the triple Pomeron coupling in the QCD dipole picture as a closed string amplitude with six legs, its analytical form in terms of hypergeometric functions and numerical value are derived.

  12. Intracerebral Hemorrhage with Herniation in a Second-Trimester Pregnant Female.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Donald S

    A 30-year-old woman, gravida 1, para 2, in her second trimester presented to the local emergency department complaining of an atraumatic headache described as the worst headache of her life. While undergoing evaluation, she became unresponsive with signs of herniation, including a blown pupil and bradycardia. Emergent imaging identified an intracerebral hemorrhage requiring immediate surgical decompression. The patient was transferred by helicopter to tertiary care. Upon arrival, the patient was taken directly to the operating room and underwent a decompressive craniotomy. This article reviews the considerations for transporting pregnant patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Copyright © 2018 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between the Nutritional Status of Vitamin A per Trimester of Pregnancy with Maternal Anthropometry and Anemia after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Sabrina; Matos, Andréa; da Cruz, Suelem Pereira; Pereira, Silvia; Saboya, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa

    2017-09-08

    The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional status of vitamin A per trimester of pregnancy, as well as to assess its influence on pre-pregnancy BMI, total gestational weight gain (TGWG) and presence of anemia in women who had previously undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). An analytical, longitudinal and retrospective study comprising 30 pregnant women who had previously undergone RYGB was undertaken. In all trimesters of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, stages of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), night blindness (NB), anemia and anthropometric variables were assessed. VAD in pregnancy affected 90% of women, 86.7% developed NB and 82.8% had mild VAD. TGWG above/below the recommended range was related to the low serum concentrations of β-carotene ( p = 0.045) in the second trimester and women with TGWG above the recommended range showed 100% of inadequacy of this nutrient in the third trimester. Among the pregnant women with anemia, 90.9% had VAD and 86.4% had NB. This study highlights the importance of monitoring the nutritional status of vitamin A in prenatal care, due to its relationship with TGWG and the high percentage of VAD and NB found since the beginning of pregnancy. It also reaffirms the use of the cut-off <1.05 μmol/L for determining VAD.