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Sample records for trimethoprim

  1. Molecular imprinting-chemiluminescence determination of trimethoprim using trimethoprim-imprinted polymer as recognition material.

    PubMed

    He, Yunhua; Lu, Jiuru; Liu, Mei; Du, Jianxiu

    2005-07-01

    A new molecular imprinting-chemiluminescence method for the determination of trimethoprim was developed, in which trimethoprim-imprinted polymer was used as the molecular recognition material and the CL reaction of trimethoprim with potassium permanganate in acidic medium was used as the detection system. The CL intensity responds linearly to the concentration of trimethoprim within the 5.0 x 10(-8)-5.0 x 10(-6) g mL(-1) range (r= 0.9983) with a detection limit of 2 x 10(-8) g mL(-1). The relative standard deviation for the determination of 1.0 x 10(-7) g mL(-1) trimethoprim solutions is 4.8% (n= 9). The method has been applied to the determination of trimethoprim in pharmaceutical preparations and body fluids, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  2. Evaluation of Veterinary-Specific Interpretive Criteria for Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus equi Subspecies with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim-Sulfadiazine

    PubMed Central

    Kanellos, Theo; Guardabassi, Luca; Boucher, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with Streptococcus equi subspecies are interpreted based on human data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The veterinary-specific data generated in this study support a single breakpoint for testing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and/or trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with S. equi. This study indicates trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as an acceptable surrogate for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with S. equi. PMID:27847375

  3. Evaluation of Veterinary-Specific Interpretive Criteria for Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus equi Subspecies with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim-Sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Sadaka, Carmen; Kanellos, Theo; Guardabassi, Luca; Boucher, Joseph; Watts, Jeffrey L

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with Streptococcus equi subspecies are interpreted based on human data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The veterinary-specific data generated in this study support a single breakpoint for testing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and/or trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with S. equi This study indicates trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as an acceptable surrogate for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with S. equi. Copyright © 2016 Sadaka et al.

  4. Characterization of Dihydrofolate Reductase Genes from Trimethoprim-Susceptible and Trimethoprim-Resistant Strains of Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Coque, Teresa M.; Singh, Kavindra V.; Weinstock, George M.; Murray, Barbara E.

    1999-01-01

    Enterococci are usually susceptible in vitro to trimethoprim; however, high-level resistance (HLR) (MICs, >1,024 μg/ml) has been reported. We studied Enterococcus faecalis DEL, for which the trimethoprim MIC was >1,024 μg/ml. No transfer of resistance was achieved by broth or filter matings. Two different genes that conferred trimethoprim resistance when they were cloned in Escherichia coli (MICs, 128 and >1,024 μg/ml) were studied. One gene that coded for a polypeptide of 165 amino acids (MIC, 128 μg/ml for E. coli) was identical to dfr homologs that we cloned from a trimethoprim-susceptible E. faecalis strain, and it is presumed to be the intrinsic E. faecalis dfr gene (which causes resistance in E. coli when cloned in multiple copies); this gene was designated dfrE. The nucleotide sequence 5′ to this dfr gene showed similarity to thymidylate synthetase genes, suggesting that the dfr and thy genes from E. faecalis are located in tandem. The E. faecalis gene that conferred HLR to trimethoprim in E. coli, designated dfrF, codes for a predicted polypeptide of 165 amino acids with 38 to 64% similarity with other dihydrofolate reductases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. The nucleotide sequence 5′ to dfrF did not show similarity to the thy sequences. A DNA probe for dfrF hybridized under high-stringency conditions only to colony lysates of enterococci for which the trimethoprim MIC was >1,024 μg/ml; there was no hybridization to plasmid DNA from the strain of origin. To confirm that this gene causes trimethoprim resistance in enterococci, we cloned it into the integrative vector pAT113 and electroporated it into RH110 (E. faecalis OG1RF::Tn916ΔEm) (trimethoprim MIC, 0.5 μg/ml), which resulted in RH110 derivatives for which the trimethoprim MIC was >1,024 μg/ml. These results indicate that dfrF is an acquired but probably chromosomally located gene which is responsible for in vitro HLR to trimethoprim in E. faecalis. PMID:9869579

  5. Influence of concomitant prednisolone on trimethoprim-associated hyperkalaemia.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Sumit; Jaitly, Manasvi; Pogue, Velvie A; Cheng, Jen-Tse

    2009-10-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole may cause hyperkalaemia by the amiloride-like effect of trimethoprim on sodium channels in the distal nephron. Hyperkalaemia usually occurs after 7-10 days and has been reported in 20%-50% of patients receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Patients with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and severe hypoxaemia benefit from the use of prednisolone as an adjuvant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The addition of prednisolone may lower the incidence of trimethoprim-related hyperkalaemia due, in part, to its mineralocorticoid activity. We studied the effect of concomitant prednisolone on trimethoprim-related hyperkalaemia. Thirty patients qualified for inclusion and were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: one group received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus prednisolone (18 patients); and the other group received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole alone (12 patients). The two groups were comparable at baseline, except for the severity of the P. jiroveci pneumonia. Hyperkalaemia developed in seven patients: all in the prednisolone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group. The greater incidence of hyperkalaemia in this group is surprising and was counter to our expectation. Although it is possible that there is an unexplained interaction between trimethoprim and prednisolone, we postulate that our observation is a result of the catabolic effect of prednisolone. The patients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus prednisolone appear to be more likely to develop hyperkalaemia than patients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole alone.

  6. Comparative in vitro activity of sulfametrole/trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and other agents against multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Livermore, David M; Mushtaq, Shazad; Warner, Marina; Woodford, Neil

    2014-04-01

    Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim is standard therapy for infections caused by opportunist non-fermenters except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter. Sulfametrol(e)/trimethoprim is an alternative to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim available in some EU countries, with possible pharmacological advantages. We compared their activities against (i) non-fermenters, (ii) multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae and (iii) reference strains with sul1 and sul2. Test isolates were recent submissions to the reference laboratory, or were Escherichia coli previously shown to have sul1 or sul2. Identification was by MALDI-ToF, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing or with API20NE strips. MICs were determined by CLSI agar dilution. The Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Burkholderia series were enhanced by inclusion of 25% sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim-resistant isolates; other series were not enhanced. MICs of sulfametrole/trimethoprim for non-fermenters tracked those of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, being equal in 97/170 cases, 2-fold higher in 57/170 cases and 2-fold lower in 12/170 cases. Despite supplementing the Burkholderia and S. maltophilia collections with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim-resistant organisms, the antifolate combinations retained better activity against these and other non-fermenters than did piperacillin/tazobactam, moxifloxacin, ticarcillin/clavulanate, tigecycline, cefotaxime or imipenem. By contrast, few (5%-20%) of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were susceptible to the sulphonamides or their trimethoprim combinations, probably reflecting widespread co-carriage of sul1 and sul2, which both conferred resistance. Antifolate combinations remain the most active antimicrobials against less common non-fermenters, importantly including S. maltophilia and Burkholderia spp., but resistance is prevalent among ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Sulfametrole/trimethoprim had similar activity to

  7. Factors That Cause Trimethoprim Resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, René; van der Linden, Mark; Chhatwal, Gursharan S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of trimethoprim in treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections has long been discouraged because it has been widely believed that this pathogen is resistant to this antibiotic. To gain more insight into the extent and molecular basis of trimethoprim resistance in S. pyogenes, we tested isolates from India and Germany and sought the factors that conferred the resistance. Resistant isolates were identified in tests for trimethoprim or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) susceptibility. Resistant isolates were screened for the known horizontally transferable trimethoprim-insensitive dihydrofolate reductase (dfr) genes dfrG, dfrF, dfrA, dfrD, and dfrK. The nucleotide sequence of the intrinsic dfr gene was determined for resistant isolates lacking the horizontally transferable genes. Based on tentative criteria, 69 out of 268 isolates (25.7%) from India were resistant to trimethoprim. Occurring in 42 of the 69 resistant isolates (60.9%), dfrF appeared more frequently than dfrG (23 isolates; 33.3%) in India. The dfrF gene was also present in a collection of SXT-resistant isolates from Germany, in which it was the only detected trimethoprim resistance factor. The dfrF gene caused resistance in 4 out of 5 trimethoprim-resistant isolates from the German collection. An amino acid substitution in the intrinsic dihydrofolate reductase known from trimethoprim-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae conferred resistance to S. pyogenes isolates of emm type 102.2, which lacked other aforementioned dfr genes. Trimethoprim may be more useful in treatment of S. pyogenes infections than previously thought. However, the factors described herein may lead to the rapid development and spread of resistance of S. pyogenes to this antibiotic agent. PMID:24492367

  8. Factors that cause trimethoprim resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, René; van der Linden, Mark; Chhatwal, Gursharan S; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric

    2014-01-01

    The use of trimethoprim in treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections has long been discouraged because it has been widely believed that this pathogen is resistant to this antibiotic. To gain more insight into the extent and molecular basis of trimethoprim resistance in S. pyogenes, we tested isolates from India and Germany and sought the factors that conferred the resistance. Resistant isolates were identified in tests for trimethoprim or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) susceptibility. Resistant isolates were screened for the known horizontally transferable trimethoprim-insensitive dihydrofolate reductase (dfr) genes dfrG, dfrF, dfrA, dfrD, and dfrK. The nucleotide sequence of the intrinsic dfr gene was determined for resistant isolates lacking the horizontally transferable genes. Based on tentative criteria, 69 out of 268 isolates (25.7%) from India were resistant to trimethoprim. Occurring in 42 of the 69 resistant isolates (60.9%), dfrF appeared more frequently than dfrG (23 isolates; 33.3%) in India. The dfrF gene was also present in a collection of SXT-resistant isolates from Germany, in which it was the only detected trimethoprim resistance factor. The dfrF gene caused resistance in 4 out of 5 trimethoprim-resistant isolates from the German collection. An amino acid substitution in the intrinsic dihydrofolate reductase known from trimethoprim-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae conferred resistance to S. pyogenes isolates of emm type 102.2, which lacked other aforementioned dfr genes. Trimethoprim may be more useful in treatment of S. pyogenes infections than previously thought. However, the factors described herein may lead to the rapid development and spread of resistance of S. pyogenes to this antibiotic agent.

  9. Within-population distribution of trimethoprim resistance in Escherichia coli before and after a community-wide intervention on trimethoprim use.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, Martin; Granholm, Susanne; Naseer, Umaer; Rydén, Patrik; Brolund, Alma; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Johansson, Anders

    2014-12-01

    A 2-year prospective intervention on the prescription of trimethoprim reduced the use by 85% in a health care region with 178,000 inhabitants. Here, we performed before-and-after analyses of the within-population distribution of trimethoprim resistance in Escherichia coli. Phylogenetic and population genetic methods were applied to multilocus sequence typing data of 548 consecutively collected E. coli isolates from clinical urinary specimens. Results were analyzed in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and the presence and genomic location of different trimethoprim resistance gene classes. A total of 163 E. coli sequence types (STs) were identified, of which 68 were previously undescribed. The isolates fell into one of three distinct genetic clusters designated BAPS 1 (E. coli phylogroup B2), BAPS 2 (phylogroup A and B1), and BAPS 3 (phylogroup D), each with a similar frequency before and after the intervention. BAPS 2 and BAPS 3 were positively and BAPS 1 was negatively associated with trimethoprim resistance (odds ratios of 1.97, 3.17, and 0.26, respectively). In before-and-after analyses, trimethoprim resistance frequency increased in BAPS 1 and decreased in BAPS 2. Resistance to antibiotics other than trimethoprim increased in BAPS 2. Analysis of the genomic location of different trimethoprim resistance genes in isolates of ST69, ST58, and ST73 identified multiple independent acquisition events in isolates of the same ST. The results show that despite a stable overall resistance frequency in E. coli before and after the intervention, marked within-population changes occurred. A decrease of resistance in one major genetic cluster was masked by a reciprocal increase in another major cluster. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Within-Population Distribution of Trimethoprim Resistance in Escherichia coli before and after a Community-Wide Intervention on Trimethoprim Use

    PubMed Central

    Sundqvist, Martin; Granholm, Susanne; Naseer, Umaer; Rydén, Patrik; Brolund, Alma; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Kahlmeter, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year prospective intervention on the prescription of trimethoprim reduced the use by 85% in a health care region with 178,000 inhabitants. Here, we performed before-and-after analyses of the within-population distribution of trimethoprim resistance in Escherichia coli. Phylogenetic and population genetic methods were applied to multilocus sequence typing data of 548 consecutively collected E. coli isolates from clinical urinary specimens. Results were analyzed in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and the presence and genomic location of different trimethoprim resistance gene classes. A total of 163 E. coli sequence types (STs) were identified, of which 68 were previously undescribed. The isolates fell into one of three distinct genetic clusters designated BAPS 1 (E. coli phylogroup B2), BAPS 2 (phylogroup A and B1), and BAPS 3 (phylogroup D), each with a similar frequency before and after the intervention. BAPS 2 and BAPS 3 were positively and BAPS 1 was negatively associated with trimethoprim resistance (odds ratios of 1.97, 3.17, and 0.26, respectively). In before-and-after analyses, trimethoprim resistance frequency increased in BAPS 1 and decreased in BAPS 2. Resistance to antibiotics other than trimethoprim increased in BAPS 2. Analysis of the genomic location of different trimethoprim resistance genes in isolates of ST69, ST58, and ST73 identified multiple independent acquisition events in isolates of the same ST. The results show that despite a stable overall resistance frequency in E. coli before and after the intervention, marked within-population changes occurred. A decrease of resistance in one major genetic cluster was masked by a reciprocal increase in another major cluster. PMID:25288078

  11. A Trimethoprim Conjugate of Thiomaltose Has Enhanced Antibacterial Efficacy In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojian; Borges, Clarissa A; Ning, Xinghai; Rafi, Mohammad; Zhang, Jingtuo; Park, Bora; Takemiya, Kiyoko; Lo Sterzo, Carlo; Taylor, W Robert; Riley, Lee; Murthy, Niren

    2018-05-16

    Trimethoprim is one of the most widely used antibiotics in the world. However, its efficacy is frequently limited by its poor water solubility and dose limiting toxicity. Prodrug strategies based on conjugation of oligosaccharides to trimethoprim have great potential for increasing the solubility of trimethoprim and lowering its toxicity, but they have been challenging to develop due to the sensitivity of trimethoprim to chemical modifications, and the rapid degradation of oligosaccharides in serum. In this report, we present a trimethoprim conjugate of maltodextrin termed TM-TMP, which increased the water solubility of trimethoprim by over 100 times, was stable to serum enzymes, and was active against urinary tract infections in mice. TM-TMP is composed of thiomaltose conjugated to trimethoprim, via a self-immolative disulfide linkage, and releases 4'-OH-trimethoprim (TMP-OH) after disulfide cleavage, which is a known metabolic product of trimethoprim and is as potent as trimethoprim. TM-TMP also contains a new maltodextrin targeting ligand composed of thiomaltose, which is stable to hydrolysis by serum amylases and therefore has the metabolic stability needed for in vivo use. TM-TMP has the potential to significantly improve the treatment of a wide number of infections given its high water solubility and the widespread use of trimethoprim.

  12. Trimethoprim degradation by Fenton and Fe(II)-activated persulfate processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizong; Wang, Jianlong

    2018-01-01

    Trimethoprim is a pollutant ubiquitous in the environment due to its extensive application, and it cannot be effectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment processes. In this study, the Fenton and the Fe(II)-activated persulfate processes were employed to degrade trimethoprim in an aqueous solution. The results showed that the concentration of persulfate, H 2 O 2 and Fe(II) a had significant influence on the degradation of trimethoprim in both processes. De-ionized water spiked with trimethoprim resulted in the complete degradation of trimethoprim (0.05 mM) by the mineralization of 54.9% of Fenton's reagent when the concentrations of H 2 O 2 and Fe(II) were 1 mM and 0.05 mM, respectively. In contrast, 73.4% of trimethoprim was degraded by the mineralization of 40.5% of the Fe(II)-activated persulfate process when the concentration of persulfate and Fe(II) were each 4 mM. Intermediate compounds with different m/z were detected for the Fenton and the Fe(II)-activated persulfate processes, indicating alternative degradation pathways. In the actual wastewater spiked with trimethoprim, the removal efficiency of trimethoprim decreased to 35.8% and 43.6%, respectively, for the Fenton and the Fe(II)-activated persulfate processes. In addition, the decomposition efficiencies for hydrogen peroxide and persulfate were 43.8% and 92.5%, respectively, which was lower than those in the de-ionized water system. These results demonstrated that wastewater components had a negative influence on trimethoprim degradation and the decomposition of the oxidants (persulfate and H 2 O 2 ). In summary, the Fe(II)-activated persulfate process could be used as an alternative technology for treating trimethoprim-containing wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Characterisation of Trimethoprim Resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae during a Two Year Intervention on Trimethoprim Use

    PubMed Central

    Brolund, Alma; Sundqvist, Martin; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Grape, Malin

    2010-01-01

    Background Trimethoprim resistance is increasing in Enterobacteriaceae. In 2004-2006 an intervention on trimethoprim use was conducted in Kronoberg County, Sweden, resulting in 85% reduction in trimethoprim prescriptions. We investigated the distribution of dihydrofolate reductase (dfr)-genes and integrons in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the effect of the intervention on this distribution. Methodology/Principal Findings Consecutively isolated E. coli (n = 320) and K. pneumoniae (n = 54) isolates phenotypicaly resistant to trimethoprim were studied. All were investigated for the presence of dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA8, dfrA12, dfrA14, dfrA17 and integrons class I and II. Isolates negative for the seven dfr-genes (n = 12) were also screened for dfr2d, dfrA3, dfrA9, dfrA10, dfrA24 and dfrA26. These genes accounted for 96% of trimethoprim resistance in E. coli and 69% in K. pneumoniae. The most prevalent was dfrA1 in both species. This was followed by dfrA17 in E. coli which was only found in one K. pneumoniae isolate. Class I and II Integrons were more common in E. coli (85%) than in K. pneumoniae (57%). The distribution of dfr-genes did not change during the course of the 2-year intervention. Conclusions/Significance The differences observed between the studied species in terms of dfr-gene and integron prevalence indicated a low rate of dfr-gene transfer between these two species and highlighted the possible role of narrow host range plasmids in the spread of trimethoprim resistance. The stability of dfr-genes, despite large changes in the selective pressure, indirectly suggests a low fitness cost of dfr-gene carriage. PMID:20169085

  14. Occurrence and determinants of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole use in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tubao; Walker, Mark C; Krewski, Daniel; Yang, Qiuying; Garner, Peter; Fraser, William; Olatunbosun, Olufemi; Nimrod, Carl; Wen, Shi Wu

    2007-01-01

    To estimate the rate of prescription trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole use in pregnancy, and to analyse the association between maternal characteristics and use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in pregnancy. A population-based study was conducted based on a 50% random sample of women who gave a birth in Saskatchewan between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2000. The rate of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole use during pregnancy was estimated. The exposure in each trimester was also estimated. Associations between maternal characteristics and pregnancy trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole use were evaluated using multiple logistical regression with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as the association measures. A total of 18,575 women who gave a birth in Saskatchewan during the study period were included in the analysis. Among them, 596 (3.2%) had at least 1 prescription for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole during pregnancy, 389 (2.1%) in the first trimester, 208 (1.1%) in the second trimester, and 195 (1.1%) in the third trimester. Women with chronic health conditions (6.2%) had a 2-fold increased risk of exposure compared to women without a chronic health condition (2.8%). Younger women (<20 years) with parity >/=3 and women on Saskatchewan assistance plan were also at increased risk. There were variations in exposure by trimester. For example, teenage women without chronic health conditions were at increased risk of use in the second and third trimester. Some 3.2% of women are exposed to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole during pregnancy. Women with chronic health problems, of younger age, and of lower socioeconomic status are at elevated risk of exposure to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole during pregnancy.

  15. Trimethoprim prescription and subsequent resistance in childhood urinary infection: multilevel modelling analysis.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Mary A; Hernandez-Santiago, Virginia; Orange, Gillian; Davey, Peter G; Guthrie, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern and antibiotic usage the main contributing factor, but there are few studies examining antibiotic use and resistance in children. To investigate the association between previous trimethoprim prescribing and resistance in urinary Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates in children. Retrospective, population cohort study in Tayside, Scotland. Multilevel modelling of linked microbiology and dispensed prescribing data for 1373 ≤16-year-olds with E. coli urinary isolates in 2004-2009, examining the association between prior trimethoprim prescription and subsequent trimethoprim resistance in people with urinary E. coli isolates. Trimethoprim resistance was common (26.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 24.6 to 28.6). Previous trimethoprim prescription was associated with subsequent culture of trimethoprim-resistant E. coli, with more recent prescription being more strongly associated with resistance. After adjusting for the number of previous E. coli isolates and sample year, trimethoprim prescribing in the previous 84 days remained significantly associated with culturing trimethoprim-resistant E. coli (adjusted OR 4.71, 95% CI = 1.83 to 12.16 for the previous 15-28 days versus never prescribed; adjusted OR 3.16, 95% CI = 1.63 to 6.13 for the previous 29-84 days); however, associations were not statistically significant for longer periods since prior exposure. Trimethoprim prescription has implications for future resistance in individual children, as well as at population level. Clinicians must ensure appropriateness of treatment choice and duration, and alternative antibiotics should be considered for childhood urinary tract infections if trimethoprim has been prescribed in the preceding 3 months.

  16. Trimethoprim Resistance of Dihydrofolate Reductase Variants from Clinical Isolates of Pneumocystis jirovecii

    PubMed Central

    Cody, V.; Pace, J.; Torkelson, P.; Gangjee, A.

    2013-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients. Standard therapy and prophylaxis include trimethoprim (TMP)-sulfamethoxazole; trimethoprim in this combination targets dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Fourteen clinically observed variants of P. jirovecii DHFR were produced recombinantly to allow exploration of the causes of clinically observed failure of therapy and prophylaxis that includes trimethoprim. Six DHFR variants (S31F, F36C, L65P, A67V, V79I, and I158V) showed resistance to inhibition by trimethoprim, with Ki values for trimethoprim 4-fold to 100-fold higher than those for the wild-type P. jirovecii DHFR. An experimental antifolate with more conformational flexibility than trimethoprim showed strong activity against one trimethoprim-resistant variant. The two variants that were most resistant to trimethoprim (F36C and L65P) also had increased Km values for dihydrofolic acid (DHFA). The catalytic rate constant (kcat) was unchanged for most variant forms of P. jirovecii DHFR but was significantly lowered in F36C protein; one naturally occurring variant with two amino acid substitutions (S106P and E127G) showed a doubling of kcat, as well as a Km for NADPH half that of the wild type. The strongest resistance to trimethoprim occurred with amino acid changes in the binding pocket for DHFA or trimethoprim, and the strongest effect on binding of NADPH was linked to a mutation involved in binding the phosphate group of the cofactor. This study marks the first confirmation that naturally occurring mutations in the gene for DHFR from P. jirovecii produce variant forms of DHFR that are resistant to trimethoprim and may contribute to clinically observed failures of standard therapy or prophylaxis. PMID:23896474

  17. Trimethoprim prescription and subsequent resistance in childhood urinary infection: multilevel modelling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Mary A; Hernandez-Santiago, Virginia; Orange, Gillian; Davey, Peter G; Guthrie, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern and antibiotic usage the main contributing factor, but there are few studies examining antibiotic use and resistance in children. Aim To investigate the association between previous trimethoprim prescribing and resistance in urinary Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates in children. Design and setting Retrospective, population cohort study in Tayside, Scotland. Method Multilevel modelling of linked microbiology and dispensed prescribing data for 1373 ≤16-year-olds with E. coli urinary isolates in 2004–2009, examining the association between prior trimethoprim prescription and subsequent trimethoprim resistance in people with urinary E. coli isolates. Results Trimethoprim resistance was common (26.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 24.6 to 28.6). Previous trimethoprim prescription was associated with subsequent culture of trimethoprim-resistant E. coli, with more recent prescription being more strongly associated with resistance. After adjusting for the number of previous E. coli isolates and sample year, trimethoprim prescribing in the previous 84 days remained significantly associated with culturing trimethoprim-resistant E. coli (adjusted OR 4.71, 95% CI = 1.83 to 12.16 for the previous 15–28 days versus never prescribed; adjusted OR 3.16, 95% CI = 1.63 to 6.13 for the previous 29–84 days); however, associations were not statistically significant for longer periods since prior exposure. Conclusion Trimethoprim prescription has implications for future resistance in individual children, as well as at population level. Clinicians must ensure appropriateness of treatment choice and duration, and alternative antibiotics should be considered for childhood urinary tract infections if trimethoprim has been prescribed in the preceding 3 months. PMID:23540479

  18. Antimicrobial lubricant formulations containing poly(hydroxybenzene)-trimethoprim conjugates synthesized by tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Idalina; Botelho, Cláudia M; Teixeira, Ana; Abreu, Ana S; Hilliou, Loïc; Silva, Carla; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-05-01

    Poly(hydroxybenzene)-trimethoprim conjugates were prepared using methylparaben as substrate of the oxidative enzyme tyrosinase. MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed that the enzymatic oxidation of methylparaben alone leads to the poly(hydroxybenzene) formation. In the presence of trimethoprim, the methylparaben tyrosinase oxidation leads poly(hydroxybenzene)-trimethoprim conjugates. All of these compounds were incorporated into lubricant hydroxyethyl cellulose/glycerol mixtures. Poly(hydroxybenzene)-trimethoprim conjugates were the most effective phenolic structures against the bacterial growth reducing by 96 and 97% of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis suspensions, respectively (after 24 h). A novel enzymatic strategy to produce antimicrobial poly(hydroxybenzene)-antibiotic conjugates is proposed here for a wide range of applications on the biomedical field.

  19. Treatment of experimental staphylococcal osteomyelitis with rifampin and trimethoprim, alone and in combination.

    PubMed Central

    Norden, C W; Keleti, E

    1980-01-01

    Rifampin and trimethoprim were used alone and in combination in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus aureus in rabbits. Rifampicin levels in infected bone were well above the minimum inhibitory concentration of the infecting strain of S. aureus for at least 4 h after injection. In contrast, trimethoprim levels in diseased bone were below the minimum inhibitory concentration as early as 1 h after injection. Trimethoprim or rifampin, administered alone for 14 days, were ineffective in sterilizing infected rabbit bones. The combination of rifampin plus trimethoprim was significantly more effective (P less than 0.005) than either agents given alone for a comparable duration of time. Staphylococci isolated from the bones of rabbits treated with rifampin alone or rifampin plus trimethoprim were uniformly resistant to rifampin, but retained their susceptibility to trimethoprim. PMID:7396451

  20. Analysis of mutational resistance to trimethoprim in Staphylococcus aureus by genetic and structural modelling techniques.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Anna A; Potter, Nicola J; Fishwick, Colin W G; Chopra, Ian; O'Neill, Alex J

    2009-06-01

    This study sought to expand knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of mutational resistance to trimethoprim in Staphylococcus aureus, and the fitness costs associated with resistance. Spontaneous trimethoprim-resistant mutants of S. aureus SH1000 were recovered in vitro, resistance genotypes characterized by DNA sequencing of the gene encoding the drug target (dfrA) and the fitness of mutants determined by pair-wise growth competition assays with SH1000. Novel resistance genotypes were confirmed by ectopic expression of dfrA alleles in a trimethoprim-sensitive S. aureus strain. Molecular models of S. aureus dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were constructed to explore the structural basis of trimethoprim resistance, and to rationalize the observed in vitro fitness of trimethoprim-resistant mutants. In addition to known amino acid substitutions in DHFR mediating trimethoprim resistance (F(99)Y and H(150)R), two novel resistance polymorphisms (L(41)F and F(99)S) were identified among the trimethoprim-resistant mutants selected in vitro. Molecular modelling of mutated DHFR enzymes provided insight into the structural basis of trimethoprim resistance. Calculated binding energies of the substrate (dihydrofolate) for the mutant and wild-type enzymes were similar, consistent with apparent lack of fitness costs for the resistance mutations in vitro. Reduced susceptibility to trimethoprim of DHFR enzymes carrying substitutions L(41)F, F(99)S, F(99)Y and H(150)R appears to result from structural changes that reduce trimethoprim binding to the enzyme. However, the mutations conferring trimethoprim resistance are not associated with fitness costs in vitro, suggesting that the survival of trimethoprim-resistant strains emerging in the clinic may not be subject to a fitness disadvantage.

  1. Emergence of trimethoprim resistance in relation to drug consumption in a Finnish hospital from 1971 through 1984.

    PubMed Central

    Huovinen, P; Pulkkinen, L; Helin, H L; Mäkilä, M; Toivanen, P

    1986-01-01

    Emergence of trimethoprim resistance among urinary tract Escherichia coli strains, isolated mostly from long-term patients in the Turku City Hospital, Turku, Finland, was studied from 1971 through 1984. Emergence of resistance to trimethoprim was associated with changes in the consumption of both trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, with occurrence of high-level trimethoprim resistance and sequences homologous to trimethoprim resistance transposon Tn7. Since 1971, resistance of E. coli to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole increased from 8 to between 32 and 35% in 1983 and 1984; resistance to sulfamethoxazole varied from 39 to between 40 and 44%. The frequency of DNA sequence homology with our Tn7 probe among trimethoprim-resistant E. coli strains was 42% from 1980 to 1981 and 64% in 1983 (P less than 0.005). Fourteen years after the introduction of trimethoprim therapy in this hospital, resistance has reached the level of resistance to sulfonamide. PMID:3524425

  2. Penetration of topically administered ofloxacin and trimethoprim into aqueous humor.

    PubMed

    Price, Francis W; Dobbins, Kendall; Zeh, William

    2002-10-01

    Ocular penetration of two topical antibiotics used to treat bacterial conjunctivitis was assessed in adult volunteers scheduled for cataract surgery. In this randomized, parallel-group study, patients instilled trimethoprim sulfate 0.1%/polymyxin B (n = 23) or ofloxacin 0.3% (n = 25) QID for 3 days, plus 4 instillations in the hour before surgery. Analysis of aqueous humor samples obtained during surgery showed a 2.4-fold greater concentration of ofloxacin over trimethoprim (1.135 micro g/ml vs 0.470 micro g/ml; P <.0001). The greater concentration of ofloxacin in ocular tissue coupled with its superior antibacterial activity profile supports its use as an alternative to trimethoprim/polymyxin B for treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis.

  3. Trimethoprim in vitro antibacterial activity is not increased by adding sulfamethoxazole for pediatric Escherichia coli urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hiep T; Hurwitz, Richard S; Defoor, W Robert; Minevich, Eugene; McAdam, Alexander J; Mortensen, Joel E; Novak-Weekley, Susan M; Minnillo, Brian J; Elder, Jack S

    2010-07-01

    The combination of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is often used to treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections in children. The rationale for combining trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole is that they may act synergistically to increase antibacterial activity. However, approximately 3% of patients show allergic reactions to sulfamethoxazole, of which some are serious (liver failure and Stevens-Johnson syndrome). We determined whether adding sulfamethoxazole is necessary to increase in vitro antibacterial activity for pediatric urinary tract infection compared to that of trimethoprim alone. We prospectively identified 1,298 children with urinary tract infection (greater than 100,000 cfu/ml Escherichia coli) from a total of 4 American regions. In vitro susceptibility of bacterial isolates to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was determined using disk diffusion. Ampicillin susceptibility was tested at 2 sites. At 1 site all uropathogens from consecutive urinary isolates were evaluated. E. coli susceptibility to trimethoprim was 70%, comparable to the 70% of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (p = 0.9) and higher than the 56.9% of sulfamethoxazole (p <0.05). This susceptibility pattern was without regional differences. At 2 sites susceptibility to trimethoprim was significantly higher than to ampicillin. At 1 site the susceptibility of other uropathogens to trimethoprim and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was similar to that of E. coli. In children with urinary tract infection in vitro susceptibility to trimethoprim was comparable to that to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and significantly higher than to sulfamethoxazole. This finding was similar at all sites. Adding sulfamethoxazole appears unnecessary and may represent a risk to patients. Trimethoprim can be used as an alternative to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole based on in vitro antibacterial susceptibility. Routine trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole use for urinary tract infection should be

  4. Purine biosynthesis is the bottleneck in trimethoprim-treated Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Stepanek, Jennifer Janina; Schäkermann, Sina; Wenzel, Michaela; Prochnow, Pascal; Bandow, Julia Elisabeth

    2016-10-01

    Trimethoprim is a folate biosynthesis inhibitor. Tetrahydrofolates are essential for the transfer of C 1 units in several biochemical pathways including purine, thymine, methionine, and glycine biosynthesis. This study addressed the effects of folate biosynthesis inhibition on bacterial physiology. Two complementary proteomic approaches were employed to analyze the response of Bacillus subtilis to trimethoprim. Acute changes in protein synthesis rates were monitored by radioactive pulse labeling of newly synthesized proteins and subsequent 2DE analysis. Changes in protein levels were detected using gel-free quantitative MS. Proteins involved in purine and histidine biosynthesis, the σ B -dependent general stress response, and sporulation were upregulated. Most prominently, the PurR-regulon required for de novo purine biosynthesis was derepressed indicating purine depletion. The general stress response was activated energy dependently and in a subpopulation of treated cultures an early onset of sporulation was observed, most likely triggered by low guanosine triphosphate levels. Supplementation of adenosine triphosphate, adenosine, and guanosine to the medium substantially decreased antibacterial activity, showing that purine depletion becomes the bottleneck in trimethoprim-treated B. subtilis. The frequently prescribed antibiotic trimethoprim causes purine depletion in B. subtilis, which can be complemented by supplementing purines to the medium. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Effects of Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim on Airway Colonization with Pneumocystis jirovecii.

    PubMed

    Kushima, Hisako; Ishii, Hiroshi; Tokimatsu, Issei; Umeki, Kenji; Sato, Takako; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

    2016-05-20

    Reactivation of latent infection is considered to be the main mechanism underlying the development of Pneumocystis pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients. We retrospectively assessed the effects of prophylactic administration of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim on the development of P. pneumonia and airway colonization with P. jirovecii in patients undergoing examinations to diagnose or rule out P. pneumonia. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect P. jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or sputum of 60 consecutive patients between 2004 and 2012. No patients who received the prophylactic administration of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (n = 10) developed P. pneumonia or demonstrated airway colonization with P. jirovecii, and none of the patients who developed P. pneumonia (n = 11) or showed colonization (n = 9) had received prophylactic treatment. Furthermore, 20 (40%) of 50 patients without prophylactic treatment showed positive results on the P. jirovecii DNA polymerase chain reaction, but all 10 patients who had prophylactic treatment showed negative results (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.02). Therefore, the prophylactic administration of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim has potential to be effective in preventing P. pneumonia as well as eliminating airway colonization with P. jirovecii. Further studies targeting large cohorts of patients with a variety of underlying diseases are required to develop recommendations regarding the prophylactic administration of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim.

  6. The CYP2C8 inhibitor trimethoprim increases the plasma concentrations of repaglinide in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, Mikko; Kajosaari, Lauri I; Neuvonen, Mikko; Backman, Janne T; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2004-01-01

    Aims Our aim was to investigate the effect of the CYP2C8 inhibitor trimethoprim on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antidiabetic drug repaglinide, and to examine the influence of the former on the metabolism of the latter in vitro. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study with two phases, nine healthy volunteers took 160 mg trimethoprim or placebo orally twice daily for 3 days. On day 3, 1 h after the last dose of trimethoprim or placebo, they ingested a single 0.25 mg dose of repaglinide. Plasma repaglinide and blood glucose concentrations were measured for up to 7 h post-dose. In addition, the effect of trimethoprim on the metabolism of repaglinide by human liver microsomes was investigated. Results Trimethoprim raised the AUC(0,∞) and Cmax of repaglinide by 61% (range, 30–117%; P = 0.0008) and 41% (P = 0.005), respectively, and prolonged the t½ of repaglinide from 0.9 to 1.1 h (P = 0.001). Trimethoprim had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of its aromatic amine metabolite (M1), but decreased the M1 : repaglinide AUC(0,∞) ratio by 38% (P = 0.0005). No effect of trimethoprim on the blood glucose-lowering effect of repaglinide was detectable. In vitro, trimethoprim inhibited the metabolism of (220 nm) repaglinide in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions Trimethoprim raised the plasma concentrations of repaglinide probably by inhibiting its CYP2C8-mediated biotransformation. Although the interaction did not significantly enhance the effect of repaglinide on blood glucose concentration at the drug doses used, the possibility of an increased risk of hypoglycaemia should be considered during concomitant use of trimethoprim and repaglinide in patients with diabetes. PMID:15025742

  7. Trimethoprim-metformin interaction and its genetic modulation by OCT2 and MATE1 transporters.

    PubMed

    Grün, Barbara; Kiessling, Michael K; Burhenne, Jürgen; Riedel, Klaus-Dieter; Weiss, Johanna; Rauch, Geraldine; Haefeli, Walter E; Czock, David

    2013-11-01

    Metformin pharmacokinetics depends on the presence and activity of membrane-bound drug transporters and may be affected by transport inhibitors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trimethoprim on metformin pharmacokinetics and genetic modulation by organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1) polymorphisms. Twenty-four healthy volunteers received metformin 500 mg three times daily for 10 days and trimethoprim 200 mg twice daily from day 5 to 10. Effects of trimethoprim on steady-state metformin pharmacokinetics were analysed. In the population as a whole, trimethoprim significantly reduced the apparent systemic metformin clearance (CL/F) from 74 to 54 l h(-1) and renal metformin clearance from 31 to 21 l h(-1) , and prolonged half-life from 2.7 to 3.6 h (all P < 0.01). This resulted in an increase in the maximal plasma concentration by 38% and in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve by 37%. In volunteers polymorphic for both OCT2 and MATE1, trimethoprim had no relevant inhibitory effects on metformin kinetics. Trimethoprim was associated with a decrease in creatinine clearance from 133 to 106 ml min(-1) (P < 0.01) and an increase in plasma lactate from 0.94 to 1.2 mmol l(-1) (P = 0.016). The extent of inhibition by trimethoprim was moderate, but might be clinically relevant in patients with borderline renal function or high-dose metformin. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Trimethoprim use in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a register-based nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J T; Petersen, M; Jimenez-Solem, E; Broedbaek, K; Andersen, E W; Andersen, N L; Afzal, S; Torp-Pedersen, C; Keiding, N; Poulsen, H E

    2013-08-01

    The antibiotic trimethoprim acts as a folate antagonist. Since trophoblasts are very sensitive to drugs that interfere with the folic acid cycle and thereby inhibit DNA synthesis, use of trimethoprim during the first trimester could be associated with miscarriage. A nationwide cohort study including all women in Denmark with a registered pregnancy between 1997 and 2005 was conducted. We used nationwide registers to identify all women giving birth, having a record of miscarriage or induced abortion. Data on exposure to trimethoprim were obtained from the National Prescription Register. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis with exposure to trimethoprim as a time-dependent variable was used to estimate the risk of miscarriage. The adjusted hazard ratio of having a miscarriage after exposure to trimethoprim in the first trimester compared to non-exposure was 2∙04 (95% confidence interval 1∙43-2∙91). Our results indicate that trimethoprim exposure in the first trimester is associated with a doubling of the hazard of miscarriage.

  9. Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim (Bactrim or Septra) and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects, neural tube defects (opening in the spine), cleft lip or palate (lip or roof of mouth do not form correctly), and urinary tract defects. Trimethoprim might decrease the ... bifida, oral clefts and heart defects. It is recommended that pregnant ...

  10. The Effect of Trimethoprim on Serum Folate Levels in Humans: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Meidahl Petersen, Kasper; Eplov, Kasper; Kjær Nielsen, Torben; Jimenez-Solem, Espen; Petersen, Morten; Broedbaek, Kasper; Daugaard Popik, Sara; Kallehave Hansen, Lina; Enghusen Poulsen, Henrik; Trærup Andersen, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Trimethoprim antagonize the actions of folate by inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase. This could diminish serum folate levels in humans and causes folate deficiency in some patients. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, to investigate the effect of trimethoprim on serum folate levels in healthy participants after a 7-day trial period. Thirty young, healthy males were randomly allocated to receive trimethoprim, 200 mg twice daily, and 30 were randomly allocated to placebo. Before trial initiation, participant numbers were given randomly generated treatment allocations within sealed opaque envelopes. Participants and all staff were kept blinded to treatment allocations during the trial. Serum folate was measured at baseline and at end of trial. In the 58 participants analyzed (30 in the trimethoprim group and 28 in the placebo group), 8 had folate deficiency at baseline. Within the trimethoprim group, serum folate was significantly decreased (P = 0.018) after the trial. We found a mean decrease in serum folate among trimethoprim exposed of 1.95 nmol/L, compared with a 0.21 nmol/L mean increase in the placebo group (P = 0.040). The proportion of folate-deficient participants increased significantly within the trimethoprim group (P = 0.034). No serious adverse events were observed. In conclusion, we found that a daily dose of 400 mg trimethoprim for 7 days significantly lowered serum folate levels in healthy study participants.

  11. Sulphaphenazole, streptomycin and sulphaphenazole combination, trimethoprim, and erythromycin in the treatment of chancroid.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B; Sharma, V K; Bakaya, V

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and thirty six patients with chancroid were treated with four different treatment regimens; (A) Sulphaphenazole 1 g 12 hourly by mouth x 10 days (B) Inj streptomycin 1 g intramuscularly daily with sulphaphenazole 1 g 12 hourly orally x 10 days; (C) trimethoprim 200 mg 12 hourly by mouth x 7-10 days, and (D) erythromycin 500 mg 6 hourly orally x 7-10 days. Cure rates of 9% with sulphaphenazole alone, 48% with streptomycin and sulphaphenazole combination, 93% with trimethoprim and 100% with erythromycin were obtained. Sulphaphenazole alone or in combination with streptomycin were thus inferior in the treatment of chancroid. There is need for modification of treatment regimens recommended for chancroid in the textbooks of dermatology and venereology. Trimethoprim can be recommended as first line of treatment for chancroid in developing countries like India where resistance to trimethoprim is uncommon and erythromycin is suggested as a second line of therapy because by that time syphilis can be easily ruled out. PMID:2187791

  12. Multiple Mutations Modulate the Function of Dihydrofolate Reductase in Trimethoprim-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Maskell, Jeffrey P.; Sefton, Armine M.; Hall, Lucinda M. C.

    2001-01-01

    Trimethoprim resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae can be conferred by a single amino acid substitution (I100-L) in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), but resistant clinical isolates usually carry multiple DHFR mutations. DHFR genes from five trimethoprim-resistant isolates from the United Kingdom were compared to susceptible isolates and used to transform a susceptible control strain (CP1015). All trimethoprim-resistant isolates and transformants contained the I100-L mutation. The properties of DHFRs from transformants with different combinations of mutations were compared. In a transformant with only the I100-L mutation (R12/T2) and a D92-A mutation also found in the DHFRs of susceptible isolates, the enzyme was much more resistant to trimethoprim inhibition (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 4.2 μM) than was the DHFR from strain CP1015 (IC50, 0.09 μM). However, Km values indicated a lower affinity for the enzyme's natural substrates (Km for dihydrofolate [DHF], 3.1 μM for CP1015 and 27.5 μM for R12/T2) and a twofold decrease in the specificity constant. In transformants with additional mutations in the C-terminal portion of the enzyme, Km values for DHF were reduced (9.2 to 15.2 μM), indicating compensation for the lower affinity generated by I100-L. Additional mutations in the N-terminal portion of the enzyme were associated with up to threefold-increased resistance to trimethoprim (IC50 of up to 13.7 μM). It is postulated that carriage of the mutation M53-I—which, like I100-L, corresponds to a trimethoprim binding site in the Escherichia coli DHFR—is responsible for this increase. This study demonstrates that although the I100-L mutation alone may give rise to trimethoprim resistance, additional mutations serve to enhance resistance and modulate the effects of existing mutations on the affinity of DHFR for its natural substrates. PMID:11257022

  13. Identification of dfrA14 in two distinct plasmids conferring trimethoprim resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Walker, Stephanie; Atherton, Tom; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Williamson, Susanna M.; Rogers, Jon; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Weinert, Lucy A.; Oshota, Olusegun; Holden, Matt T. G.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Tucker, Alexander W.; Wren, Brendan W.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Langford, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the distribution and genetic basis of trimethoprim resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates from pigs in England. Methods Clinical isolates collected between 1998 and 2011 were tested for resistance to trimethoprim and sulphonamide. The genetic basis of trimethoprim resistance was determined by shotgun WGS analysis and the subsequent isolation and sequencing of plasmids. Results A total of 16 (out of 106) A. pleuropneumoniae isolates were resistant to both trimethoprim (MIC >32 mg/L) and sulfisoxazole (MIC ≥256 mg/L), and a further 32 were resistant only to sulfisoxazole (MIC ≥256 mg/L). Genome sequence data for the trimethoprim-resistant isolates revealed the presence of the dfrA14 dihydrofolate reductase gene. The distribution of plasmid sequences in multiple contigs suggested the presence of two distinct dfrA14-containing plasmids in different isolates, which was confirmed by plasmid isolation and sequencing. Both plasmids encoded mobilization genes, the sulphonamide resistance gene sul2, as well as dfrA14 inserted into strA, a streptomycin-resistance-associated gene, although the gene order differed between the two plasmids. One of the plasmids further encoded the strB streptomycin-resistance-associated gene. Conclusions This is the first description of mobilizable plasmids conferring trimethoprim resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae and, to our knowledge, the first report of dfrA14 in any member of the Pasteurellaceae. The identification of dfrA14 conferring trimethoprim resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae isolates will facilitate PCR screens for resistance to this important antimicrobial. PMID:25957382

  14. Identification of dfrA14 in two distinct plasmids conferring trimethoprim resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Walker, Stephanie; Atherton, Tom; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Williamson, Susanna M; Rogers, Jon; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Weinert, Lucy A; Oshota, Olusegun; Holden, Matt T G; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the distribution and genetic basis of trimethoprim resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates from pigs in England. Clinical isolates collected between 1998 and 2011 were tested for resistance to trimethoprim and sulphonamide. The genetic basis of trimethoprim resistance was determined by shotgun WGS analysis and the subsequent isolation and sequencing of plasmids. A total of 16 (out of 106) A. pleuropneumoniae isolates were resistant to both trimethoprim (MIC >32 mg/L) and sulfisoxazole (MIC ≥256 mg/L), and a further 32 were resistant only to sulfisoxazole (MIC ≥256 mg/L). Genome sequence data for the trimethoprim-resistant isolates revealed the presence of the dfrA14 dihydrofolate reductase gene. The distribution of plasmid sequences in multiple contigs suggested the presence of two distinct dfrA14-containing plasmids in different isolates, which was confirmed by plasmid isolation and sequencing. Both plasmids encoded mobilization genes, the sulphonamide resistance gene sul2, as well as dfrA14 inserted into strA, a streptomycin-resistance-associated gene, although the gene order differed between the two plasmids. One of the plasmids further encoded the strB streptomycin-resistance-associated gene. This is the first description of mobilizable plasmids conferring trimethoprim resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae and, to our knowledge, the first report of dfrA14 in any member of the Pasteurellaceae. The identification of dfrA14 conferring trimethoprim resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae isolates will facilitate PCR screens for resistance to this important antimicrobial. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  15. The pharmacokinetics and safety profile of oral ganciclovir in combination with trimethoprim in HIV- and CMV-seropositive patients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Donald; AbdelHameed, Magdy H; Hunter, John; Teitelbaum, Philip; Dorr, Albert; Griffy, Kay

    1999-01-01

    Aims We investigated the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of oral ganciclovir coadministered with trimethoprim in HIV-and CMV-seropositive patients. Methods In an open-label, randomized, 3-way crossover study, 12 adult males received oral ganciclovir 1000 mg every 8h, oral trimethoprim 200 mg once daily, or both drugs concomitantly in a sequence of three 7-day treatment periods. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined and adverse events recorded for each treatment. Results The presence of trimethoprim significantly decreased CLr (12.9%, P = 0.0068) and increased t1/2 (18.1%, P = 0.0378) of ganciclovir. However, these changes are unlikely to be clinically meaningful. There were no statistically significant changes in trimethoprim pharmacokinetic parameters in the presence of ganciclovir, with the exception of a 12.7% increase in Cmin. Ganciclovir was well tolerated when administered alone or in combination with trimethoprim. Conclusions There was no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction between oral ganciclovir and trimethoprim when coadministered. PMID:10215748

  16. Symptomatic hypoglycemia associated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and repaglinide in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Roustit, Matthieu; Blondel, Emeline; Villier, Céline; Fonrose, Xavier; Mallaret, Michel P

    2010-04-01

    To report a case of clinically significant hypoglycemia attributed to the concomitant use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) and repaglinide by a diabetic patient. A 76-year-old diabetic patient with impaired renal function and no history of hypoglycemia was receiving treatment with repaglinide 1 mg 3 times daily. Five days after TMP/SMX therapy was started for a urinary tract infection, the man developed symptomatic hypoglycemia. Repaglinide and TMP/SMX were stopped and intravenous D-glucose was administered to normalize glucose levels. Repaglinide, but not TMP/SMX, was reintroduced 5 days later and no other hypoglycemic episode occurred. Objective causality assessments revealed that the interaction was probable (World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre) or possible (Horn Drug Interaction Probability Scale). This interaction between TMP/SMX and repaglinide was predictable according to available pharmacokinetic data in healthy subjects. Trimethoprim induced CYP2C8 inhibition, thus increasing the plasma concentration of repaglinide. This interaction is mentioned in the repaglinide product information. To our knowledge, however, no case of symptomatic hypoglycemia associated with a combination of repaglinide and trimethoprim has been described before. This discrepancy may be explained by the subtherapeutic dosage used in the pharmacokinetic study. Moreover, our patient had impaired renal function, which may have led to trimethoprim accumulation and potentiated its interaction with repaglinide. A direct lowering of blood glucose levels due to sulfamethoxazole, also potentiated by renal failure, could also be involved in triggering hypoglycemia. This interaction between TMP/SMX and repaglinide may have involved inhibition of CYP2C8 by trimethoprim. Clinicians should be aware that this association may lead to symptomatic hypoglycemia, particularly in patients with renal dysfunction.

  17. Infection caused by thymidine-requiring, trimethoprim-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    King, C H; Shlaes, D M; Dul, M J

    1983-01-01

    We first noted the appearance of thymidine-requiring, gram-negative bacilli in clinical specimens 2 years ago. Since then we have seen 10 patients colonized or infected with these organisms. These strains do not grow on Mueller-Hinton media, growth on MacConkey agar is variable, and growth in API 20E (Analytab Products) and Enterobacteriaceae-Plus Cards (AutoMicrobic system; Vitek Systems Inc.) is inadequate for reliable identifications. Thymidine-requiring organisms are routinely resistant to sulfonamides and trimethoprim. Infection or colonization is associated with previous sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim therapy in most cases. Of 10 patients, 1 had septicemia of urinary tract origin, 5 had urinary tract colonization or infection, 2 had wound colonization, and two had colonization of respiratory secretions. Thymidine-requiring, gram-negative bacilli can be pathogens and present potential problems in diagnosis, identification, and susceptibility testing. PMID:6604070

  18. Molecular Basis of Sulfonamide and Trimethoprim Resistance in Fish-Pathogenic Aeromonas Isolates ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kadlec, Kristina; von Czapiewski, Ellen; Kaspar, Heike; Wallmann, Jürgen; Michael, Geovana Brenner; Steinacker, Ulrike; Schwarz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonamide-trimethoprim-resistant Aeromonas salmonicida and motile Aeromonas spp. from diseased fish of the GERM-Vet study carried the sul1 gene together with mostly cassette-borne trimethoprim resistance genes, including the novel gene dfrA28. The seven dfrA and dfrB genes identified were located mostly in class 1 integrons which commonly harbored other gene cassettes. PMID:21764945

  19. The effect of trimethoprim on CYP2C8 mediated rosiglitazone metabolism in human liver microsomes and healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hruska, M W; Amico, J A; Langaee, T Y; Ferrell, R E; Fitzgerald, S M; Frye, R F

    2005-01-01

    Aims Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione antidiabetic medication used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, is predominantly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme CYP2C8. The anti-infective drug trimethoprim has been shown in vitro to be a selective inhibitor of CYP2C8. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of trimethoprim on the CYP2C8 mediated metabolism of rosiglitazone in vivo and in vitro. Methods The effect of trimethoprim on the metabolism of rosiglitazone in vitro was assessed in pooled human liver microsomes. The effect in vivo was determined by evaluating rosiglitazone pharmacokinetics in the presence and absence of trimethoprim. Eight healthy subjects (four men and four women) completed a randomized, cross-over study. Subjects received single dose rosiglitazone (8 mg) in the presence and absence of trimethoprim 200 mg given twice daily for 5 days. Results Trimethoprim inhibited rosiglitazone metabolism both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of rosiglitazone para-hydroxylation by trimethoprim in vitro was found to be competitive with apparent Ki and IC50 values of 29 µm and 54.5 µm, respectively. In the presence of trimethoprim, rosiglitazone plasma AUC was increased by 31% (P = 0.01) from 2774 ± 645 µg l−1 h to 3643 ± 1051 µg l−1 h (95% confidence interval (Cl) for difference 189, 1549), and half-life was increased by 27% (P = 0.006) from 3.3 ± 0.5 to 4.2 ± 0.8 h (95% Cl for difference 0.36, 1.5). Trimethoprim reduced the para-O-sulphate rosiglitazone/rosiglitazone and the N-desmethylrosiglitazone/rosiglitazone AUC(0–24) ratios by 22% and 38%, respectively. Conclusions These results indicate that trimethoprim is a competitive inhibitor of CYP2C8-mediated rosiglitazone metabolism in vitro and that trimethoprim administration increases plasma rosiglitazone concentrations in healthy subjects. PMID:15606443

  20. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole versus vancomycin in the treatment of healthcare/ventilator-associated MRSA pneumonia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Eliakim-Raz, Noa; Hellerman, Moran; Yahav, Dafna; Cohen, Jonathan; Margalit, Ili; Fisher, Sharon; Zusman, Oren; Shaked, Hila; Bishara, Jihad

    2017-03-01

    Therapeutic options available to treat MRSA pneumonia are limited. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is an attractive treatment because of its bactericidal anti-MRSA activity, oral and parenteral formulations and good penetration to the lung tissue. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole with vancomycin in the treatment of healthcare/ventilator-associated MRSA pneumonia. We carried out a retrospective case-control study of all consecutive hospitalized adult patients diagnosed with MRSA pneumonia at Beilinson Hospital during 2010-15 and treated with either vancomycin or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality at 30 days and clinical failure at the end of treatment. In order to reduce bias affecting the decision to use a specific antibiotic and as a sensitivity analysis, a propensity-score model for choosing between vancomycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was used. We identified 42 patients with MRSA pneumonia treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and 39 treated with vancomycin. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the groups. Vancomycin-treated patients showed significantly higher 30 day mortality on both multivariate analysis (HR = 5.28; 95% CI = 1.50-18.60; P  < 0.05) and sensitivity analysis with propensity score [vancomycin 13/24 (54.1%) versus trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 4/24 (16.7%); P  < 0.05], and higher clinical failure rates [vancomycin 23/39 (59%) versus trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 15/42 (35.7%); P  < 0.05], also in the sensitivity analysis with propensity score [vancomycin 14/24 (58.3%) versus trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 6/24 (25%); P  < 0.05]. The rates of side effects in both arms were comparable. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole appears to be superior to vancomycin in the treatment of MRSA pneumonia. A large-scale randomized controlled trial is needed to evaluate these findings. © The Author 2016

  1. Influence of crystal habit on trimethoprim suspension formulation.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, A K; Panpalia, G M

    1999-02-01

    The role of crystal habit in influencing the physical stability and pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim suspensions was examined. Different habits for trimethoprim (TMP) were obtained by recrystallizing the commercial sample (PD) utilizing solvent-change precipitation method. Four distinct habits (microscopic observation) belonging to the same polymorphic state (DSC studies) were selected for studies. Preformulation and formulation studies were carried out on suspension dosage forms containing these crystals. The freshly prepared suspensions were also evaluated for their pharmacokinetic behaviour on healthy human volunteers using a cross over study. Variation of crystallization conditions produces different habits of TMP. Among the different crystal habits exhibiting same polymorphic state, the most anisometric crystal showed best physical stability in terms of sedimentation volume and redispersibility. However, habit did not significantly affect the extent of TMP excreted in urine. Modification of surface morphology without significantly altering the polymorphic state can be utilized for improving physical stability of TMP suspensions. However, the pharmacokinetic profile remains unaltered.

  2. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  3. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole induced hyperkalaemia in elderly patients receiving spironolactone: nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Yao, Zhan; Hellings, Chelsea; Garg, Amit X; Weir, Matthew A; Juurlink, David N

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the risk of admission to hospital for hyperkalaemia in elderly patients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in combination with spironolactone. Design Population based nested case-control study. Setting Ontario, Canada, from 1 April 1992 to 1 March 2010. Participants Cases were residents of Ontario aged 66 years or above receiving chronic treatment with spironolactone and admitted to hospital with hyperkalaemia within 14 days of receiving a prescription for either trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, norfloxacin, or nitrofurantoin. Up to four controls for each case were identified from the same cohort, matched on age, sex, and presence or absence of chronic kidney disease and diabetes, and required to have received one of the study antibiotics within 14 days before the case’s index date. Main outcome measures Odds ratio for association between admission to hospital with hyperkalaemia and receipt of a study antibiotic in the preceding 14 days, adjusted for conditions and drugs that may influence risk of hyperkalaemia. Results During the 18 year study period, 6903 admissions for hyperkalaemia were identified, 306 of which occurred within 14 days of antibiotic use. Of these, 248 (81%) cases were matched to 783 controls. 10.8% (17 859/165 754) of spironolactone users received at least one prescription for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Compared with amoxicillin, prescription of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with a marked increase in the risk of admission to hospital for hyperkalaemia (adjusted odds ratio 12.4, 95% confidence interval 7.1 to 21.6). The population attributable fraction was 59.7%, suggesting that approximately 60% of all cases of hyperkalaemia in older patients taking spironolactone and treated with an antibiotic for a urinary tract infection could be avoided if trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was not prescribed. Treatment with nitrofurantoin was also associated with an increase in the risk of

  4. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole induced hyperkalaemia in elderly patients receiving spironolactone: nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Tony; Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Yao, Zhan; Hellings, Chelsea; Garg, Amit X; Weir, Matthew A; Juurlink, David N

    2011-09-12

    To characterise the risk of admission to hospital for hyperkalaemia in elderly patients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in combination with spironolactone. Population based nested case-control study. Ontario, Canada, from 1 April 1992 to 1 March 2010. Cases were residents of Ontario aged 66 years or above receiving chronic treatment with spironolactone and admitted to hospital with hyperkalaemia within 14 days of receiving a prescription for either trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, norfloxacin, or nitrofurantoin. Up to four controls for each case were identified from the same cohort, matched on age, sex, and presence or absence of chronic kidney disease and diabetes, and required to have received one of the study antibiotics within 14 days before the case's index date. Odds ratio for association between admission to hospital with hyperkalaemia and receipt of a study antibiotic in the preceding 14 days, adjusted for conditions and drugs that may influence risk of hyperkalaemia. During the 18 year study period, 6903 admissions for hyperkalaemia were identified, 306 of which occurred within 14 days of antibiotic use. Of these, 248 (81%) cases were matched to 783 controls. 10.8% (17,859/165,754) of spironolactone users received at least one prescription for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Compared with amoxicillin, prescription of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with a marked increase in the risk of admission to hospital for hyperkalaemia (adjusted odds ratio 12.4, 95% confidence interval 7.1 to 21.6). The population attributable fraction was 59.7%, suggesting that approximately 60% of all cases of hyperkalaemia in older patients taking spironolactone and treated with an antibiotic for a urinary tract infection could be avoided if trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was not prescribed. Treatment with nitrofurantoin was also associated with an increase in the risk of hyperkalaemia (adjusted odds ratio 2.4, 1.3 to 4.6), but no such risk was

  5. Acute morphine and cocaine related death after trimethoprim-adultered cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Fucci, Nadia; Pascali, Vincenzo L

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, cocaine and morphine (heroin) have been among the primary causes of deaths related to drug abuse. Cocaine is frequently altered by dilution, substitution, contamination, and adulteration. Trimethoprim has never been identified in the powders of cocaine, making this the first post-mortem case report in which the presence of this compound is described. The case reported here is that of a 46-year-old woman with a history of cocaine and morphine abuse who was found dead inside her bathroom. The police found the corpse next to a syringe, with a telephone card containing trace of cocaine on the sink. Toxicological analysis was performed, and drug levels were measured by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In addition to the presence of cocaine and smaller alkaloids, trimethoprim was also detected on the syringe and telephone card and in the woman's nasal mucosa. Trimethoprim analysis is very quick and easy and can be added to the routine analysis of drugs of abuse seized on the illicit market to obtain more information. © 2014 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  6. Bacterial infection imaging with [18F]fluoropropyl-trimethoprim

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Iljung; Hou, Catherine; Weng, Chi-Chang; Li, Shihong; Lieberman, Brian P.; Zeng, Chenbo; Mankoff, David A.; Mach, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    There is often overlap in the diagnostic features of common pathologic processes such as infection, sterile inflammation, and cancer both clinically and using conventional imaging techniques. Here, we report the development of a positron emission tomography probe for live bacterial infection based on the small-molecule antibiotic trimethoprim (TMP). [18F]fluoropropyl-trimethoprim, or [18F]FPTMP, shows a greater than 100-fold increased uptake in vitro in live bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) relative to controls. In a rodent myositis model, [18F]FPTMP identified live bacterial infection without demonstrating confounding increased signal in the same animal from other etiologies including chemical inflammation (turpentine) and cancer (breast carcinoma). Additionally, the biodistribution of [18F]FPTMP in a nonhuman primate shows low background in many important tissues that may be sites of infection such as the lungs and soft tissues. These results suggest that [18F]FPTMP could be a broadly useful agent for the sensitive and specific imaging of bacterial infection with strong translational potential. PMID:28716936

  7. The BpeEF-OprC Efflux Pump Is Responsible for Widespread Trimethoprim Resistance in Clinical and Environmental Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Podnecky, Nicole L.; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2013-01-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) is the primary drug used for oral eradication therapy of Burkholderia pseudomallei infections (melioidosis). Here, we demonstrate that trimethoprim resistance is widespread in clinical and environmental isolates from northeast Thailand and northern Australia. This resistance was shown to be due to BpeEF-OprC efflux pump expression. No dihydrofolate reductase target mutations were involved, although frequent insertion of ISBma2 was noted within the putative folA transcriptional terminator. All isolates tested remained susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, suggesting that resistance to trimethoprim alone in these strains probably does not affect the efficacy of co-trimoxazole therapy. PMID:23817379

  8. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and their combination over a 12 year period in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsi-Shu; Kunin, Calvin M; Yan, Bo-Shiun; Chen, Yao-Shen; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Syu, Wan

    2012-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the susceptibility of clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and non-MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole over a 12 year period in Taiwan. We examined a total of 117 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis collected from Southern Taiwan, 116 from 1995 to 2006 and an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) isolate in 2009. These included 28 isolates susceptible to all four first-line agents, 52 MDR isolates and 36 isolates with a mixed combination of drug resistance patterns other than MDR and 1 XDR isolate. Sulfamethoxazole inhibited 80% growth of all 117 isolates regardless of their susceptibility to the first-line agents at an MIC(90) of 9.5 mg/L. The concentration required to inhibit 99% growth was 38 mg/L. There were no significant changes in the MIC(50) or MIC(90) of sulfamethoxazole over a 12 year period. All 117 isolates were resistant to trimethoprim at >8 mg/L. The combination of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole at a ratio of 1:19 had no additive or synergistic effects. Sulfamethoxazole inhibited the growth of clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis at achievable concentrations in plasma after oral administration. Susceptibility to sulfamethoxazole remained constant over a 12 year period. Trimethoprim was inactive against M. tuberculosis and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole provided no additional activity. Although the current and prior studies demonstrate that sulfamethoxazole is active against M. tuberculosis the search needs to continue for more active, lipid-soluble sulphonamides that are better absorbed into tissues and have improved therapeutic efficacy.

  9. ENHANCED BIODEGRADATION OF IOPROMIDE AND TRIMETHOPRIM IN NITRIFYING ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iopromide and trimethoprim are frequently detected pharmaceuticals in effluents of wastewater treatment plants and in surface waters due to their persistence and high usage. Laboratory scale experiments showed that a significantly higher removal rate in nutrifying activated sludg...

  10. Trimethoprim use for urinary tract infection and risk of adverse outcomes in older patients: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Crellin, Elizabeth; Leyrat, Clémence; Nitsch, Dorothea; Douglas, Ian J; Root, Adrian; Williamson, Elizabeth; Smeeth, Liam; Tomlinson, Laurie A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine if trimethoprim use for urinary tract infection (UTI) is associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury, hyperkalaemia, or sudden death in the general population. Design Cohort study. Setting UK electronic primary care records from practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Hospital Episode Statistics database. Participants Adults aged 65 and over with a prescription for trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, or nitrofurantoin prescribed up to three days after a primary care diagnosis of UTI between April 1997 and September 2015. Main outcome measures The outcomes were acute kidney injury, hyperkalaemia, and death within 14 days of a UTI treated with antibiotics. Results Among a cohort of 1 191 905 patients aged 65 and over, 178 238 individuals were identified with at least one UTI treated with antibiotics, comprising a total of 422 514 episodes of UTIs treated with antibiotics. The odds of acute kidney injury in the 14 days following antibiotic initiation were higher following trimethoprim (adjusted odds ratio 1.72, 95% confidence interval 1.31 to 2.24) and ciprofloxacin (1.48, 1.03 to 2.13) compared with amoxicillin. The odds of hyperkalaemia in the 14 days following antibiotic initiation were only higher following trimethoprim (2.27, 1.49 to 3.45) compared with amoxicillin. However, the odds of death within the 14 days following antibiotic initiation were not higher with trimethoprim than with amoxicillin: in the whole population the adjusted odds ratio was 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.07) while among users of renin-angiotensin system blockers the odds of death within 14 days of antibiotic initiation was 1.12 (0.80 to 1.57). The results suggest that, for 1000 UTIs treated with antibiotics among people 65 and over, treatment with trimethoprim instead of amoxicillin would result in one to two additional cases of hyperkalaemia and two admissions with

  11. 21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... blood dyscrasia, nor in those with a history of sulfonamide sensitivity. Federal law restricts this drug... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. 520.2612 Section 520.2612 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... blood dyscrasia, nor in those with a history of sulfonamide sensitivity. Federal law restricts this drug... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. 520.2612 Section 520.2612 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... blood dyscrasia, nor in those with a history of sulfonamide sensitivity. Federal law restricts this drug... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. 520.2612 Section 520.2612 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  14. Treatment of chancroid. A comparison of sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole.

    PubMed Central

    Fast, M V; Nsanze, H; Plummer, F A; D'Costa, L J; MacLean, I W; Ronald, A R

    1983-01-01

    Since sulphonamides are no longer predictably effective in the treatment of chancroid the combination of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was evaluated to identify other effective regimens. One hundred and nine patients with genital ulcers (75 men and 34 women) seen at the Special Treatment Clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, were randomly assigned to treatment with a seven day course of either sulphamethoxazole 1000 mg twice daily or trimethoprim (160 mg)-sulphamethoxazole (800 mg) (TMP-SMX) twice daily. Haemophilus ducreyi was isolated from the ulcer in 57 patients (33 men and 24 women). 16 patients were subsequently diagnosed serologically as having syphilis. No aetiological diagnosis was made in 40 patients. Treatment with sulphamethoxazole failed in five of 21 (24%) culture positive patients who were available for evaluation after seven days, whereas all 19 of such patients who were treated with TMP-SMX responded to treatment. Of the 21 isolates available for susceptibility testing, all were susceptible to trimethoprim alone (MIC less than 0.5 mg/l) and three were resistant to sulphonamides, all three containing a 4.9 megadalton (Mdal) plasmid. Two of the three patients from whom these isolates had been obtained were treated with sulphamethoxazole and both were clinical and bacteriological failures. Five of six patients with sulphonamide-susceptible H ducreyi responded to treatment with sulphamethoxazole. Failure of sulphonamides to eradicate H ducreyi in some patients with chancroid is associated with the presence of a sulphonamide resistant plasmid. In regions where this plasmid is present in H ducreyi TMP-SMX is the preferred treatment for chancroid. PMID:6351957

  15. Has the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus increased trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use and resistance?: a 10-year time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jameson B; Smith, Donald B; Baker, Errol H; Brecher, Stephen M; Gupta, Kalpana

    2012-11-01

    There are an increasing number of indications for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use, including skin and soft tissue infections due to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). Assessing the relationship between rates of use and antibiotic resistance is important for maintaining the expected efficacy of this drug for guideline-recommended conditions. Using interrupted time series analysis, we aimed to determine whether the 2005 emergence of CA-MRSA and recommendations of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as the preferred therapy were associated with changes in trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use and susceptibility rates. The data from all VA Boston Health Care System facilities, including 118,863 inpatient admissions, 6,272,661 outpatient clinic visits, and 10,138 isolates were collected over a 10-year period. There was a significant (P = 0.02) increase in trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prescriptions in the post-CA-MRSA period (1,605/year) compared to the pre-CA-MRSA period (1,538/year). Although the overall susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Proteus spp. to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole decreased over the study period, the rate of change in the pre- versus the post-CA-MRSA period was not significantly different. The changes in susceptibility rates of S. aureus to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and to methicillin were also not significantly different. The CA-MRSA period is associated with a significant increase in use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but not with significant changes in the rates of susceptibilities among clinical isolates. There is also no evidence for selection of organisms with increased resistance to other antimicrobials in relation to increased trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use.

  16. Quantitative analysis of elevation of serum creatinine via renal transporter inhibition by trimethoprim in healthy subjects using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Tomohisa; Kudo, Toshiyuki; Kume, Toshiyuki; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Ito, Kiyomi

    2018-02-01

    Serum creatinine (SCr) levels rise during trimethoprim therapy for infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate whether the elevation of SCr can be quantitatively explained using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model incorporating inhibition by trimethoprim on tubular secretion of creatinine via renal transporters such as organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), OCT3, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1), and MATE2-K. Firstly, pharmacokinetic parameters in the PBPK model of trimethoprim were determined to reproduce the blood concentration profile after a single intravenous and oral administration of trimethoprim in healthy subjects. The model was verified with datasets of both cumulative urinary excretions after a single administration and the blood concentration profile after repeated oral administration. The pharmacokinetic model of creatinine consisted of the creatinine synthesis rate, distribution volume, and creatinine clearance (CL cre ), including tubular secretion via each transporter. When combining the models for trimethoprim and creatinine, the predicted increments in SCr from baseline were 29.0%, 39.5%, and 25.8% at trimethoprim dosages of 5 mg/kg (b.i.d.), 5 mg/kg (q.i.d.), and 200 mg (b.i.d.), respectively, which were comparable with the observed values. The present model analysis enabled us to quantitatively explain increments in SCr during trimethoprim treatment by its inhibition of renal transporters. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cranberry or trimethoprim for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections? A randomized controlled trial in older women

    PubMed Central

    McMurdo, Marion E. T.; Argo, Ishbel; Phillips, Gabby; Daly, Fergus; Davey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effectiveness of cranberry extract with low-dose trimethoprim in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women. Patients and methods One hundred and thirty-seven women with two or more antibiotic-treated UTIs in the previous 12 months were randomized to receive either 500 mg of cranberry extract or 100 mg of trimethoprim for 6 months. Trial registration: ISRCTN80031108. Results Thirty-nine of 137 participants (28%) had an antibiotic-treated UTI (25 in the cranberry group and 14 in the trimethoprim group); difference in proportions relative risk 1.616 (95% CI: 0.93, 2.79) P = 0.084. The time to first recurrence of UTI was not significantly different between the groups (P = 0.100). The median time to recurrence of UTI was 84.5 days for the cranberry group and 91 days for the trimethoprim group (U = 166, P = 0.479). There were 17/137 (12%) withdrawals from the study, 6/69 (9%) from the cranberry group and 11/68 (16%) from the trimethoprim group (P = 0.205), with a relative risk of withdrawal from the cranberry group of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.19, 1.37). Conclusions Trimethoprim had a very limited advantage over cranberry extract in the prevention of recurrent UTIs in older women and had more adverse effects. Our findings will allow older women with recurrent UTIs to weigh up with their clinicians the inherent attractions of a cheap, natural product like cranberry extract whose use does not carry the risk of antimicrobial resistance or super-infection with Clostridium difficile or fungi. PMID:19042940

  18. Pharmacist-only trimethoprim: pharmacist satisfaction on their training and the impact on their practice.

    PubMed

    Braund, Rhiannon; Henderson, Emily; McNab, Erica; Sarten, Rachel; Wallace, Emily; Gauld, Natalie

    2016-12-01

    Background In 2012, in a first for the developed world, New Zealand reclassified trimethoprim to allow specially trained pharmacists to supply the medicine without a prescription to women with cystitis fitting specific criteria. Objective This study explored pharmacists' views of the training and screening tool, impact on practice, and the pharmacists' perceptions of views of patients and doctors. Methods Structured interviews were conducted with 28 New Zealand pharmacists trained to supply trimethoprim. These pharmacists were selected to represent geographical spread as well as urban, suburban and rural. The key areas for investigation were: satisfaction about training, appropriateness of training, opinions on the screening tool, impact on clinical practice and perception of others. Audio recorded interviews were thematically analyzed. Results Of 40 pharmacies invited, 28 pharmacists agreed to participate. Most pharmacists were positive about being able to supply trimethoprim, the training and increased clinical focus of their practice. The content of the training was considered appropriate, as was the screening tool, which was well utilised during consultations. Minor suggestions on the training and consultation materials were provided. Some pharmacists reported that referral to the doctor without supply in a minority of trimethoprim consultations, frustrated some women. Frequency of supplies varied considerably by pharmacists from none supplied to weekly supplies. Some pharmacists questioned the exclusion to supply for women who had taken antibiotics in the last six months. Many women had reportedly appreciated the easier access in the pharmacy compared with doctor access, especially at weekends, but sometimes misunderstood the role of the pharmacist in the supply. While pharmacists reported that some doctors had been negative about pharmacist-supply, others were informing women about the service from the pharmacist. Conclusion Pharmacist supply of trimethoprim

  19. Relationship between the duration of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole treatment and the clinical outcome of pulmonary nocardiosis.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Hiroki; Takahashi, Koichiro; Kusaba, Koji; Tanaka, Masahide; Komiya, Kazutoshi; Nakamura, Tomomi; Aoki, Yosuke; Kimura, Shinya; Sueoka-Aragane, Naoko

    2018-03-01

    Despite treatment, pulmonary nocardiosis, which is a rare opportunistic disease caused by Nocardia species, has poor clinical outcomes including recurrence and death. Currently, the treatment regimen and duration for pulmonary nocardiosis are not fully understood. The present study aimed to clarify the factors related to the clinical outcome of pulmonary nocardiosis. The medical records of 24 patients with pulmonary nocardiosis were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups based on the outcomes within 2 years: patients with controlled disease (n = 14) and patients who developed recurrence or died (n = 10). Nocardia was identified by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing in 17 patients (70.8%) and by conventional biochemical test in five patients (20.8%). The patients' characteristics, clinical findings, radiological features, and treatment history were not different between the two groups. Compared with patients who developed recurrence or died, those with controlled disease had significantly longer total duration of treatment with antibiotics, especially trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (67.5 ± 111.6 days vs. 9.0 ± 6.5 days; p = 0.01). Pancytopenia was the most frequent adverse effect of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Longer duration of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole treatment was significantly associated with better outcomes of pulmonary nocardiosis. In such cases, antibiotics, especially trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, should be administered for more than 3 months. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal and factors influencing removal of sulfonamides and trimethoprim from domestic sewage in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Dan A; Yang, Yang; Dai, Yu-Nv; Chen, Chun-Xing; Wang, Su-Yu; Tao, Ran

    2013-10-01

    Twelve pilot-scale constructed wetlands with different configurations were set up in the field to evaluate the removal and factors that influence removal of sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfacetamide, sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole) and trimethoprim from domestic sewage. The treatments included four flow types, three substrates, two plants and three hydraulic loading rates across two seasons (summer and winter). Most target antibiotics were efficiently removed by specific constructed wetlands; in particular, all types of constructed wetlands performed well for the degradation of sulfapyridine. Flow types were the most important influencing factor in this study, and the best removal of sulfonamides was achieved in vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands; however, the opposite phenomenon was found with trimethoprim. Significant relationships were observed between antibiotic degradation and higher temperature and redox potential, which indicated that microbiological pathways were the most probable degradation route for sulfonamides and trimethoprim in constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Towards the Understanding of Resistance Mechanisms in Clinically Isolated Trimethoprim-resistant, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Dihydrofolate Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, K.; Lombardo, M; Wright, D

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to therapeutics such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has become an increasing problem in strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Clinically isolated trimethoprim-resistant strains reveal a double mutation, H30N/F98Y, in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). In order to develop novel and effective therapeutics against these resistant strains, we evaluated a series of propargyl-linked antifolate lead compounds for inhibition of the mutant enzyme. For the propargyl-linked antifolates, the F98Y mutation generates minimal (between 1.2- and 6-fold) losses of affinity and the H30N mutation generates greater losses (between 2.4- and 48-fold). Conversely, trimethoprim affinity is largely diminished by the F98Y mutation (36-fold) and is not affectedmore » by the H30N mutation. In order to elucidate a mechanism of resistance, we determined a crystal structure of a complex of this double mutant with a lead propargyl-linked antifolate. This structure suggests a resistance mechanism consistent both for the propargyl-linked class of antifolates and for trimethoprim that is based on the loss of a conserved water-mediated hydrogen bond.« less

  2. Regional Dissemination of a Trimethoprim-Resistance Gene Cassette via a Successful Transposable Element

    PubMed Central

    Opintan, Japheth A.; Bishar, Rima A.; Aboderin, A. Oladipo; Newman, Mercy J.; Lamikanra, Adebayo; Okeke, Iruka N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is a growing international problem. We observed a 50% increase in the prevalence of trimethoprim resistance among fecal Escherichia coli from healthy Nigerian students between 1998 and 2005, a trend to increase that continued in 2009. Methods and Findings A PCR-based screen revealed that 131 (43.1%) of isolates obtained in Nigeria in 2005 and 2009 carried integron-borne dfrA cassettes. In the case of 67 (51.1%) of these isolates, the cassette was a class 1-integron-borne dfrA7 gene, which has been reported at high prevalence from E. coli isolates from other parts of Africa. Complete sequencing of a 27 Kb dfrA7-bearing plasmid from one isolate located the dfrA7 gene within a Tn21-type transposon. The transposon also contained an IS26-derived bla/sul/str element, encoding resistance to β-lactams, sulphonamides and streptomycin, and mercury resistance genes. Although the plasmid backbone was only found in 12 (5.8%) of trimethoprim-resistant isolates, dfrA7 and other transposon-borne genes were detected in 14 (16.3%) and 32 (26.3%) of trimethoprim resistant isolates collected in Nigeria in 2005 and 2009, respectively. Additionally, 37 (19.3%) of trimethoprim-resistant E. coli isolates collected between 2006 and 2008 from Ghana were positive for the dfrA7 and a transposon marker, but only 4 (2.1%) harbored the plasmid backbone. Conclusions Our data point to transposition as a principal mechanism for disseminating dfrA7 among E. coli from Nigeria and Ghana. On-going intensive use of the affordable broad-spectrum antibacterials is likely to promote selective success of a highly prevalent transposable element in West Africa. PMID:22666464

  3. Genetic redundancy and persistence of plasmid-mediated trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistant effluent and stream water Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Suhartono, Suhartono; Savin, Mary; Gbur, Edward E

    2016-10-15

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria may persist in effluent receiving surface water in the presence of low (sub-inhibitory) antibiotic concentrations if the bacteria possess multiple genes encoding resistance to the same antibiotic. This redundancy of antibiotic resistance genes may occur in plasmids harboring conjugation and mobilization (mob) and integrase (intI) genes. Plasmids extracted from 76 sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim resistant Escherichia coli originally isolated from effluent and an effluent-receiving stream were used as DNA template to identify sulfamethoxazole (sul) and trimethoprim (dfr) resistances genes plus detect the presence of intI and mob genes using PCR. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim resistance was plasmid-mediated with three sul (sul1, sul2 and sul3 genes) and four dfr genes (dfrA12, dfrA8, dfrA17, and dfrA1 gene) the most prevalently detected. Approximately half of the plasmids carried class 1 and/or 2 integron and, although unrelated, half were also transmissible. Sampling site in relationship to effluent input significantly affected the number of intI and mob but not the number of sul and dfr genes. In the presence of low (sub-inhibitory) sulfamethoxazole concentration, isolates persisted regardless of integron and mobilization gene designation, whereas in the presence of trimethoprim, the presence of both integron and mobilization genes made isolates less persistent than in the absence of both or the presence of a gene from either group individually. Regardless, isolates persisted in large concentrations throughout the experiment. Treated effluent containing antibiotic resistant bacteria may be an important source of integrase and mobilization genes into the stream environment. Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim resistant bacteria may have a high degree of genetic redundancy and diversity carrying resistance to each antibiotic, although the role of integrase and mobilization genes towards persistence is unclear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  4. Crystal structures of trimethoprim-resistant DfrA1 rationalize potent inhibition by propargyl-linked antifolates

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Michael N.; G-Dayanandan, Narendran; Wright, Dennis L.; Anderson, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, notably Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, have become major health concerns worldwide. Resistance to effective therapeutics is often carried by class I and II integrons that can confer insensitivity to carbapenems, extended spectrum beta-lactamases, the antifolate trimethoprim, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Specifically of interest to the study here, a prevalent gene (dfrA1) coding for an insensitive dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) confers 190- or 1000-fold resistance to trimethoprim for K. pneumoniae and E. coli, respectively. Attaining inhibition of both the wild-type and resistant forms of the enzyme is critical for new antifolates. For several years, we have been developing the propargyl-linked antifolates (PLAs) as effective inhibitors against trimethoprim-resistant DHFR enzymes. Here, we show that the PLAs are active against both the wild-type and DfrA1 DHFR proteins. We report two high resolution crystal structures of DfrA1 bound to potent PLAs. The structure-activity relationships and crystal structures will be critical in driving the design of broadly active inhibitors against wild-type and resistant DHFR. PMID:27624966

  5. Pharmacokinetic interaction of enrofloxacin/trimethoprim combination following single-dose intraperitoneal and oral administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myung-Jin; Yohannes, Sileshi Belew; Lee, Seung-Jin; Damte, Dereje; Kim, Jong-Choon; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2014-03-01

    The pharmacokinetic interaction of enrofloxacin and trimethoprim was evaluated after single-dose intraperitoneal or oral co-administration in rats. Plasma concentrations of the two drugs were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Following intraperitoneal combination, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in mean values of plasma half-life (t 1/2) and maximum plasma concentration (C max) was observed for enrofloxacin and trimethoprim, respectively. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in mean values of area under the plasma drug concentration versus time from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) and C max between combined oral doses (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) of both antibacterial drugs. Also, after oral conjugation a significant difference in mean values of MRT0-∞ was observed between lower (10 mg/kg) and higher (100 mg/kg) doses of both drugs. A significant increase in pharmacokinetic parameters of both drugs in combined intraperitoneal and oral doses indicated pharmacokinetic interaction of enrofloxacin and trimethoprim. Further study is recommended in other species of animals.

  6. [The use of sulfonamides and sulfonamide/trimethoprim combinations as animal feed drugs for pigs in Schleswig-Holstein].

    PubMed

    Broll, Susanne; Kietzmann, Manfred; Bettin, Ulrich; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation of production orders for medicated feedingstuffs for pigs given in 1998 in Schleswig-Holstein showed sulphonamides and combinations of sulphonamides and trimethoprim as frequently used antibiotical ingredients. The presented study analyses the production orders which include sulphonamides and combinations of sulphonamides and trimethoprim in more detail. There were large deviations to the rules of good clinical practise for the use of antibiotics. The applied dosage was often lower than suggested in the literature.

  7. Randomized non-inferiority trial to compare trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin versus linezolid for the treatment of MRSA infection.

    PubMed

    Harbarth, S; von Dach, E; Pagani, L; Macedo-Vinas, M; Huttner, B; Olearo, F; Emonet, S; Uçkay, I

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic arsenal for MRSA infections is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the non-inferiority of a combination of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin versus linezolid alone for the treatment of MRSA infection. We conducted a randomized, open-label, single-centre, non-inferiority trial comparing trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (160 mg/800 mg three times daily) plus rifampicin (600 mg once a day) versus linezolid (600 mg twice a day) alone in adult patients with various types of MRSA infection. Patients were allocated 1:1 to either regimen. The primary outcome was clinical cure at 6 weeks after the end of treatment (non-inferiority margin 20%) assessed by both ITT and PP analyses. Secondary outcomes included the microbiologically documented persistence of MRSA in clinical cultures, mortality and adverse events. The study protocol has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00711854). Overall, 150 patients were randomized to one of the two treatment arms between January 2009 and December 2013 and were included in the ITT analysis. Of these 56/75 (74.7%) in the linezolid group and 59/75 (78.7%) in the trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and rifampicin group experienced clinical success (risk difference 4%, 95% CI -9.7% to 17.6%). The results were confirmed by the PP analysis, with 54/66 (81.8%) cured patients in the linezolid group versus 52/59 (88.1%) in the trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and rifampicin group (risk difference 6.3%, 95% CI -6.8% to 19.2%). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in any of the secondary outcomes, including microbiologically documented failure. Four adverse drug reactions attributed to the study medication occurred in the linezolid group versus nine in the trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and rifampicin group. Compared with linezolid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and rifampicin seems to be non-inferior in the treatment of MRSA infection. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford

  8. Integron-Associated DfrB4, a Previously Uncharacterized Member of the Trimethoprim-Resistant Dihydrofolate Reductase B Family, Is a Clinically Identified Emergent Source of Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Toulouse, Jacynthe L; Edens, Thaddeus J; Alejaldre, Lorea; Manges, Amee R; Pelletier, Joelle N

    2017-05-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of trimethoprim-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolates identified a member of the trimethoprim-resistant type II dihydrofolate reductase gene family ( dfrB ). The dfrB4 gene was located within a class I integron flanked by multiple resistance genes. This arrangement was previously reported in a 130.6-kb multiresistance plasmid. The DfrB4 protein conferred a >2,000-fold increased trimethoprim resistance on overexpression in E. coli Our results are consistent with the finding that dfrB4 contributes to clinical trimethoprim resistance. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. H-point standard additions method for simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids with simultaneous addition of two analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givianrad, M. H.; Saber-Tehrani, M.; Aberoomand-Azar, P.; Mohagheghian, M.

    2011-03-01

    The applicability of H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) to the resolving of overlapping spectra corresponding to the sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is verified by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The results show that the H-point standard additions method with simultaneous addition of both analytes is suitable for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in aqueous media. The results of applying the H-point standard additions method showed that the two drugs could be determined simultaneously with the concentration ratios of sulfamethoxazole to trimethoprim varying from 1:18 to 16:1 in the mixed samples. Also, the limits of detections were 0.58 and 0.37 μmol L -1 for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, respectively. In addition the means of the calculated RSD (%) were 1.63 and 2.01 for SMX and TMP, respectively in synthetic mixtures. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in some synthetic, pharmaceutical formulation and biological fluid samples.

  10. Fast simultaneous determination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole by capillary zone electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Iranaldo Santos; Vidal, Denis Tadeu Rajh; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio; Angnes, Lúcio

    2013-04-01

    The association of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole is a very effective with antibiotic properties, and commonly used in the treatment of a variety of infections. Due to the importance in diseases treatment of humans and also of animals, the development of methods for their quantification in commercial formulations is highly desirable. In the present study, a rapid method for simultaneous determination of these compounds using CE with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection was developed. A favorable working region for both analytes was from 12.5 to 200 μmol/L (linear responses with R > 0.999 for N = 5). Other parameters calculated were sensitivity (1.28 ± 0.10/1.45 ± 0.11) min/(μmol L), RSD (4.5%/2.0%), and LOD (1.1/3.3) μmol/L for trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Under this condition, the total run time was only 2.6 min. The proposed method was applied to the determination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in commercial samples and the results were compared to those obtained by using a HPLC pharmacopoeia method. This new method is advantageous for quality-control analyses of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in pharmaceuticals samples, because it is rapid and precise. Moreover, it is less laborious and demands minimum amounts of reagents in comparison to the recommended method. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. N(1)-methylnicotinamide as an endogenous probe for drug interactions by renal cation transporters: studies on the metformin-trimethoprim interaction.

    PubMed

    Müller, Fabian; Pontones, Constanza A; Renner, Bertold; Mieth, Maren; Hoier, Eva; Auge, Daniel; Maas, Renke; Zolk, Oliver; Fromm, Martin F

    2015-01-01

    N(1)-methylnicotinamide (NMN) was proposed as an in vivo probe for drug interactions involving renal cation transporters, which, for example, transport the oral antidiabetic drug metformin, based on a study with the inhibitor pyrimethamine. The role of NMN for predicting other interactions with involvement of renal cation transporters (organic cation transporter 2, OCT2; multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins 1 and 2-K, MATE1 and MATE2-K) is unclear. We determined inhibition of metformin or NMN transport by trimethoprim using cell lines expressing OCT2, MATE1, or MATE2-K. Moreover, a randomized, open-label, two-phase crossover study was performed in 12 healthy volunteers. In each phase, 850 mg metformin hydrochloride was administered p.o. in the evening of day 4 and in the morning of day 5. In phase B, 200 mg trimethoprim was administered additionally p.o. twice daily for 5 days. Metformin pharmacokinetics and effects (measured by OGTT) and NMN pharmacokinetics were determined. Trimethoprim inhibited metformin transport with K i values of 27.2, 6.3, and 28.9 μM and NMN transport with IC50 values of 133.9, 29.1, and 0.61 μM for OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2-K, respectively. In the clinical study, trimethoprim increased metformin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) by 29.5 % and decreased metformin and NMN renal clearances by 26.4 and 19.9 %, respectively (p ≤ 0.01). Moreover, decreases of NMN and metformin renal clearances due to trimethoprim correlated significantly (r S=0.727, p=0.010). These data on the metformin-trimethoprim interaction support the potential utility of N(1)-methylnicotinamide as an endogenous probe for renal drug-drug interactions with involvement of renal cation transporters.

  12. Net analyte signal standard addition method for simultaneous determination of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim in bovine milk and veterinary medicines.

    PubMed

    Hajian, Reza; Mousavi, Esmat; Shams, Nafiseh

    2013-06-01

    Net analyte signal standard addition method has been used for the simultaneous determination of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim by spectrophotometry in some bovine milk and veterinary medicines. The method combines the advantages of standard addition method with the net analyte signal concept which enables the extraction of information concerning a certain analyte from spectra of multi-component mixtures. This method has some advantages such as the use of a full spectrum realisation, therefore it does not require calibration and prediction step and only a few measurements require for the determination. Cloud point extraction based on the phenomenon of solubilisation used for extraction of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim in bovine milk. It is based on the induction of micellar organised media by using Triton X-100 as an extraction solvent. At the optimum conditions, the norm of NAS vectors increased linearly with concentrations in the range of 1.0-150.0 μmolL(-1) for both sulphadiazine and trimethoprim. The limits of detection (LOD) for sulphadiazine and trimethoprim were 0.86 and 0.92 μmolL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Empiric outpatient therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, cephalexin, or clindamycin for cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Tice, Alan

    2010-10-01

    Limited data exist on optimal empiric oral antibiotic treatment for outpatients with cellulitis in areas with a high prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. We conducted a 3-year retrospective cohort study of outpatients with cellulitis empirically treated at a teaching clinic of a tertiary-care medical center in Hawaii. Patients who received more than 1 oral antibiotic, were hospitalized, or had no follow-up information were excluded. Treatment success rates for empiric therapy were compared among commonly prescribed antibiotics in our clinic: cephalexin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin. Risk factors for treatment failure were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of 544 patients with cellulitis, 405 met the inclusion criteria. The overall treatment success rate of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was significantly higher than the rate of cephalexin (91% vs 74%; P<.001), whereas clindamycin success rates were higher than those of cephalexin in patients who had subsequently culture-confirmed MRSA infections (P=.01), had moderately severe cellulitis (P=.03), and were obese (P=.04). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was recovered in 72 of 117 positive culture specimens (62%). Compliance and adverse drug reaction rates were not significantly different among patients who received these 3 antibiotics. Factors associated with treatment failure included therapy with an antibiotic that was not active against community-associated MRSA (adjusted odds ratio 4.22; 95% confidence interval, 2.25-7.92; P<.001) and severity of cellulitis (adjusted odds ratio 3.74; 95% confidence interval, 2.06-6.79; P<.001). Antibiotics with activity against community-associated MRSA, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and clindamycin, are preferred empiric therapy for outpatients with cellulitis in the community-associated MRSA-prevalent setting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preemptive warfarin dose reduction after initiation of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim or metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Powers, Anna; Loesch, Erin B; Weiland, Anthony; Fioravanti, Nicole; Lucius, David

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the utility of a preemptive warfarin dose reduction at the time of initiation of either sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim or metronidazole, a retrospective chart review of patients who received an outpatient prescription for warfarin and either sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and/or metronidazole from July 1, 2011 to July 1, 2015 was conducted. Clinical outcomes compared Veterans who had a warfarin dose reduction and those who did not within 120 h (5 days) of antibiotic initiation. The primary outcome compared the pre-and post-antibiotic International Normalized Ratio (INR) of patients in the intervention group (warfarin dose reduction) with those in the control group (no intervention). Secondary outcomes assessed incidence of thromboembolic and major bleeding events within 30 days of antibiotic completion. Fifty patients were assessed. Forty-nine patients had at least one follow-up appointment; 126 follow-up visits were evaluated. There was a statistically significant difference for the change in therapeutic INR at the first follow-up appointment (p = 0.029) for those patients in the control group. On average, the patients in the intervention group required fewer follow-up visits (p = 0.019). There were no statistically significant differences for the overall rate of therapeutic INR values between groups, as well as no instances of a thromboembolic or major bleeding events during the follow-up period. Clinically significant differences were observed for patients who received a preemptive warfarin dose reduction upon initiation of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim or metronidazole. Patients in the intervention group required fewer follow-up appointments and were more likely maintain a therapeutic INR within the 30 days following the antibiotic course. Results of this study will be presented the at Pharmacy and Therapeutics committee in an effort to seek approval for policy development to initiate a local preemptive warfarin dose adjustment as a standard

  15. Solid phase microextraction of macrolide, trimethoprim, and sulfonamide antibiotics in wastewaters.

    PubMed

    McClure, Evelyn L; Wong, Charles S

    2007-10-26

    In this work, we optimize a solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for the simultaneous collection of antibiotics (sulfonamides, macrolides, and trimethoprim) present in wastewaters. The performance of the SPME method is compared to a solid phase extraction (SPE) method. Analytes in both cases were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) with electrospray ionization. The advantages offered by SPME in this application are: decreased sample volume requirements, ease of sample processing and extraction, decreased cost, and most importantly, elimination of electrospray matrix effects. Despite having higher limits of quantification (16-1380 ng/L in influent and 35-260 ng/L in effluent), nearly all of the compounds found to be present in Edmonton Gold Bar wastewater by SPE were measurable by SPME (i.e., sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, and clarithromycin), with values similar to those obtained using the former method. Limits of quantification for the SPE method for the measured compounds were 4.7-15 ng/L and 0.86-6.1 ng/L for influent and effluent, respectively.

  16. H-point standard additions method for simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids with simultaneous addition of two analytes.

    PubMed

    Givianrad, M H; Saber-Tehrani, M; Aberoomand-Azar, P; Mohagheghian, M

    2011-03-01

    The applicability of H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) to the resolving of overlapping spectra corresponding to the sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is verified by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The results show that the H-point standard additions method with simultaneous addition of both analytes is suitable for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in aqueous media. The results of applying the H-point standard additions method showed that the two drugs could be determined simultaneously with the concentration ratios of sulfamethoxazole to trimethoprim varying from 1:18 to 16:1 in the mixed samples. Also, the limits of detections were 0.58 and 0.37 μmol L(-1) for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, respectively. In addition the means of the calculated RSD (%) were 1.63 and 2.01 for SMX and TMP, respectively in synthetic mixtures. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in some synthetic, pharmaceutical formulation and biological fluid samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hyponatraemia associated with trimethoprim use.

    PubMed

    Khow, Kareeann Sok Fun; Yong, Tuck Yean

    2014-03-01

    Trimethoprim (TMP) is a commonly prescribed antibiotic with few adverse effects. However on rare occasions, TMP is associated with electrolyte disturbances. As seen in our three patients, TMP can be associated with symptomatic hyponatraemia which required hospitalization. In one of these patients, hyperkalaemia and type 4 renal tubular acidosis were also present. These electrolyte and acid-base disorders were corrected after discontinuation of TMP. A small number of patients with TMP-induced electrolyte imbalances have been reported in the English-language medical literature to date but mostly with the use of TMP in combination with sulfamethoxazole. In association with TMP use, hyperkalaemia has been more commonly reported than hyponatraemia. These changes in sodium and potassium balance are thought to be related to TMP inhibiting sodium ion influx via the epithelial sodium channel in the cortical collecting duct. The association between symptomatic hyponatraemia and TMP emphasizes the need to evaluate electrolytes in patients presenting with clinical change after commencing on this drug.

  18. [Study on the surface-enhanced Raman spectrum of trimethoprim].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-zhi; Wang, Yuan

    2003-02-01

    A new method is given in this paper to study the spectra of trimethoprim by using the surface-enhanced Raman spectrum (SERS) technology and the highly efficient thin layer chromatography (TLC) dissociation technology. The results of SERS indicate that the main vibrant spectral band can be obtained by TLC in the samples of about 6 micrograms. The expansion and contraction of pyrimidine ring can be obviously increased and the molecule information can be exactly presented under the action of silver particles.

  19. A multilevel analysis of trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin prescribing and resistance of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in general practice.

    PubMed

    Vellinga, Akke; Murphy, Andrew W; Hanahoe, Belinda; Bennett, Kathleen; Cormican, Martin

    2010-07-01

    A retrospective analysis of databases was performed to describe trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin prescribing and resistance in Escherichia coli within general practices in the West of Ireland from 2004 to 2008. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion methods according to the CLSI methods and criteria on significant E. coli isolates (colony count >10(5) cfu/mL) from urine samples submitted from general practice. Data were collected over a 4.5 year period and aggregated at practice level. Data on antimicrobial prescribing of practices were obtained from the national Irish prescribing database, which accounts for approximately 70% of all medicines prescribed in primary care. A multilevel model (MLwiN) was fitted with trimethoprim/ciprofloxacin resistance rates as outcome and practice prescribing as predictor. Practice and individual routinely collected variables were controlled for in the model. Seventy-two general practices sent between 13 and 720 (median 155) samples that turned out to be E. coli positive. Prescribing at practice level was significantly correlated with the probability of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli with an odds ratio of 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.04] for every additional prescription of trimethoprim per 1000 patients per month in the practice and 1.08 (1.04-1.11) for ciprofloxacin. Age was a significant risk factor in both models. Higher variation between practices was found for ciprofloxacin as well as a yearly increase in resistance. Comparing a 'mean' practice with 1 prescription per month with one with 10 prescriptions per month showed an increase in predicted probability of a resistant E. coli for the 'mean' patient from 23.9% to 27.5% for trimethoprim and from 3.0% to 5.5% for ciprofloxacin. A higher level of antimicrobial prescribing in a practice is associated with a higher probability of a resistant E. coli for the patient. The variation in antimicrobial resistance levels between practices was

  20. Antimicrobial efficacy and aqueous humor concentration of preoperative and postoperative topical trimethoprim/polymyxin B sulfate versus tobramycin.

    PubMed

    Osher, R H; Amdahl, L D; Cheetham, J K

    1994-01-01

    We compared trimethoprim sulfate 0.1%/polymyxin B sulfate 10,000 units/mL with tobramycin 0.3% for preoperative sterilization of the ocular surface, aqueous humor concentration, and ocular safety and comfort in 99 patients who had cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. The organisms most frequently cultured from the conjunctiva at baseline were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium species, and Staphylococcus aureus, which were isolated from 66%, 15%, and 8% of the 95 specimens eligible for evaluation. All organisms identified in positive baseline conjunctival cultures except Staphylococcus epidermidis were completely eradicated in both groups on the day of surgery and five to seven days postoperatively. Staphylococcus epidermidis was eradicated on the day of surgery in 58% of patients in the trimethoprim/polymyxin group and in 68% in the tobramycin group. This organism was eradicated five to seven days postoperatively in 85% of patients in both groups. Mean aqueous humor concentration of trimethoprim sulfate at surgery was greater than the mean tobramycin concentration, but neither reached clinically significant inhibitory levels for most organisms. No significant differences were found in ocular safety and comfort.

  1. DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, AND APPLICATION OF THE TRIMETHOPRIM-BASED CHEMICAL TAG FOR LIVE CELL IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Chaoran; Cornish, Virginia W.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade chemical tags have been developed to complement the use of fluorescent proteins in live cell imaging. Chemical tags retain the specificity of protein labeling achieved with fluorescent proteins through genetic encoding, but provide smaller, more robust tags and modular use of organic fluorophores with high photon-output and tailored functionalities. The trimethoprim-based chemical tag (TMP-tag) was initially developed based on the high affinity interaction between E.coli dihydrofolatereductase and the antibiotic trimethoprim and subsequently rendered covalent and fluorogenic via proximity-induced protein labeling reactions. To date, the TMP-tag is one of the few chemical tags that enable intracellular protein labeling and high-resolution live cell imaging. Here we describe the general design, chemical synthesis, and application of TMP-tag for live cell imaging. Alternative protocols for synthesizing and using the covalent and the fluorogenic TMP-tags are also included. PMID:23839994

  2. Design, synthesis, and application of the trimethoprim-based chemical tag for live-cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Jing, Chaoran; Cornish, Virginia W

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, chemical tags have been developed to complement the use of fluorescent proteins in live-cell imaging. Chemical tags retain the specificity of protein labeling achieved with fluorescent proteins through genetic encoding, but provide smaller, more robust tags and modular use of organic fluorophores with high photon output and tailored functionalities. The trimethoprim-based chemical tag (TMP-tag) was initially developed based on the high affinity interaction between E. coli dihydrofolate reductase and the antibiotic trimethoprim and was subsequently rendered covalent and fluorogenic via proximity-induced protein labeling reactions. To date, the TMP-tag is one of the few chemical tags that enable intracellular protein labeling and high-resolution live-cell imaging. Here we describe the general design, chemical synthesis, and application of TMP-tag for live-cell imaging. Alternate protocols for synthesizing and using the covalent and the fluorogenic TMP-tags are also included. © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Relative efficacy of carbenicillin indanyl sodium and of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in urinary-tract infections.

    PubMed

    Seneca, H

    1979-05-01

    In a 10-day study, carbenicillin indanyl sodium cured urinary-tract infections in 22 of 30 patients (ages, 24-91). In 3 of the remaining patients the treatment was a failure; in 3 others the drug had to be discontinued because of diarrhea and vomiting; and in 2 instances it induced overgrowth of Candida albicans in the urine. Carbenicillin was lethal to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in all 9 cases, to Proteus mirabilis in all 6 cases, and to enterococcus in all 3 cases. A trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole combination cured urinary-tract infections in 18 of 30 other patients (ages, 28-91), but failed in 3. In 3 patients it gave rise to a skin rash; in 2 to elevation of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels; in 1 to neutropenia; and in 1 to overgrowth of Candida albicans in the urine. Reinfection occurred in 2 patients. Carbenicillin indanyl sodium was more effective than the sulfonamide/trimethoprim combination.

  4. Comparing the cost-effectiveness of linezolid to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: a healthcare system perspective.

    PubMed

    von Dach, E; Morel, C M; Murthy, A; Pagani, L; Macedo-Vinas, M; Olearo, F; Harbarth, S

    2017-09-01

    Few industry-independent studies have been conducted to compare the relative costs and benefits of drugs to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. We performed a stochastic cost-effectiveness analysis comparing two treatment strategies-linezolid versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin-for the treatment of MRSA infection. We used cost and effectiveness data from a previously conducted clinical trial, complementing with other data from published literature, to compare the two regimens from a healthcare system perspective. Effectiveness was expressed in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Several sensitivity analyses were performed using Monte Carlo simulation, to measure the effect of potential parameter changes on the base-case model results, including potential differences related to type of infection and drug toxicity. Treatment of MRSA infection with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin and linezolid were found to cost on average €146 and €2536, and lead to a gain of 0.916 and 0.881 QALYs, respectively. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin was found to be more cost-effective than linezolid in the base case and remained dominant over linezolid in most alternative scenarios, including different types of MRSA infection and potential disadvantages in terms of toxicity. With a willingness-to-pay threshold of €0, €50 000 and €200 000 per QALY gained, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin was dominant in 100%, 96% and 85% of model iterations. A 95% discount on the current purchasing price of linezolid would be needed when it goes off-patent for it to represent better value for money compared with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin. Combined treatment of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin is more cost-effective than linezolid in the treatment of MRSA infection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of cefalexin and trimethoprim in dog plasma and application to the pharmacokinetic studies of a coformulated preparation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meiling; Wang, Peng; Sun, Ping; Liu, Xia

    2006-03-07

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for the simultaneous determination of cefalexin and trimethoprim in dog plasma. A simple protein precipitation procedure was adopted for the sample preparation with satisfactory extraction recoveries for both analytes. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was achieved on a C(18) column using a mixture of 2 mol/l formate buffer (pH 3.5), methanol and acetonitrile (22:7:7, v/v/v) containing a 0.002 mol/l sodium dodecyl sulfate as mobile phase and detection was performed at 240 nm. The linearity was obtained over the concentration ranges of 1.0-100.0 microg/ml for cefalexin and 0.5-50.0 microg/ml for trimethoprim. For each level of QC samples including the lower limit of quantification, both inter- and intra-day precisions (R.S.D.) were < or =14.0% for cefalexin and < or =11.4% for trimethoprim, and accuracy (RE) was -1.4% for cefalexin and -3.0% for trimethoprim. The present LC method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of coformulated cefalexin dispersible tablets after oral administration to beagle dogs.

  6. In vitro susceptibility of Pseudomonas species to carbenicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, S F; Haldane, D J; Ngui-Yen, J H; Smith, J A

    1985-01-01

    We compared susceptibility tests of 47 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and 40 Pseudomonas species to carbenicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole by the MS-2 and Sceptor systems and agar dilution. The major and very major errors encountered in these tests in the MS-2 and Sceptor systems raise doubts about the accuracy of these methods for testing P. aeruginosa and confirm that they should not be used for testing the susceptibility of Pseudomonas species to the two drugs tested. PMID:3930567

  7. Clarithromycin, trimethoprim, and penicillin and oxidative nucleic acid modifications in humans: randomised, controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Emil List; Cejvanovic, Vanja; Kjaer, Laura Kofoed; Pedersen, Morten Thorup; Popik, Sara Daugaard; Hansen, Lina Kallehave; Andersen, Jon Traerup; Jimenez-Solem, Espen; Broedbaek, Kasper; Petersen, Morten; Weimann, Allan; Henriksen, Trine; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2017-08-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the effect of bactericidal antibiotics. The formation of ROS is not restricted to bacteria, but also occurs in mammalian cells. Oxidative stress is linked to several diseases. This study investigates whether antibiotic drugs induce oxidative stress in healthy humans as a possible mechanism for adverse reactions to the antibiotic drugs. This study contains information from two randomised, controlled trials. Participants underwent 1 week treatment with clarithromycin, trimethoprim, phenoxymethylpenicillin (penicillin V), or placebo. Oxidative modifications were measured as 24-h urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), and plasma levels of malondialdehyde before and after treatment as a measurement of DNA oxidation, RNA oxidation, and lipid peroxidation, respectively. Clarithromycin significantly increased urinary excretion of 8-oxodG by 22.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6-40.4%) and 8-oxoGuo by 14.9% (95% CI: 3.7-26.1%). Further, we demonstrated that trimethoprim significantly lowered urinary excretion of 8-oxodG by 21.7% (95% CI: 5.8-37.6%), but did not influence urinary excretion of 8-oxoGuo. Penicillin V did not influence urinary excretion of 8-oxodG or 8-oxoGuo. None of the antibiotic drugs influenced plasma levels of malondialdehyde. Clarithromycin significantly increases oxidative nucleic acid modifications. Increased oxidative modifications might explain some of clarithromycin's known adverse reactions. Trimethoprim significantly lowers DNA oxidation but not RNA oxidation. Penicillin V had no effect on oxidative nucleic acid modifications. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Effects of trimethoprim-sulfadiazine and detomidine on the function of equine Kv 11.1 channels in a two-electrode voltage-clamp (TEVC) oocyte model.

    PubMed

    Trachsel, D S; Tejada, M A; Groesfjeld Christensen, V; Pedersen, P J; Kanters, J K; Buhl, R; Calloe, K; Klaerke, D A

    2018-03-22

    The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a channelopathy that can lead to severe arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Pharmacologically induced LQTS is caused by interaction between drugs and potassium channels, especially the K v 11.1 channel. Due to such interactions, numerous drugs have been withdrawn from the market or are administered with precautions in human medicine. However, some compounds, such as trimethoprim-sulfonamide combinations are still widely used in veterinarian medicine. Therefore, we investigate the effect of trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (TMS), trimethoprim, sulfadiazine, and detomidine on equine-specific K v 11.1 channels. K v 11.1 channels cloned from equine hearts were heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and whole cell currents were measured by two-electrode voltage-clamp before and after drug application. TMS blocked equine K v 11.1 current with an IC 50 of 3.74 mm (95% CI: 2.95-4.73 mm) and affected the kinetics of activation and inactivation. Similar was found for trimethoprim but not for sulfadiazine, suggesting the effect is due to trimethoprim. Detomidine did not affect equine K v 11.1 current. Thus, equine K v 11.1 channels are also susceptible to pharmacological block, indicating that some drugs may have the potential to affect repolarization in horse. However, in vivo studies are needed to assess the potential risk of these drugs to induce equine LQTS. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of mefloquine and its effect on sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim steady-state blood levels in intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) of pregnant HIV-infected women in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael; Otieno, Kephas; Katana, Abraham; Slutsker, Laurence; Kariuki, Simon; Ouma, Peter; González, Raquel; Menendez, Clara; ter Kuile, Feiko; Desai, Meghna

    2016-01-05

    Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine is contra-indicated in HIV-positive pregnant women receiving sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim prophylaxis. Since mefloquine is being considered as a replacement for sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in this vulnerable population, an investigation on the pharmacokinetic interactions of mefloquine, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pregnant, HIV-infected women was performed. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 124 HIV-infected, pregnant women on a standard regimen of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim prophylaxis. Seventy-two subjects received three doses of mefloquine (15 mg/kg) at monthly intervals. Dried blood spots were collected from both placebo and mefloquine arms four to 672 h post-administration and on day 7 following a second monthly dose of mefloquine. A novel high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to simultaneously measure mefloquine, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim from each blood spot. Non-compartmental methods using a naïve-pooled data approach were used to determine mefloquine pharmacokinetic parameters. Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim prophylaxis did not noticeably influence mefloquine pharmacokinetics relative to reported values. The mefloquine half-life, observed clearance (CL/f), and area-under-the-curve (AUC0→∞) were 12.0 days, 0.035 l/h/kg and 431 µg-h/ml, respectively. Although trimethoprim steady-state levels were not significantly different between arms, sulfamethoxazole levels showed a significant 53% decrease after mefloquine administration relative to the placebo group and returning to pre-dose levels at 28 days. Although a transient decrease in sulfamethoxazole levels was observed, there was no change in hospital admissions due to secondary bacterial infections, implying that mefloquine may have provided antimicrobial protection.

  10. The bactericidal effects of anti-MRSA agents with rifampicin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim against intracellular phagocytized MRSA.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Toshimori

    2007-06-01

    We experienced therapeutic failure with vancomycin in patients with serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, in some of whom the bacteria were found to be alive in the leukocytes. We therefore evaluated the antimicrobial activity of several anti-MRSA agents (vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, arbekacin) and co-administered agents (rifampicin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim) against clinically isolated MRSA in phagocytized human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. After allowing the leukocytes to phagocytize the bacteria, the mixture was separated into leukocytes and supernatant, to which MRSA agents were added, and incubated for 24 h. After incubation, the leukocytes were crushed and the intracellular MRSA was cultured quantitatively. Vancomycin resulted in a less than 1% survival ratio of extracellular MRSA, but it was one of the highest ratios of intracellular MRSA with 33.8% compared with other agents. The survival ratios of intracellular MRSA with vancomycin plus rifampicin and with vancomycin plus rifampicin plus sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were 0.78% and 1.02%, respectively, which is significantly lower than that of vancomycin. For linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and arbekacin, there were no significant differences in the survival ratios between monotherapy and combination therapy against either extracellular or intracellular MRSA. The results suggest that the concomitant use of rifampicin or rifampicin plus sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim with vancomycin is effective for MRSA phagocytized in leukocytes when vancomycin monotherapy is not sufficiently effective. Combination therapy showed no difference in efficacy in the case of linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and arbekacin.

  11. Susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae Isolates from Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid to Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, John E.; Terry, Pamela M.; Nahmias, Andre J.

    1976-01-01

    Susceptibility to ampicillin and chloramphenicol in vitro has been determined for Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid cultures of patients admitted to two Atlanta hospitals from 1 January 1974 to 31 March 1975. Since the appearance of ampicillin-resistant strains of this organism in early 1974, chloramphenicol has been used in these hospitals as initial therapy for severe infection due to H. influenzae. Strains from five of 94 patients were resistant to ampicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥ 12.5 μg/ml), but all strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol (MIC < 2 μg/ml). The first 35 strains studied, including three resistant to ampicillin, were also tested for in vitro susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; all were highly susceptible (MIC ≤ 0.0312 μg of trimethoprim and 0.625 μg of sulfamethoxazole per ml). PMID:1083198

  12. Effect of Cephalexin Plus Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole vs Cephalexin Alone on Clinical Cure of Uncomplicated Cellulitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Moran, Gregory J; Krishnadasan, Anusha; Mower, William R; Abrahamian, Fredrick M; LoVecchio, Frank; Steele, Mark T; Rothman, Richard E; Karras, David J; Hoagland, Rebecca; Pettibone, Stephanie; Talan, David A

    2017-05-23

    Emergency department visits for skin infections in the United States have increased with the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). For cellulitis without purulent drainage, β-hemolytic streptococci are presumed to be the predominant pathogens. It is unknown if antimicrobial regimens possessing in vitro MRSA activity provide improved outcomes compared with treatments lacking MRSA activity. To determine whether cephalexin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole yields a higher clinical cure rate of uncomplicated cellulitis than cephalexin alone. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized superiority trial in 5 US emergency departments among outpatients older than 12 years with cellulitis and no wound, purulent drainage, or abscess enrolled from April 2009 through June 2012. All participants had soft tissue ultrasound performed at the time of enrollment to exclude abscess. Final follow-up was August 2012. Cephalexin, 500 mg 4 times daily, plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 320 mg/1600 mg twice daily, for 7 days (n = 248 participants) or cephalexin plus placebo for 7 days (n = 248 participants). The primary outcome determined a priori in the per-protocol group was clinical cure, defined as absence of these clinical failure criteria at follow-up visits: fever; increase in erythema (>25%), swelling, or tenderness (days 3-4); no decrease in erythema, swelling, or tenderness (days 8-10); and more than minimal erythema, swelling, or tenderness (days 14-21). A clinically significant difference was defined as greater than 10%. Among 500 randomized participants, 496 (99%) were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis and 411 (82.2%) in the per-protocol analysis (median age, 40 years [range, 15-78 years]; 58.4% male; 10.9% had diabetes). Median length and width of erythema were 13.0 cm and 10.0 cm. In the per-protocol population, clinical cure occurred in 182 (83.5%) of 218 participants in the cephalexin plus trimethoprim

  13. First detection of the staphylococcal trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK and the dfrK-carrying transposon Tn559 in enterococci.

    PubMed

    López, María; Kadlec, Kristina; Schwarz, Stefan; Torres, Carmen

    2012-02-01

    The trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK has been recently described in Staphylococcus aureus, but so far has not been found in other bacteria. A total of 166 enterococci of different species (E. faecium, E. faecalis, E. hirae, E. durans, E. gallinarum, and E. casseliflavus) and origins (food, clinical diseases in humans, healthy humans or animals, and sewage) were studied for their susceptibility to trimethoprim as determined by agar dilution (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) and the presence of (a) the dfrK gene and its genetic environment and (b) other dfr genes. The dfrK gene was detected in 49% of the enterococci (64% and 42% of isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of ≥2 mg/L or ≤1 mg/L, respectively). The tet(L)-dfrK linkage was detected in 21% of dfrK-positive enterococci. The chromosomal location of the dfrK gene was identified in one E. faecium isolate in which the dfrK was not linked to tet(L) gene but was part of a Tn559 element, which was integrated in the chromosomal radC gene. This Tn559 element was also found in 14 additional isolates. All combinations of dfr genes were detected among the isolates tested (dfrK, dfrG, dfrF, dfrK+dfrG, dfrK+dfrF, dfrF+dfrG, and dfrF+dfrG+dfrK). The gene dfrK gene was found together with other dfr genes in 58% of the tested enterococci. This study suggested an exchange of the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK between enterococci and staphylococci, as previously observed for the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrG.

  14. Ciprofloxacin and Trimethoprim Cause Phage Induction and Virulence Modulation in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Goerke, Christiane; Köller, Johanna; Wolz, Christiane

    2006-01-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus strains of human origin, phages which integrate into the chromosomal gene coding for β-hemolysin (hlb) are widely distributed. Most of them encode accessory virulence determinants such as staphylokinase (sak) or enterotoxins. Here, we analyzed the effects of ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim on phage induction and expression of phage-encoded virulence factors by using isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis for which the induction of hlb-converting phages was demonstrated in vivo (C. Goerke, S. Matias y Papenberg, S. Dasbach, K. Dietz, R. Ziebach, B. C. Kahl, and C. Wolz, J. Infect. Dis. 189:724-734, 2004) as well as a φ13 lysogen of phage-cured strain 8325-4. Treatment of lysogens with subinhibitory concentrations of either antibiotic resulted in (i) delysogenization of strains resembling the isolates picked up after chronic lung infection and (ii) replication of phages in the bacterial host in a dose-dependent manner. Ciprofloxacin treatment resulted in enhanced recA transcription, indicating involvement of the SOS response in phage mobilization. Induction of φ13 was linked to elevated expression of the phage-encoded virulence gene sak, chiefly due to the activation of latent phage promoters. In summary, we could show the induction of hlb-converting phages and a subsequent virulence modulation of the host bacterium by ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim. PMID:16377683

  15. Synergistic antibiofilm efficacy of a gallotannin 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose from Terminalia chebula fruit in combination with gentamicin and trimethoprim against multidrug resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years the emergence of multiple drug resistance microbes has become a global public health problem. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate possible antibiofilm efficacy of a gallotannin 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose from Terminalia chebula fruits alone and in combination with gentamicin and trimethoprim against preformed biofilms of multidrug-resistant (MDR) uropathogenic E. coli isolates using microbroth dilution, checkerboard titration and kill kinetics methods. Test gallotannin showed > 50% antibiofilm efficacy after 24 h when administered alone whereas gentamicin and trimethoprim failed to do so. But in combination, test gallotannin/gentamicin and test gallotannin/trimethoprim showed 71.24±6.75% and 93.4±8.46% antibiofilm activity respectively. On the basis of FICI values, test gallotannin/gentamicin showed synergistic interactions against 71.42% and test gallotannin/trimethoprim against 85.71% biofilm forming test bacterial isolates. Kill-kinetics study confirmed their synergistic interactions. Thus, gentamicin and trimethoprim in combination with test gallotannin may have potential for treatment of urinary tract infections caused by biofilm forming MDR uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:28562631

  16. Poor rectal absorption of trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole in treating Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Dorr, R. T.; Powell, J. R.; Heick, M.; Barry, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    A 24-year-old female with Hodgkin's disease and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was tested with trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) tablets. Because treatment failure was feared owing to chronic emesis potentially resulting in incomplete drug absorption, the same TMP/SMX dose was administered by rectal suppositories after the 5th day of oral dosing. The relative fractions (rectal/oral) or the suppository dose absorbed for TMP and SMX were 3.0% and 19.5% respectively. When TMP/SMX treatment is required and the oral route is not practical, the investigational i.v. preparation should be obtained. PMID:6973756

  17. Improvement of mannitol-yolk-polymyxin B agar by supplementing with trimethoprim for quantitative detection of Bacillus cereus in foods.

    PubMed

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Park, Jun-Ho; Song, Kwang-Young; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2012-07-01

    Mannitol-yolk-polymyxin B agar (MYPA) was modified by supplementation with trimethoprim. The ability of the supplemented medium to select for and recover Bacillus cereus from pure cultures and food samples with high background microflora was compared with MYPA. For evaluation of the modified MYPA (mMYPA) in food samples with high background microflora, B. cereus was experimentally spiked into red pepper powder, fermented soybean paste, vegetable salad, and radish sprouts, and then it was recovered on MYPA and mMYPA for comparison. In all food samples, there was no difference in recoverability (P > 0.05) between mMYPA (red pepper powder, 3.34 ± 0.24 log CFU/g; fermented soybean paste, 3.52 ± 0.47 log CFU/g; vegetable salad, 3.51 ± 0.23 log CFU/g; radish sprouts, 3.32 ± 0.40 log CFU/g) and MYPA (red pepper powder, 3.18 ± 0.20 log CFU/g; fermented soybean paste, 3.33 ± 0.43 log CFU/g; vegetable salad, 3.36 ± 0.19 log CFU/g; radish sprouts, 3.33 ± 0.31 log CFU/g). However, mMYPA exhibited better selectivity than MYPA, because additional trimethoprim made the differentiation of suspected colonies easier by inhibiting competing flora. The addition of trimethoprim to conventional media could be a useful option to improve selectivity in foods with high background microflora.

  18. Incidence of Hyponatremia with High-Dose Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Exposure.

    PubMed

    Tsapepas, Demetra; Chiles, Mariana; Babayev, Revekka; Rao, Maya K; Jaitly, Manasvi; Salerno, David; Mohan, Sumit

    2016-12-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is a commonly prescribed antibiotic used at high doses for treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia and other infections. Trimethoprim is structurally related to the potassium-sparing diuretic amiloride and has been associated with hyperkalemia and hyponatremia through blocking of epithelial sodium channels in the distal nephron. The incidence of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients treated with high-dose TMP-SMX is unknown. We performed a single-center retrospective chart review of all hospitalized patients who received high-dose TMP-SMX (n = 235) from January 2012 to July 2014. Patients with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , baseline hyponatremia, and those on other medications associated with hyponatremia were excluded. Hyponatremia was defined as a serum sodium level <136 mEq/L. Analysis was restricted to 76 unique patients who received more than 8 mg/kg/d of TMP for ≥3 days. Mean starting serum sodium at time of TMP-SMX initiation was 138.4 ± 2.1 mEq/L. Fifty-five patients (72.3%) developed hyponatremia while on therapy, of which 43.6% (n = 24) were cases of serum sodium <130 mEq/L. Mean sodium at the time of nadir was 131.6 ± 5.1 mEq/L. Hyponatremia was noted, on average, 5.5 days after initiation of therapy, with more severe hyponatremia development among African American patients. Urine sodium concentrations were available for 40.0% (22/55) of incident hyponatremia cases, with mean urinary sodium of 104.8 ± 55.9 mEq/L. Hyponatremia often resolved within 3 weeks of drug discontinuation. There is a high incidence (72.3%) of hyponatremia associated with the use of high-dose TMP-SMX among hospitalized patients. This is an overlooked and potentially reversible cause of hyponatremia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Erica P.; McDonnell, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    In a series of 52 patients the combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole was used for the treatment of urinary tract infection and the results are analyzed with respect to the clinical diagnosis and bacterial etiology. There was complete agreement between in vitro sensitivity and clinical response except in the case of one strain of Streptococcus fecalis. The combination of drugs was effective against some bacterial strains which were resistant to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. PMID:4626767

  20. Design, synthesis, antibacterial activity and docking study of some new trimethoprim derivatives.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Umer; Ahmad, Waqas; Hassan, Syed Fahad; Qureshi, Naveeda Akhtar; Niaz, Basit; Muhammad, Bakhtiar; Imdad, Sameera; Sajid, Muhammad

    2016-12-01

    In present study, nineteen novel trimethoprim (TMP) derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Hydroxy trimethoprim 2 (HTMP) was synthesized by following the demethylation of 4-methoxy group at trimethoxy benzyl ring of TMP. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies were explored on HTMP by incorporating various substituents leading to the identification of some new compounds with improved antibacterial activities. The results revealed that the introduction of benzyloxy (4a-e) and phenyl ethanone (5a-e) group at 4-position of dimethoxy benzyl ring leads to overall increase in the antibacterial activity. The most potent antibacterial compound discovered is benzyloxy derivative 4b with MIC value of 5.0μM against Staphylococcus aureus and 4.0μM against Escherichia coli strains higher than the standard TMP (22.7μM against S. aureus and 55.1μM against E. coli). Substitution at 4-NH 2 group was not tolerated and the resulting Schiff base derivatives 3a-h demonstrated very little or no antibacterial activity in the tested concentration domain. We further performed exploratory docking studies on dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) to rationalize the in vitro biological data and to demonstrate the mechanism of antibacterial activity. For the ability to cross lipophilic outer membrane, logP was computed. It was found that the compounds possessing high hydrophobicity have high activity against E. coli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Life threatening hyperkalemia and acidosis secondary to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment.

    PubMed

    Margassery, S; Bastani, B

    2001-01-01

    We present a 77-year-old male with moderate chronic renal insufficiency from diabetic nephropathy who developed severe metabolic acidosis and life threatening hyperkalemia on treatment with regular dose of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) for urinary tract infection. The metabolic acidosis and hyperkalemia resolved upon appropriate medical intervention and discontinuation of TMP-SMZ. While hyperkalemia has commonly been reported with high dose of TMP-SMZ, severe metabolic acidosis is quite uncommon with regular dose TMP-SMZ. We emphasize that patients with renal tubular acidosis (RTA), renal insufficiency, aldosterone deficiency, old age with reduced renal mass and function, and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor therapy are at high risk of developing these severe and potentially life threatening complications.

  2. Antibiotics degradation in soil: A case of clindamycin, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and their transformation products.

    PubMed

    Koba, Olga; Golovko, Oksana; Kodešová, Radka; Fér, Miroslav; Grabic, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Twelve different soil types that represent the soil compartments of the Czech Republic were fortified with three antibiotics (clindamycin (CLI), sulfamethoxazole (SUL), and trimethoprim (TRI)) to investigate their fate. Five metabolites (clindamycin sulfoxide (CSO), hydroxy clindamycin sulfoxide (HCSO), S-(SDC) and N-demethyl clindamycin (NDC), N 4 -acetyl sulfamethoxazole (N 4 AS), and hydroxy trimethoprim (HTR)) were detected and identified using HPLC/HRMS and HRPS in the soil matrix in this study. The identities of CSO and N 4 AS were confirmed using commercially available reference standards. The parent compounds degraded in all soils. Almost all of the metabolites have been shown to be persistent in soils, with the exception of N 4 AS, which was formed and degraded completely within 23 days of exposure. The rate of degradation mainly depended on the soil properties. The PCA results showed a high dependence between the soil type and behaviour of the pharmaceutical metabolites. The mentioned metabolites can be formed in soils, and the most persistent ones may be transported to the ground water and environmental water bodies. Because no information on the effects of those metabolites on living organism are available, more studies should be performed in the future to predict the risk to the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin resistance and prescribing in urinary tract infection associated with Escherichia coli: a multilevel model.

    PubMed

    Vellinga, Akke; Tansey, Sana; Hanahoe, Belinda; Bennett, Kathleen; Murphy, Andrew W; Cormican, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Individual and group level factors associated with the probability of antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic Escherichia coli were analysed in a multilevel model. Adult patients consulting with a suspected urinary tract infection (UTI) in 22 general practices over a 9 month period supplied a urine sample for laboratory analysis. Cases were patients with a UTI associated with a resistant E. coli. Previous antimicrobial exposure and other patient characteristics were recorded from the medical files. Six hundred and thirty-three patients with an E. coli UTI and a full record for all variables were included. Of the E. coli isolates, 36% were resistant to trimethoprim and 12% to ciprofloxacin. A multilevel logistic regression model was fitted. The odds that E. coli was resistant increased with increasing number of prescriptions over the previous year for trimethoprim from 1.4 (0.8-2.2) for one previous prescription to 4.7 (1.9-12.4) for two and 6.4 (2.0-25.4) for three or more. For ciprofloxacin the ORs were 2.7 (1.2-5.6) for one and 6.5 (2.9-14.8) for two or more. The probability that uropathogenic E. coli was resistant showed important variation between practices and a difference of 17% for trimethoprim and 33% for ciprofloxacin was observed for an imaginary patient moving from a practice with low to a practice with high probability. This difference could not be explained by practice prescribing or practice resistance levels. Previous antimicrobial use and the practice visited affect the risk that a patient with a UTI will be diagnosed with an E. coli resistant to this agent, which was particularly important for ciprofloxacin.

  4. Synthesis, spectral characterization and catalytic activity of Co(II) complexes of drugs: crystal structure of Co(II)-trimethoprim complex.

    PubMed

    Madhupriya, Selvaraj; Elango, Kuppanagounder P

    2014-01-24

    New Co(II) complexes with drugs such as trimethoprim (TMP), cimetidine (CTD), niacinamide (NAM) and ofloxacin (OFL) as ligands were synthesized. The complexes were characterized by analytical analysis, various spectral techniques such as FT-IR, UV-Vis, magnetic measurements and molar conductivity. The magnetic susceptibility results coupled with the electronic spectra suggested a tetrahedral geometry for the complexes. The coordination mode of trimethoprim ligand and geometry of the complex were confirmed by single crystal X-ray studies. In this complex the metal ion possesses a tetrahedral geometry with two nitrogen atom from two TMP ligands and two chloride ions coordinated to it. The catalytic activity of the complexes in aryl-aryl coupling reaction was screened and the results indicated that among the four complexes [Co(OFL)Cl(H2O)] exhibited excellent catalytic activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Goitrous hypothyroidism associated with treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in a young dog.

    PubMed

    Seelig, Davis M; Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Lappin, Michael R; Myers, Alan M; Avery, Paul R

    2008-04-15

    A 16-week-old female Boxer that had been treated for 5 weeks with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol because of aspiration pneumonia was evaluated for bilaterally symmetric masses in the subcutaneous tissues of the ventral neck, in the region of the larynx. Fine-needle aspirates were obtained from the neck masses; cytologic examination revealed well-differentiated thyroid epithelial tissue. A blood sample was collected for serum biochemical and thyroid function analyses. Mild hyperphosphatemia, severe hypercholesterolemia, mild hyperkalemia, and a mild increase in creatine kinase activity were identified. Serum concentration of total thyroxine was less than the lower reference limit, and that of thyroid-stimulating hormone was greater than the upper reference limit. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of clinical hypothyroidism in a skeletally immature dog. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was discontinued. The dog was reevaluated 3 weeks later, at which time the neck masses were markedly decreased in size. Serum concentrations of cholesterol and potassium were lower; serum concentrations of total thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone were near or within respective reference ranges. Age-appropriate increases in serum phosphorus concentration and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were also detected. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of antimicrobial-induced goiter in a dog. Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates and interpretation of data from serum biochemical and thyroid function analyses were needed to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Practitioners should include goiter among the differential diagnoses for ventral neck swellings in young dogs receiving potentiated sulfonamide antimicrobials.

  6. The association of DNA damage response and nucleotide level modulation with the antibacterial mechanism of the anti-folate drug trimethoprim.

    PubMed

    Sangurdekar, Dipen P; Zhang, Zhigang; Khodursky, Arkady B

    2011-11-28

    Trimethoprim is a widely prescribed antibiotic for a variety of bacterial infections. It belongs to a class of anti-metabolites - antifolates - which includes drugs used against malarial parasites and in cancer therapy. However, spread of bacterial resistance to the drug has severely hampered its clinical use and has necessitated further investigations into its mechanism of action and treatment regimen. Trimethoprim selectively starves bacterial cells for tetrahydrofolate, a vital cofactor necessary for the synthesis of several metabolites. The outcome (bacteriostatic or bactericidal) of such starvation, however, depends on the availability of folate-dependent metabolites in the growth medium. To characterize this dependency, we investigated in detail the regulatory and structural components of Escherichia coli cellular response to trimethoprim in controlled growth and supplementation conditions. We surveyed transcriptional responses to trimethoprim treatment during bacteriostatic and bactericidal conditions and analyzed associated gene sets/pathways. Concurrent starvation of all folate dependent metabolites caused growth arrest, and this was accompanied by induction of general stress and stringent responses. Three gene sets were significantly associated with the bactericidal effect of TMP in different media including LB: genes of the SOS regulon, genes of the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway and members of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) regulon controlled by the MarR repressor. However, the SOS response was identified as the only universal transcriptional signature associated with the loss of viability by direct thymine starvation or by folate stress. We also used genome-wide gene knock-out screen to uncover means of sensitization of bacteria to the drug. We observed that among a number of candidate genes and pathways, the effect of knock-outs in the deoxyribose nucleotide salvage pathway, encoded by the deoCABD operon and under the control of

  7. Development of blood-yolk-polymyxin B-trimethoprim agar for the enumeration of Bacillus cereus in various foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Chon, Jung-Whan; Moon, Jin-San; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2013-07-15

    Blood-yolk-polymyxin B-trimethoprim agar (BYPTA) was developed by the addition of egg yolk, laked horse blood, sodium pyruvate, polymyxin B, and trimethoprim, and compared with mannitol-yolk-polymyxin B agar (MYPA) for the isolation and enumeration of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) in pure culture and various food samples. In pure culture, there was no statistical difference (p>0.05) between the recoverability and sensitivity of MYPA and BYPTA, whereas BYPTA exhibited higher specificity (p<0.05). To evaluate BYPTA agar with food samples, B. cereus was experimentally spiked into six types of foods, triangle kimbab, sandwich, misugaru, Saengsik, red pepper powder, and soybean paste. No statistical difference was observed in recoverability (p>0.05) between MYPA and BYPTA in all tested foods, whereas BYPTA exhibited higher selectivity than MYPA, especially in foods with high background microflora, such as Saengsik, red pepper powder, and soybean paste. The newly developed selective medium BYPTA could be a useful enumeration tool to assess the level of B. cereus in foods, particularly with high background microflora. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 3D-QSAR studies on the inhibitory activity of trimethoprim analogues against Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraj, Ramadoss; Devi, Mekapothula Lakshmi Vasavi; Subramanian, Venkatesan; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR) study has been carried out on the Escherichia coli DHFR inhibitors 2,4-diamino-5-(substituted-benzyl)pyrimidine derivatives to understand the structural features responsible for the improved potency. To construct highly predictive 3D-QSAR models, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) methods were used. The predicted models show statistically significant cross-validated and non-cross-validated correlation coefficient of r2 CV and r2 nCV, respectively. The final 3D-QSAR models were validated using structurally diverse test set compounds. Analysis of the contour maps generated from CoMFA and CoMSIA methods reveals that the substitution of electronegative groups at the first and second position along with electropositive group at the third position of R2 substitution significantly increases the potency of the derivatives. The results obtained from the CoMFA and CoMSIA study delineate the substituents on the trimethoprim analogues responsible for the enhanced potency and also provide valuable directions for the design of new trimethoprim analogues with improved affinity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Determining the thermodynamic melting parameters of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, urea, nicodin, and their double eutectics by differential scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonova, E. V.; Moshchenskii, Yu. V.; Tkachenko, M. L.

    2013-08-01

    The literature data on the thermodynamic melting characteristics of sulfamethoxazole, urea, trimethoprim, and nicodin are analyzed for individual compounds. Their enthalpies and melting points, either individually or in the composition of eutectics, are found by means of DSC. The entropies of fusion and the cryoscopic constants of individual compounds are calculated.

  10. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-induced phenytoin toxicity in the elderly: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Tony; Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Juurlink, David N

    2011-01-01

    AIMS Pharmacokinetic studies suggest that trimethoprim (TMP) can inhibit the hepatic metabolism of phenytoin, but the clinical relevance of this is uncertain. We studied the risk of phenytoin toxicity following the prescription of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), a commonly used antibiotic, among elderly patients receiving phenytoin. METHODS We conducted a population-based, nested case–control study of a cohort of Ontario residents aged 66 years of age or older treated with phenytoin over a 17-year period (April 1 1992 to March 31 2009). Within this group, case patients were those hospitalized with phenytoin toxicity. For each case, we identified up to four control patients from the same cohort, matched for age and sex, and determined the odds ratio (OR) for the association between phenytoin toxicity and receipt of TMP/SMX in the preceding 30 days. RESULTS Among 58 429 elderly patients receiving phenytoin during the study period, we identified 796 case patients hospitalized for phenytoin toxicity and 3148 matched controls. Following multivariable adjustment for potential confounders, we observed a more than doubling of the risk of phenytoin toxicity following the receipt of TMP/SMX [adjusted OR 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24, 3.60]. In contrast, we observed no such risk with amoxicillin, an antibiotic with similar indications but not expected to interact with phenytoin (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI 0.64, 1.98). CONCLUSION Among older patients receiving phenytoin, treatment with TMP/SMX is associated with a more than twofold increase in the risk of phenytoin toxicity. When clinically appropriate, alternate antibiotics should be considered for these patients. PMID:21395647

  11. Charged Propargyl-Linked Antifolates Reveal Mechanisms of Antifolate Resistance and Inhibit Trimethoprim-Resistant MRSA Strains Possessing Clinically Relevant Mutations.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Stephanie M; Scocchera, Eric; Ferreira, Jacob J; G-Dayanandan, Narendran; Keshipeddy, Santosh; Wright, Dennis L; Anderson, Amy C

    2016-07-14

    Drug-resistant enzymes must balance catalytic function with inhibitor destabilization to provide a fitness advantage. This sensitive balance, often involving very subtle structural changes, must be achieved through a selection process involving a minimal number of eligible point mutations. As part of a program to design propargyl-linked antifolates (PLAs) against trimethoprim-resistant dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus, we have conducted a thorough study of several clinically observed chromosomal mutations in the enzyme at the cellular, biochemical, and structural levels. Through this work, we have identified a promising lead series that displays significantly greater activity against these mutant enzymes and strains than TMP. The best inhibitors have enzyme inhibition and MIC values near or below that of trimethoprim against wild-type S. aureus. Moreover, these studies employ a series of crystal structures of several mutant enzymes bound to the same inhibitor; analysis of the structures reveals a more detailed molecular understanding of drug resistance in this important enzyme.

  12. Increased treatment failure after 3-days’ courses of nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim for urinary tract infections in women: a population-based retrospective cohort study using the PHARMO database

    PubMed Central

    Goettsch, Wim G; Janknegt, Rob; Herings, Ron M C

    2004-01-01

    Aim To assess determinants of treatment failure after antimicrobial therapy of urinary tract infections in women. Methods In primary care 16 703 Dutch women who received a first course (3, 5 or 7 days) of trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin or norfloxacin between 1 January 1992 through 31 December 1997 and who were between 15 and 65 years old at the day of first use were selected. Failure of the initial treatment was defined as a further prescription for one of these three antibiotics or for cotrimoxazole, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin, within 31 days after the end of the initial therapy. Results Treatment failure rate was 14.4% in patients treated with trimethoprim and nitrofurantoin and 9.6% in patients treated with norfloxacin. A multivariate analysis showed that 5 days’[RRNIT 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57, 0.82, RRTRI 0.82, 95% CI 0.73, 0.91] and 7 days’ (RRNIT 0.64, 95% CI 0.53, 0.77, RRTRI 0.85, 95% CI 0.71, 1.02) trimethoprim and nitrofurantoin treatment appeared to be more effective than a 3-day treatment (reference category). Other factors increasing treatment failure rates were the age of the patient, the year of therapy and previous hospitalization. Conclusions It may be concluded that 3-day courses of nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim are less effective than 5- and 7-day courses in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women. PMID:15255801

  13. Trimethoprim as Adjuvant Treatment in Schizophrenia: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shibre, Teshome; Alem, Atalay; Abdulahi, Abdulreshid; Araya, Mesfin; Beyero, Teferra; Medhin, Girmay; Deyassa, Negusse; Negash, Alemayehu; Nigatu, Alemayehu; Kebede, Derege

    2010-01-01

    Various infectious agents, such as Toxoplasma gondii, have been hypothesized to be potentially relevant etiological factors in the onset of some cases of schizophrenia. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment trial in an attempt to explore the hypothesis that the symptoms of schizophrenia may be related to infection of the central nervous system with toxoplasma gondii. Systematically selected patients with ongoing and at least moderately severe schizophrenia from Butajira, in rural Ethiopia, were randomly allocated to trimethoprim or placebo, which were added on to participants' regular antipsychotic treatments. Trial treatments were given for 6 months. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess outcome. Ninety-one patients were included in the study, with 80 cases (87.9%) positive for T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibody. Seventy-nine subjects (87.0%) completed the trial. The mean age of subjects was 35.3 (SD = 8.0) years, with a mean duration of illness of 13.2 (SD = 6.7) years. Both treatment groups showed significant reduction in the overall PANSS score with no significant between-group difference. In this sample of patients with chronic schizophrenia, trimethoprim used as adjuvant treatment is not superior to placebo. However, it is not possible to draw firm conclusion regarding the etiological role of toxoplasmosis on schizophrenia based on this study because the timing and the postulated mechanisms through which toxoplasmosis produces schizophrenia are variable. PMID:19193743

  14. Impacts of solids retention time on trace organic compound attenuation and bacterial resistance to trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Neyestani, Majid; Dickenson, Eric; McLain, Jean; Robleto, Eduardo; Rock, Channah; Gerrity, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Bacteria can grow in the presence of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole by expressing antibiotic resistance genes or by acquiring thymine or thymidine from environmental reservoirs to facilitate DNA synthesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether activated sludge serves as a reservoir for thymine or thymidine, potentially impacting the quantification of antibiotic resistant bacteria. This study also assessed the impacts of varying solids retention time (SRT) on trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole removal during wastewater treatment and single and multi-drug resistance. When assayed in the presence of the antibiotics at standard clinical concentrations, up to 40% increases in the relative prevalence of resistant bacteria were observed with (1) samples manually augmented with reagent-grade thymidine, (2) samples manually augmented with sonicated biomass (i.e., cell lysate), (3) samples manually augmented with activated sludge filtrate, and (4) activated sludge samples collected from reactors with longer SRTs. These observations suggest that longer SRTs may select for antibiotic resistant bacteria and/or result in false positives for antibiotic resistance due to higher concentrations of free thymine, thymidine, or other extracellular constituents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of trimethoprim in tissues using liquid chromatography-thermospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cannavan, A; Hewitt, S A; Floyd, S D; Kennedy, D G

    1997-11-01

    A method is described for the determination of the antibacterial drug trimethoprim in tissues. Minced tissue is homogenised with chloroform-acetone (1 + 1 v/v), filtered, and the filtrate evaporated to an oily residue using a rotary evaporator. The residue is redissolved in methanol-water-acetic acid (50 + 48.7 + 1.3 v/v) and any fats present are partitioned into hexane. The aqueous phase is analysed by liquid chromatography-thermospray mass spectrometry in positive mode with the protonated molecular ion at m/z 291 being monitored. Recoveries ranged between 60% in liver and 79% in muscle. The limit of determination was 25 micrograms kg-1 and the limit of detection was approximately 4 micrograms kg-1. The method is suitable for monitoring tissues taken under national surveillance schemes for veterinary drug residues.

  16. Degradation of trimethoprim by gamma irradiation in the presence of persulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhonglei; Yang, Qi; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-10-01

    The degradation and mineralization of trimethoprim (TMP) by gamma irradiation was investigated in the presence of persulfate (PS). The TMP was degraded at initial concentration of 20 mg/L in aqueous solution with addition of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mM persulfate respectively. The effect of pH values (6.5, 7.5 and 8.5) on TMP degradation was also determined. The experimental results showed that the degradation and mineralization of TMP could be significantly enhanced by persulfate at acidic condition (pH=6.5). Several intermediate products generated during gamma irradiation process through hydroxylation, demethylation and cleavage were identified using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The degradation pathway of TMP was tentatively proposed based on the identification of intermediate products.

  17. Determination of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae by Using the E Test with Mueller-Hinton Agar Supplemented with Sheep or Horse Blood May Be Unreliable

    PubMed Central

    Lovgren, M.; Dell’Acqua, L.; Palacio, R.; Echániz-Aviles, G.; Soto-Noguerón, A.; Castañeda, E.; Agudelo, C. I.; Heitmann, I.; Brandileone, M. C.; Zanella, R. C.; Rossi, A.; Pace, J.; Talbot, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    An international, multicenter study compared trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole MICs for 743 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (107 to 244 isolates per country) by E test, using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated horse blood or 5% defibrinated sheep blood, with MICs determined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards broth microdilution reference method. Agreement within 1 log2 dilution and minor error rates were 69.3 and 15.5%, respectively, on sheep blood-supplemented agar and 76.9 and 13.6%, respectively, with horse blood as the supplement. Significant interlaboratory variability was observed. E test may not be a reliable method for determining the resistance of pneumococci to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PMID:9854095

  18. Multiresidue Method for Quantification of Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim in Tilapia Fillet by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Using QuEChERS for Sample Preparation.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kátia S D; Assalin, Márcia R; Vallim, José H; Jonsson, Claudio M; Queiroz, Sonia C N; Reyes, Felix G R

    2018-01-01

    A multiresidue method for detecting and quantifying sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethoxypyridazine) and trimethoprim in tilapia fillet ( Oreochromis niloticus ) using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The sample preparation was optimized using the QuEChERS approach. The chromatographic separation was performed using a C18 column and 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as the mobile phase in the isocratic elution mode. Method validation was performed based on the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and Brazilian guideline. The validation parameters evaluated were linearity ( r  ≥ 0.99); limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), 1 ng·g -1 and 5 ng·g -1 , respectively; intraday and interdays precision (CV lower than 19.4%). The decision limit (CC α 102.6-120.0 ng·g -1 and 70 ng·g -1 for sulfonamides and trimethoprim, respectively) and detection capability (CC β 111.7-140.1 ng·g -1 and 89.9 ng·g -1 for sulfonamides and trimethoprim, respectively) were determined. Analyses of tilapia fillet samples from fish exposed to sulfamethazine through feed (incurred samples) were conducted in order to evaluate the method. This new method was demonstrated to be fast, sensitive, and suitable for monitoring sulfonamides and trimethoprim in tilapia fillet in health surveillance programs, as well as to be used in pharmacokinetics and residue depletion studies.

  19. Multiresidue Method for Quantification of Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim in Tilapia Fillet by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Using QuEChERS for Sample Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Kátia S. D.; Assalin, Márcia R.; Vallim, José H.; Jonsson, Claudio M.; Queiroz, Sonia C. N.

    2018-01-01

    A multiresidue method for detecting and quantifying sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethoxypyridazine) and trimethoprim in tilapia fillet (Oreochromis niloticus) using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The sample preparation was optimized using the QuEChERS approach. The chromatographic separation was performed using a C18 column and 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as the mobile phase in the isocratic elution mode. Method validation was performed based on the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and Brazilian guideline. The validation parameters evaluated were linearity (r ≥ 0.99); limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), 1 ng·g−1 and 5 ng·g−1, respectively; intraday and interdays precision (CV lower than 19.4%). The decision limit (CCα 102.6–120.0 ng·g−1 and 70 ng·g−1 for sulfonamides and trimethoprim, respectively) and detection capability (CCβ 111.7–140.1 ng·g−1 and 89.9 ng·g−1 for sulfonamides and trimethoprim, respectively) were determined. Analyses of tilapia fillet samples from fish exposed to sulfamethazine through feed (incurred samples) were conducted in order to evaluate the method. This new method was demonstrated to be fast, sensitive, and suitable for monitoring sulfonamides and trimethoprim in tilapia fillet in health surveillance programs, as well as to be used in pharmacokinetics and residue depletion studies. PMID:29686929

  20. Determination of sulfonamides and trimethoprim using high temperature HPLC with simultaneous temperature and solvent gradient.

    PubMed

    Giegold, Sascha; Teutenberg, Thorsten; Tuerk, Jochen; Kiffmeyer, Thekla; Wenclawiak, Bernd

    2008-10-01

    A fast HPLC method for the analysis of eight selected sulfonamides (SA) and trimethoprim has been developed with the use of high temperature HPLC. The separation could be achieved in less than 1.5 min on a 50 mm sub 2 microm column with simultaneous solvent and temperature gradient programming. Due to the lower viscosity of the mobile phase and the increased mass transfer at higher temperatures, the separation could be performed on a conventional HPLC system obtaining peak widths at half height between 0.6 and 1.3 s.

  1. New Gene Cassettes for Trimethoprim Resistance, dfr13, and Streptomycin-Spectinomycin Resistance, aadA4, Inserted on a Class 1 Integron

    PubMed Central

    Adrian, Peter V.; Thomson, Christopher J.; Klugman, Keith P.; Amyes, Sebastian G. B.

    2000-01-01

    In a previous survey of 357 trimethoprim-resistant isolates of aerobic gram-negative bacteria from commensal fecal flora, hybridization experiments showed that 25% (90 of 357) of the isolates failed to hybridize to specific oligonucleotide probes for dihydrofolate reductase types 1, 2b, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 12. Subsequent cloning and sequencing of a plasmid-borne trimethoprim resistance gene from one of these isolates revealed a new dihydrofolate reductase gene, dfr13, which occurred as a cassette integrated in a site-specific manner in a class 1 integron. The gene product shared 84% amino acid identity with dfr12 and exhibited a trimethoprim inhibition profile similar to that of dfr12. Gene probing experiments with an oligonucleotide probe specific for this gene showed that 12.3% (44 of 357) of the isolates which did not hybridize to probes for other dihydrofolate reductases hybridized to this probe. Immediately downstream of dfr13, a new cassette, an aminoglycoside resistance gene of the class AADA [ANT(3")(9)-I], which encodes streptomycin-spectinomycin resistance, was identified. This gene shares 57% identity with the consensus aadA1 (ant(3")-Ia) and has been called aadA4 (ant(3")-Id). The 3′ end of the aadA4 cassette was truncated by IS26, which was contiguous with a truncated form of Tn3. On the same plasmid, pUK2381, a second copy of IS26 was associated with sul2, which suggests that both integrase and transposase activities have played major roles in the arrangement and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes dfr13, aadA4, blaTEM-1, and sul2. PMID:10639362

  2. Simultaneous determination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in dried plasma and urine spots.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Daniel; Melloni, Chiara; Poindexter, Brenda B; Yogev, Ram; Atz, Andrew M; Sullivan, Janice E; Mendley, Susan R; Delmore, Paula; Delinsky, Amy; Zimmerman, Kanecia; Lewandowski, Andrew; Harper, Barrie; Lewis, Kenneth C; Benjamin, Daniel K; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is an antimicrobial drug combination commonly prescribed in children and adults. The study objectives were to validate and apply an HPLC-MS/MS method to quantify TMP-SMX in dried plasma spots (DPS) and dried urine spots (DUS), and perform a comparability analysis with liquid matrices. For TMP the validated range was 100-50,000 ng/ml for DPS and 500-250,000 ng/ml for DUS; for SMX, the validated range was 1000-500,000 ng/ml for both DPS and DUS. Good agreement was noted between DPS/DUS and liquid plasma and urine samples for TMP, while only modest agreement was observed for SMX in both matrices. A precise, accurate and reproducible method was developed to quantify TMP-SMX in DPS and DUS samples.

  3. A systematic and mechanistic evaluation of aspartic acid as filler for directly compressed tablets containing trimethoprim and trimethoprim aspartate.

    PubMed

    ElShaer, Amr; Hanson, Peter; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2013-04-01

    The generally accepted paradigm of 'inert' and 'mono functional' excipient in dosage form has been recently challenged with the development of individual excipients capable of exhibiting multiple functions (e.g. binder-disintegrants, surfactant which affect P-gp function). The proposed study has been designed within the realm of multifunctionality and is the first and novel investigation towards evaluation of aspartic acid as a filler and disintegration enhancing agent for the delivery of biopharmaceutical class IV model drug trimethoprim. The study investigated powder characteristics using angle of repose, laser diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared tablets were characterised using Heckel analysis, disintegration time and tensile strength measurements. Although Heckel analysis revealed that both TMP and TMP aspartate salt have high elasticity, the salt form produced a stronger compact which was attributed to the formation of agglomerates. Aspartic acid was found to have high plasticity, but its incorporation into the formulations was found to have a negative impact on the compaction properties of TMP and its salt. Surface morphology investigations showed that mechanical interlocking plays a vital role in binding TMP crystals together during compaction, while the small particle size of TMP aspartate agglomerates was found to have significant impact on the tensile strength of the tablets. The study concluded that aspartic acid can be employed as filler and disintegrant and that compactability within tablets was independent of the surface charge of the excipients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectroscopic investigation on the mechanism of formation of molecular complexes of albendazole and trimethoprim with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, K.; Balraj, C.; Satheshkumar, A.; Elango, K. P.

    2012-06-01

    UV-vis, 1H NMR, FT-IR, mass and fluorescence spectral techniques were employed to investigate the mechanism of interaction of albendazole and trimethoprim with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) and to characterize the reaction products. The interaction of DDQ with trimethoprim (TMP) and albenadazole (ALB) were found to proceed through the formation of donor-acceptor complex, containing DDQ radical anion and its conversion to the product. Fluorescence quenching studies indicated that the interaction between the donors and the acceptor are spontaneous and the interaction of TMP-DDQ (binding constant = 2.9 × 105) is found to be stronger than that the ALB-DDQ (binding constant = 3 × 103) system. Also, the binding constant increased with an increase in polarity of the medium indicating the involvement of radical anion as intermediate.

  5. Physicochemical Stability of an Oral Suspension of Trimethoprim 20 mg/mL in Combination with Sulfadiazine 200 mg/mL in PCCA Base SuspendIt.

    PubMed

    Graves, Richard A; Phan, Kelly V; Bostanian, Levon A; Mandal, Tarun K; Pramar, Yashoda V

    2017-01-01

    Trimethoprim is a diaminopyrimidine antibacterial agent that, like sulfonamides, inhibits bacterial folic acid synthesis, but at a different stage in the metabolic pathway. It has a similar spectrum of activity to the sulfonamides and is given by mouth or by injection, either alone or in conjunction with a sulfonamide, such as sulfadiazine. Sulfadiazine is a bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. The combination of the two drugs produces a synergistic effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, by inhibiting enzymes in the folic acid pathways, which in turn inhibits bacterial thymidine synthesis. There are no published studies of the stability of the combination of trimethoprim and sulfadiazine in a liquid dosage form. An extemporaneously compounded suspension from pure drug powders or commercial tablets would provide an alternative option to meet unique patient needs. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical stability of trimethoprim combined with sulfadiazine in PCCA base SuspendIt. PCCA base SuspendIt is a sugar-free, paraben-free, dye-free, and gluten-free thixotropic vehicle containing a natural sweetener obtained from the monk fruit. It thickens upon standing to minimize settling of any insoluble drug particles and becomes fluid upon shaking to allow convenient pouring during administration to the patient. A robust stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the simultaneous determination of trimethoprim and sulfadiazine in SuspendIt was developed and validated. This assay was used to determine the chemical stability of both drugs in SuspendIt. Samples were prepared and stored under three different temperature conditions (5°C, 25°C, 40°C), and assayed using the high-performance liquid chromatographic assay at pre-determined intervals over an extended period of time as follows: 0, 7, 14, 30, 45, 60, 91, 120, and 182 days

  6. A survey on head lice infestation in Korea (2001) and the therapeutic efficacy of oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole adding to lindane shampoo.

    PubMed

    Sim, Seobo; Lee, In-Yong; Lee, Kyu-Jae; Seo, Jang-Hoon; Im, Kyung-Il; Shin, Myeong Heon; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2003-03-01

    Total of 7,495 children including 3,908 boys and 3,587 girls from a kindergarten and 15 primary schools were examined for head lice infestation (HLI). The overall prevalence of HLI in this study was found to be 5.8%. Head lice were much more commonly detected in girls than in boys with prevalence of 11.2% and 0.9%, respectively. Sixty-nine children with HLI were treated with 1% lindane shampoo alone (group 1), and 45 children with HLI were treated with 1% lindane shampoo and oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (group 2), and follow-up visits were conducted 2 and 4 weeks later. The children who still had HLI 2 weeks after the primary treatment were treated again. At the 2-week follow-up visit, the treatment success rates of groups 1 and 2 were 76.8% and 86.7%, respectively, and at the 4-week follow-up visit, the rates were 91.3% and 97.8%, respectively. No statistically significant synergistic effect was observed for the combination of a 1% lindane shampoo and oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

  7. A survey on head lice infestation in Korea (2001) and the therapeutic efficacy of oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole adding to lindane shampoo

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Seobo; Lee, In-Yong; Lee, Kyu-Jae; Seo, Jang-Hoon; Im, Kyung-Il; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2003-01-01

    Total of 7,495 children including 3,908 boys and 3,587 girls from a kindergarten and 15 primary schools were examined for head lice infestation (HLI). The overall prevalence of HLI in this study was found to be 5.8%. Head lice were much more commonly detected in girls than in boys with prevalence of 11.2% and 0.9%, respectively. Sixty-nine children with HLI were treated with 1% lindane shampoo alone (group 1), and 45 children with HLI were treated with 1% lindane shampoo and oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (group 2), and follow-up visits were conducted 2 and 4 weeks later. The children who still had HLI 2 weeks after the primary treatment were treated again. At the 2-week follow-up visit, the treatment success rates of groups 1 and 2 were 76.8% and 86.7%, respectively, and at the 4-week follow-up visit, the rates were 91.3% and 97.8%, respectively. No statistically significant synergistic effect was observed for the combination of a 1% lindane shampoo and oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. PMID:12666731

  8. Distribution of sulfamonomethoxine and trimethoprim in egg yolk and white.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Božić, Đurđica; Kolanović, Božica Solomun; Varenina, Ivana; Cvetnić, Luka; Cvetnić, Željko

    2015-07-01

    The distribution of sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) and trimethoprim (TMP) in egg yolk and white was measured during and after administration of a SMM/TMP combination in laying hens in doses of 8 g l(-)(1) and 12 g l(-)(1) in drinking water for 7 days. The SMM concentration reached maximal levels on day 2 of the post-treatment period for both doses (μg kg(-)(1)): 5920 and 9453 in yolk; 4831 and 6050 in white, in doses 1 and 2, respectively. Significant differences in the SMM and TMP concentrations between yolk and white in post treatment period were found. SMM dropped below the LOD (1.9 μg kg(-1)) in yolk after day 16 and 19 for doses 1 and 2. TMP reached maximal levels on day 3 after drug administration for doses 1 and 2 (μg kg(-)(1)): 6521 and 7329 in yolk, 1370 and 1539 in white. TMP residues were measured above LOD (0.3 μg kg(-)(1)) in yolk for both doses on day 37 post-treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Interaction of 2,4-Diaminopyrimidine-Containing Drugs Including Fedratinib and Trimethoprim with Thiamine Transporters.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Marilyn M; Hao, Jia; Liang, Xiaomin; Chandrasekhar, Jayaraman; Twelves, Jolyn; Whitney, J Andrew; Lepist, Eve-Irene; Ray, Adrian S

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition of thiamine transporters has been proposed as a putative mechanism for the observation of Wernicke's encephalopathy and subsequent termination of clinical development of fedratinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor (JAKi). This study aimed to determine the potential for other JAKi to inhibit thiamine transport using human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) and thiamine transporter (THTR) overexpressing cells and to better elucidate the structural basis for interacting with THTR. Only JAKi containing a 2,4-diaminopyrimidine were observed to inhibit thiamine transporters. Fedratinib inhibited thiamine uptake into Caco-2 cells (IC 50 = 0.940 µM) and THTR-2 (IC 50 = 1.36 µM) and, to a lesser extent, THTR-1 (IC 50 = 7.10 µM) overexpressing cells. Two other JAKi containing this moiety, AZD1480 and cerdulatinib, were weaker inhibitors of the thiamine transporters. Other JAKi-including monoaminopyrimidines, such as momelotinib, and nonaminopyrimidines, such as filgotinib-did not have any inhibitory effects on thiamine transport. A pharmacophore model derived from the minimized structure of thiamine suggests that 2,4-diaminopyrimidine-containing compounds can adopt a conformation matching several key features of thiamine. Further studies with drugs containing a 2,4-diaminopyrimidine resulted in the discovery that the antibiotic trimethoprim also potently inhibits thiamine uptake mediated by THTR-1 (IC 50 = 6.84 µM) and THTR-2 (IC 50 = 5.56 µM). Fedratinib and trimethoprim were also found to be substrates for THTR, a finding with important implications for their disposition in the body. In summary, our results show that not all JAKi have the potential to inhibit thiamine transport and further establish the interaction of these transporters with xenobiotics. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Simultaneous determination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in dried plasma and urine spots

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Daniel; Melloni, Chiara; Poindexter, Brenda B; Yogev, Ram; Atz, Andrew M; Sullivan, Janice E; Mendley, Susan R; Delmore, Paula; Delinsky, Amy; Zimmerman, Kanecia; Lewandowski, Andrew; Harper, Barrie; Lewis, Kenneth C; Benjamin, Daniel K; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is an antimicrobial drug combination commonly prescribed in children and adults. The study objectives were to validate and apply an HPLC–MS/MS method to quantify TMP-SMX in dried plasma spots (DPS) and dried urine spots (DUS), and perform a comparability analysis with liquid matrices. Results: For TMP the validated range was 100–50,000 ng/ml for DPS and 500–250,000 ng/ml for DUS; for SMX, the validated range was 1000–500,000 ng/ml for both DPS and DUS. Good agreement was noted between DPS/DUS and liquid plasma and urine samples for TMP, while only modest agreement was observed for SMX in both matrices. Conclusion: A precise, accurate and reproducible method was developed to quantify TMP-SMX in DPS and DUS samples. PMID:26039810

  11. Sustained availability of trimethoprim in drinking water to achieve higher plasma sulphonamide-trimethoprim antibacterial activity in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sumano, H; Hernandez, L; Gutierrez, L; Bernad-Bernad, M J

    2005-02-01

    (1) In order to make trimethoprim (TMP) available to broilers throughout the day, a sustained release formulation (SRF) of the drug in the form of granules was added to the water tank that supplies drinking water. (2) Broilers were initially dosed with sulphachloropiridazine-TMP (SCP-TMP 5:1) and then further medicated throughout the day, achieving in the end a dose of 30 mg/kg each of SCP and TMP (group A). Group B received a preparation with the same dose of SCP and TMP (1:1) as group A, but administered as a single dose without the SRF of TMP. Group C received the customary SCP-TMP 5:1 preparation (30 and 6 mg/kg, respectively). Water tanks were completely consumed in 3 to 4 h. (3) Broilers were bled at different times and concentration of antibacterial activity in serum determined by correlating the composite antibacterial activity of SCP and TMP with actual concentrations of these drugs by means of a microbiological agar diffusion assay. (4) Time vs serum concentrations of activity were higher in group B; the increments in the maximum serum concentration for group B over groups A and C being 39 and 67%, respectively. (5) However, the sustained concentration of activity over time, measured as the area under the cu)rve, was highest in group A. Group B had higher values for area under the curve than group C. (6) An additional dose of TMP to achieve 30 mg/kg of both SCP and TMP improves the serum concentration of this combination over the customary 5:1 proportion. The best values for sustaining antibacterial activity were obtained using a 1:1 ratio as in group A. The use of a SRF as in group A may translate into better clinical results.

  12. The influence of salinity on the toxicity of selected sulfonamides and trimethoprim towards the green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Borecka, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Haliński, Łukasz P; Pazdro, Ksenia; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

    2016-05-05

    This paper presents the investigation of the influence of salinity variations on the toxicity of sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and trimethoprim towards the green algae Chlorella vulgaris after exposure times of 48 and 72 h. In freshwater the EC50 values ranged from 0.98 to 123.22 mg L(-1) depending on the compound. The obtained results revealed that sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine were the most toxic, while trimethoprim was the least toxic pharmaceutical to the selected organism. Deviations between the nominal and real test concentrations were determined via instrumental analysis to support the interpretation of ecotoxicological data. The toxicity effects were also tested in saline water (3, 6 and 9 PSU). The tendency that the toxicity of selected pharmaceuticals decreases with increasing salinity was observed. Higher salinity implies an elevated concentration of inorganic monovalent cations that are capable of binding with countercharges available on algal surfaces (hydroxyl functional groups). Hence it can reduce the permeability of pharmaceuticals through the algal cell walls, which could be the probable reason for the observed effect. Moreover, for the classification of the mode of toxic action, the toxic ratio concept was applied, which indicated that the effects of the investigated drugs towards algae are caused by the specific mode of toxic action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxidation of trimethoprim by ferrate(VI): kinetics, products, and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Anquandah, George A K; Sharma, Virender K; Knight, D Andrew; Batchu, Sudha Rani; Gardinali, Piero R

    2011-12-15

    Kinetics, stoichiometry, and products of the oxidation of trimethoprim (TMP), one of the most commonly detected antibacterial agents in surface waters and municipal wastewaters, by ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)) were determined. The pH dependent second-order rate constants of the reactions of Fe(VI) with TMP were examined using acid-base properties of Fe(VI) and TMP. The kinetics of reactions of diaminopyrimidine (DAP) and trimethoxytoluene (TMT) with Fe(VI) were also determined to understand the reactivity of Fe(VI) with TMP. Oxidation products of the reactions of Fe(VI) with TMP and DAP were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Reaction pathways of oxidation of TMP by Fe(VI) are proposed to demonstrate the cleavage of the TMP molecule to ultimately result in 3,4,5,-trimethoxybenzaldehyde and 2,4-dinitropyrimidine as among the final identified products. The oxidized products mixture exhibited no antibacterial activity against E. coli after complete consumption of TMP. Removal of TMP in the secondary effluent by Fe(VI) was achieved.

  14. MIP-graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of trimethoprim.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Hélder; Pacheco, João G; Magalhães, Júlia M C S; Viswanathan, Subramanian; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2014-02-15

    A novel sensitive electrochemical sensor was developed by electropolymerization of pyrrole (PY) and molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) which was synthesized onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) in aqueous solution using cyclic voltammetry in the presence of Trimethoprim (TMP) as template molecules. Furthermore, a previous electrode modification was performed by deposition of a suspension of graphene on the electrode's surface. The performance of the imprinted and non-imprinted (NIP) films was evaluated by impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) of a ferric solution. The molecularly imprinted film exhibited a high selectivity and sensitivity toward TMP. The sensor presented a linear range, between peak current intensity and logarithm of TMP concentration between 1.0 × 10(-6) and 1.0 × 10(-4)M. The results were accurate (with recoveries higher than 94%), precise (with standard deviations less than 5%) and the detection limit was 1.3 × 10(-7)M. The new sensor is selective, simple to construct and easy to operate. The MIP sensor was successfully applied to quantify TMP in urine samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A prospective controlled investigation of prophylactic trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in hospitalized granulocytopenic patients.

    PubMed

    Gurwith, M J; Brunton, J L; Lank, B A; Harding, G K; Ronald, A R

    1979-02-01

    Oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) therapy was investigated in the prophylaxis of infections in granulocytopenia. Hospitalized granulocytopenic patients were allocated at random to receive TMP/SMZ (group 1) or to a control group (group 2). The percentage of febrile granulocytopenic days was significantly reduced in group 1, 19 per cent compared to 39 per cent in group 2 (P less than 0.01). In group 1, there were no bacteremias in 59 episodes of granulocytopenia (909 days). In group 2, there were nine bacteremias in 52 episodes of granulocytopenia (796 days)(P = 0.001). Disseminated candidiasis developed in two patients in each group. Candida occurred in similar numbers in surveillance cultures in both groups; Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were slightly decreased, and Enterobacteriaceae resistant to TMP slightly increased in group 1. This study suggest that oral prophylactic TMP/SMZ therapy is an effective, well tolerated, easily administered alternative to "gut sterilization" with nonabsorbable antibiotics.

  16. Removal of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), gemfibrozil, carbamazepine, beta-blockers, trimethoprim and triclosan in conventional wastewater treatment plants in five EU countries and their discharge to the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Paxéus, N

    2004-01-01

    The removal of commonly used pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, carbamazepine, atenolol, metoprolol and trimethoprim) and a biocide (triclosan) in operating wastewater treatment plants in five EU countries has been studied. Under normal operating conditions the acidic drugs and triclosan were partially removed with removal rates varying from ca. 20 to >95%. The highest removal rate was found for ibuprofen and triclosan (>90%) followed by naproxen (80%), gemfibrozil (55%) and diclofenac (39%). Ibuprofen undergoes an oxidative transformation to corresponding hydroxy- and carboxy-metabolites, which contributes to its high removal rate. Disturbances in the activated sludge process resulted in lower removal rates for all acidic drugs, mostly for diclofenac (<10% removed) but also for ibuprofen (<60% removed). The treatment of wastewaters by activated sludge usually did not result in any practical removal (<10%) of neutral carbamazepine or basic atenolol, metoprolol and trimethoprim. The removal rates of the investigated drugs and triclosan are discussed in terms of mechanisms responsible for their removal. Discharges of carbamazepine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, naproxen, triclosan and trimethoprim from WWTPs to the aquatic environment, expressed as the average concentration in the effluent and the daily discharged quantity per person served by WWTPs were assessed.

  17. In vitro activities of amoxicillin-clavulanate, doxycycline, ceftazidime, imipenem, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against biofilm of Brazilian strains of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Moreira, Camila Alencar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Neto, Manoel Paiva de Araújo; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Rodrigues, Terezinha de Jesus Santos; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed at investigating the in vitro activities of amoxicillin-clavulanate, doxycycline, ceftazidime, imipenem, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against Burkholderia pseudomallei in planktonic and biofilm forms, through broth microdilution and resazurin-based viability staining, respectively. In planktonic growth, the strains were susceptible to the drugs, while in biofilm growth, significantly higher antimicrobial concentrations were required, especially for ceftazidime and imipenem, surpassing the resistance breakpoints. These results highlight the importance of the routine evaluation of biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility.

  18. Risk factors for hospital acquisition of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in adults: A matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Hsun; Lin, Jung-Chung; Chang, Feng-Yee; Yu, Ching-Mei; Lin, Wei-San; Yeh, Kuo-Ming

    2017-10-01

    The emergence of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (TSRSM) represents a serious threat to patients. The aim of current study was to identify risk factors associated with hospital-acquired TSRSM occurrence in adult inpatients. We conducted a matched case-control study in Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. From January 2014 through June 2015, case patients with TSRSM and control patients with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole susceptible S. maltophilia (TSSSM) during hospitalization were identified. Control patients were matched with TSRSM cases for age (within five years), sex, and site of isolation at a ratio of 1:1. A total of 266 patients were included in our study (133 cases and 133 matched controls). Bivariable analysis showed that previous exposure to fluoroquinolone [odds ratio (OR), 2.693; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.492-5.884; p = 0.002)], length of intensive care unit stay (OR, 1.015 per day; 95% CI, 1.001-1.030; p = 0.041), and length of hospital stay (OR, 1.012 per day; 95% CI, 1.002-1.023; p = 0.018) prior to S. maltophilia isolation were associated with TSRSM occurrence. A multivariable analysis showed that previous exposure to fluoroquinolone (OR, 3.158; 95% CI, 1.551-6.430; p = 0.002) was an independent risk factor for TSRSM occurrence after adjustment. Previous fluoroquinolone use was an independent risk factor for hospital-acquired TSRSM occurrence in adult inpatients, suggesting that judicious administration of fluoroquinolone may be important for limiting TSRSM occurrence. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Treatment of brucellosis in a young child with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Teker, Demet; Tanir, Gonul; Ozmen, Serap; Teke, Turkan Aydın; Keles, Sennur; Bostancı, Ilknur

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is a common zoonotic disease throughout the world. Brucella spp. transmit to humans through contact with fluids of infected animals, especially sheep, cattle, and goats. It is also transmitted by ingestion of fluid-derived products of infected animals, such as unpasteurized milk and cheese. Brucella spp. changes pH level of intracellular environment, so the first treatment approach is to administer antibiotics that have activity in acidic conditions. Anti-brucellosis treatment regimens include doxycycline for children older than eight years old and rifampicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) combination therapy for children under eight years old, which may be able to act intracellularly under acidic conditions. A TMP-SMX allergy causing anaphylaxis has been reported previously. No alternative anti-brucellosis treatments have been reported in the literature for patients under eight years old with a TMP-SMX allergy. Here, we report a case of a child with brucellosis and a TMP-SMX allergy who was under eight years old at the time of diagnosis and was successfully treated with rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ozonation of trimethoprim in aqueous solution: identification of reaction products and their toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Jiangmeng; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Cao, Qiming; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

    2013-05-15

    This work aimed to better understand the ozonation process of a typical antibiotic pharmaceutical, trimethoprim in aqueous solution. The parent compound was almost completely degraded with ozone dose up to 3.5 mg/L with no mineralization. Twenty one degradation products were identified using an electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Several ozonation pathways were proposed including hydroxylation, demethylation, carbonylation, deamination and methylene group cleavage. Two species of luminescent bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum and Vibrio qinghaiensis were selected to assess the toxicity of ozonation products. For P. phosphoreum, higher level of toxicity was observed compared to the parent compound, but a negligible toxicity change was observed for V. qinghaiensis, indicating different modes of action for the same water sample. This was further confirmed by quantitative structure-active relationship analysis. This work proves the dominant role of ozone rather than hydroxyl radicals in the reaction and the potential risk after ozonation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spectroscopic and spectrofluorimetric studies on the interaction of albendazole and trimethoprim with iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, K.; Elango, K. P.

    Raman, UV-vis, FT-IR, and fluorescence spectral techniques were employed to investigate the mechanism of interaction of albendazole (ALB) and trimethoprim (TMP) drugs with iodine. Interactions of ALB and TMP with iodine yields triiodide ion and its formation was confirmed by electronic and Raman spectra. The peaks appeared in Raman spectra of the isolated products are at around 145, 113 and 82 cm-1 are assigned to νas(I-I), νs(I-I) and δ(I3-) respectively, confirmed the presence of I3- ion. Formation constant (K), molar extinction coefficient (ɛ) and thermodynamic properties ΔH#, ΔS# and ΔG# were determined and discussed. Fluorescence quenching studies indicated that the interaction between the ALB, TMP with iodine are spontaneous and the TMP-iodine interaction is found to be stronger than that the other system. Solvent variation studies indicated that the binding constant increased with an increase in polarity of the medium.

  2. An Environmental Risk Assessment for Human-Use Trimethoprim in European Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Jürg Oliver

    2013-01-01

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) for the aquatic compartment in Europe from human use was developed for the old antibiotic Trimethoprim (TMP), comparing exposure and effects. The exposure assessment is based on European risk assessment default values on one hand and is refined with documented human use figures in Western Europe from IMS Health and measured removal in wastewater treatment on the other. The resulting predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) are compared with measured environmental concentrations (MECs) from Europe, based on a large dataset incorporating more than 1800 single MECs. On the effects side, available chronic ecotoxicity data from the literature were complemented by additional, new chronic results for fish and other organisms. Based on these data, chronic-based deterministic predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived as well as two different probabilistic PNEC ranges. The ERA compares surface water PECs and MECs with aquatic PNECs for TMP. Based on all the risk characterization ratios (PEC÷PNEC as well as MEC÷PNEC) and risk graphs, there is no significant risk to surface waters. PMID:27029296

  3. A case of probable trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole induced circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive small vessel vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Woodring, Therese; Abraham, Ronnie; Frisch, Stephanie

    2017-08-15

    Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) can occur as skin-limited disease or as part a systemic vasculitis. Appropriate workup includes the evaluation of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs), with a positive titer raising concern for the associated primary vasculitides including microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), or eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). In the absence of systemic findings, however, a drug etiology must also be considered. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, propylthiouracil, levamisole-adulterated cocaine, hydralazine, and minocycline have been previously documented to induce ANCA-positive vasculitis (APV), which may present with conspicuously high ANCA titers. Herein we report trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as another culprit in drug-induced APV. Our case reinforces the need to consider drug etiology for APV and cautions against interpreting positive ANCAs as equivalent to evidence of systemic disease.

  4. Green method by diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy and spectral region selection for the quantification of sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Fabiana E B; Flores, Érico M M; Parisotto, Graciele; Müller, Edson I; Ferrão, Marco F

    2016-03-01

    An alternative method for the quantification of sulphametoxazole (SMZ) and trimethoprim (TMP) using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and partial least square regression (PLS) was developed. Interval Partial Least Square (iPLS) and Synergy Partial Least Square (siPLS) were applied to select a spectral range that provided the lowest prediction error in comparison to the full-spectrum model. Fifteen commercial tablet formulations and forty-nine synthetic samples were used. The ranges of concentration considered were 400 to 900 mg g-1SMZ and 80 to 240 mg g-1 TMP. Spectral data were recorded between 600 and 4000 cm-1 with a 4 cm-1 resolution by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The proposed procedure was compared to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results obtained from the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), during the validation of the models for samples of sulphamethoxazole (SMZ) and trimethoprim (TMP) using siPLS, demonstrate that this approach is a valid technique for use in quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical formulations. The selected interval algorithm allowed building regression models with minor errors when compared to the full spectrum PLS model. A RMSEP of 13.03 mg g-1for SMZ and 4.88 mg g-1 for TMP was obtained after the selection the best spectral regions by siPLS.

  5. Topical Polymyxin-Trimethoprim Prophylaxis May Decrease the Incidence of Driveline Infections in Patients With Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Durand, Marlene L; Ennis, Stephanie C; Baker, Joshua N; Camuso, Janice M; McEachern, Kathleen M; Kotton, Camille N; Lewis, Gregory D; Garcia, Jose P; MacGillivray, Thomas E

    2017-02-01

    This retrospective cohort study evaluated the effect of topical polymyxin-trimethoprim (poly) prophylaxis on the incidence of driveline infections (DLIs) in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices. All 84 cases implanted 2005-2014 with device support ≥30 days were reviewed; support ranged 1 m-5.2 yrs. Beginning 2008, poly was applied to the exit site with dressing changes. Sixty-five patients received poly (poly group) for duration of follow-up, 19 did not (no-poly); group baseline characteristics were similar. No patient developed side effects from poly. Nineteen DLIs (10 in no-poly) occurred; not using poly was a risk factor. 89% of poly group DLIs were superficial, 4 were culture-negative. DLI-related bacteremia occurred in 11% of no-poly group and 0% of poly group. Compared with no-poly, poly group demonstrated improved freedom from DLI by Kaplan-Meier analysis (P < 0.0001) and a 75% lower overall and 95% lower deep DLI incidence (P ≤ 0.001). Deep DLIs occurred in 31.6% of no-poly vs. 1.5% of poly patients (P = 0.0004), although mean support duration (1 yr) and % support >1 yr (38%) were similar. These findings, which should be confirmed with larger comparative studies, suggest that topical polymyxin-trimethoprim prophylaxis may be effective in preventing DLIs. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Efficacy of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in experimental Escherichia coli bacteremia and meningitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, K S; Anthony, B F

    1983-01-01

    We evaluated the activity of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) against a K1 Escherichia coli strain. Minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were 0.06/1.14 and 0.25/4.75 micrograms/ml, respectively. In vivo studies using an infant rat model of bacteremia and meningitis revealed that TMP/SMZ penetrated well into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and that 37% of serum levels were achieved. The efficacy of TMP/SMZ was compared with that of ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and lamoxactam. Bacterial clearance from blood and CSF was significantly greater with TMP/SMZ than with ampicillin or chloramphenicol and mortality was significantly less than with chloramphenicol (p less than 0.01). However, 3 of 21 (14%) and 2 of 8 animals (25%) still had positive blood and CSF cultures after 3 days of treatment with TMP/SMZ. None of the survivors in the cefotaxime and lamoxactam groups were bacteremic after 1 day of therapy. Furthermore, 5 of 13 animals (38%) treated with TMP/SMZ developed meningitis during therapy, in contrast with none in the cefotaxime and lamoxactam groups. These findings indicate that although the activity of TMP/SMZ is bactericidal in vitro and in vivo against E. coli, TMP/SMZ may not provide optimal therapy for gram-negative bacillary meningitis in this model.

  7. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) prophylaxis is effective against acute murine inhalational melioidosis and glanders.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Kay B; Steward, Jackie; Thwaite, Joanne E; Lever, M Stephen; Davies, Carwyn H; Armstrong, Stuart J; Laws, Thomas R; Roughley, Neil; Harding, Sarah V; Atkins, Timothy P; Simpson, Andrew J H; Atkins, Helen S

    2013-06-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of the disease melioidosis, which is prevalent in tropical countries and is intractable to a number of antibiotics. In this study, the antibiotic co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) was assessed for the post-exposure prophylaxis of experimental infection in mice with B. pseudomallei and its close phylogenetic relative Burkholderia mallei, the causative agent of glanders. Co-trimoxazole was effective against an inhalational infection with B. pseudomallei or B. mallei. However, oral co-trimoxazole delivered twice daily did not eradicate infection when administered from 6h post exposure for 14 days or 21 days, since infected and antibiotic-treated mice succumbed to infection following relapse or immunosuppression. These data highlight the utility of co-trimoxazole for prophylaxis both of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei and the need for new approaches for the treatment of persistent bacterial infection. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytokines released from blood monocytes and expressed in mucocutaneous lesions of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis evaluated before and during trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment.

    PubMed

    Parise-Fortes, M R; Marques, S A; Soares, A M V C; Kurokawa, C S; Marques, M E A; Peracoli, M T S

    2006-04-01

    Mucocutaneous lesions in paracoccidioidomycosis are granulomatous and result from tissue responses to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the aetiological agent. In this study we investigate the expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 by immunohistochemistry in skin and mucosa lesions from patients with the chronic form of paracoccidioidomycosis, evaluated before and at day 20 of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment. Cytokine production by peripheral blood monocytes was also studied by enzyme immunoassay. Intense immunostaining for TNF-alpha was detected in mononuclear cells that infiltrated granulomas in all skin and mucosa lesions before treatment simultaneously with low IL-10 granular deposits in these cells. At day 20 of treatment, there was reduced TNF-alpha and IL-10 deposition. Immunoreactive TGF-beta1 was observed diffusely in the dermis and generally in the cytoplasm of macrophages and giant cells, before treatment, and as increased TGF-beta1 deposits in the fibrosis area at day 20 of treatment. Peripheral blood monocytes from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis, evaluated before treatment, produced high endogenous levels of TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1 and IL-10 in relation to healthy controls. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes from patients secreted lower levels of TNF-alpha in both periods of evaluation while no impairment in capacity of IL-10 and TGF-beta production was observed. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy was effective in decreasing fungal load in the lesions, allowing patient immune response to control the infection leading to the healing of the lesions.

  9. Fluorescent Trimethoprim Conjugate Probes To Assess Drug Accumulation in Wild Type and Mutant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria may result from multiple resistance mechanisms, including increased efflux pump activity or reduced porin protein expression. Up-regulation of the efflux pump system is closely associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). To help investigate the role of efflux pumps on compound accumulation, a fluorescence-based assay was developed using fluorescent derivatives of trimethoprim (TMP), a broad-spectrum synthetic antibiotic that inhibits an intracellular target, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Novel fluorescent TMP probes inhibited eDHFR activity with comparable potency to TMP, but did not kill or inhibit growth of wild type Escherichia coli. However, bactericidal activity was observed against an efflux pump deficient E. coli mutant strain (ΔtolC). A simple and quick fluorescence assay was developed to measure cellular accumulation of the TMP probe using either fluorescence spectroscopy or flow cytometry, with validation by LC-MS/MS. This fluorescence assay may provide a simple method to assess efflux pump activity with standard laboratory equipment. PMID:27737551

  10. Determinants of Quinolone versus Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Use for Outpatient Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stuck, Anna K.; Täuber, Martin G.; Schabel, Maria; Lehmann, Thomas; Suter, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Quinolones are increasingly favored over trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). This is associated with increasing resistance toward this broad-spectrum group of antibiotics. Our objective is to describe the prescribing patterns and identify determinants of the choice between TMP-SMX and quinolones for outpatient UTI treatment in Switzerland. An ongoing national Sentinel surveillance system was used to study 11,799 antibiotic prescriptions for UTI in adult outpatients and associated physician and patient factors between 2006 and 2008, to compare the prescription of quinolones versus that of TMP-SMX for treatment of UTI. Most UTI episodes were diagnosed as cystitis (90%). TMP-SMX was prescribed for one-fifth (22%) of UTIs. Independent predictors for prescribing quinolones were pyelonephritis and physicians with low thresholds for prescribing antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections (“high prescribers”), whereas female patients were more likely to receive TMP-SMX. High-prescribing physicians also more often cared for patients who themselves favor antibiotic treatment (P < 0.001). Quinolones are commonly prescribed to outpatients with UTI. Nonclinical factors influence the choice of quinolones versus TMP-SMX, which may provide opportunities for interventions to improve prescribing patterns and control quinolone resistance. PMID:22232276

  11. Comparative evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of sulfadiazine-trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin and florfenicol on Staphylococcus aureus-induced arthritis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, N; Shomali, T; Namazi, F; Marzban, M; Mohammadi, M; Boroojeni, A Motamedi

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and veterinary pathogen that causes economic loss in the poultry industry. This study aimed to compare therapeutic efficacy of 4 commonly used antibiotics in poultry on S. aureus-induced arthritis in broilers. Sixty broilers, 8 weeks of age, were assigned at random into 7 groups as follows: (1) negative control (n = 5); (2) vehicle control (n = 5); (3) sulfadiazine-trimethoprim, 250 ml/1000 l drinking water (n = 10); (4) oxytetracycline 20%, 1 mg/l drinking water (n = 10); (5) florfenicol 10%, 1/1000 v/v in drinking water (n = 10); (6) enrofloxacin 10%, 1/1000 v/v in drinking water (n = 10) and (7) positive control (n = 10). Birds in group 2 were injected with 1 ml of sterile TSB medium into the right tibiotarsal joint on d 0 while other birds (except group 1) were challenged with 1 ml of 1.2 × 10(10) CFU/ml suspension of S. aureus bacteria. Antibiotic therapy was started from d 4 post challenge and continued for 5 d. At the end, birds were weighed and clinical severity of arthritis was determined. After blood collection, birds were slaughtered and tibiotarsal and hip joints were evaluated grossly. The content of inflammatory exudates of tibiotarsal joint and the degree of femoral head necrosis were recorded. Mucin clot test and histopathological evaluation were performed on right tibiotarsal joint. Serum interleukin 6 was also assayed. Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim had higher therapeutic efficiency with regard to most of the assayed criteria, whereas none of the antibiotics significantly affected femoral head necrosis and body weight. These data will help clinicians to have better antibiotic choice in field conditions.

  12. Validation of a liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of sulfadimethoxine and trimethoprim and application to a stability study.

    PubMed

    Louati, K; Mistiri, F; Kallel, M; Safta, F

    2010-03-01

    A liquid chromatography method is described for the simultaneous determination of sulfadimetoxine and trimethoprim from a veterinary formulation at the proportion of 187 mg and 40 mg respectively in presence of some excipient. The solution was subjected to different International Conference On Harmonisation prescribed stress conditions (hydrolysis, oxidation and photolysis). A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the analysis of active substances in presence of their major degradation products. It involved a Knauer Eurospher C18 thermostated column at 25 degrees C, and 9.57 mM phosphate buffer (pH adjusted to 2.0 with orthophosphoric acid)-acetonitrile (70:30 v/v) as mobile phase. The mobile phase flow rate and sample volume injected were 1.2 mL/min and 20 microL, respectively. The selected wavelength for the determination was 248 nm. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity, and then applied to a stability study of sulfadimetoxine and trimethoprim in the veterinary solution packaged in high density polyethylene plastic bottles of 1 L and 100 mL thermosealed and no thermosealed and corked by a white cap, at both accelerated and long-term conditions required by the International Conference On Harmonisation. The method developed, which separates all of the most degradation products formed under variety of conditions, proved to be simple, accurate, precise and specific. The results of the stress degradation show that the solution is more sensitive to hydrolysis. The stability studies carried out on three batches of each presentation show that the finished product remains stable for six months. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Simultaneous in vitro and in vivo evaluation of both trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole from certain dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Meshali, M; El-Sabbagh, H; Ghanem, A; Foda, A

    1983-06-01

    The dissolution rates of trimethoprim (T), and sulphamethoxazole (S), from different brands of tablets and suspensions were studied at pH = 1.1 and 7.2. The bioavailabilities of both drugs in humans were studied by the urine excretion method. The dissolution rates were dependent on the pH of the dissolution medium, the solubilities of the drugs at the pH involved, the dosage form and the brand studied. While the dissolution rates of T from all brands studied were consistent with their pH-dependent solubility, those of S were not. The dissolution rates of S from suspensions were found to be equal at pH = 7.2, but different at pH = 1.1. A correlation existed between the dissolution rate of T at pH = 1.1 from tablets and the excretion rate in humans. With S, however, no such correlation was observed at either pH.

  14. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of tiamulin, trimethoprim, tylosin, sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine in medicated feed.

    PubMed

    Patyra, Ewelina; Nebot, Carolina; Gavilán, Rosa Elvira; Cepeda, Alberto; Kwiatek, Krzysztof

    2018-05-01

    A new multi-compound method for the analysis of veterinary drugs, namely tiamulin, trimethoprim, tylosin, sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine was developed and validated in medicated feeds. After extraction, the samples were centrifuged, diluted in Milli-Q water, filtered and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The separation of the analytes was performed on a biphenyl column with a gradient of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in Milli-Q water. Quantitative validation was done in accordance with the guidelines laid down in European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Method performances were evaluated by the following parameters: linearity (R 2  < 0.99), precision (repeatability <14% and within-laboratory reproducibility <24%), recovery (73.58-115.21%), sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), selectivity and expanded measurement uncertainty (k. = 2). The validated method was successfully applied to the 2 medicated feeds obtained from the interlaboratory studies and feed manufactures from Spain in August 2017. In these samples, tiamulin, tylosin and sulfamethazine were detected at the concentration levels declared by the manufacturers. The developed method can therefore be successfully used to routinely control the content and homogeneity of these antibacterial substances in medicated feed. Abbreviations AAFCO - Association of American Feed Control Officials; TYL - tylosin; TIAM - tiamulin fumarate; TRIM - trimethoprim; SDZ - sulfadiazine; SMZ - sulfamethazine; UV - ultraviolet detector; FLD - fluorescence detector; HPLC - high performance liquid chromatography; MS/MS - tandem mass spectrometry; LOD - limit of detection; LOQ - limit of quantification; CV - coefficient of variation; SD - standard deviation; U - uncertainty.

  15. Atovaquone versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis following renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gabardi, Steven; Millen, Peter; Hurwitz, Shelley; Martin, Spencer; Roberts, Keri; Chandraker, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) is considered the prophylactic agent-of-choice. Some patients require an alternative owing to TMP-SMZ intolerance. This is the first evaluation of full-dose atovaquone vs. TMP-SMZ for PCP prevention in RTR. One hundred and eighty-five RTR were evaluated in this single-center, retrospective analysis. Patients received either single-strength TMP-SMZ daily (group I; n = 160) or 1500 mg/d of atovaquone and of a fluoroquinolone for one month (group II; n = 25). The primary endpoint was the incidence of PCP at 12 months post-transplant. There were no cases of PCP in either group. There were comparable rates of infections from bacterial pathogens and cytomegalovirus, but rates of BK viremia were significantly higher in group I (22.5%) vs. group II (4%; p = 0.03). The incidence of leukopenia was similar in both groups. Higher mean potassium levels were seen in group I at three months post-transplant but were comparable at all other time points. The need for dose reduction and/or premature discontinuation of therapy secondary to adverse events was more prevalent in TMP-SMZ-treated patients. In our experience, atovaquone appears to be effective in preventing PCP post-renal transplant and also demonstrates good tolerability. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Urinary biomarkers of trimethoprim bioactivation in vivo following therapeutic dosing in children.

    PubMed

    van Haandel, Leon; Goldman, Jennifer L; Pearce, Robin E; Leeder, J Steven

    2014-02-17

    The antimicrobial trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is widely used for the treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections in the outpatient setting. Despite its therapeutic benefits, TMP-SMX has been associated with a number of adverse drug reactions, which have been primarily attributed to the formation of reactive metabolites from SMX. Recently, in vitro experiments have demonstrated that TMP may form reactive intermediates as well. However, evidence of TMP bioactivation in patients has not yet been demonstrated. In this study, we performed in vitro trapping experiments with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) to determine stable markers of reactive TMP intermediates, focusing on eight potential markers (NAC-TMP adducts), some of which were previously identified in vitro. We developed a specific and sensitive assay involving liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry for measurement of these adducts in human liver microsomal samples and expanded the methodology toward the detection of these analytes in human urine. Urine samples from four patients receiving TMP-SMX treatment were analyzed, and all samples demonstrated the presence of six NAC-TMP adducts, which were also detected in vitro. These adducts are consistent with the formation of imino-quinone-methide and para-quinone-methide reactive intermediates in vivo. As a result, the TMP component of TMP-SMX should be considered as well when evaluating adverse drug reactions to TMP-SMX.

  17. New insights into the transformation of trimethoprim during biological wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Kevin S; Castronovo, Sandro; Wick, Arne; Falås, Per; Joss, Adriano; Ternes, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic trimethoprim (TMP), a micropollutant found at μg/L levels in raw wastewater, was investigated with regard to its (bio)transformation during biological wastewater treatment. A pilot-scale, nitrifying/denitrifying Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) fed with municipal wastewater was monitored for TMP removal during a 16-month monitoring study. Laboratory-scaled bioreactors spiked with TMP were applied to identify the transformation products (TPs). In total, six TPs could be identified from TMP. However, the TP formation was influenced by the spike concentration. At an initial concentration of 500 μg/L TMP, only two TPs were found, whereas at 5 μg/L a completely different transformation pathway led to four further TPs. At low concentrations, TMP was demethylated forming 4-desmethyl-TMP, which was then quickly hydroxylated, oxidized and cleaved forming 2,4-diaminopyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid (DAPC) via two intermediate TPs. DAPC was detected in the SBR effluent in a 3-d composite sample with 61 ng/L, which accounts for 52% of the attenuated TMP. The primary degradation at low spiking levels was best modelled by a pseudo-first order kinetic. Considering the SBR, the model predicted a TMP removal of 88-94% for the reactor, consistent with a monitoring campaign exhibiting an average removal of >83%. Both the TP formation profiles and kinetic modelling indicated that only the results from the bioreactor tests at low spike concentrations were representative of the transformation in the SBR. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. A confirmatory method for the simultaneous extraction, separation, identification and quantification of Tetracycline, Sulphonamide, Trimethoprim and Dapsone residues in muscle by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Mark; Mannion, Celine; Rafter, Paul

    2009-11-13

    A rapid confirmatory multi-residue method for the analysis of tetracyclines, sulphonamides, trimethoprim and dapsone by UPLC-MS/MS is described. The method is able to quantify and confirm the following 19 compounds, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, trimethoprim, sulfamerazine, sulfamethizole, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfachlorpyridazine, dapsone, sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfaquinoxaline and sulfadimethoxine. Samples are extracted with 0.1M EDTA and acetonitrile, which is then evaporated under a stream of nitrogen and reconstituted in water. Following centrifugation and filtering, an aliquot is analysed by UPLC-MS/MS using positive electrospray ionisation and multiple reaction monitoring. The method is deemed rapid as all analytes are extracted by a single extraction technique, with no solid-phase extraction clean up required. Validation is according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and was carried out for bovine, porcine, ovine and poultry species. Specificity, recovery, repeatability, reproducibility, CCalpha and CCbeta data is presented.

  19. Determination of sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, and N(4) -acetyl-sulfadiazine in fish muscle plus skin by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Withdrawal-time calculation after in-feed administration in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) fed two different diets.

    PubMed

    Zonaras, V; Tyrpenou, A; Alexis, M; Koupparis, M

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a depletion study for sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in muscle plus skin of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). N(4) -acetyl-sulfadiazine, the main metabolite of sulfadiazine (SDZ), was also examined. The fish were held in seawater at a temperature of 24-26 °C. SDZ and trimethoprim (TMP) were administered orally with medicated feed for five consecutive days at daily doses of 25 mg SDZ and 5 mg TMP per kg of fish body weight per day. Two different diets, fish oil- and plant oil-based diets, were investigated. Ten fish were sampled at each of the days 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12 after the start of veterinary medicine administration. However for the calculation of the withdrawal periods, sampling day 1 was set as 24 h after the last dose of the treatment. Fish samples were analyzed for SDZ, TMP, and acetyl-sulfadiazine (AcSDZ) residues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. SDZ and TMP concentrations declined rapidly from muscle plus skin. Considering a maximum residue limit of 100 μg/kg for the total of sulfonamides and 50 μg/kg for TMP residues in fish muscle plus skin, the withdrawal periods of the premix trimethoprim-sulfadiazine 50% were calculated as 5 and 6 days, at 24-26 °C, in fish oil (FO) and plant oil (PO) groups, respectively. The investigation of this work is important to protect consumers by controlling the undesirable residues in fish. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Multiresidue determination of fluoroquinolone, sulfonamide, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol antibiotics in urban waters in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xianzhi; Tan, Jianhua; Tang, Caiming; Yu, Yiyi; Wang, Zhendi

    2008-01-01

    A feasible method has been optimized to simultaneously determine multiclass antibiotic residues, including sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol in urban riverine water and wastewater by off-line solid phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode-array ultraviolet detector and a fluorescence detector. Internal standard and standard addition methods were used in combination to identify and quantify these antibiotics to compensate for the matrix interference. The method quantification limits (MQLs) were determined to be 0.035 to 0.100 microg/L and 0.100 to 0.300 microg/L for the riverine water and wastewater, respectively. Recoveries of the investigated antibiotics ranged from 63 to 126%. Sulfamethoxazole was the most frequently detected antibiotic residue in Guangzhou section of the Major Pearl River, South China, with a maximum level of 0.510 microg/L. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics were relatively less detected with a maximum level of 0.459 microg/L. The maximum concentration of sulfamethoxazole reached 5.597 microg/L in the raw wastewater from a large-scale sewage treatment plant in Guangzhou city. Around 30% of sulfamethoxazole might survive the primary clarification and biotreatment processes in the sewage treatment plant. None of the investigated antibiotics have been found above MQLs in the final effluent after chlorine disinfection.

  1. A study of equilibrium and FTIR, SEM/EDS analysis of trimethoprim adsorption onto K10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekçi, Zehra; Seki, Yoldaş; Kadir Yurdakoç, M.

    2007-02-01

    The sorption behavior of K10, a type of montmorillonite for trimethoprim (TMP) drug, was studied by using batch technique under different pH and temperature. The interaction between K10 and TMP was investigated using SEM, and FTIR. It was observed that adsorption was increased between pH 2.5 and 6.3. By performing kinetic experiments, the pseudo-second-order kinetic model provides the best fit for TMP adsorption onto K10 montmorillonite. The sorption of TMP reached the equilibrium state after 6 h sorption time and has been described by using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations to obtain adsorption capacity values. The results indicate that the relative adsorption capacity values ( Kf) are decreasing with the increase of temperature in the range of 298-318 K. The sorption energy values obtained from DR isotherm show that sorption of TMP onto K10 can be explained by ion exchange mechanism at 298, 308 and 318 K. The thermodynamic studies were conducted to find the thermodynamic parameters Δ H°, Δ S° and Δ G°. It was determined that adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic in nature.

  2. Validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of sulfonamides, trimethoprim and dapsone in muscle, egg, milk and honey.

    PubMed

    Varenina, Ivana; Bilandžić, Nina; Kolanović, Božica Solomun; Božić, Đurđica; Sedak, Marija; Đokić, Maja; Varga, Ines

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative multi-residue method that includes 13 sulfonamides, trimethoprim and dapsone was developed and validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for muscle, milk egg and honey samples. For all matrices, the same extraction procedure was used. Samples were extracted with an acetone/dichloromethane mixture and cleaned up on aromatic sulfonic acid (SO3H) SPE cartridges. After elution and concentration steps, analytes were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Data were acquired according to the multiple reaction-monitoring approach (MRM) and analytes were quantified both by the isotope dilution and the matrix-matched approaches calculating the response factors for the scanned product ions. The developed method shows good linearity, specificity, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility), and trueness. Estimated CCβ for sulfonamides ranged between 5.6 and 8.2 µg kg(-1) for eggs, between 11.1 and 69.9 µg kg(-1) for milk, between 64.7 and 87.9 µg kg(-1) for muscle, and between 2.7 and 5.3 µg kg(-1) for honey. CCβ values for dapsone were 3.1, 0.6, 0.7 and 1.5 µg kg(-1) and for trimethoprim were 3.1, 6.7, 81.7 and 3.0 µg kg(-1) calculated for eggs, milk, muscle and honey, respectively. Recovery for all matrices was in the range from 89.1% and 109.7%. In matrix effect testing, no significant deviations were found between different samples of muscle and milk; however, a matrix effect was observed when testing different types of honey. The validation results demonstrate that the method is suitable for routine veterinary drug analysis and confirmation of suspect samples.

  3. A Case of Pneumonia Caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii Resistant to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Min; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sung, Yon Mi; Chung, Dong Hae; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Park, Jeong-Woong; Lee, Sang Pyo

    2015-06-01

    A 50-year-old male visited the outpatient clinic and complained of fever, poor oral intake, and weight loss. A chest X-ray demonstrated streaky and fibrotic lesions in both lungs, and chest CT revealed multifocal peribronchial patchy ground-glass opacities with septated cystic lesions in both lungs. Cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed lymphocyte-dominant leukocytosis, and further analysis of lymphocyte subsets showed a predominance of cytotoxic T cells and few T helper cells. Video-assisted wedge resection of the left upper lobe was performed, and the histologic examination was indicative of a Pneumocystis jirovecii infection. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was orally administered for 3 weeks; however, the patient complained of cough, and the pneumonia was aggravated in the follow-up chest X-ray and chest CT. Molecular studies demonstrated mutations at codons 55 and 57 of the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene, which is associated with the resistance to TMP-SMX. Clindamycin-primaquine was subsequently administered for 3 weeks replacing the TMP-SMX. A follow-up chest X-ray showed that the pneumonia was resolving, and the cough was also alleviated. A positive result of HIV immunoassay and elevated titer of HCV RNA indicated HIV infection as an underlying condition. This case highlights the importance of careful monitoring of patients with P. jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) during the course of treatment, and the molecular study of DHPS mutations. Additionally, altering the anti-PCP drug utilized as treatment must be considered when infection with drug-resistant P. jirovecii is suspected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of TMP-SMX-resistant PCP described in Korea.

  4. EFFECT OF TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXIS ON FAECAL CARRIAGE RATES OF RESISTANT ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI IN HIV-INFECTED ADULT PATIENTS IN LAGOS.

    PubMed

    Egwuatu, C C; Iwuafor, A A; Egwuatu, T O; Akujobi, C N; Nnachi, A U; Aghanya, I N; Ogunsola, F T; Oduyebo, O O

    2016-01-01

    The daily use of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis reduces morbidity and mortality among patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) but its impact on increasing antimicrobial resistance rates has been of public concern globally. This study investigated the effect of daily TMP-SMX prophylaxis on faecal carriage rates of resistant isolates of Escherichia coli in HIV-infected adult patients in Lagos. A total of 550 HIV-infected patients with CD4-cell count of less than 350 cell/mm 3 and were eligible for TMP-SMX prophylaxis attending Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, were recruited. Stool/rectal swab samples were aseptically collected from the patients and processed using standard methods for culture and sensitivity. There was a baseline Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole resistance rate of 54% which increased to 77.9% in first 3 months, rising to 96.1% by 6 months and all isolates were resistant by the 9th month. There was also evidence of cross-resistance to other antibiotics with significant association with TMP-SMX resistance (p<0.0001). The Escherichia coli isolates showed a progressive increase in resistance to the tested antibiotics over the 12-month period. The resistance was in the following order: Ampicillin (74% to 82.6% in the first 3 months; 98.3% by the 6th month and 99.4% by the 9th month; all isolates were resistant by the 12th month). Augmentin (32.5% to 47.7% in first 3 months; 76.1% by the 6th month; 86.3% by the 9th month; all isolates were resistant by 12 months). Ceftriaxone (2.0% to 10.8% in first 3 months; 20.6% by the 6th month; 24.2% by the 9th month; 54.3% by the 12 months). The carriage rate of faecal E. coli resistant to TMP-SMX is common before TMP-SMX prophylaxis. Initiation of TMP-SMX leads to further increase in resistance to TMP-SMX and cross-resistance to other antimicrobials.

  5. Efficient mineralization of the antibiotic trimethoprim by solar assisted photoelectro-Fenton process driven by a photovoltaic cell.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyu; Wang, Aimin; Tian, Xiujun; Wen, Zhenjun; Lv, Hanjiao; Li, Desheng; Li, Jiuyi

    2016-11-15

    In this study, a novel self-sustainable solar assisted photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) system driven by a solar photovoltaic cell was developed for the efficient mineralization of antibiotic trimethoprim (TMP) in water. A comparative degradation of 200mgL(-1) TMP by RuO2/Ti anodic oxidation (AO), anodic oxidation with H2O2 electrogeneration (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and SPEF was investigated. SPEF was proved to exhibit the highest oxidation power, i.e., more than 80% TOC was removed after 360min SPEF treatment of 200mgL(-1) of TMP under optimal conditions at pH 3.0, 1.0mM Fe(2+) and 18mAcm(-2). Influences of current density, pH, initial Fe(2+) and initial TMP concentration on SPEF process were also studied. Ten aromatic intermediates generated from hydroxylation, carbonylation and demethylation reactions were identified using UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS system during the SPEF treatment, together with three carboxylic acids (oxamic, oxalic and formic acids) and two inorganic ions (NH4(+) and NO3(-)) measured. Therefore, a reasonable pathway of TMP degradation in SPEF process was proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk Factors for Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Resistance in Patients with Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis▿

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, Richard; Johnson, James R.; Kuskowski, Michael; Gupta, Kalpana

    2008-01-01

    Emerging antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens makes the management of acute uncomplicated cystitis increasingly challenging. Few prospective data are available on the risk factors for resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), the drug of choice in most settings. In order to evaluate this, we prospectively enrolled women 18 to 50 years of age presenting to an urban primary care practice with symptoms of cystitis. Potentially eligible women provided a urine sample for culture and completed a questionnaire regarding putative risk factors for TMP-SMX resistance. Escherichia coli isolates were tested for clonal group A (CGA) membership by a fumC-specific PCR. Of 165 women with cystitis symptoms, 103 had a positive urine culture and were eligible for participation. E. coli was the predominant uropathogen (86%). Fifteen (14.6%) women had a TMP-SMX-resistant (TMP-SMXr) organism (all of which were E. coli). Compared with the women who had a TMP-SMX-susceptible organism, women in the TMP-SMXr group were more likely to have traveled (odds ratio [OR], 15.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4 to 54.3; P < 0.001) and to be Asian (OR, 6.1; 95% CI, 1.0 to 36.4; P = 0.048). CGA was also independently associated with TMP-SMX resistance (OR, 105; 95% CI, 6.3 to 1,777.6; P = 0.001). No association with TMP-SMX resistance was demonstrated for the use of either TMP-SMX or another antibiotic in the past 3 months or with having a child in day care. Among these women with acute uncomplicated cystitis, Asian race and recent travel were independently associated with TMP-SMX resistance. TMP-SMXr isolates were more likely to belong to CGA. Knowledge of these risk factors for TMP-SMX resistance could facilitate the accurate selection of empirical therapy. PMID:18086847

  7. Derivative spectrum chromatographic method for the determination of trimethoprim in honey samples using an on-line solid-phase extraction technique.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Kazuhisa; Kondo, Mari; Yokochi, Rika; Takeuchi, Yuri; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2011-07-01

    A simple, selective and rapid analytical method for determination of trimethoprim (TMP) in honey samples was developed and validated. This method is based on a SPE technique followed by HPLC with photodiode array detection. After dilution and filtration, aliquots of 500 μL honey samples were directly injected to an on-line SPE HPLC system. TMP was extracted on an RP SPE column, and separated on a hydrophilic interaction chromatography column during HPLC analysis. At the first detection step, the noise level of the photodiode array data was reduced with two-dimensional equalizer filtering, and then the smoothed data were subjected to derivative spectrum chromatography. On the second-derivative chromatogram at 254 nm, the limit of detection and the limit of quantification of TMP in a honey sample were 5 and 10 ng/g, respectively. The proposed method showed high accuracy (60-103%) with adequate sensitivity for TMP monitoring in honey samples. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Environmentally realistic concentrations of the antibiotic Trimethoprim affect haemocyte parameters but not antioxidant enzyme activities in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; De Notaris, Chiara; Finos, Livio; Filippini, Raffaella; Piovan, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Several biomarkers were measured to evaluate the effects of Trimethoprim (TMP; 300, 600 and 900 ng/L) in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure for 1, 3 and 7 days. The actual TMP concentrations were also measured in the experimental tanks. The total haemocyte count significantly increased in 7 day-exposed clams, whereas alterations in haemocyte volume were observed after 1 and 3 days of exposure. Haemocyte proliferation was increased significantly in animals exposed for 1 and 7 days, whereas haemocyte lysate lysozyme activity decreased significantly after 1 and 3 days. In addition, TMP significantly increased haemolymph lactate dehydrogenase activity after 3 and 7 days. Regarding antioxidant enzymes, only a significant time-dependent effect on CAT activity was recorded. This study demonstrated that environmentally realistic concentrations of TMP affect haemocyte parameters in clams, suggesting that haemocytes are a useful cellular model for the assessment of the impact of TMP on bivalves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. UV-Vis spectroscopic study and DFT calculation on the solvent effect of trimethoprim in neat solvents and aqueous mixtures.

    PubMed

    Almandoz, M C; Sancho, M I; Duchowicz, P R; Blanco, S E

    2014-08-14

    The solvatochromic behavior of trimethoprim (TMP) was analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy and DFT methods in neat and binary aqueous solvent mixtures. The effects of solvent dipolarity/polarizability and solvent-solute hydrogen bonding interactions on the absorption maxima were evaluated by means of the linear solvation energy relationship concept of Kamlet and Taft. This analysis indicated that both interactions play an important role in the position of the absorption maxima in neat solvents. The simulated absorption spectra of TMP and TMP:(solvent)n complexes in ACN and H2O using TD-DFT methods were in agreement with the experimental ones. Binary aqueous mixtures containing as co-solvents DMSO, ACN and EtOH were studied. Preferential solvation was detected as a nonideal behavior of the wavenumber curve respective to the analytical mole fraction of co-solvent in all binary systems. TMP molecules were preferentially solvated by the organic solvent over the whole composition range. Index of preferential solvation, as well as the influence of solvent parameters were calculated as a function of solvent composition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Crystal Structures of Wild-type and Mutant Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Dihydrofolate Reductase Reveal an Alternative Conformation of NADPH that may be Linked to Trimethoprim Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, K.; Liu, J; Lombardo, M

    2009-01-01

    Both hospital- and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections have become major health concerns in terms of morbidity, suffering and cost. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) is an alternative treatment for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections. However, TMP-resistant strains have arisen with point mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), the target for TMP. A single point mutation, F98Y, has been shown biochemically to confer the majority of this resistance to TMP. Using a structure-based approach, we have designed a series of novel propargyl-linked DHFR inhibitors that are active against several trimethoprim-resistant enzymes. We screened this series against wild-type and mutant (F98Y) S. aureus DHFR and foundmore » that several are active against both enzymes and specifically that the meta-biphenyl class of these inhibitors is the most potent. In order to understand the structural basis of this potency, we determined eight high-resolution crystal structures: four each of the wild-type and mutant DHFR enzymes bound to various propargyl-linked DHFR inhibitors. In addition to explaining the structure-activity relationships, several of the structures reveal a novel conformation for the cofactor, NADPH. In this new conformation that is predominantly associated with the mutant enzyme, the nicotinamide ring is displaced from its conserved location and three water molecules complete a network of hydrogen bonds between the nicotinamide ring and the protein. In this new position, NADPH has reduced interactions with the inhibitor. An equilibrium between the two conformations of NADPH, implied by their occupancies in the eight crystal structures, is influenced both by the ligand and the F98Y mutation. The mutation induced equilibrium between two NADPH-binding conformations may contribute to decrease TMP binding and thus may be responsible for TMP resistance.« less

  11. Comparison of multi-recognition molecularly imprinted polymers for recognition of melamine, cyromazine, triamterene, and trimethoprim.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Peng, Chao; Dong, Qian; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2015-09-01

    Three fragmental templates, including 2,4-diamino-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine (DMT), cyromazine (CYR), and trimethoprim (TME), were used to prepare the fragment molecularly imprinted polymers (FMIPs), respectively, in polar ternary porogen which was composed of ionic liquid ([BMIM]BF4), methanol, and water. The morphology, specific surface areas, and selectivity of the obtained FMIPs for fragmental analogues were systematically characterized. The experimental results showed that the FMIPs possessed the best specific recognition ability to the relative template and the greatest imprinting factor (IF) was 5.25, 6.69, and 7.11 of DMT on DMT-MIPs, CYR on CYR-MIPs, and TME on TME-MIPs, respectively. In addition, DMT-MIPs also showed excellent recognition capability for fragmental analogues including CYR, melamine (MEL), triamterene (TAT), and TME, and the IFs were 2.08, 3.89, 2.18, and 2.60, respectively. The effects of pH and temperature on the retention of the fragmental and structural analogues were studied in detail. Van't Hoff analysis indicated that the retention and selectivity on FMIPs were an entropy-driven process, i.e., steric interaction. The resulting DMT-MIPs were used as a solid-phase extraction material to enrich CYR, MEL, TAT, and TME in different bio-matrix samples for high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The developed method had acceptable recoveries (86.8-98.6%, n = 3) and precision (2.7-4.6%) at three spiked levels (0.05-0.5 μg g(-1)).

  12. Development and validation of an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Esin; Sahin, Selma; Cevheroglu, Semsettin; Hincal, A Atilla

    2010-09-01

    The combination of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is used in the treatment of many common infections such as urinary, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine TMP and SMX simultaneously in human plasma samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using antipyrine as the internal standard. Separation of the compounds was achieved on a reverse-phase C8 column packed with 5 microm dimethyl octadecylsilyl bonded amorphous silica (4.6 mm x 250 mm) column using a mobile phase consisted of potassium hydrogen phosphate, acetonitrile, methanol and water adjusted to pH 6.2. The mobile phase was delivered at a flow rate of 1 mL min- and the effluent was monitored using Max plot technique at 25 derees C. Retention times were 5 min for TMP, 7 min for antipyrine and 9 min for SMX. Quantitation limits were 10 ng mL(-1) for TMP and 50 ng mL(-1) for SMX. Our findings indicated that the developed HPLC method was precise, accurate, specific and sensitive for simultaneous determination of TMP and SMX. Proposed HPLC method was successfully applied for the analysis of TMP and SMX in human plasma after oral administration of a co-trimoxazole tablet to human volunteers.

  13. Advanced oxidation of real sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim formulations using different anodes and electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Sierra, Juan C; Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric; Ruiz-Ruiz, Edgar J; Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely

    2018-02-01

    A commercial sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim formulation has been degraded in 0.050 M Na 2 SO 4 at pH 3.0 by electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H 2 O 2 (EO-H 2 O 2 ), electro-Fenton (EF), photoelectro-Fenton with a 6-W UVA lamp (PEF) and solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF). The tests were performed in an undivided cell with an IrO 2 -based, Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode for H 2 O 2 electrogeneration. The anode material had little effect on the accumulated H 2 O 2 concentration. Both drugs always obeyed a pseudo-first-order decay with low apparent rate constant in EO-H 2 O 2 . Much higher values were found in EF, PEF and SPEF, showing no difference because the main oxidant was always OH formed from Fenton's reaction between H 2 O 2 and added Fe 2+ . The solution mineralization increased in the sequence EO-H 2 O 2  < EF < PEF < SPEF regardless of the anode. The IrO 2 -based and Pt anodes behaved similarly but BDD was always more powerful. In SPEF, similar mineralization profiles were found for all anodes because of the rapid removal of photoactive intermediates by sunlight. About 87% mineralization was obtained as maximum for the powerful SPEF with BDD anode. Addition of Cl - enhanced the decay of both drugs due to their quicker reaction with generated active chlorine, but the formation of persistent chloroderivatives decelerated the mineralization process. Final carboxylic acids like oxalic and oxamic were detected, yielding Fe(III) complexes that remained stable in EF with BDD but were rapidly photolyzed in SPEF with BDD, explaining its superior mineralization ability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of sulfonamides, trimethoprim and dapsone in honey and validation according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for banned compounds [corrected].

    PubMed

    Economou, Anastasios; Petraki, Olympia; Tsipi, Despina; Botitsi, Eleni

    2012-08-15

    This work reports a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for identification and quantification of seven sulfonamides, trimethoprim and dapsone in honey. The method is based on a solid-phase extraction (SPE) step of the target analytes with Oasis HLB cartridges after acidic hydrolysis of the honey sample to liberate the sugar-bound sulfonamides. Analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the positive electro-spray ionization (ESI) mode with two different isotopically labeled internal standards with the view to improve the quantitative performance of the method. The method validation has been performed according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC; the average recoveries, measured at three concentration levels (1.5, 2.5 and 5.0 μg kg(-1)), have been estimated in the range 70 to 106% while the respective % relative standard deviations of the within-laboratory reproducibility ranged from 6 to 18%. Mean values of the expanded uncertainties calculated were in the range 22-41% at the 99% confidence level. Decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) values were in the ranges 0.4-0.9 and 0.7-1.4 μg kg(-1), respectively. Matrix effects have been investigated demonstrating a moderate signal suppression/enhancement for most of the target compounds. The method described has been successfully applied to the analysis of honey samples; sulfamethoxazole, sulfathiazole and trimethoprim were detected in some cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole-Induced Severe Lactic Acidosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Bulathsinghala, Marie; Keefer, Kimberly; Van de Louw, Andry

    2016-04-01

    Propylene glycol (PG) is used as a solvent in numerous medications, including trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) and lorazepam, and is metabolized in the liver to lactic acid. Cases of lactic acidosis related to PG toxicity have been described and always involved large doses of benzodiazepines and PG. We present the first case of severe lactic acidosis after a 3-day course of TMP/SMX alone, involving allegedly safe amounts of PG.A 31-year-old female with neurofibromatosis and pilocytic astrocytoma, receiving temozolomide and steroids, was admitted to the intensive care unit for pneumonia and acute respiratory failure requiring intubation. Her initial hemodynamic and acid-base statuses were normal. She was treated with intravenous TMP/SMX for possible Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and was successfully extubated on day 2. On day 3, she developed tachypnea and arterial blood gas analysis revealed a severe metabolic acidosis (pH 7.2, PCO2 19 mm Hg, bicarbonates 8 mEq/L) with anion gap of 25 mEq/L and lactate of 12.1 mmol/L. TMP/SMX was discontinued and the lactate decreased to 2.9 mmol/L within 24 hours while her plasma bicarbonates normalized, without additional intervention. The patient never developed hypotension or severe hypoxia, and her renal and liver functions were normal. No other cause for lactic acidosis was identified and it resolved after TMP/SMX cessation alone, suggesting PG toxicity.Although PG-related lactic acidosis is well recognized after large doses of lorazepam, clinicians should bear in mind that TMP/SMX contains PG as well and should suspect PG toxicity in patients developing unexplained metabolic acidosis while receiving TMP/SMX.

  16. An Escherichia coli Strain, PGB01, Isolated from Feral Pigeon Faeces, Thermally Fit to Survive in Pigeon, Shows High Level Resistance to Trimethoprim

    PubMed Central

    Kachhap, Sangita; Nanda, Ashis Kumar; Chakraborty, Ranadhir

    2015-01-01

    In this study, of the hundred Escherichia coli strains isolated from feral Pigeon faeces, eighty five strains were resistant to one or more antibiotics and fifteen sensitive to all the antibiotics tested. The only strain (among all antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates) that possessed class 1 integron was PGB01. The dihydrofolate reductase gene of the said integron was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli JM109. Since PGB01 was native to pigeon’s gut, we have compared the growth of PGB01 at two different temperatures, 42°C (normal body temperature of pigeon) and 37°C (optimal growth temperature of E. coli; also the human body temperature), with E. coli K12. It was found that PGB01 grew better than the laboratory strain E. coli K12 at 37°C as well as at 42°C. In the thermal fitness assay, it was observed that the cells of PGB01 were better adapted to 42°C, resembling the average body temperature of pigeon. The strain PGB01 also sustained more microwave mediated thermal stress than E. coli K12 cells. The NMR spectra of the whole cells of PGB01 varied from E. coli K12 in several spectral peaks relating some metabolic adaptation to thermotolerance. On elevating the growth temperature from 37°C to 42°C, susceptibility to kanamycin (both strains were sensitive to it) of E. coli K12 was increased, but in case of PGB01 no change in susceptibility took place. We have also attempted to reveal the basis of trimethoprim resistance phenotype conferred by the dfrA7 gene homologue of PGB01. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation study of docked complexes, PGB01-DfrA7 and E. coli TMP-sensitive-Dfr with trimethoprim (TMP) showed loss of some of the hydrogen and hydrophobic interaction between TMP and mutated residues in PGB01-DfrA7-TMP complex compared to TMP-sensitive-Dfr-TMP complex. This loss of interaction entails decrease in affinity of TMP for PGB01-DfrA7 compared to TMP-sensitive-Dfr. PMID:25750990

  17. An Escherichia coli strain, PGB01, isolated from feral pigeon Faeces, thermally fit to survive in pigeon, shows high level resistance to trimethoprim.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Tiwary, Bipransh Kumar; Kachhap, Sangita; Nanda, Ashis Kumar; Chakraborty, Ranadhir

    2015-01-01

    In this study, of the hundred Escherichia coli strains isolated from feral Pigeon faeces, eighty five strains were resistant to one or more antibiotics and fifteen sensitive to all the antibiotics tested. The only strain (among all antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates) that possessed class 1 integron was PGB01. The dihydrofolate reductase gene of the said integron was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli JM109. Since PGB01 was native to pigeon's gut, we have compared the growth of PGB01 at two different temperatures, 42°C (normal body temperature of pigeon) and 37°C (optimal growth temperature of E. coli; also the human body temperature), with E. coli K12. It was found that PGB01 grew better than the laboratory strain E. coli K12 at 37°C as well as at 42°C. In the thermal fitness assay, it was observed that the cells of PGB01 were better adapted to 42°C, resembling the average body temperature of pigeon. The strain PGB01 also sustained more microwave mediated thermal stress than E. coli K12 cells. The NMR spectra of the whole cells of PGB01 varied from E. coli K12 in several spectral peaks relating some metabolic adaptation to thermotolerance. On elevating the growth temperature from 37°C to 42°C, susceptibility to kanamycin (both strains were sensitive to it) of E. coli K12 was increased, but in case of PGB01 no change in susceptibility took place. We have also attempted to reveal the basis of trimethoprim resistance phenotype conferred by the dfrA7 gene homologue of PGB01. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation study of docked complexes, PGB01-DfrA7 and E. coli TMP-sensitive-Dfr with trimethoprim (TMP) showed loss of some of the hydrogen and hydrophobic interaction between TMP and mutated residues in PGB01-DfrA7-TMP complex compared to TMP-sensitive-Dfr-TMP complex. This loss of interaction entails decrease in affinity of TMP for PGB01-DfrA7 compared to TMP-sensitive-Dfr.

  18. Solar photocatalytic treatment of trimethoprim in four environmental matrices at a pilot scale: transformation products and ecotoxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Osorio, V; Perez, S; Petrovic, M; Zapata, A; Malato, S; Barceló, D; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2012-07-15

    The pilot-scale solar degradation of trimethoprim (TMP) in different water matrices (demineralized water: DW, simulated natural freshwater: SW; simulated wastewater: SWW; and real effluent: RE) was investigated in this study. DOC removal was lower in the case of SW compared to DW, which can be attributed to the presence of inorganic anions which may act as scavengers of the HO·. Furthermore, the presence of organic carbon and higher salt content in SWW and RE led to lower mineralization per dose of hydrogen peroxide compared to DW and SW. Toxicity assays in SWW and RE were also performed indicating that toxicity is attributed to the compounds present in RE and their by-products formed during solar Fenton treatment and not to the intermediates formed by the oxidation of TMP. A large number of compounds generated by the photocatalytic transformation of TMP were identified by UPLC-QToF/MS. The degradation pathway revealed differences among the four matrices; however hydroxylation, demethylation and cleavage reactions were observed in all matrices. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that TMP degradation products have been identified by adopting a solar Fenton process at a pilot-scale set-up, using four different aqueous matrices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Chlorogenic Acid against Clinical Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia including the Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Resistant Strain

    PubMed Central

    Karunanidhi, Arunkumar; Thomas, Renjan; van Belkum, Alex; Neela, Vasanthakumari

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of chlorogenic acid against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was investigated through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill and biofilm assays. A total of 9 clinical S. maltophilia isolates including one isolate resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) were tested. The inhibition zone sizes for the isolates ranged from 17 to 29 mm, while the MIC and MBC values ranged from 8 to 16 μg mL−1 and 16 to 32 μg mL−1. Chlorogenic acid appeared to be strongly bactericidal at 4x MIC, with a 2-log reduction in viable bacteria at 10 h. In vitro antibiofilm testing showed a 4-fold reduction in biofilm viability at 4x MIC compared to 1x MIC values (0.085 < 0.397 A 490 nm) of chlorogenic acid. The data from this study support the notion that the chlorogenic acid has promising in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against S. maltophilia. PMID:23509719

  20. Synthesis of trimethoprim metal complexes: Spectral, electrochemical, thermal, DNA-binding and surface morphology studies.

    PubMed

    Demirezen, Nihat; Tarınç, Derya; Polat, Duygu; Ceşme, Mustafa; Gölcü, Ayşegül; Tümer, Mehmet

    2012-08-01

    Complexes of trimethoprim (TMP), with Cu(II), Zn(II), Pt(II), Ru(III) and Fe(III) have been synthesized. Then, these complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic techniques involving UV-vis, IR, mass and (1)H NMR. CHN elemental analysis, electrochemical and thermal behavior of complexes have also been investigated. The electrochemical properties of all complexes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) using glassy carbon electrode. The biological activity of the complexes has been evaluated by examining their ability to bind to calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) with UV spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. UV studies of the interaction of the complexes with DNA have shown that these compounds can bind to CT DNA. The binding constants of the complexes with CT DNA have also been calculated. The cyclic voltammograms of the complexes in the presence of CT DNA have shown that the complexes can bind to CT DNA by both the intercalative and the electrostatic binding mode. The antimicrobial activity of these complexes has been evaluated against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria. Antifungal activity against two different fungi has been evaluated and compared with the reference drug TMP. Almost all types of complexes show excellent activity against all type of bacteria and fungi. The morphology of the CT DNA, TMP, metal ions and metal complexes has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To get the SEM images, the interaction of compounds with CT DNA has been studied by means of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at CT DNA modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The decrease in intensity of the guanine oxidation signals has been used as an indicator for the interaction mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fragment-based design of symmetrical bis-benzimidazoles as selective inhibitors of the trimethoprim-resistant, type II R67 dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Dominic; Ebert, Maximilian C C J C; Forge, Delphine; Toulouse, Jacynthe; Kadnikova, Natalia; Perron, Florent; Mayence, Annie; Huang, Tien L; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Pelletier, Joelle N

    2012-04-12

    The continuously increasing use of trimethoprim as a common antibiotic for medical use and for prophylactic application in terrestrial and aquatic animal farming has increased its prevalence in the environment. This has been accompanied by increased drug resistance, generally in the form of alterations in the drug target, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The most highly resistant variants of DHFR are known as type II DHFR, among which R67 DHFR is the most broadly studied variant. We report the first attempt at designing specific inhibitors to this emerging drug target by fragment-based design. The detection of inhibition in R67 DHFR was accompanied by parallel monitoring of the human DHFR, as an assessment of compound selectivity. By those means, small aromatic molecules of 150-250 g/mol (fragments) inhibiting R67 DHFR selectively in the low millimolar range were identified. More complex, symmetrical bis-benzimidazoles and a bis-carboxyphenyl were then assayed as fragment-based leads, which procured selective inhibition of the target in the low micromolar range (K(i) = 2-4 μM). The putative mode of inhibition is discussed according to molecular modeling supported by in vitro tests. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  2. Trimethoprim-sulfonamide Use during the First Trimester of Pregnancy and the Risk of Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Craig; Andrade, Susan E.; Freiman, Heather; Dublin, Sascha; Haffenreffer, Katie; Cooper, William O.; Cheetham, T.Craig; Toh, Sengwee; Li, De-Kun; Raebel, Marsha A.; Kuntz, Jennifer L.; Perrin, Nancy; Rosales, A.Gabriela; Carter, Shelley; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Maloney, Elizabeth M.; Graham, David J.; Sahin, Leyla; Scott, Pamela E.; Yap, John; Davis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Sulfonamide antibacterials are widely used in pregnancy, but evidence about their safety is mixed. The objective of this study was to assess the association between first-trimester sulfonamide exposure and risk of specific congenital malformations. Methods Mother-infant pairs were selected from a cohort of 1.2 million liveborn deliveries (2001–2008) at 11 US health plans comprising the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program (MEPREP). Mothers with first-trimester trimethoprim-sulfonamide (TMP-SUL) exposures were randomly matched 1:1 to 1) a primary comparison group: mothers exposed to penicillins and/or cephalosporins, and 2) a secondary comparison group: mothers with no dispensing of an antibacterial, antiprotozoal, or antimalarial medication during the same time period. The outcomes were cardiovascular abnormalities, cleft palate/lip, clubfoot, and urinary tract abnormalities. Results We first identified 7,615 infants in the TMP-SUL exposure group, of which 7595 (99%) were exposed to a combination of TMP-SUL and the remaining 1% to sulfonamides alone. After matching (1:1) to the comparator groups and only including those with complete data on covariates there were 20,064 (n=6,688 per group) in the primary analyses. Overall, cardiovascular defects (1.52%) were the most common and cleft lip/palate (0.10%) the least common that were evaluated. Compared to penicillin/cephalosporin exposure, and no antibacterial exposure, TMP-SUL exposure was not associated with statistically significant elevated risks for cardiovascular, cleft lip/palate, clubfoot, or urinary system defects. Conclusions First trimester TMP-SUL exposure was not associated with a higher risk of the congenital anomalies studied, compared to exposure to penicillins and/or cephalosporins, or no exposure to antibacterials. PMID:26599424

  3. Evaluation of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole based combination therapy against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: in vitro effects and clinical efficacy in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Araoka, Hideki; Baba, Masaru; Okada, Chikako; Abe, Masahiro; Kimura, Muneyoshi; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects and clinical efficacies of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) combined with other antimicrobial agents against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. In vitro analysis was conducted on 89 S. maltophilia strains isolated from blood and the respiratory tract between June 2012 and October 2014. Levofloxacin (LVX), ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (TIM), and minocycline (MIN) were selected for an examination of their effects when individually combined with SXT by the checkerboard method. In addition, 29 S. maltophilia bacteremia cases were reviewed and the clinical efficacies of SXT-based combination therapies were analyzed. SXT+LVX showed synergy in 21, no interactions in 61, and antagonism in 7. SXT+TIM showed synergy in 71, and no interactions in 18. SXT+MIN showed synergy in 10, and no interactions in 79. The review of clinical data indicated that a combination of SXT+fluoroquinolone was not associated with improved prognosis compared with monotherapy. The in vitro data indicated that SXT+TIM had beneficial microbiological effects and was not antagonistic. Our in vitro and clinical data analyses do not support the routine use of SXT+fluoroquinolone combination therapy for S. maltophilia infection. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Prophylaxis During Live Malaria Sporozoite Immunization Induces Long-Lived, Homologous, and Heterologous Protective Immunity Against Sporozoite Challenge.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Charlotte V; Anderson, Charles; Neal, Jillian; Sahu, Tejram; Conteh, Solomon; Voza, Tatiana; Langhorne, Jean; Borkowsky, William; Duffy, Patrick E

    2017-01-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is widely used in malaria-endemic areas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and HIV-uninfected, HIV-exposed children as opportunistic infection prophylaxis. Despite the known effects that TMP-SMX has in reducing clinical malaria, its impact on development of malaria-specific immunity in these children remains poorly understood. Using rodent malaria models, we previously showed that TMP-SMX, at prophylactic doses, can arrest liver stage development of malaria parasites and speculated that TMP-SMX prophylaxis during repeated malaria exposures would induce protective long-lived sterile immunity targeting pre-erythrocytic stage parasites in mice. Using the same models, we now demonstrate that repeated exposures to malaria parasites during TMP-SMX administration induces stage-specific and long-lived pre-erythrocytic protective anti-malarial immunity, mediated primarily by CD8 + T-cells. Given the HIV infection and malaria coepidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, clinical studies aimed at determining the optimum duration of TMP-SMX prophylaxis in HIV-infected or HIV-exposed children must account for the potential anti-infection immunity effect of TMP-SMX prophylaxis. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE AND FOSFOMYCIN SUSCEPTIBILITY RATES IN UNCOMPLICATED URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS: TIME TO CHANGE THE ANTIMICROBIAL PREFERENCES.

    PubMed

    Guneysel, Ozlem; Suman, Enes; Ozturk, Tuba Cimilli

    2016-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in adult population. They are prevalent in all age groups both in women and men. Also, UTIs are the most frequent indication for empirical antibiotic treatment in emergency department. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance rates in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs. Adult patients admitted to emergency department with uncomplicated UTIs were included in this cross-sectional study. Mid-stream urine samples were obtained under sterile conditions and cultured quantitatively. After 24 hours, the samples showing 10(5) colony forming unit per milliliter (CFU/mL) were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Resistance to fosfomycin-trometamol (FT), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AC), ciprofloxacin (CIP), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and cefpodoxime (CEF) was tested by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion system. Escherichia (E.) coli accounted for the vast majority (93.4%) of the organisms isolated in the study. Among the E. coli positive patients, resistance to TMP-SMX was the most common antibiotic resistance. The E. coli species detected in our study group were least resistant to FT (2.4%). The resistance rates, especially to CEF, AC and CIP, were significantly higher in patients over 50 years of age. In conclusion, in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs, TMP-SMX should be excluded from empirical treatment, while fosfomycin could be a viable option in all age groups.

  6. Combination of micelle collapse and field-amplified sample stacking in capillary electrophoresis for determination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in animal-originated foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Wan, Qian; Xu, Xiaoying; Duan, Shunshan; Yang, Chunli

    2017-03-15

    An on-line preconcentration method combining micelle to solvent stacking (MSS) with field-amplified sample stacking (FASS) was employed for the analysis of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The optimized experimental conditions were as followings: (1) sample matrix, 10.0mM SDS-5% (v/v) methanol; (2) trapping solution (TS), 35mM H 3 PO 4 -60% acetonitrile (CH 3 CN); (3) running buffer, 30mM Na 2 HPO 4 (pH=7.3); (4) sample solution volume, 168nL; TS volume, 168nL; and (5) 9kV voltage, 214nm UV detection. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for SMZ and TMP were 7.7 and 8.5ng/mL, and they were 301 and 329 times better compared to a typical injection, respectively. The contents of TMP and SMZ in animal foodstuffs such as dairy products, eggs and honey were analyzed, too. Recoveries of 80-104% were acquired with relative standard deviations of 0.5-5.4%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analytical methods for multiresidue determination of sulfonamides and trimethoprim in meat and ground water samples by CE-MS and CE-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Soto-Chinchilla, Jorge J; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents two methods based on CZE-MS detection and CZE-MS/MS detection developed for the multiresidue determination of ten sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfadoxin, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfameter, sulfamerazine, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethizole) and a potentiator, trimethoprim (TMP), whose contents are regulated by the EU Council Regulation no. 2377/90 in animal edible tissues. Experimental designs were employed to optimize the electrospray conditions. MS/MS experiments using an IT as analyzer operating in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode were carried out to achieve the minimum number of points according to the 2002/657/EC European Decision for unambiguous identification. The proposed procedures have been compared in terms of the performance characteristics and trueness. The limits of detection and quantification were in all cases lower than the maximum residue limits legislated for these compounds and the recoveries were satisfactory, being possible the application for their monitoring in foodstuff of animal origin and in environmental samples, allowing the determination of sulfonamides and TMP residues in meat and in superficial water in the low microg/L range.

  8. High-throughput prediction of tablet weight and trimethoprim content of compound sulfamethoxazole tablets for controlling the uniformity of dosage units by NIR.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yanhong; Li, Juan; Zhong, Xiaoxiao; Cao, Liya; Luo, Yang; Fan, Qi

    2016-04-15

    This paper establishes a novel method to simultaneously predict the tablet weight (TW) and trimethoprim (TMP) content of compound sulfamethoxazole tablets (SMZCO) by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with partial least squares (PLS) regression for controlling the uniformity of dosage units (UODU). The NIR spectra for 257 samples were measured using the optimized parameter values and pretreated using the optimized chemometric techniques. After the outliers were ignored, two PLS models for predicting TW and TMP content were respectively established by using the selected spectral sub-ranges and the reference values. The TW model reaches the correlation coefficient of calibration (R(c)) 0.9543 and the TMP content model has the R(c) 0.9205. The experimental results indicate that this strategy expands the NIR application in controlling UODU, especially in the high-throughput and rapid analysis of TWs and contents of the compound pharmaceutical tablets, and may be an important complement to the common NIR on-line analytical method for pharmaceutical tablets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sulphonamide and Trimethoprim Resistance Genes Persist in Sediments at Baltic Sea Aquaculture Farms but Are Not Detected in the Surrounding Environment

    PubMed Central

    Muziasari, Windi Indra; Managaki, Satoshi; Pärnänen, Katariina; Karkman, Antti; Lyra, Christina; Tamminen, Manu; Suzuki, Satoru; Virta, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Persistence and dispersal of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are important factors for assessing ARG risk in aquaculture environments. Here, we quantitatively detected ARGs for sulphonamides (sul1 and sul2) and trimethoprim (dfrA1) and an integrase gene for a class 1 integron (intI1) at aquaculture facilities in the northern Baltic Sea, Finland. The ARGs persisted in sediments below fish farms at very low antibiotic concentrations during the 6-year observation period from 2006 to 2012. Although the ARGs persisted in the farm sediments, they were less prevalent in the surrounding sediments. The copy numbers between the sul1 and intI1 genes were significantly correlated suggesting that class 1 integrons may play a role in the prevalence of sul1 in the farm sediments through horizontal gene transfer. In conclusion, the presence of ARGs may limit the effectiveness of antibiotics in treating fish illnesses, thereby causing a potential risk to the aquaculture industry. However, the restricted presence of ARGs at the farms is unlikely to cause serious effects in the northern Baltic Sea sediment environments around the farms. PMID:24651770

  10. Risk factors and molecular mechanisms associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Heredia, Sandra Abril; Pezina-Cantú, César; Garza-González, Elvira; Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Mendoza-Olazarán, Soraya; Morfín-Otero, Rayo; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Paláu-Davila, Laura; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor Jesús; Flores-Treviño, Samantha

    2017-08-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multidrug-resistant opportunistic pathogen causing an increasing number of nosocomial infections. Our aim was to evaluate the risk factors and mechanisms associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) resistance in S. maltophilia infections in Mexico. Clinical isolates and patients' demographic and clinical data were collected from February 2007 to August 2015 in two tertiary-care hospitals in Mexico. Antimicrobial susceptibility and analysis of sul and SmeABC and SmeDEF efflux pump overexpression were performed in all isolates.Results/Key findings. In the 9-year period, 196 patients infected with S. maltophilia were identified. Most patients were male, and the mean age was 46.2 years. The mean Charlson score was 1.42, and the most frequent comorbidities were arterial hypertension (26.7 %), type 2 diabetes (21.2 %) and cerebral infarction (11.6 %). High drug resistance to meropenem (93.4 %), gentamicin (55.1 %), ceftazidime (52.3 %), cefotaxime (51.5 %), amikacin (42.3 %) and cefepime (32.1 %), and lower resistance to ciprofloxacin (26.0 %), SXT (25.0 %), chloramphenicol (14.3 %) and levofloxacin (2.6 %) were detected. SXT resistance was not associated with the sul genes. SmeABC overexpression was associated with gentamicin (P=0.001) and levofloxacin resistance (P=0.041), whereas SmeDEF overexpression was associated with ceftazidime resistance (P=0.003). Prolonged hospitalization (≥15 days) was an independent risk factor for SXT-resistant S. maltophilia infections (OR=3.05; 95 % CI=1.12-8.86; P=0.029). Given the high SXT resistance rate, SXT is not an effective first-line therapy for our patients; instead, levofloxacin could be used as an appropriate therapeutic option against S. maltophilia infections.

  11. Synergistic Interactions of Vancomycin with Different Antibiotics against Escherichia coli: Trimethoprim and Nitrofurantoin Display Strong Synergies with Vancomycin against Wild-Type E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Alice; Kang, Tina Manzhu; Yuan, Jessica; Beppler, Casey; Nguyen, Caroline; Mao, Zhiyuan; Nguyen, Minh Quan

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are normally resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin (VAN), which cannot significantly penetrate the outer membrane. We used Escherichia coli mutants that are partially sensitive to VAN to study synergies between VAN and 10 other antibiotics representing six different functional categories. We detected strong synergies with VAN and nitrofurantoin (NTR) and with VAN and trimethoprim (TMP) and moderate synergies with other drugs, such as aminoglycosides. These synergies are powerful enough to show the activity of VAN against wild-type E. coli at concentrations of VAN as low as 6.25 μg/ml. This suggests that a very small percentage of exogenous VAN does enter E. coli but normally has insignificant effects on growth inhibition or cell killing. We used the results of pairwise interactions with VAN and the other 10 antibiotics tested to place VAN into a functional category of its own, as previously defined by Yeh et al. (P. Yeh, A. I. Tschumi, and R. Kishony, Nat Genet 28:489–494, 2006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng1755). PMID:25348521

  12. Sorption of carbamazepine, 17α-ethinylestradiol, iopromide and trimethoprim to biomass involves interactions with exocellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Khunjar, Wendell O; Love, Nancy G

    2011-02-01

    The sorption of carbamazepine (CBZ), iopromide (IOP), trimethoprim (TMP) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) was evaluated using four biomass types (pure ammonia oxidizing bacterial culture, two heterotrophic enrichment cultures with varying levels of oxygenase activity, and a full-scale nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) culture). CBZ and IOP did not sorb to the four biomass types. EE2 did not sorb to the pure culture but sorbed significantly to the heterotrophic cultures and NAS. TMP sorbed to the heterotrophic cultures and NAS, and was not evaluated for the pure culture. Three floc characteristics (hydrophobicity, median particle size, organic matter content) correlated moderately well with the EE2 organic matter sorption coefficient (KOM,EE2). Zeta potential did not correlate well with KOM,EE2 but did with KOM,TMP, indicating that TMP sorption is more influenced by electrostatic factors than EE2. Once divalent cation-linked exocellular polymeric substances (EPS) were removed from flocs, EE2 and TMP sorption to the non-EPS (cellular) fraction decreased by approximately 50%. The correlation between KOM,EE2 for the non-EPS cellular fraction deteriorated while the correlation between KOM,TMP improved. EE2 seemed to sorb more strongly to EPS protein whereas TMP sorbed equally to polysaccharide and protein EPS. Attempts to develop predictive models were not successful. Pharmaceuticals that sorbed to biomass samples underwent biodegradation whereas those that did not sorb were not biodegraded, suggesting a relationship between sorption and pharmaceutical biotransformation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Trace analysis of trimethoprim and sulfonamide, macrolide, quinolone, and tetracycline antibiotics in chlorinated drinking water using liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ye, Z.; Weinberg, H.S.; Meyer, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    A multirun analytical method has been developed and validated for trace determination of 24 antibiotics including 7 sulfonamides, 3 macrolides, 7 quinolones, 6 tetracyclines, and trimethoprim in chlorine-disinfected drinking water using a single solid-phase extraction method coupled to liquid chromatography with positive electrospray tandem mass spectrometry detection. The analytes were extracted by a hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced resin and eluted with acidified methanol (0.1% formic acid), resulting in analyte recoveries generally above 90%. The limits of quantitation were mostly below 10 ng/L in drinking water. Since the concentrated sample matrix typically caused ion suppression during electrospray ionization, the method of standard addition was used for quantitation. Chlorine residuals in drinking water can react with some antibiotics, but ascorbic acid was found to be an effective chlorine quenching agent without affecting the analysis and stability of the antibiotics in water. A preliminary occurrence study using this method revealed the presence of some antibiotics in drinking waters, including sulfamethoxazole (3.0-3.4 ng/L), macrolides (1.4-4.9 ng/L), and quinolones (1.2-4.0 ng/L). ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  14. Trimethoprim

    MedlinePlus

    ... a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each ...

  15. Residues of chlortetracycline, doxycycline and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim in intestinal content and feces of pigs due to cross-contamination of feed.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Laura E J; Daeseleire, Els; Devreese, Mathias; Rasschaert, Geertrui; Smet, Annemieke; Dewulf, Jeroen; Heyndrickx, Marc; Imberechts, Hein; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Butaye, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2016-09-20

    Cross-contamination of feed with low concentrations of antimicrobials can occur at production, transport and/or farm level. Concerns are rising about possible effects of this contaminated feed on resistance selection in the intestinal microbiota. Therefore, an experiment with pigs was set up, in which intestinal and fecal concentrations of chlortetracycline (CTC), doxycycline (DOX) and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (SDZ-TRIM) were determined after administration of feed containing a 3 % carry-over level of these antimicrobials. The poor oral bioavailability of tetracyclines resulted in rather high concentrations in cecal and colonic content and feces at steady-state conditions. A mean concentration of 10 mg/kg CTC and 4 mg/kg DOX in the feces was reached, which is higher than concentrations that were shown to cause resistance selection. On the other hand, lower mean levels of SDZ (0.7 mg/kg) and TRIM (< limit of detection of 0.016 mg/kg) were found in the feces, corresponding with the high oral bioavailability of SDZ and TRIM in pigs. The relation between the oral bioavailability and intestinal concentrations of the tested antimicrobials, may be of help in assessing the risks of cross-contaminated feed. However, future research is needed to confirm our results and to evaluate the effects of these detected concentrations on resistance selection in the intestinal microbiota of pigs.

  16. Decomposition of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim by continuous UVA/LED/TiO2 photocatalysis: Decomposition pathways, residual antibacterial activity and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qinqing; Hu, Jiangyong

    2017-02-05

    In this study, continuous LED/UVA/TiO 2 photocatalytic decomposition of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) was investigated. More than 90% of SMX and TMP were removed within 20min by the continuous photoreactor (with the initial concentration of 400ppb for each). The removal rates of SMX and TMP decreased with higher initial antibiotics loadings. SMX was much easier decomposed in acidic condition, while pH affected little on TMP's decomposition. 0.003% was found to be the optimum H 2 O 2 dosage to enhance SMX photocatalytic decomposition. Decomposition pathways of SMX and TMP were proposed based on the intermediates identified by using LC-MS-MS and GC-MS. Aniline was identified as a new intermediate generated during SMX photocatalytic decomposition. Antibacterial activity study with a reference Escherichia coli strain was also conducted during the photocatalytic process. Results indicated that with every portion of TMP removed, the residual antibacterial activity decreased by one portion. However, the synergistic effect between SMX and TMP tended to slow down the antibacterial activity removal of SMX and TMP mixture. Chronic toxicity studies conducted with Vibrio fischeri exhibited 13-20% bioluminescence inhibition during the decomposition of 1ppm SMX and 1ppm TMP, no acute toxicity to V. fischeri was observed during the photocatalytic process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In situ measurement of solution concentrations and fluxes of sulfonamides and trimethoprim antibiotics in soils using o-DGT.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Er; Chen, Wei; Ying, Guang-Guo; Jones, Kevin C; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Techniques, such as Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT), which either minimally disturb the soil or perturb it in a controlled way are most likely to provide information relevant to toxicity. Herein, we report the first use of DGT for organics (o-DGT) in soil systems to gain insight into the mobility and lability of four antibiotics-sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfamethazine (SMZ), and sulfadimethoxine (SDM), trimethoprim (TMP) in soil. In experiments where the same known amount of antibiotics were spiked into the soil, which was then further modified with NaOH, NaCl or dissolved organic matter, directly measured soil solution concentrations (Csoln) of these antibiotics were in the order: SMX>SMZ≈SDM>TMP. The R values (ratio of concentrations measured by o-DGT and directly in solution) were 0.56, 0.41, 0.40 and 0.28, respectively, indicating that the removal of these antibiotics from the solution can be to some extent resupplied by release from the solid phase. The nonlinearity of the relationship between o-DGT fluxes and the reciprocal of diffusive layer thickness (Δg) also suggested that soil solution concentrations were only partially sustained by the solid phase. The potential fluxes of these antibiotics in this soil were 5.4, 3.6, 2.4, and 1.2 pg/cm(2)/s for SMX, SMZ, SDM, and TMP, respectively. o-DGT is a promising tool for understanding the fate and behaviour of polar organic chemicals in soil, and it potentially provides an in situ approach for assessing their bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural comparison of chromosomal and exogenous dihydrofolate reductase from Staphylococcus aureus in complex with the potent inhibitor trimethoprim

    SciTech Connect

    Heaslet, Holly; Harris, Melissa; Fahnoe, Kelly

    2010-09-02

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is the enzyme responsible for the NADPH-dependent reduction of 5,6-dihydrofolate to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate, an essential cofactor in the synthesis of purines, thymidylate, methionine, and other key metabolites. Because of its importance in multiple cellular functions, DHFR has been the subject of much research targeting the enzyme with anticancer, antibacterial, and antimicrobial agents. Clinically used compounds targeting DHFR include methotrexate for the treatment of cancer and diaminopyrimidines (DAPs) such as trimethoprim (TMP) for the treatment of bacterial infections. DAP inhibitors of DHFR have been used clinically for >30 years and resistance to these agents has become widespread. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusmore » aureus (MRSA), the causative agent of many serious nosocomial and community acquired infections, and other gram-positive organisms can show resistance to DAPs through mutation of the chromosomal gene or acquisition of an alternative DHFR termed 'S1 DHFR.' To develop new therapies for health threats such as MRSA, it is important to understand the molecular basis of DAP resistance. Here, we report the crystal structure of the wild-type chromosomal DHFR from S. aureus in complex with NADPH and TMP. We have also solved the structure of the exogenous, TMP resistant S1 DHFR, apo and in complex with TMP. The structural and thermodynamic data point to important molecular differences between the two enzymes that lead to dramatically reduced affinity of DAPs to S1 DHFR. These differences in enzyme binding affinity translate into reduced antibacterial activity against strains of S. aureus that express S1 DHFR.« less

  19. Beta-Blockers, Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole, and the Risk of Hyperkalemia Requiring Hospitalization in the Elderly: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Matthew A.; Juurlink, David N.; Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad; Hackam, Daniel G.; Jain, Arsh K.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: The simultaneous use of beta adrenergic receptor blockers (β-blockers) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) may confer a high risk of hyperkalemia. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Two nested case-control studies were conducted to examine the association between hospitalization for hyperkalemia and the use of TMP-SMX in older patients receiving β-blockers. Linked health administrative records from Ontario, Canada, were used to assemble a cohort of 299,749 β-blockers users, aged 66 years or older and capture data regarding medication use and hospital admissions for hyperkalemia. Results: Over the study period from 1994 to 2008, 189 patients in this cohort were hospitalized for hyperkalemia within 14 days of receiving a study antibiotic. Compared with amoxicillin, the use of TMP-SMX was associated with a substantially greater risk of hyperkalemia requiring hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio, 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 9.4). No such risk was identified with ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, or nitrofurantoin. When dosing was considered, the association was greater at higher doses of TMP-SMX. When the primary analysis was repeated in a cohort of non-β-blocker users, the risk of hyperkalemia comparing TMP-SMX to amoxicillin was not significantly different from that found among β-blocker users. Conclusions: Although TMP-SMX is associated with an increased risk of hyperkalemia in older adults, these findings show no added risk when used in combination with β-blockers. PMID:20595693

  20. Determination of six sulfonamide antibiotics, two metabolites and trimethoprim in wastewater by isotope dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Le-Minh, Nhat; Stuetz, Richard M; Khan, Stuart J

    2012-01-30

    A highly sensitive method for the analysis of six sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole), two sulfonamide metabolites (N(4)-acetyl sulfamethazine and N(4)-acetyl sulfamethoxazole) and the commonly co-applied antibiotic trimethoprim was developed for the analysis of complex wastewater samples. The method involves solid phase extraction of filtered wastewater samples followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectral detection. Method detection limits were shown to be matrix-dependent but ranged between 0.2 and 0.4 ng/mL for ultrapure water, 0.4 and 0.7 ng/mL for tap water, 1.4 and 5.9 ng/mL for a laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) mixed liquor, 0.7 and 1.7 ng/mL for biologically treated effluent and 0.5 and 1.5 ng/g dry weight for MBR activated sludge. An investigation of analytical matrix effects was undertaken, demonstrating the significant and largely unpredictable nature of signal suppression observed for variably complex matrices compared to an ultrapure water matrix. The results demonstrate the importance of accounting for such matrix effects for accurate quantitation, as done in the presented method by isotope dilution. Comprehensive validation of calibration linearity, reproducibility, extraction recovery, limits of detection and quantification are also presented. Finally, wastewater samples from a variety of treatment stages in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant were analysed to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Infections during induction therapy for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. the role of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Rungoe, Christine; Malchau, Emma Louise; Larsen, Line Nordahl; Schroeder, Henrik

    2010-08-01

    Bacteremias are frequent during induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. Antibacterial prophylaxis therapy may thus be warranted. The purpose of this study was to analyze the rate of infections during induction therapy in two cohorts of children with ALL where one cohort received prophylactic sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). All infections were registered through a retrospective non-randomized review of medical records of 171 consecutive children newly diagnosed with ALL below 15 years of age at diagnosis. A total of 85 children treated from 1992 to 2000 did not receive SMX-TMP, whereas 86 children treated from 2000 to 2008 received SMX-TMP 20 mg/kg in one daily oral dose during induction therapy. A total of 26% of all children had no febrile episodes during induction. Infections were more frequent in children below 5 years of age. Significantly fewer children receiving SMX-TMP developed fever (17% vs. 34%, P = 0.02) and bacteremia (20% vs. 45%, P = 0.0003). Especially children with non-high risk criteria had fewer infections when receiving prophylaxis. When adjusting for age, type of catheter, and SMX-TMP prophylaxis on the risk of bacteremia by a multiple Cox regression analysis, we found that age and prophylaxis, but not the type of catheter, were associated with a significantly reduced risk of bacteremia. Children with ALL receiving SMX-TMP prophylaxis during induction therapy experienced fewer febrile episodes, fewer days with fever demanding intravenous antibiotic treatment, and fewer episodes of bacteremia. Both SMX-TMP prophylaxis and age played significant independent roles for the occurrence of bacteremia. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Virgin coconut oil protects against liver damage in albino rats challenged with the anti-folate combination, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Otuechere, Chiagoziem A; Madarikan, Gbemisola; Simisola, Tinuala; Bankole, Olubukola; Osho, Adeleke

    2014-05-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. However, its use is associated with toxic reactions. Virgin coconut oil (VCO), derived from coconut, has been widely used throughout history for its medicinal value. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial actions of VCO against TMP-SMX-induced alterations in serum biochemical end points. Twenty rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 (control) received no drug, whereas group 2 received TMP-SMX (8/40 mg/kg) twice daily for 7 days. Group 3 was administered coconut oil at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight per day. The last group was treated with TMP-SMX (8/40 mg/kg) and coconut oil (600 mg/kg) simultaneously. Blood samples were collected from all groups on the 8th day of the experiment for measurement of serum biochemical parameters. Organ weights and coefficients were also evaluated. TMP-SMX caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of serum total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase by 192%, 67%, and 41%, respectively, relative to controls. This was followed by a significant reduction in triglyceride and relative kidney weight by 40% and 7%, respectively. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the activities of serum aminotransferases, total acid phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, uric acid, cholesterol, albumin, and urea levels. Supplementation of VCO ameliorated TMP-SMX-induced effects by restoring the levels of total bilirubin, alkaline phospahatase, and lactate dehydrogenase. The results of this study demonstrate that the active components of coconut oil had protective effects against the toxic effects induced by TMP-SMX administration, especially in the liver of rats.

  3. Assessing the concentrations and risks of toxicity from the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and erythromycin in European rivers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew C; Keller, Virginie; Dumont, Egon; Sumpter, John P

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the potential concentrations of four antibiotics: ciprofloxacin (CIP), sulfamethoxazole (SUF), trimethoprim (TRI) and erythromycin (ERY) throughout the rivers of Europe. This involved reviewing national consumption rates together with assessing excretion and sewage treatment removal rates. From this information, it was possible to construct best, expected and worst case scenarios for the discharge of these antibiotics into rivers. Consumption data showed surprising variations, up to 200-fold in the popularity of different antibiotics across different European nations. Using the water resources model GWAVA which has a spatial resolution of approximately 6×9 km, river water concentrations throughout Europe were predicted based on 31-year climate data. The modelled antibiotic concentrations were within the range of measurements reported previously in European effluents and rivers. With the expected scenario, the predicted annual-average antibiotic concentrations ranged between 0 and 10 ng/L for 90% by length of surface waters. In the worst case scenario concentrations could reach between 0.1 and 1 μg/L at the most exposed locations. As both predicted and observed sewage effluent concentrations were below reported effect levels for the most sensitive aquatic wildlife, no direct toxicity in rivers is expected. Predicted river concentrations for CIP and ERY were closest to effect levels in wildlife, followed by SUF which was 2-3 orders of magnitude lower. TRI appeared to be of the least concern with around 6 orders of magnitude difference between predicted and effect levels. However, mixture toxicity may elevate this risk and antibiotic levels of 0.1-1 μg/L in hotspots may contribute to local environmental antibiotic resistance in microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Superiority of solar Fenton oxidation over TiO2 photocatalysis for the degradation of trimethoprim in secondary treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Michael, C; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this work was to examine the degradation of trimethoprim (TMP), which is an antibacterial agent, during the application of two advanced oxidation process (AOP) systems in secondary treated domestic effluents. The homogeneous solar Fenton process (hv/Fe(2+)/H2O2) and heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO2) suspensions were tested. It was found that the degradation of TMP depends on several parameters such as the amount of iron salt and H2O2, concentration of TiO2, pH of solution, solar irradiation, temperature and initial substrate concentration. The optimum dosages of Fe(2+) and H2O2 for homogeneous ([Fe(2+)] = 5 mg L(-1), [H2O2] = 3.062 mmol L(-1)) and TiO2 ([TiO2] = 3 g L(-1)) for heterogeneous photocatalysis were established. The study indicated that the degradation of TMP during the solar Fenton process is described by a pseudo-first-order reaction and the substrate degradation during the heterogeneous photocatalysis by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. The toxicity of the treated samples was evaluated using a Daphnia magna bioassay and was finally decreased by both processes. The results indicated that solar Fenton is more effective than the solar TiO2 process, yielding complete degradation of the examined substrate within 30 min of illumination and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduction of about 44% whereas the respective values for the TiO2 process were ∼70% degradation of TMP within 120 min of treatment and 13% DOC removal.

  5. Structural characterization of molecular complexes formed by trimethoprim and cimitidine with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balraj, C.; Ganesh, K.; Elango, K. P.

    2011-07-01

    Spectroscopic and spectrofluorimetric techniques have been employed to investigate the structure of the charge transfer (CT) complexes of Trimethoprim (TMP) and Cimitidine (CTD) drugs with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone ( p-chloranil, p-CHL). The stoichiometry of the complexes was found to be 1:2 for TMP- p-CHL system and 1:1 for CTD- p-CHL system. The thermodynamic results indicated that the formation of molecular complex between the donors and the acceptor is spontaneous and endothermic. The results of electronic spectral studies indicated that the formation constant for CTD- p-CHL system is found to be higher than that for TMP- p-CHL system. The observation is well supported by the results of fluorescence quenching studies and the association constants calculated for CTD- p-CHL system is 36.2 × 10 3 mol L -1 and that for TMP- p-CHL system is 2.6 × 10 3 mol L -1. The kinetic results, in both the cases, indicated that the interaction is first order each with respect to the concentration of the donor and the acceptor. The physico-chemical parameters viz. oscillator strength, dipole moment, ionization potential and dissociation energy of the complexes were also determined and discussed. Structural characterization of the complexes were done using FT-IR and 1H NMR spectral techniques and the results indicated that, in TMP, the free NH 2 group while in CTD the pyrazole N sbnd H moiety involves in complexation with the acceptor, p-CHL.

  6. Occurrence and Dissipation of the Antibiotics Sulfamethoxazole, Sulfadiazine, Trimethoprim, and Enrofloxacin in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Dang Giang, Chau; Sebesvari, Zita; Renaud, Fabrice; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Hoang Minh, Quang; Amelung, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    The Mekong Delta in Vietnam has seen a rapid development and intensification of aquaculture in the last decades, with a corresponding widespread use of antibiotics. This study provides information on current antibiotic use in freshwater aquaculture, as well as on resulting antibiotic concentrations in the aquatic environment of the Mekong Delta. Two major production steps, fish hatcheries and mature fish cultivation, were surveyed (50 fish farm interviews) for antibiotic use. Different water sources, including surface water, groundwater and piped water (164 water samples) were systematically screened for antibiotic residues. To better understand antibiotic fate under tropical conditions, the dissipation behavior of selected antibiotics in the aquatic environment was investigated for the first time in mesocosm experiments. None of the investigated antibiotics were detected in groundwater and piped water samples. Surface water, which is still often used for drinking and domestic purposes by local populations, contained median concentrations of 21 ng L-1 sulfamethoxazole (SMX), 4 ng L-1 sulfadiazine (SDZ), 17 ng L-1 trimethoprim (TRIM), and 12 ng L-1 enrofloxacin (ENRO). These concentrations were lower than the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), suggesting limited antibiotic-related risk to aquatic ecosystems in the monitored systems. The dissipation half-lives of the studied antibiotics ranged from <1 to 44 days, depending on the availability of sunlight and sediment. Among the studied antibiotics TRIM was the most persistent in water systems. TRIM was not susceptible to photodegradation, while the dissipation of ENRO and SDZ was influenced by photolysis. The recorded dissipation models gave good predictions of the occurrence and concentrations of TRIM, ENRO and SDZ in surface water. In summary, the currently measured concentrations of the investigated antibiotics are unlikely to cause immediate risks to the

  7. Occurrence and Dissipation of the Antibiotics Sulfamethoxazole, Sulfadiazine, Trimethoprim, and Enrofloxacin in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen Dang Giang, Chau; Sebesvari, Zita; Renaud, Fabrice; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Hoang Minh, Quang; Amelung, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    The Mekong Delta in Vietnam has seen a rapid development and intensification of aquaculture in the last decades, with a corresponding widespread use of antibiotics. This study provides information on current antibiotic use in freshwater aquaculture, as well as on resulting antibiotic concentrations in the aquatic environment of the Mekong Delta. Two major production steps, fish hatcheries and mature fish cultivation, were surveyed (50 fish farm interviews) for antibiotic use. Different water sources, including surface water, groundwater and piped water (164 water samples) were systematically screened for antibiotic residues. To better understand antibiotic fate under tropical conditions, the dissipation behavior of selected antibiotics in the aquatic environment was investigated for the first time in mesocosm experiments. None of the investigated antibiotics were detected in groundwater and piped water samples. Surface water, which is still often used for drinking and domestic purposes by local populations, contained median concentrations of 21 ng L-1 sulfamethoxazole (SMX), 4 ng L-1 sulfadiazine (SDZ), 17 ng L-1 trimethoprim (TRIM), and 12 ng L-1 enrofloxacin (ENRO). These concentrations were lower than the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), suggesting limited antibiotic-related risk to aquatic ecosystems in the monitored systems. The dissipation half-lives of the studied antibiotics ranged from <1 to 44 days, depending on the availability of sunlight and sediment. Among the studied antibiotics TRIM was the most persistent in water systems. TRIM was not susceptible to photodegradation, while the dissipation of ENRO and SDZ was influenced by photolysis. The recorded dissipation models gave good predictions of the occurrence and concentrations of TRIM, ENRO and SDZ in surface water. In summary, the currently measured concentrations of the investigated antibiotics are unlikely to cause immediate risks to the

  8. Simultaneous determination of 17 sulfonamides and the potentiators ormetoprim and trimethoprim in salmon muscle by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Potter, Ross A; Burns, B Garth; van de Riet, Jeffrey M; North, David H; Darvesh, Rozina

    2007-01-01

    A simple, robust method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of 17 sulfonamides [sulfanilamide (SNL), sulfacetamide (SAA), sulfaguanidine (SGD), sulfapyridine (SPY), sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfamethoxazole (SOZ), sulfamoxole (SXL), sulfisoxazole (SXZ), sulfamethizole (SML), sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP), sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), sulfaquinoxaline (SQX), and sulfadimethoxine (SDM)] and 2 potentiators [ormetoprim (OMP) and trimethoprim (TMP)] in fish tissue has been developed. The analytes were extracted from homogenized fish tissue with water-acetonitrile (50 + 50). The extract was clarified by centrifugation and a portion defatted with hexane. The analytes were partitioned into chloroform and evaporated to dryness. The redissolved residue was applied to a C18 reversed-phase column with a water-acetonitrile (0.1% acetic acid) gradient. All of the compounds were completely separated and detected in <10 min at 30 degrees C using LC/MS/MS. Standard curves were linear over the range of 0.02 to 5 ng injected. The limit of detection varied from 0.1 ng/g for SMZ and OMP to 0.9 ng/g for SXL and SOZ. Recoveries varied from 100% for SDM, SOZ, and SQX and 85% for SMR, OMP, and TMP to approximately 30% for SAA. Relative standard deviations for repeat analysis varied from 4% for SMZ and SCP to 23% for SAA.

  9. UV/H2O2 and UV/PDS Treatment of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole in Synthetic Human Urine: Transformation Products and Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruochun; Yang, Yongkui; Huang, Ching-Hua; Li, Na; Liu, Hang; Zhao, Lin; Sun, Peizhe

    2016-03-01

    Elimination of pharmaceuticals in source-separated human urine is a promising approach to minimize the pharmaceuticals in the environment. Although the degradation kinetics of pharmaceuticals by UV/H2O2 and UV/peroxydisulfate (PDS) processes has been investigated in synthetic fresh and hydrolyzed urine, comprehensive evaluation of the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as product identification and toxicity testing, has not yet been performed. This study identified the transformation products of two commonly used antibiotics, trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), by UV/H2O2 and UV/PDS in synthetic urine matrices. The effects of reactive species, including •OH, SO4(•-), CO3(•-), and reactive nitrogen species, on product generation were investigated. Multiple isomeric transformation products of TMP and SMX were observed, especially in the reaction with hydroxyl radical. SO4(•-) and CO3(•-) reacted with pharmaceuticals by electron transfer, thus producing similar major products. The main reactive species deduced on the basis of product generation are in good agreement with kinetic simulation of the advanced oxidation processes. A strain identified as a polyphosphate-accumulating organism was used to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the pharmaceuticals and their products. No antimicrobial property was detected for the transformation products of either TMP or SMX. Acute toxicity employing luminescent bacterium Vibrio qinghaiensis indicated 20-40% higher inhibitory effect of TMP and SMX after treatment. Ecotoxicity was estimated by quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis using ECOSAR.

  10. Systematic review and meta-analysis of secondary prophylaxis for prevention of HIV-related toxoplasmic encephalitis relapse using trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Mark P; Haitsma, Gertruud; Hernández, Adrián V; Vidal, José E

    2017-09-01

    A recent systematic literature and meta-analysis reported relative efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for the treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) in HIV-infected adults. Here, we estimated relapse rates during secondary prophylaxis with TMP-SMX, and further explored differences in relapse rates prior to introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and the widespread adoption of HAART. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials yielded 707 studies whereby 663 were excluded after abstract screening, and 38 were excluded after full review leaving 6 studies for extraction. We performed double data extraction with a third-party adjudicator. Study designs varied with only one randomized study, four prospective cohorts and one retrospective cohort. Relapse rates were transformed using the Freeman-Tukey method and pooled using both fixed-effect and random-effects meta-analysis models. The TMP-SMX relapse rate was 16.4% (95% CI = 6.2% to 30.3%) based on random-effects models. When the disaggregated pre-HAART studies (n = 4) were included, the relapse rate was 14.9% (random effects; 95% CI = 3.7% to 31.9%). Analysis of two post-HAART studies indicated a relapse rate of 19.2% (random effects; 95% CI = 2.8% to 45.6%). Comparing the relapse rates between pre- and post-HAART studies were contrary to what might be expected based on known benefits of HAART therapy in this population. Nevertheless, cautious interpretation is necessary considering the heterogeneity of the included studies and a limited number of subjects receiving TMP-SMX reported in the post-HAART era.

  11. A novel prediction approach for antimalarial activities of Trimethoprim, Pyrimethamine, and Cycloguanil analogues using extremely randomized trees.

    PubMed

    Nattee, Cholwich; Khamsemanan, Nirattaya; Lawtrakul, Luckhana; Toochinda, Pisanu; Hannongbua, Supa

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is still one of the most serious diseases in tropical regions. This is due in part to the high resistance against available drugs for the inhibition of parasites, Plasmodium, the cause of the disease. New potent compounds with high clinical utility are urgently needed. In this work, we created a novel model using a regression tree to study structure-activity relationships and predict the inhibition constant, K i of three different antimalarial analogues (Trimethoprim, Pyrimethamine, and Cycloguanil) based on their molecular descriptors. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to study the structure-activity relationships of all three analogues combined. The most relevant descriptors and appropriate parameters of the regression tree are harvested using extremely randomized trees. These descriptors are water accessible surface area, Log of the aqueous solubility, total hydrophobic van der Waals surface area, and molecular refractivity. Out of all possible combinations of these selected parameters and descriptors, the tree with the strongest coefficient of determination is selected to be our prediction model. Predicted K i values from the proposed model show a strong coefficient of determination, R 2 =0.996, to experimental K i values. From the structure of the regression tree, compounds with high accessible surface area of all hydrophobic atoms (ASA_H) and low aqueous solubility of inhibitors (Log S) generally possess low K i values. Our prediction model can also be utilized as a screening test for new antimalarial drug compounds which may reduce the time and expenses for new drug development. New compounds with high predicted K i should be excluded from further drug development. It is also our inference that a threshold of ASA_H greater than 575.80 and Log S less than or equal to -4.36 is a sufficient condition for a new compound to possess a low K i . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis of monodisperse molecularly imprinted microspheres with multi-recognition ability via precipitation polymerization for the selective extraction of cyromazine, melamine, triamterene and trimethoprim.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Hua; Xie, Li-Fu; Dong, Qian; Liu, Hao-Long; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2015-12-15

    Through precipitation polymerization, three monodisperse molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) containing imprints of 2,4-diamino-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine (DM), cyromazine (CY) or trimethoprim (TM), were synthesized using methacrylic acid as functional monomer, divinylbenzene as cross-linker, and a mixture of acetonitrile-toluene (90/10, v/v) as porogen. The morphology and selectivity of the MIPs were characterized and compared systematically. The MIPs had the best specific binding in pure acetonitrile, and the data of adsorption experiment were fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich model. In addition, DM-MIPs showed the excellent binding and multi-recognition capability for CY, melamine (ME), triamterene (TA) and TM, and the binding capacity were 7.18, 7.56, 5.66 and 5.45μmol/g, respectively. Due to the pseudo template and the ability of multi-recognition, DM-MIPs as sorbent material could avoid the effect of template leakage on quantitative analysis. Therefore, DM-MIPs were used as a solid-phase extraction material to enrich ME, CY, TA and TM from different bio-matrix samples for high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of three spiked levels in different bio-matrix samples were ranged from 80.9% to 91.5% with RSD≤4.2 (n=3). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Therapeutic Potential of Caspofungin Combined with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole for Pneumocystis Pneumonia: A Pilot Study in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Maria Luísa; Esteves, Francisco; de Sousa, Bruno; Cardoso, Fernando; Cushion, Melanie T.; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in immunocompromised patients. There are limited alternative therapeutic choices to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) which is the standard first line therapy/prophylaxis for PcP. The efficacy of low doses of caspofungin and caspofungin in association with TMP-SMX standard-prophylactic dose was evaluated in an experimental model of Pneumocystis. Susceptibility of Pneumocystis spp. to low doses of caspofungin and caspofungin/TMP-SMX was evaluated in Balb/c immunosuppressed mice, infected intranasally with P. murina. Caspofungin was administered once daily at 0.1 mg/kg, 0.05 mg/kg, and 0.001 mg/kg and TMP-SMX was administered by oral gavage (12.25 mg/62.5 mg/day), for 21 days. Efficacy was calculated based on the reduction in organism burden determined through quantitative fluorescent-based real-time PCR (qPCR). Serum β-1,3-D-glucan was measured as an additional marker of infection. The present data showed that caspofungin demonstrated anti-Pneumomocystis effect. However, the doses administrated were too low to achieve Pneumocystis eradication, which suggests that echinocandin treatment should not be administrated as mono-therapy. After 21 days of treatment, P. murina was not detected in the lungs of mice with either TMP-SMX or caspofungin/TMP-SMX. The results showed that, even at the lowest concentrations tested, the efficacy of caspofungin in association with TMP-SMX was higher than the efficacy of either drug used alone. The administration of caspofungin/TMP-SMX was at least 1.4 times more effective against P. murina infection than TMP-SMX used alone. The most promising result was achieved with the combination of caspofungin 0.05 mg/kg/day with TMP-SMX 12.5 mg–62.5 mg/day, which reduced the parasite burden to undetectable levels immediately at the 14th day of treatment, showing a highly marked anti-Pneumomocystis effect. These data suggest that the administration of low doses of

  14. Therapeutic potential of caspofungin combined with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for pneumocystis pneumonia: a pilot study in mice.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Maria Luísa; Esteves, Francisco; de Sousa, Bruno; Cardoso, Fernando; Cushion, Melanie T; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in immunocompromised patients. There are limited alternative therapeutic choices to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) which is the standard first line therapy/prophylaxis for PcP. The efficacy of low doses of caspofungin and caspofungin in association with TMP-SMX standard-prophylactic dose was evaluated in an experimental model of Pneumocystis. Susceptibility of Pneumocystis spp. to low doses of caspofungin and caspofungin/TMP-SMX was evaluated in Balb/c immunosuppressed mice, infected intranasally with P. murina. Caspofungin was administered once daily at 0.1 mg/kg, 0.05 mg/kg, and 0.001 mg/kg and TMP-SMX was administered by oral gavage (12.25 mg/62.5 mg/day), for 21 days. Efficacy was calculated based on the reduction in organism burden determined through quantitative fluorescent-based real-time PCR (qPCR). Serum β-1,3-D-glucan was measured as an additional marker of infection. The present data showed that caspofungin demonstrated anti-Pneumomocystis effect. However, the doses administrated were too low to achieve Pneumocystis eradication, which suggests that echinocandin treatment should not be administrated as mono-therapy. After 21 days of treatment, P. murina was not detected in the lungs of mice with either TMP-SMX or caspofungin/TMP-SMX. The results showed that, even at the lowest concentrations tested, the efficacy of caspofungin in association with TMP-SMX was higher than the efficacy of either drug used alone. The administration of caspofungin/TMP-SMX was at least 1.4 times more effective against P. murina infection than TMP-SMX used alone. The most promising result was achieved with the combination of caspofungin 0.05 mg/kg/day with TMP-SMX 12.5 mg-62.5 mg/day, which reduced the parasite burden to undetectable levels immediately at the 14(th) day of treatment, showing a highly marked anti-Pneumomocystis effect. These data suggest that the administration of low doses of

  15. Urinary Concentrations and Antibacterial Activities of Nitroxoline at 250 Milligrams versus Trimethoprim at 200 Milligrams against Uropathogens in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Münch, Fabian; Pilatz, Adrian; Bärmann, Birte; Weidner, Wolfgang; Wagenlehner, Christine M.; Straubinger, Marion; Blenk, Holger; Pfister, Wolfgang; Kresken, Michael; Naber, Kurt G.

    2014-01-01

    Because of the increasing bacterial resistance of uropathogens against standard antibiotics, such as trimethoprim (TMP), older antimicrobial drugs, such as nitroxoline (NTX), should be reevaluated. This randomized crossover study investigated the urinary concentrations of parent drugs and their metabolites and their antibacterial activities (urinary inhibitory titers [UITs] and urinary bactericidal titers [UBTs]) against uropathogens at three different urinary pH values within 24 h in six healthy volunteers after a single oral dose of NTX at 250 mg versus TMP at 200 mg. In three additional volunteers, urinary bactericidal kinetics (UBK) were studied after oral administration of NTX at 250 mg three times a day. The mean urinary concentrations of NTX and NTX sulfate in 24 h were 0.012 to 0.507 mg/liter and 0.28 to 27.83 mg/liter, respectively. The mean urinary concentrations of TMP were 18.79 to 41.59 mg/liter. The antibacterial activity of NTX was higher in acidic urine than in alkaline urine, and that of TMP was higher in alkaline urine than in acidic urine. The UITs and UBTs of NTX were generally lower than those of TMP except for a TMP-resistant Escherichia coli strain, for which NTX showed higher UITs/UBTs than did TMP. UBK showed mainly bacteriostatic activity of NTX in urine. NTX exhibits mainly bacteriostatic activity and TMP also shows bactericidal activity in urine against susceptible strains. NTX is a more active antibacterial in acidic urine, and TMP is more active in alkaline urine. The cumulative effects of multiple doses or inhibition of bacterial adherence could not be evaluated. (This study has been registered at EudraCT under registration no. 2009-015631-32.) PMID:24217699

  16. High-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in bovine milk using an on-line clean-up column.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A V; Cass, Q B

    2005-11-05

    A bidimensional HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) in bovine milk has been developed and validated. After centrifugation, aliquots (150 microl) of milk samples were directly injected to a column-switching HPLC system. At the first step a RAM octyl-BSA column was employed to automatically remove proteins that otherwise would interfere with milk analysis. The mobile phase 0.01 M phosphate buffer pH 6.0:acetonitrile (95:5, v/v) was used in the first 5 min for the elution of milk proteins and then 0.01 M phosphate buffer pH 6.0:acetonitrile (83:17, v/v) for transfer SMX and TMP to the analytical column. The separation of SMX and TMP from one another and from other remaining milk components was performed on an octyl column using the mobile phase 0.01 M phosphate buffer pH 5.0:acetonitrile (82:18, v/v), which were detected by UV at 265 nm. The calibration graphs were linear in the concentration ranges of 25-800 ng/ml and 50-400 ng/ml for SMX and TMP, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were less than 15% for both drugs. The validated method was applied to the analysis of milk samples of twelve (two groups of six) cows after administration (intramuscular or subcutaneous) of a single recommended therapeutic dose of the SMX-TMP combination.

  17. A multidimensional high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with amperometric detection using a boron-doped diamond electrode for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leonardo S; de Moraes, Marcela C; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Cass, Quezia B

    2009-11-10

    The development and validation of a multidimensional HPLC method using an on-line clean-up column coupled with amperometric detection employing a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) in bovine milk are presented. Aliquots of pre-prepared skim-milk samples were directly injected into a RAM octyl-BSA column in order to remove proteins that otherwise would interfere with milk analysis. After exclusion of the milk proteins, SMX and TMP were transferred to the analytical column (an octyl column) and the separation of the compounds from one another and from other endogenous milk components was achieved. SMX and TMP were detected amperometrically at 1.25V vs. Ag/AgCl (3.0molL(-1) KCl). Results with good linearity in the concentration ranges 50-800 and 25-400microgL(-1) for SMX and TMP, respectively, were obtained and no fouling of the BDD electrode was observed within the experimental period of several hours. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were less than 10% for both drugs and the obtained LOD values for SMX and TMP were 25.0 and 15.0microgL(-1), respectively.

  18. Analysis of trimethoprim, lincomycin, sulfadoxin and tylosin in swine manure using laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Solliec, Morgan; Massé, Daniel; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    A new extraction method coupled to a high throughput sample analysis technique was developed for the determination of four veterinary antibiotics. The analytes belong to different groups of antibiotics such as chemotherapeutics, sulfonamides, lincosamides and macrolides. Trimethoprim (TMP), sulfadoxin (SFX), lincomycin (LCM) and tylosin (TYL) were extracted from lyophilized manure using a sonication extraction. McIlvaine buffer and methanol (MeOH) were used as extraction buffers, followed by cation-exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) for clean-up. Analysis was performed by laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical-ionization (LDTD-APCI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) detection. The LDTD is a high throughput sample introduction method that reduces total analysis time to less than 15s per sample, compared to minutes when using traditional liquid chromatography (LC). Various SPE parameters were optimized after sample extraction: the stationary phase, the extraction solvent composition, the quantity of sample extracted and sample pH. LDTD parameters were also optimized: solvent deposition, carrier gas, laser power and corona discharge. The method limit of detection (MLD) ranged from 2.5 to 8.3 µg kg(-1) while the method limit of quantification (MLQ) ranged from 8.3 to 28µgkg(-1). Calibration curves in the manure matrix showed good linearity (R(2)≥ 0.996) for all analytes and the interday and intraday coefficients of variation were below 14%. Recoveries of analytes from manure ranged from 53% to 69%. The method was successfully applied to real manure samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after oral administration of single-dose and multiple-dose.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rongrong; Wang, Yuan; Zou, Xiong; Hu, Kun; Sun, Beibei; Fang, Wenhong; Fu, Guihong; Yang, Xianle

    2017-06-01

    The tissue distribution and depletion of sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) and trimethoprim (TMP) were studied in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after single-dose and multiple-dose oral administration of SMZ-TMP (5:1) via medicated feed. In single-dose oral administration, shrimps were fed once at a dose of 100 mg/kg (drug weight/body weight). In multiple-dose oral administration, shrimps were fed three times a day for three consecutive days at a dose of 100mg/kg. The results showed the kinetic characteristic of SMZ was different from TMP in Pacific white shrimp. In the single-dose administration, the SMZ was widely distributed in the tissues, while TMP was highly concentrated in the hepatopancreas. The t 1/2z values of SMZ were larger and persist longer than TMP in Pacific white shrimp. In the multiple-dose administration, SMZ accumulated well in the tissues, and reached steady state level after successive administrations, while TMP did not. TMP concentration even appeared the downward trend with the increase of drug times. Compared with the single dose, the t 1/2z values of SMZ in hepatopancreas (8.22-11.33h) and muscle (6.53-10.92h) of Pacific white shrimps rose, but the haemolymph dropped (13.76-11.03) in the multiple-dose oral administration. Meanwhile, the corresponding values of TMP also rose in hepatopancreas (4.53-9.65h) and muscle (2.12-2.71h), and declined in haemolymph (7.38-5.25h) following single-dose and multiple-dose oral administration in Pacific white shrimps. In addition, it is worth mentioning that the ratios of SMZ and TMP were unusually larger than the general aim ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Crystallographic Analysis Reveals a Novel Second Binding Site for Trimethoprim in Active Site Double Mutants of Human Dihydrofolate Reductase†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Cody, Vivian; Pace, Jim; Piraino, Jennifer; Queener, Sherry F.

    2011-01-01

    In order to produce a more potent replacement for trimethoprim (TMP) used as a therapy for Pneumocystis pneumonia and targets dihydrofolate reductase from Pneumocystis jirovecii (pjDHFR), it is necessary to understand the determinants of potency and selectivity against DHFR from the mammalian host and fungal pathogen cells. To this end, active site residues in human (h)DHFR were replaced with those from pjDHFR. Structural data are reported for two complexes of TMP with the double mutants Gln35Ser/Asn64Phe (Q35S/N64F) and Gln35Lys/Asn64Phe (Q35K/N64F) of hDHFR that unexpectedly show evidence for the binding of two molecules of TMP: one molecule that binds in the normal folate binding site and the second molecule that binds in a novel subpocket site such that the mutated residue Phe64 is involved in van der Waals contacts to the trimethoxyphenyl ring of the second TMP molecule. Kinetic data for the binding of TMP to hDHFR and pjDHFR reveal an 84-fold selectivity of TMP against pjDHFR (Ki 49 nM) compared to hDHFR (Ki 4093 nM). Two mutants that contain one substitution from pj- and one from the closely related Pneumocystis carinii DHFR (pcDHFR) (Q35K/N64F and Q35S/N64F) show Ki values of 593 and 617 nM, respectively; these Ki values are well above both the Ki for pjDHFR and are similar to pcDHFR (Q35K/N64F) and Q35S/N64F) (305 nM). These results suggest that active site residues 35 and 64 play key roles in determining selectivity for pneumocystis DHFR, but that other residues contribute to the unique binding of inhibitors to these enzymes. PMID:21684339

  1. Treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia with intermediate-dose and step-down to low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: lessons from an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Creemers-Schild, Dina; Kroon, Frank P; Kuijper, Ed J; de Boer, Mark G J

    2016-06-01

    The recommended treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) in an equivalent of TMP 15-20 mg/kg/day and SMX 75-100 mg/kg/day for 2 or 3 weeks. High rates of adverse events are reported with this dose, which raises the question if lower doses are possible. All adult patients diagnosed with PCP in various immune dysfunctions and treated with TMP-SMX between January 1, 2003 and July 1, 2013 in a tertiary university hospital were included. Per institutional protocol, patients initiated treatment on intermediate-dose TMP-SMX (TMP 10-15 mg/kg/day) and could be stepped down to low-dose TMP-SMX (TMP 4-6 mg/kg/day) during treatment. Clinical variables at presentation, relapse rate and mortality rates were compared between intermediate- and step-down treatment groups by uni- and multivariate analyses. A total of 104 patients were included. Twenty-four patients (23 %) were switched to low-dose TMP-SMX after a median of 4.5 days (IQR 2.8-7.0 days). One relapse (4 %) occurred in the step-down group versus none in the intermediate-dose group. The overall 30-day mortality was 13 %. There was 1 death in the step-down group (4 %) compared to 13 deaths (16 %) in the intermediate-dose group. We observed high cure rates of PCP by treatment with intermediate-dose TMP-SMX. In addition, a step-down strategy to low-dose TMP-SMX during treatment in selected patients appears to be safe and does not compromise the outcome of treatment.

  2. Composition, Characterization and Antibacterial activity of Mn(II), Co(II),Ni(II), Cu(II) Zn(II) and Cd(II) mixed ligand complexes Schiff base derived from Trimethoprim with 8-Hydroxy quinoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numan, Ahmed T.; Atiyah, Eman M.; Al-Shemary, Rehab K.; Ulrazzaq, Sahira S. Abd

    2018-05-01

    New Schiff base ligand 2-((4-amino-5-(3, 4, 5-trimethoxybenzyl) pyrimidin-2-ylimino) (phenyl)methyl)benzoic acid] = [HL] was synthesized using microwave irradiation trimethoprim and 2-benzoyl benzoic acid. Mixed ligand complexes of Mn((II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) are reacted in ethanol with Schiff base ligand [HL] and 8-hydroxyquinoline [HQ] then reacted with metal salts in ethanol as a solvent in (1:1:1) ratio. The ligand [HL] is characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis, melting point, elemental microanalysis (C.H.N), 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectra. The mixed ligand complexes are characterized by infrared spectra, electronic spectra, (C.H.N), melting point, atomic absorption, molar conductance and magnetic moment measurements. These measurements indicate that the ligand [HL] coordinates with metal (II) ion in a tridentate manner through the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the ligand, octahedral structures are suggested for these complexes. Antibacterial activity of the ligands [HL], [HQ] and their complexes are studied against (gram positive) and (gram negative) bacteria.

  3. Acinetobacter Species Infections among Navy and Marine Corps Beneficiaries: 2014 Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-20

    cefazolin; DOD providers most commonly prescribed c iprofloxac in and trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole for these cases. Although s lightly different...often prescribed trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole, consistent with 2012 observations. For multidrug-resistant cases in 2014, DON providers most commonly...prescribed cefazolin; DOD providers most commonly prescribed ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole for these cases. Although slightly

  4. An evaluation of hyperkalemia and serum creatinine elevation associated with different dosage levels of outpatient trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole with and without concomitant medications.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Chris A; Nguyen, Ann T

    2013-12-01

    Adverse events associated with high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for outpatient infections, particularly those likely caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, have not been adequately characterized. Describe hyperkalemia and acute renal injury associated with high-dose TMP-SMX. An electronic medical record database retrospective study was conducted of outpatients receiving high-dose or low-dose TMP-SMX, comparing the incidences of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury. Of 6162 patients, more developed hyperkalemia (3.06% vs 1.05%, P < .0001) or acute renal injury (1.99% vs 0.700%, P = .0001) in the high-dose TMP-SMX group. Variables independently associated with hyperkalemia included age >58 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.44; 95% CI = 1.86-7.0; P < .0001), concomitant receipt of an NSAID (OR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.02-2.79; P = .044) or an ACE inhibitor (OR = 3.27; 95% CI = 2.06-5.14; P < .0001), high-dose TMP-SMX prescribed (OR = 2.92; 95% CI = 1.85-4.60; P < .0001), and baseline elevated serum creatinine (OR = 45.1; 95% CI = 21.7-93.2; P < .0001). Variables independently associated with acute renal injury included concomitant receipt of an ACE inhibitor (OR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.01-5.24; P = .048) or a potassium supplement (OR = 4.10; 95% CI = 1.45-10.1; P = .010), high-dose TMP-SMX prescribed (OR = 3.70; 95% CI = 1.70-8.12; P = .0012), and baseline elevated serum creatinine (OR = 2110; 95% CI = 724-7980; P < .0001). Serum creatinine and potassium concentrations should be monitored in outpatients receiving high-dose TMP-SMX.

  5. Feasibility of amlodipine besylate, chloroquine phosphate, dapsone, phenytoin, pyridoxine hydrochloride, sulfadiazine, sulfasalazine, tetracycline hydrochloride, trimethoprim and zonisamide in SyrSpend(®) SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Anderson O; Polonini, Hudson C; Silva, Sharlene L; Patrício, Fernando B; Brandão, Marcos Antônio F; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-01-25

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of 10 commonly used active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) compounded in oral suspensions using an internationally used suspending vehicle (SyrSpend(®) SF PH4 liquid): (i) amlodipine, (as besylate) 1.0mg/mL; (ii) chloroquine phosphate,15.0 mg/mL; (iii) dapsone, 2.0 mg/mL; (iv) phenytoin, 15.0 mg/mL; (v) pyridoxine hydrochloride, 50.0 mg/mL; (vi) sulfadiazine, 100.0 mg/mL; (vii) sulfasalazine, 100.0 mg/mL; (viii) tetracycline hydrochloride, 25.0 mg/mL; (ix) trimethoprim, 10.0 mg/mL; and (x) zonisamide, 10.0 mg/mL. All suspensions were stored both at controlled refrigeration (2-8 °C) and controlled room temperature (20-25 °C). Feasibility was assessed by measuring the percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90-day period. API quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), via a stability-indicating method. Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the expiration date of the final products (API+vehicle) was at least 90 days for all suspensions with regard to both the controlled temperatures. This suggests that the vehicle is stable for compounding APIs from different pharmacological classes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Successful outpatient graded administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in patients without HIV and with a history of sulfonamide adverse drug reaction.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Regan C; Butterfield, Joseph H; Volcheck, Gerald W; Podjasek, Jenna C; Rank, Matthew A; Li, James T C; Harish, Amitha; Poe, Kimberly L; Park, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The outcomes of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) desensitization have been widely reported in the HIV literature but less so in the non-HIV literature. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of graded administration of TMP-SMX in patients without HIV and with a history of TMP-SMX adverse drug reaction (ADR). A retrospective chart review, 2004-2012, of all the patients without HIV seen in the Division of Allergic Diseases and with a history of TMP-SMX ADR who underwent outpatient graded administration of TMP-SMX was conducted. The medical record was reviewed for age, sex, details of the initial ADR to TMP-SMX, an indication for TMP-SMX administration, and outcome. Patients also were contacted by telephone, and medical records were reviewed to determine long-term outcomes. Seventy-two patients (46 women [64%]; mean [SD] age, 57.7 ± 13.89 years]) were included. The most common patient-reported reactions to TMP-SMX were rash 39 (54%), and hives 9 (13%). TMP-SMX administration was needed for the following indications: prophylaxis (62 [86%]) and treatment of infection (10 [14%]). Forty-three of the patients (60%) underwent a 1-day TMP-SMX administration protocol. Thirty-five of the 43 (81%) underwent a 6-step (90 minutes to 6 hours) protocol and 7 of the 43 (16%) underwent a novel 14-step TMP-SMX protocol. Twenty-nine (40%) underwent a >1-day TMP-SMX administration protocol. Our overall success rate was 90% (mean duration of 11 months). Ninety-eight percent of the patients successfully completed a 1-day graded administration protocol, and 76% successfully completed a >1-day protocol. TMP-SMX was stopped in 8 patients because of the ADR. We report the largest case series of successful outpatient graded administration of TMP-SMX with both 1-day and >1-day protocols, which have shown to be safe and well tolerated in patients without HIV and with a history of sulfonamide ADR. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc

  7. Multicenter study of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-related hepatotoxicity: incidence and associated factors among HIV-infected patients treated for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jen-Jia; Huang, Chung-Hao; Liu, Chun-Eng; Tang, Hung-Jen; Yang, Chia-Jui; Lee, Yi-Chien; Lee, Kuan-Yeh; Tsai, Mao-Song; Lin, Shu-Wen; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lu, Po-Liang; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of hepatotoxicity related to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) administered at a therapeutic dose may vary among study populations of different ethnicities and hepatotoxic metabolites of TMP/SMX may be decreased by drug-drug interaction with fluconazole. We aimed to investigate the incidence of hepatotoxicity and the role of concomitant use of fluconazole in HIV-infected patients receiving TMP/SMX for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. We reviewed medical records to collect clinical characteristics and laboratory data of HIV-infected patients who received TMP/SMX for treatment of P. jirovecii pneumonia at 6 hospitals around Taiwan between September 2009 and February 2013. Hepatotoxicity was defined as 2-fold or greater increase of aminotransferase or total bilirubin level from baselines. Roussel UCLAF Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) was used to analyze the causality of drug-induced liver injuries. NAT1 and NAT2 acetylator types were determined with the use of polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism to differentiate common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predictive of the acetylator phenotypes in a subgroup of patients. During the study period, 286 courses of TMP/SMX treatment administered to 284 patients were analyzed. One hundred and fifty-two patients (53.1%) developed hepatotoxicity, and TMP/SMX was considered causative in 47 (16.4%) who had a RUCAM score of 6 or greater. In multivariate analysis, concomitant use of fluconazole for candidiasis was the only factor associated with reduced risk for hepatotoxicity (adjusted odds ratio, 0.372; 95% confidence interval, 0.145-0.957), while serostatus of hepatitis B or C virus, NAT1 and NAT2 acetylator types, or receipt of combination antiretroviral therapy was not. The incidence of hepatotoxicity decreased with an increasing daily dose of fluconazole up to 4.0 mg/kg. We conclude that the incidence of TMP/SMX-related hepatotoxicity was 16.4% in HIV

  8. Effect of UVA/LED/TiO2 photocatalysis treated sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim containing wastewater on antibiotic resistance development in sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qinqing; Hu, Jiangyong

    2018-04-24

    Controlling of antibiotics is the crucial step for preventing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) dissemination; UV photocatalysis has been identified as a promising pre-treatment technology for antibiotics removal. However, information about the effects of intermediates present in the treated antibiotics wastewater on the downstream biological treatment processes or ARGs development is very limited. In the present study, continuous UVA/LED/TiO 2 photocatalysis removed more than 90% of 100 ppb sulfamethoxazole (SMX)/trimethoprim (TMP), the treated wastewater was fed into SBR systems for over one year monitoring. Residual SMX/TMP (2-3 ppb) and intermediates present in the treated wastewater did not adversely affect SBR performance in terms of TOC and TN removal. SMX and TMP resistance genes (sulI, sulII, sulIII, dfrII, dfrV and dfr13) were also quantified in SBRs microbial consortia. Results suggested that continuous feeding of treated SMX/TMP containing wastewaters did not trigger any ARGs promotion during the one year operation. By stopping the input of 100 ppb SMX/TMP, abundance of sulII and dfrV genes were reduced by 83% and 100%, respectively. sulI gene was identified as the most persistence ARG, and controlling of 100 ppb SMX input did not achieve significant removal of sulI gene. A significant correlation between sulI gene and class 1 integrons was found at the level of p = 1.4E-10 (r = 0.94), and sulII gene positively correlated with the plasmid transfer efficiency (r = 2.442E-10, r = 0.87). Continuous input of 100 ppb SMX enhanced plasmid transfer efficiency in the SBR system, resulting in sulII gene abundance increasing more than 40 times. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of trimethoprim on life history parameters, oxidative stress, and the expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Min-Chul; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Lee, Young Hwan; Park, Jun Chul; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-09-01

    Trimethoprim (TMP) is an antibiotic that has been detected in various environments including marine habitats; however, the toxic effects of TMP are poorly understood in non-target marine organisms. In this study, the effects of TMP on mortality, development, reproduction, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and transcription levels of antioxidant and xenobiotic detoxification-related enzyme genes were investigated in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus. The TMP half lethal dose at 48 h (LC50-48 h) in nauplius and TMP LC50-96 h in adult T. japonicus copepods was determined as 156 mg/L and 200 mg/L, respectively. In TMP-exposed T. japonicus, delayed developmental time and impaired reproduction were observed as harmful effects on the life history parameters. Increased ROS levels were also shown in response to TMP exposure at the highest concentration (100 mg/L TMP) and the expression of antioxidant- (e.g. GST-kappa, GST-sigma) and xenobiotic detoxification (e.g. CYPs)-related genes were upregulated in a time and/or dose-dependent manner in response to TMP. Particularly, significant upregulation of three CYP genes (Tj-CYP3024A2, Tj-CYP3024A3 and Tj-CYP3027C2) were examined, suggesting that these CYP genes are likely playing an important role in the TMP detoxification metabolism in T. japonicus. In summary, we found that TMP induced oxidative stress via the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant- and xenobiotic detoxification-related genes, leading to changes in life history parameters such as developmental delay and reproduction impairment. Three Tj-CYP genes (Tj-CYP3024A2, Tj-CYP3024A3 and Tj-CYP3027C2) could be useful as potential T. japonicus biomarkers in response to antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sorption-desorption and transport of trimethoprim and sulfonamide antibiotics in agricultural soil: effect of soil type, dissolved organic matter, and pH.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Lei; Lin, Shuang-Shuang; Dai, Chao-Meng; Shi, Lu; Zhou, Xue-Fei

    2014-05-01

    Use of animal manure is a main source of veterinary pharmaceuticals (VPs) in soil and groundwater through a series of migration processes. The sorption-desorption and transport of four commonly used VPs including trimethoprim (TMP), sulfapyridine, sulfameter, and sulfadimethoxine were investigated in three soil layers taken from an agricultural field in Chongming Island China and two types of aqueous solution (0.01 M CaCl2 solution and wastewater treatment plant effluent). Results from sorption-desorption experiments showed that the sorption behavior of selected VPs conformed to the Freundlich isotherm equation. TMP exhibited higher distribution coefficients (K d = 6.73-9.21) than other sulfonamides (K d = 0.03-0.47), indicating a much stronger adsorption capacity of TMP. The percentage of desorption for TMP in a range of 8-12 % is not so high to be considered significant. Low pH (

  11. Antibodies to co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim and/or sulfamethoxazole) related to the presence of the drug in a commercial low-ionic-strength solution.

    PubMed

    Pham, Bach-Nga; Gien, Dominique; Bensaad, Farid; Babinet, Jérome; Dubeaux, Isabelle; Rouger, Philippe; Le Pennec, Pierre-Yves

    2012-04-01

    Drug-dependent antibodies have been associated with approximately 10% of acquired immune hemolytic anemia cases. These antibodies are a rare cause of interference in pretransfusion red blood cell (RBC) serologic testing. The aim of this work was to report three cases of subjects developing antibodies against co-trimoxazole, a combination of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX). Blood samples of donor/patients were referred to our laboratory for the exploration of a positive antibody detection test. There was no recent history of drug taking. Antibody identification was performed by gel test using an indirect antiglobulin test, with reagent RBCs in low-ionic-strength solutions (LISS) containing co-trimoxazole or not. All three sera showed positive reactions when RBCs were resuspended in LISS containing co-trimoxazole, but negative reactions when RBCs were resuspended in LISS without antibiotic. We detected antibodies against co-trimoxazole showing three different antibody patterns: anti-TMP plus anti-SMX, anti-TMP alone, or anti-SMX alone. Anti-TMP showed an apparent anti-Ku specificity in the two cases where it was present. Anti-SMX showed an apparent anti-H specificity in one of the two cases described. The drug-dependent antibodies were not associated with acquired hemolytic anemia or other pathologies. Antibodies against co-trimoxazole may only be detected when using a diluent for reagent RBCs containing the drug in question. Antibody pattern (anti-TMP and/or anti-SMX) may vary according to individuals' immune response. Drug-dependent antibodies may react as antibodies against a high-prevalence antigen, supporting the hypothesis of antibodies to drug and membrane components. Drug-dependent antibodies such as anti-co-trimoxazole may be a serologic finding without clinical features. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. Trimethoprim–metformin interaction and its genetic modulation by OCT2 and MATE1 transporters

    PubMed Central

    Grün, Barbara; Kiessling, Michael K; Burhenne, Jürgen; Riedel, Klaus-Dieter; Weiss, Johanna; Rauch, Geraldine; Haefeli, Walter E; Czock, David

    2013-01-01

    Aims Metformin pharmacokinetics depends on the presence and activity of membrane-bound drug transporters and may be affected by transport inhibitors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trimethoprim on metformin pharmacokinetics and genetic modulation by organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1) polymorphisms. Methods Twenty-four healthy volunteers received metformin 500 mg three times daily for 10 days and trimethoprim 200 mg twice daily from day 5 to 10. Effects of trimethoprim on steady-state metformin pharmacokinetics were analysed. Results In the population as a whole, trimethoprim significantly reduced the apparent systemic metformin clearance (CL/F) from 74 to 54 l h−1 and renal metformin clearance from 31 to 21 l h−1, and prolonged half-life from 2.7 to 3.6 h (all P < 0.01). This resulted in an increase in the maximal plasma concentration by 38% and in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve by 37%. In volunteers polymorphic for both OCT2 and MATE1, trimethoprim had no relevant inhibitory effects on metformin kinetics. Trimethoprim was associated with a decrease in creatinine clearance from 133 to 106 ml min−1 (P < 0.01) and an increase in plasma lactate from 0.94 to 1.2 mmol l−1 (P = 0.016). Conclusions The extent of inhibition by trimethoprim was moderate, but might be clinically relevant in patients with borderline renal function or high-dose metformin. PMID:23305245

  13. Genotypic Characterization of Egypt Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Isolates Expressing Coli Surface Antigen 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    47%) of these isolates were resistant to ampicillin, a third (37%) of the isolates were resistant to trimethoprim -sulfamethoxazole, and 24% of the...isolates were tetracycline-resistant. A blaTEM gene was detected in 24 (83%) ampicillin-resistant isolates. Trimethoprim -sulfamethoxazole-resistant...ciprofloxacin (CIP) 5 μg, amikacin (AN) 30 μg, gentamicin (GEN) 10 μg, tetracycline (TET) 30 μg, trimethoprim 1.25 μg / sulfamethoxazole 23.75 μg (SXT

  14. A pharmacokinetic and residual study of sulfadiazine/trimethoprim in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) with single- and multiple-dose oral administrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Luo, L; Xiao, H; Zhang, R; Deng, Y; Tan, A; Jiang, L

    2016-06-01

    A pharmacokinetic and tissue residue study of sulfadiazine combined with trimethoprim (SDZ/TMP = 5/1) was conducted in Siniperca chuatsi after single- (120 mg/kg) or multiple-dose (an initial dose of 120 mg/kg followed by a 5-day consecutive dose of 60 mg/kg) oral administrations at 28 °C. The absorption half-life (t1/2α ), elimination half-life (t1/2β ), volume of distribution (Vd /F), and the total body clearance (ClB /F) for SDZ and TMP were 4.3 ± 1.7 to 6.3 ± 1.8 h and 2.4 ± 1.0 to 3.9 ± 0.9 h, 25.9 ± 4.5 to 53.0 ± 5.6 h and 11.8 ± 3.5 to 17.1 ± 3.4 h, 2.34 ± 0.78 to 3.67 ± 0.99 L/kg and 0.39 ± 0.01 to 1.33 ± 0.57 L/kg, and 0.03 ± 0.01 to 0.06 ± 0.01 L/kg·h and 0.02 ± 0.01 to 0.05 ± 0.01 L/kg·h, respectively, after the single dose. The elimination half-life (t1/2β ) and mean residue time (MRT) for SDZ and TMP were 68.8 ± 7.8 to 139.8 ± 12.3 h and 34.0 ± 5.5 to 56.1 ± 6.8 h, and 99.3 ± 6.1 to 201.7 ± 11.5 h and 49.1 ± 3.5 to 81.0 ± 5.1 h, respectively, after the multiple-dose administration. The daily oral SDZ/TMP administration might cause a high tissue concentration and long t1/2β , thereby affecting antibacterial activity. The withdrawal time for this oral SDZ/TMP formulation (according to the accepted guidelines in Europe for maximum residue limits, <0.1 mg/kg of tissues for sulfonamides, and <0.05 mg/kg for TMP) should not be <36 days for fish. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of linezolid or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in combination with rifampicin as alternative oral treatments based on an in vitro pharmacodynamic model of staphylococcal biofilm.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Cristina; Murillo, Oscar; Ribera, Alba; Lloberas, Nuria; Gómez-Junyent, Joan; Tubau, Fe; Fontova, Pere; Cabellos, Carme; Ariza, Javier

    2018-06-01

    Combinations of linezolid (LZD) or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) plus rifampicin (RIF) are alternative oral treatments for staphylococcal prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) when fluoroquinolones are not possible to use, but there is limited evidence regarding their activity. This study evaluated the efficacy of LZD and SXT, alone and in combination with RIF, against Staphylococcus aureus in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic biofilm model. Using the CDC Biofilm Reactor ® system, simulated regimens of LZD (600 mg every 12 h), SXT (160/800 mg every 8 h) and levofloxacin (LVX) (750 mg/day), alone and in combination with RIF (600 mg/day), were evaluated against one methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and one methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain. Antibiotic efficacy was evaluated by the decrease in planktonic bacterial counts from medium and biofilm-embedded bacteria from coupons over 56 h. Resistant strains were screened. In both strains, SXT alone was ineffective and LZD presented low activity, but no resistance emerged. Combinations with RIF significantly increased the antibiofilm efficacy against MSSA (Δlog CFU/mL 56h-0h: SXT + RIF, -2.9 and LZD + RIF, -3.1), but RIF-resistant strains appeared with SXT + RIF. Against MRSA, LZD + RIF (-3.1) protected against the emergence of resistance and was more effective than SXT + RIF (-0.6; P <0.05), in which RIF-resistant strains were again detected. LVX + RIF confirmed its high efficacy against biofilm-embedded bacteria, this being the most effective therapy (-5.1 against MSSA). The emergence of RIF-resistant strains with SXT + RIF poses serious concerns for its use in clinical practice. Interestingly, LZD + RIF appears to be an appropriate alternative for PJI caused by LVX-resistant S. aureus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Renal Insufficiency in Concert with Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone Inhibition Is a Major Risk Factor for Hyperkalemia Associated with Low-dose Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in Adults.

    PubMed

    Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Niiro, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Kenji; Oryoji, Kensuke; Kamada, Kazuo; Mizuki, Shinichi; Yokota, Eisuke

    2016-01-01

    Low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is commonly used to prevent pneumocystis pneumonia in daily practice. Previous reports have shown a relationship between high- or standard-dose of TMP-SMX and hyperkalemia, however it remains unclear whether this is true for low-dose TMP-SMX. In this study we sought to determine the risk factors for hyperkalemia associated with low-dose TMP-SMX. In this retrospective cohort study, 186 consecutive adult patients who received TMP-SMX as prophylaxis for pneumocystis pneumonia from January 2014 to January 2015 were evaluated. Data on the patients' age, gender, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), baseline serum potassium, maximum serum potassium, duration reaching the maximal serum potassium level, dosage, and concomitant use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), β-blockers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and potassium-sparing diuretics were retrospectively collected. Hyperkalemia was defined as a serum potassium level ≥5 mEq/L. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The median age of the patients was 66 years and 51.1% were men. Hyperkalemia associated with low-dose TMP-SMX was observed in 32 patients (17.2%). The median duration to reach the maximal serum potassium level was 12 days. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified renal insufficiency to be a major risk factor for hyperkalemia associated with low-dose TMP-SMX (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), adjusted OR 4.62). Moreover, in the subpopulation of patients with renal insufficiency, ACEi/ARB use was considered to be a major risk factor for hyperkalemia (adjusted OR 3.96). Renal insufficiency in concert with ACEi/ARB use is a major risk factor for hyperkalemia induced by low-dose TMP-SMX.

  17. Development and validation of a normal-phase high-performance thin layer chromatographic method for the analysis of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in co-trimoxazole tablets.

    PubMed

    Shewiyo, D H; Kaale, E; Risha, P G; Dejaegher, B; Smeyers-Verbeke, J; Vander Heyden, Y

    2009-10-16

    Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is often the ultimate mortal cause for immunocompromised individuals, such as HIV/AIDS patients. Currently, the most effective medicine for treatment and prophylaxis is co-trimoxazole, a synergistic combination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP). In order to ensure a continued availability of high quality co-trimoxazole tablets within resource-limited countries, Medicines Regulatory Authorities must perform quality control of these products. However, most pharmacopoeial methods are based on high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods. Because of the lack of equipment, the Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority (TFDA) laboratory decided to develop and validate an alternative method of analysis based on the TLC technique with densitometric detection, for the routine quality control of co-trimoxazole tablets. SMX and TMP were separated on glass-backed silica gel 60 F(254) plates in a high-performance thin layer chromatograph (HPTLC). The mobile phase was comprised of toluene, ethylacetate and methanol (50:28.5:21.5, v:v:v). Detection wavelength was 254 nm. The R(f) values were 0.30 and 0.61 for TMP and SMX, respectively. This method was validated for linearity, precision, trueness, specificity and robustness. Cochran's criterion test indicated homoscedasticity of variances for the calibration data. The F-tests for lack-of-fit indicated that straight lines were adequate to describe the relationship between spot areas and concentrations for each compound. The percentage relative standard deviations for repeatability and time-different precisions were 0.98 and 1.32, and 0.83 and 1.64 for SMX and TMP, respectively. Percentage recovery values were 99.00%+/-1.83 and 99.66%+/-1.21 for SMX and TMP, respectively. The method was found to be robust and was then successfully applied to analyze co-trimoxazole tablet samples.

  18. Occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli from wastewater in the United States: A retrospective analysis of isolates from 2005 (abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    E. coli isolates from primary and secondary effluents collected from seven WWTPs between 2003 and 2004 were recovered and then screened using one of four antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim). We now report on the testing of a sub...

  19. Occurrence of Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia Coli from Wastewater in the United States: a Retrospective Analysis of Isolates from 2005

    EPA Science Inventory

    E. coli isolates from primary and secondary effluents collected from seven WWTPs between 2003 and 2004 were recovered and then screened using one of four antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim). We now report on the testing of a sub...

  20. Novel LTCC-potentiometric microfluidic device for biparametric analysis of organic compounds carrying plastic antibodies as ionophores: application to sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim.

    PubMed

    Almeida, S A A; Arasa, E; Puyol, M; Martinez-Cisneros, C S; Alonso-Chamarro, J; Montenegro, M C B S M; Sales, M G F

    2011-12-15

    Monitoring organic environmental contaminants is of crucial importance to ensure public health. This requires simple, portable and robust devices to carry out on-site analysis. For this purpose, a low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) microfluidic potentiometric device (LTCC/μPOT) was developed for the first time for an organic compound: sulfamethoxazole (SMX). Sensory materials relied on newly designed plastic antibodies. Sol-gel, self-assembling monolayer and molecular-imprinting techniques were merged for this purpose. Silica beads were amine-modified and linked to SMX via glutaraldehyde modification. Condensation polymerization was conducted around SMX to fill the vacant spaces. SMX was removed after, leaving behind imprinted sites of complementary shape. The obtained particles were used as ionophores in plasticized PVC membranes. The most suitable membrane composition was selected in steady-state assays. Its suitability to flow analysis was verified in flow-injection studies with regular tubular electrodes. The LTCC/μPOT device integrated a bidimensional mixer, an embedded reference electrode based on Ag/AgCl and an Ag-based contact screen-printed under a micromachined cavity of 600 μm depth. The sensing membranes were deposited over this contact and acted as indicating electrodes. Under optimum conditions, the SMX sensor displayed slopes of about -58.7 mV/decade in a range from 12.7 to 250 μg/mL, providing a detection limit of 3.85 μg/mL and a sampling throughput of 36 samples/h with a reagent consumption of 3.3 mL per sample. The system was adjusted later to multiple analyte detection by including a second potentiometric cell on the LTCC/μPOT device. No additional reference electrode was required. This concept was applied to Trimethoprim (TMP), always administered concomitantly with sulphonamide drugs, and tested in fish-farming waters. The biparametric microanalyzer displayed Nernstian behaviour, with average slopes -54.7 (SMX) and +57.8 (TMP) m

  1. Orphan Toxin OrtT (YdcX) of Escherichia coli Reduces Growth during the Stringent Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-29

    antimicrobials trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole; these antimicrobials induce the stringent response by inhibiting tetrahydrofolate synthesis...in the presence of both antimicrobials trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole; these antimicrobials induce the stringent response by inhibiting...level [20]. Toxins 2015, 7 301 Despite these difficulties in determining physiological roles, TA systems are clearly phage inhibition systems

  2. Dissemination of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Drug Resistance Genes Associated with Class 1 and Class 2 Integrons Among Gram-Negative Bacteria from HIV Patients in South India.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Kumar, Marimuthu Ragavan; Arunagirinathan, Narasingam; Srivani, Seetharaman; Dhanasezhian, Aridoss; Vijaykanth, Nallusamy; Manikandan, Natesan; Balakrishnan, Sethuramalingam; Vignesh, Ramachandran; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Solomon, Suniti; Solomon, Sunil S

    2017-07-01

    The antibiotic, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), is generally used for prophylaxis in HIV individuals to protect them from Pneumocystis jiroveci infection. Long-term use of TMP-SMX develops drug resistance among bacteria in HIV patients. The study was aimed to detect the TMP-SMX resistance genes among gram-negative bacteria from HIV patients. TMP-SMX-resistant isolates were detected by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. While TMP resistance genes such as dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, and dfrA17 and SMX resistance genes such as sul1 and sul2 were detected by multiplex PCR, class 1 and class 2 integrons were detected by standard monoplex PCR. Of the 151 TMP-SMX-resistant bacterial isolates, 3 were positive for sul1 alone, 48 for sul2 alone, 11 for dfrA7 alone, 21 for sul1 and sul2, 1 for sul1 and dfrA7, 23 for sul2 and dfrA7, 2 for sul2 and dfrA5, 41 for sul1, sul2, and dfrA7, and 1 for sul2, dfrA5, and dfrA7. Of 60 TMP-SMX-resistant isolates positive for integrons, 44 had class 1 and 16 had class 2 integrons. It was found that the prevalence of sul genes (n = 202; p < 0.001) was higher compared with dfr genes (n = 80; p < 0.001), and 87.4% (n = 132; p < 0.001) of TMP-SMX-resistant isolates also were positive for β-lactamase production. This type of study is reported for the first time from HIV patients in India. Therefore, this study indicates that dissemination of TMP-SMX resistance genes and class 1 and class 2 integrons along with β-lactamase production among gram-negative bacteria in HIV patients will certainly make their treatment to bacterial infections more complicated in clinical settings.

  3. High Prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii Dihydropteroate Synthase Gene Mutations in Patients with a First Episode of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Santiago, Chile, and Clinical Response to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Carolina A; Chabé, Magali; George, Claudio; Cárdenas, Alejandra; Durán, Luisa; Guerrero, Julia; Bustamante, Rebeca; Matos, Olga; Huang, Laurence; Miller, Robert F; Vargas, Sergio L

    2017-02-01

    Mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene of Pneumocystis jirovecii are associated with the failure of sulfa prophylaxis. They can develop by selection in patients receiving sulfa drugs or be acquired via person-to-person transmission. DHPS mutations raise concern about the decreasing efficacy of sulfa drugs, the main available therapeutic tool for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). The prevalence of Pneumocystis DHPS mutations was examined in Pneumocystis isolates from 56 sulfa-prophylaxis-naive adults with a first episode of PCP from 2002 to 2010 in Santiago, Chile. Their clinical history was reviewed to analyze the effect of these mutations on response to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) therapy and outcome. Mutant genotypes occurred in 22 (48%) of 46 HIV-infected patients and in 5 (50%) of 10 HIV-uninfected patients. Compared to patients with a wild-type genotype, those with mutant genotypes were more likely to experience sulfa treatment-limiting adverse reactions and to have a twice-longer duration of mechanical ventilation if mechanically ventilated. Specific genotypes did not associate with death, which occurred in none of the HIV-infected patients and in 50% of the non-HIV-infected patients. Chile has a high prevalence of DHPS mutations, which were presumably acquired through interhuman transmission because patients were not on sulfa prophylaxis. These results contrast with the low prevalence observed in other Latin American countries with similar usage of sulfa drugs, suggesting that additional sources of resistant genotypes may be possible. The twice-longer duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with mutant DHPS genotypes suggests a decreased efficacy of TMP-SMX and warrants collaborative studies to assess the relevance of DHPS mutations and further research to increase therapeutic options for PCP. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. High Prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii Dihydropteroate Synthase Gene Mutations in Patients with a First Episode of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Santiago, Chile, and Clinical Response to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Carolina A.; George, Claudio; Cárdenas, Alejandra; Durán, Luisa; Guerrero, Julia; Bustamante, Rebeca; Matos, Olga; Huang, Laurence; Miller, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene of Pneumocystis jirovecii are associated with the failure of sulfa prophylaxis. They can develop by selection in patients receiving sulfa drugs or be acquired via person-to-person transmission. DHPS mutations raise concern about the decreasing efficacy of sulfa drugs, the main available therapeutic tool for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). The prevalence of Pneumocystis DHPS mutations was examined in Pneumocystis isolates from 56 sulfa-prophylaxis-naive adults with a first episode of PCP from 2002 to 2010 in Santiago, Chile. Their clinical history was reviewed to analyze the effect of these mutations on response to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) therapy and outcome. Mutant genotypes occurred in 22 (48%) of 46 HIV-infected patients and in 5 (50%) of 10 HIV-uninfected patients. Compared to patients with a wild-type genotype, those with mutant genotypes were more likely to experience sulfa treatment-limiting adverse reactions and to have a twice-longer duration of mechanical ventilation if mechanically ventilated. Specific genotypes did not associate with death, which occurred in none of the HIV-infected patients and in 50% of the non-HIV-infected patients. Chile has a high prevalence of DHPS mutations, which were presumably acquired through interhuman transmission because patients were not on sulfa prophylaxis. These results contrast with the low prevalence observed in other Latin American countries with similar usage of sulfa drugs, suggesting that additional sources of resistant genotypes may be possible. The twice-longer duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with mutant DHPS genotypes suggests a decreased efficacy of TMP-SMX and warrants collaborative studies to assess the relevance of DHPS mutations and further research to increase therapeutic options for PCP. PMID:27855071

  5. Crozer-Chester Medical Center Burn Research Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    adult patients with documented A. baumannii infections to determine if there are any subtle or frank differences in outcome with the use of these...Center  Pyoderma Gangrenosum in a Burn Treatment Center  Trimethoprim -induced hyperkalemia in burn admissions treated with intravenous or oral... trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole  Impact of multiple drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii on changes in antibiotic susceptibility of

  6. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Wound Cultures Recovered from a Combat Support Hospital in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    analyzed. Antimicrobial resistance testing was determined by broth microdilution and the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System. The genotypic pattern was... trimethoprim -sulfamethoxazole (94%), and clindamy- cin (94%). Of agents not typically recommended as monotherapy, 98% of isolates were susceptible to rifampin...was van- comycin (Table 1). The most active oral antistaphylococcal agents were tetracycline (95.2% of isolates susceptible) and trimethoprim

  7. Towards New Antifolates Targeting Eukaryotic Opportunistic Infections

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Bolstad, D; Bolstad, E

    2009-01-01

    Trimethoprim, an antifolate commonly prescribed in combination with sulfamethoxazole, potently inhibits several prokaryotic species of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). However, several eukaryotic pathogenic organisms are resistant to trimethoprim, preventing its effective use as a therapeutic for those infections. We have been building a program to reengineer trimethoprim to more potently and selectively inhibit eukaryotic species of DHFR as a viable strategy for new drug discovery targeting several opportunistic pathogens. We have developed a series of compounds that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of DHFR from the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma as well as the fungus Candida glabrata. A comparison ofmore » the structures of DHFR from the fungal species Candida glabrata and Pneumocystis suggests that the compounds may also potently inhibit Pneumocystis DHFR.« less

  8. Occurrence of Antibiotics in Surface and Groundwater of a Drinking Water Catchment Area in Germany.

    PubMed

    Burke, Victoria; Richter, Doreen; Greskowiak, Janek; Mehrtens, Anne; Schulz, Lena; Massmann, Gudrun

    2016-07-01

    The contamination of the aquatic environment with organic micropollutants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals, has become an increasingly serious problem and has aroused attention in the course of the last decades. This study presents a screening for a series of veterinary antibiotics, potentially introduced by the application of liquid manure, in ground- and surface water of a drinking water catchment in Lower Saxony, Germany. Of the 26 compounds analyzed, eight, including sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, dehydrato-erythromycin, sulfadimidine, tylosin, and tetracycline were detected in surface water samples. Trimethoprim was detected in 11 out of 15 shallow groundwater samples, indicating its high environmental relevance. Column sorption experiments conducted on trimethoprim show a comparatively moderate sorption affinity to sandy aquifer material with a retardation coefficient of 5.7.

  9. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the relative efficacy and safety of treatment regimens for HIV-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis: is trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole a real option?

    PubMed

    Hernandez, A V; Thota, P; Pellegrino, D; Pasupuleti, V; Benites-Zapata, V A; Deshpande, A; Penalva de Oliveira, A C; Vidal, J E

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to evaluate the efficacy and safety of therapies for cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected adults. The pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine (P-S) combination is considered the mainstay therapy for cerebral toxoplasmosis and pyrimethamine plus clindamycin (P-C) is the most common alternative treatment. Although trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has potential advantages, its use is infrequent. We searched PubMed and four other databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies. Two independent reviewers searched the databases, identified studies and extracted data. Risk ratios (RRs) were pooled across studies using random-effects models. Nine studies were included (five RCTs, three retrospective cohort studies and one prospective cohort study). In comparison to P-S, treatment with P-C or TMP-SMX was associated with similar rates of partial or complete clinical response [P-C: RR 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-1.08; TMP-SMX: RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.78-1.21], radiological response (P-C: RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.82-1.03), skin rash (P-C: RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.56-1.17; TMP-SMX: RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.02-1.29), gastrointestinal impairment (P-C: RR 5.16; 95% CI 0.66-40.11), and drug discontinuation because of adverse events (P-C: RR 0.32; 95% CI 0.07-1.47). Liver impairment was more frequent with P-S than P-C (P-C vs. P-S: RR 0.48; 95% CI 0.24-0.97). The current evidence fails to identify a superior regimen in terms of relative efficacy or safety for the treatment of HIV-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis. Use of TMP-SMX as preferred treatment may be consistent with the available evidence and other real-world considerations. Larger comparative studies are needed. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  10. [Microbiological characterization of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae isolated in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Bravo Fariñas, Laura; Fernández, Anabel; Ramírez, María M; Llop, Alina; Martínez, Gerardo; Hernández, Raquel I; Cabrera, Luis E; Morier, Luis; Fraga, Jorge; Núñez, Fidel A; Aguila, Adalberto

    2007-01-01

    The study of 422 non-01 Vibrio cholerae strains from nine provinces, 9 of them isolated from a water-borne disease outbreak, was performed. All the strains exhibited antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence factors. The nine strains from the outbreak were subjected to a DNA macrorestriction study based on the pulsed field electrophoresis technique. For the first time in Cuba and the Caribbean. The circulation of atypical non-01 V cholerae strains (resistent to vibriostatic compound 0129 and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). The behavior of antimicrobial susceptibility evinced for the first time the circulation of two different resistence patterns in Cuba (ampicilline, trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, sulfonamide and tetracycline, trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, sulfonamide). The frequency of trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole-resistent strains was similar during the whole period of study. However, resistance to ampicilline decreased whereas resistance to tetracycline increased. The main found virulence factors were gelatinase, hemolysine, elastase and adherence to Hep-2 cells. On the other hand, the outbreak strains showed higher percentages than the others due to the presence of heat-liable toxin and fimbriae. The results of the molecular and epidemiological studies allowed giving a speedy and accurate response that explained the etiology of the first food-borne disease outbreak.

  11. Successful treatment of toxoplasmosis-associated choroidal neovascular lesions with bevacizumab and antiparasitic therapy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Ju; Chen, San-Ni; Hwang, Jiunn-Feng; Hu, Pei-Shin

    2011-01-01

    To report the effects of oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and intravitreal bevacizumab injection in the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis-associated choroidal neovascular lesions (CNV). This was a noncomparative, nonrandomized, consecutive case series. All eyes with ocular toxoplasmosis-associated CNV received one intravitreal bevacizumab injection under the coverage of oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The changes in best-corrected visual acuity were recorded. Serial fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and indocyanine green angiography were performed to measure the treatment efficacy. Three eyes of two patients with a history of ocular toxoplasmosis had active CNV demonstrated by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography. Each was treated with oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and one intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Best-corrected visual acuity, fundus photographs, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and indocyanine green angiography all showed favorable results. No ocular or systemic complications were noted. In all three eyes, the CNV subsided and vision improved. Oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is an effective and less expensive antibiotic against Toxoplasma gondii. Intravitreal bevacizumab injection appears to be a well-tolerated treatment for toxoplasmosis-associated CNV and has the potential as an adjuvant therapy to improve final vision. More cases and further studies are required.

  12. Three-dimensional structures of unligated uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis at 1.4 Å resolution and its complex with an antibacterial drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mironov, A. S.; Betzel, C.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Uridine phosphorylases play an essential role in the cellular metabolism of some antibacterial agents. Acute infectious diseases (bubonic plague, yersiniosis, pseudotuberculosis, etc., caused by bacteria of the genus Yersinia) are treated using both sulfanilamide medicines and antibiotics, including trimethoprim. The action of an antibiotic on a bacterial cell is determined primarily by the character of its interactions with cellular components, including those which are not targets (for example, with pyrimidine phosphorylases). This type of interaction should be taken into account in designing drugs. The three-dimensional structure of uridine phosphorylase from the bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) with the free active site was determined for the first time by X-ray crystallography and refined at 1.40 Å resolution (DPI = 0.062 Å; ID PDB: 4OF4). The structure of the complex of YptUPh with the bacteriostatic drug trimethoprim was studied by molecular docking and molecular dynamics methods. The trimethoprim molecule was shown to be buffered by the enzyme YptUPh, resulting in a decrease in the efficiency of the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Yersinia with trimethoprim.

  13. [Efficacy and safety profile of cranberry in infants and children with recurrent urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Puentes, V; Uberos, J; Rodríguez-Belmonte, R; Nogueras-Ocaña, M; Blanca-Jover, E; Narbona-López, E

    2015-06-01

    Cranberry prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants has proven effective in the experimental model of the adult. There are few data on its efficacy, safety and recommended dose in the pediatric population. A controlled, double-blind Phase III clinical trial was conducted on children older than 1 month of age to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cranberry in recurrent urinary tract infection. The assumption was of the non-inferiority of cranberry versus trimethoprim. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan Meier analysis. A total of 85 patients under 1 year of age and 107 over 1 year were recruited. Trimethoprim was prescribed to 75 patients and 117 received cranberry. The cumulative rate of urinary infection associated with cranberry prophylaxis in children under 1 year was 46% (95% CI; 23-70) in children and 17% (95% CI; 0-38) in girls, effectively at doses inferior to trimethoprim. In children over 1 year-old cranberry was not inferior to trimethoprim, with a cumulative rate of urine infection of 26% (95% CI; 12-41). The cranberry was well tolerated and with no new adverse effects. Our study confirms that cranberry is safe and effective in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants and children. With the doses used, their efficiency is not less than that observed for trimethoprim among those over 1 year-old. (Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN16968287). Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Brucella melitensis Isolates in Peru

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    cipruftoxacin, and tl’imethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were determined by the Etest method. All isulates were sensitive to tested drugs during the periuds...rifampin (RIF), strepto- mycin, gentamicin (GE), and trimethoprim -sulfarnethoxazole (SXT); generally, two or three drugs arc used in combination for... trimethoprim -sulfamethoxazole in Kuwait (5) and Mcxicu (9) has similarly been reported. In this study, we sought to evaluate the susceptibility of Brucella

  15. Crozer-Chester Medical Center Burn Research Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    documented A. baumannii infections to determine if there are any subtle or frank differences in outcome with the use of these antimicrobials. Using...and will potentially be excluded and there are 4 patients that were withdrawn by research staff. We determined that a total of 7 patients will need... Trimethoprim -induced hyperkalemia in burn admission treated with intravenous or oral trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole  Impact of multiple drug resistant

  16. Bacteria-mediated effects of antibiotics on Daphnia nutrition.

    PubMed

    Gorokhova, Elena; Rivetti, Claudia; Furuhagen, Sara; Edlund, Anna; Ek, Karin; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2015-05-05

    In polluted environments, contaminant effects may be manifested via both direct toxicity to the host and changes in its microbiota, affecting bacteria-host interactions. In this context, particularly relevant is exposure to antibiotics released into environment. We examined effects of the antibiotic trimethoprim on microbiota of Daphnia magna and concomitant changes in the host feeding. In daphnids exposed to 0.25 mg L(-1) trimethoprim for 24 h, the microbiota was strongly affected, with (1) up to 21-fold decrease in 16S rRNA gene abundance and (2) a shift from balanced communities dominated by Curvibacter, Aquabacterium, and Limnohabitans in controls to significantly lower diversity under dominance of Pelomonas in the exposed animals. Moreover, decreased feeding and digestion was observed in the animals exposed to 0.25-2 mg L(-1) trimethoprim for 48 h and then fed 14C-labeled algae. Whereas the proportion of intact algal cells in the guts increased with increased trimethoprim concentration, ingestion and incorporation rates as well as digestion and incorporation efficiencies decreased significantly. Thus, antibiotics may impact nontarget species via changes in their microbiota leading to compromised nutrition and, ultimately, growth. These bacteria-mediated effects in nontarget organisms may not be unique for antibiotics, but also relevant for environmental pollutants of various nature.

  17. Optimal regimens of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim for chemoprophylaxis of Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases: results from a non-blinded, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Masako; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Odani, Toshio; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Yokogawa, Naoto; Nagasaka, Kenji; Takenaka, Kenchi; Soejima, Makoto; Sugihara, Takahiko; Hagiyama, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Shinya; Matsui, Kazuo; Nonomura, Yoshinori; Kondo, Masahiro; Suzuki, Fumihito; Tomita, Makoto; Kihara, Mari; Yokoyama, Waka; Hirano, Fumio; Yamazaki, Hayato; Sakai, Ryoko; Nanki, Toshihiro; Koike, Ryuji; Kohsaka, Hitoshi; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Harigai, Masayoshi

    2017-01-18

    Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX/TMP) is a standard drug for the prophylaxis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PJP) in immunosuppressed patients with systemic rheumatic diseases, but is sometimes discontinued due to adverse events (AEs). The objective of this non-blinded, randomized, 52-week non-inferiority trial was to quest an effective chemoprophylaxis regimen for PJP with a low drug discontinuation rate. Results at week 24 were reported. Adult patients with systemic rheumatic diseases who started prednisolone ≥0.6 mg/kg/day were randomized into three dosage groups: a single-strength group (SS, SMX/TMP of 400/80 mg daily), half-strength group (HS, 200/40 mg daily), and escalation group (ES, started with 40/8 mg daily, increasing incrementally to 200/40 mg daily). The primary endpoint was non-incidence rates (non-IR) of PJP at week 24. Of 183 patients randomly allocated at a 1:1:1 ratio into the three groups, 58 patients in SS, 59 in HS, and 55 in ES started SMX/TMP. A total of 172 patients were included in the analysis. No cases of PJP were reported up to week 24. Estimated non-IR of PJP in patients who received daily SMX/TMP of 200/40 mg, either starting at this dose or increasing incrementally, was 96.8-100% using the exact confidence interval as a post-hoc analysis. The overall discontinuation rate was significantly lower with HS compared to SS (p = 0.007). The discontinuation rates due to AEs were significantly lower with HS (p = 0.006) and ES (p = 0.004) compared to SS. The IR of AEs requiring reduction in the dose of SMX/TMP (p = 0.009) and AEs of special interest (p = 0.003) were different among the three groups with significantly higher IR in SS compared to HS and ES. Although there were no PJP cases, the combined group of HS and ES had an excellent estimated non-IR of PJP and both were superior in safety to SS. From the perspective of feasibility and drug discontinuation rates, the daily half-strength regimen was suggested to be

  18. Synthetic and Crystallographic Studies of a New Inhibitor Series Targeting Bacillus anthracis Dihydrofolate Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Beierlein, J.; Frey, K; Bolstad, D

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, poses a significant biodefense danger. Serious limitations in approved therapeutics and the generation of resistance have produced a compelling need for new therapeutic agents against this organism. Bacillus anthracis is known to be insensitive to the clinically used antifolate, trimethoprim, because of a lack of potency against the dihydrofolate reductase enzyme. Herein, we describe a novel lead series of B. anthracis dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors characterized by an extended trimethoprim-like scaffold. The best lead compound adds only 22 Da to the molecular weight and is 82-fold more potent than trimethoprim. An X-ray crystal structuremore » of this lead compound bound to B. anthracis dihydrofolate reductase in the presence of NADPH was determined to 2.25 A resolution. The structure reveals several features that can be exploited for further development of this lead series.« less

  19. Renal failure in a patient with postpolio syndrome and a normal creatinine level.

    PubMed

    Leming, Melissa K; Breyer, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Patients with renal failure who are taking trimethoprim have an increased risk of developing hyperkalemia, which can cause muscle weakness. In patients with postpolio syndrome, a normal creatinine level could be abnormally high, renal failure is possible because of lack of creatinine production, and the muscle weakness from resultant hyperkalemia could be more severe because of their underlying condition. This abnormally high creatinine level has been termed from this point relative renal failure. The objective of the study was to review a case in which relative renal failure and hyperkalemia caused muscle weakness that manifested as shortness of breath and confusion with electrocardiographic changes. A dehydrated patient with relative renal failure and postpolio syndrome had taken trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole that caused symptomatic hyperkalemia. The patient presented with muscle weakness, shortness of breath, and confusion, with her postpolio syndrome compounding the situation and likely making the muscle weakness more severe. A patient on trimethoprim with renal failure is at an increased risk of developing hyperkalemia. Patients with postpolio syndrome could have severe muscle weakness from the hyperkalemia and could have renal failure even with a normal creatinine level. This case report will remind treating physicians to evaluate such patients for hyperkalemia if they present with muscle weakness, especially if the patient has renal failure and is on trimethoprim. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Presence, concentrations and risk assessment of selected antibiotic residues in sediments and near-bottom waters collected from the Polish coastal zone in the southern Baltic Sea - Summary of 3years of studies.

    PubMed

    Siedlewicz, Grzegorz; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Borecka, Marta; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Stepnowski, Piotr; Pazdro, Ksenia

    2018-04-01

    Concentrations of selected antibiotic compounds from different groups were measured in sediment samples (14 analytes) and in near-bottom water samples (12 analytes) collected in 2011-2013 from the southern Baltic Sea (Polish coastal zone). Antibiotics were determined at concentration levels of a few to hundreds of ng g -1 d.w. in sediments and ng L -1 in near-bottom waters. The most frequently detected compounds were sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, oxytetracycline in sediments and sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in near-bottom waters. The occurrence of the identified antibiotics was characterized by spatial and temporal variability. A statistically important correlation was observed between sediment organic matter content and the concentrations of sulfachloropyridazine and oxytetracycline. Risk assessment analyses revealed a potential high risk of sulfamethoxazole contamination in near-bottom waters and of contamination by sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and tetracyclines in sediments. Both chemical and risk assessment analyses show that the coastal area of the southern Baltic Sea is highly exposed to antibiotic residues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Offline Tandem and Online Solid-Phase Extraction with Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Antibiotics in Ambient Water and Comparison to an Independent Method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, M.T.; Lee, E.A.; Ferrell, G.M.; Bumgarner, J.E.; Varns, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the performance of an offline tandem solid-phase extraction (SPE) method and an online SPE method that use liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the analysis of 23 and 35 antibiotics, respectively, as used in several water-quality surveys conducted since 1999. In the offline tandem SPE method, normalized concentrations for the quinolone, macrolide, and sulfonamide antibiotics in spiked environmental samples averaged from 81 to 139 percent of the expected spiked concentrations. A modified standard-addition technique was developed to improve the quantitation of the tetracycline antibiotics, which had 'apparent' concentrations that ranged from 185 to 1,200 percent of their expected spiked concentrations in matrix-spiked samples. In the online SPE method, normalized concentrations for the quinolone, macrolide, sulfonamide, and tetracycline antibiotics in matrix-spiked samples averaged from 51 to 142 percent of their expected spiked concentrations, and the beta-lactam antibiotics in matrix-spiked samples averaged from 22 to 76 percent of their expected spiked concentration. Comparison of 44 samples analyzed by both the offline tandem SPE and online SPE methods showed 50 to 100 percent agreement in sample detection for overlapping analytes and 68 to 100 percent agreement in a presence-absence comparison for all analytes. The offline tandem and online SPE methods were compared to an independent method that contains two overlapping antibiotic compounds, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, for 96 and 44 environmental samples, respectively. The offline tandem SPE showed 86 and 92 percent agreement in sample detection and 96 and 98 percent agreement in a presence-absence comparison for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, respectively. The online SPE method showed 57 and 56 percent agreement in sample detection and 72 and 91 percent agreement in presence-absence comparison for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, respectively. A linear regression with

  2. Antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infection by community pharmacists: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Booth, Jill L; Mullen, Alexander B; Thomson, David A M; Johnstone, Christopher; Galbraith, Susan J; Bryson, Scott M; McGovern, Elizabeth M

    2013-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common conditions seen in female patients within primary care. Community pharmacists are familiar with symptomatic UTI management and supplying trimethoprim under patient group direction (PGD) for moderate-to-severe uncomplicated UTIs could improve patient access to treatment. To compare the care pathway of patients with UTI symptoms attending GP services with those receiving management, including trimethoprim supply under PGD, via community pharmacies. Prospective, cross-sectional, mixed methods approach in 10 community pharmacies within NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde. Pharmacies invited a purposive sample of female patients to participate. Pharmacists had the option of supplying trimethoprim under PGD to patients with moderate-to-severe infection meeting the PGD inclusion criteria. Data from patient (questionnaires and semi-structured telephone interviews) and pharmacist (questionnaires and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews) were quantitatively and qualitatively analysed. Data were recorded on 153 patients, 97 presenting with GP prescriptions and 56 presenting directly in the pharmacy with symptoms suggestive of UTI, of whom 41 received trimethoprim via PGD and 15 received symptomatic management. Both GP adherence to local infection management guidelines and pharmacist application of PGD inclusion/exclusion criteria required improvement. There was demand and support, from patients and pharmacists, for access to antibiotic treatments for UTIs, without prescription, through community pharmacies. Operating within PGD controls, antibiotic treatments for UTIs could be provided via community pharmacy to improve patient access to treatment which may also maintain antibiotic stewardship and reduce GP workload.

  3. Urinary tract infection in small outpatient children: the influence of age and gender on resistance to oral antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Swerkersson, Svante; Jodal, Ulf; Åhrén, Christina; Hansson, Sverker

    2014-08-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial disease in small children in which treatment with antimicrobials is used. The worldwide increase of bacterial resistance to these drugs is threatening the efficacy of such treatment and may increase the risk for long-term damage. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the development of resistance to oral antimicrobials over a 10-year period in an unselected outpatient population of small children with first-time UTI. The patient material included 494 boys and 512 girls below 2 years of age with community acquired symptomatic UTI. Escherichia coli bacteria were isolated in 96 % of girls and 89 % of boys (p < 0.0001). The overall resistance of E. coli was 14 % to trimethoprim and below 1 % to cefadroxil and nitrofurantoin. Over the 10-year period, the trimethoprim resistance of E. coli increased from 5 to 17 % but remained unchanged to cefadroxil and nitrofurantoin. E. coli resistance to trimethoprim was related to age: 11 % below and 19 % above 9 months (p < 0.01). The increase in resistance over time and with age was found only in girls. The increasing resistance of E. coli to trimethoprim makes this drug less suitable for empiric treatment of UTI. Young children with UTI seem predisposed to early development of resistance. Therefore, surveillance of resistance to antimicrobials with special regard to age and gender is recommended.

  4. Treating chancroid: summary of studies in southern Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, R C; Duncan, M O; Fehler, H G; Dangor, Y; Exposto, F L; Latif, A S

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies undertaken in southern Africa and elsewhere indicate that many short or single dose treatments are available to treat chancroid. Erythromycin 500 mg three times a day for five days, ciprofloxacin 500 mg, sulphamethopyrazine 800 mg and trimethoprim 1000 mg or sulphametrole 3200 mg and trimethoprim 640 mg as single oral doses, or ceftriaxone 250 mg as a single intramuscular injection are all effective in treating the disease. The widespread use of these regimens largely depends on the accuracy of diagnosis, susceptibilities of local Haemophilus ducreyi isolates to antimicrobials, and financial considerations. PMID:2629710

  5. Containing antibiotic resistance: decreased antibiotic-resistant coliform urinary tract infections with reduction in antibiotic prescribing by general practices

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Chris C; Dunstan, Frank; Heginbothom, Margaret; Mason, Brendan; Roberts, Zoë; Hillier, Sharon; Howe, Robin; Palmer, Stephen; Howard, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Background GPs are urged to prescribe antibiotics less frequently, despite lack of evidence linking reduced antibiotic prescribing with reductions in resistance at a local level. Aim To investigate associations between changes in antibiotic dispensing and changes in antibiotic resistance at general-practice level. Design of study Seven-year study of dispensed antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in coliform isolates from urine samples routinely submitted from general practice. Setting General practices in Wales. Method Multilevel modelling of trends in resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim, and changes in practice total antibiotic dispensing and amoxicillin and trimethoprim dispensing. Results The primary analysis included data on 164 225 coliform isolates from urine samples submitted from 240 general practices over the 7-year study period. These practices served a population of 1.7 million patients. The quartile of practices that had the greatest decrease in total antibiotic dispensing demonstrated a 5.2% reduction in ampicillin resistance over the 7-year period with changes of 0.4%, 2.4%, and −0.3% in the other three quartiles. There was a statistically significant overall decrease in ampicillin resistance of 1.03% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37 to 1.67%) per decrease of 50 amoxicillin items dispensed per 1000 patients per annum. There were also significant reductions in trimethoprim resistance in the two quartiles of practices that reduced total antibiotic dispensing most compared with those that reduced it least, with an overall decrease in trimethoprim resistance of 1.08% (95% CI = 0.065 to 2.10%) per decrease of 20 trimethoprim items dispensed per 1000 patients per annum. Main findings were confirmed by secondary analyses of 256 370 isolates from 527 practices that contributed data at some point during the study period. Conclusion Reducing antibiotic dispensing at general-practice level is associated with reduced local antibiotic resistance

  6. Multidrug-resistant Commensal Escherichia coli in Children, Peru and Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Pallecchi, Lucia; Benedetti, Marta; Fernandez, Connie; Vallejos, Yolanda; Guzman, Elisa; Villagran, Ana Liz; Mantella, Antonia; Lucchetti, Chiara; Bartalesi, Filippo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bechini, Angela; Gamboa, Herlan; Rodríguez, Hugo; Falkenberg, Torkel; Kronvall, Göran; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Paradisi, Franco; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2006-01-01

    Using a rapid screening method, we investigated the prevalence of fecal carriage of antimicrobial drug–resistant Escherichia coli in 3,174 healthy children from 4 urban settings in Peru and Bolivia. High resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (95%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (94%), tetracycline (93%), streptomycin (82%), and chloramphenicol (70%). Lower resistance rates were observed for nalidixic acid (35%), kanamycin (28%), gentamicin (21%), and ciprofloxacin (18%); resistance to ceftriaxone and amikacin was uncommon (<0.5%). In a random sample of 1,080 resistant E. coli isolates, 90% exhibited a multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype. The 2 most common MDR phenotypes (ampicillin/tetracycline/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin/tetracycline/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole/chloramphenicol) could be transferred en bloc in conjugation experiments. The most common acquired resistance genes were blaTEM, tet(A), tet(B), drfA8, sul1, sul2, and catI. These findings underscore the magnitude of the problem of antimicrobial drug resistance in low-resource settings and the urgent need for surveillance and control of this phenomenon. PMID:16707045

  7. Antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infection by community pharmacists: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Jill L; Mullen, Alexander B; Thomson, David AM; Johnstone, Christopher; Galbraith, Susan J; Bryson, Scott M; McGovern, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common conditions seen in female patients within primary care. Community pharmacists are familiar with symptomatic UTI management and supplying trimethoprim under patient group direction (PGD) for moderate-to-severe uncomplicated UTIs could improve patient access to treatment. Aim To compare the care pathway of patients with UTI symptoms attending GP services with those receiving management, including trimethoprim supply under PGD, via community pharmacies. Design and setting Prospective, cross-sectional, mixed methods approach in 10 community pharmacies within NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde. Method Pharmacies invited a purposive sample of female patients to participate. Pharmacists had the option of supplying trimethoprim under PGD to patients with moderate-to-severe infection meeting the PGD inclusion criteria. Data from patient (questionnaires and semi-structured telephone interviews) and pharmacist (questionnaires and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews) were quantitatively and qualitatively analysed. Results Data were recorded on 153 patients, 97 presenting with GP prescriptions and 56 presenting directly in the pharmacy with symptoms suggestive of UTI, of whom 41 received trimethoprim via PGD and 15 received symptomatic management. Both GP adherence to local infection management guidelines and pharmacist application of PGD inclusion/exclusion criteria required improvement. There was demand and support, from patients and pharmacists, for access to antibiotic treatments for UTIs, without prescription, through community pharmacies. Conclusion Operating within PGD controls, antibiotic treatments for UTIs could be provided via community pharmacy to improve patient access to treatment which may also maintain antibiotic stewardship and reduce GP workload. PMID:23540480

  8. Clinical significance, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular identification of Nocardia species isolated from children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Betrán, Ana; Villuendas, M Cruz; Rezusta, Antonio; Pereira, Javier; Revillo, M José; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology, clinical significance and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species isolated from eight children with cystic fibrosis. The isolated species were identified as Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia transvalensis, Nocardia pneumoniae, Nocardia veterana and Nocardia wallacei. N. farcinica was isolated in three patients and all of them presented lung affectation with a chronic colonization and pneumonia. N. farcinica showed resistance against gentamicin, tobramycin, cefotaxime, but was susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and amikacin. N. transvalensis, which was isolated from two patients, showed an association with chronic colonization. N. transvalensis was resistant to tobramycin and amikacin, but susceptible to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cefotaxime. N. veterana, N. pneumoniae and N. wallacei were isolated from three different patients and appeared in transitory lung colonization. N. veterana and N. pneumoniae were susceptible to imipenem, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, tobramycin, and cefotaxime. N. wallacei was resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, imipenem, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and susceptible to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. All the isolates were identified up to species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence of Nocardia in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis is not always an indication of an active infection; therefore, the need for a treatment should be evaluated on an individual basis. The detection of multidrug-resistant species needs molecular identification and susceptibility testing, and should be performed for all Nocardia infections. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of Selected Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products by the Green Alga Nannochloris sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, X.; Acharya, K.

    2016-12-01

    Emerging contaminants have become an increasing concern in the environment due to their ubiquitous distribution and potential adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Municipal wastewater is a major source of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The ecotoxic impacts of PPCPs on aquatic organisms include development of antimicrobial resistance, decreases in plankton diversity, and endocrine disruption. Freshwater algae can be responsible for the uptake and transfer of the contaminants because they are a major food source for most aquatic organisms. This research applied laboratory-based incubation studies to evaluate the removal efficiency and uptake mechanisms of the selected PPCPs (trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan) by the green alga Nannochloris sp. The results showed that trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole remained in the algal culture at 100% and 68%, respectively, after 14 days of incubation, and therefore were not significantly removed from the medium. However, the antimicrobial triclosan was significantly removed from the medium. Immediately after incubation began, 74% of triclosan dissipated and 100% of triclosan was removed after 7 days of incubation. Additionally, over 42% of triclosan was found associated with the algal cells throughout the incubation. The results demonstrate that the presence of Nannochloris sp. eliminated triclosan in the aquatic system, but could not significantly remove the antibiotics trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. This study provided crucial information that toxicity of triclosan in aquatic organisms is a critical concern because of its high uptake by phytoplankton. The resistance of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole to uptake by phytoplankton may threaten water quality.

  10. 21 CFR 522.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for use. For the treatment of acute urinary tract infections, acute bacterial complications of distemper, acute respiratory tract infections, acute alimentary tract infections, and acute septicemia due... tract infections, acute urogenital infections, and wound infections and abscesses. (iii) Limitations...

  11. 21 CFR 522.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment of acute urinary tract infections, acute bacterial complications of distemper, acute respiratory tract infections, acute alimentary tract infections, and acute septicemia due to Streptococcus... is required during treatment of acute strangles, respiratory tract infections, acute urogenital...

  12. 21 CFR 522.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for use. For the treatment of acute urinary tract infections, acute bacterial complications of distemper, acute respiratory tract infections, acute alimentary tract infections, and acute septicemia due... tract infections, acute urogenital infections, and wound infections and abscesses. (iii) Limitations...

  13. 21 CFR 522.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for use. For the treatment of acute urinary tract infections, acute bacterial complications of distemper, acute respiratory tract infections, acute alimentary tract infections, and acute septicemia due... tract infections, acute urogenital infections, and wound infections and abscesses. (iii) Limitations...

  14. 21 CFR 522.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for use. For the treatment of acute urinary tract infections, acute bacterial complications of distemper, acute respiratory tract infections, acute alimentary tract infections, and acute septicemia due... tract infections, acute urogenital infections, and wound infections and abscesses. (iii) Limitations...

  15. A cost-effectiveness comparison of the use of antimicrobial agents for treatment or prophylaxis of travelers' diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Reves, R R; Johnson, P C; Ericsson, C D; DuPont, H L

    1988-11-01

    We conducted a decision analysis to compare the cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial agents used for treatment with their use for prophylaxis of travelers' diarrhea. Estimates of the likelihood and the cost of various outcomes were obtained from a panel of experts using the Delphi group opinion technique. Treatment with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim for three days was compared with daily prophylaxis with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim or doxycycline. The cost-effectiveness of prophylaxis with either agent (75% to 83%) was greater than that of treatment (38%). Treatment would become more cost-effective than prophylaxis when the cumulative risk of acquiring travelers' diarrhea was less than 0.05 episodes per person per week or if the effectiveness of prophylaxis fell below 35% for doxycycline and 46% for sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. The most important contributor to the mean cost of travelers' diarrhea in this analysis was the cost associated with a day of incapacitation due to illness. On the basis of the results of this decision analysis, we conclude that prophylaxis of travelers' diarrhea is an option that should be considered for individual situations and recommend further studies of its cost-effectiveness.

  16. Determination of antibiotics in sewage from hospitals, nursery and slaughter house, wastewater treatment plant and source water in Chongqing region of Three Gorge Reservoir in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Xiaotian; Meyer, M.T.; Liu, Xiuying; Zhao, Q.; Hao, Chen; Chen, J.-a.; Qiu, Z.; Yang, L.; Cao, J.; Shu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Sewage samples from 4 hospitals, 1 nursery, 1 slaughter house, 1 wastewater treatment plant and 5 source water samples of Chongqing region of Three Gorge Reservoir were analyzed for macrolide, lincosamide, trimethoprim, fluorouinolone, sulfonamide and tetracycline antibiotics by online solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that the concentration of ofloxacin (OFX) in hospital was the highest among all water environments ranged from 1.660????g/L to 4.240????g/L and norfloxacin (NOR, 0.136-1.620????g/L), ciproflaxacin (CIP, ranged from 0.011????g/L to 0.136????g/L), trimethoprim (TMP, 0.061-0.174????g/L) were commonly detected. Removal range of antibiotics in the wastewater treatment plant was 18-100% and the removal ratio of tylosin, oxytetracycline and tetracycline were 100%. Relatively higher removal efficiencies were observed for tylosin (TYL), oxytetracycline (OXY) and tetracycline (TET)(100%), while lower removal efficiencies were observed for Trimethoprim (TMP, 1%), Epi-iso-chlorotetracycline (EICIC, 18%) and Erythromycin-H2O (ERY-H2O, 24%). Antibiotics were removed more efficiently in primary treatment compared with those in secondary treatment. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biodegradation and bio-sorption of antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs using immobilized cell process.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy; Yang, Ping-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, the removal mechanisms of four antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, and trimethoprim) and four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen) in immobilized cell process were investigated using batch reactors. This work principally explores the individual or collective roles of biodegradation and bio-sorption as removal routes of the target pharmaceuticals and the results were validated by various experimental and analytical tools. Biodegradation and bio-sorption were found as dominant mechanisms for the drug removal, while volatilization and hydrolysis were negligible for all target pharmaceuticals. The target pharmaceuticals responded to the two observed removal mechanisms in different ways, typically: (1) strong biodegradability and bio-sorption by acetaminophen, (2) strong biodegradability and weak bio-sorption by sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine, ibuprofen and naproxen, (3) low biodegradability and weak bio-sorption by sulfamethazine and ketoprofen, and (4) low biodegradability and medium bio-sorption by trimethoprim. In the sorption/desorption experiment, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole and sulfadimethoxine were characterized by strong sorption and weak desorption. A phenomenon of moderate sorption and well desorption was observed for sulfamethazine, trimethoprim and naproxen. Both ibuprofen and ketoprofen were weakly sorbed and strongly desorbed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A multiple antibiotic and serum resistant oligotrophic strain, Klebsiella pneumoniae MB45 having novel dfrA30, is sensitive to ZnO QDs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe a novel trimethoprim resistance gene cassette, designated dfrA30, within a class 1 integron in a facultatively oligotrophic, multiple antibiotic and human serum resistant test strain, MB45, in a population of oligotrophic bacteria isolated from the river Mahananda; and to test the efficiency of surface bound acetate on zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) as bactericidal agent on MB45. Methods Diluted Luria broth/Agar (10-3) media was used to cultivate the oligotrophic bacteria from water sample. Multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria were selected by employing replica plate method. A rapid assay was performed to determine the sensitivity/resistance of the test strain to human serum. Variable region of class 1 integron was cloned, sequenced and the expression of gene coding for antibiotic resistance was done in Escherichia coli JM 109. Identity of culture was determined by biochemical phenotyping and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on representative trimethoprim resistance-mediating DfrA proteins retrieved from GenBank. Growth kinetic studies for the strain MB45 were performed in presence of varied concentrations of ZnO QDs. Results and conclusions The facultatively oligotrophic strain, MB45, resistant to human serum and ten antibiotics trimethoprim, cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, gentamycin, netilmicin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, kanamycin and streptomycin, has been identified as a new strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. A novel dfr gene, designated as dfrA30, found integrated in class 1 integron was responsible for resistance to trimethoprim in Klebsiella pneumoniae strain MB45. The growth of wild strain MB45 was 100% arrested at 500 mg/L concentration of ZnO QDs. To our knowledge this is the first report on application of ZnO quantum dots to kill multiple antibiotics and serum resistant K. pneumoniae strain. PMID:21595893

  19. Algae-mediated removal of selected pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from Lake Mead water.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xuelian; Acharya, Kumud

    2017-03-01

    The persistence and fate of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the Lake Mead ecosystem are particularly important considering the potential ecological risks and human health impacts. This study evaluated the removal of five common PPCPs (i.e., trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, and triclosan) from Lake Mead water mediated by the green alga Nannochloris sp. The results from the incubation studies showed that trimethoprim and carbamazepine were highly resistant to uptake in the algal cultural medium and were measured at approximately 90%-100% of the applied dose after 14days of incubation. Sulfamethoxazole was found relatively persistent, with >60% of the applied dose remaining in the water after 14days, and its removal was mainly caused by algae-mediated photolysis. However, ciprofloxacin and triclosan dissipated significantly and nearly 100% of the compounds were removed from the water after 7days of incubation under 24h of light. Ciprofloxacin and triclosan were highly susceptible to light, and their estimated half-lives were 12.7hours for ciprofloxacin and 31.2hours for triclosan. Algae-mediated sorption contributed to 11% of the removal of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, 13% of the removal of carbamazepine, and 27% of the removal of triclosan from the lake water. This research showed that 1) trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and carbamazepine are quite persistent in aquatic environments and may potentially affect human health via drinking water intake; 2) photolysis is the dominant pathway to remove ciprofloxacin from aquatic ecosystems, which indicates that ciprofloxacin may have lower ecological risks compared with other PPCPs; and 3) triclosan can undergo photolysis as well as algae-mediated uptake and it may potentially affect the food web because of its high toxicity to aquatic species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous sorption of four ionizable pharmaceuticals in different horizons of three soil types.

    PubMed

    Kočárek, Martin; Kodešová, Radka; Vondráčková, Lenka; Golovko, Oksana; Fér, Miroslav; Klement, Aleš; Nikodem, Antonín; Jakšík, Ondřej; Grabic, Roman

    2016-11-01

    Soils may be contaminated by human or veterinary pharmaceuticals. Their behaviour in soil environment is largely controlled by sorption of different compounds in a soil solution onto soil constituents. Here we studied the sorption affinities of 4 pharmaceuticals (atenolol, trimethoprim, carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole) applied in solute mixtures to soils taken from different horizons of 3 soil types (Greyic Phaeozem on loess, Haplic Luvisol on loess and Haplic Cambisol on gneiss). In the case of the carbamazepine (neutral form) and sulfamethoxazole (partly negatively charged and neutral), sorption affinity of compounds decreased with soil depth, i.e. decreased with soil organic matter content. On the other hand, in the case of atenolol (positively charged) and trimethoprim (partly positively charged and neutral) compound sorption affinity was not depth dependent. Compound sorption affinities in the four-solute systems were compared with those experimentally assessed in topsoils, and were estimated using the pedotransfer rules proposed in our previous study for single-solute systems. While sorption affinities of trimethoprim and carbamazepine in topsoils decreased slightly, sorption affinity of sulfamethoxazole increased. Decreases in sorption of the two compounds could be attributed to their competition between each other and competition with atenolol. Differences between carbamazepine and atenolol behaviour in the one- and four-solute systems could also be explained by the slightly different soil properties in this and our previous study. A great increase of sulfamethoxazole sorption in the Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Luvisol was observed, which was attributed to elimination of repulsion between negatively charged molecules and particle surfaces due to cation sorption (atenolol and trimethoprim) on soil particles. Thus, our results proved not only an antagonistic but also a synergic affect of differently charged organic molecules on their sorption to soil

  1. Occurrence and source apportionment of sulfonamides and their metabolites in Liaodong Bay and the adjacent Liao River basin, North China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ai; Hu, Jianying; Wu, Xiaoqin; Peng, Hui; Wu, Shimin; Dong, Zhaomin

    2011-06-01

    The presence of antibiotics in the environment is of great concern because of their potential for resistance selection among pathogens. In the present study we investigated the occurrence of 19 sulfonamides, five N-acetylated sulfonamide metabolites, and trimethoprim in the Liao River basin and adjacent Liaodong Bay, China, as well as 10 human/agricultural source samples. Within the 35 river samples, 12 sulfonamides, four acetylated sulfonamides, and trimethoprim were detected, with the dominant being sulfamethoxazole (66.6 ng/L), N-acetylsulfamethoxazole (63.1 ng/L), trimethoprim (29.0 ng/L), sulfadiazine (14.0 ng/L), and sulfamonomethoxine (8.4 ng/L); within the 36 marine samples, 10 chemicals were detected, with the main contributions from sulfamethoxazole (25.2 ng/L) and N-acetylsulfamethoxazole (28.6 ng/L). Sulfamethoxazole (25.9%), N-acetylsulfamethoxazole (46.6%), trimethoprim (22.9%), and sulfapyridine (1.4%) were the main chemicals from human sources, while sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamethazine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfaguanidine, sulfadiazine, sulfanilamide, and sulfamethoxypyridazine were dominant in the animal husbandry sources, specifically, swine and poultry farms, and sulfamethoxazole (91%) was dominant in the mariculture source. A principal component analysis with multiple linear regression was performed to evaluate the source apportionment of total sulfonamides in Liaodong Bay. It was found that animal husbandry contributed 15.2% of total sulfonamides, while human sources contributed 28.5%, and combined human and mariculture sources contributed 56.3%. In addition, the mariculture contribution was 24.1% of total sulfonamides into the sea based on mass flux estimation. The present study is the first report that the environmental levels of sulfonamide metabolites were comparable to the corresponding parents; therefore, we should pay attention to their environmental occurrence. Source apportionment showed human discharge (60.7%) significantly

  2. Variation in Antibiotic Susceptibility of Uropathogens by Age among Ambulatory Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Quach, Yennie; Bearden, David T.; Smith, David H.; Sharp, Susan E.; Guzman-Cottrill, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    We compared uropathogen antibiotic susceptibility across age groups of ambulatory pediatric patients. For Escherichia coli (n=5,099) and other Gram-negative rods (n=626), significant differences (p<0.05) existed across age groups for ampicillin, cefazolin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole susceptibility. In E. coli, differences in trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole susceptibility varied from 79% in children under 2 to 88% in ages 16–18 (p<0.001) while ampicillin susceptibility varied from 30% in children under 2 to 53% in ages 2–5 (p=0.015). Uropathogen susceptibility to common urinary anti-infectives may be lower in the youngest children. Further investigation into these differences is needed to facilitate appropriate and prudent treatment of urinary tract infections. PMID:24091131

  3. Pulmonary nocardiosis in patients with connective tissue disease: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Shinya; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Hagiya, Chihiro; Yokosawa, Masahiro; Hirota, Tomoya; Ebe, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ogishima, Hiroshi; Asashima, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Yuya; Umeda, Naoto; Suzuki, Takeshi; Hitomi, Shigemi; Matsumoto, Isao; Sumida, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reported here are 2 patients with connective tissue disease who developed pulmonary nocardiosis. Case 1 involved a 73-year-old man with malignant rheumatoid arthritis treated with prednisolone 25 mg/day. Chest X-rays revealed a pulmonary cavity and bronchoscopy detected Nocardia species. The patient was successfully treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Case 2 involved a 41-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus. The patient received remission induction therapy with 50 mg/day of prednisolone and tacrolimus. Six weeks later, a chest CT scan revealed a pulmonary cavity; bronchoscopy resulted in a diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis. The patient had difficulty tolerating trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, so she was switched to and successfully treated with imipenem/cilastatin and amikacin. PMID:25343123

  4. Empirical antibacterial therapy in febrile, granulocytopenic bone marrow transplant patients.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, P K; McGlave, P; Ramsay, N K; Rhame, F; Goldman, A I; Kersey, J

    1984-01-01

    Fifty febrile, granulocytopenic allogeneic bone marrow transplant patients receiving prophylactic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were randomized to one of two empirical antibiotic regimens to determine whether a shortened course of empirical therapy was beneficial. Of the 50 patients, 25 received empirical tobramycin and ticarcillin for only 3 days, and 25 were maintained on empirical tobramycin and ticarcillin until they were afebrile and no longer granulocytopenic. Although the incidence of bacterial infections in the two groups was not statistically significantly different, almost twice as many bacterial infections were observed in the group that received the short course of empirical therapy. Furthermore, because of the high incidence of bacterial infection and clinical concerns about occult bacterial sepsis, within 2 weeks of the randomization the overall use of parenteral antibacterial agents was similar in both groups. The incidence of invasive fungal disease and the use of amphotericin B therapy were similar in both groups. The results of this study suggest that little clinical benefit is likely to be seen in bone marrow transplant patients treated with short-course empirical tobramycin and ticarcillin, despite the administration of prophylactic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and emphasize the need for new strategies to prevent infections with gram-positive and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant gram-negative bacteria in these patients. PMID:6385835

  5. Urinary Excretion of Phenolic Acids by Infants and Children: A Randomised Double-Blind Clinical Assay

    PubMed Central

    Uberos, J.; Fernández-Puentes, V.; Molina-Oya, M.; Rodríguez-Belmonte, R.; Ruíz-López, A.; Tortosa-Pinto, P.; Molina-Carballo, A.; Muñoz-Hoyos, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study, which is part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay, is aimed at determining the effects of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim treatment for UTI. Methods: This Phase III randomised clinical trial was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain) with a study population of 192 patients, aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of recurrent UTI, associated or otherwise with vesico-ureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with urinary infection. Each child was randomly given 0.2 mL/Kg/day of either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim (8 mg/mL). The primary and secondary objectives, respectively, were to determine the risk of UTI and the levels of phenolic acids in urine associated with each intervention. Results: With respect to UTI, the cranberry treatment was non-inferior to trimethoprim. Increased urinary excretion of ferulic acid was associated with a greater risk of UTI developing in infants aged under 1 year (RR 1.06; CI 95% 1.024–1.1; P = 0.001). Conclusions: The results obtained show the excretion of ferulic acid is higher in infants aged under 1 year, giving rise to an increased risk of UTI, for both treatment options. PMID:23641168

  6. Management of bacteriuria in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pedler, S J; Bint, A J

    1987-04-01

    Bacteriuria of pregnancy is a common condition which, although usually asymptomatic, may give rise to potentially serious sequelae. All pregnant women should therefore be screened for the presence of bacteriuria, which if detected should be treated with an antimicrobial agent believed to be safe for use in pregnancy. Appropriate antimicrobial drugs include penicillins, cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin. Nalidixic acid, aminoglycosides and sulphonamides may be used under certain circumstances and with some precautions. Tetracyclines, trimethoprim and co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole) should be avoided. There is some evidence that short-course therapy in pregnant women is less effective than longer courses, and we continue to recommend a 7-day course. Follow-up after completing a treatment course is an essential part of managing bacteriuria of pregnancy.

  7. Workshop on treatment of and postexposure prophylaxis for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei Infection, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lipsitz, Rebecca; Garges, Susan; Aurigemma, Rosemarie; Baccam, Prasith; Blaney, David D; Cheng, Allen C; Currie, Bart J; Dance, David; Gee, Jay E; Larsen, Joseph; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Morrow, Meredith G; Norton, Robert; O'Mara, Elizabeth; Peacock, Sharon J; Pesik, Nicki; Rogers, L Paige; Schweizer, Herbert P; Steinmetz, Ivo; Tan, Gladys; Tan, Patrick; Wiersinga, W Joost; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Smith, Theresa L

    2012-12-01

    The US Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise convened subject matter experts at the 2010 HHS Burkholderia Workshop to develop consensus recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis against and treatment for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei infections, which cause melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Drugs recommended by consensus of the participants are ceftazidime or meropenem for initial intensive therapy, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for eradication therapy. For postexposure prophylaxis, recommended drugs are trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or co-amoxiclav. To improve the timely diagnosis of melioidosis and glanders, further development and wide distribution of rapid diagnostic assays were also recommended. Standardized animal models and B. pseudomallei strains are needed for further development of therapeutic options. Training for laboratory technicians and physicians would facilitate better diagnosis and treatment options.

  8. Changing patient population in Dhaka Hospital and Matlab Hospital of icddr,b.

    PubMed

    Das, S K; Rahman, A; Chisti, M J; Ahmed, S; Malek, M A; Salam, M A; Bardhan, P K; Faruque, A S G

    2014-02-01

    The Diarrhoeal Disease Surveillance System of icddr,b noted increasing number of patients ≥60 years at urban Dhaka and rural Matlab from 2001 to 2012. Shigella and Vibrio cholerae were more frequently isolated from elderly people than children under 5 years and adults aged 5-59 in both areas. The resistance observed to various drugs of Shigella in Dhaka and Matlab was trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (72-63%), ampicillin (43-55%), nalidixic acid (58-61%), mecillinam (12-9%), azithromycin (13-0%), ciprofloxacin (11-13%) and ceftriaxone (11-0%). Vibrio cholerae isolated in Dhaka and Matlab was resistant to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (98-94%), furazolidone (100%), erythromycin (71-53%), tetracycline (46-44%), ciprofloxacin (3-10%) and azithromycin (3-0%). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 21 CFR 520.2613 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and abscesses. (3) Limitations. Administer orally in a small amount of feed, as a single daily dose, for 5 to 7 days. Continue therapy for 2 to 3 days after clinical signs have subsided. If no... or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. [58 FR 36135, July 6, 1993, as amended by 64 FR 68289...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2613 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and abscesses. (3) Limitations. Administer orally in a small amount of feed, as a single daily dose, for 5 to 7 days. Continue therapy for 2 to 3 days after clinical signs have subsided. If no... or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. [58 FR 36135, July 6, 1993, as amended by 64 FR 68289...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adjunct to surgery or debridement with associated infection. The drug is indicated where control of bacterial infection is required during the treatment of acute urinary tract infections, acute bacterial complications of distemper, acute respiratory tract infections, acute alimentary tract infections, wound...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consecutive days. (5) During long term treatment, periodic platelet counts and white and red blood cell counts.... See Nos. 000061 and 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used in dogs where systemic antibacterial action against sensitive organisms is required, either alone...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... consecutive days. (5) During long term treatment, periodic platelet counts and white and red blood cell counts.... See Nos. 000061 and 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used in dogs where systemic antibacterial action against sensitive organisms is required, either alone...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... consecutive days. (5) During long term treatment, periodic platelet counts and white and red blood cell counts.... See Nos. 000061 and 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used in dogs where systemic antibacterial action against sensitive organisms is required, either alone...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... consecutive days. (5) During long term treatment, periodic platelet counts and white and red blood cell counts.... See Nos. 000061 and 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used in dogs where systemic antibacterial action against sensitive organisms is required, either alone...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... consecutive days. (5) During long term treatment, periodic platelet counts and white and red blood cell counts.... See Nos. 000061 and 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used in dogs where systemic antibacterial action against sensitive organisms is required, either alone...

  17. Antibiotic Pollution in Marine Food Webs in Laizhou Bay, North China: Trophodynamics and Human Exposure Implication.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sisi; Zhao, Hongxia; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Cai, Xiyun; Chen, Jingwen

    2017-02-21

    Little information is available about the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of antibiotics in marine food webs. Here, we investigate the levels and trophic transfer of 9 sulfonamide (SA), 5 fluoroquinolone (FQ), and 4 macrolide (ML) antibiotics, as well as trimethoprim in nine invertebrate and ten fish species collected from a marine food web in Laizhou Bay, North China in 2014 and 2015. All the antibiotics were detected in the marine organisms, with SAs and FQs being the most abundant antibiotics. Benthic fish accumulated more SAs than invertebrates and pelagic fish, while invertebrates exhibited higher FQ levels than fish. Generally, SAs and trimethoprim biomagnified in the food web, while the FQs and MLs were biodiluted. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) were 1.2-3.9 for SAs and trimethoprim, 0.3-1.0 for FQs and MLs. Limited biotransformation and relatively high assimilation efficiencies are the likely reasons for the biomagnification of SAs. The pH dependent distribution coefficients (log D) but not the lipophilicity (log K OW ) of SAs and FQs had a significant correlation (r = 0.73; p < 0.05) with their TMFs. Although the calculated estimated daily intakes (EDI) for antibiotics suggest that consumption of seafood from Laizhou Bay is not associated with significant human health risks, this study provides important insights into the guidance of risk management of antibiotics.

  18. Occurrence, distribution, and sources of antimicrobials in a mixed-use watershed.

    PubMed

    Couperus, Nathanael P; Pagsuyoin, Sheree A; Bragg, Leslie M; Servos, Mark R

    2016-01-15

    The release into the environment of antimicrobial compounds from both human and agricultural sources is a growing global concern. The Grand River watershed, the largest mixed-use watershed in southern Ontario, receives runoff from intensive animal production as well as municipal wastewater effluents from a rapidly increasing human population. A survey of surface waters and wastewater effluents was conducted across the watershed to assess the occurrence and distribution of several antimicrobials (i.e., trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethazine, lincomycin, and monensin) and chemical indicators (i.e., ammonia, nitrate, ibuprofen, venlafaxine, atrazine) and to characterize exposure levels. The human antimicrobials trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole were detected in the urban areas of the main channel at mean concentrations of 8 ± 7 ng/L and 31 ± 24 ng/L, respectively, but at much lower concentrations in the agricultural tributaries. In contrast, the veterinary antimicrobial sulfamethazine was detected at a mean concentration of 11 ± 9 ng/L in the main channel, and at a much higher concentration in the agricultural tributaries. Lincomycin was detected in only two river samples and not in the effluents while monensin was not detected in all samples. The herbicide atrazine was detected at very low concentrations in the surface waters of both the tributaries and the main channel. The concentrations of the antimicrobials and chemical indicators generally increased downstream of the confluences with agricultural tributaries and effluent outfalls. In the wastewater effluents, the concentrations of trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, and venlafaxine decreased with increasing treatment levels (i.e., secondary to tertiary) as indicated by ammonia/nitrate concentrations. There was a strong correlation among trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and venlafaxine in the main channel and in the wastewater effluents. While the environmental concentrations of antimicrobials in

  19. The importance of integrons for development and propagation of resistance in Shigella: the case of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Barrantes, Kenia; Achí, Rosario

    In Latin America, the disease burden of shigellosis is found to coexist with the rapid and rampant spread of resistance to commonly used antibiotics. The molecular basis of antibiotic resistance lies within genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, integrons, genomic islands, etc., which are found in the bacterial genome. Integrons are known to acquire, exchange, and express genes within gene cassettes and it is hypothesized that they play a significant role in the transmission of multidrug resistance genes in several Gram-negative bacteria including Shigella. A few studies have described antibiotic resistance genes and integrons among multidrug resistant Shigella isolates found in Latin America. For example, in Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica and Peru, class 1 and class 2 integrons have been detected among multidrug resistant strains of Shigella; this phenomenon is more frequently observed in S. flexneri isolates that are resistant to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. The gene cassette sul2, which is frequently detected in Shigella strains resistant to the sulfonamides, suggests that the sulfonamide-resistant phenotype can be explained by the presence of the sul2 genes independent of the integron class detected. It is to be noted that sul3 was negative in all isolates analyzed in these studies. The high frequency of sulfonamide (as encoded by sul2) and trimethoprim resistance is likely to be a result of the recurrent use of trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole as a popular regimen for the treatment of shigellosis. The observed resistance profiles of Shigella strains confirm that ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are ineffective as therapeutic options. In-depth information regarding antibiotic resistance mechanism in this pathogen is needed in order to develop suitable intervention strategies. There is a pressing need for regional and local antimicrobial resistance profiling of Shigella to be

  20. Folate deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... as phenytoin, sulfasalazine, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) Eating an unhealthy diet that does not include enough fruits and vegetables Kidney dialysis Symptoms Folic acid deficiency may cause: Fatigue, irritability, or diarrhea Poor growth Smooth and ...

  1. Workshop on Treatment of and Postexposure Prophylaxis for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei Infection, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Garges, Susan; Aurigemma, Rosemarie; Baccam, Prasith; Blaney, David D.; Cheng, Allen C.; Currie, Bart J.; Dance, David; Gee, Jay E.; Larsen, Joseph; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Morrow, Meredith G.; Norton, Robert; O’Mara, Elizabeth; Peacock, Sharon J.; Pesik, Nicki; Rogers, L. Paige; Schweizer, Herbert P.; Steinmetz, Ivo; Tan, Gladys; Tan, Patrick; Wiersinga, W. Joost; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Smith, Theresa L.

    2012-01-01

    The US Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise convened subject matter experts at the 2010 HHS Burkholderia Workshop to develop consensus recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis against and treatment for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei infections, which cause melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Drugs recommended by consensus of the participants are ceftazidime or meropenem for initial intensive therapy, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for eradication therapy. For postexposure prophylaxis, recommended drugs are trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or co-amoxiclav. To improve the timely diagnosis of melioidosis and glanders, further development and wide distribution of rapid diagnostic assays were also recommended. Standardized animal models and B. pseudomallei strains are needed for further development of therapeutic options. Training for laboratory technicians and physicians would facilitate better diagnosis and treatment options. PMID:23171644

  2. Acinetobacter Species Infections Among Navy and Marine Corps Beneficiaries: 2013 Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-19

    cases in 2013, DON providers most commonly prescribed colistin, minocycline , piperacillin/tazobactam, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. DOD...administration route, the following antibiotics were all equally common in the DON for resistant Acinetobacter cases: colistin, minocycline , piperacillin

  3. Antibiotics for human toxoplasmosis: a systematic review of randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Chrishan Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan; Samaranayake, Nilakshi; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Deepika Fernando, Sumadhya

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of different treatment regimens in clinical syndromes of toxoplasmosis were assessed by conducting a systematic review of published randomized clinical trials through extensive searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS with no date limits, as well as manual review of journals. Outcome measures varied depending on the clinical entity of toxoplasmosis. Risk of bias was evaluated and quality of evidence was graded. Fourteen randomized trials were included of which one was a non-comparative study. One well-designed trial showed that trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was more effective than placebo for clinical recovery of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy in immunocompetent hosts. For toxoplasmic encephalopathy, efficacy of pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine and trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole were similar, whereas pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine versus pyrimathamine+clindamycin showed no difference, irrespective of the outcome. Intravitreal clindamycin+dexamethasone and conventional treatment with oral pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine had similar efficacy with regard to all outcome measures in ocular toxoplasmosis, and intravitreal therapy was found to be safe. Adverse effects seemed more common with pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine. Most trials for encephalitis and ocular manifestations had a high risk of bias and were of poor methodological quality. There were no trials evaluating drugs for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, or for congenital toxoplasmosis. Pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine is an effective therapy for treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis; trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole and pyrimethamine+clindamycin are possible alternatives. Treatment with either oral or intravitreal antibiotics seems reasonable for ocular toxoplasmosis. Overall, trial evidence for the efficacy of these drugs for toxoplasmosis is poor, and further well-designed trials are needed. PMID:23816507

  4. Treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-infected patients: a review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Shan; Yang, Jen-Jia; Lee, Nan-Yao; Chen, Guan-Jhou; Ko, Wen-Chien; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2017-09-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia is a potentially life-threatening pulmonary infection that occurs in immunocompromised individuals and HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 cell count. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has been used as the first-line agent for treatment, but mutations within dihydropteroate synthase gene render potential resistance to sulfamide. Despite advances of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), Pneumocystis pneumonia continues to occur in HIV-infected patients with late presentation for cART or virological and immunological failure after receiving cART. Areas covered: This review summarizes the diagnosis and first-line and alternative treatment and prophylaxis for Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. Articles for this review were identified through searching PubMed. Search terms included: 'Pneumocystis pneumonia', 'Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia', 'Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia', 'trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole', 'primaquine', 'trimetrexate', 'dapsone', 'pentamidine', 'atovaquone', 'echinocandins', 'human immunodeficiency virus infection', 'acquired immunodeficiency syndrome', 'resistance to sulfamide' and combinations of these terms. We limited the search to English language papers that were published between 1981 and March 2017. We screened all identified articles and cross-referenced studies from retrieved articles. Expert commentary: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole will continue to be the first-line agent for Pneumocystis pneumonia given its cost, availability of both oral and parenteral formulations, and effectiveness or efficacy in both treatment and prophylaxis. Whether resistance due to mutations within dihydropteroate synthase gene compromises treatment effectiveness remains controversial. Continued search for effective alternatives with better safety profiles for Pneumocystis pneumonia is warranted.

  5. Antimicrobial-resistant fecal bacteria from ceftiofur-treated and nonantimicrobial-treated comingled beef cows at a cow-calf operation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We compared the occurrences of 3rd-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCr ), tetracycline-resistant (TETr) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant (COTr ) Escherichia coli, 3GCr Salmonella enterica, nalidixic acid-resistant (NALr) S. enterica and erythromycin-resistant (ERYr) enterococci from ...

  6. [Prolonged diarrhea and weight loss after a biking trip from Tibet to Nepal: infection with Cyclospora].

    PubMed

    Dekker, E; Kager, P A

    2002-08-10

    A 39-year-old man, who had made a cycling tour from Tibet to Nepal, visited the outpatients' clinic one month later because of prolonged diarrhoea, abdominal complaints and serious weight loss. Parasitological examination of the stool revealed oocysts of Cyclospora cayetanensis and the patient was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) with good result. C. cayetanensis has only recently been discovered as a protozoal cause of diarrhoea. Infections are primarily reported from areas with a low hygienic standard e.g. Central and South America, the Indian subcontinent (Nepal), Indonesia and South-East Asia. Clinical symptoms of infection are diarrhoea (usually watery), abdominal cramps and discomfort. The infection can have a prolonged course. Diagnosis is made by parasitological examination of the stool (one should be cautious not to confuse with cryptosporidia) and treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is effective.

  7. SXT and Taxo A Disks for Presumptive Identification of Group A and B Streptococci in Throat Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Bruce A.

    1976-01-01

    A bacitracin (0.04 units, BBL)-SXT (trimethoprim, 1.25 mg, plus sulfamethoxazole, 23.75 mg, BBL) susceptibility test was 94% accurate in presumptively identifying streptococci as either group A, B or not group A and B. PMID:965480

  8. Occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in the beef cattle production and processing continuum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Specific concerns have been raised that 3rd-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCr) Escherichia coli, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant (COTr) E. coli, 3GCr Salmonella enterica, and nalidixic acid-resistant (NALr) S. enterica, may be present in cattle production environments, persist through...

  9. Antibacterial resistances in uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women: ECO·SENS II data from primary health care in Austria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) are a frequent reason for consultation of women in primary health care. To avoid therapy failure and development of resistances, the choice of an antibiotic should be based on the knowledge of recent local resistance data but these data are scarce for the Austrian primary health care sector. Within the context of the ECO·SENS II study it was the aim to obtain appropriate and relevant local resistance data and describe the changes in the resistance pattern in comparison to the ECO·SENS study. Methods 23 GPs from different parts of Austria participated in the study between July 2007 and November 2008. According to the defined inclusion- and exclusion criteria female patients with symptoms of an uncomplicated UTI were included and a midstream urine sample was collected. In case of significant bacteriuria susceptibility testing of E. coli against 14 antibiotics was performed. Descriptive statistical methods were used. Results In 313 patients included in the study, a total of 147 E. coli isolates (47%) were detected and tested. The resistance rates were in %: Mecillinam (0.0), nitrofurantoin (0.7), fosfomycin trometamol (0.7), gentamycin (1.4), cefotaxime (2.7), ceftazidime (2.7), Cephadroxil (4.1) and ciprofloxacin (4.1). Higher resistance rates were found in amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (8.9), nalidixic acid (9.6), trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (14.4), trimethoprim (15.8), sulphamethoxazole (21.2) and ampicillin (28.8). Additionally, the comparison of these results with the results of the ECO·SENS study demonstrated an increase in resistance rates of ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Conclusions The resistance data for E. coli in uncomplicated UTIs in women gained by this study are the most recent data for this disease in Austria at the moment. The increased resistance rates of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid should be respected when

  10. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increase in resistance rates to trimehtoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in isolates of Escherichia coli has become a matter of increasing concern. This has been particularly true in reference to community acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). This study utilized sewage i...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... indicated where control of bacterial infection is required during the treatment of acute urinary tract infections, acute bacterial complications of distemper, acute respiratory tract infections, acute alimentary tract infections, wound infections, and abscesses. (3) Limitations. For oral use only. Administer the...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae Isolate from a Clinical Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ozer, Egon A.; Morris, Andrew R.; Krapp, Fiorella

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate ofKlebsiella quasipneumoniaesubsp.similipneumoniae, KP_Z4175. This strain, isolated as part of a hospital infection-control screening program, is resistant to multiple β-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

  13. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 22, Number 7, July 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    associated with SSTI: 680.x (carbuncle and furuncle), 681.x (cel- lulitis and abscess of fi nger and toe), and 682.x (other cellulitis and abscess...cephalexin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus cephalexin alone for treatment of uncomplicated cellulitis : a randomized controlled trial

  14. Scarlet fever caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Chun; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Lo, Wen-Tsung

    2011-07-01

    We describe a previously healthy 2.5-year-old boy with staphylococcal scarlet fever associated with acute suppurative otitis media due to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The patient was successfully treated by spontaneous drainage in combination with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy.

  15. [In vitro activity of 12 antibiotics used in veterinary medicine against Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida isolated from calves in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Mevius, D J; Hartman, E G

    2000-03-01

    Results of susceptibility tests of clinical isolates of animal pathogens are periodically summarized and reported by the Animal Health Service. However, these results are based upon qualitative test methods. In the present paper results of quantitative susceptibility tests of twelve antibacterial agents against Mannheimia haemolytica (MHA) and Pasteurella multocida (PMU) isolated from Dutch calves in 1996 and 1997 are presented. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin, ceftiofur, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, tilmicosin, neomycin, gentamicin, spectinomycin, flumequine, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol and florfenicol were determined. No resistance was detected for ceftiofur and florfenicol. Three strains had an intermediate susceptibility to tilmicosin. The resistance percentages of MHA and PMU for neomycin, gentamicin, spectinomycin, flumequine, enrofloxacin, and chloramphenicol varied from 2% to 16%. Higher resistance percentages (16%-53%) were observed for amoxicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. The MIC breakpoints used to determine whether a strain is susceptible, intermediate, or resistant are arbitrary and discussed in this paper.

  16. Surgical management of maxillary and premaxillary osteomyelitis in a reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    PubMed

    Latney, La'Toya V; McDermott, Colin; Scott, Gregory; Soltero-Rivera, Maria M; Beguesse, Kyla; Sánchez, Melissa D; Lewis, John R

    2016-05-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 1-year-old reticulated python (Python reticulatus) was evaluated because of a 2-week history of wheezing and hissing. CLINICAL FINDINGS Rostral facial cellulitis and deep gingival pockets associated with missing rostral maxillary teeth were evident. Tissues of the nares were swollen, resulting in an audible wheeze during respiration. Multiple scars and superficial facial wounds attributed to biting by live prey were apparent. Radiographic examination revealed bilateral, focal, rostral maxillary osteomyelitis. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Wound irrigation, antimicrobials, and anti-inflammatory drug treatment resulted in reduced cellulitis. A 3-week regimen that included empirical antimicrobial treatment and improved husbandry resulted in resolution of the respiratory sounds and partial healing of bite wounds, but radiographic evaluation revealed progressive maxillary osteomyelitis. Microbial culture of blood yielded scant gram-positive cocci and Bacillus spp, which were suspected sample contaminants. Bilateral partial maxillectomies were performed; microbial culture and histologic examination of resected bone confirmed osteomyelitis with gram-positive cocci. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was initiated on the basis of microbial susceptibility tests. Four months later, follow-up radiography revealed premaxillary osteomyelitis; surgery was declined, and treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was reinstituted. Eight months after surgery, the patient was reevaluated because of recurrent clinical signs; premaxillectomy was performed, and treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was prescribed on the basis of microbial culture of bone and microbial susceptibility testing. Resolution of osteomyelitis was confirmed by CT 11 months after the initial surgery. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Focal maxillectomies and premaxillectomy were successfully performed in a large python. Surgical management and appropriate antimicrobial treatment

  17. [Asymptomatic bacteruiria frequency in pregnant women and uropathogen in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity].

    PubMed

    Hernández Blas, Fernanda; López Carmona, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez Moctezuma, José Raymundo; Peralta Pedrero, María Luisa; Rodríguez Gutiérrez, Román Salvador; Ortiz Aguirre, Alma Rosa

    2007-06-01

    To estimate the frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attended in Family Medicine Units of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and to determine the in vitro sensitivity rate of the microorganisms to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin and amikacin. We carried out an observational, prospective and transversal study at Family Medicine Units 62 and 64 of the Mexico State Delegation, located in the urban area of Mexico City. Women with lesser than 32 weeks of pregnancy without urinary tract symptoms were included. Urine culture of a midstream urine specimen with > or = 10(5) colony forming units/mL urine of an only germen was used as the gold standard. The in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity was established according to the Bauer Kirby technique. 874 pregnant women were included and 73 had a positive urine culture, with a frequency of 8.4%, IC 95% = 6.6 - 10.2%, of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coil was the most frequent isolated agent (77%). In vitro sensitivity to ampicillin of the microorganisms isolated was of 27%, IC 95% = 16 - 38%; to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole of 40%, IC95% = 29 - 51%; to amikacin of 68%, IC 95% = 57 - 79%, and to nitrofurantoin of 79%, IC 95% = 70 - 88%. The frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the studied population is similar to the reported by the literature. The in vitro sensitivity rates of E. coil to ampicillin and to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are very low. The best sensitivity corresponded to the nitrofurantoin. The treatment of the asymptomatic bacteriuria must be based on the local patterns of antimicrobial sensitivity and resistance.

  18. Are Sewage Treatment Plants Promoting Antibiotic Resistance?

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction 1.1. How bacteria exhibit resistance 1.1.1. Resistance to -lactams 1.1.2. Resistance to sulphonamides and trimethoprim 1.1.3. Resistance to macrolides 1.1.4. Resistance to fluoroquinolones 1.1.5. Resistance to tetracyclines 1.1.6. Resistance to nitroimidaz...

  19. Occurrence and distribution of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic environments: a comparative study of regions in China with different urbanization levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Saichang

    2012-07-01

    We analyzed and compared the distributions of 13 target pharmaceuticals in different water samples from the Hangzhou metropolitan area and Linan County, Southeast China. Sampling was conducted in five hospitals, two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and Qiantang River. Samples were concentrated by solid-phase extraction and PPCP concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. Trimethoprim, erythromycin A dihydrate, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, diclofenac sodium, and atenolol were the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in hospital effluents. Most of the pharmaceutical concentrations in hospital effluents were higher than those in the WWTP influents. Although both WWTPs adopt the anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic treatment process, the removal rates for pharmaceuticals, such as trimethoprim and diclofenac sodium, were completely different. Meanwhile, erythromycin A dihydrate, ofloxacin, penicillin-G, cephalexin, cefazolin, ibuprofen, and diclofenac sodium were detected in Qiantang River. These results indicate that hospitals are more concentrated sources of pharmaceuticals than WWTPs, and the WWTPs are not the only route of entry of pharmaceuticals into aquatic environments in these two regions.

  20. Improvement of Polymyxin-Egg Yolk-Mannitol-Bromothymol Blue Agar for the Enumeration and Isolation of Bacillus cereus in Various Foods.

    PubMed

    Kang, Il-Byeong; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeong, Dana; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Hyunsook; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2017-03-01

    A modified polymyxin-egg yolk-mannitol-bromothymol blue agar (mPEMBA) was developed by supplementing polymyxin-egg yolk-mannitol-bromothymol blue agar (PEMBA) with trimethoprim to improve the selectivity for and recoverability of Bacillus cereus from naturally and artificially contaminated food samples. The number of B. cereus in mPEMBA was significantly higher than in PEMBA, indicating better recoverability (P < 0.05) in red pepper powder (PEMBA 0.80 ± 0.22 log CFU/g versus mPEMBA 1.95 ± 0.17 log CFU/g) and soybean paste (PEMBA 2.19 ± 0.18 log CFU/g versus mPEMBA 3.09 ± 0.13 log CFU/g). In addition, mPEMBA provided better visual differentiation of B. cereus colonies than PEMBA, which is attributable to the reduced number of competing microflora. We conclude that the addition of trimethoprim to PEMBA could generate a synergistic effect to improve selectivity for B. cereus .

  1. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Blastocystis

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Stephen; Ellis, John; Harkness, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis is the most common human enteric protist with controversial clinical significance. Metronidazole is considered a first-line treatment for Blastocystis infection; however, there has been increasing evidence for the lack of efficacy of this treatment. Treatment failure has been reported in several clinical cases, and recent in vitro studies have suggested the occurrence of metronidazole-resistant strains. In this study, we tested 12 Blastocystis isolates from 4 common Blastocystis subtypes (ST1, ST3, ST4, and ST8) against 12 commonly used antimicrobials (metronidazole, paromomycin, ornidazole, albendazole, ivermectin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [TMP-SMX], furazolidone, nitazoxanide, secnidazole, fluconazole, nystatin, and itraconazole) at 10 different concentrations in vitro. It was found that each subtype showed little sensitivity to the commonly used metronidazole, paromomycin, and triple therapy (furazolidone, nitazoxanide, and secnidazole). This study highlights the efficacy of other potential drug treatments, including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ivermectin, and suggests that current treatment regimens be revised. PMID:25987633

  2. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Blastocystis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Tamalee; Bush, Stephen; Ellis, John; Harkness, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-08-01

    Blastocystis is the most common human enteric protist with controversial clinical significance. Metronidazole is considered a first-line treatment for Blastocystis infection; however, there has been increasing evidence for the lack of efficacy of this treatment. Treatment failure has been reported in several clinical cases, and recent in vitro studies have suggested the occurrence of metronidazole-resistant strains. In this study, we tested 12 Blastocystis isolates from 4 common Blastocystis subtypes (ST1, ST3, ST4, and ST8) against 12 commonly used antimicrobials (metronidazole, paromomycin, ornidazole, albendazole, ivermectin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [TMP-SMX], furazolidone, nitazoxanide, secnidazole, fluconazole, nystatin, and itraconazole) at 10 different concentrations in vitro. It was found that each subtype showed little sensitivity to the commonly used metronidazole, paromomycin, and triple therapy (furazolidone, nitazoxanide, and secnidazole). This study highlights the efficacy of other potential drug treatments, including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ivermectin, and suggests that current treatment regimens be revised. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in liver transplant recipients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kostakis, I D; Sotiropoulos, G C; Kouraklis, G

    2014-11-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is a fungus that causes pneumonia in immunocompromised patients, such as liver transplant recipients. We searched the Medline database in September 2013 for articles referring to infections from P. jirovecii in liver transplant recipients, using the terms "liver transplantation" and "pneumocystis." Our search yielded 60 articles, 35 of which were used for our review. P. jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) has an incidence of 1%-11% in liver transplant recipients without prophylaxis and mortality rates of 7%-88%. Most cases occur within the first 7 months after transplantation. When prophylactic treatment with oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is used, its incidence is only 0%-3%. The duration of its use varies from 3 months to 1 year after the liver transplantation. PJP has relatively high incidence and high mortality rates in liver transplant recipients without prophylactic treatment, which diminishes or even eliminates its occurrence. Therefore, oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole should be used as prophylaxis for 1 year after the liver transplantation in this population.

  4. Use of fluoroquinolones for prophylaxis of murine Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Brun-Pascaud, M; Fay, M; Zhong, M; Bauchet, J; Dux-Guyot, A; Pocidalo, J J

    1992-01-01

    We compared the prophylactic activities of six fluoroquinolones against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in immunosuppressed rats. Pefloxacin was the only agent which was as effective as the reference drug trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Clinical trials with pefloxacin in patients at risk for P. carinii pneumonia appear to be justified. Images PMID:1605613

  5. First case of cerebral abscess due to a novel Nocardia species in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Flateau, C; Jurado, V; Lemaître, N; Loïez, C; Wallet, F; Saiz-Jimenez, C; Decoene, C; Bergeron, E; Boiron, P; Faure, K; Guery, B; Rodríguez-Nava, V

    2013-02-01

    We report the first case of cerebral abscess due to a novel species of Nocardia in a heart transplant patient and describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of this isolate. As our patient was intolerant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, we also discuss alternative therapeutic options in brain abscess due to Nocardia sp.

  6. Ocular TRUST: nationwide antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in ocular isolates.

    PubMed

    Asbell, Penny A; Colby, Kathryn A; Deng, Sophie; McDonnell, Peter; Meisler, David M; Raizman, Michael B; Sheppard, John D; Sahm, Daniel F

    2008-06-01

    Ocular Tracking Resistance in U.S. Today (TRUST) annually evaluates in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae to ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, penicillin, azithromycin, tobramycin, trimethoprim, and polymyxin B in national samples of ocular isolates. Laboratory investigation. Prospectively collected ocular isolates (197 S. aureus, 49 S. pneumoniae, and 32 H. influenzae) from 35 institutions and archived ocular isolates (760 S. pneumoniae and 356 H. influenzae) from 34 institutions were tested by an independent, central laboratory. Mean minimum inhibitory concentrations that would inhibit growth of 90% of the tested isolates (MIC(90)) were interpreted as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant according to standardized breakpoints for systemic treatment. S. aureus isolates were classified as methicillin susceptible (MSSA) or methicillin resistant (MRSA). MSSA or MRSA susceptibility patterns were virtually identical for the fluoroquinolones, that is, MSSA susceptibility was 79.9% to 81.1% and MRSA susceptibility was 15.2%. Trimethoprim was the only agent tested with high activity against MRSA. All S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin; 89.8% were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. H. influenzae isolates were 100% susceptible to all tested agents but trimethoprim. Ocular TRUST 1 data were consistent with the eight-year longitudinal sample of archived ocular isolates. The fluoroquinolones were consistently active in MSSA, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae. After more than a decade of intensive ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin use as systemic therapy, 100% of ocular S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin; nonsusceptibility to ciprofloxacin was less than 15%. High-level in vitro MRSA resistance suggests the need to consider alternative therapy to fluoroquinolones when MRSA is a

  7. Occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from diagnostic samples from dogs.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Karl; Pedersen, Kristina; Jensen, Helene; Finster, Kai; Jensen, Vibeke F; Heuer, Ole E

    2007-10-01

    To study the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among common bacterial pathogens from dogs and relate resistance patterns to data on consumption of antimicrobials. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 201 Staphylococcus intermedius, 37 Streptococcus canis, 39 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 25 Pasteurella multocida, 29 Proteus spp. and 449 Escherichia coli isolates from clinical submissions from dogs were determined by a broth-dilution method for determination of minimal inhibitory concentration. Data for consumption of antimicrobials were retrieved from VetStat, a national database for reporting antimicrobial prescriptions. The majority of the antimicrobials prescribed for dogs were broad-spectrum compounds, and extended-spectrum penicillins, cephalosporins and sulphonamides + trimethoprim together accounted for 81% of the total amount used for companion animals. Resistance to cephalosporins and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid was very low for all bacterial species examined, except for P. aeruginosa, and resistance to sulphonamides and trimethoprim was low for most species. Among the S. intermedius isolates, 60.2% were resistant to penicillin, 30.2% to fusidic acid and 27.9% to macrolides. Among E. coli isolates, the highest level of resistance was recorded for ampicillin, sulphonamides, trimethoprim, tetracyclines and streptomycin. Certain differences in resistance patterns between isolates from different sites or organs were noticed for E. coli, S. intermedius and Proteus isolates. This investigation provided data on occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in important pathogenic bacteria from dogs, which may be useful for the small animal practitioner. Resistance was low to the compounds that were most often used, but unfortunately, these compounds were broad-spectrum. Data on resistance and usage may form a background for the establishment of a set of recommendations for prudent use of antimicrobials for companion animals.

  8. Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Outpatient Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Edlin, Rachel S.; Shapiro, Daniel J.; Hersh, Adam L.; Copp, Hillary L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We characterize the current national patterns of antibiotic resistance of outpatient pediatric urinary tract infection. Materials and Methods We examined outpatient urinary isolates from patients younger than 18 years in 2009 using The Surveillance Network®, a database with antibiotic susceptibility results and patient demographic data from 195 United States hospitals. We determined the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns for the 6 most common uropathogens, ie Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus. We compared differences in uropathogen prevalence between males and females using chi-square analysis. Results We identified 25,418 outpatient urinary isolates. E. coli was the most common uropathogen overall but the prevalence of E. coli was higher among females (83%) than males (50%, p <0.001). Other common species among males were Enterococcus (17%), P. mirabilis (11%) and Klebsiella (10%). However, these uropathogens each accounted for 5% or less of female isolates (p <0.001). Resistance among E. coli was highest for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (24%) but lower for nitrofurantoin (less than 1%) and cephalothin (15%). Compared to 2002 Surveillance Network data, E. coli resistance rates increased for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (from 23% to 31% in males and from 20% to 23% in females) and ciprofloxacin (from 1% to 10% and from 0.6% to 4%, respectively). Conclusions E. coli remains the most common pediatric uropathogen. Although widely used, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is a poor empirical choice for pediatric urinary tract infections in many areas due to high resistance rates. First-generation cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin are appropriate narrow-spectrum alternatives given their low resistance rates. Local antibiograms should be used to assist with empirical urinary tract infection treatment. PMID:23369720

  9. ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCES IN NORTHEAST THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Mala, Wanida; Kaewkes, Wanlop; Tattawasart, Unchalee; Wongwajana, Suwin; Faksri, Kiatichai; Chomvarin, Chariya

    2016-09-01

    Emergence of multiple drug resistance in Vibrio cholerae has been increasing around the world including Northeast Thailand. In this study, 92 isolates of V. cholerae (50 O1 and 42 non-O1/non-O139 isolates) from clinical and environmental sources in Northeast Thailand were randomly selected and investigated for the presence of SXT element, class 1 integron and antimicrobial resistance genes. Genotypic-phenotypic concordance of antimicrobial resistance was also determined. Using PCR-based assays, 79% of V. cholerae isolates were positive for SXT element, whereas only 1% was positive for class 1 integron. SXT element harbored antimicrobial resistance genes, dfrA1 or dfr18, floR, strB, sul2, and tetA. Overall phenotypic-genotypic concordance of antimicrobial resistance was 78%, with highest and lowest value being for trimethoprim (83%) and chloramphenicol (70%), respectively. Ninety-two percent of V. cholerae O1 strains isolated from clinical sources harbored both dfrA1 (O1-specific trimethoprim resistance gene) and dfr18 (non-O1-specific trimethoprim resistance gene), whereas only 5% of V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains harbored both genes. All V. cholerae O1 isolated from environmental source harbored dfr18 but 48% of V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 harbored dfrA1. This study indicates that SXT element was the main contributor to the circulation of multiple-drug resistance determinants in V. cholerae strains in Northeast Thailand and that genetic exchange of SXT element can occur in both V. cholerae O1 and non-O1/non-O139 strains from clinical and environmental sources.

  10. An analysis of the dissipation of pharmaceuticals under thirteen different soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Kodešová, Radka; Kočárek, Martin; Klement, Aleš; Golovko, Oksana; Koba, Olga; Fér, Miroslav; Nikodem, Antonín; Vondráčková, Lenka; Jakšík, Ondřej; Grabic, Roman

    2016-02-15

    The presence of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in the environment is recognized as a potential threat. Pharmaceuticals have the potential to contaminate soils and consequently surface and groundwater. Knowledge of contaminant behavior (e.g., sorption onto soil particles and degradation) is essential when assessing contaminant migration in the soil and groundwater environment. We evaluated the dissipation half-lives of 7 pharmaceuticals in 13 soils. The data were evaluated relative to the soil properties and the Freundlich sorption coefficients reported in our previous study. Of the tested pharmaceuticals, carbamazepine had the greatest persistence (which was mostly stable), followed by clarithromycin, trimethoprim, metoprolol, clindamycin, sulfamethoxazole and atenolol. Pharmaceutical persistence in soils was mostly dependent on the soil-type conditions. In general, lower average dissipation half-lives and variability (i.e., trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, metoprolol and atenolol) were found in soils of better quality (well-developed structure, high nutrition content etc.), and thus, probably better microbial conditions (i.e., Chernozems), than in lower quality soil (Cambisols). The impact of the compound sorption affinity onto soil particles on their dissipation rate was mostly negligible. Although there was a positive correlation between compound dissipation half-life and Freundlich sorption coefficient for clindamycin (R=0.604, p<0.05) and sulfamethoxazole (R=0.822, p<0.01), the half-life of sulfamethoxazole also decreased under better soil-type conditions. Based on the calculated dissipation and sorption data, carbamazepine would be expected to have the greatest potential to migrate in the soil water environment, followed by sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and metoprolol. The transport of clindamycin, clarithromycin and atenolol through the vadose zone seems less probable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Udder Pathogens Isolated from Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    A total of 522 strains belonging to streptococci, enterococci and staphylococci isolated from sub-clinical and clinical cases of bovine mastitis from the west littoral region of Uruguay were analysed for their susceptibility to several antimicrobial agents. The susceptibility patterns were studied by agar disk diffusion methods (ADDM) and broth micro-dilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The concentration that inhibits 90% (MIC90) of the analysed strains reported in micrograms per millilitre, for Staphylococcus aureus were > 8, 8, ≤ 0.5, ≤ 4, ≤ 1, ≤ 0.5, > 64, ≤ 0.25, 0.5, ≤ 1 and ≤ 1 to penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalotin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxitetracycline, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, neomycin, and clindamycin, respectively. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) had different values for penicillin (4) and ampicillin (2), while the other antimicrobial agents had the same MIC90 values as reported for S. aureus. The MIC90 values for streptococci were 0.12, 0.25, ≤ 4, 16, ≤ 0.25, 0.5, 0.25 for penicillin, ampicillin, cephalotin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, whereas MIC90 for enterococci were 4, 4, 4, ≤ 0.5, 2, > 8 for penicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Of 336 strains of S. aureus, 160 (47.6%) were resistant to penicillin. For 41 CNS strains, 10 (27%) presented penicillin-resistance. All the streptococcal strains were susceptible to penicillin, while 3 (7%) of the 43 enteroccocal strains were resistant. Non significant statistical differences were found between the results obtained by ADDM and broth micro-dilution for classifying bacterial isolates as susceptible or resistant according to the National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards. PMID:12071114

  12. Identification of antibiotic resistant bacteria community and a GeoChip based study of resistome in urban watersheds.

    PubMed

    Low, Adrian; Ng, Charmaine; He, Jianzhong

    2016-12-01

    Urban watersheds from point sources are potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, few studies have investigated urban watersheds of non-point sources. To understand the type of ARGs and bacteria that might carry such genes, we investigated two non-point source urban watersheds with different land-use profiles. Antibiotic resistance levels of two watersheds (R1, R3) were examined using heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) as a culturing method to obtain counts of bacteria resistant to seven antibiotics belonging to different classes (erythromycin, kanamycin, lincomycin, norfloxacin, sulfanilamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim). From the HPC study, 239 antibiotic resistant bacteria were characterized for resistance to more antibiotics. Furthermore, ARGs and antimicrobial biosynthesis genes were identified using GeoChip version 5.0 to elucidate the resistomes of surface waters in watersheds R1 and R3. The HPC study showed that water samples from R1 had significantly higher counts of bacteria resistant to erythromycin, kanamycin, norfloxacin, sulfanilamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim than those from R3 (Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM), R = 0.557, p < 0.01). Of the seven antibiotics tested, lincomycin and trimethoprim resistant bacteria are greater in abundances. The 239 antibiotic resistant isolates represent a subset of resistant bacterial populations, including bacteria not previously known for resistance. Majority of the isolates had resistance to ampicillin, vancomycin, lincomycin and trimethoprim. GeoChip revealed similar ARGs in both watersheds, but with significantly higher intensities for tetX and β-lactamase B genes in R1 than R3. The genes with the highest average normalized intensities in R1 and R3 were tetracycline (tet) and fosfomycin (fosA) resistance genes, respectively. The higher abundance of tetX genes in R1 is congruent with the higher abundance of tetracycline resistant HPC observed in R1 samples. Strong correlations

  13. Weight Gain and Obesity in Infants and Young Children Exposed to Prolonged Antibiotic Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Edmonson, M Bruce; Eickhoff, Jens C

    2017-02-01

    An association between antibiotic use and excessive weight gain or obesity in healthy infants and young children has been reported, but evidence is inconsistent and based on observational studies of growth in relation to incidental antibiotic exposures. To evaluate whether prolonged antibiotic exposure is associated with weight gain in children participating in a clinical trial of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection. Secondary analysis of data from the Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux Study, a 2-year randomized clinical trial that enrolled participants from 2007 to 2011. All 607 children who were randomized to receive antibiotic (n = 302) or placebo (n = 305) were included. Children with urinary tract anomalies, premature birth, or major comorbidities were excluded from participation. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or placebo taken orally, once daily, for 2 years. Weight gain as measured by change in weight-for-age z score from baseline to the end-of-study visit at 24 months. Secondary outcomes included weight gain at 6, 12, and 18 months and the prevalence of overweight or obesity at 24 months. Participants had a median age of 12 months (range, 2-71 months) and 558 of 607 (91.9%) were female. Anthropometric data were complete at the 24-month visit for 428 children (214 in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group and 214 in the placebo group). Weight gain in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group and the placebo group was similar (mean [SD] change in weight-for-age z score: +0.14 [0.83] and +0.18 [0.85], respectively; difference, -0.04 [95% CI, -0.19 to 0.12]; P = .65). There was no significant difference in weight gain at 6, 12, or 18 months or in the prevalence of overweight or obesity at 24 months (24.8% vs 25.7%; P = .82). Subgroup analyses showed no significant interaction between weight gain effect and age, sex, history of breastfeeding, prior antibiotic use, adherence to study

  14. [Systemic paracoccidioidomycosis with central nervous system involvement].

    PubMed

    Duarte, A L; Baruffa, G; Terra, H B; Renck, D V; de Moura, D; Petrucci, C

    1999-01-01

    A clinical case of a patient bearing systemic paracoccidioidomycosis with regional ganglionic and oral exposure and later pulmonary involvement is presented. The patient was treated with specific drugs (amphotericin B, itraconazole, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim) and followed throughout a 6-year period and eventually died showing an extensive involvement of the central nervous system.

  15. SULFAMETHOXAZOLE-TRIMETHOPRIM TREATMENT OF GUINEA PIGS INFECTED WITH 'LEGIONELLA PNEUMPOPHILA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Legionnaires' disease is a bacterial pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. Many antibiotics inhibit the growth of L. pneumophila in vitro, but only erythromycin and rifampin have been clinically effective. Parallel results have been observed in guinea pigs infected ip with ...

  16. Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2011-13 in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Feshchenko, Y; Dzyublik, A; Pertseva, T; Bratus, E; Dzyublik, Y; Gladka, G; Morrissey, I; Torumkuney, D

    2016-05-01

    To determine the antibiotic susceptibility of respiratory isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae collected in 2011-13 from Ukraine. MICs were determined by CLSI broth microdilution and susceptibility was assessed using CLSI, EUCAST and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. A total of 134 isolates of S. pneumoniae and 67 of H. influenzae were collected from eight sites in Ukraine. Overall, 87.3% of S. pneumoniae were penicillin susceptible by CLSI oral breakpoints and 99.3% by CLSI iv breakpoints. Susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (amoxicillin), ceftriaxone and levofloxacin was 100% by CLSI and PK/PD breakpoints. Cephalosporin and macrolide susceptibility was ≥95.5% and 88.1%, respectively using CLSI breakpoints. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was essentially inactive against pneumococci. Of the 67 H. influenzae tested, 4.5% were β-lactamase positive and all H. influenzae were fully susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, cefixime and levofloxacin (all breakpoints). Cefuroxime susceptibility was 100% by CLSI but 73.1% by EUCAST and PK/PD breakpoints. A discrepancy was found in macrolide susceptibility between CLSI (∼100% susceptible), EUCAST (22%-43% susceptible) and PK/PD (0%-22% susceptible) breakpoints. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was poorly active (59.7% susceptible). Generally, antibiotic resistance was low in respiratory pathogens from Ukraine. However, only amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (amoxicillin), ceftriaxone and levofloxacin were fully active against both species. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was the least active, particularly against S. pneumoniae. Some susceptibility differences were apparent between CLSI, EUCAST and PK/PD breakpoints, especially with macrolides against H. influenzae. These data suggest that further efforts are required to harmonize these international breakpoints. Future studies are warranted to monitor continued low resistance levels in Ukraine

  17. Occurrence of antibiotics in hospital, residential, and dairy effluent, municipal wastewater, and the Rio Grande in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathryn D; Kulis, Jerzy; Thomson, Bruce; Chapman, Timothy H; Mawhinney, Douglas B

    2006-08-01

    This study had three objectives: 1) determine occurrence of antibiotics in effluent from hospitals, residential facilities, and dairies, and in municipal wastewater 2) determine antibiotic removal at a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Albuquerque, NM, and 3) determine concentrations of antibiotics in the Rio Grande, which receives wastewater from the Albuquerque WWTP. Twenty-three samples of wastewater and 3 samples of Rio Grande water were analyzed for the presence of 11 antibiotics. Fifty-eight percent of samples had at least one antibiotic present while 25% had three or more. Hospital effluent had detections of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, lincomycin, and penicillin G, with 4 of 5 hospital samples having at least one antibiotic detected and 3 having four or more. At the residential sampling sites, ofloxacin was found in effluent from assisted living and retirement facilities, while the student dormitory had no detects. Only lincomycin was detected in dairy effluent (in 2 of 8 samples, at 700 and 6600 ng/L). Municipal wastewater had detections of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin, with 4 of 6 samples having at least one antibiotic present and 3 having 3 or more. The relatively high concentrations (up to 35,500 ng/L) of ofloxacin found in hospital and residential effluent may be of concern due to potential genotoxic effects and development of antibiotic resistance. At the Albuquerque WWTP, both raw wastewater and treated effluent had detections of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and ofloxacin, at concentrations ranging from 110 to 470 ng/L. However, concentrations in treated effluent were reduced by 20% to 77%. No antibiotics were detected in the Rio Grande upstream of the Albuquerque WWTP discharge, and only one antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole, was detected in the Rio Grande (300 ng/L) below the WWTP.

  18. Removal of antibiotics in conventional and advanced wastewater treatment: implications for environmental discharge and wastewater recycling.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, A J; Murby, E J; Costanzo, S D

    2007-10-01

    Removal of 28 human and veterinary antibiotics was assessed in a conventional (activated sludge) and advanced (microfiltration/reverse osmosis) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Brisbane, Australia. The dominant antibiotics detected in wastewater influents were cephalexin (med. 4.6 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), ciprofloxacin (med. 3.8 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), cefaclor (med. 0.5 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), sulphamethoxazole (med. 0.36 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) and trimethoprim (med. 0.34 microg L(-1), freq. 100%). Results indicated that both treatment plants significantly reduced antibiotic concentrations with an average removal rate from the liquid phase of 92%. However, antibiotics were still detected in both effluents from the low-to-mid ng L(-1) range. Antibiotics detected in effluent from the activated sludge WWTP included ciprofloxacin (med. 0.6 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), sulphamethoxazole (med. 0.27 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) lincomycin (med. 0.05 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) and trimethoprim (med. 0.05 microg L(-1), freq. 100%). Antibiotics identified in microfiltration/reverse osmosis product water included naladixic acid (med. 0.045 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), enrofloxacin (med. 0.01 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), roxithromycin (med. 0.01 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), norfloxacin (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), oleandomycin (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), trimethoprim (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), tylosin (med. 0.001 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), and lincomycin (med. 0.001 microg L(-1), freq. 66%). Certain traditional parameters, including nitrate concentration, conductivity and turbidity of the effluent were assessed as predictors of total antibiotic concentration, however only conductivity demonstrated any correlation with total antibiotic concentration (p=0.018, r=0.7). There is currently a lack of information concerning the effects of these chemicals to critically assess potential risks for environmental discharge and water recycling.

  19. Epidemiology of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in an era of effective prophylaxis: the relative contribution of non-adherence and drug failure.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, B E; Davidson, A J; Burman, W J

    2000-11-10

    To determine the relative contribution of patient non-adherence, provider failure to prescribe prophylaxis, and drug failure to the continued occurrence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), and to determine correlates of non-adherence. Retrospective case-control study. Patients with confirmed or presumptive PCP from May 1995 to September 1997 who had at least 6 months of prior HIV care (cases) were compared to controls matched for initial CD4 cell count and date of initial HIV care. The incidence of PCP declined by 85% in the 28 months of the study. Of the 118 cases of PCP identified, 59 (50%) were in HIV care for > 6 months prior to PCP diagnosis. In a multivariate logistic regression model, risk factors for PCP among patients in HIV care were patient non-adherence [odds ratio (OR), 12.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.4-23.5], use of prophylaxis other than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (OR, 27.0; 95% CI, 13.8-52.9), and absence of antiretroviral use (OR, 7.5; 95% CI, 4.5-12.5). Provider non-adherence occurred in one out of 59 cases (2%), and five out of 106 controls (5%). Of the patients who developed PCP on prophylaxis, 18 cases (30%) appeared due to drug failure; there were no cases of apparent drug failure among patients on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In multivariate analysis, non-adherence was more common among patients of non-white race, those with a history of injecting drug use, and those with active substance abuse or psychiatric illness. Patient non-adherence was the most common reason for the occurrence of PCP among patients in HIV care; provider non-adherence was uncommon. Drug failure occurred only among patients on prophylaxis other than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

  20. Antibacterial therapeutics for the treatment of chytrid infection in amphibians: Columbus's egg?

    PubMed

    Muijsers, Mariska; Martel, An; Van Rooij, Pascale; Baert, Kris; Vercauteren, Griet; Ducatelle, Richard; De Backer, Patrick; Vercammen, Francis; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2012-09-25

    The establishment of safe and effective protocols to treat chytridiomycosis in amphibians is urgently required. In this study, the usefulness of antibacterial agents to clear chytridiomycosis from infected amphibians was evaluated. Florfenicol, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine and the combination of trimethoprim and sulfonamides were active in vitro against cultures of five Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis strains containing sporangia and zoospores, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 0.5-1.0 μg/ml for florfenicol and 8.0 μg/ml for the sulfonamides. Trimethoprim was not capable of inhibiting growth but, combined with sulfonamides, reduced the time to visible growth inhibition by the sulfonamides. Growth inhibition of B. dendrobatidis was not observed after exposure to clindamycin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, paromomycin, polymyxin E and tylosin. Cultures of sporangia and zoospores of B. dendrobatidis strains JEL423 and IA042 were killed completely after 14 days of exposure to 100 μg/ml florfenicol or 16 μg/ml trimethoprim combined with 80 μg/ml sulfadiazine. These concentrations were, however, not capable of efficiently killing zoospores within 4 days after exposure as assessed using flow cytometry. Florfenicol concentrations remained stable in a bathing solution during a ten day period. Exposure of Discoglossus scovazzi tadpoles for ten days to 100 μg/ml but not to 10 μg florfenicol /ml water resulted in toxicity. In an in vivo trial, post metamorphic Alytes muletensis, experimentally inoculated with B. dendrobatidis, were treated topically with a solution containing 10 μg/ml of florfenicol during 14 days. Although a significant reduction of the B. dendrobatidis load was obtained, none of the treated animals cleared the infection. We thus conclude that, despite marked anti B. dendrobatidis activity in vitro, the florfenicol treatment used is not capable of eliminating B. dendrobatidis infections from amphibians.

  1. Antibacterial therapeutics for the treatment of chytrid infection in amphibians: Columbus’s egg?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The establishment of safe and effective protocols to treat chytridiomycosis in amphibians is urgently required. In this study, the usefulness of antibacterial agents to clear chytridiomycosis from infected amphibians was evaluated. Results Florfenicol, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine and the combination of trimethoprim and sulfonamides were active in vitro against cultures of five Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis strains containing sporangia and zoospores, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 0.5-1.0 μg/ml for florfenicol and 8.0 μg/ml for the sulfonamides. Trimethoprim was not capable of inhibiting growth but, combined with sulfonamides, reduced the time to visible growth inhibition by the sulfonamides. Growth inhibition of B. dendrobatidis was not observed after exposure to clindamycin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, paromomycin, polymyxin E and tylosin. Cultures of sporangia and zoospores of B. dendrobatidis strains JEL423 and IA042 were killed completely after 14 days of exposure to 100 μg/ml florfenicol or 16 μg/ml trimethoprim combined with 80 μg/ml sulfadiazine. These concentrations were, however, not capable of efficiently killing zoospores within 4 days after exposure as assessed using flow cytometry. Florfenicol concentrations remained stable in a bathing solution during a ten day period. Exposure of Discoglossus scovazzi tadpoles for ten days to 100 μg/ml but not to 10 μg florfenicol /ml water resulted in toxicity. In an in vivo trial, post metamorphic Alytes muletensis, experimentally inoculated with B. dendrobatidis, were treated topically with a solution containing 10 μg/ml of florfenicol during 14 days. Although a significant reduction of the B. dendrobatidis load was obtained, none of the treated animals cleared the infection. Conclusions We thus conclude that, despite marked anti B. dendrobatidis activity in vitro, the florfenicol treatment used is not capable of eliminating B. dendrobatidis infections

  2. Antibiotic resistance patterns of outpatient pediatric urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Edlin, Rachel S; Shapiro, Daniel J; Hersh, Adam L; Copp, Hillary L

    2013-07-01

    We characterize the current national patterns of antibiotic resistance of outpatient pediatric urinary tract infection. We examined outpatient urinary isolates from patients younger than 18 years in 2009 using The Surveillance Network®, a database with antibiotic susceptibility results and patient demographic data from 195 United States hospitals. We determined the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns for the 6 most common uropathogens, ie Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus. We compared differences in uropathogen prevalence between males and females using chi-square analysis. We identified 25,418 outpatient urinary isolates. E. coli was the most common uropathogen overall but the prevalence of E. coli was higher among females (83%) than males (50%, p <0.001). Other common species among males were Enterococcus (17%), P. mirabilis (11%) and Klebsiella (10%). However, these uropathogens each accounted for 5% or less of female isolates (p <0.001). Resistance among E. coli was highest for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (24%) but lower for nitrofurantoin (less than 1%) and cephalothin (15%). Compared to 2002 Surveillance Network data, E. coli resistance rates increased for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (from 23% to 31% in males and from 20% to 23% in females) and ciprofloxacin (from 1% to 10% and from 0.6% to 4%, respectively). E. coli remains the most common pediatric uropathogen. Although widely used, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is a poor empirical choice for pediatric urinary tract infections in many areas due to high resistance rates. First-generation cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin are appropriate narrow-spectrum alternatives given their low resistance rates. Local antibiograms should be used to assist with empirical urinary tract infection treatment. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility and β-lactamase production in Bacillus cereus isolates from stool of patients, food and environment samples.

    PubMed

    Savić, Dejana; Miljković-Selimović, Biljana; Lepšanović, Zorica; Tambur, Zoran; Konstantinović, Sonja; Stanković, Nemanja; Ristanović, Elizabeta

    2016-10-01

    Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) usually ingested by food can cause two types of diseases: vomiting due to the presence of emetic toxin and diarrheal syndrome, due to the presence of diarrheal toxins. Systemic manifestations can also occur. The severe forms of disease demand antibiotic treatmant. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in antibiotic susceptibility and β-lactamase activity of B. cereus isolates from stools of humans, food and environment. Identification of B. cereus was performed with selective medium, classical biochemical test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers specific for bal gene. Thirty isolates from each group were analysed for antibiotic susceptibility using the disk-diffusion assay. Production of β-lactamase was determined by cefinase test, and double-disc method. All strains identified as B. cereus using classical biochemical test, yielded 533 bp fragment with PCR. Isolates from all the three groups were susceptible to imipenem, vancomycin, and erythromycin. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin but one from the environment. A statistically significant difference between the groups was confirmed to tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole sensitivity. A total of 28/30 (93.33%) samples from the foods and 25/30 (83.33%) samples from environment were approved sensitive to tetracycline, while 10/30 (33.33%) isolates from stools were sensitive. Opposite to this result, high susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was shown in samples from stools (100%), while isolates from foods (63.33%) and from environment (70%) had low susceptibility. All samples produced β-lactamases. The strains of B. cereus from all the three groups showed high rate of sensitivity to most tested antibiotics, except to tetracycline in samples from human stool and to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole in samples from food and environment. The production of β-lactamases was confirmed in all the strains.

  4. Epidemiology of Toxicological Factors in Civil Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities, 1999-2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    Tramadol 0 1 11 12 Trazodone 0 1 2 4 Triamterene 1 5 2 8 Trimethoprim 1 0 4 5 Venlafaxine/Desmethylvenlafaxine 1 3 2 6 Verapamil/Norverapamil 0 3 6 11...fatalities could have been administered by emergency health care providers at accident scenes, or at hospitals for pain reduction and/or surgical

  5. Acquired toxoplasmosis after orthotopic heart transplantation in a sulfonamide-allergic patient.

    PubMed

    Sanchez Mejia, Aura; Debrunner, Mark; Cox, Elaine; Caldwell, Randall

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a young adult with a history of an allergic reaction to a sulfonamide antibiotic who developed toxoplasmosis after his second orthotopic heart transplant. As a result of this drug allergy, the patient did not receive prophylaxis with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. He was successfully treated with clindamycin, pyrimethamine, and folic acid.

  6. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Harimurti, Kuntjoro; Saldi, Siti R F; Dewiasty, Esthika; Khoeri, Miftahuddin M; Yunihastuti, Evi; Putri, Tiara; Tafroji, Wisnu; Safari, Dodi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Specimens of nasopharyngeal swab were collected from 200 HIV infected adults aged 21 to 63 years. Identification of S. pneumoniae was done by optochin susceptibility test and PCR for the presence of psaA and lytA genes. Serotyping was performed with sequential multiplex PCR and antibiotic susceptibility with the disk diffusion method. S. pneumoniae strains were carried by 10% adults with serotype 6A/B 20% was common serotype among cultured strains in 20 adults. Most of isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (80%) followed by clindamycin (75%), erythromycin (75%), penicillin (55%), and tetracycline (50%). This study found resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was most common with only 15% of strains being susceptible. High non-susceptibility to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in S. pneumoniae strains carried by HIV infected adults in Jakarta, Indonesia. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term outcome of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Francesconi, Fabio; da Silva, Marcus Tulius Teixeira; Costa, Regina Lana Braga; Francesconi, Valeska Albuquerque; Carregal, Eleonora; Talhari, Sinésio; Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do

    2011-01-01

    Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM) is a term used to describe the invasion of the central nervous system by the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. NPCM has been described sporadically in some case reports and small case series, with little or no focus on treatment outcome and long-term follow-up. All patients with NPCM from January 1991 to December 2006 were analyzed and were followed until December 2009. Fourteen (3.8%) cases of NPCM were identified out of 367 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). A combination of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP) was the regimen of choice, with no documented death due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Residual neurological deficits were observed in 8 patients. Residual calcification was a common finding in neuroimaging follow-up. All the patients in this study responded positively to the association of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, a regimen that should be considered a treatment option in cases of NPCM. Neurological sequela was a relatively common finding. For proper management of these patients, anticonvulsant treatment and physical therapy support were also needed.

  8. Detection limits of antimicrobials in ewe milk by delvotest photometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Althaus, R L; Torres, A; Montero, A; Balasch, S; Molina, M P

    2003-02-01

    The Delvotest method detection limits per manufacturer's instructions at a fixed reading time of 3 h for 24 antimicrobial agents were determined in ewe milk by photometric measurement. For each drug, eight concentrations were tested on 20 ewe milk samples from individual ewes. Detection limits, determined by means of logistic regression models, were (microg/kg): 3, amoxycillin; 2, ampicillin; 18, cloxacillin; 1, penicillin "G"; 34, cefadroxil; 430, cephalosporin "C"; 40, cephalexin; 20, cefoperazone; 33, Ceftiofur; 18, cefuroxime; 6100, streptomycin; 1200, gentamycin; 2600, neomycin; 830, erythromycin; 100, tylosin; 180, doxycycline; 320, oxytetracycline; 590, tetracycline; 88, sulfadiazine; 44, sulfamethoxazole; 140, sulfametoxypyridazine; 48, sulfaquinoxaline; 12,000, chloramphenicol; and 290, trimethoprim. Whereas the beta-lactam antibiotics, sulphonamides, and tylosin were detected by Delvotest method at levels equal to those of maximum residue limits, its sensitivity needs to be enhanced to detect aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim residues in ewe milk or to develop an integrated residue detection system for ewe milk with different sensitive microorganisms for each group of antiinfectious agents.

  9. [Cerebral and pulmonary nocardiosis to Nocardia abscessus in an immunocompetent Algerian patient].

    PubMed

    Arrache, D; Zait, H; Rodriguez-Nava, V; Bergeron, E; Durand, T; Yahiaoui, M; Grenouillet, F; Amrane, A; Chaouche, F; Baiod, A; Madani, K; Hamrioui, B

    2018-05-14

    Nocardial brain abscess is often occurring in immunocompromised patients. It is uncommon in immunocompetent individuals. Here, the authors describe a case of cerebral and pulmonary nocardiosis mimicking a metastatic tumor in an apparently health 40-year-old Algerian male. The patient presented multiple brain abscess revealed by inaugural epileptic seizure. He was afebrile and presented with left hemiparesis. Staging imaging showed a nodular lung lesion in the apical segment of the right lower lobe. The patient underwent double craniotomy for resection of the lesion. Culture of the resected specimen isolated Nocardia abscessus. The patient was initially started on intravenous trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and intravenous amikacine. He was switched to oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. He finished seven months of antibiotic therapy with a good clinical response. Imaging revealed reduction in the brain abscess and a complete resolution of the lung lesion. Cotrimoxazole was stopped after twelve months of therapy. After two years, the health status of our patient improves day after day. He is however regularly under medical supervision for control exams. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. UPLC-MS/MS method for therapeutic drug monitoring of 10 antibiotics used in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    El-Najjar, Nahed; Hösl, Julian; Holzmann, Thomas; Jantsch, Jonathan; Gessner, André

    2018-03-01

    A large variation in the levels of different ß-lactams and other antibiotics used in critically ill patients has been documented. The aim of this study is to establish and validate a fast, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous analysis of ten antibiotics (Meropenem, Cefepime, Ceftazidime, Piperacillin, Benzylpenicillin, Ampicillin, Flucloxacillin, Linezolid, and Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim) in human plasma according to European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines. Protein precipitation with ice-cold methanol containing 9 isotopically labeled internal standards was used for sample clean up. Antibiotics were detected, following a 4-minute gradient separation, in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) using API 4000 instrument equipped with electrospray source operating in positive ion mode. The lower limit of quantification was 0.1 mg/L for Meropenem, Ceftazidime, Piperacillin, Ampicillin, Flucloxacillin, and Sulfamethoxazole; 0.05 mg/L for Cefepime, Benzylpenicillin, and Trimethoprim; and 0.02 mg/L for Linezolid. The method proved to be precise and accurate and applicable for therapeutic drug monitoring and other pharmacokinetic studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of Shigella spp. from humans in Shanghai, China, 2004-2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianmin; Jin, Huiming; Hu, Jiayu; Yuan, Zhengan; Shi, Weimin; Yang, Xiaowei; Xu, Xuebin; Meng, Jianghong

    2014-03-01

    A retrospective study conducted on patients with diarrhea in Shanghai, China from 2004-2011, indicated that of 77,600 samples collected, 1,635 (2.1%) tested positive for Shigella. Species isolated included S. sonnei (1,066, 65.1%), S. flexneri (569, 34.7%), and S. boydii (3, 0.2%). Most of the Shigella isolates were found to be resistant to streptomycin (98.7%), trimethoprim (98.0%), ampicillin (92.1%), and nalidixic acid (91.7%). Additionally, many isolates were resistant to tetracycline (86.9%), trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole (80.1%), sulfisoxazole (76.8%) and gentamicin (55.5%). Approximately 80% of the isolates were resistant to at least eight antimicrobial agents, 14% to at least ten antimicrobials tested and 10 isolates to fourteen antimicrobials, including sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides and β-lactamases. Importantly, co-resistance to fluoroquinolones and the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins was also identified. The high levels of resistance to antimicrobial agents commonly used in clinical medicine presents a great challenge to treating patients with shigellosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Current Practices in Ocular Toxoplasmosis: A Survey of Brazilian Uveitis Specialists.

    PubMed

    Morais, Fábio Barreto; Arantes, Tiago Eugênio Faria E; Muccioli, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    To describe treatment practices for ocular toxoplasmosis among members of the Brazilian Uveitis Society. An online questionnaire sent to specialists, between October 2014 and March 2015. Most respondents (67.9%) treat all active cases. Most specialists consider visual acuity <20/200 (88.2%), severe vitreous inflammation (94.1%), and ocular disease during acquired infection (88.2%) as absolute indications for treatment. Systemic steroids are associated with anti-toxoplasmic therapy in most cases by 50.9% of the respondents. For immunocompetent individuals, 57.4% of the respondents chose trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Classical therapy (sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine) is preferred most for patients with central lesions (70.4%), immunosuppression (68.4%), acquired infection (70.4%), and atypical forms (74.1%). For patients with frequent relapses, 84.9% of the respondents preferred antibiotic prophylaxis. Treatment patterns of ocular toxoplasmosis are not uniform among Brazilian specialists. Most specialists treat all cases of active retinochoroiditis. Typical cases are more frequently treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. However, classical therapy is the regimen of choice when lesions are considered more severe.

  13. Antibiotics in typical marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China: occurrence, bioaccumulation and human dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Sun, Kai-Feng; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-01-15

    The occurrence, bioaccumulation, and human dietary exposure via seafood consumption of 37 antibiotics in six typical marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China were investigated in this study. Sulfamethoxazole, salinomycin and trimethoprim were widely detected in the water samples (0.4-36.9 ng/L), while oxytetracycline was the predominant antibiotic in the water samples of shrimp larvae pond. Enrofloxacin was widely detected in the feed samples (16.6-31.8 ng/g) and erythromycin-H2O was the most frequently detected antibiotic in the sediment samples (0.8-4.8 ng/g). Erythromycin-H2O was the dominant antibiotic in the adult Fenneropenaeus penicillatus with concentrations ranging from 2498 to 15,090 ng/g. In addition, trimethoprim was found to be bioaccumulative in young Lutjanus russelli with a median bioaccumulation factor of 6488 L/kg. Based on daily intake estimation, the erythromycin-H2O in adult F. penicillatus presented a potential risk to human safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Guanylhydrazones in therapy of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in immunosuppressed rats.

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, P D; Foy, J; Runck, J; Steele, P; White, M; Klein, R S; Otter, B A; Sundberg, R J

    1994-01-01

    Guanylhydrazones are cationic heteroaromatic drugs similar to the diamidines which are effective in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and pneumocystosis. On the basis of their antitrypanosomal activity, different guanylhydrazones were selected for evaluation in a rat model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The most active compounds were the 2-(4'-formylphenyl)-1-methylimidazo-[1,2-a] pyridinium guanylhydrazones which, at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day, were about as effective as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole at a dose of 50 mg of trimethoprim per kg/day plus 250 mg of sulfamethoxazole per kg/day. The anti-P. carinii activity of these guanylhydrazone derivatives was found with parenteral but not with oral administration. The 1,3-arylene diketone bis(guanylhydrazones) were generally ineffective, although a triacetyl derivative showed some anti-P. carinii activity. Nitroimidazole guanylhydrazone derivatives were also ineffective. Attempts to improve the therapeutic efficacy of the different guanylhydrazones were limited by problems of toxicity. We conclude that some guanylhydrazone derivatives are potent anti-P. carinii drugs and that further studies should be pursued to develop safer compounds and investigate structure-activity relationships. PMID:7872750

  15. Comparison of different agar diffusion methods for the detection of residues in the kidneys of pigs treated with antimicrobial drugs.

    PubMed

    Korkeala, H; Sorvettula, O; Mäki-Petäys, O; Hirn, J

    1983-01-01

    Residue analyses of the kidneys of twenty-six pigs treated with various antimicrobial drugs 20 h before slaughter and of eleven untreated pigs were performed. The effects of storage temperature of the kidneys, and of sampling location, on the residue analysis were also studied. No method alone was sufficient for the detection of residues. Oxytetracycline residues could be detected at pH 6, dihydrostreptomycin residues at pH 8, and sulphonamide residues if trimethoprim was present in the medium. Chloramphenicol, penicillin G procaine, tylosin and lincomycin residues were not detectable with the methods used. The concentration of ampicillin decreased during the storage of samples at +4°C. Most methods also yielded zones of inhibition for the frozen kidneys from untreated pigs. It seems necessary to use agar media of two different pH values: the addition of trimethoprim to the medium is also needed. The use of fresh pig kidneys, and samples containing both kidney medulla and kidney cortex, is recommended in residue analysis. Copyright © 1983. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Uptake and Accumulation of Pharmaceuticals in Overhead- and Surface-Irrigated Greenhouse Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Bhalsod, Gemini D; Chuang, Ya-Hui; Jeon, Sangho; Gui, Wenjun; Li, Hui; Ryser, Elliot T; Guber, Andrey K; Zhang, Wei

    2018-01-31

    Understanding the uptake and accumulation of pharmaceuticals in vegetables under typical irrigation practices is critical to risk assessment of crop irrigation with reclaimed water. This study investigated the pharmaceutical residues in greenhouse lettuce under overhead and soil-surface irrigations using pharmaceutical-contaminated water. Compared to soil-surface irrigation, overhead irrigation substantially increased the pharmaceutical residues in lettuce shoots. The increased residue levels persisted even after washing for trimethoprim, monensin sodium, and tylosin, indicating their strong sorption to the shoots. The postwashing concentrations in fresh shoots varied from 0.05 ± 0.04 μg/kg for sulfadiazine to 345 ± 139 μg/kg for carbamazepine. Root concentration factors ranged from 0.04 ± 0.14 for tylosin to 19.2 ± 15.7 for sulfamethoxazole. Translocation factors in surface-irrigated lettuce were low for sulfamethoxalzole, trimethoprim, monensin sodium, and tylosin (0.07-0.15), but high for caffeine (4.28 ± 3.01) and carbamazepine (8.15 ± 2.87). Carbamazepine was persistent in soil and hyperaccumulated in shoots.

  17. [Sensitivity and antibiotic resistance in infections of the musculoskeletal system].

    PubMed

    Mata-Hernández, Argenis; Rivera-Villa, Adrián Huematzin; Miguel-Pérez, Adrián; Pérez-Atanasio, José Manuel; Torres-González, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    Infections of the musculoskeletal system are a devastating complication for patients, due to it's long rehabilitation process and even sometimes the removal of the implant, the chronicity of infection, is often due to lack of coverage in empirical antibiotics. A retrospective, observational, descriptive cohort study was performed. All cultures form musculoskeletal system infected patients reported of sensitivity and resistance of germs isolated were analyzed. A total of 143 positive results were included. Reported more frequent germ Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 75 positive cases, followed by Escherichia coli with 31 positive results. Antibiotics with better sensitivity according to the type of microorganisms were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and vancomycin, levofloxacin and linezolid, gentamicin, erythromycin and amikacin. Regarding antibiotic resistance, those reported with the highest percentage were penicillin G, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and ampicillin. We recommend using empirical treatments in musculoskeletal system infections, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are the best choice because they have the same sensitivity compare with vancomycin and a resistance rate of 7.6%. Betalactamics have a high percentage of resistance and low sensitivity so we must consider alternatives.

  18. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of some Novel Azoles and Azolopyrimidines as Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Gomha, Sobhi M; Farghaly, Thoraya A; Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Zayed, Mohie E M; Mohamed, Amany M G

    2017-02-23

    In this study, new derivatives of pyrazole, isoxazole, pyrazolylthiazole, and azolopyrimidine having a thiophene ring were synthesized under microwave irradiation. Their pharmacological activity toward bacteria and fungi inhibition was screened and compared to the references Chloramphenicol and Trimethoprim / sulphamethoxazole . The antimicrobial results of the investigated compounds revealed promising results and some derivatives have activities similar to the references used.

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance Among Uropathogens That Cause Childhood Community-acquired Urinary Tract Infections in Central Israel.

    PubMed

    Yakubov, Renata; van den Akker, Machiel; Machamad, Kaba; Hochberg, Amit; Nadir, Erez; Klein, Adi

    2017-01-01

    In this retrospective study 829 positive urine cultures were analyzed. Escherichia coli bacterium was the leading uropathogen (86%). Almost 60% were resistant to ampicillin and first generation cephalosporins, and about 30% of them resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Almost none of them were resistant to second and third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin or nitrofurantoin.

  20. Evaluation of the Tissue Culture Standard and Correlation with DNA probes and ELISA for the Detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    include the aminoglycosides, the aminocyclitols (spectinomycin), nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, vancomycin, metronidazole , lincomycin, cephalosporins...and antifungal agents such as nystatin and amphotericin B. This is why gentamicin, streptomycin, vancomycin and antifungals may be used in...often used are gentamicin or streptomycin, vancomycin, and amphotericin B or nystatin . Using 2-SP with antimicrobials will keep over 99% of cell

  1. Twenty-Five Year Epidemiology of Invasive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Isolates Recovered at a Burn Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    elements and tend to carry resis- tance determinants in addition to mecA. In addition to varying antimicrobial resistance, the presence of certain...Antimicrobial susceptibility testing BMD testing was performed using CLSI criteria to determine antimicrobial susceptibility, broth microdilution performed...minocycline, trimethoprim –sul- famethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, rifampin, tigecycline and gen- tamicin. Wells containing daptomycin were supplemented with 50 mg

  2. High-throughput identification and rational design of synergistic small-molecule pairs for combating and bypassing antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Wambaugh, Morgan A; Shakya, Viplendra P S; Lewis, Adam J; Mulvey, Matthew A; Brown, Jessica C S

    2017-06-01

    Antibiotic-resistant infections kill approximately 23,000 people and cost $20,000,000,000 each year in the United States alone despite the widespread use of small-molecule antimicrobial combination therapy. Antibiotic combinations typically have an additive effect: the efficacy of the combination matches the sum of the efficacies of each antibiotic when used alone. Small molecules can also act synergistically when the efficacy of the combination is greater than the additive efficacy. However, synergistic combinations are rare and have been historically difficult to identify. High-throughput identification of synergistic pairs is limited by the scale of potential combinations: a modest collection of 1,000 small molecules involves 1 million pairwise combinations. Here, we describe a high-throughput method for rapid identification of synergistic small-molecule pairs, the overlap2 method (O2M). O2M extracts patterns from chemical-genetic datasets, which are created when a collection of mutants is grown in the presence of hundreds of different small molecules, producing a precise set of phenotypes induced by each small molecule across the mutant set. The identification of mutants that show the same phenotype when treated with known synergistic molecules allows us to pinpoint additional molecule combinations that also act synergistically. As a proof of concept, we focus on combinations with the antibiotics trimethoprim and sulfamethizole, which had been standard treatment against urinary tract infections until widespread resistance decreased efficacy. Using O2M, we screened a library of 2,000 small molecules and identified several that synergize with the antibiotic trimethoprim and/or sulfamethizole. The most potent of these synergistic interactions is with the antiviral drug azidothymidine (AZT). We then demonstrate that understanding the molecular mechanism underlying small-molecule synergistic interactions allows the rational design of additional combinations that

  3. High-throughput identification and rational design of synergistic small-molecule pairs for combating and bypassing antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Adam J.; Mulvey, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant infections kill approximately 23,000 people and cost $20,000,000,000 each year in the United States alone despite the widespread use of small-molecule antimicrobial combination therapy. Antibiotic combinations typically have an additive effect: the efficacy of the combination matches the sum of the efficacies of each antibiotic when used alone. Small molecules can also act synergistically when the efficacy of the combination is greater than the additive efficacy. However, synergistic combinations are rare and have been historically difficult to identify. High-throughput identification of synergistic pairs is limited by the scale of potential combinations: a modest collection of 1,000 small molecules involves 1 million pairwise combinations. Here, we describe a high-throughput method for rapid identification of synergistic small-molecule pairs, the overlap2 method (O2M). O2M extracts patterns from chemical-genetic datasets, which are created when a collection of mutants is grown in the presence of hundreds of different small molecules, producing a precise set of phenotypes induced by each small molecule across the mutant set. The identification of mutants that show the same phenotype when treated with known synergistic molecules allows us to pinpoint additional molecule combinations that also act synergistically. As a proof of concept, we focus on combinations with the antibiotics trimethoprim and sulfamethizole, which had been standard treatment against urinary tract infections until widespread resistance decreased efficacy. Using O2M, we screened a library of 2,000 small molecules and identified several that synergize with the antibiotic trimethoprim and/or sulfamethizole. The most potent of these synergistic interactions is with the antiviral drug azidothymidine (AZT). We then demonstrate that understanding the molecular mechanism underlying small-molecule synergistic interactions allows the rational design of additional combinations that

  4. Progressive Increase in Antimicrobial Resistance among Invasive Isolates of Haemophilus influenzae Obtained from Children Admitted to a Hospital in Kilifi, Kenya, from 1994 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J. Anthony G.; Mwarumba, Salim; Ngetsa, Caroline; Njenga, Salome; Lowe, Brett S.; Slack, Mary P. E.; Berkley, James A.; Mwangi, Isaiah; Maitland, Kathryn; English, Mike; Marsh, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Etest susceptibilities to amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole of 240 invasive isolates of Haemophilus influenzae cultured from children in rural Kenya were 66%, 66%, and 38%, respectively. Resistance increased markedly over 9 years and was concentrated among serotype b isolates. In Africa, the increasing cost of treating resistant infections supports economic arguments for prevention through conjugate H. influenzae type b immunization. PMID:15980390

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the First New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase (NDM-1)-Producing Escherichia coli Strain Isolated in Peru.

    PubMed

    Tamariz, Jesus; Llanos, Carlos; Seas, Carlos; Montenegro, Paola; Lagos, Jose; Fernandes, Miriam R; Cerdeira, Louise; Lincopan, Nilton

    2018-03-29

    We present here the draft genome sequence of the first New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1)-producing Escherichia coli strain, belonging to sequence type 155 (ST155), isolated in Peru. Assembly of this draft genome resulted in 5,061,184 bp, revealing a clinically significant resistome for β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, phenicols, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and fluoroquinolones. Copyright © 2018 Tamariz et al.

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibility/Resistance of Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Karcic, Emina; Aljicevic, Mufida; Bektas, Sabaheta; Karcic, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, whose treatment is threatened with an increase in the number of strains resistant to antibiotic therapy. Goal: The main goal of this research was to investigate the presence of antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance of S. pneumoniae. Material and methods: Taken are swabs of the nose and nasopharynx, eye and ear. In vitro tests that were made in order to study the antimicrobial resistance of pneumococci are: disk diffusion method and E-test. Results: The resistance to inhibitors of cell wall synthesis was recorded at 39.17%, protein synthesis inhibitors 19.67%, folate antagonists 47.78% and quinolone in 1.11%. S. pneumoniae has shown drug resistance to erythromycin in 45%, clindamycin in 45%, chloramphenicol–0.56%, rifampicin–6.11%, tetracycline–4.67%, penicillin-G in 4.44%, oxacillin in 73.89%, ciprofloxacin in 1.11% and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 5.34% of cases. Conclusion: The highest resistance pneumococcus showed to erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and these should be avoided in the treatment. The least resistance pneumococcus showed to tetracycline, rifampicin, chloramphenicol, penicillin-G and ciprofloxacin. PMID:26236165

  7. Pharmaceuticals in on-site sewage effluent and ground water, Western Montana.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Emily; Woessner, William W; Benotti, Mark J

    2007-01-01

    Human use of pharmaceuticals results in the excretion and disposal of compounds that become part of municipal and domestic waste streams. On-site waste water disposal and leaking city sewer systems can provide avenues for the migration of effluent to the underlying aquifers. This research assessed the occurrence and persistence of 22 target pharmaceuticals in septic tank effluent and two shallow, coarse-grained aquifers in western Montana. Twelve compounds (acetaminophen, caffeine, codeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, erythromycin-18, nicotine, paraxanthine, ranitidine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and warfarin) were detected in a high school septic tank effluent. Three of the 12 compounds, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, and nicotine, were detected in the underlying sand and gravel aquifer after effluent percolation through a 2.0-m thick sand vadose zone. Sampling of a second sand, gravel, and cobble dominated unconfined aquifer, partially overlain by septic systems and a city sewer system, revealed the presence of caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, nicotine, and trimethoprim. The presence of carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole in these aquifers appears to correlate with local usage based on a reported monthly prescription volume. This work highlights the need for expanding geochemical investigations of sewage waste impacted ground water systems to include sampling for selected pharmaceuticals.

  8. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from broiler farms, chicken carcasses, and street-vended restaurants in Casamance, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Dione, Michel M; Ieven, Margareta; Garin, Benoît; Marcotty, Tanguy; Geerts, Stanny

    2009-11-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and distribution of Salmonella on 57 randomly selected broiler farms at the end of the rearing period and in chicken products in urban and periurban areas in Casamance, Senegal, and to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance profiles of the Salmonella serovars. Salmonella was detected in chicken feces, on carcass skin, and in muscle on 35.1, 38.6, and 29.8% of farms, respectively. Salmonella was found in chicken meat servings from 14.3% of the 42 street restaurants and in 40.4% of the 285 chicken carcasses examined. The prevalence on skin and in muscle was significantly associated with the detection of Salmonella in feces (P trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, trimethoprim, streptomycin, and sulfonamides. All Salmonella serovars were susceptible to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins. A large proportion of the isolates belonging to 11 serovars were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Salmonella continues to be of serious concern in the broiler production chain in Senegal.

  9. Biology of Isospora spp. from humans, nonhuman primates, and domestic animals.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, D S; Dubey, J P; Blagburn, B L

    1997-01-01

    Coccidial parasites of the genus Isospora cause intestinal disease in several mammalian host species. These protozoal parasites have asexual and sexual stages within intestinal cells of their hosts and produce an environmentally resistant cyst stage, the oocyst. Infections are acquired by the ingestion of infective (sporulated) oocysts in contaminated food or water. Some species of mammalian Isospora have evolved the ability to use paratenic (transport) hosts. In these cases, infections can be acquired by ingestion of an infected paratenic host. Human intestinal isosporiasis is caused by Isospora belli. Symptoms of I. belli infection in immunocompetent patients include diarrhea, steatorrhea, headache, fever, malaise, abdominal pain, vomiting, dehydration, and weight loss, blood is not usually present in the feces. The disease is often chronic, with parasites present in the feces or biopsy specimens for several months to years. Recurrences are common, Symptoms are more severe in AIDS patients, with the diarrhea being more watery. Extraintestinal stages of I. belli have been observed in AIDS patients but not immunocompetent patients. Treatment of I. belli infection with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole usually results in a rapid clinical response. Maintenance treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is needed because relapses often occur once treatment is stopped. PMID:8993857

  10. [Susceptibility to azithromycin and other antibiotics in recent isolates of Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia].

    PubMed

    Martín-Pozo, Angeles; Arana, David M; Fuentes, Miriam; Alós, Juan-Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Azithromycin represents an alternative option to treat bacterial diarrhea when the antibiotic therapy is indicated. Little is known regarding the susceptibility to azithromycin in enteropathogens in Spain. The MICs of azithromycin were determined by E-test against Salmonella non-typhi (SNT), Shigella and Yersinia isolates collected over the last three years (2010-2012). In addition, the susceptibility to other antibiotics usually used to treat gastrointestinal diseases was determined in these isolates by using a microdilution method. A total of 139 strains of SNT, Shigella and Yersinia were studied. All of them, except one strain, had a MIC≤16mg/L of azithromycin. In the adult population, 14.7% and 40.6% of SNT and Shigella isolates, respectively, were resistant to at least 2 of following antibiotics: amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. In the pediatric population, 10% of SNT clinical isolates and 28.6% (2/7) of Shigella isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In our experience, azithromycin would be a useful antibiotic alternative to treat bacterial diarrhea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidemiological trends and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of Shigella spp. isolated from stool cultures in two different populations in Southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Itai; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Leibovitz, Eugene; Broides, Arnon

    2014-03-01

    Southern Israel is inhabited by Bedouins, living in conditions similar to developing countries and Jews, living in conditions similar to developed countries. We determined the epidemiology of Shigella spp. in these populations. We retrospectively reviewed Shigella spp. stool isolations between 2005-2009. Overall, 3295 isolates were analyzed. S. sonnei was isolated in 2057/3295 (62.4%) and S. flexneri in 1058 (32.1%). S. sonnei was isolated in 1567/1707 (91.8%) from Jewish patients and S. flexneri in 931/1542 (60.4%) from Bedouin patients. Ampicillin resistance increased linearly from 217/373 (58.2%) in 2005 to 186/256 (72.7%) in 2009, (P < 0.001). Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance decreased linearly from 328/373 (87.9%) in 2005 to 133/256 (51.9%) in 2009 (P < 0.001). Higher resistance of Shigella spp. to ampicilin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were found in Jewish patients: 1527/1706 (89.5%) versus 977/1542 (63.4%) (P < 0.0001), 1635/1706 (95.8%) versus 1026/1542 (66.5%) (P < 0.0001). The epidemiology of Shigella spp. infections can differ in populations residing in the same geographical area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of concurrent drug therapy on technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate biodistribution

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, G.H.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Peek, C.

    Drug interactions with /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate resulting in altered biodistribution were studied using chart review and animal tests. Charts of nine patients who had abnormal gallbladder uptake of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate during a two-year period were reviewed to obtain data such as concurrent drug therapy, primary diagnosis, and laboratory values. Adult New Zealand white rabbits were then used for testing the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate when administered concurrently with possibly interacting drugs identified in the chart review--penicillamine, penicillin G potassium, penicillin V potassium, acetaminophen, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Chart review revealed no conclusive patterns of altered biodistribution associated withmore » other factors. The data did suggest the possibility that the five drugs listed above might cause increased hepatobiliary clearance of the radiopharmaceutical. Animal tests showed that i.v. penicillamine caused substantial distribution of radioactivity into the gallbladder and small bowel. Minimally increased gallbladder radioactivity occurred when oral acetaminophen and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were administered concurrently. Oral and i.v. penicillins did not increase gallbladder activity. Penicillamine may cause substantial alteration of the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate.« less

  13. Associations between anti-microbial resistance phenotypes, anti-microbial resistance genotypes and virulence genes of Escherichia coli isolates from Pakistan and China.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, M; Wang, L P; Wang, S; Hussain, S; Memon, J; Kashif, J; Lu, C-P

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between phenotypic resistance, genotypic resistance and virulence genes of Escherichia coli isolates in Jiangsu province, China and Punjab province Pakistan. A total of 62 E. coli isolates were characterized for phenotypic resistance, genotypic resistance and virulence factor genes. The anti-microbial resistance phenotype and genotypes in relation to virulence factor genes were assessed by statistical analysis. Of 20 tested virulence genes, twelve were found and eight were not found in any isolates. sitA and TspE4C2 were the most prevalent virulence genes. Of the 13 anti-microbial agents tested, resistance to ampicillin, sulphonamide and tetracycline was the most frequent. All isolates were multiresistant, and 74% were resistant to trimethoprim and sulphamethaxazole. Phenotypically, tetracycline-, cefotaxime- and trimethoprim-resistant isolates had increased virulence factors as compared with susceptible isolates. Genotypically, resistant genes Tem, ctx-M, Tet, Sul 1, dhfr1, Cat2 and flo-R showed the association with the virulence genes. Almost all classes of anti-microbial-resistant genes have a high association with virulence. Resistant isolates have more virulent genes than the susceptible isolates. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Pediatric Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Halted by Etanercept.

    PubMed

    Gavigan, Geneviève M; Kanigsberg, Nordau D; Ramien, Michele L

    2018-02-01

    We report a case of an 11-year-old female with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) overlap, most likely triggered by sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, who was treated with the combination of methylprednisolone, cyclosporine, and etanercept. Her condition stabilized and her skin involvement did not progress after the addition of etanercept. To our knowledge, this is the first report of etanercept for pediatric SJS/TEN.

  15. [Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of 2,060 strains of different bacteria isolated in infectious processes in children].

    PubMed

    Filloy, L; Borjas, E; Sierra, A

    1981-01-01

    Susceptibility to antibiotics of 2060 strains of the following bacteria was studied: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella, Shigella, Proteus, Staphylococcus aureus that were isolated in 1978-79 from different infections in children hospitalized at the Hospital Infantil de Mexico. The antimicrobials submitted to the test of susceptibility were: ampicillin, amikacin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Present results are compared with previous studies.

  16. Intermediate Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin among Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Lejon, Veerle; Horna, Gertrudis; Astocondor, Lizeth; Vanhoof, Raymond; Bertrand, Sophie; Jacobs, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-three Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood isolates from Lima, Peru (2008 to 2012), were fully susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and tetracycline; 8/33 (24.2%) showed intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin carrying mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA gene (Ser83-Phe and Asp87-Asn) and in the gyrB gene (Ser464-Phe). PMID:24371234

  17. Acinetobacter Species Infections among Navy and Marine Corps Beneficiaries: 2012 Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-18

    with a large number of Infections, have the ability to easily acquire resistance determinants , and quickly develop resistance to multiple antibiotics...have the ability to easily acquire resistance determinants , and quickly develop resistance to multiple antibiotics, leaving few, if any, treatment...resistant (XDR) organisms accounted for 1.3% of DON cases. For non-MDR cases in the DON, providers most commonly prescribed trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole

  18. Fatal pneumonia and empyema thoracis caused by imipenem-resistant Nocardia abscessus in a cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Tsai, Hsih-Yeh; Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-12-01

    We describe a case of pneumonia and empyema thoracis caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-susceptible, but imipenem-resistant Nocardia abscessus in a cancer patient. The isolate was confirmed to the species level by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The patient did not respond to antibiotic therapy, including ceftriaxone and imipenem, and died of progressing pneumonia and multiple organ failure. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Drug-Drug Interactions Between the Anti-Hepatitis C Virus 3D Regimen of Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir/Ritonavir, and Dasabuvir and Eight Commonly Used Medications in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Polepally, Akshanth R; King, Jennifer R; Ding, Bifeng; Shuster, Diana L; Dumas, Emily O; Khatri, Amit; Chiu, Yi-Lin; Podsadecki, Thomas J; Menon, Rajeev M

    2016-08-01

    The three direct-acting antiviral regimen of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir (3D regimen) is approved for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection. Drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies of the 3D regimen and commonly used medications were conducted in healthy volunteers to provide information on coadministering these medications with or without dose adjustments. Three phase I studies evaluated DDIs between the 3D regimen (ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir 25/150/100 mg once daily + dasabuvir 250 mg twice daily) and hydrocodone bitartrate/acetaminophen (5/300 mg), metformin hydrochloride (500 mg), diazepam (2 mg), cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride (5 mg), carisoprodol (250 mg), or sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP) (800/160 mg twice daily), all administered orally. DDI magnitude was determined using geometric mean ratios and 90 % confidence intervals for the maximum plasma concentration (C max) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). Changes in exposures (C max and AUC geometric mean ratios) of acetaminophen, metformin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and diazepam were ≤25 % upon coadministration with the 3D regimen. The C max and AUC of nordiazepam, an active metabolite of diazepam, increased by 10 % and decreased by 44 %, respectively. Exposures of cyclobenzaprine and carisoprodol decreased by ≤40 and ≤46 %, respectively, whereas exposures of hydrocodone increased up to 90 %. Ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, and dasabuvir exposures changed by ≤25 %, except for a 37 % decrease in paritaprevir C max with metformin and a 33 % increase in dasabuvir AUC with SMZ/TMP. Acetaminophen, metformin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim can be coadministered with the 3D regimen without dose adjustment. Higher doses may be needed for diazepam, cyclobenzaprine, and carisoprodol based on clinical monitoring. A 50 % lower dose and/or clinical monitoring should be considered for hydrocodone. No dose

  20. Occurrence and partitioning of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two wastewater treatment plant effluents in northern New Jersey, 2008.

    PubMed

    Gibs, Jacob; Heckathorn, Heather A; Meyer, Michael T; Klapinski, Frank R; Alebus, Marzooq; Lippincott, Robert L

    2013-08-01

    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 μg/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 μg/L), erythromycin (0.024 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.92 μg/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 μg/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 μg/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 μg/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin-H2O (0.84 μg/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and

  1. Antibiotic content of selective culture media for isolation of Capnocytophaga species from oral polymicrobial samples.

    PubMed

    Ehrmann, E; Jolivet-Gougeon, A; Bonnaure-Mallet, M; Fosse, T

    2013-10-01

    In oral microbiome, because of the abundance of commensal competitive flora, selective media with antibiotics are necessary for the recovery of fastidious Capnocytophaga species. The performances of six culture media (blood agar, chocolate blood agar, VCAT medium, CAPE medium, bacitracin chocolate blood agar and VK medium) were compared with literature data concerning five other media (FAA, LB, TSBV, CapR and TBBP media). To understand variable growth on selective media, the MICs of each antimicrobial agent contained in this different media (colistin, kanamycin, trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, aztreonam and bacitracin) were determined for all Capnocytophaga species. Overall, VCAT medium (Columbia, 10% cooked horse blood, polyvitaminic supplement, 3·75 mg l(-1) of colistin, 1·5 mg l(-1) of trimethoprim, 1 mg l(-1) of vancomycin and 0·5 mg l(-1) of amphotericin B, Oxoid, France) was the more efficient selective medium, with regard to the detection of Capnocytophaga species from oral samples (P < 0·001) and the elimination of commensal clinical species (P < 0·001). The demonstrated superiority of VCAT medium, related to its antibiotic content, made its use indispensable for the optimal isolation of Capnocytophaga species from polymicrobial samples. Isolation of Capnocytophaga species is important for the proper diagnosis and treatment of the systemic infections they cause and for epidemiological studies of periodontal flora. We showed that in pure culture, a simple blood agar allowed the growth of all Capnocytophaga species. Nonetheless, in oral samples, because of the abundance of commensal competitive flora, selective media with antibiotics are necessary for the recovery of Capnocytophaga species. The demonstrated superiority of VCAT medium made its use essential for the optimal detection of this bacterial genus. This work showed that extreme caution should be exercised when reporting the isolation of Capnocytophaga

  2. Bacterial profile and drug susceptibility pattern of urinary tract infection in pregnant women at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Addisu; Asrat, Daniel; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; G/Hiwot, Yirgu; Abdella, Ahmed; Melesse, Tadele

    2008-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common complication of pregnancy. It may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. The aim of this cross sectional study was to identify bacterial agents and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern isolated from pregnant women with UTI attending antenatal clinic of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH). Four hundred and fourteen pregnant women with asymptomatic UTI (n = 369) and symptomatic UTI (n = 45) were investigated for urinary tract infection from January to March 2005. The age range of both groups was 18 to 44 years. Bacteriological screening of mid-stream urine specimens revealed that 39/369 (10.6%) and 9/45 (20%) had significant bacteriuria in asymptomatic and symptomatic group, respectively (p = 0.10). The overall prevalence of urinary tract infection was 48/414 (11.6%). The bacterial pathogens isolated were predominantly E. coil (44%), followed by S. aureus (20%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (16%), and K. pneumoniae (8%). Others found in small in number included P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp. and non-Group A-beta hemolytic Streptococcus, this accounted 2% for each. The gram positive and negative bacteria accounted 40% and 60% respectively. The susceptibility pattern for gram-negative bacteria showed that most of the isolates (> 65% of the strains) were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (70%), chloramphenicol (83.3%), gentamicin (93.3%), kanamycin (93.3%), nitrofurantoin (87.7%) and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (73.3%). Among the gram-positives, more than 60% of the isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (100%), cephalothin (95%), chloramphenicol (70%), erythromycin (80%), gentamicin (85%), methicillin (83.3%), nitrofurantoin (100%) and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (65%). Generally, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole were effective at least in 70% of the isolates. Multiple drug resistance (resistance two or

  3. Occurence of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two waste water treatment plant effluents in northern New Jersey, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibs, Jacob; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Klapinski, Frank R.; Alebus, Marzooq; Lippincott, Robert

    2013-01-01

    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 μg/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 μg/L), erythromycin (0.024 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.92 μg/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 μg/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 μg/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 μg/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin-H2O (0.84 μg/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and

  4. Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Stern, Anat; Green, Hefziba; Paul, Mical; Vidal, Liat; Leibovici, Leonard

    2014-10-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a disease affecting immunocompromised patients. PCP among these patients is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To assess the effectiveness of PCP prophylaxis among non-HIV immunocompromised patients; and to define the type of immunocompromised patient for whom evidence suggests a benefit for PCP prophylaxis. Electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE and EMBASE (to March 2014), LILACS (to March 2014), relevant conference proceedings; and references of identified trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing prophylaxis with an antibiotic effective against PCP versus placebo, no intervention, or antibiotic(s) with no activity against PCP; and trials comparing different antibiotics effective against PCP among immunocompromised non-HIV patients. We only included trials in which Pneumocystis infections were available as an outcome. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias in each trial and extracted data from the included trials. We contacted authors of the included trials to obtain missing data. The primary outcome was documented PCP infections. Risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated and pooled using the random-effects model. Thirteen trials performed between the years 1974 and 2008 were included, involving 1412 patients. Four trials included 520 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the remaining trials included adults with acute leukemia, solid organ transplantation or autologous bone marrow transplantation. Compared to no treatment or treatment with fluoroquinolones (inactive against Pneumocystis), there was an 85% reduction in the occurrence of PCP in patients receiving prophylaxis with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, RR of 0.15 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.62; 10 trials, 1000 patients). The evidence was graded as moderate due to possible risk of bias. PCP

  5. Antimicrobial resistance 1979-2009 at Karolinska hospital, Sweden: normalized resistance interpretation during a 30-year follow-up on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli resistance development.

    PubMed

    Kronvall, Göran

    2010-09-01

    To utilize a material of inhibition zone diameter measurements from disc diffusion susceptibility tests between 1979 and 2009, an objective setting of epidemiological breakpoints was necessary because of methodological changes. Normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) met this need and was applied to zone diameter histograms for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolates. The results confirmed a slow resistance development as seen in Northern countries. The S. aureus resistance levels for erythromycin, clindamycin and fusidic acid in 2009 were 3.2%, 1.8% and 1.4% with denominator correction. A rise in resistance to four antimicrobials in 1983 was probably because of a spread of resistant Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA). For E. coli, the denominator-corrected resistance levels in 2009 were 27% for ampicillin, around 3% for third-generation cephalosporins, 0.1% for imipenem, 2.5% for gentamicin, 19% for trimethoprim, 4.5% for co-trimoxazole, 1.2% for nitrofurantoin and 9% for ciprofloxacin. The temporal trends showed a rise in fluoroquinolone resistance from 1993, a parallel increase in gentamicin resistance, a substantial increase in trimethoprim and sulphonamide resistance in spite of decreased consumption, and a steady rise in ampicillin resistance from a constant level before 1989. A short review of global resistance surveillance studies is included.

  6. Influence of Select Antibiotics on Vibrio fischeri and Desmodesmus subspicatus at μg L-1 Concentrations.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, E C; Dalke, C R; de Oliveira, C M R

    2017-07-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is a contemporary reality and it is necessary to understand more about the effects of this presence on organisms. The purpose of this work was to assess the ecotoxicity of antibiotics metronidazole, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim, and sulphamethoxazole (single and mixture) in Vibrio fischeri and Desmodesmus subspicatus at μg L -1 concentrations. The evaluation of the toxic effect of the antibiotics on V. fischeri and D. subspicatus was based on fluorescence and bioluminescence tests, respectively, using nominal concentrations. When tested individually, the four antibiotics gave rise to a toxic effect on the evaluated organisms. Sulphamethoxazole caused a higher toxic effect on V. fischeri and D. subspicatus from 7.81 to 500 μg L -1 . Trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole showed hormesis for the concentrations, which ranged from 7.81 to 62.5 μg L -1 . The mixture of antibiotics induced a toxic effect on the V. fischeri and D. subspicatus organisms (from 0.03 to 1 μg L -1 concentrations) than when the antibiotics were evaluated individually. These results were significant since water quality problems are widespread all over the word, and emerging pollutants such as antibiotics have been detected in the aquatic environment in very low concentrations.

  7. Antibiotics in surface water and sediments from Hanjiang River, Central China: Occurrence, behavior and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Yan, Xue; Shen, Yun; Di, Mingxiao; Wang, Jun

    2018-08-15

    Thirteen antibiotics including sulfonamides (SAs), tetracyclines (TETs) and fluoroquinolones (FQs) were measured in Hanjiang River (HR) during two periods. The total concentrations of 13 antibiotics in surface water and sediments ranged from 3.1 to 109 ng/l and from 10 to 45 ng/g dry weight, respectively. SAs were dominant in water while the concentrations of TETs were the highest in sediments in two seasons. For their spatial distribution, total concentrations of 13 antibiotics in both matrices were significantly higher in the lower section of HR (p < 0.02, F > 5.15) due to wastewater release, agricultural activities and water transfer project. Obvious seasonal variations of sulfadiazine, sulfameter, trimethoprim and oxytetracycline in water were observed (p < 0.05, F > 4.62). Phase partition of antibiotics between water and sediments suggested a greater affinity of TETs and FQs to sediments. In addition, significantly positive relationships were found between SAs (sulfameter, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) and sediment TOC (p < 0.05). Risk assessment indicated that the hazard quotients of antibiotics were higher in the sediment than those in the water. Moreover, antibiotic mixtures posed higher ecological risks to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmaceuticals in on-site sewage effluent and ground water, Western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godfrey, E.; Woessner, W.W.; Benotti, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Human use of pharmaceuticals results in the excretion and disposal of compounds that become part of municipal and domestic waste streams. On-site waste water disposal and leaking city sewer systems can provide avenues for the migration of effluent to the underlying aquifers. This research assessed the occurrence and persistence of 22 target pharmaceuticals in septic tank effluent and two shallow, coarse-grained aquifers in western Montana. Twelve compounds (acetaminophen, caffeine, codeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, erythromycin-18, nicotine, paraxanthine, ranitidine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and warfarin) were detected in a high school septic tank effluent. Three of the 12 compounds, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, and nicotine, were detected in the underlying sand and gravel aquifer after effluent percolation through a 2.0-m thick sand vadose zone. Sampling of a second sand, gravel, and cobble dominated unconfined aquifer, partially overlain by septic systems and a city sewer system, revealed the presence of caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, nicotine, and trimethoprim. The presence of carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole in these aquifers appears to correlate with local usage based on a reported monthly prescription volume. This work highlights the need for expanding geochemical investigations of sewage waste impacted ground water systems to include sampling for selected pharmaceuticals. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  9. Identification and antimicrobial suceptibility profile of bacteria causing bovine mastitis from dairy farms in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul.

    PubMed

    Freitas, C H; Mendes, J F; Villarreal, P V; Santos, P R; Gonçalves, C L; Gonzales, H L; Nascente, P S

    2018-01-08

    Mastitis is an inflammatory process of the udder tissue caused mainly by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics fosters conditions that favor the selection of resistant microorganisms, suppressing at the same time susceptible forms, causing a serious problem in dairy cattle. Given the importance in performing an antibiogram to select the most adequate antimicrobial therapy, the aim of this study was to identify bacteria isolated from cow's milk with mastitis, in dairy farms situated in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, and to determinate the susceptibility profile of these isolates against the antibiotics used to treat this illness. A total of 30 isolates of Staphylococcus spp., were selected from milk samples from the udder quarters with subclinical mastitis whose species were identified through the Vitek system. The susceptibility profile was performed by the disk diffusion assay, against: ampicillin, amoxicillin, bacitracin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, norfloxacin, penicillin G, tetracycline and trimethoprim. In the antibiogram, 100.0% of the isolates were resistant to trimethoprim and 96.7% to tetracycline and neomycin, three strains of Staphylococcus spp., (10.0%) presented resistance to the 12 antibiotics tested and 24 (80.0%) to at least eight. These results showed the difficulty in treating mastitis, due to the pathogens' resistance.

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus species in chicken and beef raw meat in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Osman, Kamelia M; Amer, Aziza M; Badr, Jihan M; Saad, Aalaa S A

    2015-05-01

    Coagulase-positive (CPS) and coagulase-negative (CNS) staphylococci cause staphylococcal food poisoning. Recently, CPS and CNS have received increasing attention due to their potential role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance markers. The present study aimed to evaluate CPS and CNS species distribution and their antibiotic resistance profile isolated from chicken and beef meat. Fifty fresh, uncooked chicken parts and 50 beef meat cuts (local n=27; imported n=23) were used. One hundred staphylococcal isolates belonging to 11 species were isolated and identified from chicken (n=50) and beef (n=50) raw meat samples. Staphylococcus hyicus (26/100), lugdunensis (18/100), aureus (15/100) and epidermidis (14/100) were dominant. S. aureus was 100% resistant to penicillin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus showed intermediate resistance (51%), which might indicate the dissemination of vancomycin resistance in the community and imply food safety hazards. The percentage of resistance to β-lactams was variable, with the highest resistance being to penicillin (94%) and lowest to ampicillin-sulbactam (22%). Antimicrobial resistance was mainly against penicillin (94%), clindamycin (90%) and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (82%). The results indicate that chicken and beef raw meat are an important source of antibiotic-resistant CPS and CNS.

  11. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from Antarctic bird feces, water from inside a wastewater treatment plant, and seawater samples collected in the Antarctic Treaty area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbia, Virginia; Bello-Toledo, Helia; Jiménez, Sebastián; Quezada, Mario; Domínguez, Mariana; Vergara, Luis; Gómez-Fuentes, Claudio; Calisto-Ulloa, Nancy; González-Acuña, Daniel; López, Juana; González-Rocha, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a problem of global concern and is frequently associated with human activity. Studying antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from pristine environments, such as Antarctica, extends our understanding of these fragile ecosystems. Escherichia coli strains, important fecal indicator bacteria, were isolated on the Fildes Peninsula (which has the strongest human influence in Antarctica), from seawater, bird droppings, and water samples from inside a local wastewater treatment plant. The strains were subjected to molecular typing with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine their genetic relationships, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility with disk diffusion tests for several antibiotic families: β-lactams, quinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, phenicols, and trimethoprim-sulfonamide. The highest E. coli count in seawater samples was 2400 cfu/100 mL. Only strains isolated from seawater and the wastewater treatment plant showed any genetic relatedness between groups. Strains of both these groups were resistant to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfonamide.In contrast, strains from bird feces were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested. We conclude that naturally occurring antibiotic resistance in E. coli strains isolated from Antarctic bird feces is rare and the bacterial antibiotic resistance found in seawater is probably associated with discharged treated wastewater originating from Fildes Peninsula treatment plants.

  12. A module located at a chromosomal integration hot spot is responsible for the multidrug resistance of a reference strain from Escherichia coli clonal group A.

    PubMed

    Lescat, Mathilde; Calteau, Alexandra; Hoede, Claire; Barbe, Valérie; Touchon, Marie; Rocha, Eduardo; Tenaillon, Olivier; Médigue, Claudine; Johnson, James R; Denamur, Erick

    2009-06-01

    Escherichia coli clonal group A (CGA) commonly exhibits a distinctive multidrug antimicrobial resistance phenotype-i.e., resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and trimethoprim (ACSSuTTp)-and has accounted for up to 50% of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli urinary tract infections in some locales. Annotation of the whole-genome sequencing of UMN026, a reference CGA strain, clarified the genetic basis for this strain's ACSSuTTp antimicrobial resistance phenotype. Most of the responsible genes were clustered in a unique 23-kbp chromosomal region, designated the genomic resistance module (GRM), which occurred within a 105-kbp genomic island situated at the leuX tRNA. The GRM is characterized by numerous remnants of mobilization and rearrangement events suggesting multiple horizontal transfers. Additionally, comparative genomic analysis of the leuX tRNA genomic island in 14 sequenced E. coli genomes showed that this region is a hot spot of integration, with the presence/absence of specific subregions being uncorrelated with either the phylogenetic group or the pathotype. Our data illustrate the importance of whole-genome sequencing in the detection of genetic elements involved in antimicrobial resistance. Additionally, this is the first documentation of the bla(TEM) and dhfrVII genes in a chromosomal location in E. coli strains.

  13. Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in U.S. drinking water.

    PubMed

    Benotti, Mark J; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Vanderford, Brett J; Holady, Janie C; Stanford, Benjamin D; Snyder, Shane A

    2009-02-01

    The drinking water for more than 28 million people was screened for a diverse group of pharmaceuticals, potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and other unregulated organic contaminants. Source water, finished drinking water, and distribution system (tap) water from 19 U.S. water utilities was analyzed for 51 compounds between 2006 and 2007. The 11 most frequently detected compounds were atenolol, atrazine, carbamazepine, estrone, gemfibrozil, meprobamate, naproxen, phenytoin, sulfamethoxazole, TCEP, and trimethoprim. Median concentrations of these compounds were less than 10 ng/L, except for sulfamethoxazole in source water (12 ng/L), TCEP in source water (120 ng/L), and atrazine in source, finished, and distribution system water (32, 49, and 49 ng/L). Atrazine was detected in source waters far removed from agricultural application where wastewater was the only known source of organic contaminants. The occurrence of compounds in finished drinking water was controlled by the type of chemical oxidation (ozone or chlorine) used at each plant. At one drinking water treatment plant, summed monthly concentrations of the detected analytes in source and finished water are reported. Atenolol, atrazine, DEET, estrone, meprobamate, and trimethoprim can serve as indicator compounds representing potential contamination from other pharmaceuticals and EDCs and can gauge the efficacy of treatment processes.

  14. Mycetoma caused by Nocardia madurae.

    PubMed Central

    Saksun, J. M.; Kane, J.; Schachter, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    Actinomycotic mycetoma was diagnosed in a woman from Jamaica living in Ontario. This is the first case reported in Canada in which the infection was caused by Nocardia madurae. Despite oral therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, local excision of newly appearing nodules was required periodically for clinical improvement. Laboratory procedures were modified to aid in identification of pathogenic actinomycetes. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:737642

  15. An Enterobacter Plasmid as a New Genetic Background for the Transposon Tn1331

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-25

    determined to be 99% similar to E. cloacae by both 16S rDNA and Phoenix analysis and was designated Enterobacter sp W001. Enterobacter sp W001 was...adolescents. JAMA. 2002;287(23):3096–3102. 9. Foster TJ. Plasmid- determined resistance to antimicrobial drugs and toxic metal ions in bacteria. Microbiol...mediated type II dihydrofolate reductase gene among trimethoprim -resistant urinary pathogens in Greek hospitals. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1992;29

  16. Comparing the sensitivity of chlorophytes, cyanobacteria, and diatoms to major-use antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiahua; Selby, Katherine; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-10-01

    The occurrence of antibiotic residues in the aquatic environment is an emerging concern. In contrast to daphnia and fish, algae are known to be particularly sensitive to antibiotic exposure. However, to date, a systematic evaluation of the sensitivity of different algal species to antibiotics has not been performed. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore the sensitivity of a battery of algal species toward antibiotic exposures. The present study investigated the growth inhibition effects of 3 major-use antibiotics, tylosin, lincomycin, and trimethoprim, on 7 algal species from the chlorophyte, cyanobacteria, and diatom groups. Based on median effective concentration (EC50) values, cyanobacteria (EC50 = 0.095-0.13 μmol/L) were found to be the most sensitive group to lincomycin followed by chlorophytes (EC50 = 7.36-225.73 μmol/L) and diatoms (EC50 > 225.73 μmol/L). Cyanobacteria were also the most sensitive group to tylosin (EC50 = 0.09-0.092 μmol/L), but, for this compound, diatoms (EC50 = 1.33-5.7 μmol/L) were more sensitive than chlorophytes (EC50 = 4.14-81.2 μmol/L). Diatoms were most sensitive to trimethoprim (EC50 = 7.36-74.61 μmol/L), followed by cyanobacteria (EC50 = 315.78-344.45 μmol/L), and chlorophytes (EC50 > 344.45 μmol/L) for trimethoprim. Although these results partly support the current approach to regulatory environmental risk assessment (whereby cyanobacterial species are recommended for use with antibiotic compounds), they indicate that for some antibiotics this group might not be the most appropriate test organism. It is therefore suggested that environmental risk assessments consider data on 3 algal groups (chlorophytes, cyanobacteria, and diatoms) and use test species from these groups, which are consistently found to be the most sensitive (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Navicula pelliculosa). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2587-2596. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Left thigh phlegmon caused by Nocardia farcinica identified by 16S rRNA sequencing in a patient with leprosy: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Nardo, Pasquale; Giancola, Maria Letizia; Noto, Salvatore; Gentilotti, Elisa; Ghirga, Piero; Tommasi, Chiara; Bellagamba, Rita; Paglia, Maria Grazia; Nicastri, Emanuele; Antinori, Andrea; Corpolongo, Angela

    2013-04-04

    In recent years, Nocardia farcinica has been reported to be an increasingly frequent cause of localized and disseminated infections in the immunocompromised patient. However, recent literature is limited. We report a case of left thigh phlegmon caused by N. farcinica that occurred in a patient with leprosy undergoing treatment with prednisone for leprosy reaction. We describe the case of left thigh phlegmon caused by Nocardia farcinica in a 54-year-old Italian man affected by multi-bacillary leprosy. The patient had worked in South America for 11 years. Seven months after his return to Italy, he was diagnosed with leprosy and started multi-drug antibiotic therapy plus thalidomide and steroids. Then, during therapy with rifampicin monthly, minocycline 100 mg daily, moxifloxacin 400 mg daily, and prednisone (the latter to treat type 2 leprosy reaction), the patient complained of high fever associated with erythema, swelling, and pain in the left thigh. Therefore, he was admitted to our hospital with the clinical suspicion of cellulitis. Ultrasound examination and Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed left thigh phlegmon. He was treated with drainage and antibiotic therapy (meropenem and vancomycin replaced by daptomycin). The responsible organism, Nocardia farcinica, was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing in the purulent fluid taken out by aspiration. The patient continued treatment with intravenous trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and imipenem followed by oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and moxifloxacin. A whole-body computed tomography did not reveal dissemination to other organs like the lung or brain.The patient was discharged after complete remission. Oral therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, moxifloxacin, rifampicin monthly, clofazimine and thalidomide was prescribed to be taken at home. One month after discharge from the hospital the patient is in good clinical condition with complete resolution of the phlegmon. N. farcinica is a rare infectious agent that

  18. In Vitro Sensitivity and Resistance of 46 Leptospira Strains Isolated from Rats in the Philippines to 14 Antimicrobial Agents▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Antara; Miyahara, Satoshi; Villanueva, Sharon Y. A. M.; Gloriani, Nina G.; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 46 Leptospira isolates from rats to 14 antimicrobial agents were tested. All of the strains were found to be sensitive to ampicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, and streptomycin. In contrast, the tested isolates showed resistance to amphotericin B, 5-fluorouracil, fosfomycin, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, neomycin, and vancomycin. These findings will help in selecting effective and ineffective antimicrobials for treatment of leptospirosis and for the development of new selective media, respectively. PMID:20855741

  19. [A case of paracoccidioidomycosis with severe adrenal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Oosawa, Takayuki; Kosuge, Youko; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2012-05-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most common systemic fungal disease in central-south America, but is rare in Japan. We experiensed a case of PCM in a patient, who came from Bolivia and presented with mouth pain and reduced dietary intake but no fever. Adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed with extremely high serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and was resolved with hormone supplementation. The PCM was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole which was switched to itraconazole and improvement was achieved.

  20. [Malacoplakia of the large intestine, bladder and retroperitoneum: a case report].

    PubMed

    Vattimo, A; Lupinacci, R A; Kerzner, A; da Silva, J H

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a case of malakoplakia, involving colon, rectum, bladder and retroperitoneum. This rare pathology, generally associated to Escherichia coli infections, result in a granulomatous disease, that can involve one or more organs. Nowadays, it is believed that the illness is due to a failure in the bactericide activity of the macrophage. This case, the first reported in our country, was treated clinically with ascorbic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and is also unique in the world literature.

  1. [Achromobacter xylosoxidans bacteremia in a patient with community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    de Fernández, M I; Bugarín, G; Arévalo, C E

    2001-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is a rare cause of bacteremia, and little information on treatment is available. The majority of patients who have developed Achromobacter bacteremia have presented predisposing causes to the infection. A case of community-acquired pneumonia and bacteremia due to A. xylosoxidans in a previously healthy patient is reported. Achromobacter is usually resistant to ampicillin, cephalosporins (1st, 2nd, and 3rd generation), aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. Piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole inhibit most isolates.

  2. Cardiac toxoplasmosis after heart transplantation diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsy.

    PubMed

    Petty, L A; Qamar, S; Ananthanarayanan, V; Husain, A N; Murks, C; Potter, L; Kim, G; Pursell, K; Fedson, S

    2015-10-01

    We describe a case of cardiac toxoplasmosis diagnosed by routine endomyocardial biopsy in a patient with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) intolerance on atovaquone prophylaxis. Data are not available on the efficacy of atovaquone as Toxoplasma gondii prophylaxis after heart transplantation. In heart transplant patients in whom TMP-SMX is not an option, other strategies may be considered, including the addition of pyrimethamine to atovaquone. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Haemophilus parainfluenzae bacteremia associated with a pacemaker wire localized by gallium scan

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, G.S.; Calubiran, O.; Cunha, B.A.

    1990-05-01

    A young woman with a history of sick sinus syndrome and placement of a permanent pacemaker 6 months before admission had fever and Haemophilus parainfluenzae bacteremia. A gallium scan localized the infection to the site of the pacemaker wire. Echocardiograms were negative for any vegetations. The patient responded to cefotaxime and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy. We believe that this is the first case of H. parainfluenzae bacteremia associated with a pacemaker wire and localized by gallium scan.

  4. Occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli from ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    E. coli isolates from primary and secondary effluents collected from seven WWTPs between 2003 and 2004 were recovered and then screened using one of four antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim). We now report on the testing of a subset of these isolates to determine whether they met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2012 CRE definition (intermediate or full resistance to one or more carbapenem antibiotics (imipenem) and resistant to at least two extended-spectrum cephalosporins (cefotaxime, ceftazidime)) or the updated CDC 2015 definition (resistant to a carbapenem antibiotic or producing a carbapenemase). Based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), isolates classified as nonsusceptible to imipenem or resistant to the two cephalosporin antibiotics or resistant to a fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin) were used for PCR assays targeting nine carbapenemase and extended-spectrum -lactamase (ESBL) genes. Of the 500 antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates tested, the most prevalent resistance was to cefotaxime (3.6%), followed by ciprofloxacin (2.6%), ceftazidime (2.2%) and imipenem (1.8%). Six (1.2%) isolates were nonsusceptible to imipenem, and resistant to cefotaxime and ceftazidime, meeting the CDC 2012 CRE definition. According to the CDC’s updated definition, eight (1.6%) isolates were CRE with full resistance to imipenem; only two of these eight isolates were also determined to be CRE acco

  5. Structure of a complex of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with the modified bacteriostatic antibacterial drug determined by X-ray crystallography and computer analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A., E-mail: alashkov83@gmail.com; Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.

    2015-03-15

    Pseudotuberculosis and bubonic plague are acute infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. These diseases are treated, in particular, with trimethoprim and its modified analogues. However, uridine phosphorylases (pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases) that are present in bacterial cells neutralize the action of trimethoprim and its modified analogues on the cells. In order to reveal the character of the interaction of the drug with bacterial uridine phosphorylase, the atomic structure of the unligated molecule of uridine-specific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YptUPh) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.7 Å resolution with high reliability (R{sub work} =more » 16.2, R{sub free} = 19.4%; r.m.s.d. of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.006 Å and 1.005°, respectively; DPI = 0.107 Å). The atoms of the amino acid residues of the functionally important secondary-structure elements—the loop L9 and the helix H8—of the enzyme YptUPh were located. The three-dimensional structure of the complex of YptUPh with modified trimethoprim—referred to as 53I—was determined by the computer simulation. It was shown that 53I is a pseudosubstrate of uridine phosphorylases, and its pyrimidine-2,4-diamine group is located in the phosphate-binding site of the enzyme YptUPh.« less

  6. Burden of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infections in Guatemala 2008–2012: Results from a facility-based surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Stephen R.; Lopez, Beatriz; Arvelo, Wences; Henao, Olga; Parsons, Michele B.; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Lindblade, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Campylobacteriosis is one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. This study describes the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter diarrheal infections in two facility-based surveillance sites in Guatemala. Methods Clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory data were collected on patients presenting with acute diarrhea from select healthcare facilities in the departments of Santa Rosa and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, from January 2008 through August 2012. Stool specimens were cultured for Campylobacter and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a subset of isolates. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was defined as resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial classes. Results Campylobacter was isolated from 306 (6.0%) of 5137 stool specimens collected. For children <5 years of age, annual incidence was as high as 1288.8 per 100,000 children in Santa Rosa and 185.5 per 100,000 children in Quetzaltenango. Among 224 ambulatory care patients with Campylobacter, 169 (75.5%) received metronidazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 152 (66.7%) received or were prescribed oral rehydration therapy. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested in 96 isolates; 57 (59.4%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 12 (12.5%) were MDR. Conclusion Campylobacter was a major cause of diarrhea in children in two departments in Guatemala; antimicrobial resistance was high, and treatment regimens in the ambulatory setting which included metronidazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and lacked oral rehydration were sub-optimal. PMID:24534336

  7. Burden of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infections in Guatemala 2008-2012: results from a facility-based surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Stephen R; Lopez, Beatriz; Arvelo, Wences; Henao, Olga; Parsons, Michele B; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Lindblade, Kim

    2014-03-01

    Campylobacteriosis is one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. This study describes the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter diarrheal infections in two facility-based surveillance sites in Guatemala. Clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory data were collected on patients presenting with acute diarrhea from select healthcare facilities in the departments of Santa Rosa and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, from January 2008 through August 2012. Stool specimens were cultured for Campylobacter and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a subset of isolates. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was defined as resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial classes. Campylobacter was isolated from 306 (6.0%) of 5137 stool specimens collected. For children <5 years of age, annual incidence was as high as 1288.8 per 100,000 children in Santa Rosa and 185.5 per 100,000 children in Quetzaltenango. Among 224 ambulatory care patients with Campylobacter, 169 (75.5%) received metronidazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 152 (66.7%) received or were prescribed oral rehydration therapy. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested in 96 isolates; 57 (59.4%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 12 (12.5%) were MDR. Campylobacter was a major cause of diarrhea in children in two departments in Guatemala; antimicrobial resistance was high, and treatment regimens in the ambulatory setting which included metronidazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and lacked oral rehydration were sub-optimal. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Uptake and Accumulation of Pharmaceuticals in Lettuce Under Surface and Overhead Irrigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalsod, G.; Chuang, Y. H.; Jeon, S.; Gui, W.; Li, H.; Guber, A.; Zhang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are being widely detected in wastewater and surface waters. As fresh water becomes scarcer, interests in using reclaimed water for crop irrigation is intensified. Since reclaimed waters often carry trace levels of pharmaceuticals, accumulation of pharmaceuticals in food crops could increase the risk of human exposure. This study aims to investigate uptake and accumulations of pharmaceuticals in greenhouse-grown lettuce under contrasting irrigation practices (i.e., overhead and surface irrigations). Lettuce was irrigated with water spiked with 11 commonly used pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, carbadox, trimethoprim, lincomycin hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, monensin sodium, and tylosin). Weekly sampling of lettuce roots, shoots, and soils were continued for 5 weeks, and the samples were freeze dried, extracted for pharmaceuticals and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Preliminary results indicate that higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals were found in overhead irrigated lettuce compared to surface irrigated lettuce. For carbamezapine, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, and monensin sodium, their concentrations generally increased in lettuce shoots in the overhead treatment over time. However, acetaminophen was found at higher concentrations in both shoots and roots, indicating that acetaminophen can be easily transported in the plant system. This study provides insight on developing better strategies for using reclaimed water for crop irrigations, while minimizing the potential risks of pharmaceutical contamination of vegetables.

  9. [Changes of resistant phenotype and CRISPR/Cas system of four Shigella strains passaged for 90 times without antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Zhang, B; Hong, L J; Duan, G C; Liang, W J; Yang, H Y; Xi, Y L

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To explore the stability of resistant phenotypes and changes of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) gene system on four Shigella strains in the absence of antibiotics. Methods: Four clinical isolated Shigella strains that resistant to different antibiotics were consecutive passaged for 90 times without antibiotics. Agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of Shigella strains. After sequence analysis with PCR, CRISPR Finder and Clustal X 2.1 were applied to identify the changes of CRISPR loci in the Shigella strains. Results: After the consecutive transfer of 90 generations, sensitivity to certain antibiotics of four Shigella strains with different drug resistant spectrums increased. Mel-sf1998024/zz resistance to ampicillin, cephalexin, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol decreased, mel-s2014026/sx resistance to norfloxacin, trimethoprim decreased, mel-sf2004004/sx drug resistance to ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim decreased and mel-sf2013004/bj resistance to chloramphenicol decreased. The spacer of which matched gene codes Cas and its upstream repeat in 3'end of CRISPR3 got lost in mel-sf1998024/zz and mel-sf2013004/bj. Conclusions: Shigella strains could reduce or lose their resistance to some antibiotics after consecutive transfers, without the interference of antibiotics. CRISPR3 locus had dynamic spacers in Shigella strains while CRISPR3 locus and cas genes might have been co-evolved.

  10. Occurrence of antibiotics in wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, K G; Meyer, Michael T

    2006-05-15

    Samples from several wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin were screened for the presence of 21 antibiotic compounds. These facilities spanned a range of community size served (average daily flow from 0.0212 to 23.6 million gallons/day), secondary treatment processes, geographic locations across the state, and they discharged the treated effluents to both surface and ground waters (for ground water after a soil passage). A total of six antibiotic compounds were detected (1-5 compounds per site), including two sulfonamides (sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole), one tetracycline (tetracycline), fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin), macrolide (erythromycin-H(2)O) and trimethoprim. The frequency of detection of antibiotics was in the following order: tetracycline and trimethoprim (80%)>sulfamethoxazole (70%)>erythromycin-H(2)O (45%)>ciprofloxacin (40%)>sulfamethazine (10%). However, the soluble concentrations were in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range (

  11. Structure of a complex of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with the modified bacteriostatic antibacterial drug determined by X-ray crystallography and computer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    Pseudotuberculosis and bubonic plague are acute infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. These diseases are treated, in particular, with trimethoprim and its modified analogues. However, uridine phosphorylases (pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases) that are present in bacterial cells neutralize the action of trimethoprim and its modified analogues on the cells. In order to reveal the character of the interaction of the drug with bacterial uridine phosphorylase, the atomic structure of the unligated molecule of uridine-specific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.7 Å resolution with high reliability ( R work = 16.2, R free = 19.4%; r.m.s.d. of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.006 Å and 1.005°, respectively; DPI = 0.107 Å). The atoms of the amino acid residues of the functionally important secondary-structure elements—the loop L9 and the helix H8—of the enzyme YptUPh were located. The three-dimensional structure of the complex of YptUPh with modified trimethoprim—referred to as 53I—was determined by the computer simulation. It was shown that 53I is a pseudosubstrate of uridine phosphorylases, and its pyrimidine-2,4-diamine group is located in the phosphate-binding site of the enzyme YptUPh.

  12. The occurrence, transmission, virulence and antibiotic resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in fish processing plant.

    PubMed

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Kwiecińska-Piróg, Joanna; Grudlewska, Katarzyna; Świeca, Agnieszka; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Bauza-Kaszewska, Justyna; Wałecka-Zacharska, Ewa; Gospodarek-Komkowska, Eugenia

    2018-06-13

    The aim of this research was to investigate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in fish and fish processing plant and to determine their transmission, virulence and antibiotic resistance. L. monocytogenes was isolated according to the ISO 11290-1. The identification of L. monocytogenes was confirmed by multiplex PCR method. Genetic similarity of L. monocytogenes strains was determined with the Pulsed-Filed Gene Electrophoresis (PFGE) method. The multiplex PCR was used for identification of L. monocytogenes serogroups and detection of selected virulence genes (actA, fbpA, hlyA, iap, inlA, inlB, mpl, plcA, plcB, prfA). The L. monocytogens isolates susceptibility to penicillin, ampicillin, meropenem, erythromycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was evaluated with disc diffusion method according to EUCAST v. 7.1. The presence of 237 L. monocytogenes isolates (before genetic similarity assessment) in 614 examined samples was confirmed. After strain differentiation by PFGE techniques the presence of 161 genetically different strains were confirmed. The genetic similarity of the examined isolates suggested that the source of the L. monocytogenes strains were fishes originating from farms. All tested strains possessed all detected virulence genes. Among examined strains, the most (26, 38.6%) belonged to the group 1/2a-3a. The most of tested strains were resistant to erythromycin (47.1%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (47.1%). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. 67 FR 64386 - Enhancement of Surveillance for Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Resistant Invasive Respiratory and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-10-18

    ... cerebrospinal fluid infections caused by key Pathogens-Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Haemophilus Influenzae, and non... pathogens causing meningitis (pneumococcus, Haemophilus Influenzae, and Meningococcus). The infrastructure... testing, for meningitis agents including pneumococcus and Haemophilus Influenzae. Laboratory staff have...

  14. In vitro antifungal activity of fatty acid methyl esters of the seeds of Annona cornifolia A.St.-Hil. (Annonaceae) against pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luciana Alves Rodrigues dos Santos; Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patrícia Silva; Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos; Boaventura, Maria Amélia Diamantino

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acids are abundant in vegetable oils. They are known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties. Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by broth microdilution assay following CLSI (formerly the NCCLS) guidelines against 16 fungal strains of clinical interest. In this work, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was able to inhibit 12 clinical strains of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and were also active in the bioautographic assay against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. FAME was a more potent antifungal than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against P. brasiliensis under the experimental conditions tested.

  15. Antimicrobial therapy of experimental Legionella micdadei pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Pasculle, A W; Dowling, J N; Frola, F N; McDevitt, D A; Levi, M A

    1985-01-01

    Several antimicrobial agents were evaluated for activity against experimental Legionella micdadei pneumonia in guinea pigs. Erythromycin, rifampin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim produced significant reductions in mortality. Penicillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin were not efficacious even though, at the doses administered, the peak concentrations of these agents in serum substantially exceeded their MICs for the test strain. It is suggested that the poor performance of the latter group of agents resulted from poor penetration into cells in which L. micdadei was multiplying. PMID:3878688

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections across age groups.

    PubMed

    Chu, Christine M; Lowder, Jerry L

    2018-01-02

    increasing to fluoroquinolones, beta-lactams, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Most uropathogens still display good sensitivity to nitrofurantoin. First-line treatments for urinary tract infection include nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (when resistance levels are <20%). These antibiotics have minimal collateral damage and resistance. In pregnancy, beta-lactams, nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole can be appropriate treatments. Interpreting the probability of urinary tract infection based on symptoms and testing allows for greater accuracy in diagnosis of urinary tract infection, decreasing overtreatment and encouraging antimicrobial stewardship. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transport of four pharmaceuticals in different horizons of three soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodesova, Radka; Svatkova, Paula; Klement, Ales; Jaksik, Ondrej; Golovko, Oksana; Fer, Miroslav; Kocarek, Martin; Nikodem, Antonin; Grabic, Roman

    2015-04-01

    Soil structure, which varies in different soil types and the horizons of these soil types, has a significant impact on water flow and contaminant transport in soils. Transport of many contaminants is in addition strongly influenced by their sorption on soil particles. Transport of four pharmaceuticals (sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, atenolol and carbamazepine) was studied in soil columns (a diameter of 10.5 cm and a height of 13 cm) taken from all diagnostic horizons of three different soil types (Haplic Luvisol, Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Cambisol). The irrigation by water contaminated by a mixture of all four compounds followed by ponding infiltration of distilled water was simulated and water outflow and solute concentrations from the bottom of the soil sample was monitored in time. The highest infiltration rates were observed for soil samples from the Bt horizons of the Greyic Phaeozem that exhibited prismatic structure, followed by rates observed in the Ap horizons of the Haplic Luvisol, Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Cambisol (due to their granular soil structure and presence of root channels). The lowest infiltration rate was measured for the Bw horizon of the Haplic Cambisol, which had a poorly developed soil structure and a low fraction of macropores. Compound discharge was however also highly affected by their sorption on solids. The highest mobility was observed for sulfamethoxazole followed by carbamazepine atenolol and trimethoprim, which corresponds to measured sorption isotherms. Mobility of ionizable compounds in different soil samples was influenced by pH (i.e. degree and form of their ionization) and sites available for absorption. Mobility of sulfamethoxazole decreased with decreasing pH (i.e. the largest sorption measured in horizons of the Haplic Cambisol). While mobility of atenolol and trimethoprim decreased with increasing base cation saturation, and with increasing organic matter content for carbamazepine. As result of both affects (i.e. soil

  18. Improving the prescribing of antibiotics for urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Peterson, G M; Stanton, L A; Bergin, J K; Chapman, G A

    1997-04-01

    In recent years there have been changes in the recommended antibiotic treatment for urinary tract infections (UTIs). In particular, the use of amoxycillin or co-trimoxazole is now discouraged, with amoxycillin-potassium clavulanate, cephalexin and trimethoprim becoming first-line agents for uncomplicated lower UTIs. To examine whether academic detailing, performed by a pharmacist, could modify prescribing practices for antibiotics used in the treatment of UTI in the community setting. The intervention was conducted in Southern Tasmania, using the remainder of the State as a control area. The target group of general practitioners was sent educational material designed to assist in the appropriate prescribing of antibiotics in the treatment of UTI. A pharmacist then visited each general practitioner and discussed the rational use of antibiotics for UTIs directly with him/her. Outcomes were measured using evaluation feedback from the general practitioners and pharmacoepidemiological data, which were not linked to diagnosis. The key variable examined was the total defined daily doses (DDDs) dispensed for the recommended first-line agents (amoxycillin-potassium clavulanate, cephalexin and trimethoprim) compared with amoxycillin (3 g single-dose form) and co-trimoxazole. The educational programme was very well received by the general practitioners. Changes in the prescribing of antibiotics commonly used for UTIs were evident in both study regions over the course of the study, but the improvements were significantly greater in the intervention area. Educational programmes utilizing academic detailing by pharmacists can modify prescribing practices within the community setting.

  19. Effects of drugs which influence renal transport systems on the urinary excretion of the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol and the anabolic steroids ethinylestradiol and methyltestosterone.

    PubMed

    Gleixner, A; Sauerwein, H; Meyer, H H

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the illegal application of clenbuterol, ethinylestradiol and methyltestosterone in cattle as growth promoters can be concealed by co-treatment with drugs that affect urinary excretion. Six male veal calves were fed with 0.8 micrograms clenbuterol kg-1 of body weight (BW), 3.5 micrograms ethinylestradiol kg-1 BW and 35 micrograms methyltestosterone kg-1 BW together twice daily for 28 days. At the eighth day of clenbuterol, ethinylestradiol and methyltestosterone treatment each calf was additionally fed either with probenecid, para-aminohippuric acid, trimethoprim, famotidine or cimetidine at three different doses which were increased in weekly intervals. During the treatment 24 h-urine and blood samples (once daily) were obtained and analysed for clenbuterol, ethinylestradiol and methyltestosterone by specific enzyme immunoassay. By high performance liquid chromatography/enzyme immunoassay it was determined whether these drugs or their metabolites interfered with the immunological detection of the growth promoters. Clenbuterol, ethinylestradiol and methyltestosterone could be detected in plasma and urine throughout the whole experiment. Co-treatment with probenecid led to a five-fold reduction in urinary excretion of ethinylestradiol and co-treatment with trimethoprim led to a three-fold reduction in urinary excretion of clenbuterol. None of the drugs reduced urinary excretion of the growth promoters to concentrations below the limit of detection. The detection of these three growth promoters in urine samples from calves which were co-treated with the drugs tested in this study can thus not be prevented.

  20. Technical note: Antimicrobial susceptibility of Portuguese isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in subclinical bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Nunes, S F; Bexiga, R; Cavaco, L M; Vilela, C L

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial resistance traits of staphylococci responsible for subclinical bovine mastitis in Portugal, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 7 antimicrobial agents, frequently administered for mastitis treatment, were determined for 30 Staphylococcus aureus and 31 Staphylococcus epidermidis field isolates. Beta-lactamase production was detected through the use of nitrocefin-impregnated discs. The MIC that inhibited 90% of the isolates tested (MIC90) of penicillin, oxacillin, cefazolin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, and enrofloxacin were, respectively, 4, 0.5, 1, 1, 0.25, 0.25, and 0.06 microg/mL for Staph. aureus and > or = 64, 8, 1, 32, > or = 64, > or = 64, and 0.06 microg/mL for Staph. epidermidis. All Staph. aureus isolates showed susceptibility to oxacillin, cefazolin, gentamicin, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and enrofloxacin. Beta-lactamase production was detected in 20 of these isolates (66.7%), all of which were resistant to penicillin. Of the 31 Staph. epidermidis tested, 24 (77.4%) were beta-lactamase positive. All isolates were susceptible to both cefazolin and enrofloxacin. Nine Staph. epidermidis isolates were resistant to oxacillin, with MIC values ranging from 4 to 8 microg/mL. The MIC values of 5 antimicrobial agents tested were higher than those reported in other countries. Enrofloxacin was the only exception, showing lower MIC values compared with other reports. Overall, the antimicrobial agents tested in our study, with the exception of penicillin, were active against the 61 isolates studied.

  1. Rapidly growing mycobacteria in Singapore, 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Tang, S S; Lye, D C; Jureen, R; Sng, L-H; Hsu, L Y

    2015-03-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria infection is a growing global concern, but data from Asia are limited. This study aimed to describe the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) isolates in Singapore. Clinical RGM isolates with antibiotic susceptibility tests performed between 2006 and 2011 were identified using microbiology laboratory databases and minimum inhibitory concentrations of amikacin, cefoxitin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, imipenem, linezolid, moxifloxacin, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline and tobramycin were recorded. Regression analysis was performed to detect changes in antibiotic susceptibility patterns over time. A total of 427 isolates were included. Of these, 277 (65%) were from respiratory specimens, 42 (10%) were related to skin and soft tissue infections and 36 (8%) were recovered from blood specimens. The two most common species identified were Mycobacterium abscessus (73%) and Mycobacterium fortuitum group (22%), with amikacin and clarithromycin being most active against the former, and quinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against the latter. Decreases in susceptibility of M. abscessus to linezolid by 8.8% per year (p 0.001), M. fortuitum group to imipenem by 9.5% per year (p 0.023) and clarithromycin by 4.7% per year (p 0.033) were observed. M. abscessus in respiratory specimens is the most common RGM identified in Singapore. Antibiotic options for treatment of RGM infections are increasingly limited. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Heterogeneity of Genetic Pathways toward Daptomycin Nonsusceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus Determined by Adjunctive Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Andrew D.; Baines, Sarah L.; Howden, Benjamin P.; Sakoulas, George; Nizet, Victor; Proctor, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Daptomycin is increasingly used in combination with other antibiotics to enhance antimicrobial efficacy and/or to mitigate the emergence of daptomycin nonsusceptibility (DNS). This study used a clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain in which DNS emerged upon therapy to examine the influence of antibiotic combinations on the development of mutations in specific genes (mprF, rpoBC, dltA, cls2, and yycFG) previously associated with DNS. Whole genomes of bacteria obtained following 28 days of in vitro exposure to daptomycin with or without adjunctive clarithromycin, linezolid, oxacillin, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were sequenced, and the sequences were compared to that of the progenitor isolate. The addition of oxacillin to medium containing daptomycin prevented the emergence of mprF mutation but did not prevent rpoBC mutation (P < 0.01). These isolates maintained susceptibility to daptomycin during the combined exposure (median MIC, 1 mg/liter). Daptomycin plus clarithromycin or linezolid resulted in low-level (1.5 to 8 mg/liter) and high-level (12 to 96 mg/liter) DNS, respectively, and did not prevent mprF mutation. However, these same combinations prevented rpoBC mutation. Daptomycin alone or combined with linezolid or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resulted in high-level DNS and mutations in mprF plus rpoBC, cls2, and yycFG. Combining daptomycin with different antimicrobials alters the mutational space available for DNS development, thereby favoring the development of predictable collateral susceptibilities. PMID:25733508

  3. Heterogeneity of genetic pathways toward daptomycin nonsusceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus determined by adjunctive antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Berti, Andrew D; Baines, Sarah L; Howden, Benjamin P; Sakoulas, George; Nizet, Victor; Proctor, Richard A; Rose, Warren E

    2015-05-01

    Daptomycin is increasingly used in combination with other antibiotics to enhance antimicrobial efficacy and/or to mitigate the emergence of daptomycin nonsusceptibility (DNS). This study used a clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain in which DNS emerged upon therapy to examine the influence of antibiotic combinations on the development of mutations in specific genes (mprF, rpoBC, dltA, cls2, and yycFG) previously associated with DNS. Whole genomes of bacteria obtained following 28 days of in vitro exposure to daptomycin with or without adjunctive clarithromycin, linezolid, oxacillin, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were sequenced, and the sequences were compared to that of the progenitor isolate. The addition of oxacillin to medium containing daptomycin prevented the emergence of mprF mutation but did not prevent rpoBC mutation (P < 0.01). These isolates maintained susceptibility to daptomycin during the combined exposure (median MIC, 1 mg/liter). Daptomycin plus clarithromycin or linezolid resulted in low-level (1.5 to 8 mg/liter) and high-level (12 to 96 mg/liter) DNS, respectively, and did not prevent mprF mutation. However, these same combinations prevented rpoBC mutation. Daptomycin alone or combined with linezolid or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resulted in high-level DNS and mutations in mprF plus rpoBC, cls2, and yycFG. Combining daptomycin with different antimicrobials alters the mutational space available for DNS development, thereby favoring the development of predictable collateral susceptibilities. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Clinical microbiology laboratories do not always detect resistance of Haemophilus influenzae with disk or tablet diffusion methods. Finnish Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance (FiRe).

    PubMed

    Manninen, R; Huovinen, P; Nissinen, A

    1998-04-01

    The performance of disk diffusion testing of Haemophilus influenzae was evaluated in 20 laboratories. Thirteen disk-medium-breakpoint-inoculum modifications were used in Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories. The performance of various methods was evaluated by testing a susceptible control strain and one with non-beta-lactamase-mediated ampicillin resistance 10 times in 16 laboratories. Gaps in millimeters were measured between these two groups of results. The strains were separated by a gap of at least 5 mm in 8/16 laboratories testing ampicillin, in 7/15 laboratories testing cefaclor, in 5/ 16 laboratories testing cefuroxime, and in 15/16 laboratories testing trimethoprim-sulfa. Detection of ampicillin resistance was better with 2.5 microg tablets than with 10 microg disks or 33 microg tablets. For MIC-determinations, 785 isolates and their disk diffusion results were collected. None of the 12 clinical isolates with non-beta-lactamase-mediated ampicillin resistance was detected as resistant in the participating laboratories. The ampicillin and cefaclor results of the isolates were no better even when a laboratory was able to separate the control strains. Cefaclor results were unreliable because of poor disk diffusion-MIC correspondence and incoherent breakpoint references. Interlaboratory variation of the zone diameters caused false intermediate results of cefuroxime-susceptible strains. When ampicillin, cefaclor and cefuroxime were tested, the discrimination of laboratories using disks and tablets was equal, whereas the laboratories using paper disks were better able to detect trimethoprim-sulfa resistance.

  5. In vitro activity of flumequine in comparison with several other antimicrobial agents against five pathogens isolated in calves in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Mevius, D J; Breukink, H J; van Miert, A S

    1990-10-01

    The in vitro activity of flumequine in comparison with several other drugs was tested against 17 P. multocida, 16 P. haemolytica, 21 S. dublin, 21 S. typhimurium and 21 E. coli strains, isolated in (veal) calves in the Netherlands. The MIC50 of flumequine for the respective pasteurellas was 0.25 and 1 microgram/ml, for the salmonellas and E. coli 0.5 micrograms/ml. In comparison with flumequine, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin showed higher in vitro activity, with MIC50 less than or equal to 0.008 micrograms/ml for ciprofloxacin. Decreased susceptibility of the pasteurellas was found for kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and doxycycline. The MIC50 of minocycline for P. multocida was 0.5 micrograms/ml and there was no cross resistance with the other tetracyclines. P. multocida was very susceptible to ampicillin (MIC50 less than or equal to 0.03 micrograms/ml), P. haemolytica, however, was 100% resistant to this drug. Both pasteurellas were susceptible to cephalothin and approximately 50% of the strains of both bacteria were resistant to chloramphenicol. The MIC50 of either spiramycin or tylosin was greater than or equal to their respective breakpoint-MIC values. Both pasteurellas were susceptible to the combination of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole. However, for P. multocida, the addition of sulphamethoxazole to trimethoprim had no synergistic effect on its MIC. In comparison with trimethorpim, aditoprim was less potent. Therefore only P. multocida was susceptible to aditoprim.

  6. Pharmacological treatments of cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Masafumi

    2004-01-01

    The confirmed pharmacological treatment of cerebellar ataxia is still lacking. In a recent preliminary trial, we showed that D-cycloserine, a partial NMDA allosteric agonist, may relieve the symptoms. In this paper, major clinical trials to relieve ataxic symptoms are reviewed. Previous studies showed some efficacy of physostigmine in ataxic patients. However, physostigmine did not improve the ataxia in a recent double-blind crossover study. The replacement therapy of the deficient cholinergic system with choline or choline derivatives was tried in patients with Friedreich's ataxia and other ataxic patients, but the result was not definitive. A levorotatory form of hydroxytryptophan (a serotonin precursor), a serotoninergic 5-HT1A agonist, a serotoninergic 5-HT3 antagonist, and a serotonin reuptake inhibitor were also used for the therapy for ataxia. In a double-blind randomized study, buspirone, a 5-HT1A agonist was active in cerebellar ataxia, but the effect is partial and not major. The effects of the studies with the other serotoninergic drugs were not consistent. The effect of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim therapy in spinocerebellar ataxia type3/Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) was reported, although the therapy improved spasticity or rigidity, rather than ataxia. In contrast to previous studies, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim therapy in MJD had no effect in a 2001 double-blind crossover study. The thyrotropin-releasing hormone, D-cycloserine, and acetazolamide for SCA6 may have some efficacy. However, a well-designed double-blind crossover trial is needed to confirm the effect.

  7. Characterization of Integrons and Sulfonamide Resistance Genes among Bacteria from Drinking Water Distribution Systems in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adesoji, Ayodele T; Ogunjobi, Adeniyi A; Olatoye, Isaac O

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria in clinical and environmental settings is a global problem. Many antibiotic resistance genes are located on mobile genetic elements such as plasmids and integrons, enabling their transfer among a variety of bacterial species. Water distribution systems may be reservoirs for the spread of antibiotic resistance. Bacteria isolated from raw, treated, and municipal tap water samples from selected water distribution systems in south-western Nigeria were investigated using the point inoculation method with seeded antibiotics, PCR amplification, and sequencing for the determination of bacterial resistance profiles and class 1/2 integrase genes and gene cassettes, respectively. sul1,sul2, and sul3 were detected in 21.6, 27.8, and 0% of the isolates, respectively (n = 162). Class 1 and class 2 integrons were detected in 21.42 and 3.6% of the isolates, respectively (n = 168). Genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA2, aadA1, and aadB), trimethoprim (dfrA15, dfr7, and dfrA1), and sulfonamide (sul1) were detected among bacteria with class 1 integrons, while genes that encodes resistance to strepthothricin (sat2) and trimethoprim (dfrA15) were detected among bacteria with class 2 integrons. Bacteria from these water samples are a potential reservoir of multidrug-resistant traits including sul genes and mobile resistance elements, i.e. the integrase gene. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Antimicrobial use in Belgian broiler production.

    PubMed

    Persoons, Davy; Dewulf, Jeroen; Smet, Annemieke; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc; Martel, An; Catry, Boudewijn; Butaye, Patrick; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2012-08-01

    The use of antimicrobials in production animals has become a worldwide concern in the face of rising resistance levels in commensal, pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria. In the years 2007 and 2008 antimicrobial consumption records were collected during two non consecutive production cycles in 32 randomly selected Belgian broiler farms. Antimicrobials were used in 48 of the 64 monitored production cycles, 7 farms did not use any antimicrobials in both production cycles, 2 farms only administered antimicrobials in one of the two production cycles, the other 23 farms applied antimicrobial treatment in both production cycles. For the quantification of antimicrobial drug use, the treatment incidences (TI) based on the defined daily doses (the dose as it should be applied: DDD) and used daily doses (the actual dose applied: UDD) were calculated. A mean antimicrobial treatment incidence per 1000 animals of 131.8 (standard deviation 126.8) animals treated daily with one DDD and 121.4 (SD 106.7) animals treated daily with one UDD was found. The most frequently used compounds were amoxicillin, tylosin and trimethoprim-sulphonamide with a mean TI(UDD) of 37.9, 34.8, and 21.7, respectively. The ratio of the UDD/DDD gives an estimate on correctness of dosing. Tylosin was underdosed in most of the administrations whereas amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulphonamide were slightly overdosed in the average flock. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Occurrence of antibiotics in wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karthikeyan, K.G.; Meyer, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Samples from several wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin were screened for the presence of 21 antibiotic compounds. These facilities spanned a range of community size served (average daily flow from 0.0212 to 23.6 million gallons/day), secondary treatment processes, geographic locations across the state, and they discharged the treated effluents to both surface and ground waters (for ground water after a soil passage). A total of six antibiotic compounds were detected (1-5 compounds per site), including two sulfonamides (sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole), one tetracycline (tetracycline), fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin), macrolide (erythromycin-H2O) and trimethoprim. The frequency of detection of antibiotics was in the following order: tetracycline and trimethoprim (80%) > sulfamethoxazole (70%) > erythromycin-H2O (45%) > ciprofloxacin (40%) > sulfamethazine (10%). However, the soluble concentrations were in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range (??? 1.3 ??g/L), and importantly were unaffected by the size of the wastewater treatment facility. The concentrations detected were within an order of magnitude of those reported for similar systems in Europe and Canada: they were within a factor of two in comparison to those reported for Canada but generally lower relative to those measured in wastewater systems in Europe. Only sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were detected in groundwater monitoring wells adjacent to the treatment systems. Future intensive wastewater monitoring programs in Wisconsin may be limited to the six antibiotic compounds detected in this study. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Toltrazuril and sulphonamide treatment against naturally Isospora suis infected suckling piglets: is there an actual profit?

    PubMed

    Scala, Antonio; Demontis, Francesca; Varcasia, Antonio; Pipia, Anna Paola; Poglayen, Giovanni; Ferrari, Nicola; Genchi, Marco

    2009-08-26

    A study was carried out to assess the efficacy and the economic profit of prophylactic treatment against Isopsora suis with toltrazuril or with a sulfamethazine/trimethoprim combination in piglets from an intensive pig farm. Thirty-one litters were included in study. Eight litters were treated once with toltrazuril (20 mg/kg b.w.) at 3 days of age (Toltra group); 8 litters were treated with 2 ml/animal of a [corrected] sulphonamide combination (sodium sulfamethazine 250 [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] mg and trimethoprim 50 [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] mg/kg b.w.) for 3 consecutive days starting at 3 days of age (Sulfa group), and 15 litters were untreated (control group). Counts of oocyst per gram on pooled feces sampled from each litter were carried out on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28 and diarrhea was registered daily from pooled samples. Piglets were weighed on Days 1, 7 and 28 and mean weight gain (WG) and daily weight gain (DWG) were evaluated. The economic profit of treatment was evaluated comparing the WG of piglets of each treatment group from the day of birth to Day 28. On Days 14, 21 and 28, toltrazuril showed a better efficacy in controlling fecal oocyst output, diarrhea and weight gain compared with sulphamidic treatment (P<0.001). The budgeting analysis showed a return of economic benefit of euro 0.915 per toltrazuril-treated piglets and an additional cost of euro 1.155 per sulphonamide-treated piglets.

  11. Is intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate useful in preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis? A multicenter case control analysis.

    PubMed

    Gugliotta, Giorgio; Calagna, Gloria; Adile, Giorgio; Polito, Salvatore; Saitta, Salvatore; Speciale, Patrizia; Palomba, Stefano; Perino, Antonino; Granese, Roberta; Adile, Biagio

    2015-10-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in the female population and, over a lifetime, about half of women have at least one episode of UTI requiring antibiotic therapy. The aim of the current study was to compare two different strategies for preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis: intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus chondroitin sulfate (CS), and antibiotic prophylaxis with sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim. This was a retrospective review of two different cohorts of women affected by recurrent bacterial cystitis. Cases (experimental group) were women who received intravesical instillations of a sterile solution of high concentration of HA + CS in 50 mL water with calcium chloride every week during the 1(st) month and then once monthly for 4 months. The control group included women who received traditional therapy for recurrent cystitis based on daily antibiotic prophylaxis using sulfamethoxazole 200 mg plus trimethoprim 40 mg for 6 weeks. Ninety-eight and 76 patients were treated with experimental and control treatments, respectively. At 12 months after treatment, 69 and 109 UTIs were detected in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The proportion of patients free from UTIs was significantly higher in the experimental than in the control group (36.7% vs. 21.0%; p = 0.03). Experimental treatment was well tolerated and none of the patients stopped it. The intravesical instillation of HA + CS is more effective than long-term antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Effects of antibiotic treatment on the lactobacillus composition of vaginal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Melkumyan, A R; Priputnevich, T V; Ankirskaya, A S; Murav'eva, V V; Lubasovskaya, L A

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed sensitivity of 123 vaginal lactobacillus strains to antibacterial substances. All lactobacillus strains were sensitive to ampicillin, cefazolin, cefotaxime, and vancomycin, and insensitive to metronidazole, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and levofloxacin. Lactobacillus strains demonstrated different sensitivity to gentamycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. The phenomenon of preferential selective influence of antibacterial drugs on the composition of lactobacilli of the vaginal microbiota, in which some lactobacilli survive as part of the vaginal microbiota and have a selective advantage over other types of lactobacilli, should be taken into account during treatment of vaginal infections and dysbiosis.

  13. Chryseobacterium indologenes Septicemia in an Infant.

    PubMed

    Aydin Teke, Turkan; Oz, Fatma Nur; Metin, Ozge; Bayhan, Gulsum Iclal; Gayretli Aydin, Zeynep Gökce; Oguz, Melek; Tanir, Gonul

    2014-01-01

    Chryseobacterium indologenes is a rare cause of infection in children. The organism causes infections mostly in hospitalised patients with severe underlying diseases. The choice of an effective drug for the treatment of infections due to C. indologenes is difficult as the organism has a limited spectrum of antimicrobial sensitivity. We present a case of nosocomial septicemia caused by C. indologenes in an infant with congenital heart disease who was successfully treated with trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole and also reviewed fourteen additional cases of C. indologenes infections reported in the English literature in this report.

  14. [Intramedullary toxoplasmosis in HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patient].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Lazo, Giancarlo; Castillo-Córdova, Raúl; Maquera-Afaray, Julio

    2017-02-01

    The most common clinical presentation of Toxoplasma gondii in HIV patients is encephalitis; however, the intramedullary involvement has been reported in a few cases. We report a case of intramedullary toxoplasmosis in a female patient diagnosed with HIV/tuberculosis co-infection, and history of poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The patient developed subacute paraparesis with compromise of sensory function and urinary sphincter. The nuclear magnetic resonance evaluation showed a single intramedullary ring-enhanced lesion at the T-8 level which was solved after an anti-Toxoplasma therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

  15. Consensus guidelines for diagnosis, prophylaxis and management of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with haematological and solid malignancies, 2014.

    PubMed

    Cooley, L; Dendle, C; Wolf, J; Teh, B W; Chen, S C; Boutlis, C; Thursky, K A

    2014-12-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii infection (PJP) is a common cause of pneumonia in patients with cancer-related immunosuppression. There are well-defined patients who are at risk of PJP due to the status of their underlying malignancy, treatment-related immunosuppression and/or concomitant use of corticosteroids. Prophylaxis is highly effective and should be given to all patients at moderate to high risk of PJP. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the drug of choice for prophylaxis and treatment, although several alternative agents are available. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  16. Purification and properties of dihydrofolate reductase from cultured mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Gauldie, Jack; Marshall, Lyse; Hillcoat, Brian L.

    1973-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase was purified quickly and simply from small quantities of cultured mammalian cells by affinity chromatography. On gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme, multiple bands of activity resulted from enzyme–buffer interaction at low but not high buffer concentration. A Ferguson plot (Ferguson, 1964) showed that this heterogeneity was due to a charge difference with no alteration in the size of the enzyme. Stimulation of enzyme activity by KCl, urea and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, and inhibition by methotrexate and trimethoprim, showed only minor differences between the various enzymes. PMID:4723779

  17. Can Levofloxacin Be a Useful Alternative to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole for Treating Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Bacteremia?

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sun Young; Kim, Jungok; Ha, Young Eun; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lee, Nam Yong; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin in the treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia. The 30-day mortality rates were similar between the trimerthoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and levofloxacin treatment groups. Adverse events related to antibiotics occurred more frequently in patients receiving TMP-SMX, and recurrent bacteremia due to levofloxacin-resistant S. maltophilia strains developed in patients treated with levofloxacin. Our data suggest that levofloxacin can be a useful alternative option for treating S. maltophilia infections. PMID:24126583

  18. 78 FR 63870 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Gonadorelin; Ivermectin; Ractopamine; Trimethoprim and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... estrous cycles to allow fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in lactating dairy cows. 141-349 Zoetis...-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in lactating dairy cows, administer to each cow 100 to 200 mcg...

  19. Combined efficacy of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles and different antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Syed Zeeshan Haider; Kiran, Urooj; Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Jamal, Asif; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia; Ali, Naeem

    2013-01-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is a growing innovative approach that is relatively cheaper and more environmentally friendly than current physicochemical processes. Among various microorganisms, fungi have been found to be comparatively more efficient in the synthesis of nanomaterials. In this research work, extracellular mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was probed by reacting the precursor salt of silver nitrate (AgNO3) with culture filtrate of Aspergillus flavus. Initially, the mycosynthesis was regularly monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, which showed AgNP peaks of around 400-470 nm. X-ray diffraction spectra revealed peaks of different intensities with respect to angle of diffractions (2θ) corresponding to varying configurations of AgNPs. Transmission electron micrographs further confirmed the formation of AgNPs in size ranging from 5-30 nm. Combined and individual antibacterial activities of the five conventional antibiotics and AgNPs were investigated against eight different multidrug-resistant bacterial species using the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method. The decreasing order of antibacterial activity (zone of inhibition in mm) of antibiotics, AgNPs, and their conjugates against bacterial group (average) was; ciprofloxacin + AgNPs (23) . imipenem + AgNPs (21) > gentamycin + AgNPs (19) > vancomycin + AgNPs (16) > AgNPs (15) . imipenem (14) > trimethoprim + AgNPs (14) > ciprofloxacin (13) > gentamycin (11) > vancomycin (4) > trimethoprim (0). Overall, the synergistic effect of antibiotics and nanoparticles resulted in a 0.2-7.0 (average, 2.8) fold-area increase in antibacterial activity, which clearly revealed that nanoparticles can be effectively used in combination with antibiotics in order to improve their efficacy against various pathogenic microbes.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance gene transfer analysis of foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria spp. isolates including Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, David; Muelli, Mirjam; Weller, Monika; Uruty, Anaïs; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess antibiotic resistance pheno- and genotypes in foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria isolates, as well as to elucidate the horizontal gene transfer potential of detected resistance genes. A small fraction of in total 524 Listeria spp. isolates (3.1%) displayed acquired antibiotic resistance mainly to tetracycline (n = 11), but also to clindamycin (n = 4) and trimethoprim (n = 3), which was genotypically confirmed. In two cases, a tetracycline resistance phenotype was observed together with a trimethoprim resistance phenotype, namely in a clinical L. monocytogenes strain and in a foodborne L. innocua isolate. Depending on the applied guidelines, a differing number of isolates (n = 2 or n = 20) showed values for ampicillin that are on the edge between intermediate susceptibility and resistance. Transferability of the antibiotic resistance genes from the Listeria donors, elucidated in vitro by filter matings, was demonstrated for genes located on transposons of the Tn916 family and for an unknown clindamycin resistance determinant. Transfer rates of up to 10(-5) transconjugants per donor were obtained with a L. monocytogenes recipient and up to 10(-7) with an Enterococcus faecalis recipient, respectively. Although the prevalence of acquired antibiotic resistance in Listeria isolates from this study was rather low, the transferability of these resistances enables further spread in the future. This endorses the importance of surveillance of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in terms of antibiotic susceptibility. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Management of otitis media among children in a large health insurance plan.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D; Oster, G; McGarry, L J; Klein, J O

    1999-03-01

    Otitis media is one of the most common office diagnoses among children in the US and the leading reason for the use of antimicrobials in pediatric practice. We undertook this study to characterize medical and surgical management of otitis media. Using claims data from a large New England health insurer, we identified all children <10 years of age who had one or more episodes of acute otitis media between July, 1995, and June, 1996, and examined patterns of treatment for this condition. Study subjects (n = 22,004) averaged 2.9 physician office visits for management of otitis media; among children <2 years of age, one-fourth had 6 or more such visits. Amoxicillin was prescribed as initial therapy in more than one-half (56.6%) of all episodes of acute otitis media, followed by cephalosporins (18.3%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (12.3%), macrolides (6.4%) and amoxicillin-clavulanate (6.0%). Over multiple episodes, however, use of amoxicillin declined by about 50%. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was received by 7.3% of all study subjects for a mean of 61.3 days; the incidence of breakthrough episodes of acute otitis media during prophylaxis varied according to the antimicrobial used (13.9, 12.3 and 19.5% for amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and sulfisoxazole, respectively). Surgical procedures related to otitis media were performed on 3.8% of all study subjects, including 4.6% of children <2 years of age. The health care burden of otitis media is large, particularly in the first 2 years of life.

  2. Assessment of the Risks of Mixtures of Major Use Veterinary Antibiotics in European Surface Waters.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiahua; Selby, Katherine; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-08-02

    Effects of single veterinary antibiotics on a range of aquatic organisms have been explored in many studies. In reality, surface waters will be exposed to mixtures of these substances. In this study, we present an approach for establishing risks of antibiotic mixtures to surface waters and illustrate this by assessing risks of mixtures of three major use antibiotics (trimethoprim, tylosin, and lincomycin) to algal and cyanobacterial species in European surface waters. Ecotoxicity tests were initially performed to assess the combined effects of the antibiotics to the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae. The results were used to evaluate two mixture prediction models: concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA). The CA model performed best at predicting the toxicity of the mixture with the experimental 96 h EC50 for the antibiotic mixture being 0.248 μmol/L compared to the CA predicted EC50 of 0.21 μmol/L. The CA model was therefore used alongside predictions of exposure for different European scenarios and estimations of hazards obtained from species sensitivity distributions to estimate risks of mixtures of the three antibiotics. Risk quotients for the different scenarios ranged from 0.066 to 385 indicating that the combination of three substances could be causing adverse impacts on algal communities in European surface waters. This could have important implications for primary production and nutrient cycling. Tylosin contributed most to the risk followed by lincomycin and trimethoprim. While we have explored only three antibiotics, the combined experimental and modeling approach could readily be applied to the wider range of antibiotics that are in use.

  3. Space Environment Effects on Stability of Medications Flown on Space Shuttles and the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Vernie; Du, Jianping; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose is to assess physical and chemical degradation of select pharmaceutical formulations from the Shuttle and ISS medical kits. Eleven pharmaceuticals dispensed as different dosage forms were selected based on their physical / chemical characteristics and susceptibility to environmental factors such as, temperature, humidity and light sensitivity. When available, ground-controls of the study medications with matching brand and lot numbers were used for comparison. Samples retrieved from flight were stored along with their matching controls in a temperature and humidity controlled environmental chamber. Temperature, humidity, and radiation data from the Shuttle and ISS were retrieved from onboard HOBO U12 Temp/RH Data Loggers, and from passive dosimeters. Physical and chemical analyses of the pharmaceuticals were conducted using validated United States Pharmacopeia (USP) methods. Results indicated degradation of 6 of the 11 formulations returned from space flights. Four formulations, Amoxicillin / Clavulanate, promethazine, sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim, and ciprofloxacin tablets depicted discoloration after flight. Chemical content analyses using High or Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC / UPLC) methods revealed that dosage forms of Amoxicillin / Clavulanate, promethazine, sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim, lidocaine, ciprofloxacin and mupirocin contained less than 95% of manufacturer s labeled claim of active drug compound. Shuttle and ISS environments affect stability and shelf life of certain mediations flown on these missions. Data analysis is in progress to examine the effect of specific space flight environmental factors on pharmaceutical stability. The degradation profiles generated from ground studies in analog environments will be useful in establishing predictive shelf-life profiles for medications intended for use during long-term space exploration missions.

  4. Characterization of multiple antibiotic resistance of culturable microorganisms and metagenomic analysis of total microbial diversity of marine fish sold in retail shops in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Naik, Onkar A; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Rath, Devashish; Bandekar, Jayant R; Rath, Archana

    2018-03-01

    Marine fish species were analyzed for culturable and total metagenomic microbial diversity, antibiotic resistance (AR) pattern, and horizontal gene transfer in culturable microorganisms. We observed a high AR microbial load of 3 to 4 log CFU g -1 . Many fish pathogens like Providencia, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter, Vagococcus, and Aeromonas veronii were isolated. Photobacterium and Vibrio were two major fish and human pathogens which were identified in the fish metagenome. Other pathogens that were identified were Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, and Flavobacterium. Most of these pathogens were resistant to multiple antibiotics such as erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, penicillin, cefotaxime, bacitracin, rifampicin, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline with a high multiple antibiotic resistance index of 0.54-0.77. The fish microflora showed high prevalence of AR genes like bla TEM , Class I integron, tetA, aph(3')-IIIa, ermB, aadA, and sul1. Nineteen of 26 AR isolates harbored Class I integrons showing high co-resistance to trimethoprim, kanamycin, doxycycline, and cefotaxime. Mobile R-plasmids from 6 of the 12 AR pathogens were transferred to recipient E. coli after conjugation. The transconjugants harbored the same R-plasmid carrying bla CTX-M , dfr1, tetA, bla TEM , and cat genes. This study confirms that fish is a potential carrier of AR pathogens which can enter the human gut via food chain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the Indian subcontinent reporting a direct evidence of spread of AR pathogens to humans from specific marine fish consumption.

  5. Effect of farm type on within-herd Salmonella prevalence, serovar distribution, and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Rasschaert, G; Michiels, J; Arijs, D; Wildemauwe, C; De Smet, S; Heyndrickx, M

    2012-05-01

    Salmonella represents a major challenge to the pig industry, as pork presents a risk for human salmonellosis. In this study, we have examined the effect of farm type on the prevalence of fattening pigs shedding Salmonella on 12 farms at risk for harboring Salmonella. On six open (grow-to-finish) and six closed (farrow-to-finish) farms, the prevalence of pigs shedding Salmonella was determined on two occasions approximately 2 months apart. The serovar, phage type, and antimicrobial resistance of the obtained Salmonella isolates were determined. On all farms, pigs shedding Salmonella were detected on at least one of the two sampling days. The mean within-herd prevalence was 7.8%. Closed farms were two times less likely to have pigs shedding Salmonella than open farms. On open farms, the odds of finding Salmonella shedding in pigs were 1.9 times higher when sampling was performed at slaughter age than when samples were taken halfway through the fattening period. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was the most predominant serotype, with a prevalence of 62 to 63% on both farm types. Of all the Salmonella Typhimurium isolates, 65% had the tetraresistant profile ASSuT (ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline) with or without additional resistance to trimethoprim-sulfonamide. Phage type DT120 seemed to be especially associated with this antimicrobial-resistant profile. The prevalence of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates showing resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, sulfonamide, trimethoprim-sulfonamide, and lincomycin hydrochloride and spectinomycin sulfate tetrahydrate was significantly higher on open farms than on closed farms.

  6. Consumption of antibacterial molecules in broiler production in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Rahmatallah, Naoufal; El Rhaffouli, Hicham; Lahlou Amine, Idriss; Sekhsokh, Yassine; Fassi Fihri, Ouafaa; El Houadfi, Mohammed

    2018-05-01

    Monitoring the use of antibacterial agents in food-producing animals is crucial in order to reduce antimicrobial resistance, selection and dissemination of resistant bacterial strains, and drug residues in the animal food products. The broiler production sector is considered a great consumer of antibacterials and incriminated in the rise of antimicrobial resistance level in zoonotic bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter. Following recommendations from the OIE and WHO, a survey was conducted about the use and consumption of several antibacterial agents in Moroccan broiler flocks. More than 5 million broilers were randomly surveyed at the prescriber level, that is, via the veterinary clinics involved in their health management. The results showed that 93% of the flocks received at least one antibacterial treatment of minimum 3 days duration. Enrofloxacin, colistin and trimethoprim/sulphonamides were the most used antibacterials followed by oxytetracycline, florfenicol and amoxicillin. Oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin and colistin were overdosed in most of the administration, while amoxicillin and the combination of trimethoprim/sulphonamides were under-dosed. The total amount of antibacterial consumed in the survey was 63.48 mg/kg and the Animal Level of Exposure to Antimicrobials (ALEA) was 94.45%. The reasons for this frequent use were related mainly to the poor quality of broiler production management. Chicks and animal feed provided to producers were of variable quality. Management of rearing stock density was often poor and biosecurity inadequate, and broilers were challenged by a high prevalence of infectious diseases. © 2018 The Authors. Veterinary Medicine and Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effect of quinolones and other antimicrobial agents on cell-associated Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed Central

    Havlichek, D; Saravolatz, L; Pohlod, D

    1987-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila ATCC 33152 (serogroup I) to 13 antibiotics alone and in combination with rifampin (0.1 mg/liter) by three methods. Extracellular susceptibility was determined by MIC determinations and time kill curves in buffered yeast extract broth, while intracellular susceptibility was determined by peripheral human monocytes in RPMI 1640 culture medium. Antibiotic concentrations equal to or greater than the broth dilution MIC inhibited or killed L. pneumophila by the time kill method, except this was not the case for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Antibiotic concentrations below the broth dilution MIC did not inhibit Legionella growth. The only antibiotic-rifampin combinations which produced improved killing of L. pneumophila by the time kill method were those in which the logarithmic growth of L. pneumophila occurred during the experiment (rosoxacin, amifloxacin, cinoxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, and doxycycline). Neither direct MICs nor time kill curve assays accurately predicted intracellular L. pneumophila susceptibility. Rifampin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, rosoxacin, enoxacin, amifloxacin, gentamicin, clindamycin, and doxycycline all inhibited intracellular L. pneumophila growth at readily achievable concentrations in serum. Cefoxitin and thienamycin showed no inhibition of growth, although they were present extracellularly at concentrations that were 20 to 1,000 times their broth dilution MICs. Clindamycin was the only antibiotic that was able to inhibit intracellular L. pneumophila growth at an extracellular concentration below its MIC. The gentamicin (5 mg/liter)-rifampin combination was the only antibiotic-rifampin combination which demonstrated decreased cell-associated Legionella survival in this model of in vitro susceptibility. PMID:3435101

  8. Community-acquired urinary tract infections in children: pathogens, antibiotic susceptibility and seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Yolbaş, I; Tekin, R; Kelekci, S; Tekin, A; Okur, M H; Ece, A; Gunes, A; Sen, V

    2013-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common infections affecting children. The aim of our study is to determine microorganisms that cause community-acquired urinary tract infections and their antibiotic susceptibility in children. Our investigation includes 150 cases which has positive urine culture. The cases are detected at Pediatric Polyclinics of Dicle University between June 2010 and June 2011. The study included 118 (78.7%) female and 32 (21.3%) male children. Urinary tract infections were seen in autumn 10.7% (n = 16), summer 35.3% (n = 53), winter 30.7% (n = 46) and spring 23.3% (n = 35). The culture results indicated 75.3% (n = 113) Escherichia coli; 20.7% (n = 31) Klebsiella; 2.7% (n = 4) Proteus and % 1.3 (n = 2) Pseudomonas. The antibiotic resistance against Escherichia coli was found out is amikacin (3%), ertapenem (7%), imipenem (0%), meropenem (0%), nitrofurantoin (9%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (58%), piperacillin (83%), amoxicillin/clavulanate (50%), ampicillin/sulbactam (65%), cefazolin (54%), cefotaxime (51%), cefuroxime sodium (51% ) and tetracycline (68%). The resistance ratios of Klebsiella are amikacin (0%), imipenem (0%), levofloxacin (0%), meropenem (0%), amoxicillin/clavulanate (57%), ampicillin/sulbactam (79%), ceftriaxone (68%), cefuroxime sodium (74%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (61%). The results represent the increasing antibiotic resistance against microorganisms among the community-acquired UTI patients in a developing country such as Turkey. So, the physicians should consider resistance status of the infectious agent and choose effective antibiotics which are nitrofurantoin and cefoxitin for their empirical antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, they should be trained about selection of more effective antibiotics and check the regional studies regularly.

  9. Antibiotic administration in the drinking water of mice.

    PubMed

    Marx, James O; Vudathala, Daljit; Murphy, Lisa; Rankin, Shelley; Hankenson, F Claire

    2014-05-01

    Although antibiotics frequently are added to the drinking water of mice, this practice has not been tested to confirm that antibiotics reach therapeutic concentrations in the plasma of treated mice. In the current investigation, we 1) tested the stability of enrofloxacin and doxycycline in the drinking water of adult, female C57BL/6 mice; 2) measured the mice's consumption of water treated with enrofloxacin, doxycycline, amoxicillin, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; and 3) used HPLC to measure plasma antibiotic concentrations in mice that had ingested treated water for 1 wk. Plasma concentrations of antibiotic were measured 1 h after the start of both the light and dark cycle. The main findings of the study were that both enrofloxacin and nonpharmaceutical, chemical-grade doxycycline remained relatively stable in water for 1 wk. In addition, mice consumed similar volumes of antibiotic-treated and untreated water. The highest plasma antibiotic concentrations measured were: enrofloxacin, 140.1 ± 10.4 ng/mL; doxycycline, 56.6 ± 12.5 ng/mL; amoxicillin, 299.2 ± 64.1 ng/mL; and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 5.9 ± 1.2 ng/mL. Despite the stability of the antibiotics in the water and predictable water consumption by mice, the plasma antibiotic concentrations were well below the concentrations required for efficacy against bacterial pathogens, except for those pathogens that are exquisitely sensitive to the antibiotic. The findings of this investigation prompt questions regarding the rationale of the contemporary practice of adding antibiotics to the drinking water of mice for systemic antibacterial treatments.

  10. Assessing the antibiotic susceptibility of freshwater Cyanobacteria spp.

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Elsa; Oliveira, Micaela; Jones-Dias, Daniela; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Ferreira, Eugénia; Manageiro, Vera; Caniça, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater is a vehicle for the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous in freshwater, where they are exposed to antibiotics and resistant organisms, but their role on water resistome was never evaluated. Data concerning the effects of antibiotics on cyanobacteria, obtained by distinct methodologies, is often contradictory. This emphasizes the importance of developing procedures to understand the trends of antibiotic susceptibility in cyanobacteria. In this study we aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of four cyanobacterial isolates from different genera (Microcystis aeruginosa, Aphanizomenon gracile, Chrisosporum bergii, Planktothix agradhii), and among them nine isolates from the same specie (M. aeruginosa) to distinct antibiotics (amoxicillin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, kanamycine, gentamicine, tetracycline, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin). We used a method adapted from the bacteria standard broth microdilution. Cyanobacteria were exposed to serial dilution of each antibiotic (0.0015–1.6 mg/L) in Z8 medium (20 ± 1°C; 14/10 h L/D cycle; light intensity 16 ± 4 μEm−2s−1). Cell growth was followed overtime (OD450nm/microscopic examination) and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were calculated for each antibiotic/isolate. We found that β-lactams exhibited the lower MICs, aminoglycosides, tetracycline and norfloxacine presented intermediate MICs; none of the isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim and nalidixic acid. The reduced susceptibility of all tested cyanobacteria to some antibiotics suggests that they might be naturally non-susceptible to these compounds, or that they might became non-susceptible due to antibiotic contamination pressure, or to the transfer of genes from resistant bacteria present in the environment. PMID:26322027

  11. Investigating landfill leachate as a source of trace organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley O; Anumol, Tarun; Barlaz, Morton; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-05-01

    Landfill leachate samples (n=11) were collected from five USA municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills and analyzed for ten trace organic pollutants that are commonly detected in surface and municipal wastewater effluents (viz., carbamazepine, DEET, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, PFOA, PFOS, primidone, sucralose, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim). Carbamazepine, DEET, PFOA and primidone were detected in all leachate samples analyzed and gemfibrozil was detected in samples from four of the five-landfill sites. The contaminants found in the highest concentrations were DEET (6900-143000 ng L(-1)) and sucralose (<10-621000 ng L(-1)). Several compounds were not detected (fluoxetine) or detected infrequently (sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and PFOS). Using the average mass of DEET in leachate amongst the five landfills and scaling the mass release from the five test landfills to the USA population of landfills, an order of magnitude estimate is that over 10000 kg DEET yr(-1) may be released in leachate. Some pharmaceuticals have similar annual mean discharges to one another, with the estimated annual discharge of carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, primidone equating to 53, 151 and 128 kg year(-1). To the authors knowledge, this is the first time that primidone has been included in a landfill leachate study. While the estimates developed in this study are order of magnitude, the values do suggest the need for further research to better quantify the amount of chemicals sent to wastewater treatment facilities with landfill leachate, potential impacts on treatment processes and the significance of landfill leachate as a source of surface water contamination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Bacterial clonal diagnostics as a tool for evidence-based empiric antibiotic selection.

    PubMed

    Tchesnokova, Veronika; Avagyan, Hovhannes; Rechkina, Elena; Chan, Diana; Muradova, Mariya; Haile, Helen Ghirmai; Radey, Matthew; Weissman, Scott; Riddell, Kim; Scholes, Delia; Johnson, James R; Sokurenko, Evgeni V

    2017-01-01

    Despite the known clonal distribution of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria, empiric (pre-culture) antibiotic selection still relies heavily on species-level cumulative antibiograms, resulting in overuse of broad-spectrum agents and excessive antibiotic/pathogen mismatch. Urinary tract infections (UTIs), which account for a large share of antibiotic use, are caused predominantly by Escherichia coli, a highly clonal pathogen. In an observational clinical cohort study of urgent care patients with suspected UTI, we assessed the potential for E. coli clonal-level antibiograms to improve empiric antibiotic selection. A novel PCR-based clonotyping assay was applied to fresh urine samples to rapidly detect E. coli and the urine strain's clonotype. Based on a database of clonotype-specific antibiograms, the acceptability of various antibiotics for empiric therapy was inferred using a 20%, 10%, and 30% allowed resistance threshold. The test's performance characteristics and possible effects on prescribing were assessed. The rapid test identified E. coli clonotypes directly in patients' urine within 25-35 minutes, with high specificity and sensitivity compared to culture. Antibiotic selection based on a clonotype-specific antibiogram could reduce the relative likelihood of antibiotic/pathogen mismatch by ≥ 60%. Compared to observed prescribing patterns, clonal diagnostics-guided antibiotic selection could safely double the use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and minimize fluoroquinolone use. In summary, a rapid clonotyping test showed promise for improving empiric antibiotic prescribing for E. coli UTI, including reversing preferential use of fluoroquinolones over trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The clonal diagnostics approach merges epidemiologic surveillance, antimicrobial stewardship, and molecular diagnostics to bring evidence-based medicine directly to the point of care.

  13. Trade-offs with stability modulate innate and mutationally acquired drug-resistance in bacterial dihydrofolate reductase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Matange, Nishad; Bodkhe, Swapnil; Patel, Maitri; Shah, Pooja

    2018-06-05

    Structural stability is a major constraint on the evolution of protein sequences. However, under strong directional selection, mutations that confer novel phenotypes but compromise structural stability of proteins may be permissible. During the evolution of antibiotic resistance, mutations that confer drug resistance often have pleiotropic effects on the structure and function of antibiotic-target proteins, usually essential metabolic enzymes. In this study, we show that trimethoprim-resistant alleles of dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli (EcDHFR) harbouring the Trp30Gly, Trp30Arg or Trp30Cys mutations are significantly less stable than the wild type making them prone to aggregation and proteolysis. This destabilization is associated with lower expression level resulting in a fitness cost and negative epistasis with other TMP-resistant mutations in EcDHFR. Using structure-based mutational analysis we show that perturbation of critical stabilizing hydrophobic interactions in wild type EcDHFR enzyme explains the phenotypes of Trp30 mutants. Surprisingly, though crucial for the stability of EcDHFR, significant sequence variation is found at this site among bacterial DHFRs. Mutational and computational analyses in EcDHFR as well as in DHFR enzymes from Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis demonstrate that natural variation at this site and its interacting hydrophobic residues, modulates TMP-resistance in other bacterial DHFRs as well, and may explain the different susceptibilities of bacterial pathogens to trimethoprim. Our study demonstrates that trade-offs between structural stability and function can influence innate drug resistance as well as the potential for mutationally acquired drug resistance of an enzyme. ©2018 The Author(s).

  14. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of group B Streptococcus isolated from pregnant women in Misiones, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, M.; Pegels, E.; Oviedo, P.; Pereyra, E.; Vergara, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the susceptibility patterns and the colonization rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in a population of pregnant women. From January 2004 to December 2006, vaginal-rectal swabs were obtained from 1105 women attending Dr. Ramón Madariaga Hospital, in Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. The carriage rate of GBS among pregnant women was 7.6%. A total of 62 GBS strains were randomly selected for in vitro susceptibility testing to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, vancomycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim- sulfametoxazol, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, clindamycin and erythromycin, and determination of resistance phenotypes. No resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and vancomycin was found. Of the isolates examined 96.8%, 98.3%, 46.8%, and 29.0% were susceptible to rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazol and tetracycline, respectively. Rank order of susceptibility for the quinolones was: gatifloxacin (98.4%) > levofloxacin (93.5%) > ciprofloxacin (64.5%). The rate of resistance to erythromycin (9.7%) was higher than that of other reports from Argentina. High-level resistance to gentamicin was not detected in any of the isolates. Based on our finding of 50% of GBS isolates with MIC to gentamicin equal o lower than 8 μg/ml, a concentration used in one of the selective media recommended for GBS isolation, we suggested, at least in our population, the use of nalidixic acid and colistin in selective media with the aim to improve the sensitivity of screening cultures for GBS carriage in women. PMID:24031210

  15. In vitro action of antiparasitic drugs, especially artesunate, against Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Thaís Cobellis; de Andrade Júnior, Heitor Franco; Lescano, Susana Angélica Zevallos; Amato-Neto, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is usually a benign infection, except in the event of ocular, central nervous system (CNS), or congenital disease and particularly when the patient is immunocompromised. Treatment consists of drugs that frequently cause adverse effects; thus, newer, more effective drugs are needed. In this study, the possible activity of artesunate, a drug successfully being used for the treatment of malaria, on Toxoplasma gondii growth in cell culture is evaluated and compared with the action of drugs that are already being used against this parasite. LLC-MK2 cells were cultivated in RPMI medium, kept in disposable plastic bottles, and incubated at 36ºC with 5% CO2. Tachyzoites of the RH strain were used. The following drugs were tested: artesunate, cotrimoxazole, pentamidine, pyrimethamine, quinine, and trimethoprim. The effects of these drugs on tachyzoites and LLC-MK2 cells were analyzed using nonlinear regression analysis with Prism 3.0 software. Artesunate showed a mean tachyzoite inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.075µM and an LLC MK2 toxicity of 2.003µM. Pyrimethamine was effective at an IC50 of 0.482µM and a toxicity of 11.178µM. Trimethoprim alone was effective against the in vitro parasite. Cotrimoxazole also was effective against the parasite but at higher concentrations than those observed for artesunate and pyrimethamine. Pentamidine and quinine had no inhibitory effect over tachyzoites. Artesunate is proven in vitro to be a useful alternative for the treatment of toxoplasmosis, implying a subsequent in vivo effect and suggesting the mechanism of this drug against the parasite.

  16. Structure-activity relationship for enantiomers of potent inhibitors of B. anthracis dihydrofolate reductase

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Christina R.; Wakeham, Nancy; Nammalwar, Baskar; Tseitin, Vladimir; Bourne, Philip C.; Barrow, Esther W.; Mylvaganam, Shankari; Ramnarayan, Kal; Bunce, Richard A.; Berlin, K. Darrell; Barrow, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial resistance to antibiotic therapies is increasing and new treatment options are badly needed. There is an overlap between these resistant bacteria and organisms classified as likely bioterror weapons. For example, Bacillus anthracis is innately resistant to the anti-folate trimethoprim due to sequence changes found in the dihydrofolate reductase enzyme. Development of new inhibitors provides an opportunity to enhance the current arsenal of anti-folate antibiotics while also expanding the coverage of the anti-folate class. Methods We have characterized inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis dihydrofolate reductase by measuring the Ki and MIC values and calculating the energetics of binding. This series contains a core diaminopyrimidine ring, a central dimethoxybenzyl ring, and a dihydrophthalazine moiety. We have altered the chemical groups extended from a chiral center on the dihydropyridazine ring of the phthalazine moiety. The interactions for the most potent compounds were visualized by X-ray structure determination. Results We find that the potency of individual enantiomers is divergent with clear preference for the S-enantiomer, while maintaining a high conservation of contacts within the binding site. The preference for enantiomers seems to be predicated largely by differential interactions with protein residues Leu29, Gln30 and Arg53. Conclusions These studies have clarified the activity of modifications and of individual enantiomers, and highlighted the role of the less-active R-enantiomer in effectively diluting the more active S-enantiomer in racemic solutions. This directly contributes to the development of new antimicrobials, combating trimethoprim resistance, and treatment options for potential bioterrorism agents. PMID:22999981

  17. Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among Shigella species isolated in China during the 7-year period of 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haifei; Chen, Guosheng; Zhu, Yulin; Liu, Yanyan; Cheng, Jun; Hu, Lifen; Ye, Ying; Li, Jiabin

    2013-03-01

    Shigella is a frequent cause of bacterial dysentery in the developing world. Treatment with antibiotics is recommended for shigellosis, but the options are limited due to globally emerging resistance. This study was conducted to determine the frequency and pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella in China. We studied the antimicrobial resistance profiles of 308 Shigella spp. strains (260 S. flexneri, 40 S. sonnei, 5 S. boydii, and 3 S. dysenteriae) isolated from fecal samples of patients (age, from 3 months to 92 yr) presenting with diarrhea in different districts of Anhui, China. The antimicrobial resistance of strains was determined by the agar dilution method according to the CSLI guidelines. The most common serogroup in the Shigella isolates was S. flexneri (n=260, 84.4%), followed by S. sonnei (n=40, 13.0%). The highest resistance rate was found for nalidixic acid (96.4%), followed by ampicillin (93.2%), tetracycline (90.9%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (80.8%). Among the isolates tested, 280 (91.0%) were multidrug resistant (resistant to ≥2 agents). The most common resistance pattern was the combination of ampicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (70.8%). Resistance to ampicillin and tetracycline were more common among S. flexneri than among S. sonnei isolates. S. flexneri is predominant in Anhui, China, and its higher antimicrobial resistance rate compared with that of S. sonnei is a cause for concern. Continuous monitoring of resistance patterns is necessary to control the spread of resistance in Shigella. The recommendations for antimicrobial treatment must be updated regularly based on surveillance results.

  18. Amino acid conjugated antimicrobial drugs: Synthesis, lipophilicity- activity relationship, antibacterial and urease inhibition activity.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Atta; Iftikhar, Fatima; Arfan, Muhammad; Batool Kazmi, Syeda Tayyaba; Anjum, Muhammad Naveed; Haq, Ihsan-Ul; Ayaz, Muhammad; Farooq, Sadia; Rashid, Umer

    2018-02-10

    Present work describes the in vitro antibacterial evaluation of some new amino acid conjugated antimicrobial drugs. Structural modification was attempted on the three existing antimicrobial pharmaceuticals namely trimethoprim, metronidazole, isoniazid. Twenty one compounds from seven series of conjugates of these drugs were synthesized by coupling with some selected Boc-protected amino acids. The effect of structural features and lipophilicity on the antibacterial activity was investigated. The synthesized compounds were evaluated against five standard American type culture collection (ATCC) i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi strains of bacteria. Our results identified a close relationship between the lipophilicity and the activity. Triazine skeleton proved beneficial for the increase in hydrophobicity and potency. Compounds with greater hydrophobicity have shown excellent activities against Gram-negative strains of bacteria than Gram-positive. 4-amino unsubstituted trimethoprim-triazine derivative 7b have shown superior activity with MIC = 3.4 μM (2 μg/mL) for S. aureus and 1.1 μM (0.66 μg/mL) for E. coli. The synthesized compounds were also evaluated for their urease inhibition study. Microbial urease from Bacillus pasteurii was chosen for this study. Triazine derivative 7a showed excellent inhibition with IC 50  = 6.23 ± 0.09 μM. Docking studies on the crystal structure of B. pasteurii urease (PDB ID 4UBP) were carried out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance Percentages of Salmonella and Shigella in Seafood Imported to Jordan: Higher Percentages and More Diverse Profiles in Shigella.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E

    2017-03-01

    This study determined the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of human-specific ( Shigella spp.) and zoonotic ( Salmonella enterica ) foodborne pathogens in internationally traded seafood. Sixty-four Salmonella and 61 Shigella isolates were obtained from 330 imported fresh fish samples from Egypt, Yemen, and India. The pathogens were isolated on selective media, confirmed by PCR, and tested for antimicrobial resistance. Approximately 79 and 98% of the Salmonella and Shigella isolates, respectively, exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial, and 8 and 49% exhibited multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes). Generally, Salmonella exhibited high resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, streptomycin, and ampicillin; very low resistance to kanamycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ciprofloxacin; and no resistance to ceftriaxone. Meanwhile, Shigella spp. exhibited high resistance to tetracycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, streptomycin, and ampicillin; low resistance to kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ceftriaxone; and very low resistance to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Salmonella isolates exhibited 14 resistance profiles, Shigella isolates 42. This study is novel in showing that a human-specific pathogen has higher antimicrobial resistance percentages and more diverse profiles than a zoonotic pathogen. Thus, the impact of antimicrobial use in humans is as significant as, if not more significant than, it is in animals in spreading antibiotic resistance through food. This study also demonstrates that locally derived antimicrobial resistance can spread and pose a public health risk worldwide through seafood trade and that high resistance would make a possible outbreak difficult to control. So, capacity building and monitoring harvest water areas are encouraged in fish producing countries.

  20. Sarcoid-like cutaneous lesions in chronic adult paracoccidioidomycosis: report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Nurimar C.; Côrtes, Júlia Gomes; Akitti, Tiyomi; Quintella, Danielle Carvalho; Cuzzi, Tulia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study reports two cases of chronic paracoccidioidomycosis with sarcoid-like cutaneous lesions. The patients began the treatment in 2013 at Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF) of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). The first case (mild form) was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (8 mg /kg per day, orally) for three months and, then, with half the dose for nine months; the second (moderate form), with itraconazole (200 mg per day, orally) for 12 months. We point out the rareness of the sarcoid-like cutaneous lesions and the differential diagnoses for other granulomatous diseases. PMID:28591264

  1. Behavior of pharmaceuticals in waste water treatment plant in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, H; Sakamoto, H; Arizono, K; Shinohara, R

    2011-07-01

    The fate of pharmaceuticals in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Kumamoto, Japan with activated sludge treatment is reported. Selected pharmaceuticals were detected in influent. Results from the present study confirmed that Acetaminophen, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin and Famotidine were removed at a high rate (>90% efficiency). In contrast, removal efficiency of Ketoprofen, Losartan, Oseltamivir, Carbamazepine, and Diclofenac was relatively low (<50%). The selected pharmaceuticals were also detected in raw sludge. In digestive process, Indomethacin, Atenolol, Famotidine, Trimethoprim and Cyclofosamide were removed at a high (>70% efficiency). On the other hand, removal of Carbamazepine, Ketoprofen and Diclofenac was not efficient (<50%).

  2. Comparative in vitro activities of dalbavancin and seven comparator agents against 41 Staphylococcus species cultured from osteomyelitis infections and 18 VISA and hVISA strains.

    PubMed

    Citron, Diane M; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2014-08-01

    Due to a high rate of relapse, osteomyelitis remains difficult to treat, requiring prolonged parenteral therapy. MICs for 41 consecutive Staphylococcus species recovered from patients with osteomyelitis were determined for dalbavancin, daptomycin, doxycycline, levofloxacin, linezolid, vancomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, rifampin, and vancomycin. Strains of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and heteroresistant VISA were included for additional comparison. Except for rifampin, dalbavancin was the most active agent tested. Dalbavancin is given once a week, making treatment of infections such as osteomyelitis potentially more convenient and thus could help reduce the rate of hospitalizations and outpatient costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A case of mycotic aneurysm due to Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Ding, C H; Hussin, S; Tzar, M N; Rahman, M M; Ramli, S R

    2013-04-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an free-living gram-negative bacterium causing melioidosis and is endemic in Southeast Asia. A 56-year-old diabetic construction worker with a 1-month history of abdominal pain and 1-day history of high-grade fever was found to have a left non-dissecting infrarenal mycotic aortic aneurysm by abdominal computerized tomography scan. Bacteriological examination of his blood yielded Burkholderia pseudomallei. The patient was treated with right axillo-bifemoral bypass with excision of aneurysm and high-dose intravenous ceftazidime for two weeks, followed by oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and oral doxycycline for a minimum of five months.

  4. Serotyping, Genotyping, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale Isolates from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Peña-Vargas, Edgar Rafael; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Morales-Erasto, Vladimir; Trujillo-Ruíz, Héctor Hugo; Talavera-Rojas, Martín; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2016-09-01

    The bacterium Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is associated with respiratory disease and septicemia in poultry. In this study, 9 reference strains and a total of 23 isolates of O. rhinotracheale from respiratory diseased poultry from Mexico were serotyped and genotyped. Furthermore, the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates and reference strains of O. rhinotracheale were determined. All isolates belong to serotype A and showed a clonal relationship. All reference strains and isolates were resistant to colistin, fosfomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. These results should eventually be helpful in planning strategies for the control of O. rhinotracheale infections in poultry in Mexico.

  5. [Determination of in vitro susceptibilities of Brucella spp. strains against 11 different antibacterial gents isolated from blood cultures].

    PubMed

    Keşli, Recep; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Yılmaz, Halim

    2017-07-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease and still continuous to be a major public health problem. In this study, it was aimed to identify the Brucella strains to the species level isolated from blood cultures, and to determine the rate of antimicrobial susceptibility against eleven antibacterial agents. A total of 106 Brucella spp. strains were included in the study, which were isolated from blood cultures in University of Health Sciences, Konya Training and Research Hospital, Medical Microbiology Laboratory between January 2011 and June 2013. Identification of the isolated strains were mainly based on conventional methods. In vitro antibacterial susceptibilities of azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, gentamicin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, rifampicin, streptomycin, tetracycline, tigecycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, were evaluated by using the gradient (E-test, bioMerieux, France) strip method. The bacterial suspensions adjusted to 0.5 McFarland turbidity was inoculated to Mueller Hinton agar plates, supplemented with 5% sheep blood, and E-test strips of selected antibacterial were applied. The plates were incubated in ambient air 48 hours at 37ºC and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 were used as quality control strains for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Minimum inhibitors concentration (MIC) values were interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines for slow-growing bacteria such as Haemophilus spp. Of the 106 Brucella spp. strains included in to the study, 90 were identified as Brucella melitensis, and 16 were Brucella abortus. MIC90 values of azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, gentamicin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, rifampicin, streptomycin, tetracycline, tigecycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were determined as 1 µg/ml, 0.25 µg/ml, 0.19 µg/ml, 0.25 µg/ml, 0.19 µg/ml, 0.75 µg/ml, 0.25 µg/ml, 0.75 µg/ml, 0.38 µg/ml, 0.64 µg/ml, and 0

  6. Antibiotics versus no treatment for toxoplasma retinochoroiditis.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Eli; Bhandari, Sanjeeb; Gilbert, Ruth E; Stanford, Miles

    2016-05-20

    adverse events. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Four trials that randomised a total of 268 participants met the inclusion criteria. In all four studies antibiotic was administered orally.One study conducted in Brazil in both adults and children compared trimethoprim-sulfamexacocol over 20 months to no treatment and was judged to be at high risk of performance, detection, and attrition bias. The other three studies compared antibiotic treatment to placebo. We judged these three studies to be at a mixture of low or unclear risk of bias due to poor reporting. One study conducted in the US in adults studied pyrimethamine-trisulfapyrimidine for eight weeks; one study conducted in the UK in children and adults evaluated pyrimethamine for four weeks; and one study conducted in Brazil in adults investigated trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 12 months. In the last study, all participants had active retinochoroiditis and were treated with antibiotics for 45 days prior to randomisation to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus placebo.Only the study in Brazil of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole over 12 months, in participants with healed lesions, reported the effect of treatment on visual acuity. People treated with antibiotics may have a similar change in visual acuity compared with people treated with placebo at one year (mean difference -1.00 letters, 95% confidence interval (CI) -7.93 to 5.93 letters; 93 participants; low-quality evidence).Treatment with antibiotics probably reduces the risk of recurrent retinochoroiditis compared with placebo (risk ratio (RR) 0.26, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.63; 227 participants; 3 studies; I(2) = 0%; moderate-quality evidence); similar results were seen for acute and chronic retinochoroiditis.The UK study of pyrimethamine for four weeks reported an improvement in intraocular inflammation in treated compared with control participants (RR 1.76, 95% CI 0.98 to 3.19; 29 participants; low-quality evidence). The study in Brazil of

  7. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Newport isolated from animals, the environment, and animal food products in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Laura; Muckle, Anne; Archambault, Marie; McEwen, Scott; Weir, Emily

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Newport strains are increasingly isolated from animals and food products of animal origin and have caused septicemic illness in animals and humans. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence and the epidemiologic, phenotypic, and genotypic characteristics of S. Newport of animal origin that may infect humans, either via the food chain or directly. During the 1993–2002 period, the Office International des Épizooties Reference Laboratory for Salmonellosis in Guelph, Ontario, received 36 841 Salmonella strains for serotyping that had been isolated from animals, environmental sources, and food of animal origin in Canada. Of these, 119 (0.3%) were S. Newport. Before 2000, none of 49 S. Newport strains was resistant to more than 3 antimicrobials. In contrast, between January 2000 and December 2002, 35 of 70 isolates, primarily of bovine origin, were resistant to at least 11 antimicrobials, including the extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The blaCMY-2, flost, strA, strB, sulII, and tetA resistance genes were located on plasmids of 80 to 90 MDa that were self-transmissible in 25% of the strains. Conserved segments of the integron 1 gene were found on the large MDR-encoding plasmids in 3 of 35 strains additionally resistant to gentamicin and spectinomycin or to spectinomycin, sulfamethoxazole– trimethoprim, and trimethoprim. Resistance to kanamycin and neomycin was encoded by the aphA-1 gene, located on small plasmids (2.3 to 6 MDa). The increase in bovine-associated MDR S. Newport infections is cause for concern since it indicates an increased risk of human acquisition of the infection via the food chain. PMID:16639942

  8. Management of complicated urinary tract infections in a referral center in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cornejo-Dávila, Victor; Palmeros-Rodríguez, Mario A; Uberetagoyena-Tello de Meneses, Israel; Mayorga-Gómez, Edgar; Garza-Sáinz, Gerardo; Osornio-Sánchez, Victor; Trujillo-Ortiz, Luis; Sedano-Basilio, Jorge E; Cantellano-Orozco, Mauricio; Martínez-Arroyo, Carlos; Morales-Montor, Jorge G; Pacheco-Gahbler, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Urinary tract infections are a common problem encountered by primary care, emergency physicians and urologists. A complicated urinary tract infection (CUTI) responds less effectively to the standard treatment. E. coli is the most common pathogen (40-70 %). In Mexico, there are ciprofloxacin resistance rates of 8-73 %, to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 53-71 % and cephalosporins 5-18 %, with an ESBL E. coli prevalence of 10 %. For infections producing gas or purulent material, the percutaneous or endoscopic drainage is the standard. To describe the management of patients with CUTIs, their specifically clinical course and eventual culture results determining the most common isolated microorganisms and their resistance. The clinical records of patients hospitalized with CUTIs from January 2012 to July 2013 were reviewed. One hundred and seventy-three patients were included. Acute pyelonephritis was the most common presentation (53.2 %). The most common microorganism was E. coli (83 %), with ESBL prevalence of 71.4 % and a resistance to quinolone, cephalosporin and trimethoprim of 89.7, 64.7 and 60.3 %, respectively. The most common factors associated with development of CUTIs were recent use of antibiotics (95.3 %) and obstructive uropathy (73.4 %). A total of 41 % received carbapenems and 40.5 % received minimally invasive treatments. Overall mortality was 2.9 %. There were a greater ESBL-producing pathogen prevalence and an over 50 % resistance to classically first-choice antibiotics. The minimally invasive treatments for complicated infections are fundamental; however, nephrectomy still has a role. Wide-spectrum antimicrobial therapy and minimally invasive approaches are the most common treatments for CUTIs in our center, and a reevaluation regarding antibiotic use in Mexico needs to be done.

  9. Urinary microbiome of kidney transplant patients reveals dysbiosis with potential for antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Asha; Ranjan, Ravi; McGee, Halvor S.; Andropolis, Kalista E.; Panchal, Dipti V.; Hajjiri, Zahraa; Brennan, Daniel C.; Finn, Patricia W.; Perkins, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have established that a complex community of microbes colonize the human urinary tract; however their role in kidney transplant patients treated with prophylactic antibiotics remains poorly investigated. Our aim was to investigate the urinary microbiome of kidney transplant recipients. Urine samples from 21 patients following kidney transplantation and 8 healthy controls, were collected. All patients received prophylactic treatment with the antibiotic trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Metagenomic DNA was isolated from urine samples, sequenced using metagenomics shotgun sequencing approach on Illumina HiSeq2000 platform, and analyzed for microbial taxonomic and functional annotations. Our results demonstrate that the urine microbiome of kidney transplants was markedly different at all taxonomic levels from phyla to species, had decreased microbial diversity and increased abundance of potentially pathogenic species compared to healthy controls. Specifically, at the phylum level we detected a significant decrease in Actinobacteria and increase in Firmicutes due to increases in Enterococcus faecalis. In addition, there was an increase in the Proteobacteria due to increases in E. coli. Analysis of predicted functions of the urinary metagenome revealed increased abundance of enzymes in the folate pathway including dihydrofolate synthase that are not inhibited by trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, but can augment folate metabolism. This report characterizes the urinary microbiome of kidney transplants using shotgun metagenomics approach. Our results indicate that the urinary microbiota may be modified in the context of prophylactic antibiotics, indicating that a therapeutic intervention may shift the urinary microbiota to select bacterial species with increased resistance to antibiotics. The evaluation and development of optimal prophylactic regimens that do not promote antibiotic resistance is an important future goal. PMID:27669488

  10. Characterization of Colistin-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Diseased Pigs in France

    PubMed Central

    Delannoy, Sabine; Le Devendec, Laetitia; Jouy, Eric; Fach, Patrick; Drider, Djamel; Kempf, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    We studied a collection of 79 colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates isolated from diseased pigs in France between 2009 and 2013. We determined a number of phenotypic and genetic characters using broth microdilution to characterize their antimicrobial susceptibility. We performed pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to assess their genetic diversity and assign them to phylogroups. High-throughput real-time PCR micro-array was used to screen for a selection of genetic markers of virulence, and PCR and sequencing of the main recognized resistance genes allowed us to investigate the mechanisms of colistin resistance. Results showed that isolates belonged to several phylogroups and most had a unique PFGE profile. More than 50% of the isolates were also resistant to sulfonamides, trimethoprim, tetracycline, ampicillin or chloramphenicol. The mcr-1 gene was detected in 70 out of 79 isolates and was transferred by conjugation in 33 of them, sometimes together with resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim, tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, or gentamicin. Mutations in the amino-acid sequences of proteins MgrB, PhoP, PhoQ, PmrB, but not PmrA, were detected in isolates with or without the mcr-1 gene. More than one-third of the isolates harbored the F18, F4, astA, hlyA, estI, estII, elt, stx2e, iha, orfA, orfB, paa, terE, ecs1763, or ureD virulence markers. In conclusion, although most isolates had a unique PFGE profile, a few particular combinations of phylogenetic groups, virulence genes and mutations in the sequenced genes involved in colistin resistance were identified on a number of occasions, suggesting the persistence of certain isolates over several years. PMID:29209292

  11. Nosocomial outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Livingstone producing CTX-M-27 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in a neonatal unit in Sousse, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bouallègue-Godet, Olfa; Ben Salem, Youssef; Fabre, Laëtitia; Demartin, Marie; Grimont, Patrick A D; Mzoughi, Ridha; Weill, François-Xavier

    2005-03-01

    In this study, we report an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Livingstone resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins that occurred in a neonatal ward of the maternity department of Farhat Hached Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia, in 2002. A total of 16 isolates were recovered from 16 babies hospitalized in the ward during the period 1 to 16 July. All these babies developed diarrhea, and three of them developed septicemia. All the isolates demonstrated resistance to ceftriaxone and ceftazidime due to the production of an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). The isolates were also resistant to aminoglycosides (kanamycin, tobramycin, netilmicin, gentamicin, and amikacin) and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. DNA profiles were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using the XbaI and SpeI endonucleases and by ribotyping with PstI digestion. They yielded the same patterns, showing that the outbreak was caused by a single clone. The ESBL was identified as CTX-M-27 by sequencing of PCR products and by isoelectric focusing. The ESBL resistance was transferred by a 40-kb conjugative plasmid. The mobile insertion sequence ISEcp1 was found to be located upstream of bla(CTX-M-27) in the same position as that known for a bla(CTX-M-14) sequence. A new gene named dfrA21, encoding resistance to trimethoprim and carried by a 90-kb plasmid, was characterized. The dfrA21 gene was inserted as a single resistance cassette in a class I integron. The babies were treated with colistin, and all except two recovered. The outbreak came to an end when appropriate actions were taken: patient isolation, hand washing, and disinfection of the ward.

  12. Fate of antibiotics from hospital and domestic sources in a sewage network.

    PubMed

    Dinh, QuocTuc; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Labadie, Pierre; Alliot, Fabrice; Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Blanchard, Martine; Eurin, Joelle; Chevreuil, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Investigation of domestic and hospital effluents in a sewage system of an elementary watershed showed that antibiotics belonging to eight classes were present with concentrations ranging from trimethoprim, ormethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin and seven quinolones (flumequine, enrofloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin). Antibiotic concentrations in the hospital effluent (from 0.04 to 17.9μgL -1 ) were ten times higher than those measured in the domestic effluent (from 0.03 to 1.75μgL -1 ), contributing to 90% of the antibiotic inputs to the WWTP. Some molecules such as sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin and trimethoprim displayed higher concentrations after wastewater treatment due to deconjugation of their metabolites, which restores the parent molecules. For other compounds, the antibiotic elimination showed discrepancies depending on their physicochemical properties. For fluoroquinolones, the apparent removal processes were mainly based on adsorption mechanisms, followed by settling, leading to sludge contamination (from 13 to 18,800μgkg -1 dry weight). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antibiogram of bacteria isolated from automated teller machines in Hamadan, West Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Hassan; Arabestani, Mohammad Reza; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Sedighi, Iraj; Kohan, Hamed Farhadi; Molavi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Bacteria are ubiquitous in the environment. In keeping with the continued expansion of urbanization and the growing population, an increasing number of people use automated banking, i.e. automated teller machines (ATMs). The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination and its antibiotic sensitivity on computer keyboards located at ATMs in Hamadan province, Iran. Method: Out of 360 ATMs at four locations in Hamadan, 96 were randomly selected for this study. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of all isolates was determined by the agar disk diffusion method using gentamicin (10 µg), vancomycin (30 µg), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (25 µg), amikacin (30 µg), tobramycin (10 µg), cephalotin (30 µg), norfloxacin (5 µg), and ceftizoxim (30 µg) disks. Results: Melli and Saderat Banks had the most frequently contaminated ATMS, with 18 (27.7%) and 12 (18.5%), respectively. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus epidermidis in 12 (18.5%) ATMs, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 12 (18.5%), Bacillus subtilis in 11 (16.9%), Escherichia coli in 6 (9.2%), Klebsiella spp. in 8 (12.3%), Enterobacter spp. in 2 (3.1%), Bacillus cereus in 6 (9.2%), Staphylococcus aureus in 3 (4.6%), and Micrococcaceae spp. in 5 (7.69%) cases. All isolated bacteria were susceptible to gentamicin, cephalotin, tobramycin, amikacin, norfloxacin, and vancomycin. The S. aureus resistance rate to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was 50%. Conclusion: All tested ATM keyboards were contaminated with at least one species of bacteria. Based on these findings, it is recommendable to disinfect the hands after entering one’s own apartment, work area or a hospital, in order to hinder the spread of critical pathogens in the personal environment or in the hospital. PMID:28197394

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in diarrheagenic Escherichia coli from ready-to-eat foods.

    PubMed

    Lima, Cíntia Matos; Souza, Ingrid Evelyn Gomes Lima; Dos Santos Alves, Taila; Leite, Clícia Capibaribe; Evangelista-Barreto, Norma Suely; de Castro Almeida, Rogeria Comastri

    2017-10-01

    Certain subgroups of Escherichia coli have congenital or acquired virulence properties that allow them to cause a wide spectrum of disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of diarrheagenic E. coli strains in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods produced in institutional, commercial and hotel restaurants in Salvador, Brazil. The presence of virulent isolates and antimicrobial resistance were evaluated. Four hundred forty-six samples were collected and grouped into cereals and vegetables, meat-based preparations, cooked salads, raw salads, garnishes, soups and sauces, desserts and juices. E. coli were detected using the most probable number method, the presence of virulence factors in isolates was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and antibiotic resistance was analyzed using the disc diffusion method. In total, 15 isolates (3.1%) of E. coli were recovered; raw salads had the highest dete